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Sample records for resources recovery facility

  1. Hanford Facility resource conservation and recovery act permit general inspection plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagles, D.B.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit, General Inspection Requirements, includes a requirement that general facility inspections be conducted of the 100, 200 East, 200 West, 300, 400, and 1100 Areas and the banks of the Columbia River. This inspection plan describes the activities that shall be conducted for a general inspection of the Hanford Facility

  2. Surplus Facilities and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure program plan, fiscal year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, M.C.; Wahlen, R.K.; Winship, R.A.

    1991-10-01

    The Surplus Facilities and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure program is responsible to US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland for the safe, cost-effective surveillance, maintenance, and decommissioning of surplus facilities at the Hanford Site. The Surplus Facilities and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure program is also responsible to US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland for the program management of specific Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closures at the Hanford Site. This program plan addresses only the surplus facilities. The criteria used to evaluate each factor relative to decommissioning are based on the guidelines presented by the US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland, Environmental Restoration Division. The guidelines are consistent with the Westinghouse Hanford Company commitment to decommission Hanford Site retired facilities in the safest and most cost-effective way achievable. This document outlines the plan for managing these facilities until disposal

  3. Resource-recovery facilities: Production and cost functions, and debt-financing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonsen, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Some of the fiscal questions relating to resource-recovery, or trash-burning, facilities are addressed. Production and cost functions for resource-recovery facilities are estimated using regression analysis. Whether or not there are returns to scale are addressed using the production and cost-function framework. Production functions are also estimated using data envelopment analysis (DEA), and results are compared to the regression results. DEA is a linear-program-based technique that can provide information about the production process. The data used to estimate the production and cost functions were collected from the Resource Recovery Yearbook. Once the decision is made to construct a resource-recovery facility, it needs to be financed. The high cost of these facilities usually prohibits financing construction out of regular operating revenues. Therefore, the issues a government faces when debt is used to finance a resource-recovery facility are analyzed. The most important public policy finding is that increasing economies of scale do not seem to be present for resource-recovery facilities

  4. Economic assessment of a proposed integrated resource recovery facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    This report comprises an initial economic and market appraisal of the proposals made by Materials Recycling Management (MRM) Ltd for a commercial plant engaged in waste treatment and energy recovery. The MRM design is an integrated waste handling system for commercial and industrial non hazardous wastes and civic amenity wastes. After primary separation into three selected broad waste categories, wastes are processed in the plant to recover basic recyclables such as paper, timber, plastics and metals. A quantity of material is directed for composting and the remainder converted into a fuel and combusted on site for energy recovery. Wastes unworthy of processing would be sent for disposal. A basic technical review has been undertaken. The focus of this review has been on the main processing plant where materials are segregated and the fuel and compost produced. (author)

  5. Maximization of revenues for power sales from a solid waste resources recovery facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    The report discusses the actual implementation of the best alternative in selling electrical power generated by an existing waste-to-energy facility, the Metro-Dade County Resources Recovery Plant. After the plant processes and extracts various products out of the municipal solid waste, it burns it to produce electrical power. The price for buying power to satisfy the internal needs of our Resources Recovery Facility (RRF) is substantially higher than the power price for selling electricity to any other entity. Therefore, without any further analysis, it was decided to first satisfy those internal needs and then export the excess power. Various alternatives were thoroughly explored as to what to do with the excess power. Selling power to the power utilities or utilizing the power in other facilities were the primary options.

  6. Impact of the resource conservation and recovery act on energy facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevepaugh, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 is a multifaceted approach to the management of both solid and hazardous waste. The focus of this research is on the RCRA mandated proposed regulations for the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities. This research is an analysis of the interactions among hazardous waste disposal facilities, energy supply technologies and land use issues. This study addresses the impact of RCRA hazardous waste regulations in a descriptive and exploratory manner. A literature and legislative review, interviews and letters of inquiry were synthesized to identify the relationship between RCRA hazardous waste regulations and the siting of selected energy supply technologies. The results of this synthesis were used to determine if and how RCRA influences national land use issues. It was found that the interaction between RCRA and the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities required by energy supply technologies will impact national land use issues. All energy supply technologies reviewed generate hazardous waste. The siting of industrial functions such as energy supply facilities and hazardous waste disposal facilities will influence future development patterns. The micro-level impacts from the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities will produce a ripple effect on land use with successive buffer zones developing around the facilities due to the interactive growth of the land use sectors

  7. Food Waste to Energy: How Six Water Resource Recovery Facilities are Boosting Biogas Production and the Bottom Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRFs) with anaerobic digestion have been harnessing biogas for heat and power since at least the 1920’s. A few are approaching “energy neutrality” and some are becoming “energy positive” through a combination of energy efficiency measures and...

  8. RCRA [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act] ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Annual progress report for 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruland, R.M.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-04-01

    This report describes the progress during 1988 of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects covering 16 hazardous waste facilities and 1 nonhazardous waste facility (the Solid Waste Landfill). Each of the projects is being conducted according to federal regulations based on the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and the State of Washington Administrative Code. 21 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs

  9. Toward Nucleating the Concept of the Water Resource Recovery Facility (WRRF): Perspective from the Principal Actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Erik R; Wilson, Patrick I

    2017-04-18

    Wastewater resource recovery has been advocated for decades; necessary structural pathways were long-ago articulated, and established and emerging technologies exist. Nevertheless, broad wastewater valorization remains elusive. In considering implementation barriers, the argument is made that decision-makers focus on avoiding permit violations and negative publicity by embracing a conservative/safe approach-seemingly ignoring research on economic/environmental benefits. Conversely positing that economics is a primary barrier, we investigated, characterized, and described nontechnical socio-political barriers to realizing wastewater resource recovery. Principal actors in the Pacific NW region of the U.S. (representing a progressive populace facing stringent water quality regulations) were interviewed. Results revealed that economics were, indeed, the primary barrier to implementation/expansion of the WRRF concept. Consistent throughout interviews was a prevalent sense that the "cost of doing something (different)" was a principal consideration in resource recovery actions/policies. Moreover, "economics drives decisions," and "95% the bottom line is money. Show return on investment, it will get people's attention." Who pays was also a concern: "Government isn't going to pay. The states and Federal government won't give any grants, and we can't raise rates." Applying business case evaluations was seen as a pathway to actualizing resource recovery. Most encouragingly, the consensus was that resource recovery is a necessary future paradigm, and that real barriers are surmountable.

  10. Concentration-driven models revisited: towards a unified framework to model settling tanks in water resource recovery facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Torfs, Elena; Marti, M. Carmen; Locatelli, Florent; Balemans, Sophie; Burger, Raimund; Diehl, Stefan; Laurent, Julien; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.; Francois, Pierre; Nopens, Ingmar

    2017-01-01

    A new perspective on the modelling of settling behaviour in water resource recovery facilities is introduced. The ultimate goal is to describe in a unified way the processes taking place both in primary settling tanks (PSTs) and secondary settling tanks (SSTs) for a more detailed operation and control. First, experimental evidence is provided, pointing out distributed particle properties (such as size, shape, density, porosity, and flocculation state) as an important common source of distribu...

  11. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan for the Intermediate-Level Transuranic Storage Facility mixed waste container storage units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolte, E.P.; Spry, M.J.; Stanisich, S.N.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes the proposed plan for clean closure of the Intermediate-Level Transuranic Storage Facility mixed waste container storage units at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure requirements. Descriptions of the location, size, capacity, history, and current status of the units are included. The units will be closed by removing waste containers in storage, and decontamination structures and equipment that may have contacted waste. Sufficient sampling and documentation of all activities will be performed to demonstrate clean closure. A tentative schedule is provided in the form of a milestone chart

  12. Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit General Inspection Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagles, D.S.

    1995-02-01

    This inspection plan describes the activities that shall be conducted for a general inspection of the Hanford Facility. RCRA includes a requirement that general facility inspections be conducted of the 100, 200 East, 200 West, 300, 400, and 1100 areas and the banks of the Columbia River. This plan meets the RCRA requirements and also provides for scheduling of inspections and defines general and specific items to be noted during the inspections

  13. Resource conversation and recovery act draft hazardous waste facility permit: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Volume II contains attachments for Module II and Module III. Attachments for Module II are: part A permit application; examples of acceptable documentation; Waste Isolation Pilot Plant generator/storage site waste screening and acceptance audit program; inspection schedule and monitoring schedule; inspection log forms; personnel training course outlines; hazardous waste job position training requirements; contingency plan; closure plan; and procedures for establishing background for the underground units. One attachment, facility process information, is included for Module III. Remaining attachments for this module are in Volume III

  14. The difference between energy consumption and energy cost: Modelling energy tariff structures for water resource recovery facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymerich, I; Rieger, L; Sobhani, R; Rosso, D; Corominas, Ll

    2015-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of incorporating more realistic energy cost models (based on current energy tariff structures) into existing water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) process models when evaluating technologies and cost-saving control strategies. In this paper, we first introduce a systematic framework to model energy usage at WRRFs and a generalized structure to describe energy tariffs including the most common billing terms. Secondly, this paper introduces a detailed energy cost model based on a Spanish energy tariff structure coupled with a WRRF process model to evaluate several control strategies and provide insights into the selection of the contracted power structure. The results for a 1-year evaluation on a 115,000 population-equivalent WRRF showed monthly cost differences ranging from 7 to 30% when comparing the detailed energy cost model to an average energy price. The evaluation of different aeration control strategies also showed that using average energy prices and neglecting energy tariff structures may lead to biased conclusions when selecting operating strategies or comparing technologies or equipment. The proposed framework demonstrated that for cost minimization, control strategies should be paired with a specific optimal contracted power. Hence, the design of operational and control strategies must take into account the local energy tariff. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Concentration-driven models revisited: towards a unified framework to model settling tanks in water resource recovery facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torfs, Elena; Martí, M Carmen; Locatelli, Florent; Balemans, Sophie; Bürger, Raimund; Diehl, Stefan; Laurent, Julien; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; François, Pierre; Nopens, Ingmar

    2017-02-01

    A new perspective on the modelling of settling behaviour in water resource recovery facilities is introduced. The ultimate goal is to describe in a unified way the processes taking place both in primary settling tanks (PSTs) and secondary settling tanks (SSTs) for a more detailed operation and control. First, experimental evidence is provided, pointing out distributed particle properties (such as size, shape, density, porosity, and flocculation state) as an important common source of distributed settling behaviour in different settling unit processes and throughout different settling regimes (discrete, hindered and compression settling). Subsequently, a unified model framework that considers several particle classes is proposed in order to describe distributions in settling behaviour as well as the effect of variations in particle properties on the settling process. The result is a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) that are valid from dilute concentrations, where they correspond to discrete settling, to concentrated suspensions, where they correspond to compression settling. Consequently, these PDEs model both PSTs and SSTs.

  16. Integrated Resource Management and Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    , depends on the quality of these resources and technological abilities to extract resources from mixed materials, e.g. mobile phones, solar cells, or mixed domestic waste. The "effort" invested in recovery of secondary resources should not be more than the "benefit" associated with the secondary resources...

  17. Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NREL's Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility (DERTF) is a working laboratory for interconnection and systems integration testing. This state-of-the-art facility...

  18. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan for the Y-12 9409-5 Tank Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This document presents information on the closure of the Y-12 9409-5 Tank Storage Facility. Topics discussed include: facility description; closure history; closure performance standard; partial closure; maximum waste inventory; closure activities; schedule; and postclosure care

  19. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation Program Plan has been developed to provide a framework for the completion of RCRA Facility Investigations (RFI) at identified units on the Savannah Rive Site (SRS) facility. As such, the RFI Program Plan provides: technical guidance for all work to be performed, managerial control, a practical, scientific approach. The purpose of this Overview is to demonstrate how the basic RFI Program Plan elements (technical, management, and approach) are interwoven to provide a practical and workable plan. The goal of the RFI Program Plan is to provide a systematic, uniform approach for performance and reporting. In addition, the RFI Program Plan has been developed to be specific to the SRS facility and to adhere to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) RFI guidance received as part of the SRS. The US EPA publication ''Characterization of Hazardous Waste Sites'' has been liberally adapted for use in this RFI Program Plan

  20. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization plan. Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility at the Nevada Test Site which will be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Division. The objectives of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste. The scope of the characterization may include surface radiation survey(s), surface soil sampling, subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), and sampling of soil in and around the pond; in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings; and sample analysis for both site characterization and waste management purposes

  1. Ventilation design for new plutonium recovery facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, A.J.; Amos, C.L.

    1975-01-01

    In 1972 the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) issued revised guidelines on ''Minimum Design Criteria for New Plutonium Facilities.'' With these criteria as guidelines, a new Plutonium Recovery Facility is being designed and constructed at the AEC Rocky Flats Plant. The methods by which the confinement of contamination and air treatment are being handled in this facility are described. (U.S.)

  2. Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility accommodates a 155mm Howitzer, fired horizontally into a 104-foot long water trough to slow the projectile and recover...

  3. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo) system contains information reported to the state environmental programs on activities and cleanup...

  4. Cost recovery of NGO primary health care facilities: a case study in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Khurshid; Ahmed, Shakil

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Little is known about the cost recovery of primary health care facilities in Bangladesh. This study estimated the cost recovery of a primary health care facility run by Building Resources Across Community (BRAC), a large NGO in Bangladesh, for the period of July 2004 - June 2005. This health facility is one of the seven upgraded BRAC facilities providing emergency obstetric care and is typical of the government and private primary health care facilities in Bangladesh. Give...

  5. Resource and energy recovery options for fermentation industry residuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiesa, S C [Santa Clara Univ., CA (USA); Manning, Jr, J F [Alabama Univ., Birmingham, AL (USA)

    1989-01-01

    Over the last 40 years, the fermentation industry has provided facility planners, plant operators and environmental engineers with a wide range of residuals management challenges and resource/energy recovery opportunities. In response, the industry has helped pioneer the use of a number of innovative resource and energy recovery technologies. Production of animal feed supplements, composts, fertilizers, soil amendments, commercial baking additives and microbial protein materials have all been detailed in the literature. In many such cases, recovery of by-products significantly reduces the need for treatment and disposal facilities. Stable, reliable anaerobic biological treatment processes have also been developed to recover significant amounts of energy in the form of methane gas. Alternatively, dewatered or condensed organic fermentation industry residuals have been used as fuels for incineration-based energy recovery systems. The sale or use of recovered by-products and/or energy can be used to offset required processing costs and provide a technically and environmentally viable alternative to traditional treatment and disposal strategies. This review examines resource recovery options currently used or proposed for fermentation industry residuals and the conditions necessary for their successful application. (author).

  6. Resource recovery and recycling in OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacNeil, J.W.

    It was the importance of the economic issues relevant to resource recovery and re-use that prompted OECD to become involved in this general area, and the author proposes in this talk to describe the principal features of the three main approaches to waste management from an economic perspective. These approaches are reduction of waste generation (i.e. birth control) resource recovery and materials recycling or re-use (reincarnation). Most of OECD's work in this area to date has been on the third of these approaches with particular emphasis on the economics of recycling, so somewhat more attention will be devoted to it. Then some conclusions will be drawn concerning possible policy actions to encourage a rational approach to management of this resource.

  7. Notification: EPA Progress on Meeting Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Statutory Mandate for Minimum Frequency of Inspections at Hazardous Waste Disposal Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY15-0018, January 20, 2015. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research on EPA’s progress in meeting minimum inspection requirements under the RCRA at treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDFs).

  8. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress Report for the Period April 1 to June 30, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes the progress of 13 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1989. These projects are for the 300 area process trenches (300 area), 183-H solar evaporation basins (100-H area), 200 areas low-level burial grounds, nonradioactive dangerous waste landfill (southeast of the 200 areas), 1301-N liquid waste disposal facility (100-N area), 1324-N surface impoundment and 1324-NA percolation pond (100-N area), 1325-N liquid waste disposal facility (100-N area), 216-A-10 crib (200-east area), 216-A-29 ditch (200-east area), 216-A-36B crib (200-east area), 216-B-36B crib (200-east area), 216-B-3 pond (east of the 200-east area), 2101-M pond (200-east area), grout treatment facility (200-east area).

  9. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project was authorized by the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes derived from the defense activities of the United States. The WIPP facility is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The TRU waste to be received at WIPP consists largely of such items as laboratory glassware and utensils, tools, scrap metal, shielding, personnel protection equipment, and solidified sludges from the treatment of waste water. Approximately 60 percent of this waste is ''mixed,'' that is, it is also contaminated with hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and by the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (HWMR-5). Therefore, emplacement of TRU mixed waste in the WIPP repository is subject to regulation under HWMR-5 and RCRA. The permit application under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for WIPP is divided into five volumes. This document, Volume 1, contains a site and facility description of WIPP; procedures for waste analysis and characterization, testing, monitoring, inspection, and training; hazard prevention, safety and security plans; plans for closure; and a discussion of other applicable laws. Also included are maps, photographs, and diagrams of the facilities and surrounding areas. 180 refs., 75 figs., 24 tabs

  10. Dutchess County Resource Recovery Task Force report: Dutchess County Pyrolysis Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    Dutchess County initiated development of a long-range master plan for Solid Waste Management in 1971. The plan included development of a resource recovery facility to service the municipalities in the County population center. Based on early recommendations, a pyrolysis facility employing Purox technology was to be implemented. A feasibility study, paid for by County funds was completed in 1975. The study provided siting recommendations, estimation of available waste, and preliminary facility design. Because of various considerations, the project was not developed. Under the Department of Energy grant, the County reassessed the feasibility of a resource recovery facility, with emphasis on confirming previous conclusions supporting the Purox technology, waste availability, energy recovery and sale and siting of the plant. The conclusions reached in the new study were: a resource recovery facility is feasible for the County; sufficient waste for such a facility is available and subject to control; While Purox technology was feasible it is not the most appropriate available technoloy for the County; that mass burning with steam recovery is the most appropriate technology; and that resource recovery while presently more expensive than landfilling, represents the only cost effective, energy efficient, and environmentally sound way to handle the solid waste problem in the County.

  11. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project was authorized by the US Department of Energy 5 (DOE) National Security and Military Applications of the Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164). Its legislative mandate is to provide a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive waste resulting from national defense programs and activities. To fulfill this mandate, the WIPP facility has been designed to perform scientific investigations of the behavior of bedded salt as a repository medium and the interactions between the soft and radioactive wastes. In 1991, DOE proposed to initiate a experimental Test Phase designed to demonstrate the performance of the repository. The Test Phase activities involve experiments using transuranic (TRU) waste typical of the waste planned for future disposal at the WIPP facility. Much of this TRU waste is co-contaminated with chemical constituents which are defined as hazardous under HWMR-7, Pt. II, sec. 261. This waste is TRU mixed waste and is the subject of this application. Because geologic repositories, such as the WIPP facility, are defined under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as land disposal facilities, the groundwater monitoring requirements of HWMR-7, PLV, Subpart X, must be addressed. HWMR-7, Pt. V, Subpart X, must be addressed. This appendix demonstrates that groundwater monitoring is not needed in order to demonstrate compliance with the performance standards; therefore, HWMR-7, Pt.V, Subpart F, will not apply to the WIPP facility

  12. Recovery of uranium resources from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurushima, Morihiro

    1980-01-01

    After the oil crisis in 1973, the development of atomic energy has become important as substitute energy, and the stable acquisition of uranium resources is indispensable, in order to promote smoothly the use of atomic energy. The Ministry of International Trade and Industry has engaged actively in the project ''The survey on the technical development of the system for recovering uranium and others from sea water'' since 1974. 80% of the uranium resources in the world is distributed in USA, Canada, South Africa, Australia and Niger, and in near future, the price of uranium ores may be raised. Japan must promote powerfully the development of foreign uranium resources, but also it is very important to get domestic uranium by efficiently recovering the uranium dissolved in sea water, the amount of which was estimated at 4 billion tons, and its practical use is expected in 1990s. The uranium concentration in sea water is about 3 g in 1000 t sea water. The processes of separation and recovery are as follows: (1) adsorption of uranium to titanic acid powder adsorbent by bringing sea water in contact with it, (2) dissolving the collected uranium with ammonium carbonate, the desorption agent, (3) concentration of uranium solution by ion exchange method or ion flotation method to 2800 ppm. The outline of the model plant is explained. (Kako, I.)

  13. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project was authorized by the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes derived from the defense activities of the United States. The WIPP facility is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The TRU waste to be received at WIPP consists largely of such items as laboratory glassware and utensils, tools, scrap metal, shielding, personnel protection equipment, and solidified sludges from the treatment of waste water. Approximately 60 percent of this waste is ''mixed,'' that is, it is also contaminated with hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and by the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (HWMR-5). Therefore, emplacement of TRU mixed waste in the WIPP repository is subject to regulation under HWMR-5 and RCRA. The permit application under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for WIPP is divided into five volumes. This document, Volume 3, is Appendix C2 continued. This appendix contains information on shipping; inventories of chemicals present in waste; chemical compatibility of wastes; the methodology to determine compatibility; analytical data regarding volatile organic compounds (VOC), metals, and solvents; and a description of sampling programs of waste drum gases

  14. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project was authorized by the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes derived from the defense activities of the United States. The WIPP facility is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The TRU waste to be received at WIPP consists largely of such items as laboratory glassware and utensils, tools, scrap metal, shielding, personnel protection equipment, and solidified sludges from the treatment of waste water. Approximately 60 percent of this waste is ''mixed,'' that is, it is also contaminated with hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and by the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (HWMR-5). Therefore, emplacement of TRU mixed waste in the WIPP repository is subject to regulation under HWMR-5 and RCRA. The permit application under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for WIPP is divided into five volumes. This document, Volume 2, contains Appendices B1, C1, and C2. These appendices describe the surface hydrology of the area, provide a description of the physical and chemical characteristics of wastes to be placed in WIPP, and outline a waste analysis plan which gives an overview of the total waste inventory planned for WIPP. 34 refs., 107 figs., 27 tabs

  15. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project was authorized by the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes derived from the defense activities of the United States. The WIPP facility is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The TRU waste to be received at WIPP consists largely of such items as laboratory glassware and utensils, tools, scrap metal, shielding, personnel protection equipment, and solidified sludges from the treatment of waste water. Approximately 60 percent of this waste is ''mixed,'' that is, it is also contaminated with hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and by the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (HWMR-5). Therefore, emplacement of TRU mixed waste in the WIPP repository is subject to regulation under HWMR-5 and RCRA. The permit application under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for WIPP is divided into five volumes. This document, Volume 4, contains Appendices C3, C4, and D1--D10. These appendices cover information on environmental impacts, site characterization, geology and hydrology of the area, monitoring of the environment, compatibility of waste forms and containers, and removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC)

  16. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B, Permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project was authorized by the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes derived from the defense activities of the United States. The WIPP facility is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The TRU waste to be received at WIPP consists largely of such items as laboratory glassware and utensils, tools, scrap metal, shielding, personnel protection equipment, and solidified sludges from the treatment of waste water. Approximately 60 percent of this waste is ''mixed,'' that is, it is also contaminated with hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and by the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (HWMR-5). Therefore, emplacement of TRU mixed waste in the WIPP repository is subject to regulation under HWMR-5 and RCRA. The permit application under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for WIPP is divided into five volumes. This document, Volume 5, contains Appendices E1, H1, I1--3, K1, K2, and L1. These appendices cover a RCRA ground water monitoring waiver, a list of job titles, the operational closure plan, the waste retrieval plan for wastes placed during the test phase, and listings of agreements between WIPP, DOE, and various state and federal agencies. 91 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Rare Earth Metals: Resourcefulness and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijie

    2013-10-01

    When we appreciate the digital revolution carried over from the twentieth century with mobile communication and the Internet, and when we enjoy our high-tech lifestyle filled with iDevices, hybrid cars, wind turbines, and solar cells in this new century, we should also appreciate that all of these advanced products depend on rare earth metals to function. Although there are only 136,000 tons of annual worldwide demand, (Cho, Rare Earth Metals, Will We Have Enough?)1 rare earth metals are becoming such hot commodities on international markets, due to not only to their increasing uses, including in most critical military hardware, but also to Chinese growth, which accounts for 95% of global rare earth metal production. Hence, the 2013 technical calendar topic, planned by the TMS/Hydrometallurgy and Electrometallurgy Committee, is particularly relevant, with four articles (including this commentary) contributed to the JOM October Issue discussing rare earth metals' resourcefulness and recovery.

  18. Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monsi; Howard, David

    2015-01-01

    Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) is a project focused on evolving existing and maturing emerging 'closed loop' atmosphere revitalization (AR) life support systems that produce clean, breathable air for crewmembers, and developing a suite of low mass, low power environmental monitors to detect and measure air- and waterborne constituents and contaminants. The objective is to improve reliability and efficiency, reduce mass and volume, and increase recovery of oxygen from carbon dioxide created by human metabolism from 43% to greater than 90%. The technology developments under ARREM are vital to extending human space missions from low-Earth orbit like the International Space Station to destinations deeper into space such as Mars where dependency on Earth for resupply of maintenance items and critical life support elements such as water and oxygen is not possible. The primary goal of the ARREM project is to demonstrate that systems meet the more stringent performance parameters for deep space exploration and are compatible with other systems within closed loop life support through a series of integrated tests performed in an environmental test chamber capable of simulating human metabolic activities and measuring systems outputs.

  19. Atmosphere Resource Recovery & Environmental Monitoring for Long Duration Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Atmosphere Resource Recovery & Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) for Long Duration Exploration Project project is maturing Atmosphere Revitalization...

  20. Accelerating Innovation that Enhances Resource Recovery in the Wastewater Sector: Advancing a National Testbed Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihelcic, James R; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Cornejo, Pablo K; Fisher, Aaron; Simon, A J; Snyder, Seth W; Zhang, Qiong; Rosso, Diego; Huggins, Tyler M; Cooper, William; Moeller, Jeff; Rose, Bob; Schottel, Brandi L; Turgeon, Jason

    2017-07-18

    This Feature examines significant challenges and opportunities to spur innovation and accelerate adoption of reliable technologies that enhance integrated resource recovery in the wastewater sector through the creation of a national testbed network. The network is a virtual entity that connects appropriate physical testing facilities, and other components needed for a testbed network, with researchers, investors, technology providers, utilities, regulators, and other stakeholders to accelerate the adoption of innovative technologies and processes that are needed for the water resource recovery facility of the future. Here we summarize and extract key issues and developments, to provide a strategy for the wastewater sector to accelerate a path forward that leads to new sustainable water infrastructures.

  1. Quantification of the resource recovery potential of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Maresca, Alberto; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Holtze, Maria Sommer; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-09-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plays an important role in many European waste management systems. However, increasing focus on resource criticality has raised concern regarding the possible loss of critical resources through MSWI. The primary form of solid output from waste incinerators is bottom ashes (BAs), which also have important resource potential. Based on a full-scale Danish recovery facility, detailed material and substance flow analyses (MFA and SFA) were carried out, in order to characterise the resource recovery potential of Danish BA: (i) based on historical and experimental data, all individual flows (representing different grain size fractions) within the recovery facility were quantified, (ii) the resource potential of ferrous (Fe) and non-ferrous (NFe) metals as well as rare earth elements (REE) was determined, (iii) recovery efficiencies were quantified for scrap metal and (iv) resource potential variability and recovery efficiencies were quantified based on a range of ashes from different incinerators. Recovery efficiencies for Fe and NFe reached 85% and 61%, respectively, with the resource potential of metals in BA before recovery being 7.2%ww for Fe and 2.2%ww for NFe. Considerable non-recovered resource potential was found in fine fraction (below 2mm), where approximately 12% of the total NFe potential in the BA were left. REEs were detected in the ashes, but the levels were two or three orders of magnitude lower than typical ore concentrations. The lack of REE enrichment in BAs indicated that the post-incineration recovery of these resources may not be a likely option with current technology. Based on these results, it is recommended to focus on limiting REE-containing products in waste for incineration and improving pre-incineration sorting initiatives for these elements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electricity production perspective regarding resource recovery center (RRC) in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoud Aghajani Mir; Noor Ezlin Ahmad Basri; Rawshan Ara Begum; Sanaz Saheri

    2010-01-01

    Waste disposal is a global problem contributing to the ongoing climate change because of large emissions of greenhouse gases. So, using waste material as a resource instead of land filling, the greenhouse gas emissions from landfills are reduced. Also, Waste material can be used for waste incineration with energy recovery, thus decreasing the greenhouse gas emission from energy utilization by changing from fossil fuels to a partly renewable fuel. The production of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDF) involves the mechanical processing of household waste using screens, shredders and separators to recover recyclable materials and to produce a combustible product Regarding Resource Recovery Center/Waste to Energy (RRC/WtE) Facility in Malaysia that located in Semenyih. This System involves the removal of inert and compost able materials followed by pulverization to produce a feedstock which be incinerated in power stations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and forecasting of the number of these facilities that Kuala Lumpur will need regarding to potential of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation and Refuse Derive Fuel that will be produce from that in future. This plant is able to produce average 7.5 MWh electricity from 700 ton MSW or 200 ton RDF per day that approximately is used 1.8 MWh per day inside the pant and it can sell around 5.7 MWh daily. Kuala Lumpur will generate around 7713 ton MSW per day and it is able to produce 2466 ton RDF per day. Regarding to potential of MSW and RDF generation by 2020 in Kuala Lumpur it will need around 11 plants to treatment of MSW that this number of plants is able to produce around 62.8 MWh electricity per day. (author)

  3. Cost recovery of NGO primary health care facilities: a case study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Khurshid

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the cost recovery of primary health care facilities in Bangladesh. This study estimated the cost recovery of a primary health care facility run by Building Resources Across Community (BRAC, a large NGO in Bangladesh, for the period of July 2004 - June 2005. This health facility is one of the seven upgraded BRAC facilities providing emergency obstetric care and is typical of the government and private primary health care facilities in Bangladesh. Given the current maternal and child mortality in Bangladesh and the challenges to addressing health-related Millennium Development Goal (MDG targets the financial sustainability of such facilities is crucial. Methods The study was designed as a case study covering a single facility. The methodology was based on the 'ingredient approach' using the allocation techniques by inpatient and outpatient services. Cost recovery of the facility was estimated from the provider's perspective. The value of capital items was annualized using 5% discount rate and its market price of 2004 (replacement value. Sensitivity analysis was done using 3% discount rate. Results The cost recovery ratio of the BRAC primary care facility was 59%, and if excluding all capital costs, it increased to 72%. Of the total costs, 32% was for personnel while drugs absorbed 18%. Capital items were17% of total costs while operational cost absorbed 12%. Three-quarters of the total cost was variable costs. Inpatient services contributed 74% of total revenue in exchange of 10% of total utilization. An average cost per patient was US$ 10 while it was US$ 67 for inpatient and US$ 4 for outpatient. Conclusion The cost recovery of this NGO primary care facility is important for increasing its financial sustainability and decreasing donor dependency, and achieving universal health coverage in a developing country setting. However, for improving the cost recovery of the health facility, it needs to increase

  4. Lignin recovery. A resource to value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimbardi, P.; Cardinale, G.; Demichele, M.; Nanna, F.; Viggiano, D.; Bonini, C.; D'Alessio, L.; D'Auria, M.; Teghil, R.; Tofani, D.

    1999-01-01

    In the present paper, the effects of the steam explosion (ES) pretreatment conditions on recovery and chemical structure of wheat straw lignin are reported. The experimental data of lignin recovery by caustic extraction, followed by acid precipitation, have been interpolated to obtain the dependence on the time and temperature of SE. The lignin has been characterised by using several methods. Preliminary results on the synthesis of copolymers lignin-styrene are also reported [it

  5. Improving Energy Efficiency In Thermal Oil Recovery Surface Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy Nadella, Narayana

    2010-09-15

    Thermal oil recovery methods such as Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS), Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) and In-situ Combustion are being used for recovering heavy oil and bitumen. These processes expend energy to recover oil. The process design of the surface facilities requires optimization to improve the efficiency of oil recovery by minimizing the energy consumption per barrel of oil produced. Optimization involves minimizing external energy use by heat integration. This paper discusses the unit processes and design methodology considering thermodynamic energy requirements and heat integration methods to improve energy efficiency in the surface facilities. A design case study is presented.

  6. 75 FR 29584 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ..., to obtain a permit under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (``RCRA'') for its ownership and... emissions from the TMW at the facility; perform trial and risk burns for the TMW to identify appropriate incinerator level and risk based operating and control parameters for the unit; file a notification and...

  7. Fouzth report to Congress: resource recovery and waste reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The report covers domestic refuse generation and resource recovery estimates. A discussion of waste reduction at various national organizational levels, source separation, mixed refuse processing for energy production, and environmental and economic impact of beverage containers deposit law are included.

  8. Quantification of the resource recovery potential of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allegrini, Elisa, E-mail: elia@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Maresca, Alberto; Olsson, Mikael Emil [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Holtze, Maria Sommer [Afatek Ltd., Selinevej 18, 2300 Copenhagen S (Denmark); Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Ferrous and non-ferrous metals were quantified in MSWI bottom ashes. • Metal recovery system efficiencies for bottom ashes were estimated. • Total content of critical elements was determined in bottom ash samples. • Post-incineration recovery is not viable for most critical elements. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plays an important role in many European waste management systems. However, increasing focus on resource criticality has raised concern regarding the possible loss of critical resources through MSWI. The primary form of solid output from waste incinerators is bottom ashes (BAs), which also have important resource potential. Based on a full-scale Danish recovery facility, detailed material and substance flow analyses (MFA and SFA) were carried out, in order to characterise the resource recovery potential of Danish BA: (i) based on historical and experimental data, all individual flows (representing different grain size fractions) within the recovery facility were quantified, (ii) the resource potential of ferrous (Fe) and non-ferrous (NFe) metals as well as rare earth elements (REE) was determined, (iii) recovery efficiencies were quantified for scrap metal and (iv) resource potential variability and recovery efficiencies were quantified based on a range of ashes from different incinerators. Recovery efficiencies for Fe and NFe reached 85% and 61%, respectively, with the resource potential of metals in BA before recovery being 7.2%ww for Fe and 2.2%ww for NFe. Considerable non-recovered resource potential was found in fine fraction (below 2 mm), where approximately 12% of the total NFe potential in the BA were left. REEs were detected in the ashes, but the levels were two or three orders of magnitude lower than typical ore concentrations. The lack of REE enrichment in BAs indicated that the post-incineration recovery of these resources may not be a likely option with current technology. Based on these results

  9. Resource Recovery. Redefining the 3 Rs. Reduce...Reuse...Recycle. Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the problems of waste disposal, recycling, and resource recovery. Includes information on the social and cultural impact, the three classes of resource recovery (reuse, direct recycling, and indirect recycling), and specific products (paper, glass, plastics, metals, and so on). Includes a student quiz and possible outcomes. (JOW)

  10. Integrated resource management and recovery (IRMAR): a new danish initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Scheutz, Charlotte; Damgaard, Anders

    DTU Environment has launched the IRMAR initiative in collaboration with internationally leading partners to improve the scientific basis for integrated assessment of both the quality of resources in waste and the environmental aspects of resource recovery. Today, the basis for prioritization...

  11. Nondestructive assay system development for a plutonium scrap recovery facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Baker, M.P.

    1984-01-01

    A plutonium scrap recovery facility is being constructed at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The safeguards groups of the Los Alamos National Laboratory have been working since the early design stage of the facility with SRP and other national laboratories to develop a state-of-the-art assay system for this new facility. Not only will the most current assay techniques be incorporated into the system, but also the various nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments are to be integrated with an Instrument Control Computer (ICC). This undertaking is both challenging and ambitious; an entire assay system of this type has never been done before in a working facility. This paper will describe, in particular, the effort of the Los Alamos Safeguards Assay Group in this endeavor. Our effort in this project can be roughly divided into three phases: NDA development, system integration, and integral testing. 6 references

  12. Management of the Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monsi; Perry, Jay; Howard, David

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Exploration Systems Program's Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project is working to further optimize atmosphere revitalization and environmental monitoring system architectures. This paper discusses project management strategies that tap into skill sets across multiple engineering disciplines, projects, field centers, and industry to achieve the project success. It is the project's objective to contribute to system advances that will enable sustained exploration missions beyond Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) and improve affordability by focusing on the primary goals of achieving high reliability, improving efficiency, and reducing dependence on ground-based logistics resupply. Technology demonstrations are achieved by infusing new technologies and concepts with existing developmental hardware and operating in a controlled environment simulating various crewed habitat scenarios. The ARREM project's strengths include access to a vast array of existing developmental hardware that perform all the vital atmosphere revitalization functions, exceptional test facilities to fully evaluate system performance, and a well-coordinated partnering effort among the NASA field centers and industry partners to provide the innovative expertise necessary to succeed.

  13. How Does Scale of Implementation Impact the Environmental Sustainability of Wastewater Treatment Integrated with Resource Recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, Pablo K; Zhang, Qiong; Mihelcic, James R

    2016-07-05

    Energy and resource consumptions required to treat and transport wastewater have led to efforts to improve the environmental sustainability of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Resource recovery can reduce the environmental impact of these systems; however, limited research has considered how the scale of implementation impacts the sustainability of WWTPs integrated with resource recovery. Accordingly, this research uses life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate how the scale of implementation impacts the environmental sustainability of wastewater treatment integrated with water reuse, energy recovery, and nutrient recycling. Three systems were selected: a septic tank with aerobic treatment at the household scale, an advanced water reclamation facility at the community scale, and an advanced water reclamation facility at the city scale. Three sustainability indicators were considered: embodied energy, carbon footprint, and eutrophication potential. This study determined that as with economies of scale, there are benefits to centralization of WWTPs with resource recovery in terms of embodied energy and carbon footprint; however, the community scale was shown to have the lowest eutrophication potential. Additionally, technology selection, nutrient control practices, system layout, and topographical conditions may have a larger impact on environmental sustainability than the implementation scale in some cases.

  14. Job demands-resources model in the context of recovery : Testing recovery experiences as mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Kinnunen, Ulla; Feldt, Taru; Siltaloppi, Marjo; Sonnentag, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to extend the original Job Demands– Resources (JD-R) model by taking into account recovery as an important mediation mechanism between work characteristics and well-being/ill-health. Specifically, we examined whether recovery experiences—strategies promoting recovery—might have a mediating role in the JD-R model among 527 employees from a variety of different jobs. The results showed that psychological detachment fully mediated the effects of job demands on fa...

  15. Energy and Resource Recovery from Sludge. State of Science Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalogo, Y; Monteith, H [Hydromantis Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    There is general consensus among sanitary engineering professionals that municipal wastewater and wastewater sludge is not a 'waste', but a potential source of valuable resources. The subject is a major interest to the members of the Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC). The GWRC is therefore preparing a strategic research plan related to energy and resource recovery from wastewater sludge. The initial focus of the strategy will be on sewage sludge as water reuse aspects have been part of earlier studies. The plan will define new research orientations for deeper investigation. The current state of science (SoS) Report was prepared as the preliminary phase of GWRC's future strategic research plan on energy and resource recovery from sludge.

  16. Energy and Resource Recovery from Sludge. State of Science Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalogo, Y.; Monteith, H. [Hydromantis Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    There is general consensus among sanitary engineering professionals that municipal wastewater and wastewater sludge is not a 'waste', but a potential source of valuable resources. The subject is a major interest to the members of the Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC). The GWRC is therefore preparing a strategic research plan related to energy and resource recovery from wastewater sludge. The initial focus of the strategy will be on sewage sludge as water reuse aspects have been part of earlier studies. The plan will define new research orientations for deeper investigation. The current state of science (SoS) Report was prepared as the preliminary phase of GWRC's future strategic research plan on energy and resource recovery from sludge.

  17. Beam Diagnostics for the BNL Energy Recovery Linac Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Peter; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Brennan, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Dawson, William; Degen, Chris; DellaPenna, Al; Gassner, David; Kesselman, Martin; Kewish, Jorg; Litvinenko, Vladimir; Mead, Joseph; Oerter, Brian; Russo, Tom; Vetter, Kurt; Yakimenko, Vitaly

    2004-01-01

    An Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) test facility is presently under construction at BNL. The goals of this test facility are first to demonstrate stable intense CW electron beam with parameters typical for the RHIC e-cooling project (and potentially for eRHIC), second to test novel elements of the ERL (high current CW photo-cathode, superconducting RF cavity with HOM dampers, and feedback systems), and finally to test lattice dependence of stability criteria. Planned diagnostics include position monitors, loss monitors, transverse profile monitors (both optical and wires), scrapers/halo monitors, a high resolution differential current monitor, phase monitors, an energy spread monitor, and a fast transverse monitor (for beam break-up studies and the energy feedback system). We discuss diagnostics challenges that are unique to this project, and present preliminary system specifications. In addition, we include a brief discussion of the timing system

  18. Use of full recovery hydrolasing equipment for facility decommissioning - 16325

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Scott A.; Adams, Scott R.

    2009-01-01

    The removal of surface contamination is a major challenge for nearly all nuclear facilities undergoing, or awaiting, decommissioning. Conventional means of surface decontamination can expose workers to unnecessary hazards, and are often not fit-for-purpose due to size constraints or weight restrictions. Additionally, conventional methods are not always easily deployed remotely due to their complexity or required services. The use of ultra high pressure water for surface decontamination, known as hydrolasing, is recognized as a technology which can be used in various applications requiring surface removal. Hydrolasing is an advantageous technology for many reasons including its versatility, overall simplicity and relative ease of remote deployment. For the nuclear industry, one of the largest challenges with regards to the use of hydrolasing is the requirement for the full recovery of the injected water and removed solids. For nonnuclear applications, there is often no requirement for recovery of the liquid and solid waste, which has led to few system designs which will recover the waste in full. S.A. Robotics' experience with the deployment of ultra high pressure water systems for nuclear applications has shown that full recovery of injected water and removed solids is achievable in both underwater and in-air applications. Innovative equipment and system design have allowed S.A. Robotics' hydrolasing systems to achieve near 100% solid and liquid recovery during concrete hydrolasing. This technology has been deployed for Fluor Hanford at Hanford's K-Basins, as well as for UKAEA as part of the Windscale Piles decommissioning project. The purpose of this paper is to provide a short description of the hydrolasing process and the associated waste issues, describe the unique design features of S.A. Robotics' hydrolasing systems which combat these issues, and provide an overview of two of the hydrolasing projects that S.A. Robotics has completed. (authors)

  19. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  20. Implementation of the resource recovery concept in the biotech industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitic, Aleksandar; Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; S.B.A. Udugama, Isuru

    The concept of circular economy is attracting significant attention in modern biotech industry. Downstream processing plants are usually focused on the removal of impurities instead of their recovery in the form of value-added products for additional revenues. For example, carboxylic acids......, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, inorganic ions and water itself are amongst various resources that are found in wastewater streams coming from bio-based production processes. Such compounds have a high value at the global market and could potentially be used as raw materials for the manufacturing feed and food...

  1. Systems analysis for the development of small resource recovery systems: system performance data. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crnkovich, P G; Helmstetter, A J

    1980-10-01

    The technologies that should be developed to make small-scale solid waste processing facilities attractive and viable for small municipalities with solid waste between 50 and 250 tons per day are identified. The resource recovery systems investigated were divided into three categories: thermal processng, mechanical separation, and biological processing. Thermal processing systems investigated are: excess-air incineration; starved-air incineration/gasification; and pyrolysis (indirect heating). Mechanical processing systems investigated are: coarse refuse derived fuel; materials separation; dust refuse derived fuel; densified refuse derived fuel; and fine refuse derived fuel. Mechanical processing components investigated include: receiving module; primary size reduction module; combustible separation module; refuse derived fuel preparation module; fuel densification; fuel storage module; ferrous separation; and building and facilities. Pretreatment processes and principle methods of bioconversion of MSW dealing with biological processing are investigated. (MCW)

  2. Completing the cycle : Energy and Resource Recovery Centres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, D. [Pearl Earth Sciences, Corp., Ajax, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: ddickson@pearlearth.com

    2006-07-01

    Pearl Earth Sciences, Corp.'s Energy and Resource Recovery Centres support technologies that will provide long-term environmental and economical benefits to industry and society at large. Using a closed-loop production process with zero emissions we offer producers of waste a solution for their end of life products. Our prime goals are to have the flexibility to respond to individual waste market challenges using innovative ultra-high-temperature plasma conversion technology and to focus on the production of value-added industrial products such as a clean synthesis gas (ProGaz), Hydrogen, metals and other recovered materials. The syn-gas with its high hydrogen content can be used in the emerging 'distributed power generation' markets, to power automotive, stationary and portable fuel cells, as well as Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles; chemical processing or direct feed to a pipeline.

  3. Completing the cycle : Energy and Resource Recovery Centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, D.

    2006-01-01

    Pearl Earth Sciences, Corp.'s Energy and Resource Recovery Centres support technologies that will provide long-term environmental and economical benefits to industry and society at large. Using a closed-loop production process with zero emissions we offer producers of waste a solution for their end of life products. Our prime goals are to have the flexibility to respond to individual waste market challenges using innovative ultra-high-temperature plasma conversion technology and to focus on the production of value-added industrial products such as a clean synthesis gas (ProGaz), Hydrogen, metals and other recovered materials. The syn-gas with its high hydrogen content can be used in the emerging 'distributed power generation' markets, to power automotive, stationary and portable fuel cells, as well as Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles; chemical processing or direct feed to a pipeline

  4. Resource book: Decommissioning of contaminated facilities at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    In 1942 Hanford was commissioned as a site for the production of weapons-grade plutonium. The years since have seen the construction and operation of several generations of plutonium-producing reactors, plants for the chemical processing of irradiated fuel elements, plutonium and uranium processing and fabrication plants, and other facilities. There has also been a diversification of the Hanford site with the building of new laboratories, a fission product encapsulation plant, improved high-level waste management facilities, the Fast Flux test facility, commercial power reactors and commercial solid waste disposal facilities. Obsolescence and changing requirements will result in the deactivation or retirement of buildings, waste storage tanks, waste burial grounds and liquid waste disposal sites which have become contaminated with varying levels of radionuclides. This manual was established as a written repository of information pertinent to decommissioning planning and operations at Hanford. The Resource Book contains, in several volumes, descriptive information of the Hanford Site and general discussions of several classes of contaminated facilities found at Hanford. Supplementing these discussions are appendices containing data sheets on individual contaminated facilities and sites at Hanford. Twelve appendices are provided, corresponding to the twelve classes into which the contaminated facilities at Hanford have been organized. Within each appendix are individual data sheets containing administrative, geographical, physical, radiological, functional and decommissioning information on each facility within the class. 68 refs., 54 figs., 18 tabs

  5. Resource book: Decommissioning of contaminated facilities at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    In 1942 Hanford was commissioned as a site for the production of weapons-grade plutonium. The years since have seen the construction and operation of several generations of plutonium-producing reactors, plants for the chemical processing of irradiated fuel elements, plutonium and uranium processing and fabrication plants, and other facilities. There has also been a diversification of the Hanford site with the building of new laboratories, a fission product encapsulation plant, improved high-level waste management facilities, the Fast Flux test facility, commercial power reactors and commercial solid waste disposal facilities. Obsolescence and changing requirements will result in the deactivation or retirement of buildings, waste storage tanks, waste burial grounds and liquid waste disposal sites which have become contaminated with varying levels of radionuclides. This manual was established as a written repository of information pertinent to decommissioning planning and operations at Hanford. The Resource Book contains, in several volumes, descriptive information of the Hanford Site and general discussions of several classes of contaminated facilities found at Hanford. Supplementing these discussions are appendices containing data sheets on individual contaminated facilities and sites at Hanford. Twelve appendices are provided, corresponding to the twelve classes into which the contaminated facilities at Hanford have been organized. Within each appendix are individual data sheets containing administrative, geographical, physical, radiological, functional and decommissioning information on each facility within the class. 49 refs., 44 figs., 14 tabs

  6. Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities: Training and Human Resource Considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    One of the cornerstones of the success of nuclear facility decommissioning is the adequate competence of personnel involved in decommissioning activities. The purpose of this publication is to provide methodological guidance for, and specific examples of good practices in training as an integral part of human resource management for the personnel performing decommissioning activities. The use of the systematic methodology and techniques described in this publication may be tailored and applied to the development of training for all types of nuclear facilities undergoing decommissioning. Examples of good practices in other aspects of human resources, such as knowledge preservation, management of the workforce and improvement of human performance, are also covered. The information contained in this publication, and the examples provided in the appendices and enclosed CD-ROM, are representative of the experience of decommissioning of a wide variety of nuclear facilities.

  7. Resource recovery from bio-based production processes: a future necessity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; S.B.A. Udugama, Isuru; Cignitti, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The promise of transforming waste streams with small economic value into valuable products makes resource recovery technologies in bio-based production processes an attractive proposition. However, the use of resource recovery technologies in industrial applications is still minimal, despite its...... technologies to industrial bio-based production processes. The role and importance of economics, technology readiness and socio-environmental impacts of resource recovery in successfully implementing resource recovery technologies in industrial bio-based production processes is also discussed. Finally, based...... wide use in closely related processes such as dairy production. In this paper, a perspective on the role of resource recovery in bio-based production processes is provided through reviewing the past practice and identifying the benefits, opportunities and challenges of introducing resource recovery...

  8. IAEA Assistance on Decommissioning of Small Facilities with Limited Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batandjieva, B.; Warnecke, E.

    2008-01-01

    The number of facilities reaching their lifetime is increasing and drawing the attention of operators, regulators, public and other interested parties (potential users of the site after decommissioning) on the importance of adequate planning, funding and implementation of decommissioning activities in compliance with regulatory requirements and criteria. Specific attention is required for small facilities that have been used for research purposes and in most cases state owned by and dependent on state funding. With the current tendency for expansion of the nuclear industry such small facilities could become less of importance for the operators which can increase the probability that these facilities become abandoned, hazardous and imposing undue burden to future generations. This concern is more related to countries with limited human and financial resources at the operating organizations and the regulatory body. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been working on the; (i) establishment of internationally recognized safety standards on decommissioning and (ii) providing Member States with assistance on the application of these standards. The recent international conference on Lessons Learned from the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities and the Safe Termination of Practices (Athens, Greece, 2006) has demonstrated that the set of IAEA standards is almost complete and that the International Action Plan on Decommissioning (2004), that is addressing decommissioning of small facilities, is being successfully implemented. However the need for further assistance on decommissioning of small facilities in countries with limited resources was also recognized and the Agency is planning its future work in this field. The IAEA also addresses the needs of small nuclear countries that have only a limited number of nuclear facilities, e.g. a research reactor, in its R esearch Reactor Decommissioning Demonstration Project (R 2 D 2 P. The Philippine Research Reactor

  9. Recycling of wastes from uranium mining and metallurgy and recovery of useful resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yingjie; Xue Jianxin; Chen Zhongqiu

    2012-01-01

    Recycling of wastes from uranium mining and metallurgy in China and recovery of useful resources are summarized from the aspects such as recovery of uranium from mine water, reusing of waste water, decontaminating and recycling of radioactivity contaminated metal, backfill of gangues and tailings, and comprehensive recovery and utilization of associated uranium deposits. (authors)

  10. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report, Part B (Vol. 3) of the permit application for the WIPP facility, contains information related to the site characterization of the facility, including geology, design, rock salt evaluations, maps, drawings, and shaft excavations

  11. Complementary Therapies – a spiritual resource in recovery-processes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Anita; Dürr, Dorte Wiwe; Johannessen, Helle

    rehabilitative treatments intends to support recovery processes of people with serious mental illness. Aim: To investigate how employees and residents perceive complementary therapies as an integral rehabilitative treatment, and to explore the recovery related implications of spirituality employed in the use...... and health as well as for the ethics of providing complementary treatment practice in social psychiatry....

  12. 75 FR 65366 - Recovery Policy RP9524.2, Landslides and Slope Stability Related to Public Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ...] Recovery Policy RP9524.2, Landslides and Slope Stability Related to Public Facilities AGENCY: Federal... the final Recovery Policy RP9524.2, Landslides and Slope Stability Related to Public Facilities, which... facilities threatened by landslides or slope failures; as well as the eligibility of permanent repairs to...

  13. Life cycle assessment of resource recovery from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Vadenbo, Carl; Boldrin, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Bottom ash, the main solid output from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), has significant potential for the recovery of resources such as scrap metals and aggregates. The utilisation of these resources ideally enables natural resources to be saved. However, the quality of the recovered...

  14. Work Engagement: Investigating the Role of Transformational Leadership, Job Resources, and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Amy J; Biggs, Amanda; Hegerty, Erin

    2017-08-18

    While the relationship between job resources and engagement has been well established, a greater understanding of the upstream factors that shape job resources is required to develop strategies to promote work engagement. The current study addresses this need by exploring transformational leadership as an upstream job resource, and the moderating role of recovery experiences. It was hypothesized that job resources would mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and engagement. Recovery experiences were expected to moderate the relationship between resources and engagement. A sample of 277 employees from a variety of organizations and industries was obtained. Analysis showed direct relationships between: transformational leadership and engagement, and transformational leadership and job resources. Mediation analysis using bootstrapping found a significant indirect path between transformational leadership and engagement via job resources. Recovery experiences did not significantly moderate the relationship between job resources and engagement. To date, the majority of published literature on recovery has focused on job demands; hence the nonsignificant result offers insight of a potentially more complex relationship for recovery with resources and engagement. Overall, the current study extends the JD-R model and provides evidence for broadening the model to include upstream organizational variables such as transformational leadership.

  15. Environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities. A MITE Program evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities (MRFs) conducted under the Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program. The MITE Program is sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency to foster the demonstration and development of innovative technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). This project was also funded by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Material recovery facilities are increasingly being used as one option for managing a significant portion of municipal solid waste (MSW). The owners and operators of these facilities employ a combination of manual and mechanical techniques to separate and sort the recyclable fraction of MSW and to transport the separated materials to recycling facilities.

  16. Techno-economic analysis of resource recovery technologies for wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiocchi, Riccardo; Matafome, Beatriz; Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina

    2017-01-01

    resource-recovery treatment units: (a) a chemical precipitation process, for recovery of iron phosphate fertilizer; (b) the Exelys technology, for increased biogas production; and, (c) the Phosnix technology, for recovery of struvite fertilizer. Seven upgrade strategies/flowsheets employing different...... upgrading combinations involving chemical precipitation and Exelys technologies were not found economical for the given plant. Sensitivity analyses on the economic evaluation criteria have demonstrated that the results obtained are robust against uncertainties in influent wastewater characteristics...

  17. EPA Linked Open Data: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Handlers (RCRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RCRAInfo is EPA’s comprehensive information system that supports the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste...

  18. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B, Permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information related to the permit application for the WIPP facility. Information is presented on solid waste management; personnel safety; emergency plans; site characterization; applicable regulations; decommissioning; and ground water monitoring requirements

  19. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report (Vol. 6) for the WIPP facility contains appendices on the following information: Site characterization; general geology; ecological monitoring; and chemical compatibility of waste forms and container materials

  20. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This permit application (Vol. 7) for the WIPP facility contains appendices related to the following information: Ground water protection; personnel; solid waste management; and memorandums concerning environmental protection standards

  1. Biohydrometallurgy and membrane technology for resource recovery from low-grade ores and mining residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Arite; Meschke, Katja; Bohlke, Kevin; Haseneder, Roland; Daus, Birgit; Repke, Jens-Uwe

    2017-01-01

    The recovery of strategic elements from secondary mineral resources and low grade ores is of increasing relevance, due to a changing global market as well as for reasons of sustainability. The present article shows the potential of biohydrometallurgy as an efficient technology for mobilization of metals from secondary mineral resources. Furthermore, the application of membrane separation as a successful technique for the recovery of metals from bioleaching solutions is presented. These issues are discussed within the scope of recent research projects.

  2. Resource recovery. A report for the Royal Commission of Environmental Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    A report for the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution describes the key factors influencing the level of resource recovery in the UK and compares the level in other European countries and the US. Aspects covered include waste paper, oils and batteries, cost allocation, waste disposal cost and charges, separation of waste streams and energy from waste. Finally the report identifies a number of specific areas where action might be taken to increase resource recovery. (UK).

  3. MSWI Bottom Ash Characterization and Resource Recovery Potential Assessment.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šyc, Michal; Kameníková, Petra; Krausová, Aneta; Zach, Boleslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Svoboda, Karel; Punčochář, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 36 (2015), s. 79-84 ISSN 1640-4902 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : MSWI * bottom ash * metal recovery Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  4. Recovery of spent high intensity neutron sources in Atalante Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bros, P.; Boyer Deslys, V.; Millet, A.; Solinhac, I.; Donnet, L.; Maillard, C.; Paillard, S.; Ranchoux, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Atalante facility is required by law to recover both neutron and gamma sources with activity levels exceeding 300 mCi. Most of the neutron sources consist of mixtures of alpha-emitters (238Pu, 239Pu, 241Am or 244Cm) and beryllium. Several processes now under consideration are based on routine chemical separation techniques (selective precipitation, extraction chromatography, ion exchange). The treatment produces an actinide oxide (which is used later for R and D studies) and solid beryllium nitrate, which is considered as a waste and transferred to a surface interim storage site if the overall activity of the package after 300 years is less than 50 MBq (ANDRA specifications). The Material Analysis and Metrology Laboratory of Atalante validate the residual alpha activity in the waste. The techniques used include alpha spectrometry and L-line X-ray fluorescence for alpha emitters, and plasma torch measurements (ICP-AES and ICP-MS) for beryllium analysis. Specific equipment for transport (B type cask), storage and treatment (hot shielded cells) are used for this activity. (Author)

  5. Solid waste landfills under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document provides guidance for meeting: (1) Guidelines for the Land Disposal of Solid Waste (40 CFR 241); (2) Criteria for Classification of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities and Practices (40 CFR 257); and (3) Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills (MSWLFs) (40 CFR Part 258). Revisions to 40 CFR 257 and a new Part 258 were published in the Federal Register (56 FR 50978, 10/9/91). The Guidelines for the Land Disposal of Solid Waste set requirements and recommended procedures to ensure that the design, construction, and operation of land disposal sites is done in a manner that will protect human health and the environment. These regulations are applicable to MSWLFs and non-MSWLFs (e.g., landfills used only for the disposal of demolition debris, commercial waste, and/or industrial waste). These guidelines are not applicable to the, land disposal of hazardous, agricultural, and/or mining wastes. These criteria are to be used under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in determining which solid waste disposal facilities pose a reasonable possibility of adversely affecting human health or the environment. Facilities failing to satisfy these criteria will be considered to be open dumps which are prohibited under Section 4005 of RCRA. The Criteria for MSWLFs are applicable only to MSWLFs, including those MSWLFs in which sewage sludge is co-disposed with household waste. Based on specific criteria, certain MSWLFs are exempt from some, or all, of the regulations of 40 CFR 258. MSWLFs that fail to satisfy the criteria specified in 40 CFR 258 are also considered open dumps for the purposes of Section 4005 of RCRA. Through the use of a series of interrelated flow diagrams, this guidance document directs the reader to each design, operation, maintenance, and closure activity that must be performed for MSWLFs and non-MSWLFs.

  6. Enhanced oil recovery chemicals from renewable wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grune, W.N.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Crenshaw, J.M.

    1979-04-01

    Most of the wood pulp in the U.S. is produced by cooking, or digesting, wood chips in a chemical solution. These pulping processes have effluent streams which contain dissolved lignins, lignin breakdown products, and carbohydrates. There is a substantial economic incentive to use these materials as feedstocks for the production of high-valued micellar flood chemicals. The pulp and paper industries have practiced chemical recovery for almost a century. The largest chemical recycle processes are the internal recycle of inorganic salts for reuse in pulping. This is coupled with the use of waste organic compounds in the liquor as a fuel for directly-fired evaporation processes. Diversion of effluent and low valued streams for chemical recovery using fermentation, purification, or synthesis methods appears technically feasible in several cases. The use of new recovery processes could yield a variety of different wood-effluent based products. Some of the sugar acids in pulping liquors might be used as sequestering agents in reservoirs where there are large amounts of multivalent cations in flood brines. Fermentation production of high viscosity polymers, sequestering agents, and coagent alcohols appears worth further investigation. Tall oil acids and their derivatives can be used as surfactants in some reservoirs. Some waste constituents may adsorb preferentially on formations and thereby reduce loss of surfactants and other higher-valued chemicals.

  7. Life cycle assessment as development and decision support tool for wastewater resource recovery technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Linda L.; Valverde Perez, Borja; Damgaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    resource recovery. The freshwater and nutrient content of wastewater are recognized as potential valuable resources that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. Both recovery and reuse are intended to address existing environmental concerns, for example, water scarcity and use of non-renewable phosphorus...... and water recovery system in its potential operating environment, we assess the potential environmental impacts of such a system using the EASETECH model. In the simulation, recovered water and nutrients are used in scenarios of agricultural irrigation-fertilization and aquifer recharge. In these scenarios......, TRENS reduces global warming up to 15% and marine eutrophication impacts up to 9% compared to conventional treatment. This is due to the recovery and reuse of nutrient resources, primarily nitrogen. The key environmental concerns obtained through the LCA are linked to increased human toxicity impacts...

  8. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This volume includes the following chapters: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA A permit application; facility description; waste analysis plan; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; personnel training; corrective action for solid waste management units; and other Federal laws

  9. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B, Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report is part of the permit application for the WIPP facility. Appendices are presented on the following: the design validation final report; sampling of volatile organic compounds which may be emitted from waste binss, site supplementary roof support system, and studies on wind and tornado probabilities

  10. 77 FR 33782 - License Amendment To Construct and Operate New In Situ Leach Uranium Recovery Facility; Uranium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... and Operate New In Situ Leach Uranium Recovery Facility; Uranium One Americas; Ludeman AGENCY: Nuclear... provided the first time that a document is referenced. The Ludeman facility In Situ Leach Uranium Recovery... request to amend Source Material License SUA-1341 to construct and operate a new in situ leach uranium...

  11. Community resiliency through recovery resource supply chain planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Charlotte; Todt, Kiersten

    2014-01-01

    Information in this paper is the result of recommendations and remedies developed at 'Local Supply Chain Capacity in a Crisis Summit Exercise' held in Arlington, VA on 30th-31st January,2013. At the event, which was funded through the Regional Catastrophic Preparedness Grant Program, national private sector and not-for-profit essential resource provider experts in sectors such as transportation, communication systems, energy/power, financial resources, medical supplies and other vital supplies, together with emergency managers, discussed best practices, major challenges and exchanged remedy recommendations.

  12. Metal Recovery from Industrial Solid Waste — Contribution to Resource Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxiang

    Increased demand of metals has driven the accelerated mining and metallurgical production in recent years, causing fast depletion of primary metals resources. On the contrary, the mining and metallurgical industry generates large amount of solid residues and waste such as tailings, slags, flue dust and leach residues, with relative low valuable metal contents. On the other hand, end-of-life (EoL) consumer products form another significant resources. The current technology and processes for primary metals production are not readily applicable for direct metals extraction from these waste materials, and special adaptation and tailor-made processes are required. In the present paper, various solid waste resources are reviewed, and current technologies and R&D trends are discussed. The recent research at author's group is illustrated for providing potential solutions to future resource problems, including metal recovery from MSW incinerator bottom ashes, zinc recovery from industrial ashes and residues, and rare earth metals recovery from EoL permanent magnets.

  13. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is designed for receipt, handling, storage, and permanent isolation of defense-generated transuranic wastes, is being excavated at a depth of approximately 655 m in bedded halites of the Permian Salado Formation of southeastern New Mexico. Site-characterization activities at the present WIPP site began in 1976. Full construction of the facility began in 1983, after completion of ''Site and Preliminary Design Validation'' (SPDV) activities and reporting. Site-characterization activities since 1983 have had the objectives of updating or refining the overall conceptual model of the geologic, hydrologic, and structural behavior of the WIPP site and providing data adequate for use in WIPP performance assessment. This report has four main objectives: 1. Summarize the results of WIPP site-characterization studies carried out since the spring of 1983 as a result of specific agreements between the US Department of Energy and the State of New Mexico. 2. Summarize the results and status of site-characterization and facility-characterization studies carried out since 1983, but not specifically included in mandated agreements. 3. Compile the results of WIPP site-characterization studies into an internally consistent conceptual model for the geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and structural behavior of the WIPP site. This model includes some consideration of the effects of the WIPP facility and shafts on the local characteristics of the Salado and Rustler Formations. 4. Discuss the present limitations and/or uncertainties in the conceptual geologic model of the WIPP site and facility. The objectives of this report are limited in scope, and do not include determination of whether or not the WIPP Project will comply with repository-performance criteria developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40CFR191)

  14. Optimizing Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant reductions of carbon emissions and air quality impacts can be achieved by optimizing municipal solid waste (MSW) as a resource. Materials and discards management were found to contribute ~40% of overall U.S. GHG emissions as a result of materials extraction, transpo...

  15. Development of a tritium recovery system from CANDU tritium removal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draghia, M.; Pasca, G.; Porcariu, F.

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the Tritium Recovery System (TRS) is to reduce to a maximum possible extent the release of tritium from the facility following a tritium release in confinement boundaries and also to have provisions to recover both elemental and vapors tritium from the purging gases during maintenance and components replacement from various systems processing tritium. This work/paper proposes a configuration of Tritium Recovery System wherein elemental tritium and water vapors are recovered in a separated, parallel manner. The proposed TRS configuration is a combination of permeators, a platinum microreactor (MR) and a trickle bed reactor (TBR) and consists of two branches: one branch for elemental tritium recovery from tritiated deuterium gas and the second one for tritium recovery from streams containing a significant amount of water vapours but a low amount, below 5%, of tritiated gas. The two branches shall work in a complementary manner in such a way that the bleed stream from the permeators shall be further processed in the MR and TBR in view of achieving the required decontamination level. A preliminary evaluation of the proposed TRS in comparison with state of the art tritium recovery system from tritium processing facilities is also discussed. (authors)

  16. Development of a tritium recovery system from CANDU tritium removal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draghia, M.; Pasca, G.; Porcariu, F. [SC.IS.TECH SRL, Timisoara (Romania)

    2015-03-15

    The main purpose of the Tritium Recovery System (TRS) is to reduce to a maximum possible extent the release of tritium from the facility following a tritium release in confinement boundaries and also to have provisions to recover both elemental and vapors tritium from the purging gases during maintenance and components replacement from various systems processing tritium. This work/paper proposes a configuration of Tritium Recovery System wherein elemental tritium and water vapors are recovered in a separated, parallel manner. The proposed TRS configuration is a combination of permeators, a platinum microreactor (MR) and a trickle bed reactor (TBR) and consists of two branches: one branch for elemental tritium recovery from tritiated deuterium gas and the second one for tritium recovery from streams containing a significant amount of water vapours but a low amount, below 5%, of tritiated gas. The two branches shall work in a complementary manner in such a way that the bleed stream from the permeators shall be further processed in the MR and TBR in view of achieving the required decontamination level. A preliminary evaluation of the proposed TRS in comparison with state of the art tritium recovery system from tritium processing facilities is also discussed. (authors)

  17. HANFORD TANK FARM RESOURCE CONSERVATION and RECOVERY ACT (RCRA) CORRECTIVE ACTION PROGRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.

    2007-01-01

    As a consequence of producing special nuclear material for the nation's defense, large amounts of extremely hazardous radioactive waste was created at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in south central Washington State. A little over 50 million gallons of this waste is now stored in 177 large, underground tanks on Hanford's Central Plateau in tank farms regulated under the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource, Conservation, and Recovery Act (RCRA). Over 60 tanks and associated infrastructure have released or are presumed to have released waste in the vadose zone. In 1998, DOE's Office of River Protection established the Hanford Tank Farm RCRA Corrective Action Program (RCAP) to: (1) characterize the distribution and extent of the existing vadose zone contamination; (2) determine how the contamination will move in the future; (3) estimate the impacts of this contamination on groundwater and other media; (4) develop and implement mitigative measures; and (5) develop corrective measures to be implemented as part of the final closure of the tank farm facilities. Since its creation, RCAP has made major advances in each of these areas, which will be discussed in this paper

  18. Analysis of the impacts of the 1984 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act amendments on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falconer, K.L.; Davis, K.D.; Johnson, R.D.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Wallace, M.T.

    1986-02-01

    The November 1984 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) have had, and will continue to have, a significant impact on the management of hazardous and radioactive mixed waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These Amendments include new requirements specific to federal facilities such as the INEL. In this paper, areas of direct impact and associated INEL plans for complying with the 1984 RCRA Amendments will be described. The specific areas to be covered are the following: (1) changes in RCRA Part B permitting, including requirements for addressing past hazardous waste TSD sites; (2) the effects of increased restrictions on land disposal; (3) new requirements for undergrond tanks; (4) requirements for federal facilities; and (5) mandatory minimization of waste generation

  19. 48 CFR 3004.470 - Security requirements for access to unclassified facilities, Information Technology resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... access to unclassified facilities, Information Technology resources, and sensitive information. 3004.470... Technology resources, and sensitive information. ... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Safeguarding Classified and Sensitive Information...

  20. 75 FR 67993 - Hydropower Resource Assessment at Existing Reclamation Facilities-Draft Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Hydropower Resource Assessment at Existing... comment the ``Hydropower Resource Assessment at Existing Reclamation Facilities'' (HRA) Draft Report. The HRA is an assessment of the economic and technical potential for hydropower development at existing...

  1. Capabilities and modification plans for the Savannah River New Special Recovery facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Molen, G.F.; Lynn, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The Savannah River New Special Recovery (NSR) facility is located in the 200-F Separations Area. This facility was designed and constructed to convert easily dissolvable plutonium oxides and metal from both onsite and offsite residues to plutonium nitrate-nitric acid solution. Capabilities were provided to purify a portion of the clarified dissolver solutions via anion exchange. The primary purification is provided by the 221-F canyon solvent extraction system. Minimal capacity was provided to handle slurries from poorly dissolving materials. The Actinide Technology Division of the Savannah River Laboratory is presently engaged in R and D to enhance both the solids throughput of the dissolvers and the feed clarification methods

  2. Recovery, Transportation and Acceptance to the Curation Facility of the Hayabusa Re-Entry Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, M.; Fujimura, A.; Yano, H.; Okamoto, C.; Okada, T.; Yada, T.; Ishibashi, Y.; Shirai, K.; Nakamura, T.; Noguchi, T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The "Hayabusa" re-entry capsule was safely carried into the clean room of Sagamihara Planetary Sample Curation Facility in JAXA on June 18, 2010. After executing computed tomographic (CT) scanning, removal of heat shield, and surface cleaning of sample container, the sample container was enclosed into the clean chamber. After opening the sample container and residual gas sampling in the clean chamber, optical observation, sample recovery, sample separation for initial analysis will be performed. This curation work is continuing for several manths with some selected member of Hayabusa Asteroidal Sample Preliminary Examination Team (HASPET). We report here on the 'Hayabusa' capsule recovery operation, and transportation and acceptance at the curation facility of the Hayabusa re-entry capsule.

  3. Analysis of material recovery facilities for use in life-cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Pressley, Phillip N.; Levis, James W.; Damgaard, Anders; Barlaz, Morton A.; DeCarolis, Joseph F.

    2015-01-01

    Insights derived from life-cycle assessment of solid waste management strategies depend critically on assumptions, data, and modeling at the unit process level. Based on new primary data, a process model was developed to estimate the cost and energy use associated with material recovery facilities (MRFs), which are responsible for sorting recyclables into saleable streams and as such represent a key piece of recycling infrastructure. The model includes four modules, each with a different proc...

  4. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The reference design for the underground facilities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant was developed using the best criteria available at initiation of the detailed design effort. These design criteria are contained in the US Department of Energy document titled Design Criteria, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Revised Mission Concept-IIA (RMC-IIA), Rev. 4, dated February 1984. The validation process described in the Design Validation Final Report has resulted in validation of the reference design of the underground openings based on these criteria. Future changes may necessitate modification of the Design Criteria document and/or the reference design. Validation of the reference design as presented in this report permits the consideration of future design or design criteria modifications necessitated by these changes or by experience gained at the WIPP. Any future modifications to the design criteria and/or the reference design will be governed by a DOE Standard Operation Procedure (SOP) covering underground design changes. This procedure will explain the process to be followed in describing, evaluating and approving the change

  5. Resource Recovery from Wastewater by Biological Technologies: Opportunities, Challenges, and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puyol, Daniel; Batstone, Damien J.; Hülsen, Tim; Astals, Sergi; Peces, Miriam; Krömer, Jens O.

    2017-01-01

    Limits in resource availability are driving a change in current societal production systems, changing the focus from residues treatment, such as wastewater treatment, toward resource recovery. Biotechnological processes offer an economic and versatile way to concentrate and transform resources from waste/wastewater into valuable products, which is a prerequisite for the technological development of a cradle-to-cradle bio-based economy. This review identifies emerging technologies that enable resource recovery across the wastewater treatment cycle. As such, bioenergy in the form of biohydrogen (by photo and dark fermentation processes) and biogas (during anaerobic digestion processes) have been classic targets, whereby, direct transformation of lipidic biomass into biodiesel also gained attention. This concept is similar to previous biofuel concepts, but more sustainable, as third generation biofuels and other resources can be produced from waste biomass. The production of high value biopolymers (e.g., for bioplastics manufacturing) from organic acids, hydrogen, and methane is another option for carbon recovery. The recovery of carbon and nutrients can be achieved by organic fertilizer production, or single cell protein generation (depending on the source) which may be utilized as feed, feed additives, next generation fertilizers, or even as probiotics. Additionlly, chemical oxidation-reduction and bioelectrochemical systems can recover inorganics or synthesize organic products beyond the natural microbial metabolism. Anticipating the next generation of wastewater treatment plants driven by biological recovery technologies, this review is focused on the generation and re-synthesis of energetic resources and key resources to be recycled as raw materials in a cradle-to-cradle economy concept. PMID:28111567

  6. Public health facility resource availability and provider adherence to first antenatal guidelines in a low resource setting in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoakoh-Coleman, Mary; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Kayode, Gbenga A; Grobbee, Diederick E; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Ansah, Evelyn K

    2016-09-21

    Lack of resources has been identified as a reason for non-adherence to clinical guidelines. Our aim was to describe public health facility resource availability in relation to provider adherence to first antenatal visit guidelines. A cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data of a prospective cohort study on adherence to first antenatal care visit guidelines was carried out in 11 facilities in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Provider adherence was studied in relation to health facility resource availability such as antenatal workload for clinical staffs, routine antenatal drugs, laboratory testing, protocols, ambulance and equipment. Eleven facilities comprising 6 hospitals (54.5 %), 4 polyclinics (36.4 %) and 1 health center were randomly sampled. Complete provider adherence to first antenatal guidelines for all the 946 participants was 48.1 % (95 % CI: 41.8-54.2 %), varying significantly amongst the types of facilities, with highest rate in the polyclinics. Average antenatal workload per month per clinical staff member was higher in polyclinics compared to the hospitals. All facility laboratories were able to conduct routine antenatal tests. Most routine antenatal drugs were available in all facilities except magnesium sulphate and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine which were lacking in some. Antenatal service protocols and equipment were also available in all facilities. Although antenatal workload varies across different facility types in the Greater Accra region, other health facility resources that support implementation of first antenatal care guidelines are equally available in all the facilities. These factors therefore do not adequately account for the low and varying proportions of complete adherence to guidelines across facility types. Providers should be continually engaged for a better understanding of the barriers to their adherence to these guidelines.

  7. Evaluation of resource recovery from waste incineration residues--the case of zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, J; Lederer, J; Purgar, A; Winterstetter, A; Rechberger, H; Winter, F; Laner, D

    2015-03-01

    Solid residues generated at European Waste to Energy plants contain altogether about 69,000 t/a of Zn, of which more than 50% accumulates in air pollution control residues, mainly boiler and filter ashes. Intensive research activities aiming at Zn recovery from such residues recently resulted in a technical scale Zn recovery plant at a Swiss waste incinerator. By acidic leaching and subsequent electrolysis this technology (FLUREC) allows generating metallic Zn of purity>99.9%. In the present paper the economic viability of the FLUREC technology with respect to Zn recovery from different solid residues of waste incineration has been investigated and subsequently been categorised according to the mineral resource classification scheme of McKelvey. The results of the analysis demonstrate that recovery costs for Zn are highly dependent on the costs for current fly ash disposal (e.g. cost for subsurface landfilling). Assuming current disposal practice costs of 220€/ton fly ash, resulting recovery costs for Zn are generally higher than its current market price of 1.6€/kg Zn. With respect to the resource classification this outcome indicates that none of the identified Zn resources present in incineration residues can be economically extracted and thus cannot be classified as a reserve. Only for about 4800 t/a of Zn an extraction would be marginally economic, meaning that recovery costs are only slightly (less than 20%) higher than the current market price for Zn. For the remaining Zn resources production costs are between 1.5 and 4 times (7900 t/a Zn) and 10-80 times (55,300 t/a Zn) higher than the current market value. The economic potential for Zn recovery from waste incineration residues is highest for filter ashes generated at grate incinerators equipped with wet air pollution control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Greening Federal Facilities: An Energy, Environmental, and Economic Resource Guide for Federal Facility Managers and Designers; Second Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A.

    2001-05-16

    Greening Federal Facilities, Second Edition, is a nuts-and-bolts resource guide compiled to increase energy and resource efficiency, cut waste, and improve the performance of Federal buildings and facilities. The guide highlights practical actions that facility managers, design and construction staff, procurement officials, and facility planners can take to save energy and money, improve the comfort and productivity of employees, and benefit the environment. It supports a national effort to promote energy and environmental efficiency in the nation's 500,000 Federal buildings and facilities. Topics covered include current Federal regulations; environmental and energy decision-making; site and landscape issues; building design; energy systems; water and wastewater; materials; waste management, and recycling; indoor environmental quality; and managing buildings.

  9. Differential current measurement in the BNL energy recovery linac test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Peter

    2006-01-01

    An energy recovery linac (ERL) test facility is presently under construction at BNL [V.N. Litvinenko, et al., High current energy recovery linac at BNL, PAC, 2005; I. Ben-Zvi, et al., Extremely high current, high brightness energy recovery linac, PAC, 2005]. The goal of this test facility is to demonstrate CW operation with an average beam current greater than 100mA, and with greater than 99.95% efficiency of current recovery. This facility will serve as a test bed for the novel high current CW photo-cathode [A. Burrill, et al., Multi-alkali photocathode development at BNL, PAC, 2005; A. Murray, et al., State-of-the-art electron guns and injector designs for energy recovery linacs, PAC, 2005], the superconducting RF cavity with HOM dampers [R. Calaga, et al., High current superconducting cavities at RHIC, EPAC, 2004; R. Calaga, et al., in: Proceedings of the 11th workshop on RF superconductivity, Lubeck, Germany, 2003], and the lattice [D. Kayran, V. Litvinenko, Novel method of emittance preservation in ERL merging system in presence of strong space charge forces, PAC, 2005; D. Kayran, et al., Optics for high brightness and high current ERL project at BNL, PAC, 2005] and feedback systems needed to insure the specified beam parameters. It is an important stepping stone for electron cooling in RHIC [I. Ben-Zvi, et al., Electron cooling of RHIC, PAC, 2005], and essential to meet the luminosity specifications of RHICII [T. Hallman, et al., RHICII/eRHIC white paper, available at http://www.bnl.gov/henp/docs/NSAC_RHICII-eRHIC_2-15-03.pdf]. The expertise and experience gained in this effort might also extend forward into a 10-20GeV ERL for the electron-ion collider eRHIC [http://www.agsrhichome.bnl.gov/eRHIC/, Appendix A, The linac-ring option, 2005]. We report here on the use of a technique of differential current measurement to monitor the efficiency of current recovery in the test facility, and investigate the possibility of using such a monitor in the machine

  10. Exergy losses of resource recovery from a waste-to-energy plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vyzinkarova, Dana; Laner, D.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    Metal resources recovered from waste incineration bottom ash (BA) are of lower quality as compared to primary resources, but to date no framework for expressing the quality losses exists. Exergy is a concept that may have the potential to evaluate the resource quality in waste management....... In this study, focusing on recovery from waste-to-energy plants with basic and advanced BA treatment, the goal is to give an indication about quality of selected recovered resources (Fe, Al, and Cu) by means of exergy analysis. Metal flows are modeled through both incineration scenarios, and then chemical....... The results indicate that exergy losses due to mixing are insignificant as compared to chemical exergies of metals in all flows. Total exergy losses for Fe, Al, and Cu recovery in the two WtE systems range from 38% to 90%....

  11. Identification of potential recovery facilities for designing a reverse supply chain network using physical programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochampally, Kishore K.; Gupta, Surendra M.; Kamarthi, Sagar V.

    2004-02-01

    Although there are many quantitative models in the literature to design a reverse supply chain, every model assumes that all the recovery facilities that are engaged in the supply chain have enough potential to efficiently re-process the incoming used products. Motivated by the risk of re-processing used products in facilities of insufficient potentiality, this paper proposes a method to identify potential facilities in a set of candidate recovery facilities operating in a region where a reverse supply chain is to be established. In this paper, the problem is solved using a newly developed method called physical programming. The most significant advantage of using physical programming is that it allows a decision maker to express his preferences for values of criteria (for comparing the alternatives), not in the traditional form of weights but in terms of ranges of different degrees of desirability, such as ideal range, desirable range, highly desirable range, undesirable range, and unacceptable range. A numerical example is considered to illustrate the proposed method.

  12. Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance....... Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity production (by...

  13. Resource recovery and reuse as an incentive for a more viable sanitation service chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna C. Rao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recovering nutrients, water and energy from domestic waste streams, including wastewater and faecal sludge, is slowly gaining momentum in low-income countries. Resource recovery and reuse (RRR offers value beyond environmental benefits through cost recovery. An expected game changer in sanitation service provision is a business model where benefits accrued via RRR can support upstream sanitation services despite the multitude of private and public stakeholders involved from waste collection to treatment. This paper shows options of how resource recovery and reuse can be an incentive for the sustainable sanitation service chain, by recovering costs where revenue can feed back internally or using generated revenues from reuse to fill financial gaps across the service chain to complement other supporting mechanisms for making waste management more attractive.

  14. 40 CFR 256.31 - Recommendations for developing and implementing resource conservation and recovery programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirement. (4) Development of a strategy for the consideration of the legislature to prohibit and/or remove...; and (4) Development of a strategy and plan of action for the consideration of the legislature for... requirements, pricing mechanisms and long-term contract availability. (3) Resource recovery feasibility studies...

  15. Feasibility studies on electrochemical separation and recovery of uranium by using domestic low grade uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Jung, Chong Hun; Lee, Kune Woo; Won, Hui Jun; Choi, Wang Kyu; Kim, Gye Nam; Lee, Yu Ri; Lee, Joong Moung

    2005-12-01

    The up-to-date electrochemical uranium separation technology has been developed for uranium sludge waste treatment funded by a long term national nuclear technology development program. The objective of the studies is to examine applicability of the uranium separation technology to making use of the low grade uranium resources in the country. State of the arts of uranium separation and recovery from the low grade national uranium resources. - The amount of the high grade uranium resources(0.1 % U 3 O 8 contents) in the world is 1,750,000MTU and that of the low grade uranium resources(0.04 % U 3 O 8 contents) in the country is 340,000MTU. - The world uranium price will be increase to more than 30$/l0b in 10 years, so that the low grade uranium in the country become worth while to recover. - The conventional uranium recovery technologies are based on both acidic - The ACF electrochemical uranium separation technology is the state of the art technology in the world and the adsorption capability of 690 mgU/g is several ten times higher than that of a conventional zeolite and the uranium stripping efficiency by desorption is more than 99%. So, this technology is expected to replace the existing solvent extraction technology. Feasibility of the ACF electrochemical uranium separation technology as an uranium recovery method. Lab scale demonstration of uranium separation and recovery technologies have been carried out by using an ACF electrochemical method

  16. INEL RCRA [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act] permit for incineration of hazardous waste: Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFee, J.N.; Dalton, J.D.; Bohrer, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) was constructed to reduce the volume of low-level radioactive waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). To address the problem of radioactively contaminated ignitable hazardous waste resulting from INEL activities, a development program was carried out to evaluate WERF's ability to meet the regulated criteria for incinerating liquid and solid ignitable waste. Concurrently, INEL submitted its hazardous waste Part B application under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). As required, and as a major step in the permitting process, the WERF incinerator portion of the permit application included a proposed trial burn, which is a demonstration test of the incinerator's ability to destroy hazardous materials. The trial burn plan was designed to demonstrate the system performance for liquid and solid ignitable wastes at three operating conditions, using a prepared mix of materials representative of waste to be processed. EPA Region X reviewed and commented on the plan prior to the trial burn. Results of the liquid feed trial burn showed a greater than 97% probability of meeting the RCRA-dictated DRE value for chlorinated solvents and a greater than 99% probability for nonchlorinated solvents. Nonchlorinated solid waste results were calculated at a 93% probability of meeting the required DRE, with a 75% probability for chlorinated solid wastes. In addition, the incinerator DRE continued to improve long after the assumed pre-test equilibrium period had ended. The trial burn demonstrates that the WERF incinerator can safely and adequately destroy ignitable hazardous and mixed waste and provides a significant enhancement of the INEL's waste management system

  17. Quantification of the resource recovery potential of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Maresca, Alberto; Olsson, Mikael Emil

    2014-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plays an important role in many European waste management systems. However, increasing focus on resource criticality has raised concern regarding the possible loss of critical resources through MSWI. The primary form of solid output from waste incinerators....... The lack of REE enrichment in BAs indicated that the post-incineration recovery of these resources may not be a likely option with current technology. Based on these results, it is recommended to focus on limiting REE-containing products in waste for incineration and improving pre-incineration sorting...

  18. Give me a better break: Choosing workday break activities to maximize resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Emily M; Wu, Cindy

    2016-02-01

    Surprisingly little research investigates employee breaks at work, and even less research provides prescriptive suggestions for better workday breaks in terms of when, where, and how break activities are most beneficial. Based on the effort-recovery model and using experience sampling methodology, we examined the characteristics of employee workday breaks with 95 employees across 5 workdays. In addition, we examined resources as a mediator between break characteristics and well-being. Multilevel analysis results indicated that activities that were preferred and earlier in the work shift related to more resource recovery following the break. We also found that resources mediated the influence of preferred break activities and time of break on health symptoms and that resource recovery benefited person-level outcomes of emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behavior. Finally, break length interacted with the number of breaks per day such that longer breaks and frequent short breaks were associated with more resources than infrequent short breaks. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Use of Drying Technologies for Resource Recovery from Solid Wastes and Brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Alba, Ric; Fisher, John W.; Hogan, John A.; Polonsky, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Long term storage of unprocessed biological wastes and human wastes can present major health issues and a loss of potential resources. Space vehicles and planetary habitats are typically resource-scarce or resource-limited environments for long-term human habitation. To-date, most of the resources will need to be supplied from Earth, but this may not be possible for long duration human exploration. Based on present knowledge, there is only very limited in-situ resources on planetary habitats. Hence, the opportunity to "live off the land" in a planetary habitat is limited. However, if we assume that wastes generated by human explorers are viewed as resources, there is great potential to utilize and recycle them, thereby reducing the requirements for supply Earth and enabling the "live off the land" exploration scenario. Technologies used for the recovery of resources from wastes should be reliable, safe, easy to operate, fail-proof, modular, automated and preferably multifunctional in being capable of handling mixed solid and liquid wastes. For a lunar habitat, energy does not appear to be the major driving factor amongst the technologies studied. Instead, reliability appears to be more important[1] . This paper reports studies to date on drying technologies to remove water from solid wastes and brines. Experimental performance data obtained for recovery water from wastes and brine are presented. Simplicity of operation of hardware and energy efficiency are discussed. Some improvements and modifications to hardware were performed. Hopefully, this information will assist in future efforts in the "downselection" of technologies for recovery of water and resources from solid wastes and brines.

  20. Multi-criteria analysis of potential recovery facilities in a reverse supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukala, Satish; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) has been employed by researchers for solving multi-criteria analysis problems. However, AHP is often criticized for its unbalanced scale of judgments and failure to precisely handle the inherent uncertainty and vagueness in carrying out the pair-wise comparisons. With an objective to address these drawbacks, in this paper, we employ a fuzzy approach in selecting potential recovery facilities in the strategic planning of a reverse supply chain network that addresses the decision maker's level of confidence in the fuzzy assessments and his/her attitude towards risk. A numerical example is considered to illustrate the methodology.

  1. Quantitative assessment of energy and resource recovery in wastewater treatment plants based on plant-wide simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Arévalo, T; Lizarralde, I; Fdz-Polanco, F; Pérez-Elvira, S I; Garrido, J M; Puig, S; Poch, M; Grau, P; Ayesa, E

    2017-07-01

    The growing development of technologies and processes for resource treatment and recovery is offering endless possibilities for creating new plant-wide configurations or modifying existing ones. However, the configurations' complexity, the interrelation between technologies and the influent characteristics turn decision-making into a complex or unobvious process. In this frame, the Plant-Wide Modelling (PWM) library presented in this paper allows a thorough, comprehensive and refined analysis of different plant configurations that are basic aspects in decision-making from an energy and resource recovery perspective. In order to demonstrate the potential of the library and the need to run simulation analyses, this paper carries out a comparative analysis of WWTPs, from a techno-economic point of view. The selected layouts were (1) a conventional WWTP based on a modified version of the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2, (2) an upgraded or retrofitted WWTP, and (3) a new Wastewater Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRF) concept denominated as C/N/P decoupling WWTP. The study was based on a preliminary analysis of the organic matter and nutrient energy use and recovery options, a comprehensive mass and energy flux distribution analysis in each configuration in order to compare and identify areas for improvement, and a cost analysis of each plant for different influent COD/TN/TP ratios. Analysing the plants from a standpoint of resources and energy utilization, a low utilization of the energy content of the components could be observed in all configurations. In the conventional plant, the COD used to produce biogas was around 29%, the upgraded plant was around 36%, and 34% in the C/N/P decoupling WWTP. With regard to the self-sufficiency of plants, achieving self-sufficiency was not possible in the conventional plant, in the upgraded plant it depended on the influent C/N ratio, and in the C/N/P decoupling WWTP layout self-sufficiency was feasible for almost all influents

  2. Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. David Lester

    2008-10-17

    The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.

  3. Other end of the telescope: a community approach to resource recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, D R

    1977-09-01

    A small-scale alternative to the broad, high-technology approach to resource recovery centers is proposed in this paper. Starting with small components and combining a recovery system with job opportunity creation, this approach could stimulate the inner-city economy as well as contribute to solid-waste disposal programs. While several high-technology systems for separating solid wastes have been developed, their high capital costs make materials separation by householders and shopkeepers an attractive alternative. The experiences of Aynesley Metropolitan District Council in the United Kingdom is used to illustrate how a community recovery center can be planned and operated. Participants separated newsprint and paper, unbroken glass containers, cans, textiles, and miscellaneous items into five color-coded collection bags, which were collected twice a month. A personal relationship developed between participants and collection teams. Job opportunities developed from the collection and marketing of reclaimed items. (DCK)

  4. Exploring the effects of ZVI addition on resource recovery in the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puyol, D.; Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Segura, Y.

    2018-01-01

    not compensate the costs of ZVI purchase, and (b) ZVI dramatically decreases the P recovery potential in the digestate of the AD systems. This is the first study to experimentally and mathematically describe the effect of ZVI on biogas production/composition and on the fate of phosphorus compounds, and its......The influence of Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) addition on the potential resource recovery during the anaerobic digestion (AD) of domestic waste sludge is assessed. Potentially recoverable resources analyzed were nutrients such as struvite to recover P, and energy as biogas to recover C. Short term...... (biochemical methane potential tests, BMP) and long term (AD1, AD2) experiments are conducted using two types of set-up (batch, continuous). Process data (influent, effluent and biogas) is continuously collected and the dry digested sludge is analyzed by XPS. A mathematical model is developed based...

  5. Learning Method, Facilities And Infrastructure, And Learning Resources In Basic Networking For Vocational School

    OpenAIRE

    Pamungkas, Bian Dwi

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the contribution of learning methods on learning output, the contribution of facilities and infrastructure on output learning, the contribution of learning resources on learning output, and the contribution of learning methods, the facilities and infrastructure, and learning resources on learning output. The research design is descriptive causative, using a goal-oriented assessment approach in which the assessment focuses on assessing the achievement of a goal. The ...

  6. Federal role in resource recovery will focus on waste-to-energy R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, R.A.

    1981-05-01

    Virtually all of the federal programs created in recent years to sponsor resource recovery R and D have been slated for budget cuts or termination by the administration of President Ronald Reagan. The only programs that will survive revised fiscal budgets will be waste-to-energy R and D studies sponsored by DOE and EPA. Differing reactions to such cuts are apparent: the affected agencies are protesting, while private industry welcomes this hands-off policy.

  7. Integrating remediation and resource recovery: On the economic conditions of landfill mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frändegård, Per; Krook, Joakim; Svensson, Niclas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We compare two remediation scenarios; one with resource recovery and one without. • Economic analysis includes relevant direct costs and revenues for the landfill owner. • High degrees of metal and/or combustible contents are important economic factors. • Landfill tax and the access to a CHP can have a large impact on the result. • Combining landfill mining and remediation may decrease the project cost. - Abstract: This article analyzes the economic potential of integrating material separation and resource recovery into a landfill remediation project, and discusses the result and the largest impact factors. The analysis is done using a direct costs/revenues approach and the stochastic uncertainties are handled using Monte Carlo simulation. Two remediation scenarios are applied to a hypothetical landfill. One scenario includes only remediation, while the second scenario adds resource recovery to the remediation project. Moreover, the second scenario is divided into two cases, case A and B. In case A, the landfill tax needs to be paid for re-deposited material and the landfill holder does not own a combined heat and power plant (CHP), which leads to disposal costs in the form of gate fees. In case B, the landfill tax is waived on the re-deposited material and the landfill holder owns its own CHP. Results show that the remediation project in the first scenario costs about €23/ton. Adding resource recovery as in case A worsens the result to −€36/ton, while for case B the result improves to −€14/ton. This shows the importance of landfill tax and the access to a CHP. Other important factors for the result are the material composition in the landfill, the efficiency of the separation technology used, and the price of the saleable material

  8. Integrating remediation and resource recovery: On the economic conditions of landfill mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frändegård, Per, E-mail: per.frandegard@liu.se; Krook, Joakim; Svensson, Niclas

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We compare two remediation scenarios; one with resource recovery and one without. • Economic analysis includes relevant direct costs and revenues for the landfill owner. • High degrees of metal and/or combustible contents are important economic factors. • Landfill tax and the access to a CHP can have a large impact on the result. • Combining landfill mining and remediation may decrease the project cost. - Abstract: This article analyzes the economic potential of integrating material separation and resource recovery into a landfill remediation project, and discusses the result and the largest impact factors. The analysis is done using a direct costs/revenues approach and the stochastic uncertainties are handled using Monte Carlo simulation. Two remediation scenarios are applied to a hypothetical landfill. One scenario includes only remediation, while the second scenario adds resource recovery to the remediation project. Moreover, the second scenario is divided into two cases, case A and B. In case A, the landfill tax needs to be paid for re-deposited material and the landfill holder does not own a combined heat and power plant (CHP), which leads to disposal costs in the form of gate fees. In case B, the landfill tax is waived on the re-deposited material and the landfill holder owns its own CHP. Results show that the remediation project in the first scenario costs about €23/ton. Adding resource recovery as in case A worsens the result to −€36/ton, while for case B the result improves to −€14/ton. This shows the importance of landfill tax and the access to a CHP. Other important factors for the result are the material composition in the landfill, the efficiency of the separation technology used, and the price of the saleable material.

  9. Decision making model for the recovery of useful material resources from wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising, K.H.; Jensen, G.A.; FitzPatrick, V.F.

    1982-06-01

    In the United States, many of the material resources necessary for energy production are imported. Strategic stockpiling of these resources has been a well-known method for reducing the economic and productivity impact of supply interruption in case of emergency. Another viable option is the recovery of valuable materials and recycle of useful products from wastes generated in energy production and industrial processing. The technical feasibility for recovery and recycle, including decontamination of nuclear-related materials, has been proven and demonstrated. The economic feasibility would depend on both the resale and strategic values of the material, the saving from reusing rather than disposing of the material, the reclamation cost, and other factors that may influence the incentive for recovery and recycle. The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to develop a model to identify the economic and other incentives for the reclamation of useful material resources. Using available data to quantify factors such as strategic and resale values, reclamation cost and disposal cost saving, this model calculates the incentive value consisting of the above factors and selects the appropriate reclamation option. Because this model is empirical, there are limitations to its application. However, within the boundary where the model has been tested, it can be a useful tool for the decision maker to evaluate the economic feasibility of reclamation

  10. Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Improvement Project - Replacement of Current Mechanical Seal System with Rope Packing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Jessica D.

    2013-05-29

    On January 27, 2010 the City of North Little Rock, Arkansas received notification of the awarding of a Department of Energy (DOE) grant totaling $450,000 in funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) under the Project Title: Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Improvement Project – Automated Intake Clearing Equipment and Materials Management. The purpose of the grant was for improvements to be made at the City’s hydroelectric generating facility located on the Arkansas River. Improvements were to be made through the installation of an intake maintenance device (IMD) and the purchase of a large capacity wood grinder. The wood grinder was purchased in order to receive the tree limbs, tree trunks, and other organic debris that collects at the intake of the plant during high flow. The wood grinder eliminates the periodic burning of the waste material that is cleared from the intake and reduces any additional air pollution to the area. The resulting organic mulch has been made available to the public at no charge. Design discussion and planning began immediately and the wood grinder was purchased in July of 2010 and immediately put to work mulching debris that was gathered regularly from the intake of the facility. The mulch is currently available to the public for free. A large majority of the design process was spent in discussion with the Corps of Engineers to obtain approval for drawings, documents, and permits that were required in order to make changes to the structure of the powerhouse. In April of 2011, the City’s Project Engineer, who had overseen the application, resigned and left the City’s employ. A new Systems Mechanical Engineer was hired and tasked with overseeing the project. The transfer of responsibility led to a re-examination of the original assumptions and research upon which the grant proposal was based. At that point, the project went under review and a trip was booked for July 2011 to visit facilities that currently

  11. Cold recovery during regasification of LNG part one: Cold utilization far from the regasification facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Rocca, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with cold recovery during LNG regasification. The applications analyzed pertain to the use in deep freezing agro food industry and in space air conditioning facilities in commercial sector (Supermarkets and Hypermarkets) of cold recovered from the regasification process. A modular LNG regasification unit is proposed having the regasification capacity of 2 BCM/year of gas and it is based on use of a Power Cycle working with Ethane, this unit allows operation of cold energy transfer, contained in LNG to be regasified, in a range of temperatures suitable for multipurpose use of cold, reducing regasification process irreversibility. Some electric energy is produced by the Power Cycle, but the purpose of the modular unit is to deliver cold suitable for industrial and commercial use in the proper temperature range utilizing Carbon dioxide as secondary fluid to transfer cold from regasification site to far end users. The subject is divided in two papers: this paper deals with facilities delivering cold released during LNG regasification and related pipeline facilities to transfer cold at far end users while the other paper pertains to analysis of end users applications. Results of a detailed thermodynamic and economic analysis demonstrate the suitability of the proposal.

  12. 75 FR 81643 - Hydropower Resource Assessment at Existing Reclamation Facilities-Draft Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Hydropower Resource Assessment at Existing... period for review of the Hydropower Resource Assessment at Existing Reclamation Facilities Draft Report... sustainable, affordable hydropower for our national electricity supplies. Reclamation has 476 dams and 8,116...

  13. Natural resources damage assessments at Department of Energy facilities - using the CERCLA process to minimize natural resources injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bascietto, J.J.; Martin, J.F.; Duke, C.S.; Gray, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    Fifty years of research, development and production in support of national defense have left the Department of Energy (DOE) with numerous radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste sites requiring environmental restoration and remediation. The responsibilities for DOE associated with releases of these wastes into the environment are driving major efforts to characterize contamination problems and identify and implement environmental restoration and remediation alternatives. The subject of this paper is the recently issued DOE guidance to minimize the basis for damage claims for injuries to natural resources on, over and under lands owned or controlled by DOE associated with the releases of hazardous substances from DOE facilities. Depending on the regulatory authority governing the facility, the preferred means of evaluating the possibility of injury to natural resources is the preparation of an ecological risk assessment or an environmental evaluation. As both the natural resource trustee and lead agency at facilities under its control, DOE receives dual responsibility requiring site remediation if necessary, and that any injured natural resources be restored, or that compensation for the injuries is made. Several executive and legislative sources of authority and responsibility with regard to lead agencies and trustees of natural resources will be detailed. Also, ongoing remedial investigation/feasibility study work at the DOE Fernald Environmental Management Project near Fernald, Ohio will be described as an example of how this guidance can be applied

  14. A Study on Governance and Human Resources for Cooperative Road Facilities Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Sachiko; Takagi, Akiyoshi; Kurauchi, Fumitaka; Demura, Yoshifumi

    Within today's infrastructure management, Asset Management systems are becoming a mainstream feature. For region where the risk is low, it is necessary to create a "cooperative road facilities management system". This research both examined and suggested what kind of cooperative road facilities management system should be promoted by the regional society. Concretely, this study defines the operational realities of a previous case. It discusses the problem of the road facilities management as a governance. Furthermore, its realization depends on "the cooperation between municipalities", "the private-sector initiative", and "residents participation" .Also, it discusses the problem of human resources for governance. Its realization depends on "the engineers' promotion", and "creation of a voluntary activity of the resident" as a human resources. Moreover, it defines that the intermediary is important because the human resources tied to the governance. As a result, the prospect of the road facilities management is shown by the role of the player and the relation among player.

  15. Environmental performances of different configurations of a material recovery facility in a life cycle perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardolino, Filomena; Berto, Chiara; Arena, Umberto

    2017-10-01

    The study evaluated the environmental performances of an integrated material recovery facility (MRF) able to treat 32kt/y of unsorted mixed waste, made of residuals from household source separation and separate collection. The facility includes a mechanical sorting platform for the production of a solid recovered fuel (SRF) utilized in an external waste-to-energy plant, bio-cells for tunnel composting of organic fraction, and a sanitary landfill for the safe disposal of ultimate waste. All the MRF sub-units have been analysed in depth in order to acquire reliable data for a life cycle assessment study, focused on the environmental performances of different configurations of the facility. The study investigated a "past" configuration, including just mechanical sorting, landfilling and biogas combustion in a gas engine, and the "present" one, which includes also a composting unit. Two possible "future" configurations, having a gasifier inside the MRF battery limits, have been also analysed, assessing the performances of two fluidized bed reactors of different size, able to gasify only the residues generated by the sorting platform or the whole amount of produced SRF, respectively. The analysis evaluated the contributions of each unit in the different configurations and allowed a reliable assessment of the technological evolution of the facility. The results quantified the positive effect of the inclusion of an aerobic treatment of the waste organic fraction. The SRF gasification in situ appears to improve the MRF environmental performances in all the impact categories, with the exclusion of that of global warming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of material recovery facilities for use in life-cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pressley, Phillip N.; Levis, James W.; Damgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Insights derived from life-cycle assessment of solid waste management strategies depend critically on assumptions, data, and modeling at the unit process level. Based on new primary data, a process model was developed to estimate the cost and energy use associated with material recovery facilities...... (MRFs), which are responsible for sorting recyclables into saleable streams and as such represent a key piece of recycling infrastructure. The model includes four modules, each with a different process flow, for separation of single-stream, dual-stream, pre-sorted recyclables, and mixed-waste. Each MRF...... type has a distinct combination of equipment and default input waste composition. Model results for total amortized costs from each MRF type ranged from $19.8 to $24.9 per Mg (1 Mg = 1 metric ton) of waste input. Electricity use ranged from 4.7 to 7.8 kWh per Mg of waste input. In a single-stream MRF...

  17. Compliance determination procedures for environmental radiation protection standards for uranium recovery facilities 40 CFR part 190

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    Uranium Milling operations are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and by some States in agreement with the Commission. The radiation dose to any individual from the operation of facilities within the uranium fuel cycle is limited to levels set by the Environmental Protection Agency. These levels are contained in the EPA Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Nuclear Power Operations, in Part 190 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 190). This report describes the procedures used within NRC's Uranium Recovery Licensing Branch for evaluating compliance with these regulations for uranium milling operations. The report contains descriptions of these procedures, dose factors for evaluating environmental measurement data, and guidance to the NRC staff reviewer

  18. Techno-economic assessment of central sorting at material recovery facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Maul, Anja; Wenzel, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    sales and sorting residues disposal costs. Material flows through the plants were simulated considering both optimal process conditions and real or typical conditions characterised by downtime and frequent operation at overcapacity. By modelling four plants of progressively higher capacity (size......Simulation of technical and economic performance for materials recovery facilities (MRFs) is a basic requirement for planning new, or evaluating existing, separate waste collection and recycling systems. This study mitigates the current pervasive scarcity of data on process efficiency and costs...... 7 to 21 million EUR and the yearly operational expenditure grew by a factor of 2.4 from 2 to 4.7 million EUR. As a result, specific unit processing cost decreased from 110 to 70 EUR/tonne. Material sales and disposal costs summed to between a net cost of 25 EUR/tonne and net revenue of 50 EUR...

  19. Assessing the integration of forward osmosis and anaerobic digestion for simultaneous wastewater treatment and resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Ashley J; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Ngo, Huu H; Guo, Wenshan; Nghiem, Long D

    2018-07-01

    This study assessed the performance and key challenges associated with the integration of forward osmosis (FO) and anaerobic digestion for wastewater treatment and resource recovery. Using a thin film composite polyamide FO membrane, maximising the pre-concentration factor (i.e. system water recovery) resulted in the enrichment of organics and salinity in wastewater. Biomethane potential evaluation indicated that methane production increased correspondingly with the FO pre-concentration factor due to the organic retention in the feed solution. At 90% water recovery, about 10% more methane was produced when using NaOAc compared with NaCl because of the contribution of biodegradable reverse NaOAc flux. No negative impact on anaerobic digestion was observed when wastewater was pre-concentrated ten-fold (90% water recovery) for both draw solutes. Interestingly, the unit cost of methane production using NaOAc was slightly lower than NaCl due to the lower reverse solute flux of NaOAc, although NaCl is a much cheaper chemical. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Waste management, waste resource facilities and waste conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, waste management concept, waste management system, biomass and bio-waste resources, waste classification, and waste management methods have been reviewed. Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials. A typical waste management system comprises collection, transportation, pre-treatment, processing, and final abatement of residues. The waste management system consists of the whole set of activities related to handling, treating, disposing or recycling the waste materials. General classification of wastes is difficult. Some of the most common sources of wastes are as follows: domestic wastes, commercial wastes, ashes, animal wastes, biomedical wastes, construction wastes, industrial solid wastes, sewer, biodegradable wastes, non-biodegradable wastes, and hazardous wastes.

  1. Elucidating the role of recovery experiences in the job demands-resources model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Alfredo; Sanz-Vergel, Ana Isabel; Garrosa, Eva

    2012-07-01

    Based on the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, the current study examined the moderating role of recovery experiences (i.e., psychological detachment from work, relaxation, mastery experiences, and control over leisure time) on the relationship between one job demand (i.e., role conflict) and work- and health-related outcomes. Results from our sample of 990 employees from Spain showed that psychological detachment from work and relaxation buffered the negative impact of role conflict on some of the proposed outcomes. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find significant results for mastery and control regarding moderating effects. Overall, findings suggest a differential pattern of the recovery experiences in the health impairment process proposed by the JD-R model.

  2. 77 FR 24740 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Resource Conservation And Recovery Act and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Resource Conservation And Recovery Act and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act Notice is hereby given... Recovery Act (``RCRA''), 42 U.S.C. 6901, et seq., and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know...

  3. Superconducting magnetic separation of ground steel slag powder for recovery of resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, H. W.; Kim, J. J.; Kim, Young Hun [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Ha, D. W. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, J. H. [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Catholic University of Pusan, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Steel slag has been considered as an industrial waste. A huge amount of slag is produced as a byproduct and the steel slag usually has been dumped in a landfill site. However the steel slag contains valuable resources such as iron, copper, manganese, and magnesium. Superconducting magnetic separation has been applied on recovery of the valuable resources from the steel slag and this process also has intended to reduce the waste to be dumped. Cryo-cooled Nb-Ti superconducting magnet with 100 mm bore and 600 mm of height was used as the magnetic separator. The separating efficiency was evaluated in the function of magnetic field. A steel slag was ground and analyzed for the composition. Iron containing minerals were successfully concentrated from less iron containing portion. The separation efficiency was highly dependent on the particle size giving higher separating efficiency with finer particle. The magnetic field also effects on the separation ratio. Current study showed that an appropriate grinding of slag and magnetic separation lead to the recovery of metal resources from steel slag waste rather than dumping all of the volume.

  4. Thermal performance analysis of Brayton cycle with waste heat recovery boiler for diesel engines of offshore oil production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xianglong; Gong, Guangcai; Wu, Yi; Li, Hangxin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison of Brayton cycle with WHRB adopted in diesel engines with and without fans by thermal performance. • Waste heat recovery technology for FPSO. • The thermoeconomic analysis for the heat recovery for FPSO. - Abstract: This paper presents the theoretical analysis and on-site testing on the thermal performance of the waste heat recovery system for offshore oil production facilities, including the components of diesel engines, thermal boilers and waste heat boilers. We use the ideal air standard Brayton cycle to analyse the thermal performance. In comparison with the traditional design, the fans at the engine outlet of the waste heat recovery boiler is removed due to the limited space of the offshore platform. The cases with fan and without fan are compared in terms of thermal dynamics performance, energy efficiency and thermo-economic index of the system. The results show that the application of the WHRB increases the energy efficiency of the whole system, but increases the flow resistance in the duct. It is proved that as the waste heat recovery boiler takes the place of the thermal boiler, the energy efficiency of whole system without fan is slightly reduced but heat recovery efficiency is improved. This research provides an important guidance to improve the waste heat recovery for offshore oil production facilities.

  5. Decontamination and recovery of a nuclear facility to allow continued operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaghan, Josh

    2017-01-01

    A power supply failure caused a loss of power to key ventilation systems in an operating nuclear facility. The in-cell depression was lost, which led to an egress of activity through prepared areas and into the normal operating areas. After an initial programme of radiological monitoring to quantify and categorise the activity in the operating areas, a plan was developed for the decontamination and remediation of the plant. The scope of the recovery plan was substantial and featured several key stages. The contamination was almost entirely "1"3"7Cs, reflecting the α:β/γ ratio for the facility. In addition to the physical remediation work, several administrative controls were introduced such as new local rules, safety signage to indicate abnormal radiological conditions in certain areas and training of the decontamination teams. All areas of plant, which were contaminated, were returned to normal access arrangements and the plant was successfully returned to full operational capability, <12 months from the date of the event. (authors)

  6. Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment (HTRE)-3 Container Storage Unit Resource Conservation Recovery Act closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spry, M.J.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes the closure of the HTRE-3 Container Storage Unit under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The unit's location, size, history, and current status are described. The document also summarizes the decontamination and decommissioning efforts performed in 1983 and provides an estimate of,waste residues remaining in the HTRE-3 assembly. A risk evaluation was performed that demonstrates that the residue does not pose a hazard to public health or the environment. Based on the risk evaluation, it is proposed that the HTRE-3 Container Storage Unit be closed in its present condition, without further decontamination or removal activities

  7. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure sumamry for the Uranium Treatment Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This closure summary has been prepared for the Uranium Treatment Unit (UTU) located at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The actions required to achieve closure of the UTU area are outlined in the Closure Plan, submitted to and approved by the Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation staff, respectively. The UTU was used to store and treat waste materials that are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This closure summary details all steps that were performed to close the UTU in accordance with the approved plan

  8. Evaluation of the Waste Tire Resources Recovery Program and Environmental Health Policy in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ching Chen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effectiveness of Taiwanese environmental health policies, whose aim is to improve environmental quality by reducing tire waste via the Tire Resource Recovery Program. The results confirm that implemented environmental health policies improve the overall health of the population (i.e. a decrease in death caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases. Current policy expenditures are far below the optimal level, as it is estimated that a ten percent increase in the subsidy would decrease the number of deaths caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases by 0.58% per county/city per year on average.

  9. Financial and Organizational Aspects of the Recovery of Hydrocarbon Resource Base in the Regional Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Valeryevna Sharf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of hydrocarbon resource base qualitative and quantitative degrade are reflected in the increase of the share of small and medium−sized deposits, as well as hard−to−recover reserves. This makes the need to update the approaches to the implementation of the geological prospecting programmes. The geological exploration performance differs in oil−producing regions of the Russian Federation due to a number of various factors. The subject matter of the study is the assessment of the strength of these factors in various working, geological, infrastructure and economic conditions to determine the effectiveness of the existing economic model of the recovery of hydrocarbon resource base, as well as to develop the author’s suggestions. The hypothesis of the study proposes to change the economic, as well as financial and tax mechanisms of government regulation of the geological exploration, carried out by small oil producing companies on license areas with one or several fields in order to stimulate the development of hydrocarbon resource base. The method of the study is the correlation analysis of the impact of various factors on geological exploration on mineral resource base recovery. It is carried out utilizing K. Mohn model and the statistical data of three subjects of the Russian Federation (the Republic of Tatarstan, Khanty−Mansiysk Autonomous District and Tomsk region. The results of the study can be applied in the tax and financial legislation, as well as in the management of oil and gas industry in the field of geological exploration. On the basis of the conducted analysis and international experience, the author suggests to introduce reasonable tax incentives and the mechanism of public private partnership in the realization of geological prospecting programmes with the aim to support small oil producing companies at the initial stage of the development of a field.

  10. Potential of resource recovery in UASB/trickling filter systems treating domestic sewage in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressani-Ribeiro, T; Brandt, E M F; Gutierrez, K G; Díaz, C A; Garcia, G B; Chernicharo, C A L

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to present perspectives for energy (thermal and electric) and nutrient (N and S) recovery in domestic sewage treatment systems comprised of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors followed by sponge-bed trickling filters (SBTF) in developing countries. The resource recovery potential was characterized, taking into account 114 countries and a corresponding population of 968.9 million inhabitants living in the tropical world, which were grouped into three desired ranges in terms of cities' size. For each of these clusters, a technological arrangement flow-sheet was proposed, depending on their technical and economic viability from our best experience. Considering the population living in cities over 100, 000 inhabitants, the potential of energy and nutrient recovery via the sewage treatment scheme would be sufficient to generate electricity for approximately 3.2 million residents, as well as thermal energy for drying purposes that could result in a 24% volume reduction of sludge to be transported and disposed of in landfills. The results show that UASB/SBTF systems can play a very important role in the sanitation and environmental sector towards more sustainable sewage treatment plants.

  11. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  12. A Game Theoretical Model for Location of Terror Response Facilities under Capacitated Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingpeng Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the effect of capacity constraints on the locations of terror response facilities. We assume that the state has limited resources, and multiple facilities may be involved in the response until the demand is satisfied consequently. We formulate a leader-follower game model between the state and the terrorist and prove the existence and uniqueness of the Nash equilibrium. An integer linear programming is proposed to obtain the equilibrium results when the facility number is fixed. The problem is demonstrated by a case study of the 19 districts of Shanghai, China.

  13. User Facilities of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences: A National Resource for Scientific Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-01

    The BES user facilities provide open access to specialized instrumentation and expertise that enable scientific users from universities, national laboratories, and industry to carry out experiments and develop theories that could not be done at their home institutions. These forefront research facilities require resource commitments well beyond the scope of any non-government institution and open up otherwise inaccessible facets of Nature to scientific inquiry. For approved, peer-reviewed projects, instrument time is available without charge to researchers who intend to publish their results in the open literature. These large-scale user facilities have made significant contributions to various scientific fields, including chemistry, physics, geology, materials science, environmental science, biology, and biomedical science. Over 16,000 scientists and engineers.pdf file (27KB) conduct experiments at BES user facilities annually. Thousands of other researchers collaborate with these users and analyze the data measured at the facilities to publish new scientific findings in peer-reviewed journals.

  14. Amplifying Progress toward Multiple Development Goals through Resource Recovery from Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmer, John T; Cusick, Roland D; Guest, Jeremy S

    2017-09-19

    The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) recognize that current sanitation gaps must be closed to better serve those without access to safely managed systems (Target 6.2: universal sanitation coverage) and those connected to sewers without wastewater treatment (Target 6.3: halving the proportion of untreated wastewater). Beyond mitigating environmental and health concerns, implementing resource recovery sanitation systems could simultaneously improve the availability of agricultural nutrients (SDG 2) and household energy (SDG 7). This study estimates the potential for global, regional, and country-level resource recovery to impact nutrient and household electricity use through 2030. We distinguish impacts from newly installed sanitation systems (to achieve universal coverage), newly treated wastewater systems (to halve the proportion of untreated wastewater), and existing system replacement, while also considering urban and rural disparities and spatial colocation of nutrients with agricultural needs. This work points toward country-specific strategies for deriving the greatest benefit from sanitation investments while also identifying overarching trends to guide international research efforts. Globally, potential nutrient gains are an order of magnitude larger than electricity (a small fraction of total energy), and considerable impacts are possible in the least-developed countries, six of which could double or offset all projected nutrient and electricity use through newly installed sanitation systems.

  15. Method selection for sustainability assessments: The case of recovery of resources from waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijp, M C; Waaijers-van der Loop, S L; Heijungs, R; Broeren, M L M; Peeters, R; Van Nieuwenhuijzen, A; Shen, L; Heugens, E H W; Posthuma, L

    2017-07-15

    Sustainability assessments provide scientific support in decision procedures towards sustainable solutions. However, in order to contribute in identifying and choosing sustainable solutions, the sustainability assessment has to fit the decision context. Two complicating factors exist. First, different stakeholders tend to have different views on what a sustainability assessment should encompass. Second, a plethora of sustainability assessment methods exist, due to the multi-dimensional characteristic of the concept. Different methods provide other representations of sustainability. Based on a literature review, we present a protocol to facilitate method selection together with stakeholders. The protocol guides the exploration of i) the decision context, ii) the different views of stakeholders and iii) the selection of pertinent assessment methods. In addition, we present an online tool for method selection. This tool identifies assessment methods that meet the specifications obtained with the protocol, and currently contains characteristics of 30 sustainability assessment methods. The utility of the protocol and the tool are tested in a case study on the recovery of resources from domestic waste water. In several iterations, a combination of methods was selected, followed by execution of the selected sustainability assessment methods. The assessment results can be used in the first phase of the decision procedure that leads to a strategic choice for sustainable resource recovery from waste water in the Netherlands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. ERDA test facilities, East Mesa Test Site. Geothermal resource investigations, Imperial Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Detailed specifications which must be complied with in the construction of the ERDA Test Facilities at the East Mesa Site for geothermal resource investigations in Imperial Valley, California are presented for use by prospective bidders for the construction contract. The principle construction work includes a 700 gpm cooling tower with its associated supports and equipment, pipelines from wells, electrical equipment, and all earthwork. (LCL)

  17. Surfactant-enhanced recovery of dissolved hydrocarbons at petroleum production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.T.; Mayes, M.; Wassmuth, F.; Taylor, K.; Rae, W.; Kuipers, F.

    1997-01-01

    The feasibility and cost effectiveness of surfactant-enhanced pumping to reduce source concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated soils was discussed. Light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL) hydrocarbons are present beneath many petroleum production processing facilities in western Canada. Complete removal of LNAPLs from geologic materials is difficult and expensive. Treatment technologies include costly ex-situ methods such as excavation and in-situ methods such as physical extraction by soil venting and pumping, bioremediation, and combination methods such as bioventing, bioslurping or air sparging. Surfactant-aided pumping can reduce source hydrocarbon concentrations when used in conjunction with traditional pump and treat, or deep well injection. This study involved the selection of an appropriate surfactant from a wide variety of commercially available products. A site contaminated by hydrocarbons in Turner Valley, Alberta, was used for field scale testing. One of the major problems was quantifying the increase in the dissolved hydrocarbon concentrations in the recovered water once a surfactant was added. From the 30 surfactants screened in a series of washing and oil solubilization tests, two surfactants, Brij 97 and Tween 80, were selected for further evaluation. Increased hydrocarbon recovery was observed within 10 days of the introduction of the first surfactant. 2 refs., 7 figs

  18. Opportunities for Fundamental University-Based Research in Energy and Resource Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, M. D.; Hitzman, M.; Tester, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    In this talk we present, from a university perspective, a few examples of fundamental research needs related to improved energy and resource recovery. One example of such a research need is related to the fact that it is not widely recognized that meeting domestic and worldwide energy needs with renewables such as wind and solar will be materials intensive. If widely deployed, the elements required by renewable technologies will be needed in significant quantities and shortage of these "energy critical elements" could significantly inhibit the adoption of otherwise game changing energy technologies. It is imperative to better understand the geology, metallurgy, and mining engineering of critical mineral deposits if we are to sustainably develop these new technologies. Unfortunately, there is currently no consensus among federal and state agencies, the national and international mining industry, the public, and the U.S. academic community regarding the importance of economic geology in the context of securing sufficient energy critical elements to undertake large-scale renewable energy development. Another option for transitioning away from our current hydrocarbon-based energy system to non-carbon based sources, is geothermal energy - from both conventional hydrothermal resources and enhanced or engineered geothermal systems (EGS). Although geothermal energy is currently used for both electric and non-electric applications worldwide from conventional hydrothermal resources and in ground source heat pumps, most of the emphasis in the US has been generating electricity. To this end, there is a need for research, development and demonstration in five important areas - estimating the magnitude and distribution of recoverable geothermal resources, establishing requirements for extracting and utilizing energy from EGS reservoirs the including drilling, reservoir design and stimulation, exploring end use options for district heating, electricity generation and co

  19. Cultural Resource Investigations for the Remote Handled Low Level Waste Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace; Hollie Gilbert; Julie Braun Williams; Clayton Marler; Dino Lowrey; Cameron Brizzee

    2010-06-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is considering options for construction of a facility for disposal of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) generated remote-handled low-level waste. Initial screening has resulted in the identification of two recommended alternative locations for this new facility: one near the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex and one near the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Disposal Facility (ICDF). In April and May of 2010, the INL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, intensive archaeological field surveys, and initial coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify cultural resources that may be adversely affected by new construction within either one of these candidate locations. This investigation showed that construction within the location near the ATR Complex may impact one historic homestead and several historic canals and ditches that are potentially eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. No resources judged to be of National Register significance were identified in the candidate location near the ICDF. Generalized tribal concerns regarding protection of natural resources were also documented in both locations. This report outlines recommendations for protective measures to help ensure that the impacts of construction on the identified resources are not adverse.

  20. A review of state regulations that exceed those of the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, C.C.; Heckman, C.L.

    1988-04-01

    This report identifies and provides information on state hazardous waste management programs and regulations in states where the US Department of Energy (DOE) has facilities. The objective is to describe for the DOE defense program and its contractors how state requirements are more stringent than the federal regulations under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). DOE defense programs are located in 13 of the 50 states. Most of these states have regulations that are essentially equivalent to the federal RCRA requirements as they existed prior to the 1984 amendments, but their regulations are, in most instances, more stringment than the federal requirements. Differences are both substantive and procedural, and they are summarized and tabulated herein. All but three of these 13 states have been granted Final Authorization from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to operate their own hazardous waste management program in accord with the federal RCRA program prior to the 1984 amendments; two of the three others have some stage of Interim Authorization. EPA currently administers all of the provisions of the 1984 amendments, including requirements for corrective action under Sect. 3004(u). Two states, Colorado and Tennessee, have been granted revisions to their Final Authorizations delegating responsibility for the hazardous wastes. Responsible state agencies (with appropriate telephone numbers) are indicated, as are the relevant laws and current regulatory statutes

  1. The implications of RCRA [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act] regulation for the disposal of transuranic and high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmon, C.F.; Sharples, F.E.; Smith, E.D.

    1988-01-01

    In May of 1987 the Department of Energy (DOE) published a rule interpreting the definition of ''byproduct'' under the Atomic Energy Act. This byproduct rule clarified the role of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in the regulation of DOE's radioactive waste management activities. According to the rule, only the radioactive portion of DOE's mixed radioactive and hazardous waste (mixed waste), including mixed transuranic (TRU) and high-level waste (HLW), is exempt from RCRA under the byproduct exemption. The portion of a waste that is hazardous as defined by RCRA is subject to full regulation under RCRA. Because the radioactive and hazardous portions of m any, if not most, DOE wastes are likely to be inseparable, the rule in effect makes most mixed wastes subject to dual regulation. The potential application of RCRA to facilities such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the HLW repository creates unique challenges for both the DOE and regulatory authorities. Strategies must be developed to assure compliance with RCRA without either causing excessive administrative burdens or abandoning the goal of minimizing radiation exposure. This paper will explore some of the potential regulatory options for and recent trends in the regulation of TRU and HLW under RCRA

  2. Treatment facilities, human resource development, and future prospect of particle beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Tomoaki; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The number of particle beam therapy facilities is increasing globally. Among the countries practicing particle beam therapy, Japan is one of the leading countries in the field with four operating carbon-ion therapy facilities and ten operating proton therapy facilities. With the increasing number of particle beam therapy facilities, the human resource development is becoming extremely important, and there has been many such efforts including the Gunma University Program for Cultivating Global Leaders in Heavy Ion Therapeutics and Engineering, which aimed to educate and train the radiation oncologists, medical physicists, accelerator engineers, and radiation biologists to become global leaders in the field of particle beam therapy. In the future, the benefit and effectiveness of particle beam therapy should be discussed and elucidated objectively in a framework of comprehensive cancer care. (author)

  3. Principles and techniques for post-accident assessment and recovery in a contaminated environment of a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    To assist operators and public authorities alike in their advance preparation of emergency plans and in the establishment of emergency preparedness infrastructures, the IAEA has already issued several Safety Series publications dealing with these matters. This Safety Guide complements the technical guidance already published. It provides: a) Information and practical guidance relevant to assessing the off-site consequences during the late phase of a serious accident in a nuclear facility; b) Guidance on recovery operations off the site and the associated decision making process; and c) Proposals for consideration by national authorities regarding the organizational structure for the conduct of recovery operations. 52 refs, 8 figs, 4 tabs.

  4. Perspectives on Resource Recovery from Bio-Based Production Processes: From Concept to Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S.B.A. Udugama, Isuru; Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Mitic, Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Recovering valuable compounds from waste streams of bio-based production processes is in line with the circular economy paradigm, and is achievable by implementing “simple-to-use” and well-established process separation technologies. Such solutions are acceptable from industrial, economic...... and environmental points of view, implying relatively easy future implementation on pilot- and full-scale levels in the bio-based industry. Reviewing such technologies is therefore the focus here. Considerations about technology readiness level (TRL) and Net Present Value (NPV) are included in the review, since TRL...... and NPV contribute significantly to the techno-economic evaluation of future and promising process solutions. Based on the present review, a qualitative guideline for resource recovery from bio-based production processes is proposed. Finally, future approaches and perspectives toward identification...

  5. R'07 World Congress - Recovery of materials and energy for resource efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This final congress report summarises the topics dealt with at the R'07 World Congress on the recovery of materials and energy for resource efficiency. The congress was held in 2007 in Davos, Switzerland. Details on the organisation and participants are given and the experts who held plenary lectures are listed. Brief details are given on oral and poster sessions, along with details on how the proceedings of the congress can be obtained. Workshops held at the conference covered the following topics: Plastics recycling, biofuels and E-waste, workshops on zero wastes, scarce metals and the identification and management of social implications over the product life cycle (footprint). An Internet-address where the results of the sessions can be obtained is given along with a summary of excursions and social events held within the framework of the congress. Finally, participant feedback is presented in graphical form.

  6. Resource recovery from urban stock, the example of cadmium and tellurium from thin film module recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, F.-G., E-mail: franz-georg.simon@bam.de [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Division 4.3 Contaminant Transfer and Environmental Technologies, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Holm, O.; Berger, W. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Division 4.3 Contaminant Transfer and Environmental Technologies, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► The semiconductor layer on thin-film photovoltaic modules can be removed from the glass-plate by vacuum blast cleaning. ► The separation of blasting agent and semiconductor can be performed using flotation with a valuable yield of 55%. ► PV modules are a promising source for the recovery of tellurium in the future. - Abstract: Raw material supply is essential for all industrial activities. The use of secondary raw material gains more importance since ore grade in primary production is decreasing. Meanwhile urban stock contains considerable amounts of various elements. Photovoltaic (PV) generating systems are part of the urban stock and recycling technologies for PV thin film modules with CdTe as semiconductor are needed because cadmium could cause hazardous environmental impact and tellurium is a scarce element where future supply might be constrained. The paper describes a sequence of mechanical processing techniques for end-of-life PV thin film modules consisting of sandblasting and flotation. Separation of the semiconductor material from the glass surface was possible, however, enrichment and yield of valuables in the flotation step were non-satisfying. Nevertheless, recovery of valuable metals from urban stock is a viable method for the extension of the availability of limited natural resources.

  7. Pilot test of pollution control and metal resource recovery for acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo; Mai, Ge; Chen, Tao; Lei, Chang; Xiao, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    The study was undertaken in order to recover the metal resources from acid mine drainage (AMD). A 300 m(3)/d continuous system was designed and fractional precipitation technology employed for the main metals Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn recovery. The system was operated for six months using actual AMD in situ. The chemicals' input and also the retention time was optimized. Furthermore, the material balance was investigated. With the system, the heavy metals of the effluent after the Mn neutralization precipitation were below the threshold value of the Chinese integrated wastewater discharge limit. The precipitates generated contained 42%, 12%, 31%, and 18% for Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn, respectively, and the recovery rates of Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn were 82%, 79%, 83%, and 83%, respectively. The yield range of the precipitate had significant correlation with the influent metal content. Using the X-ray diffraction analysis, the refinement for Fe, Cu, and Zn could be achieved through the processes of roasting and floatation. Cost-benefit was also discussed; the benefit from the recycled metal was able to pay for the cost of chemical reagents used. Most important of all, through the use of this technology, the frustrating sludge problems were solved.

  8. Resource recovery from urban stock, the example of cadmium and tellurium from thin film module recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, F.-G.; Holm, O.; Berger, W.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The semiconductor layer on thin-film photovoltaic modules can be removed from the glass-plate by vacuum blast cleaning. ► The separation of blasting agent and semiconductor can be performed using flotation with a valuable yield of 55%. ► PV modules are a promising source for the recovery of tellurium in the future. - Abstract: Raw material supply is essential for all industrial activities. The use of secondary raw material gains more importance since ore grade in primary production is decreasing. Meanwhile urban stock contains considerable amounts of various elements. Photovoltaic (PV) generating systems are part of the urban stock and recycling technologies for PV thin film modules with CdTe as semiconductor are needed because cadmium could cause hazardous environmental impact and tellurium is a scarce element where future supply might be constrained. The paper describes a sequence of mechanical processing techniques for end-of-life PV thin film modules consisting of sandblasting and flotation. Separation of the semiconductor material from the glass surface was possible, however, enrichment and yield of valuables in the flotation step were non-satisfying. Nevertheless, recovery of valuable metals from urban stock is a viable method for the extension of the availability of limited natural resources

  9. Enhanced recovery pathways optimize health outcomes and resource utilization: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamina, Michel; Kehlet, Henrik; Tomlinson, George A

    2011-01-01

    in costs that threatens the stability of health care systems. Enhanced recovery pathways (ERP) have been proposed as a means to reduce morbidity and improve effectiveness of care. We have reviewed the evidence supporting the implementation of ERP in clinical practice. Methods Medline, Embase...... of health care processes. Thus, while accelerating recovery and safely reducing hospital stay, ERPs optimize utilization of health care resources. ERPs can and should be routinely used in care after colorectal and other major gastrointestinal procedures....

  10. Aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the UNC Recovery Systems Facility, Wood River Junction, Rhode Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluitt, C.M.

    1981-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey to measure terrestrial gamma radiation was carried out over the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Recovery Systems Facility located near Wood River Junction, Rhode Island. At the time of the survey (August 1979) materials were being processed at the facility. Gamma ray data were collected over a 3.28 km 2 area centered on the facility by flying north-south lines spaced 60 m apart. Processed data indicated that detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with those expected from normal background emitters, except directly over the UNC Facility. Average exposure rates 1 m above the ground, as calculated from the aerial data, are presented in the form of an isopleth map. No ground sample data were taken at the time of the aerial survey

  11. Conjunctive operation of river facilities for integrated water resources management in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing trend of water-related disasters such as floods and droughts resulting from climate change, the integrated management of water resources is gaining importance recently. Korea has worked towards preventing disasters caused by floods and droughts, managing water resources efficiently through the coordinated operation of river facilities such as dams, weirs, and agricultural reservoirs. This has been pursued to enable everyone to enjoy the benefits inherent to the utilization of water resources, by preserving functional rivers, improving their utility and reducing the degradation of water quality caused by floods and droughts. At the same time, coordinated activities are being conducted in multi-purpose dams, hydro-power dams, weirs, agricultural reservoirs and water use facilities (featuring a daily water intake of over 100 000 m3 day−1 with the purpose of monitoring the management of such facilities. This is being done to ensure the protection of public interest without acting as an obstacle to sound water management practices. During Flood Season, each facilities contain flood control capacity by limited operating level which determined by the Regulation Council in advance. Dam flood discharge decisions are approved through the flood forecasting and management of Flood Control Office due to minimize flood damage for both upstream and downstream. The operational plan is implemented through the council's predetermination while dry season for adequate quantity and distribution of water.

  12. Evaluation of performance indicators applied to a material recovery facility fed by mixed packaging waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastellone, Maria Laura; Cremiato, Raffaele; Zaccariello, Lucio; Lotito, Roberta

    2017-06-01

    Most of the integrated systems for municipal solid waste management aim to increase the recycling of secondary materials by means of physical processes including sorting, shredding and reprocessing. Several restrictions prevent from reaching a very high material recycling efficiency: the variability of the composition of new-marketed materials used for packaging production and its shape and complexity are critical issues. The packaging goods are in fact made of different materials (aluminium, polymers, paper, etc.), possibly assembled, having different shape (flat, cylindrical, one-dimensional, etc.), density, colours, optical properties and so on. These aspects limit the effectiveness and efficiency of the sorting and reprocessing plants. The scope of this study was to evaluate the performance of a large scale Material Recovery Facility (MRF) by utilizing data collected during a long period of monitoring. The database resulted from the measured data has been organized in four sections: (1) data related to the amount and type of inlet waste; (2) amount and composition of output products and waste; (3) operating data (such as worked hours for shift, planned and unscheduled maintenance time, setting parameters of the equipment, and energy consumption for shift); (4) economic data (value of each product, disposal price for the produced waste, penalty for non-compliance of products and waste, etc.). A part of this database has been utilized to build an executive dashboard composed by a set of performance indicators suitable to measure the effectiveness and the efficiency of the MRF operations. The dashboard revealed itself as a powerful tool to support managers and engineers in their decisions in respect to the market demand or compliance regulation variation as well as in the designing of the lay-out improvements. The results indicated that the 40% of the input waste was recovered as valuable products and that a large part of these (88%) complied with the standards of

  13. Forum Guide to Facilities Information Management: A Resource for State and Local Education Agencies. NFES 2012-808

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Forum on Education Statistics, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Safe and secure facilities that foster learning are crucial to providing quality education services, and developing and maintaining these facilities requires considerable resources and organization. Facility information systems allow education organizations to collect and manage data that can be used to inform and guide decisionmaking about the…

  14. Probabilistic evaluation of integrating resource recovery into wastewater treatment to improve environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; McCarty, Perry L; Liu, Junxin; Ren, Nan-Qi; Lee, Duu-Jong; Yu, Han-Qing; Qian, Yi; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-02-03

    Global expectations for wastewater service infrastructure have evolved over time, and the standard treatment methods used by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are facing issues related to problem shifting due to the current emphasis on sustainability. A transition in WWTPs toward reuse of wastewater-derived resources is recognized as a promising solution for overcoming these obstacles. However, it remains uncertain whether this approach can reduce the environmental footprint of WWTPs. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a net environmental benefit calculation for several scenarios for more than 50 individual countries over a 20-y time frame. For developed countries, the resource recovery approach resulted in ∼154% net increase in the environmental performance of WWTPs compared with the traditional substance elimination approach, whereas this value decreased to ∼60% for developing countries. Subsequently, we conducted a probabilistic analysis integrating these estimates with national values and determined that, if this transition was attempted for WWTPs in developed countries, it would have a ∼65% probability of attaining net environmental benefits. However, this estimate decreased greatly to ∼10% for developing countries, implying a substantial risk of failure. These results suggest that implementation of this transition for WWTPs should be studied carefully in different temporal and spatial contexts. Developing countries should customize their approach to realizing more sustainable WWTPs, rather than attempting to simply replicate the successful models of developed countries. Results derived from the model forecasting highlight the role of bioenergy generation and reduced use of chemicals in improving the sustainability of WWTPs in developing countries.

  15. The influence of facility design and human resource management on health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadatsafavi, Hessam; Walewski, John; Shepley, Mardelle M

    2015-01-01

    Cost control of health care services is a strategic concern for organizations. To lower costs, some organizations reduce staffing levels. However, this may not be worth the trade-off, as the quality of services will likely be reduced, morale among health care providers tends to suffer, and patient satisfaction is likely to decline. The potential synergy between human resource management and facility design and operation was investigated to achieve the goal of providing cost containment strategies without sacrificing the quality of services and the commitment of employees. About 700 health care professionals from 10 acute-care hospitals participated in this cross-sectional study. The authors used structural equation modeling to test whether employees' evaluations of their physical work environment and human resource practices were significantly associated with lower job-related anxiety, higher job satisfaction, and higher organizational commitment. The analysis found that employees' evaluations of their physical work environment and human resource practices influenced their job-related feelings and attitudes. Perceived organizational support mediated this relationship. The study also found a small but positive interaction effect between the physical work environment and human resource practices. The influence of physical work environment was small, mainly because of the high predictive value of human resource practices and strong confounding variables included in the analysis. This study specifically showed the role of facility design in reducing job-related anxiety among caregivers. Preliminary evidence is provided that facility design can be used as a managerial tool for improving job-related attitudes and feelings of employees and earning their commitment. Providing a healthy and safe work environment can be perceived by employees as an indication that the organization respects them and cares about their well-being, which might be reciprocated with higher levels

  16. Decontamination Project for Cell G of the Metal Recovery Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandry, G.J.; Grisham, R.W.

    1994-02-01

    The goal of the decontamination effort in Cell G at the Metal Recovery Facility, Building 3505, located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was two-fold: to determine the effectiveness of the dry decontamination technique employed and to provide data required to assess whether additional decontamination using this method would be beneficial in the eventual decommissioning of the facility. Allied Technology Group (ATG) was contracted to remove a portion of the concrete surface in Cell G by a technique known as scabbling. Some metallic cell components were also scabbled to remove paint and other surface debris. Generally, the scabbling operation was a success. Levels of contamination were greatly reduced. The depth of contaminant penetration into the concrete surfaces of certain areas was much greater than had been anticipated, necessitating the removal of additional concrete and extending ATG's period of performance. Scabbling and other related techniques will be extremely useful in the decontamination and decommissioning of other nuclear facilities with similar radiological profiles

  17. Resource recovery from residual household waste: An application of exergy flow analysis and exergetic life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; De Soete, Wouter; De Meester, Steven; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-12-01

    Exergy is based on the Second Law of thermodynamics and can be used to express physical and chemical potential and provides a unified measure for resource accounting. In this study, exergy analysis was applied to four residual household waste management scenarios with focus on the achieved resource recovery efficiencies. The calculated exergy efficiencies were used to compare the scenarios and to evaluate the applicability of exergy-based measures for expressing resource quality and for optimizing resource recovery. Exergy efficiencies were determined based on two approaches: (i) exergy flow analysis of the waste treatment system under investigation and (ii) exergetic life cycle assessment (LCA) using the Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) as a method for resource accounting. Scenario efficiencies of around 17-27% were found based on the exergy flow analysis (higher efficiencies were associated with high levels of material recycling), while the scenario efficiencies based on the exergetic LCA lay in a narrow range around 14%. Metal recovery was beneficial in both types of analyses, but had more influence on the overall efficiency in the exergetic LCA approach, as avoided burdens associated with primary metal production were much more important than the exergy content of the recovered metals. On the other hand, plastic recovery was highly beneficial in the exergy flow analysis, but rather insignificant in exergetic LCA. The two approaches thereby offered different quantitative results as well as conclusions regarding material recovery. With respect to resource quality, the main challenge for the exergy flow analysis is the use of exergy content and exergy losses as a proxy for resource quality and resource losses, as exergy content is not per se correlated with the functionality of a material. In addition, the definition of appropriate waste system boundaries is critical for the exergy efficiencies derived from the flow analysis, as it

  18. 76 FR 51397 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act Notice is hereby given... Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (``EPCRA''), 42 U.S.C. 11001, et seq. The Complaint alleges that...

  19. Institutional factors in resource recovery co-disposal demonstration project, Middlesex County, New Jersey, Spring 1980 - Summer 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, R. M.

    1982-02-01

    A proposal to provide 1200 tons per day of solid waste disposal combined with 200 tons per day of sludge disposal was presented. The prospects for codisposal in Middlesex County were analyzed. Technically, codisposal was possible, however, it lacked a proven track record. Proposal for a resource recovery plant to be designed, built, and operated was acknowledged as consistent with County planning.

  20. Job resources and recovery experiences to face difficulties in emotion regulations at work: a diary study among nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco-Donoso, L.M.; Garrosa, E.; Demerouti, E.; Moreno-Jiménez, B.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examines the role of daily difficulties in emotion regulation at work in nurse’s daily well-being and how certain job resources and recovery experiences influence this relationship. We hypothesized that daily difficulties to regulate emotions at work would be significantly and

  1. Workshop summary: detection, impact, and control of specific pathogens in animal resource facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Keith G; Riley, Lela K; Kent, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    Despite advances, infectious diseases remain a threat to animal facilities, continue to affect animal health, and serve as potential confounders of experimental research. A workshop entitled Detection, Impact, and Control of Specific Pathogens in Animal Resource Facilities was sponsored by the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) and National Institutes of Aging (NIA) and held April 23-24, 2009, at the Lister Hill Conference Center on the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) Bethesda campus. The meeting brought together laboratory animal scientists and veterinarians with experience in fish, rodent, and nonhuman primate models to identify common issues and problems. Session speakers addressed (1) common practices and current knowledge of these species, (2) new technologies in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, (3) impact of environmental quality on infectious disease, (4) normal microbial flora in health and disease, (5) genetics and infectious disease, and (6) specific infectious agents and their impact on research. Attendees discussed current challenges and future needs, highlighting the importance of education and training, the funding of critical infrastructure and resource research, and the need for improved communication of disease risks and integration of these risks with strategic planning. NIH and NCRR have a strong record of supporting resource initiatives that have helped address many of these issues and recent efforts have focused on the building of consortium activities among such programs. This manuscript summarizes the presentations and conclusions of participants at the meeting; abstracts and a full conference report are available online (www.ncrr.nih.gov).

  2. A Compact, Efficient Pyrolysis/Oxidation System for Solid Waste Resource Recovery in Space, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Pyrolysis processing can be used in near term missions for volume reduction, water recovery (drying), stabilization, and enhanced water and oxygen recovery through...

  3. Fully integrated modelling for sustainability assessment of resource recovery from waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward-Hopkins, Joel; Busch, Jonathan; Purnell, Phil; Zwirner, Oliver; Velis, Costas A; Brown, Andrew; Hahladakis, John; Iacovidou, Eleni

    2018-01-15

    This paper presents an integrated modelling approach for value assessments, focusing on resource recovery from waste. The method tracks and forecasts a range of values across environmental, social, economic and technical domains by attaching these to material-flows, thus building upon and integrating unidimensional models such as material flow analysis (MFA) and lifecycle assessment (LCA). We argue that the usual classification of metrics into these separate domains is useful for interpreting the outputs of multidimensional assessments, but unnecessary for modelling. We thus suggest that multidimensional assessments can be better performed by integrating the calculation methods of unidimensional models rather than their outputs. To achieve this, we propose a new metric typology that forms the foundation of a multidimensional model. This enables dynamic simulations to be performed with material-flows (or values in any domain) driven by changes in value in other domains. We then apply the model in an illustrative case highlighting links between the UK coal-based electricity-production and concrete/cement industries, investigating potential impacts that may follow the increased use of low-carbon fuels (biomass and solid recovered fuels; SRF) in the former. We explore synergies and trade-offs in value across domains and regions, e.g. how changes in carbon emissions in one part of the system may affect mortality elsewhere. This highlights the advantages of recognising complex system dynamics and making high-level inferences of their effects, even when rigorous analysis is not possible. We also indicate how changes in social, environmental and economic 'values' can be understood as being driven by changes in the technical value of resources. Our work thus emphasises the advantages of building fully integrated models to inform conventional sustainability assessments, rather than applying hybrid approaches that integrate outputs from parallel models. The approach we

  4. Heavy Metals Contaminated Soil Project, Resource Recovery Project, and Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) (OTD) as an element of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November, 1989. OTD has begun to search out, develop, test and demonstrate technologies that can now or in the future be applied to the enormous remediation problem now facing the DOE and the United States public in general. Technology demonstration projects have been designed to attack a separate problem as defined by DOE. The Heavy Metals Contaminated Soil Project was conceived to test and demonstrate off-the-shelf technologies (dominantly from the mining industry) that can be brought to bear on the problem of radionuclide and heavy metal contamination in soils and sediments. The Resource Recovery Project is tasked with identifying, developing, testing, and evaluating new and innovative technologies for the remediation of metal contaminated surface and groundwater. An innovative twist on this project is the stated goal of recovering the metals, formerly disposed of as a waste, for reuse and resale, thereby transforming them into a usable resource. Finally, the Dynamic Underground Stripping Project was developed to demonstrate and remediate underground spills of hydrocarbons from formations that are (1) too deep for excavation, and/or (2) require in-situ remediation efforts of long duration. This project has already been shown effective in reducing the time for remediation by conventional methods from an estimated 200 years at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to less than one year. The savings in time and dollars from this technology alone can be immeasurable

  5. Characterization of sediment in a leaching trench RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, M.G.; Kossik, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    Hazardous materials potentially were disposed of into a pair of leaching trenches from 1975 until Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations were imposed in 1985. These leaching trenches now are used for disposal of nonhazardous process water. The typical effluent (approximately 3 million gal/d) consisted of water with trace quantities of laboratory, maintenance, and fuel fabrication process chemicals. The largest constituent in the waste stream was uranium in low concentrations. This paper describes the project used to analyze and characterize the sediments in and below the leaching trenches. Two phases of sediment sampling were performed. The first phase consisted of taking samples between the bottom of the trenches and groundwater to locate contamination in the deep sediments under the trenches. To accomplish this sampling, a series of wells were drilled, and samples were obtained for every five feet in depth. The second phase consisted of samples taken at three depths in a series of positions along each trench. Sampling was completed to determine contamination levels in the shallow sediments and loose material washed into the trenches from the process sewer system. The project results were that no measurable contamination was found in the deep sediments. Measurable contamination from metals, such as chromium and nickel, was found in the shallow sediments. The primary contaminant in the shallow sediments was uranium. The concentration of contaminants decreased rapidly to near-background levels at shallow depths below the bottoms of the trenches

  6. Recovery of energy and nutrient resources from cattle paunch waste using temperature phased anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Paul D; Mehta, Chirag M; Carney, Chris; Batstone, D J

    2016-05-01

    Cattle paunch is comprised of partially digested cattle feed, containing mainly grass and grain and is a major waste produced at cattle slaughterhouses contributing 20-30% of organic matter and 40-50% of P waste produced on-site. In this work, Temperature Phased Anaerobic Digestion (TPAD) and struvite crystallization processes were developed at pilot-scale to recover methane energy and nutrients from paunch solid waste. The TPAD plant achieved a maximum sustainable organic loading rate of 1-1.5kgCODm(-3)day(-1) using a feed solids concentration of approximately 3%; this loading rate was limited by plant engineering and not the biology of the process. Organic solids destruction (60%) and methane production (230LCH4kg(-1) VSfed) achieved in the plant were similar to levels predicted from laboratory biochemical methane potential (BMP) testing. Model based analysis identified no significant difference in batch laboratory parameters vs pilot-scale continuous parameters, and no change in speed or extent of degradation. However the TPAD process did result in a degree of process intensification with a high level of solids destruction at an average treatment time of 21days. Results from the pilot plant show that an integrated process enabled resource recovery at 7.8GJ/dry tonne paunch, 1.8kgP/dry tonne paunch and 1.0kgN/dry tonne paunch. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Sites quality assurance project plan: Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPjP) describes the measures that shall be taken to ensure that the environmental data collected during characterization and closure activities of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Industrial Sites at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are meaningful, valid, defensible, and can be used to achieve project objectives. These activities are conducted by the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) under the Nevada Environmental Restoration (ER) Project. The Nevada ER Project consists of environmental restoration activities on the NTS, Tonopah Test Range, Nellis Air Force Range, and eight sites in five other states. The RCRA Industrial Sites subproject constitutes a component of the Nevada ER Project. Currently, this QAPjP is limited to the seven RCRA Industrial Sites identified within this document that are to be closed under an interim status and pertains to all field- investigation, analytical-laboratory, and data-review activities in support of these closures. The information presented here supplements the RCRA Industrial Sites Project Management Plan and is to be used in conjunction with the site-specific subproject sampling and analysis plans

  8. Using variances to comply with resource conservation and recovery act treatment standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranek, N.L.

    2002-01-01

    When a waste generated, treated, or disposed of at a site in the United States is classified as hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and is destined for land disposal, the waste manager responsible for that site must select an approach to comply with land disposal restrictions (LDR) treatment standards. This paper focuses on the approach of obtaining a variance from existing, applicable LDR treatment standards. It describes the types of available variances, which include (1) determination of equivalent treatment (DET); (2) treatability variance; and (3) treatment variance for contaminated soil. The process for obtaining each type of variance is also described. Data are presented showing that historically the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) processed DET petitions within one year of their date of submission. However, a 1999 EPA policy change added public participation to the DET petition review, which may lengthen processing time in the future. Regarding site-specific treatability variances, data are presented showing an EPA processing time of between 10 and 16 months. Only one generically applicable treatability variance has been granted, which took 30 months to process. No treatment variances for contaminated soil, which were added to the federal LDR program in 1998, are identified as having been granted.

  9. Opportunities and Barriers to Resource Recovery and Recycling from Shredder Residue in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Naren; Apelian, Diran

    2014-11-01

    Shredder residue is the by-product remaining after ferrous and nonferrous metals have been recovered from the processing of vehicles, white goods, and peddler scrap. Shredder residue consists of glass, plastics, rubber, dirt, and small amounts of metal. It is estimated that 5-7 million tons of this shredder residue are landfilled each year in the United States. Technical advancements, coupled with European Union directives and the economic climate, have transformed the recycling of shredder residue in Europe. In the United States, however, regulatory controls and the cheap cost of landfill have worked against the advancement of recycling and recovery of this resource. The Argonne National Laboratory, which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, has investigated the effectiveness of recycling shredder residue into polymers. Other research has examined the use of shredder residue in waste-to-energy applications. To improve our ability to process and recycle shredder residue, an investigation of the regulatory, economic, and technological challenges was undertaken. The objective was to conduct a comprehensive review of work done to date, to document the composition of typical shredder output and to identify potential recoverable items (residual metals, plastics, rubber, foam, etc.). Along with uncovering potential new markets, the research would identify the technical, regulatory, and economic barriers to developing those markets.

  10. Sulfidation treatment of copper-containing plating sludge towards copper resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, D; Fukuta, T; Onyango, M S; Matsuda, H

    2006-11-02

    The present study is concerned with the sulfidation treatment of copper-containing plating sludge towards copper resource recovery by flotation of copper sulfide from treated sludge. The sulfidation treatment was carried out by contacting simulated or real copper plating sludge with Na(2)S solution for a period of 5 min to 24 h. The initial molar ratio of S(2-) to Cu(2+) (S(2-) to Me(2+) in the case of real sludge) was adjusted to 1.00, 1.25 or 1.50, while the solid to liquid ratio was set at 1:50. As a result, it was found that copper compounds were converted to various copper sulfides within the first 5 min. In the case of simulated copper sludge, CuS was identified as the main sulfidation product at the molar ratio of S(2-) to Cu(2+) of 1.00, while Cu(7)S(4) (Roxbyite) was mainly found at the molar ratios of S(2-) to Cu(2+) of 1.50 and 1.25. Based on the measurements of oxidation-reduction potential, the formation of either CuS or Cu(7)S(4) at different S(2-) to Cu(2+) molar ratios was attributed to the changes in the oxidation-reduction potential. By contrast, in the case of sulfidation treatment of real copper sludge, CuS was predominantly formed, irrespective of S(2-) to Me(2+) molar ratio.

  11. Integrated Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring Technology Demonstration for Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Abney, Morgan B.; Knox, James C.; Parrish, Keith J.; Roman, Monserrate C.; Jan, Darrell L.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring the frontiers of deep space continues to be defined by the technological challenges presented by safely transporting a crew to and from destinations of scientific interest. Living and working on that frontier requires highly reliable and efficient life support systems that employ robust, proven process technologies. The International Space Station (ISS), including its environmental control and life support (ECLS) system, is the platform from which humanity's deep space exploration missions begin. The ISS ECLS system Atmosphere Revitalization (AR) subsystem and environmental monitoring (EM) technical architecture aboard the ISS is evaluated as the starting basis for a developmental effort being conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) via the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) Project.. An evolutionary approach is employed by the ARREM project to address the strengths and weaknesses of the ISS AR subsystem and EM equipment, core technologies, and operational approaches to reduce developmental risk, improve functional reliability, and lower lifecycle costs of an ISS-derived subsystem architecture suitable for use for crewed deep space exploration missions. The most promising technical approaches to an ISS-derived subsystem design architecture that incorporates promising core process technology upgrades will be matured through a series of integrated tests and architectural trade studies encompassing expected exploration mission requirements and constraints.

  12. Environmental Restoration Contractor Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.A.

    1996-05-01

    This document contains the revised Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) Implementation Plan for compliance with the Dangerous Waste and Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendment portions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste (hereafter referred to as the open-quotes Permitclose quotes). The Permit became effective on September 28, 1994. The ERC has developed the Permit Implementation Plan to ensure that the Permit is properly implemented within the ERC project and functions. The plan contains a list of applicable permit conditions, descriptions, responsible organizations, and the status of compliance. The ERC's responsibilities for Permit implementation are identified within both project and functional organizations. Project Managers are responsible for complying with conditions specific to a particular treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) unit. TSD-specific compliance in include items such as closure plan deliverables, reporting and record keeping requirements, or compliance with non-unit-specific tasks such as spill reporting and emergency response. Functional organizations are responsible for sitewide activities, such as coordinating Permit modifications and developing personnel training programs

  13. Disposing and recycling waste printed circuit boards: disconnecting, resource recovery, and pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianbo; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-01-20

    Over the past decades, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered e-waste recycling activities. After a decade of effort, disassembly and raw materials recycling of environmentally friendly e-waste have been realized in specialized companies, in China, and law enforcement for illegal activities of e-waste recycling has also been made more and more strict. So up to now, the e-waste recycling in China should be developed toward more depth and refinement to promote industrial production of e-waste resource recovery. Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs), which are the most complex, hazardous, and valuable components of e-waste, are selected as one typical example in this article that reviews the status of related regulations and technologies of WPCBs recycling, then optimizes, and integrates the proper approaches in existence, while the bottlenecks in the WPCBs recycling system are analyzed, and some preliminary experiments of pinch technologies are also conducted. Finally, in order to provide directional guidance for future development of WPCBs recycling, some key points in the WPCBs recycling system are proposed to point towards a future trend in the e-waste recycling industry.

  14. Patient-driven resource planning of a health care facility evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petinaux, Bruno; Yadav, Kabir

    2013-04-01

    The evacuation of a health care facility is a complex undertaking, especially if done in an immediate fashion, ie, within minutes. Patient factors, such as continuous medical care needs, mobility, and comprehension, will affect the efficiency of the evacuation and translate into evacuation resource needs. Prior evacuation resource estimates are 30 years old. Utilizing a cross-sectional survey of charge nurses of the clinical units in an urban, academic, adult trauma health care facility (HCF), the evacuation needs of hospitalized patients were assessed periodically over a two-year period. Survey data were collected on 2,050 patients. Units with patients having low continuous medical care needs during an emergency evacuation were the postpartum, psychiatry, rehabilitation medicine, surgical, and preoperative anesthesia care units, the Emergency Department, and Labor and Delivery Department (with the exception of patients in Stage II labor). Units with patients having high continuous medical care needs during an evacuation included the neonatal and adult intensive care units, special procedures unit, and operating and post-anesthesia care units. With the exception of the neonate group, 908 (47%) of the patients would be able to walk out of the facility, 492 (25.5%) would require a wheelchair, and 530 (27.5%) would require a stretcher to exit the HCF. A total of 1,639 patients (84.9%) were deemed able to comprehend the need to evacuate and to follow directions; the remainder were sedated, blind, or deaf. The charge nurses also determined that 17 (6.9%) of the 248 adult intensive care unit patients were too ill to survive an evacuation, and that in 10 (16.4%) of the 61 ongoing surgery cases, stopping the case was not considered to be safe. Heath care facilities can utilize the results of this study to model their anticipated resource requirements for an emergency evacuation. This will permit the Incident Management Team to mobilize the necessary resources both within

  15. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations. Building 221-H, B-Line, Scrap Recovery Facility (Supplement 2A): Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-07-01

    The now HB-Line is located an top of the 221-H Building on the fifth and sixth levels and is designed to replace the aging existing HB-Line production facility. The new HB-Line consists of three separate facilities: the Scrap Recovery Facility, Neptunium Facility, and Plutonium Oxide Facility. The Scrap Recovery Facility is designed to routinely generate nitrate solutions of {sup 235}U{sup 239}Pu and Pu-238 fromscrap for purification by anion exchange or by solvent extraction in the canyon. The now facility incorporates improvements in: (1) engineered controls for nuclear criticality, (2) cabinet integrity and engineered barriers to contain contamination and minimize personnel exposure to airborne contamination, (3) shielding and remote operations to decrease radiation exposure, and (4) equipment and ventilation design to provide flexibility and improved process performance.

  16. Resource Recovery and Reuse: Recycled Magnetically Separable Iron-based Catalysts for Phosphate Recovery and Arsenic Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmentally friendly processes that aid human and environmental health include recovering, recycling, and reusing limited natural resources and waste materials. In this study, we re-used Iron-rich solid waste materials from water treatment plants to synthesize magnetic iron-o...

  17. Natural light-micro aerobic condition for PSB wastewater treatment: a flexible, simple, and effective resource recovery wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haifeng; Han, Ting; Zhang, Guangming; Ma, Shanshan; Zhang, Yuanhui; Li, Baoming; Cao, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) have two sets of metabolic pathways. They can degrade pollutants through light metabolic under light-anaerobic or oxygen metabolic pathways under dark-aerobic conditions. Both metabolisms function under natural light-microaerobic condition, which demands less energy input. This work investigated the characteristics of PSB wastewater treatment process under that condition. Results showed that PSB had very strong adaptability to chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration; with F/M of 5.2-248.5 mg-COD/mg-biomass, the biomass increased three times and COD removal reached above 91.5%. PSB had both advantages of oxygen metabolism in COD removal and light metabolism in resource recovery under natural light-microaerobic condition. For pollutants' degradation, COD, total organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal reached 96.2%, 91.0%, 70.5%, and 92.7%, respectively. For resource recovery, 74.2% of C in wastewater was transformed into biomass. Especially, coexistence of light and oxygen promote N recovery ratio to 70.9%, higher than with the other two conditions. Further, 93.7% of N-removed was synthesized into biomass. Finally, CO 2 emission reduced by 62.6% compared with the traditional process. PSB wastewater treatment under this condition is energy-saving, highly effective, and environment friendly, and can achieve pollution control and resource recovery.

  18. Quasi Path Restoration: A post-failure recovery scheme over pre-allocated backup resource for elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dharmendra Singh; Babu, Sarath; Manoj, B. S.

    2018-03-01

    Spectrum conflict during primary and backup routes assignment in elastic optical networks results in increased resource consumption as well as high Bandwidth Blocking Probability. In order to avoid such conflicts, we propose a new scheme, Quasi Path Restoration (QPR), where we divide the available spectrum into two: (1) primary spectrum (for primary routes allocation) and (2) backup spectrum (for rerouting the data on link failures). QPR exhibits three advantages over existing survivable strategies such as Shared Path Protection (SPP), Primary First Fit Backup Last Fit (PFFBLF), Jointly Releasing and re-establishment Defragmentation SPP (JRDSSPP), and Path Restoration (PR): (1) the conflict between primary and backup spectrum during route assignment is completely eliminated, (2) upon a link failure, connection recovery requires less backup resources compared to SPP, PFFBLF, and PR, and (3) availability of the same backup spectrum on each link improves the recovery guarantee. The performance of our scheme is analyzed with different primary backup spectrum partitions on varying connection-request demands and number of frequency slots. Our results show that QPR provides better connection recovery guarantee and Backup Resources Utilization (BRU) compared to bandwidth recovery of PR strategy. In addition, we compare QPR with Shared Path Protection and Primary First-Fit Backup Last Fit strategies in terms of Bandwidth Blocking Probability (BBP) and average frequency slots per connection request. Simulation results show that BBP of SPP, PFFBLF, and JRDSPP varies between 18.59% and 14.42%, while in QPR, BBP ranges from 2.55% to 17.76% for Cost239, NSFNET, and ARPANET topologies. Also, QPR provides bandwidth recovery between 93.61% and 100%, while in PR, the recovery ranges from 86.81% to 98.99%. It is evident from our analysis that QPR provides a reasonable trade-off between bandwidth blocking probability and connection recoverability.

  19. Impact of Distributed Energy Resources on the Reliability of Critical Telecommunications Facilities: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, D. G.; Arent, D. J.; Johnson, L.

    2006-06-01

    This paper documents a probabilistic risk assessment of existing and alternative power supply systems at a large telecommunications office. The analysis characterizes the increase in the reliability of power supply through the use of two alternative power configurations. Failures in the power systems supporting major telecommunications service nodes are a main contributor to significant telecommunications outages. A logical approach to improving the robustness of telecommunication facilities is to increase the depth and breadth of technologies available to restore power during power outages. Distributed energy resources such as fuel cells and gas turbines could provide additional on-site electric power sources to provide backup power, if batteries and diesel generators fail. The analysis is based on a hierarchical Bayesian approach and focuses on the failure probability associated with each of three possible facility configurations, along with assessment of the uncertainty or confidence level in the probability of failure. A risk-based characterization of final best configuration is presented.

  20. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for tank storage units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    In compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), this report discusses information relating to permit applications for three tank storage units at Y-12. The storage units are: Building 9811-1 RCRA Tank Storage Unit (OD-7); Waste Oil/Solvent Storage Unit (OD-9); and Liquid Organic Solvent Storage Unit (OD-10). Numerous sections discuss the following: Facility description; waste characteristics; process information; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plan; personnel training; closure plan, post closure plan, and financial requirements; record keeping; other federal laws; organic air emissions; solid waste management units; and certification. Sixteen appendices contain such items as maps, waste analyses and forms, inspection logs, equipment identification, etc

  1. Partnership between CTSI and business schools can promote best practices for core facilities and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Lilith; Dunn-Jensen, Linda M; Baldwin, Timothy T; Tatikonda, Mohan V; Cornetta, Kenneth

    2013-08-01

    Biomedical research enterprises require a large number of core facilities and resources to supply the infrastructure necessary for translational research. Maintaining the financial viability and promoting efficiency in an academic environment can be particularly challenging for medical schools and universities. The Indiana Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute sought to improve core and service programs through a partnership with the Indiana University Kelley School of Business. The program paired teams of Masters of Business Administration students with cores and programs that self-identified the need for assistance in project management, financial management, marketing, or resource efficiency. The projects were developed by CTSI project managers and business school faculty using service-learning principles to ensure learning for students who also received course credit for their participation. With three years of experience, the program demonstrates a successful partnership that improves clinical research infrastructure by promoting business best practices and providing a valued learning experience for business students. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permit modifications and the functional equivalency demonstration: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsberry, K.; Garcia, P.; Carnes, R.; Kinker, J.; Loehr, C.; Lyon, W.

    1996-01-01

    Hazardous waste operating permits issued under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) often impose requirements that specific components and equipment be used. Consequently, changing these items, may first require that the owner/operator request a potentially time-consuming and costly permit modification. However, the owner/operator may demonstrate that a modification is not required because the planned changes are ''functionally equivalent.'' The Controlled-Air Incinerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory is scheduled for maintenance and improvements. The incinerator's carbon adsorption unit/high efficiency particulate air filtration system, was redesigned to improve reliability and minimize maintenance. A study was performed to determine whether the redesigned unit would qualify as functionally equivalent to the original component. In performing this study, the following steps were taken: (a) the key performance factors were identified; (b) performance data describing the existing unit were obtained; (c) performance of both the existing and redesigned units was simulated; and (d) the performance data were compared to ascertain whether the components could qualify as functionally equivalent. In this case, the key performance data included gas residence time and distribution of flow over the activated carbon. Because both units were custom designed and fabricated, a simple comparison of manufacturers' specifications was impossible. Therefore, numerical simulation of each unit design was performed using the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulic computer code to model isothermal hydrodynamic performance under steady-state conditions. The results of residence time calculations from the model were coupled with flow proportion and sampled using a Monte Carlo-style simulation to derive distributions that describe the predicted residence times

  3. Resource conservation and recovery act draft hazardous waste facility permit: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Volume III contains attachments for Module III and Module IV. Module III attachments are: test bin design drawings; SWB/RCB design drawings; waste handling building secondary containment system drawings; and test bin flammable gas concentration control system drawings. Only one attachment for Module IV is included in this volume. The remaining attachments are in Volume IV

  4. Resource conservation and recovery act draft hazardous waste facility permit: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Volume IV contains the following attachments for Module IV: VOC monitoring plan for bin-room tests (Appendix D12); bin emission control and VOC monitoring system drawings; bin scale test room ventilation drawings; WIPP supplementary roof support system, underground storage area, room 1, panel 1, DOE/WIPP 91-057; and WIPP supplementary roof support system, room 1, panel 1, geotechnical field data analysis bi-annual report, DOE/WIPP 92-024

  5. Resource conservation and recovery act draft hazardous waste facility permit: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Volume I contains the following attachments for Module II: waste analysis plan; quality assurance program plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experiment Waste Characterization Program(QAPP); WIPP Characterization Sampling and Analysis Guidance Manual (Plan)(SAP); and no migration Determination Requirement Summary (NMD)

  6. Production and setting of fractional elution facility for recovery of useful rare metals from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seko, Noriaki; Kasai, Noboru; Tamada, Masao; Hasegawa, Shin; Katakai, Akio

    2005-01-01

    In September 1999, we have soaked 200 kg of fibrous amidoxime absorbents, synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization, into seawater to evaluate their performance. Fractional elution facility was set effectively to elute the rare metals on adsorbents in Mutsu-Establishment. This facility consists of two parts of pre-washing and elution. The present report dealt with planning, manufacture and setting of fractional facility. Marine organism and slime on adsorbent cassette (290 x 295 x 160 mm) were washed out and every 72 cassettes were set in elution unit (1210 x 1210 x H1460 mm) with nonwoven materials as a packing to avoid elution loss. In the elution process alkaline and alkaline earth metals were eluted with low concentration hydrochloric acid (0.01M) and rare metals were eluted with high concentration (0.5 M) after the packing of elution unit into fractional elution facility. Adsorbent cassettes were regenerated with alkaline solution after elution procedure. (author)

  7. Environmental and thermodynamic evaluation of CO2 capture, transport and storage with and without enhanced resource recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iribarren, Diego; Petrakopoulou, Fontina; Dufour, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the environmental and thermodynamic performance of six coal-fired power plants with CO 2 capture and storage. The technologies examined are post-combustion capture using monoethanolamine, membrane separation, cryogenic fractionation and pressure swing adsorption, pre-combustion capture through coal gasification, and capture performing conventional oxy-fuel combustion. The incorporation of CO 2 capture is evaluated both on its own and in combination with CO 2 transport and geological storage, with and without beneficial use. Overall, we find that pre-combustion CO 2 capture and post-combustion through membrane separation present relatively low life-cycle environmental impacts and high exergetic efficiencies. When accounting for transport and storage, the environmental impacts increase and the efficiencies decrease. However, a better environmental performance can be achieved for CO 2 capture, transport and storage when incorporating beneficial use through enhanced oil recovery. The performance with enhanced coal-bed methane recovery, on the other hand, depends on the impact categories evaluated. The incorporation of methane recovery results in a better thermodynamic performance, when compared to the incorporation of oil recovery. The cumulative energy demand shows that the integration of enhanced resource recovery strategies is necessary to attain favourable life-cycle energy balances. - Highlights: ► Evaluation of six different CO 2 capture technologies for coal-fired power plants. ► Calculation of life-cycle environmental impacts and exergetic efficiencies. ► Suitability of post-combustion capture with membrane separation. ► Suitability of pre-combustion capture through coal gasification. ► Improved performance when incorporating enhanced resource recovery

  8. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-comparative effectiveness research infrastructure investments: emerging data resources, tools and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Courtney; Holve, Erin

    2014-11-01

    The Recovery Act provided a substantial, one-time investment in data infrastructure for comparative effectiveness research (CER). A review of the publications, data, and tools developed as a result of this support has informed understanding of the level of effort undertaken by these projects. Structured search queries, as well as outreach efforts, were conducted to identify and review resources from American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 CER projects building electronic clinical data infrastructure. The findings from this study provide a spectrum of productivity across a range of topics and settings. A total of 451 manuscripts published in 192 journals, and 141 data resources and tools were identified and address gaps in evidence on priority populations, conditions, and the infrastructure needed to support CER.

  9. Impact of Distributed Energy Resources on the Reliability of a Critical Telecommunications Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, D.; Atcitty, C.; Zuffranieri, J.; Arent, D.

    2006-03-01

    Telecommunications has been identified by the Department of Homeland Security as a critical infrastructure to the United States. Failures in the power systems supporting major telecommunications service nodes are a main contributor to major telecommunications outages, as documented by analyses of Federal Communications Commission (FCC) outage reports by the National Reliability Steering Committee (under auspices of the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions). There are two major issues that are having increasing impact on the sensitivity of the power distribution to telecommunication facilities: deregulation of the power industry, and changing weather patterns. A logical approach to improve the robustness of telecommunication facilities would be to increase the depth and breadth of technologies available to restore power in the face of power outages. Distributed energy resources such as fuel cells and gas turbines could provide one more onsite electric power source to provide backup power, if batteries and diesel generators fail. But does the diversity in power sources actually increase the reliability of offered power to the office equipment, or does the complexity of installing and managing the extended power system induce more potential faults and higher failure rates? This report analyzes a system involving a telecommunications facility consisting of two switch-bays and a satellite reception system.

  10. Summary of Information and Resources Related to Energy Use in Healthcare Facilities - Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Coughlin, Jennifer L.; Mathew, Paul A.

    2009-09-08

    This document presents the results of a review of publicly available information on energy use in health care facilities. The information contained in this document and in the sources cited herein provides the background and context for efforts to reduce energy use and costs in health care. Recognizing the breadth and diversity of relevant information, the author acknowledges that the report is likely not comprehensive. It is intended only to present a broad picture of what is currently known about health care energy use. This review was conducted as part of a 'High Performance Health Care Buildings' research study funded by the California Energy Commission. The study was motivated by the recognition that health care facilities collectively account for a substantial fraction of total commercial building energy use, due in large part to the very high energy intensity of hospitals and other inpatient care facilities. The goal of the study was to develop a roadmap of research, development and deployment (RD&D) needs for the health care industry. In addition to this information review, the road map development process included interviews with industry experts and a full-day workshop at LBNL in March 2009. This report is described as 'Version 1' with the intent that it will be expanded and updated as part of an ongoing LBNL program in healthcare energy efficiency. The document is being released in this form with the hope that it can assist others in finding and accessing the resources described within.

  11. Cost (non)-recovery by platform technology facilities in the Bio21 Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Gerard; Clark, Stella; Quinn, Julieanne; Gleeson, Mary Joy

    2010-04-01

    Platform technologies (PT) are techniques or tools that enable a range of scientific investigations and are critical to today's advanced technology research environment. Once installed, they require specialized staff for their operations, who in turn, provide expertise to researchers in designing appropriate experiments. Through this pipeline, research outputs are raised to the benefit of the researcher and the host institution. Platform facilities provide access to instrumentation and expertise for a wide range of users beyond the host institution, including other academic and industry users. To maximize the return on these substantial public investments, this wider access needs to be supported. The question of support and the mechanisms through which this occurs need to be established based on a greater understanding of how PT facilities operate. This investigation was aimed at understanding if and how platform facilities across the Bio21 Cluster meet operating costs. Our investigation found: 74% of platforms surveyed do not recover 100% of direct operating costs and are heavily subsidized by their home institution, which has a vested interest in maintaining the technology platform; platform managers play a major role in establishing the costs and pricing of the facility, normally in a collaborative process with a management committee or institutional accountant; and most facilities have a three-tier pricing structure recognizing internal academic, external academic, and commercial clients.

  12. Evaluation of Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Projects. Summary Report. Three Mile Island Unit 2 Polar Crane Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerge, D. H.; Miller, R. L.

    1984-08-01

    This document summarizes information concerning restoration of the Three Mile Island-Unit 2 Polar Crane to a fully operational condition following the loss of coolant accident experienced on March 28, 1979. The data collected from activity reports, reactor containment entry records, and other sources were placed in a computerized information retrieval/manipulation system which permits extraction/manipulation of specific data which could be utilized in planning for recovery activities should a similar accident occur in a nuclear generating plant. The information is presented in both computer output form and a manually assembled summarization. This report contains only the manpower requirements and radiation exposures actually incurred during recovery operations within the reactor containment and does not include support activities or costs. (author)

  13. Catalytic pyrolysis of LDPE leads to valuable resource recovery and reduction of waste problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Jasmin [Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar, N.W.F.P. (Pakistan); Jan, M. Rasul [University of Malakand, Chakdara, N.W.F.P. (Pakistan); Mabood, Fazal [Department of Chemistry, University of Malakand, Chakdara, N.W.F.P. (Pakistan); Jabeen, Farah [Department of Chemistry, Sarhad University, N.W.F.P. (Pakistan)

    2010-12-15

    . This was further confirmed by Bromine number tests. The values of which lie in the range of 0.1-12.8 g/ml, which fall in the range for olefin mixture. Phenol and carbonyl contents were quantified using UV/Visible spectroscopy and the values lie in the range of 1-8920 {mu}g/ml and 5-169 {mu}g/ml for both phenols and carbonyls respectively. The components of different hydrocarbons in the oil mixture were separated by using column chromatography and fractional distillation followed by characterization with FT-IR spectroscopy. The interpretation of FT-IR spectra shows that catalytic pyrolysis of LDPE leads to the formation of a complex mixture of alkanes, alkenes, carbonyl group containing compounds like aldehydes, ketones, aromatic compounds and substituted aromatic compounds like phenols. It could be concluded, that catalytic pyrolysis of LDPE leads to valuable resource recovery and reduction of waste problem. (author)

  14. Water supply facility damage and water resource operation at disaster base hospitals in miyagi prefecture in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Takashi; Osaki, Shizuka; Kudo, Daisuke; Furukawa, Hajime; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Abe, Yoshiko; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Egawa, Shinichi; Tominaga, Teiji; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to shed light on damage to water supply facilities and the state of water resource operation at disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture (Japan) in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake (2011), in order to identify issues concerning the operational continuity of hospitals in the event of a disaster. In addition to interview and written questionnaire surveys to 14 disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture, a number of key elements relating to the damage done to water supply facilities and the operation of water resources were identified from the chronological record of events following the Great East Japan Earthquake. Nine of the 14 hospitals experienced cuts to their water supplies, with a median value of three days (range=one to 20 days) for service recovery time. The hospitals that could utilize well water during the time that water supply was interrupted were able to obtain water in quantities similar to their normal volumes. Hospitals that could not use well water during the period of interruption, and hospitals whose water supply facilities were damaged, experienced significant disruption to dialysis, sterilization equipment, meal services, sanitation, and outpatient care services, though the extent of disruption varied considerably among hospitals. None of the hospitals had determined the amount of water used for different purposes during normal service or formulated a plan for allocation of limited water in the event of a disaster. The present survey showed that it is possible to minimize the disruption and reduction of hospital functions in the event of a disaster by proper maintenance of water supply facilities and by ensuring alternative water resources, such as well water. It is also clear that it is desirable to conclude water supply agreements and formulate strategic water allocation plans in preparation for the eventuality of a long-term interruption to water services.

  15. Containment and recovery of a light non-aqueous phase liquid plume at a woodtreating facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouse, D.; Powell, G.; Hawthorn, S.; Weinstock, S.

    1997-01-01

    A woodtreating site in Montana used a formulation (product) of 5 percent pentachlorophenol and 95 percent diesel fuel as a carrier liquid to pressure treat lumber. Through years of operations approximately 378,500 liters of this light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) product spilled onto the ground and soaked into the groundwater. A plume of this LNAPL product flowed in a northerly direction toward a stream located approximately 410 meters from the pressure treatment building. A 271-meter long high density polyethylene (HDPE) containment cutoff barrier wall was installed 15 meters from the stream to capture, contain, and prevent the product from migrating off site. This barrier was extended to a depth of 3.7 meters below ground surface and allowed the groundwater to flow beneath it. Ten product recovery wells, each with a dual-phase pumping system, were installed within the plume, and a groundwater model was completed to indicate how the plume would be contained by generating a cone of influence at each recovery well. The model indicated that the recovery wells and cutoff barrier wall would contain the plume and prevent further migration. To date, nearly 3 1/2 year's later, approximately 106,000 liters of product have been recovered

  16. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report with Baseline Risk Assessment for the Fire Department Hose Training Facility (904-113G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This report documents the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation/Baseline Risk Assessment (RFI/RI/BRA) for the Fire Department Hose Training Facility (FDTF) (904-113G).

  17. Marine Planning for Potential Wave Energy Facility Placement Amongst a Crowded Sea of Existing Resource Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, B. E.; Fuller, E.; Plummer, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Conversion to renewable energy sources is a logical response to increasing pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Ocean wave energy is the least developed renewable energy source, despite having the highest energy per unit area. While many hurdles remain in developing wave energy, assessing potential conflicts and evaluating tradeoffs with existing uses is essential. Marine planning encompasses a broad array of activities that take place in and affect large marine ecosystems, making it an ideal tool for evaluating wave energy resource use conflicts. In this study, we focus on the potential conflicts between wave energy conversion (WEC) facilities and existing marine uses in the context of marine planning, within the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem. First, we evaluated wave energy facility development using the Wave Energy Model (WEM) of the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) toolkit. Second, we ran spatial analyses on model output to identify conflicts with existing marine uses including AIS based vessel traffic, VMS and observer based measures of commercial fishing effort, and marine conservation areas. We found that regions with the highest wave energy potential were distant from major cities and that infrastructure limitations (cable landing sites) restrict integration with existing power grids. We identified multiple spatial conflicts with existing marine uses; especially shipping vessels and various commercial fishing fleets, and overlap with marine conservation areas varied by conservation designation. While wave energy generation facilities may be economically viable in the California Current, this viability must be considered within the context of the costs associated with conflicts that arise with existing marine uses. Our analyses can be used to better inform placement of WEC devices (as well as other types of renewable energy facilities) in the context of marine planning by accounting for economic tradeoffs

  18. Cultural-resource survey report: Hoover Dam Powerplant Modification Project II. Associated transmission-line facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queen, R.L.

    1991-06-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) is proposing to modify or install additional transmission facilities between the Hoover Dam hydroelectric plant and the Western Area Power Authority substation near Boulder City, Nevada. Reclamation has completed cultural resource investigations to identify historic or prehistoric resources in the project area that might be affected during construction of the transmission line. Four possible transmission corridors approximately 50 feet wide and between 9.5 and 11.5 miles long were investigated. The proposed transmission lines either parallel or replace existing transmission lines. The corridors generally have undergone significant disturbance from past transmission line construction. A Class II sampling survey covering approximately 242 acres was conducted. Access or construction roads have not been identified and surveys of these areas will have to be completed in the future. No historic or prehistoric archeological sites were encountered within the four corridor right-of-ways. It is believed that the probability for prehistoric sites is very low. Four historic period sites were recorded that are outside, but near, the proposed corridor. These sites are not individually eligible for the National Register of Historic Places, but may be associated with the construction of Hoover Dam and contribute to a historic district or multiple property resource area focusing on the dam and its construction

  19. A Recovery Program for Alberta: A 10-Year Plan to End the Addiction to Resource Revenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald D. Kneebone

    2013-03-01

    spending can be avoided altogether. Second, to reduce the size of the cuts to spending required to achieve fiscal sustainability, the government can raise rates on existing taxes or introduce a new source of revenue like a sales tax. It is important to note, however, that new revenue without spending restraint cannot solve the problem. Additional revenue can only help achieve fiscal sustainability if it is accompanied by a program of spending restraint along with a sales tax of 3, 6 and 9 per cent and an increase in the personal tax rate to between 12 and 17 per cent from its current 10 per cent. None of these are easy options. But weaning itself off of its addiction to resource revenue means Alberta’s days of taking the easy way are over. Spending cuts alone or spending cuts in conjunction with increases in taxes are necessary steps to recovery. The government of Alberta has finally admitted it has a problem. In this note we identify the ways it can fix it.

  20. Consultations on a Canadian resource recovery strategy : summary of Yellowknife/Northwest Territories and Yukon consultation held at Yellowknife, Northwest Territories on April 22, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) contracted Hatch Associates to conduct seven one-day resource recovery sessions across Canada. The focus of the consultations was to identify opportunities, barriers and demonstration projects to facilitate resource recovery in different urban, rural and northern communities in Canada for the industrial, institutional and post-consumer sectors. These sessions are a first step in helping Canada identify economically-driven resource recovery activities that are environmentally and socially sustainable. This report describes the outcome of a meeting in Yellowknife in the spring of 2002 which involved 16 participants including resource recyclers, the City of Yellowknife, Diavik Diamonds, the government of the Northwest Territories, local entrepreneurs, a landfill operator, a gold mine undergoing environmental rehabilitation, and citizens including an Inuit Elder. The participants identified the following priorities for resource recovery: metal tanks at the Giant Mine, scrap metal at Giant Mine, waste paper, waste oil from vehicles, hazardous waste, arsenic trioxide, and waste packaging. The main barriers to resource recovery in Yellowknife are transportation costs, lack of volumes, the collection/storage infrastructure, and the fact that life cycle and social environmental costs are not included in the costs of products. Several recommendations were proposed to improve resource recovery, including charging a small fee for access to the salvage section of the Yellowknife landfill, charging a fee for garbage over a certain weight, or providing recycling bins everywhere and imposing a fine for disposal of recyclables. tabs.

  1. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Federal Facility RCRA Sites, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Federal facilities are properties owned by the federal government. This data layer provides access to Federal facilities that are Resource Conservation and Recovery...

  2. Impact of distributed energy resources on the reliability of a critical telecommunications facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, David; Zuffranieri, Jason V.; Atcitty, Christopher B.; Arent, Douglas (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO)

    2006-03-01

    This report documents a probabilistic risk assessment of an existing power supply system at a large telecommunications office. The focus is on characterizing the increase in the reliability of power supply through the use of two alternative power configurations. Telecommunications has been identified by the Department of Homeland Security as a critical infrastructure to the United States. Failures in the power systems supporting major telecommunications service nodes are a main contributor to major telecommunications outages. A logical approach to improve the robustness of telecommunication facilities would be to increase the depth and breadth of technologies available to restore power in the face of power outages. Distributed energy resources such as fuel cells and gas turbines could provide one more onsite electric power source to provide backup power, if batteries and diesel generators fail. The analysis is based on a hierarchical Bayesian approach and focuses on the failure probability associated with each of three possible facility configurations, along with assessment of the uncertainty or confidence level in the probability of failure. A risk-based characterization of final best configuration is presented.

  3. Job demands and resources and their associations with early retirement intentions through recovery need and work enjoyment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Schreurs

    2011-05-01

    Research purpose: The objective of this study was to examine the mechanisms through which job characteristics associate with early retirement intention, using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R model as a theoretical framework. Motivation of the study: Early retirement presents a threat to existing health and pension systems, and to organisational functioning. Therefore, it is important to examine how workrelated factors contribute to early retirement decisions. Research design, approach and method: Two parallel processes were theorised to shape early retirement intention: a health impairment process (i.e. job demands → recovery need → early retirement intention and a motivational process (i.e. job resources → work enjoyment → early retirement intention. Survey data were collected from a heterogeneous sample of 1812 older workers (age > 45. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses. Main findings: Job demands and job resources were both associated with work enjoyment, which was associated with early retirement intention. Recovery need did not add to the prediction of early retirement intention. Practical/managerial implications: To retain older workers, companies should promote work conditions and practices that keep older workers motivated. Good health may be a necessary condition for retaining older workers, but it does not appear to be a sufficient one. Contribution/value-add: The results suggest that – for early retirement intention – the motivational process is more prominent than the health impairment process.

  4. Biohydrometallurgy and membrane technology for resource recovery from low-grade ores and mining residuals; Biohydrometallurgie und Membrantechnik zur Wertstoffgewinnung aus Armerzlagerstaetten und bergbaulichen Altablagerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Arite; Meschke, Katja; Bohlke, Kevin; Haseneder, Roland [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Umwelt-, Naturstoffverfahrenstechnik (ITUN); Daus, Birgit [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung GmbH - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. Analytik; Repke, Jens-Uwe [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). FG Dynamik und Betrieb Technischer Anlagen

    2017-02-15

    The recovery of strategic elements from secondary mineral resources and low grade ores is of increasing relevance, due to a changing global market as well as for reasons of sustainability. The present article shows the potential of biohydrometallurgy as an efficient technology for mobilization of metals from secondary mineral resources. Furthermore, the application of membrane separation as a successful technique for the recovery of metals from bioleaching solutions is presented. These issues are discussed within the scope of recent research projects.

  5. Current situation of the facilities, equipments and human resources in nuclear medicine in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiliutti, Claudia A.

    2008-01-01

    The current situation of nuclear medicine in Argentina, taking into account the facilities, their equipment and human resources available is presented in this paper. A review and analysis of the equipment, including technical characteristics and a survey of the professionals and technicians of the area, was carried out. In Argentina, there are 266 centers of nuclear medicine distributed all over the country. The operating licenses are granted by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear - ARN). Forty four percent of the installed equipment are SPECT of 1 or 2 heads and 39,4 % are gamma camera. Besides, there are eleven PET operating in Argentina. There are 416 nuclear medicine physicians with individual permit for diagnostic purposes and 50% of them has also individual permit for treatment purposes. With the purpose of analyzing the regional distribution of the available resources in nuclear medicine, the country was divided into 7 geographical regions: City of Buenos Aires, Province of Buenos Aires, Pampa, Cuyo, Northeast, Northwest and Patagonia. From the analysis of the gathered information it is possible to conclude that the nuclear medicine equipment as well as the personnel present an irregular distribution, with a major concentration in the City of Buenos Aires and Province of Buenos Aires. The Northeast region presents the lowest number of Nuclear Medicine centers and the Patagonia region has the lowest number of medicine nuclear physicians with individual permits. The number of SPECT and gamma cameras is 7,3 per million of inhabitants. The information about the available resources in nuclear medicine presented in this paper and its comparison with the international information available provide elements for a better planning of the future activities in the area not only for the operators but also from the regulatory point of view. (author)

  6. 75 FR 48726 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... reduction program; install synthetic protective barriers beneath its production plants; provide $163.5... Natural Resources Division, and either e-mailed to [email protected] or mailed to P.O. Box..., Natural Resources. [FR Doc. 2010-19799 Filed 8-10-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4410-15-P ...

  7. Recovery of thorium and rare earths by their peroxides precipitation from a residue produced in the thorium purification facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Antonio Alves de

    2008-01-01

    As consequence of the operation of a Thorium purification facility, for pure Thorium Nitrate production, the IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares) has stored away a solid residue called RETOTER (REsiduo de TOrio e TErras Raras). The RETOTER is rich in Rare-Earth Elements and significant amount of Thorium-232 and minor amount of Uranium. Furthermore it contains several radionuclides from the natural decay series. Significant radioactivity contribution is generated by the Thorium descendent, mainly the Radium-228(T 1/2 =5.7y), known as meso thorium and Thorium-228(T 1/2 1.90y). An important thorium daughter is the Lead-208, a stable isotope present with an expressive quantity. After the enclosure of the operation of the Thorium purification facility, many researches have been developed for the establishment of methodologies for recovery of Thorium, Rare-Earth Elements and Lead-208 from the RETOTER. This work presents a method for RETOTER decontamination, separating and bordering upon some radioactive isotopes. The residue was digested with nitric acid and the Radium-228 was separated by the Barium Sulphate co-precipitation procedure. Finally, the Thorium was separated by the peroxide precipitation and the Rare-Earth Elements were also recovered by the Rare-Earth peroxide precipitation in the filtrate solution.(author)

  8. Polyelectrolyte flocculation of grain stillage for improved clarification and water recovery within bioethanol production facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkhaus, Todd J; Anderson, Jason; Lane, Samuel; Waddell, Evan

    2010-04-01

    Polyelectrolytes were investigated for flocculation of a corn whole stillage stream to improve solid-liquid clarification operations and reduce downstream utility requirements for evaporation and drying within a bioethanol process. Despite a negative zeta potential for the stillage solids, an anionic polyelectrolyte was found to provide the best flocculation. At the optimal dosage of 1.1mg polymer/g dry suspended solids, an anionic flocculant provided a clarified stream with only 0.15% w/w suspended solids (equivalent to a total dissolved solid to total suspended solid ratio greater than 40, and a viscosity reduction of 39% compared to an unflocculated "clarified" stream). The resulting solids cake had greater than 40% w/w solids, and more than 80% water recovery was found in the clarified stream. Addition of flocculant improved filtration flux by six fold and/or would allow for up to a 4-times higher flow rate if using a decanting centrifuge for clarification of corn stillage. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vegetation and moisture performance on a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act-equivalent landfill cap at the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, C.J.; Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1997-03-01

    Landfills, as defined under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) can receive waste materials from commercial and industrial operations, residences, and other sources. Sanitary landfills that are used to dispose of solid waste require a landfill cover that meets RCRA requirements to prevent leaching of water through buried wastes and to isolate the waste for a period of 30 years. The purpose of a RCRA landfill cover is to 'protect public health, to prevent land, air, and water pollution, and conserve the state's natural, economic, and energy resources' (Washington Administrative Code [WAC] 173-304). The hypothesis of this study were as follows: (1) amending soil nitrogen would enhance perennial grass biomass; (2) the amount of biomass produced by commercially-available wheatgrass species would be similar to bluebunch wheatgrass; and (3) the vegetative biomass, as required by WAC-173-304, would not be produced in a semiarid climate

  10. Cryogenic system for the Energy Recovery Linac and vertical test facility at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Than, R.; Soria, V.; Lederle, D.; Orfin, P.; Porqueddu, R.; Talty, P.; Zhang, Y.; Tallerico, T.; Masi, L.

    2011-01-01

    A small cryogenic system and warm helium vacuum pumping system provides cooling to either the Energy Recovery Linac's (ERL) cryomodules that consist of a 5-cell cavity and an SRF gun or a large Vertical Test Dewar (VTD) at any given time. The cryogenic system consists of a model 1660S PSI piston plant, a 3800 liter storage dewar, subcooler, a wet expander, a 50 g/s main helium compressor, and a 170 m 3 storage tank. A system description and operating plan of the cryogenic plant and cryomodules is given. The cryogenic system for ERL and the Vertical Test Dewar has a plant that can produce the equivalent of 300W at 4.5K with the addition of a wet expander 350 W at 4.5K. Along with this system, a sub-atmospheric, warm compression system provides pumping to produce 2K at the ERL cryomodules or the Vertical Test Dewar. The cryogenic system for ERL and the Vertical Test Dewar makes use of existing equipment for putting a system together. It can supply either the ERL side or the Vertical Test Dewar side, but not both at the same time. Double valve isolation on the liquid helium supply line allows one side to be warmed to room temperature and worked on while the other side is being held at operating temperature. The cryogenic system maintain the end loads from 4.4K to 2K or colder depending on capacity. Liquid helium storage dewar capacity allows ERL or the VTD to operate above the plant's capacity when required and ERL cryomodules ballast reservoirs and VTD reservoir allows the end loads to operate on full vacuum pump capacity when required.

  11. Incremental natural gas resources through infield reserve growth/secondary natural gas recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, R.J.; Levey, R.A.; Hardage, B.A.

    1993-12-31

    The primary objective of the Infield Reserve Growth/Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR) project is to develop, test, and verify technologies and methodologies with near- to midterm potential for maximizing the recovery of natural gasfrom conventional reservoirs in known fields. Additional technical and technology transfer objectives of the SGR project include: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities in reservoirs of conventional permeability cause reservoir compartmentalization and, hence, incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document examples of reserve growth occurrence and potential from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas gulf coast basin as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications to find secondary gas. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields. To transfer project results to a wide array of natural gas producers, not just as field case studies, but as conceptual models of how heterogeneities determine natural gas flow units and how to recognize the geologic and engineering clues that operators can use in a cost-effective manner to identify incremental, or secondary, gas.

  12. Information Technology Management: Hurricane Katrina Disaster Recovery Efforts Related to Army Information Technology Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolliffe, Richard B; Burton, Bruce A; Wicecarver, Jacqueline L; Kince, Therese M; Ryan, Susan R; Price, Matthew J; Cleveland, Karma J; N. Pugh, Jacqueline; Milner, Jillisa H; Johnson, Meredith H

    2006-01-01

    ... of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida with Category 3 winds and torrential rain. This audit report is the first in a planned series of audits on the effects of Hurricane Katrina on DoD information technology resources...

  13. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance for Geothermal Resource Evaluation Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Breckenridge; Thomas R. Wood; Joel Renner

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to report on the evaluation of geothermal resource potential on and around three different United States (U. S.) Air Force Bases (AFBs): Nellis AFB and Air Force Range (AFR) in the State of Nevada (see maps 1 and 5), Holloman AFB in the State of New Mexico (see map 2), and Mountain Home AFB in the State of Idaho (see map 3). All three sites are located in semi-arid parts of the western U. S. The U. S. Air Force, through its Air Combat Command (ACC) located at Langley AFB in the State of Virginia, asked the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) for technical assistance to conduct technical and feasibility evaluations for the potential to identify viable geothermal resources on or around three different AFBs. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is supporting FEMP in providing technical assistance to a number of different Federal Agencies. For this report, the three different AFBs are considered one project because they all deal with potential geothermal resource evaluations. The three AFBs will be evaluated primarily for their opportunity to develop a geothermal resource of high enough quality grade (i.e., temperature, productivity, depth, etc.) to consider the possibility for generation of electricity through a power plant. Secondarily, if the resource for the three AFBs is found to be not sufficient enough for electricity generation, then they will be described in enough detail to allow the base energy managers to evaluate if the resource is suitable for direct heating or cooling. Site visits and meetings by INL personnel with the staff at each AFB were held in late FY-2009 and FY-2010. This report provides a technical evaluation of the opportunities and challenges for developing geothermal resources on and around the AFBs. An extensive amount of literature and geographic information was evaluated as a part of this assessment. Resource potential maps were developed for each of the AFBs.

  14. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Chapter E, Appendix E1, Chapter L, Appendix L1: Volume 12, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project was authorized by the US Department of Energy 5 (DOE) National Security and Military Applications of the Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164). Its legislative mandate is to provide a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive waste resulting from national defense programs and activities. To fulfill this mandate, the WIPP facility has been designed to perform scientific investigations of the behavior of bedded salt as a repository medium and the interactions between the soft and radioactive wastes. In 1991, DOE proposed to initiate a experimental Test Phase designed to demonstrate the performance of the repository. The Test Phase activities involve experiments using transuranic (TRU) waste typical of the waste planned for future disposal at the WIPP facility. Much of this TRU waste is co-contaminated with chemical constituents which are defined as hazardous under HWMR-7, Pt. II, sec. 261. This waste is TRU mixed waste and is the subject of this application. Because geologic repositories, such as the WIPP facility, are defined under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as land disposal facilities, the groundwater monitoring requirements of HWMR-7, PLV, Subpart X, must be addressed. HWMR-7, Pt. V, Subpart X, must be addressed. This appendix demonstrates that groundwater monitoring is not needed in order to demonstrate compliance with the performance standards; therefore, HWMR-7, Pt.V, Subpart F, will not apply to the WIPP facility.

  15. A resource facility for kinetic analysis: modeling using the SAAM computer programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, D M; Boston, R C; Jacquez, J A; Zech, L

    1989-01-01

    Kinetic analysis and integrated system modeling have contributed significantly to understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of metabolic systems in humans and animals. Many experimental biologists are aware of the usefulness of these techniques and recognize that kinetic modeling requires special expertise. The Resource Facility for Kinetic Analysis (RFKA) provides this expertise through: (1) development and application of modeling technology for biomedical problems, and (2) development of computer-based kinetic modeling methodologies concentrating on the computer program Simulation, Analysis, and Modeling (SAAM) and its conversational version, CONversational SAAM (CONSAM). The RFKA offers consultation to the biomedical community in the use of modeling to analyze kinetic data and trains individuals in using this technology for biomedical research. Early versions of SAAM were widely applied in solving dosimetry problems; many users, however, are not familiar with recent improvements to the software. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint biomedical researchers in the dosimetry field with RFKA, which, together with the joint National Cancer Institute-National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute project, is overseeing SAAM development and applications. In addition, RFKA provides many service activities to the SAAM user community that are relevant to solving dosimetry problems.

  16. Challenges to improving case management of childhood pneumonia at health facilities in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Stephen M; English, Mike; Hazir, Tabish; Enarson, Penny; Duke, Trevor

    2008-05-01

    Effective case management is an important strategy to reduce pneumonia-related morbidity and mortality in children. Guidelines based on sound evidence are available but are used variably. This review outlines current guidelines for childhood pneumonia management in the setting where most child pneumonia deaths occur and identifies challenges for improved management in a variety of settings and different "at-risk" groups. These include appropriate choice of antibiotic, clinical overlap with other conditions, prompt and appropriate referral for inpatient care, and management of treatment failure. Management of neonates, and of HIV-infected or severely malnourished children is more complicated. The influence of co-morbidities on pneumonia outcome means that pneumonia case management must be integrated within strategies to improve overall paediatric care. The greatest potential for reducing pneumonia-related deaths in health facilities is wider implementation of the current guidelines built around a few core activities: training, antibiotics and oxygen. This requires investment in human resources and in equipment for the optimal management of hypoxaemia. It is important to provide data from a variety of epidemiological settings for formal cost-effectiveness analyses. Improvements in the quality of case management of pneumonia can be a vehicle for overall improvements in child health-care practices.

  17. Oil resource panel finds more oil in United States by adding dollars and advancing recovery technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Three years ago, the experts figures the US had only 49.4 Bbo in undiscovered, recoverable reserves. Now, there's more undiscovered resources and more reserve growth. Those figures include present proved reserves of 25 Bbo. They also include undiscovered recoverable resources ranging from 43 Bbo to 90 Bbo and reserve growth in existing fields ranging from 31 Bbo to 89 Bbo. Those are the estimates from a panel of oil resource analysts assembled August 31 and September 1 by the University of Texas at Austin's Bureau of Economic Geology and the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research. At current US production of 2.7 Bbo/year, the estimate gives the US a supply lasting from 35 to 75 years

  18. Monitoring System for Storm Readiness and Recovery of Test Facilities: Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Franzl, Richard; Walker, Mark; Kapadia, Ravi; Venkatesh, Meera; Schmalzel, John

    2010-01-01

    Severe weather events are likely occurrences on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. It is important to rapidly diagnose and mitigate the effects of storms on Stennis Space Center's rocket engine test complex to avoid delays to critical test article programs, reduce costs, and maintain safety. An Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) approach and technologies are employed to integrate environmental (weather) monitoring, structural modeling, and the suite of available facility instrumentation to provide information for readiness before storms, rapid initial damage assessment to guide mitigation planning, and then support on-going assurance as repairs are effected and finally support recertification. The system is denominated Katrina Storm Monitoring System (KStorMS). Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) describes a comprehensive set of capabilities that provide insight into the behavior the health of a system. Knowing the status of a system allows decision makers to effectively plan and execute their mission. For example, early insight into component degradation and impending failures provides more time to develop work around strategies and more effectively plan for maintenance. Failures of system elements generally occur over time. Information extracted from sensor data, combined with system-wide knowledge bases and methods for information extraction and fusion, inference, and decision making, can be used to detect incipient failures. If failures do occur, it is critical to detect and isolate them, and suggest an appropriate course of action. ISHM enables determining the condition (health) of every element in a complex system-of-systems or SoS (detect anomalies, diagnose causes, predict future anomalies), and provide data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) to control systems for safe and effective operation. ISHM capability is achieved by using a wide range of technologies that enable anomaly detection, diagnostics, prognostics, and advise for control: (1

  19. Reuse and recovery of raw materials: Towards the achievement of a resource-efficient society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunori, Claudia; Cutaia, Laura; Norabito, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Resource efficiency plays a key role in the transition from a linear to a circular economy system. During the last few decades a rapid growth in the number of materials used across complex products has occurred. Given the high economic importance of critical raw materials combined with relatively high supply risk, securing reliable and undistorted access of certain raw materials is of growing concern across the globe. Development of eco-innovative approaches devoted to closing the loop of resources is strongly needed, allowing the connection between production cycles and their territory.

  20. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains Appendix D2, engineering design basis reports. Contents include: Design considerations for the waste hoist of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); A site-specific study of wind and tornado probabilities at the WIPP Site in southeast New Mexico; Seismic evaluation report of underground facilities; and calculations for analysis of wind loads and tornado loads for WHB, seismic calculations, calculations for VOC-10 monitoring system, and for shaft at station A

  1. Lignin recovery. A resource to value; La lignina: una risorsa da valorizzare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimbardi, P.; Cardinale, G.; Demichele, M.; Nanna, F.; Viggiano, D. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Rotondella, MT (Italy). Dipt. Energia; Bonini, C.; D' Alessio, L.; D' Auria, M.; Teghil, R.; Tofani, D. [Basilicata Univ., Potenza (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica

    1999-07-01

    In the present paper, the effects of the steam explosion (ES) pretreatment conditions on recovery and chemical structure of wheat straw lignin are reported. The experimental data of lignin recovery by caustic extraction, followed by acid precipitation, have been interpolated to obtain the dependence on the time and temperature of SE. The lignin has been characterised by using several methods. Preliminary results on the synthesis of copolymers lignin-styrene are also reported. [Italian] Si ripotano i risultati piu' rilevanti di un'attivita' di ricerca condotta dall'ENEA e dall'universita' della Basilicata, finalizzata alla valorizzazione della lignina. Sono stati indagati gli effetti del trattamento con vapore d'acqua ad alta pressione (processo steam explosion) sulla struttura chimica della lignina e la possibilita' di isolarla con alte rese di estrazione dalla paglia di grano. La lignina, estratta dalla biomassa trattata con una soluzione acquosa di idrossido di sodio ed isolata acidificando la soluzione con acido solforico, e' stata analizzata con diverse tecniche microscopiche, spettroscopiche e cromatografiche. Sono riportati i dati sperimentali interpolati ottenendo la relazione empirica che lega la resa di recupero alla temperatura e alla durata del trattamento di steam explosion.

  2. Socio-technical strategies and behavior change to increase the adoption and sustainability of wastewater resource recovery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Christine; Mohebbi, Shima; Zhang, Qiong

    2018-06-15

    Given the increasing vulnerability of communities to the negative impacts of untreated wastewater, resource recovery (RR) systems provide a paradigm shift away from a traditional approach of waste separation and treatment towards a productive recovery of water, energy and nutrients. The aim of this research is to understand the relationships between factors that influence the adoption and sustainability of wastewater-based RR systems to inform technology implementation strategies. The study presents a theory-informed, community-influenced system dynamics (SD) model to provide decision-makers with an adaptable tool that simulates system-level responses to the strategies that are developed for the coastal town of Placencia, Belize. The modeling framework is informed by literature-based theories such as the theory of diffusion of innovations (TDI) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Various methods, including surveys, interviews, participatory observations, and a water constituents mass balance analysis are used to validate relationships and numerically populate the model. The SD model was evaluated with field data and simulated to identify strategies that will improve the adoption and sustainability of RR systems. Site demonstrations (marketing strategy) made a significant impact on the stock of adopted RR systems. The stock of sustained RR systems is driven by the sustainability rate (i.e. economic and environmental viability) which can be improved by more site demonstrations and tank options (technical strategy). These strategies, however, only contributed to incremental improvements in the system's sustainability performance. This study shows that changing community behaviors (i.e. reporting the correct number of users and reclaiming resources), represented by structural change in the SD model, is the more significant way to influence the sustainable management of the community's wastewater resources. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 15 CFR 971.501 - Resource assessment, recovery plan, and logical mining unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and logical mining unit. 971.501 Section 971.501 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR... mining unit. (a) The applicant must submit with the application a resource assessment to provide a basis...

  4. Small scale wind power harnessing in Colombian oil industry facilities: Wind resource and technology issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraldo, Mauricio; Nieto, Cesar; Escudero, Ana C.; Cobos, Juan C.; Delgado, Fernando

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Looking to improve its national and international standing, Colombia's national oil company, Ecopetrol, has set its goal on becoming involved on the production of energy from multiple sources, most importantly, on having an important percentage of its installed capacity from renewable sources. Part of this effort entices the evaluation of wind power potential on its facilities, including production, transportation and administrative, as well as identifying those technologies most suitable for the specific conditions of an equatorial country such as Colombia. Due to the lack of adequate site information, the first step consisted in superimposing national data to the facilities map of the company; this allowed for the selection of the first set of potential sites. From this set, the terminal at Covenas-Sucre was selected taking into account not only wind resource, but ease of access and power needs, as well as having a more or less representative wind potential in comparison to the rest of the country. A weather station was then installed to monitor wind variables. Measurements taken showed high variations in wind direction, and relatively low velocity profiles, making most commercially available wind turbines difficult to implement. In light of the above, a series of iterative steps were taken, first considering a range of individual Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT), given their capacity to adapt to changing wind directions. However, wind speed variations proved to be a challenge for individual VAWT's, i.e. Darriues turbines do not work well with low wind speeds, and Savonius turbines are not efficient of high wind speeds. As a result, a combined Darrieus- Savonius VAWT was selected given the capacity to adapt to both wind regimes, while at the same time modifying the size and shape of the blades in order to adapt to the lower average wind speeds present at the site. The resulting prototype is currently under construction and is scheduled to

  5. RESTORE: REcovery after Serious Trauma--Outcomes, Resource use and patient Experiences study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbe, Belinda J; Braaf, Sandra; Fitzgerald, Mark; Judson, Rodney; Harrison, James E; Lyons, Ronan A; Ponsford, Jennie; Collie, Alex; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Attwood, David; Christie, Nicola; Nunn, Andrew; Cameron, Peter A

    2015-10-01

    Traumatic injury is a leading contributor to the overall global burden of disease. However, there is a worldwide shortage of population data to inform understanding of non-fatal injury burden. An improved understanding of the pattern of recovery following trauma is needed to better estimate the burden of injury, guide provision of rehabilitation services and care to injured people, and inform guidelines for the monitoring and evaluation of disability outcomes. To provide a comprehensive overview of patient outcomes and experiences in the first 5 years after serious injury. This is a population-based, nested prospective cohort study using quantitative data methods, supplemented by a qualitative study of a seriously injured participant sample. All 2547 paediatric and adult major trauma patients captured by the Victorian State Trauma Registry with a date of injury from 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2012 who survived to hospital discharge and did not opt-off from the registry. To analyse the quantitative data and identify factors that predict poor or good outcome, whether there is change over time, differences in rates of recovery and change between key participant subgroups, multilevel mixed effects regression models will be fitted. To analyse the qualitative data, thematic analysis will be used to identify important themes and the relationships between themes. The results of this project have the potential to inform clinical decisions and public health policy, which can reduce the burden of non-fatal injury and improve the lives of people living with the consequences of severe injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Granular biochar compared with activated carbon for wastewater treatment and resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Tyler M; Haeger, Alexander; Biffinger, Justin C; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-05-01

    Granular wood-derived biochar (BC) was compared to granular activated carbon (GAC) for the treatment and nutrient recovery of real wastewater in both batch and column studies. Batch adsorption studies showed that BC material had a greater adsorption capacity at the high initial concentrations of total chemical oxygen demand (COD-T) (1200 mg L(-1)), PO4 (18 mg L(-1)), and NH4 (50 mg L(-1)) compared to GAC. Conversely the BC material showed a lower adsorption capacity for all concentrations of dissolved chemical oxygen demand (COD-D) and the lower concentrations of PO4 (5 mg L(-1)) and NH4 (10 mg L(-1)). Packed bed column studies showed similar average COD-T removal rate for BC with 0.27 ± 0.01 kg m(-3) d(-1) and GAC with 0.24 ± 0.01 kg m(-3) d(-1), but BC had nearly twice the average removal rate (0.41 ± 0.08 kg m(-3) d(-3)) compared to GAC during high COD-T concentrations (>500 mg L(-1)). Elemental analysis showed that both materials accumulated phosphorous during wastewater treatment (2.6 ± 0.4 g kg(-1) and 1.9 ± 0.1 g kg(-1) for BC and GAC respectively). They also contained high concentrations of other macronutrients (K, Ca, and Mg) and low concentrations of metals (As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cu). The good performance of BC is attributed to its macroporous structure compared with the microporous GAC. These favorable treatment data for high strength wastewater, coupled with additional life-cycle benefits, helps support the use of BC in packed bed column filters for enhanced wastewater treatment and nutrient recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Local bumble bee decline linked to recovery of honey bees, drought effects on floral resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Diane M

    2016-10-01

    Time series of abundances are critical for understanding how abiotic factors and species interactions affect population dynamics, but are rarely linked with experiments and also scarce for bee pollinators. This gap is important given concerns about declines in some bee species. I monitored honey bee (Apis mellifera) and bumble bee (Bombus spp.) foragers in coastal California from 1999, when feral A. mellifera populations were low due to Varroa destructor, until 2014. Apis mellifera increased substantially, except between 2006 and 2011, coinciding with declines in managed populations. Increases in A. mellifera strongly correlated with declines in Bombus and reduced diet overlap between them, suggesting resource competition consistent with past experimental results. Lower Bombus numbers also correlated with diminished floral resources. Declines in floral abundances were associated with drought and reduced spring rainfall. These results illustrate how competition with an introduced species may interact with climate to drive local decline of native pollinators. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  8. RESOURCE RECOVERY BY OSMOTIC BIOELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS  TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Mohan

    2017-01-01

    Recovering valuable resources from wastewater will transform wastewater management from a treatment focused to sustainability focused strategy, and creates the need for new technology development. An innovative treatment concept - osmotic bioelectrochemical system (OsBES), which is based on cooperation between bioelectrochemical systems (BES) and forward osmosis (FO), has been introduced and studied in the past few years. An OsBES can accomplish simultaneous treatment of wastewater and recove...

  9. Treatment of cooling appliances. Interrelations between environmental protection, resource conservation, and recovery rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    The treatment of cooling appliances in Austria is primarily influenced by two factors. On the one hand is their changing composition and on the other hand the ordinance on Waste Prevention, Collection and Treatment of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE ordinance), which stipulates a minimum recycling rate of 75% for cooling appliances. This paper investigates whether this recycling rate leads to optimal treatment practices for cooling appliances with respect to resource conservation and environmental protection. Two different treatment technologies which achieve recycling rates between 50-60% and 80-90%, respectively, are compared both for cooling appliances containing Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and for appliances containing Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). Materials and energy balances are developed for each model. To evaluate resource consumption, expenditures as well as savings of energy and materials are incorporated via the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED). In order to analyse the environmental impact of the different practices, balances for CFC, CO 2 , HF, HCl and solid residues are established. The results show that the treatment type aiming for a maximum of materials recycling contributes more to resource conservation than the other treatment type. But for CFC appliances the former is associated with substantial CFC emissions, which turn out to be most relevant when treating these appliances. Generally, it is found that the optimum recycling rate is a function of the composition of the appliance and the technologies applied, both in recycling and in primary production. A high recycling rate per se does not automatically result in an optimal solution with regard to resource conservation and environmental protection. (author)

  10. Identifying the gaps in infection prevention and control resources for long-term care facilities in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Bruce; Schall, Valerie; Grant, Jennifer

    2012-03-01

    Infection prevention and control (IPC) is a critical, although often neglected, part of long-term care (LTC) management. Little is known about what IPC resources are available for LTC and how that impacts patient care and safety. One hundred eighty-eight LTC facilities were randomly selected out of all British Columbia facilities and surveyed using a validated survey tool. The tool was used to collect data regarding IPC resources grouped within 6 indices: (1) leadership, (2) infection control professionals (ICP) coverage, (3) policies and procedures, (4) support through partnerships, (5) surveillance, and (6) control activities. All components measured have been identified as key for an effective IPC program. Survey responses were used to calculate scores for IPC programs as a whole and for each of the 6 indices. Of 188 randomly selected facilities, 86 institutions participated. Facilities were compared by region, funding source, and ICP coverage. Overall, LTC facilities lacked IPC leadership, especially physician support. Having no dedicated ICP was associated with poorer scores on all indices. Only 41% of practicing ICPs had more than 2 years experience, and only 14% were professionally certified. Twenty-two percent of ICPs had additional roles within the institution, and 44% had additional roles outside of the institution. Thirty-five percent of institutions had no IPC dedicated budget. LTC institutions-with bed numbers exceeding those in acute care-represent an important aspect of health services. These data show that many LTC facilities lack the necessary resources to provide quality infection control programs. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure report: Area 2 Bitcutter and Postshot Containment Shops Injection Wells, Correction Action Unit 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This Closure Report provides documentation of the activities conducted during the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure of the Bitcutter and Postshot Containment Shops Injection Wells located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Spring Quadrangle (USGS, 1986), Township 10 South, Range 53 East, Nye County, Nevada. This report discusses the Bitcutter Shop Inside Injection Well (CAU 90-A) closure-in-place and the Bitcutter Shop Outside Injection Well (CAU 90-B) and Postshot Containment Shop Injection Well (CAU 90-C) clean closures. This Closure Report provides background information about the unit, the results of the characterization activities and actions conducted to determine the closure design. It also provides a discussion of the drainage analysis, preliminary closure activities, final closure activities, waste management activities, and the Post-Closure Care requirements

  12. Molten salt oxidation of mixed wastes: Separation of radioactive materials and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.T.; Haas, P.A.; Rudolph, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is involved in a program to apply a molten salt oxidation (MSO) process to the treatment of mixed wastes at Oak Ridge and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Mixed wastes are defined as those wastes that contain both radioactive components, which are regulated by the atomic energy legislation, and hazardous waste components, which are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). A major part of our ORNL program involves the development of separation technologies that are necessary for the complete treatment of mixed wastes. The residues from the MSO treatment of the mixed wastes must be processed further to separate the radioactive components, to concentrate and recycle residues, or to convert the residues into forms acceptable for final disposal. This paper is a review of the MSO requirements for separation technologies, the information now available, and the concepts for our development studies

  13. A mini review on the integration of resource recovery from wastewater into sustainability of the green building through phycoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulistyorini, Anie

    2017-09-01

    Green building implementation is an important assessment for sustainable development to establish a good quality of the environment. To develop the future green building implementation, resource recovery from the building wastewater is significantly important to consider as a part of the green building development. Discharge of urban wastewater into water bodies trigger of eutrophication in the water catchment, accordingly need further treatment to recover the nutrient before it is reused or discharged into receiving water bodies. In this regard, integration of microalgae cultivation in closed photobioreactor as building façade is critically important to be considered in the implementation of the green building. Microalgae offer multi-function as bioremediation (phycoremediation) of the wastewater, production of the biofuels, and important algal bio-products. At the same time, algae façade boost the reduction of the operating cost in forms of light, thermal energy and add the benefit into the building for energy reduction and architecture function. It promises an environmental benefit to support green building spirit through nutrient recovery and wastewater reuse for algae cultivation and to enhance the aesthetic of the building façade.

  14. SOLVENT-BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES TO DEVELOP WEST SAK ALASKA NORTH SLOPE HEAVY OIL RESOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David O. Ogbe; Tao Zhu

    2004-01-01

    A one-year research program is conducted to evaluate the feasibility of applying solvent-based enhanced oil recovery processes to develop West Sak and Ugnu heavy oil resources found on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The project objective is to conduct research to develop technology to produce and market the 300-3000 cp oil in the West Sak and Ugnu sands. During the first phase of the research, background information was collected, and experimental and numerical studies of vapor extraction process (VAPEX) in West Sak and Ugnu are conducted. The experimental study is designed to foster understanding of the processes governing vapor chamber formation and growth, and to optimize oil recovery. A specially designed core-holder and a computed tomography (CT) scanner was used to measure the in-situ distribution of phases. Numerical simulation study of VAPEX was initiated during the first year. The numerical work completed during this period includes setting up a numerical model and using the analog data to simulate lab experiments of the VAPEX process. The goal was to understand the mechanisms governing the VAPEX process. Additional work is recommended to expand the VAPEX numerical study using actual field data obtained from Alaska North Slope.

  15. Kinetic energy recovery turbine technology: resource assessment and site development strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briand, Marie-Helene; Ng, Karen

    2010-09-15

    New technologies to extract readily available energy from waves, tides and river flow are being developed and are promising but are still at the demonstration stage. Harnessing kinetic energy from currents (hydrokinetic power) is considered an attractive and cost-effective renewable energy solution to replace thermal generation without requiring construction of a dam or large civil works. The nature of this innovative hydrokinetic technology requires an adaptation of conventional approach to project engineering and environmental impact studies. This paper presents the approach developed by RSW to design a hydrokinetic site in the riverine environment, from resource assessment to detailed engineering design.

  16. Gills Onions Advanced Energy Recovery System: Turning a Waste Liability into a Renewable Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    Renewable Resource 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...i U fl A bi 2 rea u ce s ng an p ow naero c Sludge Blanket (UASB) Reactor 3 Recover Biogas from UASB Remove Sulfur and Moisture for Cattle... biogas per cell ● 15 psi ● Requires highly purified water (RO) Energy NG RO W ta er ● Methane and steam converted into hydrogen-rich gas

  17. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B permit application. Volume 8, Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This is the tenth Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER), documenting the progress of environmental programs at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The most significant change affecting the WIPP facility in 1993 was the cancellation of the Test Phase. All activities pertaining to the Test Phase will now be conducted at the Idaho National Engineering laboratory. Even though the cancellation of the Test Phase was a significant change in work scope for the WIPP, there are still numerous environmental monitoring and reporting activities that must be performed as a routine part of daily operations. These activities, and the WIPP's ability to demonstrate compliance with both state and federal environmental compliance requirements, are documented in this report. This report is a compilation and summarization of environmental data collected at the WIPP site.

  18. Preparation of waste analysis plans under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Interim guidance)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This document is organized to coincide with the suggested structure of the actual Waste Analysis Plans (WAP) discussed in the previous section. The contents of the remaining eleven chapters and appendices that comprise this document are described below: Chapter 2 addresses waste streams, test parameters, and rationale for sampling and analytical method selection; test methods for analyzing parameters; proceduresfor collecting representative samples; and frequency of sample collection and analyses. These are the core WAP requirements. Chapter 3 addresses analysis requirements for waste received from off site. Chapter 4addresses additional requirements for ignitable, reactive, or incompatible wastes. Chapter 5 addresses unit-specific requirements. Chapter 6 addresses special procedures for radioactive mixed waste. Chapter 7 addresses wastes subject to the land disposal restrictions. Chapter 8 addresses QA/QC procedures. Chapter 9 compares the waste analysis requirements of an interim status facility with those of a permitted facility. Chapter 10 describes the petition process required for sampling and analytical procedures to deviate from accepted methods, such as those identified in promulgated regulations. Chapter 11 reviews the process for modification of WAPs as waste type or handling practices change at a RCRA permitted TSDF. Chapter 12 is the list of references that were used in the preparation of this guidance. Appendix A is a sample WAP addressing physical/chemical treatment and container storage. Appendix B is a sample WAP addressing an incinerator and tank systems. Appendix C discusses the relationship of the WAP to other permitting requirements and includes specific examples of how waste analysis is used to comply with certain parts of a RCRA permit. Appendix D contains the exact wording for the notification/certification requirements under theland disposal restrictions

  19. Using Facilities And Potential Of Geothermal Resources In The Canakkale Province - NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Ozan; Acar Deniz, Zahide

    2016-04-01

    Turkey, due to its geological location, has a rich potential in point of geothermal resources. Çanakkale province is located northwestern (NW) part of Turkey and it has important geothermal fields in terms of geothermal energy potential. Geothermal resources reach to the surface both effects of past volcanic activity and extensions of fault zones associated with complex tectonic systems in the region. The aim of this study is to summarize hydrogeochemical characteristics, using facilities and potential of hot springs and spas located in the Çanakkale province. There are 13 geothermal fields in the region and the surface temperatures of hot springs are ranging between 28 centigrade degree and 175 centigrade degree. Hydrogeochemical compositions of thermal water display variable chemical compositions. Na, Ca, SO4, HCO3 and Cl are the dominant ions in these waters. Thermal waters of Tuzla and Kestanbol geothermal fields which is located the near coastal area can be noted NaCl type. Because these two geothermal waters have high TDS values, scaling problems are seen around the hot springs and pipelines. Geothermal waters in the province are meteoric origin according to oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium isotopes data. Long underground residence times of these waters and its temperatures have caused both more water - rock interaction and low tritium values. Geothermal energy is utilized in many areas in Turkey today. It is generally used for space heating, balneotherapy and electricity generation. Explorations of geothermal resources and investments in geothermal energy sector have risen rapidly in the recent years particularly in western Turkey. High-temperature geothermal fields are generally located in this region related to the Aegean Graben System and the North Anotalian Fault Zone. All geothermal power plants in Turkey are located in this region. Considering the Çanakkale province, most geothermal fields are suitable for multipurpose usage but many of them have

  20. Re-engineering the urban drainage system for resource recovery and protection of drinking water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbo, B

    2000-01-01

    The Harare metropolis in Zimbabwe, extending upstream from Manyame Dam in the Upper Manyame River Basin, consists of the City of Harare and its satellite towns: Chitungwiza, Norton, Epworth and Ruwa. The existing urban drainage system is typically a single-use-mixing system: water is used and discharged to "waste", excreta are flushed to sewers and eventually, after "treatment", the effluent is discharged to a drinking water supply source. Polluted urban storm water is evacuated as fast as possible. This system not only ignores the substantial value in "waste" materials, but it also exports problems to downstream communities and to vulnerable fresh-water sources. The question is how can the harare metropolis urban drainage system, which is complex and has evolved over time, be rearranged to achieve sustainability (i.e. water conservation, pollution prevention at source, protection of the vulnerable drinking water sources and recovery of valuable materials)? This paper reviews current concepts regarding the future development of the urban drainage system in line with the new vision of "Sustainable Cities of the Future". The Harare Metropolis in Zimbabwe is taken as a case, and philosophical options for re-engineering the drainage system are discussed.

  1. Recovery of hazardous semiconductor-industry sludge as a useful resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzen-Chin; Liu, Feng-Jiin

    2009-06-15

    Sludge, a solid waste recovered from wastewater of semiconductor-industries composes of agglomerates of nano-particles like SiO(2) and CaF(2). This sludge deflocculates in acidic and alkaline aqueous solutions into nano-particles smaller than 100 nm. Thus, this sludge is potentially hazardous to water resources when improperly dumped. It can cause considerable air-pollution when fed into rotary-kilns as a raw material for cement production. In this study, dried and pulverized sludge was used to replace 5-20 wt.% Portland cement in cement mortar. The compressive strength of the modified mortar was higher than that of plain cement mortar after curing for 3 days and more. In particular, the strength of mortar with 10 wt.% substitution improved by 25-35% after curing for 7-90 days. TCLP studies reveal no detectable release of heavy metals. Preliminary studies showed that nano-particles deflocculated from the sludge, when cured for up to 3 days retain in the modified mortar their nano-size, which become large-sized hydration compounds that contribute to the final mortar strength. Semiconductor sludge can thus be utilized as a useful resource to replace portion of cement in cement mortar, thereby avoiding their potential hazard on the environment.

  2. MEASUREMENT OF INTANGIBLE ASSETS IN RECOVERY AREAS AND OPERATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan I. Gâf-Deac

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that to date, intangible assets are considered "goods" and as such, the practice of classical accounting consider intellectual capital in the same category of "goods equivalent / similar to those visible / tangible". From research that literature on measuring knowledge assets / intellectual capital, both in Romania and worldwide, is not large enough and does not provide finite significant "strong" on classifications semantic of the content and quality issues in the field. The book titled New Economy between knowledge and risk – Infomin Ed., Deva, 2010 (www.infomindeva.ro (ISBN 978-973-7646-11-8, (Ioan I. Gâf-Deac  presents systematization and classification of original models and methodologies for measuring knowledge assets, intellectual capital in socio-economic sciences, and as such, in this present article resorting to the extension applied to formalizing measurement of intangible assets in areas operation and exploitation of natural resources.

  3. Materials and Fuels Complex Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Storage and Treatment Permit Reapplication, Environmental Protection Agency Number ID4890008952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzemer, Michael J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hart, Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Storage and Treatment Permit Reapplication for the Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Partial Permit, PER-116. This Permit Reapplication is required by the PER-116 Permit Conditions I.G. and I.H., and must be submitted to the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality in accordance with IDAPA 58.01.05.012 [40 CFR §§ 270.10 and 270.13 through 270.29].

  4. Maternity waiting facilities for improving maternal and neonatal outcome in low-resource countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lonkhuijzen, L.; Stekelenburg, J.; van Roosmalen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background A Maternity Waiting Home (MWH) is a facility, within easy reach of a hospital or health centre which provides Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC). Women may stay in the MWH at the end of their pregnancy and await labour. Once labour starts, women move to the health facility so that labour and

  5. Harvesting Environmental Microalgal Blooms for Remediation and Resource Recovery: A Laboratory Scale Investigation with Economic and Microbial Community Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagroop Pandhal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory based microflotation rig termed efficient FLOtation of Algae Technology (eFLOAT was used to optimise parameters for harvesting microalgal biomass from eutrophic water systems. This was performed for the dual objectives of remediation (nutrient removal and resource recovery. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that chitosan was more efficient than alum for flocculation of biomass and the presence of bacteria could play a positive role and reduce flocculant application rates under the natural conditions tested. Maximum biomass removal from a hyper-eutrophic water retention pond sample was achieved with 5 mg·L−1 chitosan (90% Chlorophyll a removal. Harvesting at maximum rates showed that after 10 days, the bacterial diversity is significantly increased with reduced cyanobacteria, indicating improved ecosystem functioning. The resource potential within the biomass was characterized by 9.02 μg phosphate, 0.36 mg protein, and 103.7 μg lipid per mg of biomass. Fatty acid methyl ester composition was comparable to pure cultures of microalgae, dominated by C16 and C18 chain lengths with saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Finally, the laboratory data was translated into a full-size and modular eFLOAT system, with estimated costs as a novel eco-technology for efficient algal bloom harvesting.

  6. Post-disaster recovery: a case study of human resource deployment in the health sector in post-conflict Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, Katherine P; Budosan, Boris

    2011-02-01

    A professional understanding of disasters, paired with the need for health service development, can provide opportunities for the recovery and improvement of the health sector. Investment in training capacity ranks among the top priorities of a recovering health sector. The recovery and development of primary healthcare delivery systems has been implemented by various international and local health players in the aftermath of conflicts around the world. However, human resource development in the post-conflict environment has not been evaluated and/or published appropriately in the medical literature. In this retrospective, descriptive study, the authors describe the strategy and evaluate the effectiveness of a field-based training program for primary healthcare doctors implemented by the US-based international non-governmental organization, the International Medical Corps, after the conflict in Kosovo in 1999. A six-month, comprehensive education and training program on primary healthcare issues was delivered to 134 Kosovar primary healthcare physicians in 10 Kosovo municipalities in 1999 and 2000. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected. The qualitative methods included open-ended, semi-structured, key informant interviews, structured focus groups, and unstructured participant observations. The quantitative method was multiple-choice knowledge tests. The education and training program proved to be culturally appropriate and well-accepted by local communities. The program met its overall objective to refresh the knowledge of primary care doctors on various primary healthcare issues and set the stage for further strengthening and development of primary health services and their required human resources in Kosovo. The comprehensive education and training of primary healthcare doctors in Kosovo was a feasible, much appreciated, and effective intervention implemented in a difficult post-conflict environment. This training was one of the early steps in the

  7. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-12-29

    Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes

  8. Guidelines for the evaluation and assessment of the sustainable use of resources and of wastes management at healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townend, William K; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents guidelines that can be used by managers of healthcare facilities to evaluate and assess the quality of resources and waste management at their facilities and enabling the principles of sustainable development to be addressed. The guidelines include the following key aspects which need to be considered when completing an assessment. They are: (a) general management; (b) social issues; (c) health and safety; (d) energy and water use; (e) purchasing and supply; (f) waste management (responsibility, segregation, storage and packaging); (g) waste transport; (h) recycling and re-use; (i) waste treatment; and (j) final disposal. They identify actions required to achieve a higher level of performance which can readily be applied to any healthcare facility, irrespective of the local level of social, economic and environmental development. The guidelines are presented, and the characteristics of facilities associated with sustainable (level 4) and unsustainable (level 0) healthcare resource and wastes management are outlined. They have been used to assess a major London hospital, and this highlighted a number of deficiencies in current practice, including a lack of control over purchasing and supply, and very low rates of segregation of municipal solid waste from hazardous healthcare waste.

  9. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  10. Carbon Capture and Sequestration (via Enhanced Oil Recovery) from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart Mehlman

    2010-06-16

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. As part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOE’s target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design activities

  11. Crisis management and recovery from the damage to the laboratory animal production facility due to the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Charles River Laboratories Japan produces laboratory animals, mainly mice and rats. In its history, we have experienced many crises such as mass food poisoning of staff and contamination of animals. However, we overcame these crises, accomplishing our corporate missions to secure steady supply of healthy animals. Under such circumstances, in 2008, we faced an unprecedented crisis involving a novel influenza possibly becoming pandemic. Therefore, we prepared a Crisis Management Plan (CMP) and Business Continuity Plan (BCP) to avoid the worst case scenario. Fortunately, the novel influenza did not develop into a pandemic and no major problems occurred in production of our laboratory animals. In March 2011, our Tsukuba Breeding Center was struck by the Great East Japan Earthquake. Many cages fell from racks, and consequently, 14,000 mice and rats were euthanized. Moreover, this animal production facility experienced not only blackouts and water outage but also various maintenance problems. After triage of the animals, almost half of the animals kept were eventually lost. However, we recovered and resumed shipment of animals two weeks after the disaster by utilizing the CMP and BCP we initially created as a countermeasure against novel influenza. After two months, our production volume returned to normal except for two strains. I sincerely hope this review, which highlights our experience and related issues, will be a useful resource in regard to crisis management for people who are engaged in laboratory animal care and use.

  12. Resource recovery of WC-Co cermet using hydrothermal oxidation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Ningfeng; Inagaki, F.; Sasai, R.; Itoh, H.; Watari, K.

    2005-01-01

    WC-Co cermet is widely used in industrial applications such as cutting tools, dies, wear parts and so on. It is of great importance to establish the recycling process for the precious metal resources contained in WC-Co cermet, because all these metals used in Japan are imported. In this paper we reported a hydrothermal oxidation technique using nitric acid for the reclamation of WC and Co. The WC-Co cermet specimens with various WC particle sizes and Co contents were hydrothermally treated in HNO 3 aqueous solutions at temperatures of 110-200 C for durations of 6-240 h. The Co was preferentially leached out into the acidic solution, while the WC was oxidized to insoluble WO 3 hydrate which was subsequently separated by filtration. The hydrothermal treatment parameters such as solvent concentrations, treatment temperatures, holding time were optimized in respect to different kinds of WC-Co cermets. A hydrothermal oxidation treatment in 3M HNO 3 aqueous solution at 150 C for 24 h was capable of fully disintegrating the cermet chip composed of coarse WC grains of 1-5 μm in size with 20 wt% of Co as binder. While the more oxidation resistant specimen composed of fine WC grains of 0.5-1.0 μm in size with 13 wt% of Co, was completely disintegrated by a treatment in 7 M HNO 3 aqueous solution at 170 C for 24 h. The filtered solid residues were composed of fine WO 3 .0.33H 2 O powder and a small amount of WO 3 . The recovered WO 3 .0.33H 2 O powder can be easily returned to the industrial process for the synthesis of WC powder so that the overall recycling cost can be possibly lowered. (orig.)

  13. Resource recovery from municipal solid waste by mechanical heat treatment: An opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Ibrahim, Nurazim; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz

    2017-04-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) stream in Malaysia consists of 50 to 60 % of food wastes. In general, food wastes are commingled in nature and very difficult to be managed in sustainable manner due to high moisture content. Consequently, by dumping food wastes together with inert wastes to the landfill as final disposal destination incurs large space area and reducing the lifespan of landfill. Therefore, certain fraction of the MSW as such; food wastes (FW) can be diverted from total disposal at the landfill that can improve landfill lifespan and environmental conservation. This study aims to determine the resource characteristics of FW extracted from USM cafeteria by means of mechanical heat treatment in the presence of autoclaving technology. Sampling of FW were conducted by collecting FW samples from disposal storage at designated area within USM campus. FW characteristics was performed prior and autoclaving process. The results have demonstrated that bones fraction was the highest followed by vegetable and rice with 39, 27 and 10%, respectively. Meanwhile, based on autoclaving technique, moisture content of the FW (fresh waste) were able to be reduced ranging from 65-85% to 59-69% (treated waste). Meanwhile, chemical characteristics of treated FW results in pH, TOC, TKN, C/N ratio, TP, and TK 5.12, 27,6%, 1.6%, 17.3%, 0.9% and 0.36%. The results revealed that autoclaving technology is a promising approach for MSW diversion that can be transformed into useful byproducts such as fertilizer, RDF and recyclable items.

  14. The management of financial resources intended for radioactive waste and decommissioning of the nuclear facilities in the european union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatar, F.; Dima, A.; Glodeanu, F.; Miller, B.; Mosmonea, R.

    2015-01-01

    The European Commission has developed policies and made recommendations on how financial resources should be established and managed by Member States for the purpose of radioactive waste management. The manner in which these recommendations have been accepted, and are applied, varies between European countries. To some extent, this variation reflects the maturity of the nuclear programs in each country and whether or not nuclear facilities are largely state or privately owned and operated. This paper reviews the European Commission.s policy on financial resourcing for radioactive waste management and decommissioning and evaluates how financial resources are practically established and managed by Member States. The findings from the review are then used to benchmark the situation in Romania. (authors)

  15. Leaching optimization of municipal solid waste incineration ash for resource recovery: A case study of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinfeng; Steenari, Britt-Marie

    2016-02-01

    Ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) may be quite cumbersome to handle. Some ash fractions contain organic pollutants, such as dioxins, as well as toxic metals. Additionally, some of the metals have a high value and are considered as critical to the industry. Recovery of copper, zinc and lead from MSWI ashes, for example, will not only provide valuable metals that would otherwise be landfilled but also give an ash residue with lower concentrations of toxic metals. In this work, fly ash and bottom ash from an MSWI facility was used for the study and optimization of metal leaching using different solutions (nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid) and parameters (temperature, controlled pH value, leaching time, and liquid/solid ratio). It was found that hydrochloric acid is relatively efficient in solubilizing copper (68.2±6.3%) and zinc (80.8±5.3%) from the fly ash in less than 24h at 20°C. Efficient leaching of cadmium and lead (over 92% and 90% respectively) was also achieved. Bottom ash from the same combustion unit was also characterized and leached using acid. The metal yields were moderate and the leachates had a tendency to form a gelatinous precipitate, which indicates that the solutions were actually over-saturated with respect to some components. This gel formation will cause problems for further metal purification processes, e.g. solvent extraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The impact of market and organizational characteristics on nursing care facility service innovation: a resource dependency perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszak-Holl, J; Zinn, J S; Mor, V

    1996-04-01

    Using resource dependency theory as a conceptual framework, this study investigates both the organizational and environmental factors associated with an emerging health care service delivery innovation, the provision of specialty care in designated units in nursing care facilities. We consider two types of specialty units, Alzheimer's Disease and subacute care. The Medicare/Medicaid Automated Certification Survey (MMACS) data file was merged with local market area data obtained from the 1992 Area Resource File and with state level regulatory data. The likelihood of providing Alzheimer's Disease or subacute care in dedicated units was estimated by separate logistic regressions. Results indicate that facilities with fewer Medicare patients are more likely to operate a dedicated Alzheimer's care unit, while facilities located in markets with a large HMO population and greater hospital supply are more likely to operate a subacute care unit. While competition among nursing homes, for the most part, is an incentive to innovate, greater regulatory stringency appears to constrain the development of specialty care units of both types. Finally, organizational characteristics (e.g., size and proprietary status) appear to be important enabling factors influencing the propensity to provide specialty care in dedicated units. Nursing care facilities are moving toward providing specialty care units partly as a response to a growing demand by resource providers and to maintain a competitive edge in tighter markets. Loosening regulation directed at cost containment would further encourage the development of specialty care but should be preceded by some evaluation of population needs for specialty care and the effectiveness of specialty care units.

  17. Enhanced change detection index for disaster response, recovery assessment and monitoring of buildings and critical facilities-A case study for Muzzaffarabad, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alwis Pitts, Dilkushi A.; So, Emily

    2017-12-01

    The availability of Very High Resolution (VHR) optical sensors and a growing image archive that is frequently updated, allows the use of change detection in post-disaster recovery and monitoring for robust and rapid results. The proposed semi-automated GIS object-based method uses readily available pre-disaster GIS data and adds existing knowledge into the processing to enhance change detection. It also allows targeting specific types of changes pertaining to similar man-made objects such as buildings and critical facilities. The change detection method is based on pre/post normalized index, gradient of intensity, texture and edge similarity filters within the object and a set of training data. More emphasis is put on the building edges to capture the structural damage in quantifying change after disaster. Once the change is quantified, based on training data, the method can be used automatically to detect change in order to observe recovery over time in potentially large areas. Analysis over time can also contribute to obtaining a full picture of the recovery and development after disaster, thereby giving managers a better understanding of productive management and recovery practices. The recovery and monitoring can be analyzed using the index in zones extending from to epicentre of disaster or administrative boundaries over time.

  18. End-of-life vehicle recycling : state of the art of resource recovery from shredder residue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Duranceau, C. M.; Pomykala, J. A.; Spangenberger, J. S. (Energy Systems)

    2011-02-22

    Each year, more than 25 million vehicles reach the end of their service life throughout the world, and this number is rising rapidly because the number of vehicles on the roads is rapidly increasing. In the United States, more than 95% of the 10-15 million scrapped vehicles annually enter a comprehensive recycling infrastructure that includes auto parts recyclers/dismantlers, remanufacturers, and material recyclers (shredders). Today, over 75% of automotive materials, primarily the metals, are profitably recycled via (1) parts reuse and parts and components remanufacturing and (2) ultimately by the scrap processing (shredding) industry. The process by which the scrap processors recover metal scrap from automobiles involves shredding the obsolete automobile hulks, along with other obsolete metal-containing products (such as white goods, industrial scrap, and demolition debris), and recovering the metals from the shredded material. The single largest source of recycled ferrous scrap for the iron and steel industry is obsolete automobiles. The non-metallic fraction that remains after the metals are recovered from the shredded materials - commonly called shredder residue - constitutes about 25% of the weight of the vehicle, and it is disposed of in landfills. This practice is not environmentally friendly, wastes valuable resources, and may become uneconomical. Therefore, it is not sustainable. Over the past 15-20 years, a significant amount of research and development has been undertaken to enhance the recycle rate of end-of-life vehicles, including enhancing dismantling techniques and improving remanufacturing operations. However, most of the effort has been focused on developing technology to separate and recover non-metallic materials, such as polymers, from shredder residue. To make future vehicles more energy efficient, more lightweighting materials - primarily polymers, polymer composites, high-strength steels, and aluminum - will be used in manufacturing these

  19. Adolescents' physical activity: competition between perceived neighborhood sport facilities and home media resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Bonny Yee-Man; Cerin, Ester; Ho, Sai-Yin; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lo, Wing-Sze; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2010-04-01

    To examine the independent, competing, and interactive effects of perceived availability of specific types of media in the home and neighborhood sport facilities on adolescents' leisure-time physical activity (PA). Survey data from 34 369 students in 42 Hong Kong secondary schools were collected (2006-07). Respondents reported moderate-to-vigorous leisure-time PA, presence of sport facilities in the neighborhood and of media equipment in the home. Being sufficiently physically active was defined as engaging in at least 30 minutes of non-school leisure-time PA on a daily basis. Logistic regression and post-estimation linear combinations of regression coefficients were used to examine the independent and competing effects of sport facilities and media equipment on leisure-time PA. Perceived availability of sport facilities was positively (OR(boys) = 1.17; OR(girls) = 1.26), and that of computer/Internet negatively (OR(boys) = 0.48; OR(girls) = 0.41), associated with being sufficiently active. A significant positive association between video game console and being sufficiently active was found in girls (OR(girls) = 1.19) but not in boys. Compared with adolescents without sport facilities and media equipment, those who reported sport facilities only were more likely to be physically active (OR(boys) = 1.26; OR(girls) = 1.34), while those who additionally reported computer/Internet were less likely to be physically active (OR(boys) = 0.60; OR(girls) = 0.54). Perceived availability of sport facilities in the neighborhood may positively impact on adolescents' level of physical activity. However, having computer/Internet may cancel out the effects of active opportunities in the neighborhood. This suggests that physical activity programs for adolescents need to consider limiting the access to computer-mediated communication as an important intervention component.

  20. How far are we from closing the loop of sewage resource recovery? A real picture of municipal wastewater treatment plants in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Matteo; Foladori, Paola; Guglielmi, Lorena; Bertanza, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a broad-scale survey of resource recovery implementation in Italian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first survey comprising a large number of WWTPs done in Europe: more than 600 plants were investigated, representing a treated load of around 20 million population equivalent (≈25% of the total in Italy). Conventional and innovative options for both material and energy recovery along the water and sludge line were surveyed, in order to i) offer a real and complete picture of the current state of resource recovery in WWTPs, and ii) underline key aspects and potential areas for improvements, as a baseline for future developments in the direction of more sustainable plants. Survey outcomes showed that resource recovery is just in its infancy in sewage treatment: only 40% of plants perform at least one option for material/energy recovery. The action most often implemented is recovery of material from surplus sludge for agricultural purposes and the internal reuse of treated effluent as water for various types of plant maintenance. The production of energy from biogas also occurs frequently but only in large plants. On the other hand, some well-known options, such as external reuse of treated effluent or nutrients recovery, were implemented only in a minority of plants: this is likely due to limitations resulting either from strict regulation or difficulty placing recovered products on the market. In conclusion, an overall explanation of these driving forces within the system is explored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the UNC Recovery Systems Facility, Wood River Junction, Rhode Island. Date of survey: August 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey to measure terrestrial gamma radiation was carried out over the UNC Recovery Systems facility located near Wood River Junction, Rhode Island. At the time of the survey (August 1979) materials were being processed at the facility. Gamma ray data were collected over a 3.63 km 2 area centered on the facility by flying north-south lines spaced 60 m apart. Processed data indicated that detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with those expected from normal background emitters, except at certain locations described in this report. Average exposure rates 1 m above the ground, as calculated from the aerial data, are presented in the form of an isopleth map. No ground sample data were taken at the time of the aerial survey

  2. Incentives and compensation: providing resources for communities hosting low-level waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    State responsibility for the management of low-level radioactive waste necessitates the selection of candidate locations for a disposal facility. Concern over potential impacts can be expected from segments of the citizenry neighboring a proposed site. A number of national organizations comprising state and local officials have recommended the use of incentives and compensation to help offset the negative local impacts. This document explores that concept. Discussion provides background information on potential local impacts from a low-level waste facility and considers the nature and types of incentives and compensation benefits that could be provided. The document then examines realistic options for planning and implementing the benefit program. This information is intended, primarily, to assist state officials - executive, legislative, and agency - in planning for and managing low-level waste disposal facilities

  3. Comparison through a LCA evaluation analysis of food waste disposal options from the perspective of global warming and resource recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi-Hyung; Kim, Jung-Wk

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated feed manufacturing including dry feeding and wet feeding, composting, and landfilling for food waste disposal options from the perspective of global warming and resource recovery. The method of the expanded system boundaries was employed in order to compare different by-products. The whole stages of disposal involved in the systems such as separate discharge, collection, transportation, treatment, and final disposal, were included in the system boundary and evaluated. The Global Warming Potential generated from 1 tonne of food wastes for each disposal system was analyzed by the life cycle assessment method. The results showed that 200 kg of CO 2 -eq could be produced from dry feeding process, 61 kg of CO 2 -eq from wet feeding process, 123 kg of CO 2 -eq from composting process, and 1010 kg of CO 2 -eq from landfilling. Feed manufacturing and composting, the common treatment methods currently employed, have been known to be environment friendlier than other methods. However, this study shows that they can negatively affect the environment if their by-products are not appropriately utilized as intended.

  4. Comparison through a LCA evaluation analysis of food waste disposal options from the perspective of global warming and resource recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi-Hyung, E-mail: mhkim9@snu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Planning, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Wk, E-mail: kimjw@snu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Planning, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-01

    This study evaluated feed manufacturing including dry feeding and wet feeding, composting, and landfilling for food waste disposal options from the perspective of global warming and resource recovery. The method of the expanded system boundaries was employed in order to compare different by-products. The whole stages of disposal involved in the systems such as separate discharge, collection, transportation, treatment, and final disposal, were included in the system boundary and evaluated. The Global Warming Potential generated from 1 tonne of food wastes for each disposal system was analyzed by the life cycle assessment method. The results showed that 200 kg of CO{sub 2}-eq could be produced from dry feeding process, 61 kg of CO{sub 2}-eq from wet feeding process, 123 kg of CO{sub 2}-eq from composting process, and 1010 kg of CO{sub 2}-eq from landfilling. Feed manufacturing and composting, the common treatment methods currently employed, have been known to be environment friendlier than other methods. However, this study shows that they can negatively affect the environment if their by-products are not appropriately utilized as intended.

  5. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Restoration Project final report: Monitoring for evaluation of recovery and restoration of injured nearshore resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Kloecker, Kim; Dean, Tom; Colettie, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, we completed three consecutive years of full field sampling in WPWS for EVOS Restoration Project 10100750. Nearshore monitoring was conducted in collaboration with the NPS SWAN I&M program and, beginning in 2012, as part of the EVOSTC GWA program. Data collection was done in accordance with standard operating procedures set forth to monitor marine water chemistry and quality, marine intertidal invertebrates, kelps and seagrasses, marine birds, black oystercatchers, and sea otters. Summer sampling in 2012 represented the fourth year of sampling in WPWS (an initial year of sampling was done in WPWS in 2007; EVOS Restoration Project 070750). Based on our monitoring of nearshore species in WPWS, and comparisons of data from WPWS and other areas within the Gulf of Alaska, we have no evidence of continued injury to biological resources at the spatial scales we are monitoring. A key finding is that recovery of the sea otter population is no longer constrained by exposure to lingering oil; this is consistent with related EVOSTC studies on harlequin ducks (Restoration Project 12120114-Q). We anticipate continued annual nearshore monitoring in WPWS and at KATM and KEFJ under GWA, with data summaries and analyses including all three areas to provide a larger spatial and temporal context to the understanding of processes and patterns in nearshore ecosystems of the GOA which were impacted by the EVOS of 1989.

  6. A novel PSB-EDI system for high ammonia wastewater treatment, biomass production and nitrogen resource recovery: PSB system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hangyao; Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Guangming; Yan, Guokai; Lu, Haifeng; Sun, Liyan

    A novel process coupling photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) with electrodeionization (EDI) treatment was proposed to treat high ammonia wastewater and recover bio-resources and nitrogen. The first stage (PSB treatment) was used to degrade organic pollutants and accumulate biomass, while the second stage (EDI) was for nitrogen removal and recovery. The first stage was the focus in this study. The results showed that using PSB to transform organic pollutants in wastewater into biomass was practical. PSB could acclimatize to wastewater with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 2,300 mg/L and an ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) concentration of 288-4,600 mg/L. The suitable pH was 6.0-9.0, the average COD removal reached 80%, and the biomass increased by an average of 9.16 times. The wastewater COD removal was independent of the NH4(+)-N concentration. Moreover, the PSB functioned effectively when the inoculum size was only 10 mg/L. The PSB-treated wastewater was then further handled in an EDI system. More than 90% of the NH4(+)-N was removed from the wastewater and condensed in the concentrate, which could be used to produce nitrogen fertilizer. In the whole system, the average NH4(+)-N removal was 94%, and the average NH4(+)-N condensing ratio was 10.0.

  7. Staffing Levels and Inpatient Outcomes at Military Health Care Facilities: A Resource-Based View

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yap, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    Using a Resource-Based Theory/View of the firm, this study examined if increased inpatient staffing levels at military hospitals can generate a competitive advantage based on better patient quality outcomes...

  8. GIS-based approach for defining bioenergy facilities location: A case study in Northern Spain based on marginal delivery costs and resources competition between facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panichelli, Luis; Gnansounou, Edgard [Laboratory of Energy Systems, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, LASEN-ICARE-ENAC, Station 18, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2008-04-15

    This paper presents a GIS-based decision support system for selecting least-cost bioenergy locations when there is a significant variability in biomass farmgate price and when more than one bioenergy plant with a fixed capacity has to be placed in the region. The methodology tackles the resources competition problem between energy facilities through a location-allocation model based on least-cost biomass quantities. Whole system least delivery cost including intermediate bioenergy products is estimated. The methodology is based on a case study where forest wood residues (FWR) from final cuttings (FCs) are used to produce torrefied wood (TW) in two torrefaction plants (TUs) that supply a gasification unit (GU) in order to produce electricity. The provinces of Navarra, Bizkaia, Gipuzkoa, Alava, La Rioja, Cantabria and Burgos are assessed in order to find the best locations for settling down the TUs and the GU according to biomass availability, FWR and TW marginal delivery costs. (author)

  9. Resource-poor settings: response, recovery, and research: care of the critically ill and injured during pandemics and disasters: CHEST consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiling, James; Burkle, Frederick M; West, T Eoin; Uyeki, Timothy M; Amundson, Dennis; Dominguez-Cherit, Guillermo; Gomersall, Charles D; Lim, Matthew L; Luyckx, Valerie; Sarani, Babak; Christian, Michael D; Devereaux, Asha V; Dichter, Jeffrey R; Kissoon, Niranjan

    2014-10-01

    Planning for mass critical care in resource-poor and constrained settings has been largely ignored, despite large, densely crowded populations who are prone to suffer disproportionately from natural disasters. As a result, disaster response has been suboptimal and in many instances hampered by lack of planning, education and training, information, and communication. The Resource-Poor Settings panel developed five key question domains; defining the term resource poor and using the traditional phases of the disaster cycle (mitigation/preparedness/response/recovery). Literature searches were conducted to identify evidence to answer the key questions in these areas. Given a lack of data on which to develop evidence-based recommendations, expert-opinion suggestions were developed, and consensus was achieved using a modified Delphi process. The five key questions were as follows: definition, capacity building and mitigation, what resources can we bring to bear to assist/surge, response, and reconstitution and recovery of host nation critical care capabilities. Addressing these led the panel to offer 33 suggestions. Because of the large number of suggestions, the results have been separated into two sections: part I, Infrastructure/Capacity in the accompanying article, and part II, Response/Recovery/Research in this article. A lack of rudimentary ICU resources and capacity to enhance services plagues resource-poor or constrained settings. Capacity building therefore entails preventative strategies and strengthening of primary health services. Assistance from other countries and organizations is often needed to mount a surge response. Moreover, the disengagement of these responding groups and host country recovery require active planning. Future improvements in all phases require active research activities.

  10. Perceptions of final-year nursing students on the facilities, resources and quality of education provided by schools in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, Perihan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the perceptions of final-year nursing students regarding the adequacy of education, resources and internships in preparation for graduation. The study design was a descriptive cross-sectional study of nursing students (n: 1804) in their final year of education and questionnaires were used to collect data. Information related to student-to-instructor ratios and internships was obtained from each institution. Most students reported receiving instruction or supervision by lecturers and clinicians who did not specialise in the field. Overall, students did not find the facilities, educational or technological resources and the quality of education offered by their respective schools adequate. The proportion of students who found the level of theoretical education, clinical practice and instructor support adequate was higher in state university colleges of nursing/faculties of health sciences than in state university schools of health sciences.

  11. Assessment of human resources for health using cross-national comparison of facility surveys in six countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Poz Mario R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health facility assessments are being increasingly used to measure and monitor indicators of health workforce performance, but the global evidence base remains weak. Partly this is due to the wide variability in assessment methods and tools, hampering comparability across and within countries and over time. The World Health Organization coordinated a series of facility-based surveys using a common approach in six countries: Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Jamaica, Mozambique, Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe. The objectives were twofold: to inform the development and monitoring of human resources for health (HRH policy within the countries; and to test and validate the use of standardized facility-based human resources assessment tools across different contexts. Methods The survey methodology drew on harmonized questionnaires and guidelines for data collection and processing. In accordance with the survey's dual objectives, this paper presents both descriptive statistics on a number of policy-relevant indicators for monitoring and evaluation of HRH as well as a qualitative assessment of the usefulness of the data collection tool for comparative analyses. Results The findings revealed a large diversity in both the organization of health services delivery and, in particular, the distribution and activities of facility-based health workers across the sampled countries. At the same time, some commonalities were observed, including the importance of nursing and midwifery personnel in the skill mix and the greater tendency of physicians to engage in dual practice. While the use of standardized questionnaires offered the advantage of enhancing cross-national comparability of the results, some limitations were noted, especially in relation to the categories used for occupations and qualifications that did not necessarily conform to the country situation. Conclusion With increasing experience in health facility assessments for HRH monitoring comes

  12. Post-Closure Report for Closed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Corrective Action Units, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada: For Fiscal Year 2015 (October 2014–September 2015), Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report serves as the combined annual report for post-closure activities for the following closed corrective action units (CAUs); CAU 90, Area 2 Bitcutter Containment; CAU 91, Area 3 U-3fi Injection Well; CAU 92, Area 6 Decon Pond Facility; CAU 110, Area 3 WMD U-3ax/bl Crater; CAU 111, Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits; and CAU 112, Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches. This report covers fiscal year 2015 (October 2014 through September 2015). The post-closure requirements for these sites are described in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit Number NEV HW0101 and are summarized in each CAU-specific section in Section 1.0 of this report. The results of the inspections, a summary of maintenance activities, and an evaluation of monitoring data are presented in this report.

  13. Post-Closure Report for Closed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Corrective Action Units, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada: For Fiscal Year 2015 (October 2014-September 2015), Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This report serves as the combined annual report for post-closure activities for the following closed corrective action units (CAUs); CAU 90, Area 2 Bitcutter Containment; CAU 91, Area 3 U-3fi Injection Well; CAU 92, Area 6 Decon Pond Facility; CAU 110, Area 3 WMD U-3ax/bl Crater; CAU 111, Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits; and CAU 112, Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches. This report covers fiscal year 2015 (October 2014 through September 2015). The post-closure requirements for these sites are described in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit Number NEV HW0101 and are summarized in each CAU-specific section in Section 1.0 of this report. The results of the inspections, a summary of maintenance activities, and an evaluation of monitoring data are presented in this report.

  14. A midsize reactor facility - A regional resource for research and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernetson, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the University of Florida Training Reactor (UFTR) is to serve the regional needs of Florida and the Southeast for access to quality reactor usage. Well-advertised capabilities of the facility support diversified usages that include education, training, research, service, and public information programs to address the needs of a broad spectrum of users ranging from high school students and teachers, to university researchers, and even the occasional service user. Despite the midsize power of the facility, the UFTR's status as the only nonpower reactor within 350 miles in one of our largest states means that it is uniquely situated to contribute in these various areas in ways usually reserved for larger facilities. Nine state universities and a well-developed community college system in addition to private schools and a growing complement of progressive high schools assure a broad-based user community. The key to accomplishing mission objectives is to continue diversification and improvement of both the reactor and associated experimental capabilities to meet the needs of this user community

  15. Establishing the NeuroRecovery Network Community Fitness and Wellness facilities: multi-site fitness facilities provide activity-based interventions and assessments for evidence-based functional gains in neurologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolle, Heather; Rapacz, Andrew; Weintraub, Barry; Shogren, Carrie; Harkema, Susan J; Gibson, Jeremy L

    2017-08-17

    Physical fitness is a necessity for those living with a spinal cord injury, yet access to fitness facilities, equipment, and specially trained fitness experts are limited. This article introduces the concept of a network of fitness facilities specially geared towards individuals with spinal cord injury and other neurological disorders. The Community Fitness and Wellness branch of the NeuroRecovery Network was created to provide a continuum of care after traditional rehabilitation for individuals living with a spinal cord injury and other neurological disorders. Community Fitness and Wellness facilities translate activity-based interventions performed during rehabilitation into a community setting as well as provide other fitness and wellness opportunities. Community Fitness and Wellness facilities are staffed by professionals with training on the specialized needs of individuals living with spinal cord injury or other neurological disorders. Standardized assessments evaluate functional, health, and quality of life gains at regular intervals. A national database gathers information on standardized interventions and assessment outcomes providing a mechanism for evaluation of interventions performed in the community setting. The establishment of Community Fitness and Wellness facilities allows for the quick translation and evaluation of novel, effective approaches from research to individuals in the community. Implications for Rehabilitation Fitness needs of individuals with spinal cord injury living in the community necessitate the use of special equipment and trained staff. Community Fitness and Wellness Programs offer specially trained staff and adaptive equipment providing a continuity of care for those with spinal cord injuries and other neurological disorders.

  16. Economic viability of distributed energy resources relative to substation and feeder facilities expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akorede, M. F.; Hizam, H.; Aris, I.

    2010-01-01

    Distributed energy resources have numerous benefits, of which is transmission network upgrade deferral. This application is particularly important where there are constraints in upgrading of the existing or construction of new generation units and transmission circuits. This paper presents a cost...

  17. Preparation of radioactive ''mixed'' waste samples for measurement of RCRA [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act] organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomkins, B.A.; Caton, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    A radioactive ''mixed'' waste typically contains alpha-, beta-, or gamma-emitting radionuclides and varying quantities of semivolatile or volatile organic species, some or all of which may be named specifically by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Because there are no acceptable means available currently for disposing of these mixed wastes, they are presently stored above-ground in sealed drums. For this reason, analytical procedures which can determine RCRA organics in radioactive waste are necessary for deciding the proper approach for disposal. An important goal of this work is the development of methods for preparing mixed waste samples in a manner which allows the RCRA organics to be measured in conventional organic analysis laboratories without special precautions. Analytical procedures developed for handling mixed waste samples must satisfy not only the usual constraints present in any trace-level organic chemical determination, but also those needed to insure the protection of the operator from radioactive contamination. Consequently, procedures should be designed to use the least amount of radioactive sample commensurate with achieving acceptable sensitivity with the RCRA analytical methods. Furthermore, the unusual laboratory glassware which would normally be used should be replaced with disposable materials wherever possible, in order to reduce the ''clean-up'' time required, and thereby reduce the operator's exposure to radioactivity. Actual sample handling should be reduced to the absolute minimum. Finally, the final isolate must exhibit a sufficiently low level of alpha, beta, or gamma activity to permit detailed characterization in a conventional organic analysis laboratory. 4 refs., 5 tabs

  18. Performance test results of noninvasive characterization of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act surrogate waste by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Streier, G.G.

    1997-03-01

    During FY-96, a performance test was carried out with funding from the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the noninvasive elemental assay capabilities of commercial companies for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals present in 8-gal drums containing surrogate waste. Commercial companies were required to be experienced in the use of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) techniques and to have a prototype assay system with which to conduct the test assays. Potential participants were identified through responses to a call for proposals advertised in the Commerce Business Daily and through personal contacts. Six companies were originally identified. Two of these six were willing and able to participate in the performance test, as described in the test plan, with some subsidizing from the DOE MWFA. The tests were conducted with surrogate sludge waste because (1) a large volume of this type of waste awaits final disposition and (2) sludge tends to be somewhat homogeneous. The surrogate concentrations of the above RCRA metals ranged from {approximately} 300 ppm to {approximately} 20,000 ppm. The lower limit was chosen as an estimate of the expected sensitivity of detection required by noninvasive, pretreatment elemental assay systems to be of value for operational and compliance purposes and to still be achievable with state-of-the-art methods of analysis. The upper limit of {approximately} 20,000 ppm was chosen because it is the opinion of the author that assay above this concentration level is within current state-of-the-art methods for most RCRA constituents. This report is organized into three parts: Part 1, Test Plan to Evaluate the Technical Status of Noninvasive Elemental Assay Techniques for Hazardous Waste; Part 2, Participants` Results; and Part 3, Evaluation of and Comments on Participants` Results.

  19. Insects, Fires, and Climate Change: Implications for Snow Cover, Water Resources and Ecosystem Recovery in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, P. D.; Harpold, A. A.; Biederman, J. A.; Litvak, M. E.; Broxton, P. D.; Gochis, D.; Molotch, N. P.; Troch, P. A.; Ewers, B. E.

    2012-12-01

    Unprecedented levels of insect induced tree mortality and massive wildfires both have spread through the forests of Western North America over the last decade. Warming temperatures and increased drought stress have been implicated as major factors in the increasing spatial extent and frequency of these forest disturbances, but it is unclear how simultaneous changes in forest structure and climate will interact to affect either downstream water resources or the regeneration and recovery of forested ecosystems. Because both streamflow and ecosystem productivity depend on seasonal snowmelt, a critical knowledge gap exists in how these disturbances will interact with a changing climate to control to the amount, timing, and the partitioning of seasonal snow cover This presentation will address this knowledge gap by synthesizing recent work on snowpack dynamics and ecosystem productivity from seasonally snow-covered forests along a gradient of snow depth and duration from Arizona to Montana. These include undisturbed sites, recently burned forests, and areas of extensive insect-induced forest mortality. Both before-after and control-impacted studies of forest disturbance on snow accumulation and ablation suggest that the spatial scale of snow distribution increases following disturbance, but net snow water input likely will not increase under a warming climate. While forest disturbance changes spatial scale of snowpack partitioning, the amount and especially the timing of snow cover accumulation and ablation are strongly related to interannual variability in ecosystem productivity with both earlier snowmelt and later snow accumulation associated with decreased carbon uptake. These observations suggest that the ecosystem services of water provision and carbon storage may be very different in the forests that regenerate after disturbance.

  20. Performance test results of noninvasive characterization of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act surrogate waste by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Streier, G.G.

    1997-03-01

    During FY-96, a performance test was carried out with funding from the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the noninvasive elemental assay capabilities of commercial companies for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals present in 8-gal drums containing surrogate waste. Commercial companies were required to be experienced in the use of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) techniques and to have a prototype assay system with which to conduct the test assays. Potential participants were identified through responses to a call for proposals advertised in the Commerce Business Daily and through personal contacts. Six companies were originally identified. Two of these six were willing and able to participate in the performance test, as described in the test plan, with some subsidizing from the DOE MWFA. The tests were conducted with surrogate sludge waste because (1) a large volume of this type of waste awaits final disposition and (2) sludge tends to be somewhat homogeneous. The surrogate concentrations of the above RCRA metals ranged from ∼ 300 ppm to ∼ 20,000 ppm. The lower limit was chosen as an estimate of the expected sensitivity of detection required by noninvasive, pretreatment elemental assay systems to be of value for operational and compliance purposes and to still be achievable with state-of-the-art methods of analysis. The upper limit of ∼ 20,000 ppm was chosen because it is the opinion of the author that assay above this concentration level is within current state-of-the-art methods for most RCRA constituents. This report is organized into three parts: Part 1, Test Plan to Evaluate the Technical Status of Noninvasive Elemental Assay Techniques for Hazardous Waste; Part 2, Participants' Results; and Part 3, Evaluation of and Comments on Participants' Results

  1. Evolution and development of laws, regulations, criteria and human resources to ensure the safe decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keinmeesuke, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Research Reactor, TRR-1 (renamed TRR-1/M1 after core replacement) in Thailand has been operated for more than 43 years. This ageing reactor will be facing shutdown in the near future. Laws and Regulations have been continually developed to assure the safe operation of nuclear facilities, particularly of the research reactor, and to ensure the safe decommissioning of the reactor after its operational life. However, the Thai nuclear legislation is still not applicable to a number of areas. Office of Atoms for Peace is working toward development of a new consolidated Act. In addition, the licensing steps for modification and decommissioning are added to the new Ministerial Regulation and to the new guidance documents on the licensing process for research reactors. Regulations, guidance and criteria for approval of decommissioning are being developed using the IAEA Safety Standards Series as the main basis for drafting. Human resource development is considered as one of the key important factor to ensure safe decommissioning of the installation. Staffing and training of the operating organization and the regulatory body personnel have been addressed to ensure the achievement of competency level. Simple methods and technologies are the best means for implementation while learning from experience of others will help and support us in our attempt to be the 'second First'. IAEA advice and assistance on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities in countries with limited resources is desirable. (author)

  2. Environmental assessment operation of the HB-Line facility and frame waste recovery process for production of Pu-238 oxide at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0948, addressing future operations of the HB-Line facility and the Frame Waste Recovery process at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, DOE has concluded that, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact

  3. The NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility (RPIF) Network: A Key Resource for Accessing and Using Planetary Spatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The role of the NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility (RPIF) Network is evolving as new science-ready spatial data products continue to be created and as key historical planetary data sets are digitized. Specifically, the RPIF Network is poised to serve specialized knowledge and services in a user-friendly manner that removes most barriers to locating, accessing, and exploiting planetary spatial data, thus providing a critical data access role within a spatial data infrastructure. The goal of the Network is to provide support and training to a broad audience of planetary spatial data users. In an effort to meet the planetary science community's evolving needs, we are focusing on the following objectives: Maintain and improve the delivery of historical data accumulated over the past four decades so as not to lose critical, historical information. This is being achieved by systematically digitizing fragile materials, allowing increased access and preserving them at the same time. Help users locate, access, visualize, and exploit planetary science data. Many of the facilities have begun to establish Guest User Facilities that allow researchers to use and/or be trained on GIS equipment and other specialized tools like Socet Set/GXP photogrammetry workstations for generating digital elevation maps. Improve the connection between the Network nodes while also leveraging the unique resources of each node. To achieve this goal, each facility is developing and sharing searchable databases of their collections, including robust metadata in a standards compliant way. Communicate more effectively and regularly with the planetary science community in an effort to make potential users aware of resources and services provided by the Network, while also engaging community members in discussions about community needs. Provide a regional resource for the science community, colleges, universities, museums, media, and the public to access planetary data. Introduce new strategies for

  4. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Louisiana and Texas. Volume 3, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of Louisiana and Texas. Individual reports for six other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS)

  5. CONTAMINATED PROCESS EQUIPMENT REMOVAL FOR THE DECOMMISSIONG AND DECONTAMINATION OF THE 232-Z CONTAMINATED WASTE RECOVERY PROCESS FACILITY AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOPKINS, A.M.; MINETTE, M.J.; KLOS, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the unique challenges encountered and subsequent resolutions to accomplish the deactivation and decontamination of a plutonium ash contaminated building. The 232-Z Contaminated Waste Recovery Process Facility at the Plutonium Finishing Plant was used to recover plutonium from process wastes such as rags, gloves, containers and other items by incinerating the items and dissolving the resulting ash. The incineration process resulted in a light-weight plutonium ash residue that was highly mobile in air. This light-weight ash coated the incinerator's process equipment, which included gloveboxes, blowers, filters, furnaces, ducts, and filter boxes. Significant airborne contamination (over 1 million derived air concentration hours [DAC]) was found in the scrubber cell of the facility. Over 1300 grams of plutonium held up in the process equipment and attached to the walls had to be removed, packaged and disposed. This ash had to be removed before demolition of the building could take place

  6. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Kansas and Oklahoma. Volume 5, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma for five other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to Kansas' known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD ampersand D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD ampersand D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the state of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma and the nation as a whole

  7. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of New Mexico and Wyoming. Volume 4, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of New Mexico and Wyoming. Individual reports for six other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to New Mexico's known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD ampersand D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD ampersand D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the states of New Mexico and Wyoming and the nation as a whole

  8. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of California. Volume 2, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As a part of this larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of California. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to California's known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD ampersand D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD ampersand D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, California oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the state of California and the nation as a whole

  9. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for the Grace Road Site (631-22G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E.

    1998-10-02

    This report summarizes the activities and documents the results of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation conducted at Grace Road Site on the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina.

  10. Ground Water Monitoring Requirements for Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The groundwater monitoring requirements for hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDFs) are just one aspect of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste management strategy for protecting human health and the

  11. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for the Grace Road Site (631-22G)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities and documents the results of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation conducted at Grace Road Site on the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina

  12. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume III. Resources and fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    The ability of uranium supply and the rest of the nuclear fuel cycle to meet the demand for nuclear power is an important consideration in future domestic and international planning. Accordingly, the purpose of this assessment is to evaluate the adequacy of potential supply for various nuclear resources and fuel cycle facilities in the United States and in the world outside centrally planned economy areas (WOCA). Although major emphasis was placed on uranium supply and demand, material resources (thorium and heavy water) and facility resources (separative work, spent fuel storage, and reprocessing) were also considered

  13. 75 FR 33821 - Recovery Fact Sheet RP9580.205, Public Assistance Funding to Public Housing Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is providing notice of the availability of the final Recovery Fact Sheet... the fact sheet at the Office of Chief Counsel, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Room 835, 500 C... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency [Docket ID FEMA-2010-0034...

  14. Overview of the nuclear fuel resources – seawater uranium recovery program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, S.

    2014-01-01

    For nuclear energy to remain a sustainable energy source, there must be assurance that an economically viable supply of nuclear fuel is available. One major goal of the Fuel Cycle Technology Research and Development (R&D) Program in the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is to develop sustainable fuel cycles options. The development of technology to recover uranium from seawater has the potential to fulfill this program goal. Seawater uranium recovery technology is identified in the U.S. DOE NE Roadmap as an area most appropriate for federal involvement to support long-term, “game-changing” approach. Seawater contains more than 4 billion metric tons of dissolved uranium. This unconventional uranium resource, combined with a suitable extraction cost, can potentially meet the uranium demands for centuries to come. The challenge, however, is the low concentration of uranium in seawater – approximately 3.3 ppb. A multidisciplinary team from the U.S. national laboratories, universities, and research institutes has been assembled to address this challenge. Polymeric adsorbents materials containing amidoxime ligands, developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), have demonstrated great promise for the extraction of uranium from seawater. These ORNL adsorbents showed adsorption capacities for the extraction of uranium from seawater that exceed 3 mg U/g adsorbent in testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Marine Sciences Laboratory. A key component of this novel technology lies in the unique high surface-area polyethylene fibers that considerably increase the surface area and thus the grafting yield of functional groups without compromising its mechanical properties. In addition, high surface area nanomaterial adsorbents are under development at ORNL with the goal of increasing uranium adsorption capacity by taking advantage of the high surface areas and tunable porosity of carbon-based nanomaterials

  15. Resource conservation and recovery act draft hazardous waste facility permit: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Attachments: Volume 4 of 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Volume IV contains the following attachments for Module IV: VOC monitoring plan for bin-room tests (Appendix D12); bin emission control and VOC monitoring system drawings; bin scale test room ventilation drawings; WIPP supplementary roof support system, underground storage area, room 1, panel 1, DOE/WIPP 91-057; and WIPP supplementary roof support system, room 1, panel 1, geotechnical field data analysis bi-annual report, DOE/WIPP 92-024.

  16. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford Facilities: Progress report, July 1--September 30, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-12-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, completion/inspection reports, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled, completed, or logged during this period. Volume 2 can be found on microfiche in the back pocket of Volume 1. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the sampled aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality

  17. Development of a facility for the recovery of high-purity hydrogen from coke oven gas by pressure swing adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, M; Saida, K; Uenoyama, K; Sugishita, M; Imokawa, K

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports 1) a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system comprising three towers, each packed with three different adsorbents; and 2) studies of the application of this system to the recovery of high-purity hydrogen from coke oven gas. Running the adsorption plant at 35 C and 9.5 kg/cm/sup 2/ gives optimum operating stability and economy. In addition, an optimum time cycle for the three-tower system has been developed. Gas from the PSA equipment proper still contains traces of oxygen. This is removed in a further tower packed with Pd catalyst. The ultimate recovery of hydrogen is closely related to its concentration in the raw coke oven gas and to the degree of purity attained. 3 references.

  18. Site Selection and Resource Allocation of Oil Spill Emergency Base for Offshore Oil Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunbin; Liu, Jingxian; Wei, Lei; Wu, Weihuang

    2018-02-01

    Based on the analysis of the historical data about oil spill accidents in the Bohai Sea, this paper discretizes oil spilled source into a limited number of spill points. According to the probability of oil spill risk, the demand for salvage forces at each oil spill point is evaluated. Aiming at the specific location of the rescue base around the Bohai Sea, a cost-benefit analysis is conducted to determine the total cost of disasters for each rescue base. Based on the relationship between the oil spill point and the rescue site, a multi-objective optimization location model for the oil spill rescue base in the Bohai Sea region is established. And the genetic algorithm is used to solve the optimization problem, and determine the emergency rescue base optimization program and emergency resources allocation ratio.

  19. Marine Hydrokinetic Resource Assessment for Domestic Army, Air Force, and Coast Guard Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, Robi J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ingram, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-24

    NREL/DOE undertook a study for the US Army, Coast Guard and Air Force to investigate the potential for marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices to meet the energy load at coastal bases in the future as MHK technology evolves. A wide range of data from tidal and wave, environmental, shipping, etc. databases were used to screen the DOD bases. A series of scoring algorithms were developed to facilitate site review to lead to eventual down select for more detailed, site specific bathymetric tidal resource evaluation. The Army's Camp Edwards, MA and the Coast Guard's Training Center Cape May, NJ (TRACEN Cape May) were selected and the Georgia Institute of Technology performed the analyses. An NREL/DOE MHK team visited the bases to further discuss with the base personnel MHK technology's potential for providing power to the bases in the future and frame the potential impact to existing power systems.

  20. Post-Closure Report for Closed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Corrective Action Units, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for Fiscal Year 2011 (October 2010-September 2011)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report serves as the combined annual report for post-closure activities for the following closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs): (1) CAU 90, Area 2 Bitcutter Containment; (2) CAU 91, Area 3 U-3fi Injection Well; (3) CAU 92, Area 6 Decon Pond Facility; (4) CAU 110, Area 3 WMD U-3ax/bl Crater; and (5) CAU 112, Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches. This report covers fiscal year 2011 (October 2010-September 2011). The post-closure requirements for these sites are described in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit Number NEV HW0101 and summarized in each CAU-specific section in Section 1.0 of this report. Site inspections are conducted semiannually at CAUs 90 and 91 and quarterly at CAUs 92, 110, and 112. Additional inspections are conducted at CAU 92 if precipitation occurs in excess of 0.50 inches in a 24-hour period. Inspections include an evaluation of the condition of the units and identification of any deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the units. The condition of covers, fencing, signs, gates, and locks is documented. In addition, soil moisture monitoring and subsidence surveys are conducted at CAU 110. The results of the inspections, summary of maintenance activities, results of vegetations surveys, and analysis of monitoring data are presented in this report. Copies of the inspection checklists are included as Appendix A. Field notes completed during each inspection are included in Appendix B. Photographs taken during the inspections are included in Appendix C. It is recommended to continue semiannual inspections at CAUs 90 and 91; quarterly inspections at CAUs 92, 110, and 112; and additional inspections at CAU 92 if precipitation occurs in excess of 0.50 inches in a 24-hour period. At CAU 92, it is recommended to remove the wave barriers, as they have not proven to be necessary to protect the cover. At CAU 110, it is recommended to continue annual vegetation monitoring and soil moisture monitoring, and to reduce the frequency of

  1. Using Value Stream Mapping to improve quality of care in low-resource facility settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Rohit; Rothschild, Claire; Alabi, Funmi; Wachira, Eric; Muigai, Faith; Pearson, Nick

    2017-11-01

    Jacaranda Health (JH) is a Kenya-based organization that attempts to provide affordable, high-quality maternal and newborn healthcare through a chain of private health facilities in Nairobi. JH needed to adopted quality improvement as an organization-wide strategy to optimize effectiveness and efficiency. Value Stream Mapping, a Lean Management tool, was used to engage staff in prioritizing opportunities to improve clinical outcomes and patient-centered quality of care. Implementation was accomplished through a five-step process: (i) leadership engagement and commitment; (ii) staff training; (iii) team formation; (iv) process walkthrough; and (v) construction and validation. The Value Stream Map allowed the organization to come together and develop an end-to-end view of the process of care at JH and to select improvement opportunities for the entire system. The Value Stream Map is a simple visual tool that allows organizations to engage staff at all levels to gain commitment around quality improvement efforts. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. The gap in human resources to deliver the guaranteed package of prevention and health promotion services at urban and rural primary care facilities in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline Elizabeth; Nigenda, Gustavo; Bärnighausen, Till; Velasco-Mondragón, Héctor Eduardo; Darney, Blair Grant

    2017-08-03

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the gap between the available and the ideal supply of human resources (physicians, nurses, and health promoters) to deliver the guaranteed package of prevention and health promotion services at urban and rural primary care facilities in Mexico. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study using a convenience sample. We selected 20 primary health facilities in urban and rural areas in 10 states of Mexico. We calculated the available and the ideal supply of human resources in these facilities using estimates of time available, used, and required to deliver health prevention and promotion services. We performed descriptive statistics and bivariate hypothesis testing using Wilcoxon and Friedman tests. Finally, we conducted a sensitivity analysis to test whether the non-normal distribution of our time variables biased estimation of available and ideal supply of human resources. The comparison between available and ideal supply for urban and rural primary health care facilities reveals a low supply of physicians. On average, primary health care facilities are lacking five physicians when they were estimated with time used and nine if they were estimated with time required (P human resources in primary health facilities.

  3. Pollution control and metal resource recovery for low grade automobile shredder residue: a mechanism, bioavailability and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jiwan; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2015-04-01

    Automobile shredder residue (ASR) is considered as hazardous waste in Japan and European countries due to presence of heavy metals. This study was carried on the extraction characteristics of heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr) from automobile shredder residue (ASR). The effects of pH, temperature, particle size, and liquid/solid ratio (L/S) on the extraction of heavy metals were investigated. The recovery rate of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr increased with increasing extraction temperature and L/S ratio. The lowest pH 2, the highest L/S ratio, and the smallest particle size showed the highest recovery of heavy metals from ASR. The highest recovery rates were in the following order: Mn > Ni > Cr > Fe. Reduction of mobility factor for the heavy metals was observed in all the size fractions after the recovery. The results of the kinetic analysis for various experimental conditions supported that the reaction rate of the recovery process followed a second order reaction model (R(2) ⩾ 0.95). The high availability of water-soluble fractions of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr from the low grade ASR could be potential hazards to the environment. Bioavailability and toxicity risk of heavy metals reduced significantly with pH 2 of distilled water. However, water is a cost-effective extracting agent for the recovery of heavy metals and it could be useful for reducing the toxicity of ASR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Kansas: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Kansas. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Kansas oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit the state of Kansas and the nation as a whole.

  5. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Louisiana: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Louisiana. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Louisiana oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit both the state of Louisiana and the nation as a whole.

  6. Design criteria document, Maintenance Shop/Support Facility, K-Basin Essential Systems Recovery, Project W-405

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strehlow, M.W.B.

    1994-01-01

    During the next 10 years a substantial amount of work is scheduled in the K-Basin Area related to the storage and eventual removal of irradiated N-Reactor fuel. Currently, maintenance support activities are housed in existing structures that were constructed in the early 1950's. These forty-year-old facilities and their supporting services are substandard, leading to inefficiencies. Because of numerous identified deficiencies and the planned increase in the numbers of K-Basin maintenance personnel, adequate maintenance support facilities that allow efficient operations are needed. The objective of this sub-project of Project W-405 is to provide a maintenance and storage facility which meets the K-Basin Maintenance Organization requirements as defined in Attachment 1. In Reference A, existing guidelines and requirements were used to allocate space for the maintenance activities and to provide a layout concept (See Attachment 2). The design solution includes modifying the existing 190 K-E building to provide space for shops, storage, and administration support functions. The primary reason for the modification is to simplify siting/permitting and make use of existing infrastructure. In addition, benefits relative to design loads will be realized by having the structure inside 190K-E. The new facility will meet the Maintenance Organization approved requirements in Attachment 1 relating to maintenance activities, storage areas, and personnel support services. This sub-project will also resolve outstanding findings and/or deficiencies relating to building fire protection, HVAC requirements, lighting replacement/upgrades, and personnel facilities. Compliance with building codes, local labor agreements and safety standards will result

  7. Data resources for assessing regional impacts of energy facilities on health and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Atmospheric emissions from fossil-fuel power plants and other sources continue to cause concern about impacts of these pollutants on human health and the environment. Assessing these impacts requires a regional-scale approach that integrates spatial and temporal patterns of emissions, environmental factors and human populations. Two examples of regional studies are presented, including a comparison of patterns of coal-fired power plants and selected diseases and identification of areas sensitive to acid rain which may transfer acid and toxic metals to aquatic systems and man. Energy, socio-economic, health and environmental data are often collected and summarized for counties in the USA. Counties are well-defined geopolitical units which can be used to integrate data, to aggregate data into larger regional units, and to display data as thematic maps. However, researchers are too frequently faced with the tedious task of assembling and reformatting files from several data-collection agencies prior to conducting regional studies. Systems such as UPGRADE, DIDS, SEEDIS and Geoecology have standardized many files into integrated data bases which utilize counties as the primary spatial unit. These systems are compared and data resources discussed. (author)

  8. The effects of crew resource management on teamwork and safety climate at Veterans Health Administration facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Miriam E; Welsh, Deborah E; Paull, Douglas E; Knowles, Regina S; DeLeeuw, Lori D; Hemphill, Robin R; Essen, Keith E; Sculli, Gary L

    2017-11-09

    Communication failure is a significant source of adverse events in health care and a leading root cause of sentinel events reported to the Joint Commission. The Veterans Health Administration National Center for Patient Safety established Clinical Team Training (CTT) as a comprehensive program to enhance patient safety and to improve communication and teamwork among health care professionals. CTT is based on techniques used in aviation's Crew Resource Management (CRM) training. The aviation industry has reached a significant safety record in large part related to the culture change generated by CRM and sustained by its recurrent implementation. This article focuses on the improvement of communication, teamwork, and patient safety by utilizing a standardized, CRM-based, interprofessional, immersive training in diverse clinical areas. The Teamwork and Safety Climate Questionnaire was used to evaluate safety climate before and after CTT. The scores for all of the 27 questions on the questionnaire showed an increase from baseline to 12 months, and 11 of those increases were statistically significant. A recurrent training is recommended to maintain the positive outcomes. CTT enhances patient safety and reduces risk of patient harm by improving teamwork and facilitating clear, concise, specific and timely communication among health care professionals. © 2017 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  9. Subtypes in clinical burnout patients enrolled in an employee rehabilitation program: differences in burnout profiles, depression, and recovery/resources-stress balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauernhofer, Kathrin; Bassa, Daniela; Canazei, Markus; Jiménez, Paulino; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Fink, Andreas; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2018-01-17

    Burnout is generally perceived a unified disorder with homogeneous symptomatology across people (exhaustion, cynicism, and reduced professional efficacy). However, increasing evidence points to intra-individual patterns of burnout symptoms in non-clinical samples such as students, athletes, healthy, and burned-out employees. Different burnout subtypes might therefore exist. Yet, burnout subtypes based on burnout profiles have hardly been explored in clinical patients, and the samples investigated in previous studies were rather heterogeneous including patients with various physical, psychological, and social limitations, symptoms, and disabilities. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore burnout subtypes based on burnout profiles in clinically diagnosed burnout patients enrolled in an employee rehabilitation program, and to investigate whether the subtypes differ in depression, recovery/resources-stress balance, and sociodemographic characteristics. One hundred three patients (66 women, 37 men) with a clinical burnout diagnosis, who were enrolled in a 5 week employee rehabilitation program in two specialized psychosomatic clinics in Austria, completed a series of questionnaires including the Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey (MBI-GS), the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Recovery-Stress-Questionnaire for Work. Cluster analyses with the three MBI-GS subscales as clustering variables were used to identify the burnout subtypes. Subsequent multivariate/univariate analysis of variance and Pearson chi-square tests were performed to investigate differences in depression, recovery/resources-stress balance, and sociodemographic characteristics. Three different burnout subtypes were discovered: the exhausted subtype, the exhausted/cynical subtype, and the burned-out subtype. The burned-out subtype and the exhausted/cynical subtype showed both more severe depression symptoms and a worse recovery/resources-stress balance than the exhausted subtype

  10. Recovery of radiation sources after the explosion of ammunition military facility of the city of Rio Tercero (Cordoba, Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puntarulo, Luis J.; D'Apice, Americo A.; Superintendencia Federal de Bomberos, Buenos Aires

    2001-01-01

    In this work it is reflected the operative task of the Team of Radiological Emergencies of the Federal Superintendence of Firemen, in the intervention that took place November 3 of 1995, in the Military Factory of Ammunition of the City of River Third, in the county of Cordoba (Argentina). After big explosions that caused the destruction of the building and surrounding areas, with dispersion of ammunition of canyons, we proceeded to locate and recover the industrial sources which were also at the scene. After their recovery, the sources were given to the Nuclear Regulatory Authority for its safe guard.(author)

  11. Wastewater infrastructure for small cities in an urbanizing world: integrating protection of human health and the environment with resource recovery and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Oakley, Stewart M; Mihelcic, James R

    2013-04-16

    The majority of population growth in developing countries will occur in small cities closely linked to agricultural zones, with poor access to water and sanitation. Wastewater management priorities in these regions will be different from those in larger cities and developed countries. Two wastewater treatment systems in Bolivia, one with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and polishing ponds, the other with three stabilization ponds, are assessed to determine their resource recovery potential. The UASB reactor produces biogas with 500-650 MJ per day. In six months, both systems discharge wastewater with the same mass of nutrients as fertilizers used to produce crops containing 10-75 days' worth of the recommended food energy intake for each person using the system. Both systems also discharge detectable levels of helminth eggs, Giardia cysts, and Cryptosporidium oocysts, but the UASB reactor system discharges higher concentrations, implying limited reuse potential. From a regional management standpoint, small cities should not expend resources to treat wastewater to levels suitable for discharge into surface waters. Rather, they should focus on removing pathogens to reclaim water and nutrients. Biogas recovery may be a priority that should be subservient to water and nutrient recovery in these settings.

  12. Spatial management of marine resources can enhance the recovery of predators and avoid local depletion of forage fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Vinther, Morten; Haslob, Holger

    2012-01-01

    fish, i.e., sprat and herring, is historic low in this area, which in combination with increasing cod stock results in locally high predation mortality of forage fish and cannibalism of cod. In line with low prey availability, body weight and nutritional condition of cod drastically declined...... management to enhance the recovery of predator stocks...

  13. Overview of Fuel Resources Program – Seawater Uranium Recovery Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, Stephen; Britt, Phillip F.; Gill, Gary A.; Schneider, Erich

    2014-01-01

    Investment strategy: To develop advanced adsorbents that can simultaneously enhance U sorption capacity, selectivity, kinetics, and materials durability to reduce the technology cost and uncertainties; Program goals: To develop lab-scale uranium recovery technology demonstration under marine conditions, and to work with potential commercial/industry partner(s) to establish technolog pricing threshhold

  14. Electrodialysis recovery of boric acid and potassium hydroxide from eluates of SWC facilities at NPP with VVER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudnik, S.N.; Virich, P.M.; Kramskikh, E.Y.; Masanov, O.L.; Turovsky, I.P.

    1993-01-01

    To extract boric acid and potassium hydroxide from regenerates of SWC-2-46 facilities, an electrodialysis-sorption process has been devised consisting of the following operations: separation of boron-alkaline regenerate solution into desorbate and wash water; filling of desalination and concentration chambers, respectively, with desorbate and was water of electrodialysis equipment; production of boric acid and potassium hydroxide from desorbate by electrodialysis; removal of chloride-ion from boric acid solution on ion-exchange filter AB-17-18. The flow-sheet was tested and boron containing alkaline regeneration solutions were recovered from Novovoronezh NPP

  15. Issues in radioactive mixed waste compliance with RCRA [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act]: Some examples from ongoing operations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, D.L.; Smith, T.H.; Clements, T.L. Jr.; Hodge, V.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive mixed waste is subject to regulation under both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Atomic Energy Act (AEA). The regulation of such waste is the responsibility of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and either the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or the Department of Energy (DOE), depending on whether the waste is commercially generated or defense-related. The recent application of the RCRA regulations to ongoing operations at the DOE's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are described in greater detail. 8 refs., 2 figs

  16. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-05

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies.

  17. Utilization of dose assessment models to facilitate off-site recovery operations for accidents at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, M.H.; Foster, K.T.

    1989-09-01

    One of the most important uses of dose assessment models in response to accidents at nuclear facilities is to help provide guidance to emergency response managers for identifying, and mitigating, the consequences of an accident once the accident has been terminated. By combining results from assessment models with radiological measurements, a qualitative methodology can be developed to aid emergency response managers in determining the total dose received by the population and to minimize future doses through the use of mitigation procedures. To illustrate the methodology, this discussion focuses on the use of models to estimate the dose delivered to the public both during and after a nuclear accident. 4 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  18. Energy Recovery from the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste: A Real Options-Based Facility Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Ranieri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, due to the strict regulations on waste landfilling, anaerobic digestion (AD of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW is increasingly considered a sustainable alternative for waste stabilization and energy recovery. AD can reduce the volume of OFMSW going to landfill and produce, at the same time, biogas and compost, all at a profit. The uncertainty about the collected quantity of organic fraction, however, may undermine the economic-financial sustainability of such plants. While the flexibility characterizing some AD technologies may prove very valuable in uncertain contexts since it allows adapting plant capacity to changing environments, the investment required for building flexible systems is generally higher than the investment for dedicated equipment. Hence, an adequate justification of investments in these flexible systems is needed. This paper presents the results of a study aimed at investigating how different technologies may perform from technical, economic and financial standpoints, in presence of an uncertain organic fraction quantity to be treated. Focusing on two AD treatment plant configurations characterized by a technological process with different degree of flexibility, a real options-based model is developed and then applied to the case of the urban waste management system of the Metropolitan Area of Bari (Italy. Results show the importance of pricing the flexibility of treatment plants, which becomes a critical factor in presence of an uncertain organic fraction. Hence, it has to be taken into consideration in the design phase of these plants.

  19. Remote sensing of earth resources: list of UK groups and individuals engaged in remote sensing, with a brief account of their activities and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This book gives details of some 250 organizations that use some means of remote sensing for earth surveys. It includes sections on water and marine resources, and appendices covering facilities for education and training and manufactures and suppliers of equipment and services.

  20. Assessment of electricity demand-supply in health facilities in resource-constrained settings : optimization and evaluation of energy systems for a case in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palacios, S.G.

    2015-01-01

    In health facilities in resource-constrained settings, a lack of access to sustainable and reliable electricity can result on a sub-optimal delivery of healthcare services, as they do not have lighting for medical procedures and power to run essential equipment and devices to treat their patients.

  1. Nanofiltration of Mine Water: Impact of Feed pH and Membrane Charge on Resource Recovery and Water Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Mullett

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Two nanofiltration membranes, a Dow NF 270 polyamide thin film and a TriSep TS 80 polyamide thin film, were investigated for their retention of ionic species when filtering mine influenced water streams at a range of acidic pH values. The functional iso-electric point of the membranes, characterized by changes in retention over a small pH range, were examined by filtering solutions of sodium sulphate. Both membranes showed changes in retention at pH 3, suggesting a zero net charge on the membranes at this pH. Copper mine drainage and synthetic solutions of mine influenced water were filtered using the same membranes. These solutions were characterized by pH values within 2 and 5, thus crossing the iso-electric point of both membranes. Retention of cations was maximized when the feed solution pH was less than the iso-electric point of the membrane. In these conditions, the membrane has a net positive charge, reducing the transmission rate of cations. From the recoveries of a range of cations, the suitability of nanofiltration was discussed relative to the compliance with mine water discharge criteria and the recovery of valuable commodity metals. The nanofiltration process was demonstrated to offer advantages in metal recovery from mine waste streams, concomitantly enabling discharge criteria for the filtrate disposal to be met.

  2. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic, social, and political benefits of improved oil recovery to the nation as a whole. Individual reports for major oil producing states have been separately published. The individual state reports include California, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and Wyoming. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). TORIS is a tested and verified system maintained and operated by the Department of Energy's Bartlesville Project Office. The TORTS system was used to evaluate over 2,300 major reservoirs in a consistent manner and on an individual basis, the results of which have been aggregated to arrive at the national total

  3. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This volume includes the following chapters: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA A permit application; facility description; waste analysis plan; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; personnel training; corrective action for solid waste management units; and other Federal laws.

  4. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations, landfills and recycling facilities for construction and demolition materials, electronics, household hazardous waste, metals, tires, and vehicles in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In this update, facilities in the 7 states that border the EPA Region 5 states were added to assist interstate disaster debris management. Also, the datasets for composters, construction and demolition recyclers, demolition contractors, and metals recyclers were verified and source information added for each record using these sources: AGC, Biocycle, BMRA, CDRA, ISRI, NDA, USCC, FEMA Debris Removal Contractor Registry, EPA Facility Registry System, and State and local listings.

  5. Resource recovery from residual household waste: An application of exergy flow analysis and exergetic life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; De Soete, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Exergy is based on the Second Law of thermodynamics and can be used to express physical and chemical potential and provides a unified measure for resource accounting. In this study, exergy analysis was applied to four residual household waste management scenarios with focus on the achieved resource...... of the waste treatment system under investigation and (ii) exergetic life cycle assessment (LCA) using the Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) as a method for resource accounting. Scenario efficiencies of around 17-27% were found based on the exergy flow analysis (higher...... with the functionality of a material. In addition, the definition of appropriate waste system boundaries is critical for the exergy efficiencies derived from the flow analysis, as it is constrained by limited information available about the composition of flows in the system as well as about secondary production...

  6. Resources.PNG | ECHO | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  7. 75 FR 41239 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree; Pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (“RCRA”)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... compliance procedures, a RCRA-specific employee training program, and undertaking a comprehensive third-party... be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division, and... public meeting in the affected area, in accordance with section 7003(d) of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6973(d). The...

  8. Research Universities and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Competition, Resource Concentration, and the "Great Recession" in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Barrett J.; Cantwell, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes the U.S. federal government's response to the "Great Recession" as a "natural experiment" whose broad emphasis on counter-cyclical spending contrasts with the tendency towards stratification within the quasi-market for academic research support. Regression results indicate that resources tended to flow…

  9. Recovery and Resource Allocation Strategies to Maximize Mobile Network Survivability by Using Game Theories and Optimization Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yu Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With more and more mobile device users, an increasingly important and critical issue is how to efficiently evaluate mobile network survivability. In this paper, a novel metric called Average Degree of Disconnectivity (Average DOD is proposed, in which the concept of probability is calculated by the contest success function. The DOD metric is used to evaluate the damage degree of the network, where the larger the value of the Average DOD, the more the damage degree of the network. A multiround network attack-defense scenario as a mathematical model is used to support network operators to predict all the strategies both cyber attacker and network defender would likely take. In addition, the Average DOD would be used to evaluate the damage degree of the network. In each round, the attacker could use the attack resources to launch attacks on the nodes of the target network. Meanwhile, the network defender could reallocate its existing resources to recover compromised nodes and allocate defense resources to protect the survival nodes of the network. In the approach to solving this problem, the “gradient method” and “game theory” are adopted to find the optimal resource allocation strategies for both the cyber attacker and mobile network defender.

  10. Some possible applications of peaceful nuclear explosions in the recovery of natural resources from beneath the seabed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, K.

    1975-01-01

    The technical, economic and environmental advantages and disadvantages of using nuclear explosions as an aid to recovering natural resources from beneath the seabed are discussed and compared with those in applications on land. Particular consideration is given to their use in assisting petroleum production as offshore development moves into deeper waters. (author)

  11. A Study of Mars Dust Environment Simulation at NASA Johnson Space Center Energy Systems Test Area Resource Conversion Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Liang Albert

    1999-01-01

    The dust environment on Mars is planned to be simulated in a 20 foot thermal-vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center, Energy Systems Test Area Resource Conversion Test Facility in Houston, Texas. This vacuum chamber will be used to perform tests and study the interactions between the dust in Martian air and ISPP hardware. This project is to research, theorize, quantify, and document the Mars dust/wind environment needed for the 20 foot simulation chamber. This simulation work is to support the safety, endurance, and cost reduction of the hardware for the future missions. The Martian dust environment conditions is discussed. Two issues of Martian dust, (1) Dust Contamination related hazards, and (2) Dust Charging caused electrical hazards, are of our interest. The different methods of dust particles measurement are given. The design trade off and feasibility were studied. A glass bell jar system is used to evaluate various concepts for the Mars dust/wind environment simulation. It was observed that the external dust source injection is the best method to introduce the dust into the simulation system. The dust concentration of 30 Mg/M3 should be employed for preparing for the worst possible Martian atmosphere condition in the future. Two approaches thermal-panel shroud for the hardware conditioning are discussed. It is suggested the wind tunnel approach be used to study the dust charging characteristics then to be apply to the close-system cyclone approach. For the operation cost reduction purpose, a dehumidified ambient air could be used to replace the expensive CO2 mixture for some tests.

  12. Licensed Healthcare Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Licensed Healthcare Facilities point layer represents the locations of all healthcare facilities licensed by the State of California, Department of Health...

  13. The value of a mature, stable, and transparent regulatory framework in facilitating ER programs lessons learned in decommissioning of uranium recovery and other facilities in the USA - 59411

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, Keith I.; Camper, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The history of decommissioning activities in the United States has demonstrated the value of a mature, stable and transparent regulatory framework in facilitating the timely completion of environmental remediation. Two examples are given as case studies. The first example relates to the history of uranium concentrate (yellowcake) production in the U.S. to support the initial development of civilian nuclear power in the U.S. in the 1950's, 60's, 70's and 80's. This yellowcake production, which took place mostly in the western U.S., was undertaken before laws and regulations to prevent contamination and protect public health and safety were fully developed. Significant contamination occurred in terms of both surface and ground water contamination. Although most conventional mills producing uranium during these early years entered decommissioning in the 70's and 80's, the vast majority are still remediating their sites because of persistent contamination in ground water. Had an effective regulatory framework been in place, much of this contamination would have been prevented and remediation accomplished more effectively. In contrast to this experience, a second example is provided related to development of the regulatory framework for decommissioning of non-uranium recovery facilities in the U.S. in the late 1990's and early 2000's

  14. 304 Concretion facility closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Hanford Site, located northwest of Richland, Washington, houses reactors, chemical-separation systems, and related facilities used for the production of special nuclear materials. The 300 Area of the Hanford Site contains reactor fuel manufacturing facilities and several research and development laboratories. Recyclable scrap uranium Zircaloy-2 and copper silicon alloy, uranium-titanium alloy, beryllium/Zircaloy-2 alloy, and Zircaloy-2 chips and fines were secured in concrete billets in the 304 Concretion Facility, located in the 300 Area. The beryllium/Zircaloy-2 alloy and Zircaloy-2 chips and fines are designated as low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLRMW) with the characteristic of ignitability. The concretion process reduced the ignitability of the fines and chips for safe storage and shipment. This process has been discontinued and the 304 Concretion Facility is now undergoing closure as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). This closure plan presents a description of the facility, the history of materials and wastes managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the 304 Concretion Facility (304 Facility). Clean closure of the 304 Facility is the proposed method for closure of the facility. Justification for this proposal is presented. 15 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs

  15. The relationship between the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertz, C.P.; Cloke, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses the potential applicability of the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to the disposal of spent commercial nuclear fuel and of high-level (vitrified) radioactive waste. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and the associated regulations issued by the US NRC provides many requirements that apply to these waste forms and largely, if not entirely, pre-empts the applicability of RCRA. The RCRA would apply only to the non-radioactive components of these wastes, and then only in respect to hazardous components. In view of these restrictions it becomes important to evaluate whether any components of spent fuel or high-level waste are toxic, as defined by the RCRA regulations. Present indications are that they are not and, hence, the US DOE is proceeding on the basis that these wastes and others that may be generated in the future are non-hazardous in respect to RCRA definitions

  16. XRF, XRD and SEM facilities in the School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmi Rahmat

    1996-01-01

    The School has acquired excellent facilities for elemental analysis by XRF and EDX and phase analysis by XRD. The type of research work carried out in the School is described. The school also assists the local industries in trying to solve their problems fully utilizing these facilities along with other testing units

  17. Mechanical and Alkaline Hydrothermal Treated Corn Residue Conversion in to Bioenergy and Biofertilizer: A Resource Recovery Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Paul

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research fall time harvested corn residue (CR was first mechanically pretreated to produce 5 mm chopped and <500 µm ground particles, which underwent an anaerobic digestion (AD process to produce biomethane and biofertilizer. Another sample of CR was pretreated by an alkaline hydrothermal (HT process using 1%, 2% and 3% NaOH to produce solid biocarbon and the resulting alkaline hydrothermal process water (AHTPW, a co-product of biocarbon, underwent fast digestion under AD conditions to produce biomethane and biofertilizer. A predetermined HT process of 240 °C for 30 min was considered and the effect of alkali content on the HT process for biocarbon and biomethane product a rate of 8.21 MJ kg−1 and 9.23 MJ kg−1 of raw CR, respectively. Among the three selected alkaline HT processes, the 1% NaOH HT process produced the highest hybrid bioenergy of 11.39 MJ kg−1 of raw CR with an overall energy recovery of 62.82% of raw CR. The AHTPW of 2% and 3% NaOH HT-treated CR did not produce considerable amount of biomethane and their biocarbons contained 3.44 MJ kg−1 and 3.27 MJ kg−1 of raw CR of bioenergy, respectively. The biomethane produced from 5 mm chopped CR, <500 µm ground CR and 1% alkaline AHTPW for 30 days retention time were of 275.38 L kg−1 volatile solid (VS, 309.59 L kg−1 VS and 278.70 L kg−1 VS, respectively, compared to non-treated CR of 144–187 L kg−1 VS. Nutrient enriched AD digestate is useable as liquid fertilizer. Biocarbon, biomethane and biofertilizer produced from the 1% alkaline HT process at 240 °C for 30 min can reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of Ontario.

  18. Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

    2008-01-01

    It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005–2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research

  19. Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

    2008-09-01

    It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005-2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research on

  20. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a search site for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  1. Mechanical Treatment: Material Recovery Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of mechanical treatment unit processes, including manual sorting, is described in Chapter 7.1. These unit processes may be used as a single separate operation (e.g. baling of recyclable cardboard) or as a single operation before or after biological and thermal treatment processes (e.......g. shredding prior to incineration or screening after composting). The mechanical treatment unit process is in the latter case an integrated part of the overall treatment usually with the purpose of improving the quality of the input material, or the efficiency or stability of the biological or thermal process......, or improving the quality of the output material. Examples hereof appear in the chapters on biological and thermal treatment. Mechanical treatment unit processes may also appear at industries using recycled material as part of their feedstock, for example, for removing impurities and homogenizing the material...

  2. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Greef, J.; Villani, K.; Goethals, J.; Van Belle, H.; Van Caneghem, J.; Vandecasteele, C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential

  3. A new generation of tools for search, recovery and quality evaluation of World Wide Web medical resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguillo, I

    2000-01-01

    Although the Internet is already a valuable information resource in medicine, there are important challenges to be faced before physicians and general users will have extensive access to this information. As a result of a research effort to compile a health-related Internet directory, new tools and strategies have been developed to solve key problems derived from the explosive growth of medical information on the Net and the great concern over the quality of such critical information. The current Internet search engines lack some important capabilities. We suggest using second generation tools (client-side based) able to deal with large quantities of data and to increase the usability of the records recovered. We tested the capabilities of these programs to solve health-related information problems, recognising six groups according to the kind of topics addressed: Z39.50 clients, downloaders, multisearchers, tracing agents, indexers and mappers. The evaluation of the quality of health information available on the Internet could require a large amount of human effort. A possible solution may be to use quantitative indicators based on the hypertext visibility of the Web sites. The cybermetric measures are valid for quality evaluation if they are derived from indirect peer review by experts with Web pages citing the site. The hypertext links acting as citations need to be extracted from a controlled sample of quality super-sites.

  4. 304 Concretion Facility Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Site, located northwest of Richland, Washington, houses reactors, chemical-separation systems, and related facilities used for the production of special nuclear materials. The 300 Area of the Hanford Site contains reactor fuel manufacturing facilities and several research and development laboratories. Recyclable scrap uranium with Zircaloy-2 and copper silicon allo , uranium-titanium alloy, beryllium/Zircaloy-2 alloy, and Zircaloy-2 chips and fines were secured in concrete billets (7.5-gal containers) in the 304 Concretion Facility (304 Facility), located in the 300 Area. The beryllium/Zircaloy-2 alloy and Zircaloy-2 chips and fines are designated as low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLRMW) with the characteristic of ignitability. The concretion process reduced the ignitability of the fines and chips for safe storage and shipment. This process has been discontinued and the 304 Concretion Facility is now undergoing closure as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Dangerous Waste Regulations, WAC 173-303-040 (Ecology 1991). This closure plan presents a description of the facility, the history of materials and wastes managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the 304 Facility. The strategy for closure of the 304 Facility is presented in Section 6.0

  5. Oil removal of spent hydrotreating catalyst CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via a facile method with enhanced metal recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yue [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, Shengming, E-mail: smxu@tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing Key Lab of Radioactive Wastes Treatment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Zhen [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Jianlong [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing Key Lab of Radioactive Wastes Treatment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhao, Zhongwei [School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Xu, Zhenghe, E-mail: zhenghe.xu@ualberta.ca [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1H9 (Canada)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • A novel approach for oil removal from spent hydrotreating catalysts has been developed. • Oil removal possibility is analyzed through surface characteristics. • Oil is successfully removed from spent catalysts via aqueous surfactant solution. • Over 98% Mo can be leached after oil removal and thermal treatment. • The proposed deoiling method helps to avoid detrimental impurity generation (CoMoO{sub 4}) and enhance metal recovery. - Abstract: Deoiling process is a key issue for recovering metal values from spent hydrotreating catalysts. The oils can be removed with organic solvents, but the industrialized application of this method is greatly hampered by the high cost and complex processes. Despite the roasting method is simple and low-cost, it generates hardest-to-recycle impurities (CoMoO{sub 4} or NiMoO{sub 4}) and enormous toxic gases. In this study, a novel and facile approach to remove oils from the spent hydrotreating catalysts is developed. Firstly, surface properties of spent catalysts are characterized to reveal the possibility of oil removal. And then, oils are removed with water solution under the conditions of 90 °C, 0.1 wt% SDS, 2.0 wt% NaOH and 10 ml/g L/S ratio for 4 h. Finally, thermal treatment and leaching tests are carried out to further explore the advantages of oil removal. The results show that no hardest-to-recycle impurity CoMoO{sub 4} is found in XPS spectra of thermally treated samples after deoiling and molybdenum is leached completely with sodium carbonate solution. It means that the proposed deoiling method can not only remove oils simply and without enormous harmful gases generating, but also avoid the generation of detrimental impurity and promote recycling of valuable metals from spent hydrotreating catalysts.

  6. Ion exchange separation of plutonium and gallium (1) resource and inventory requirements, (2) waste, emissions, and effluent, and (3) facility size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMuth, S.

    1997-01-01

    The following report summarizes an effort intended to estimate within an order-of-magnitude the (1) resource and inventory requirements, (2) waste, emissions, and effluent amounts, and (3) facility size, for ion exchange (IX) separation of plutonium and gallium. This analysis is based upon processing 3.5 MT-Pu/yr. The technical basis for this summary is detailed in a separate document, open-quotes Preconceptual Design for Separation of Plutonium and Gallium by Ion Exchangeclose quotes. The material balances of this separate document are based strictly on stoichiometric amounts rather than details of actual operating experience, in order to avoid classification as Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information. This approximation neglets the thermodynamics and kinetics which can significantly impact the amount of reagents required. Consequently, the material resource requirements and waste amounts presented here would normally be considered minimums for processing 3.5 MT-Pu/yr; however, the author has compared the inventory estimates presented with that of an actual operating facility and found them similar. Additionally, the facility floor space presented here is based upon actual plutonium processing systems and can be considered a nominal estimate

  7. Design of the DIRECT-project : interventions to increase job resources and recovery opportunities to improve job-related health, well-being, and performance outcomes in nursing homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoor, E.M.B.; Jonge, de J.; Hamers, J.P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Because of high demands at work, nurses are at high risk for occupational burnout and physical complaints. The presence of job resources (such as job autonomy or social support) and recovery opportunities could counteract the adverse effect of high job demands. However, it is still

  8. Waste conversion into n-caprylate and n-caproate: resource recovery from wine lees using anaerobic reactor microbiomes and in-line extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo A. Kucek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To convert wastes into sustainable liquid fuels and chemicals, new resource recovery technologies are required. Chain elongation is a carboxylate-platform bioprocess that converts short-chain carboxylates (SCCs (e.g., acetate C2 and n-butyrate C4 into medium-chain carboxylates (MCCs (e.g., n-caprylate C8 and n-caproate C6 with hydrogen gas as a side product. Ethanol or another electron donor (e.g., lactate, carbohydrate is required. Competitive MCC productivities, yields (product vs. substrate fed, and specificities (product vs. all products were only achieved previously from an organic waste material when exogenous ethanol had been added. Here, we converted a real organic waste, which inherently comprised of ethanol, into MCCs with n-caprylate as the target product. We used wine lees, which consisted primarily of settled yeast cells and ethanol from wine fermentation, and produced MCCs with a reactor microbiome. We operated the bioreactor at a pH of 5.2 and with continuous in-line extraction and achieved a MCC productivity of 3.9 g COD/L-d at an organic loading rate of 5.8 g COD/L-d, resulting in a promising MCC yield of 67% and specificities of 36% for each n-caprylate and n-caproate (72% for both. Compared to all other studies that used complex organic substrates, we achieved the highest n-caprylate-to-n-caproate product ratio of 1.0 (COD basis, because we used increased broth-recycle rates through the forward membrane contactor, which improved in-line extraction rates. Increased recycle rates also allowed us to achieve the highest reported MCC production flux per membrane surface area thus far (20.1 g COD/m2-d. Through microbial community analyses, we determined that an operational taxonomic unit (OTU for Bacteroides spp. was dominant and was positively correlated with increased MCC productivities. Our data also suggested that the microbiome may have been shaped for improved MCC production by the high broth-recycle rates. Comparable abiotic

  9. Metal recovery from high-grade WEEE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2012-01-01

    . The modeled metallurgical treatment facility included a Kaldo plant, a converter aisle, an anode refinery and a precious metal refinery. The metallurgic treatment showed significant environmental savings when credited the environmental load from avoided production of the same amount of metals by mining...... and refining of ore. The resource recovery per tonne of high-grade WEEE ranged from 2 g of palladium to 386 kg of iron. Quantified in terms of person-equivalents the recovery of palladium, gold, silver, nickel and copper constituted the major environmental benefit of the recovery of metals from WEEE....... These benefits are most likely underestimated in the model, since we did not find adequate data to include all the burdens from mining and refining of ore; burdens that are avoided when metals are recovered from WEEE. The processes connected to the pre-treatment of WEEE were found to have little environmental...

  10. Using Prayer as an Intervention with Clients Who Are Substance Abusing and Addicted and Who Self-Identify Personal Faith in God and Prayer as Recovery Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhnke, Gerald A.; Watts, Richard E.; Guerra, Norma S.; Hsieh, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how the authors use prayer with clients who self-identify their personal faith in God and who have used prayer as a helpful recovery agent or who believe prayer would be helpful to their personal recovery.

  11. Status quo of energy recovery from waste in special industrial facilities and evaluation of the environmental impacts of using refuse derived fuel (RDF) in cement kilns in Germany; Untersuchung der Umweltauswirkungen des Einsatzes von Abfaellen ausserhalb thermischer Abfallbehandlungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwast, H.; Marton, C.; Koepp, M.

    2001-10-01

    Within the study presented here the use of energy recovery from waste was analysed for several industrial facilities, focussing on cement plants, kilns in the lime and gypsum industry, steel works and plants for the production of non ferrous metals. 44 German cement plants dispose of an own clinker production. Presently 31 plants have a permit for recovering energy from waste. The total permitted capacity for energy recovery in German cement kilns amounts to nearly 2,6 Mio. t/a. Mainly waste oil, old tyres, fuel derived from processed production-specific and municipal waste, plastics, scrap wood and waste paper are co-incinerated. In 1998/99 a total amount of roughly 945.000 t refuse was processed in 30 units of the studied facilities. In five furnaces at three steel works waste can be used for energy or material recovery. The approved total capacity of high calorific waste for energy recovery comes to nearly 350,000 t/a. Especially industrial plastics and packaging waste from DSD, plastics processed in scrap mills and shreddered waste and granulated paint sludge are used. In 1998 the facilities processed only old plastic, representing a total amount of nearly 109.000 t. At present seven facilities in the non ferrous metal industry have a permit for energy recovery from waste. The maximum capacity amounts on national level to nearly 140.000 t/a. Especially waste oil, packaging waste, plastics and scrap wood can be processed. The analysis of respective applications of the 17th BImSchV shows an inconsistency within the amending permitting procedures. For the time to come a conformity between the respective regional permitting authorities would be recommendable. Moreover, the effects on air emission caused by using waste for energy recovery were analysed for cement kilns with own clinker production. Due to the amendment of the 17th BImSchV more stringent requirements regarding waste composition must be established. This is especially valid for the highly volatile

  12. Design of the DIRECT-project: interventions to increase job resources and recovery opportunities to improve job-related health, well-being, and performance outcomes in nursing homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamers Jan PH

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of high demands at work, nurses are at high risk for occupational burnout and physical complaints. The presence of job resources (such as job autonomy or social support and recovery opportunities could counteract the adverse effect of high job demands. However, it is still unclear how job resources and recovery opportunities can be translated into effective workplace interventions aiming to improve employee health, well-being, and performance-related outcomes. The aim of the current research project is developing and implementing interventions to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities, which may lead to improved health, well-being and performance of nurses. Methods/design The DIRECT-project (DIsc Risk Evaluating Controlled Trial is a longitudinal, quasi-experimental field study. Nursing home staff of 4 intervention wards and 4 comparison wards will be involved. Based on the results of a base-line survey, interventions will be implemented to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities. After 12 and 24 month the effect of the interventions will be investigated with follow-up surveys. Additionally, a process evaluation will be conducted to map factors that either stimulated or hindered successful implementation as well as the effectiveness of the interventions. Discussion The DIRECT-project fulfils a strong need for intervention research in the field of work, stress, performance, and health. The results could reveal (1 how interventions can be tailored to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities, in order to counteract job demands, and (2 what the effects of these interventions will be on health, well-being, and performance of nursing staff.

  13. Design of the DIRECT-project: interventions to increase job resources and recovery opportunities to improve job-related health, well-being, and performance outcomes in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoor, Ellen; de Jonge, Jan; Hamers, Jan P H

    2010-05-28

    Because of high demands at work, nurses are at high risk for occupational burnout and physical complaints. The presence of job resources (such as job autonomy or social support) and recovery opportunities could counteract the adverse effect of high job demands. However, it is still unclear how job resources and recovery opportunities can be translated into effective workplace interventions aiming to improve employee health, well-being, and performance-related outcomes. The aim of the current research project is developing and implementing interventions to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities, which may lead to improved health, well-being and performance of nurses. The DIRECT-project (DIsc Risk Evaluating Controlled Trial) is a longitudinal, quasi-experimental field study. Nursing home staff of 4 intervention wards and 4 comparison wards will be involved. Based on the results of a base-line survey, interventions will be implemented to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities. After 12 and 24 month the effect of the interventions will be investigated with follow-up surveys. Additionally, a process evaluation will be conducted to map factors that either stimulated or hindered successful implementation as well as the effectiveness of the interventions. The DIRECT-project fulfils a strong need for intervention research in the field of work, stress, performance, and health. The results could reveal (1) how interventions can be tailored to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities, in order to counteract job demands, and (2) what the effects of these interventions will be on health, well-being, and performance of nursing staff.

  14. Overview of a compre­hensive resource database for the assessment of recoverable hydrocarbons produced by carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolus, Marshall; Biglarbigi, Khosrow; Warwick, Peter D.; Attanasi, Emil D.; Freeman, Philip A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2017-10-24

    A database called the “Comprehensive Resource Database” (CRD) was prepared to support U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessments of technically recoverable hydrocarbons that might result from the injection of miscible or immiscible carbon dioxide (CO2) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The CRD was designed by INTEK Inc., a consulting company under contract to the USGS. The CRD contains data on the location, key petrophysical properties, production, and well counts (number of wells) for the major oil and gas reservoirs in onshore areas and State waters of the conterminous United States and Alaska. The CRD includes proprietary data on petrophysical properties of fields and reservoirs from the “Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States Database,” prepared by Nehring Associates in 2012, and proprietary production and drilling data from the “Petroleum Information Data Model Relational U.S. Well Data,” prepared by IHS Inc. in 2012. This report describes the CRD and the computer algorithms used to (1) estimate missing reservoir property values in the Nehring Associates (2012) database, and to (2) generate values of additional properties used to characterize reservoirs suitable for miscible or immiscible CO2 flooding for EOR. Because of the proprietary nature of the data and contractual obligations, the CRD and actual data from Nehring Associates (2012) and IHS Inc. (2012) cannot be presented in this report.

  15. A new insight into resource recovery of excess sewage sludge: Feasibility of extracting mixed amino acids as an environment-friendly corrosion inhibitor for industrial pickling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Wen; Tang, Bing, E-mail: renytang@163.com; Fu, Fenglian; Huang, Shaosong; Zhao, Shiyuan; Bin, Liying; Ding, Jiewei; Chen, Cuiqun

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A value-added product was extracted from the municipal excess sludge. • The effective components contained in the product were mixed amino acids. • The product could provide a reliable protection to the steel from the acid medium. • A new insight into the resource recovery of excess sewage sludge was provided. - Abstract: The work mainly presented a laboratory-scale investigation on an effective process to extract a value-added product from municipal excess sludge. The functional groups in the hydrolysate were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectrum, and the contained amino acids were measured by means of an automatic amino acid analyzer. The corrosion-inhibition characteristics of the hydrolysate were determined with weight-loss measurement, electrochemical polarization and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicated that the hydrolysate contained 15 kinds of amino acid, and their adsorption on the surface could effectively inhibit the corrosion reaction of the steel from the acid medium. Polarization curves indicated that the obtained hydrolysate was a mixed-type inhibitor, but mainly restricted metal dissolution on the anode. The adsorption accorded well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, involved an increase in entropy, and was a spontaneous, exothermic process.

  16. A new insight into resource recovery of excess sewage sludge: Feasibility of extracting mixed amino acids as an environment-friendly corrosion inhibitor for industrial pickling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Wen; Tang, Bing; Fu, Fenglian; Huang, Shaosong; Zhao, Shiyuan; Bin, Liying; Ding, Jiewei; Chen, Cuiqun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A value-added product was extracted from the municipal excess sludge. • The effective components contained in the product were mixed amino acids. • The product could provide a reliable protection to the steel from the acid medium. • A new insight into the resource recovery of excess sewage sludge was provided. - Abstract: The work mainly presented a laboratory-scale investigation on an effective process to extract a value-added product from municipal excess sludge. The functional groups in the hydrolysate were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectrum, and the contained amino acids were measured by means of an automatic amino acid analyzer. The corrosion-inhibition characteristics of the hydrolysate were determined with weight-loss measurement, electrochemical polarization and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicated that the hydrolysate contained 15 kinds of amino acid, and their adsorption on the surface could effectively inhibit the corrosion reaction of the steel from the acid medium. Polarization curves indicated that the obtained hydrolysate was a mixed-type inhibitor, but mainly restricted metal dissolution on the anode. The adsorption accorded well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, involved an increase in entropy, and was a spontaneous, exothermic process

  17. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance U.S. Army – Project 276 Renewable Resource Development on Department of Defense Bases in Alaska: Challenges and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, William M.

    2010-09-30

    The potential to increase utilization of renewable energy sources among military facilities in Alaska through coordinated development and operation is the premise of this task. The US Army Pacific Command requested assistance from PNNL to help develop a more complete understanding of the context for wheeling power within Alaska, including legal and regulatory barriers that may prohibit the DOD facilities from wheeling power among various locations to optimize the development and use of renewable resources.

  18. Energy recovery from wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Stefanis, P.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper are reported analysis of some energy recovery form wastes plants. In this work are considered materials and energy flows, environmental impacts and related treatment costs and financial resources [it

  19. Resource Recovery Technology Application Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    B-6 Electrostatic Precipitator (APC-C) ......................B-1O Venturi Scrubber (APC D) B-15 C Combustion Equipment (CE) C-1 Modular... Scrubber APC-D P. 1 of 4 CONTROLIII COMPONENT DESCRIPTION Types Available - Competing Components Type a. Venturi e. Moving bed Venturi b. Flooded disc f...Clean Gas to Demister (Used Separate Liquid from Gas Stream) / F C Scrubber Wall Liquid Inlet D Scrubber Liquid at Venturi Throat Inlet B E Venturi

  20. Hydrography - Water Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Resource is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Use Planning Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Resources that are included are:...

  1. Hanford's Radioactive Mixed Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    The Radioactive Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, is located in the Hanford Site Low-Level Burial Grounds and is designated as Trench 31 in the 218-W-5 Burial Ground. Trench 31 is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act compliant landfill and will receive wastes generated from both remediation and waste management activities. On December 30, 1994, Westinghouse Hanford Company declared readiness to operate Trench 31, which is the Hanford Site's (and the Department of Energy complex's) first facility for disposal of low-level radioactive mixed wastes

  2. Improving obstetric care in low-resource settings: implementation of facility-based maternal death reviews in five pilot hospitals in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fournier Pierre

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sub-Saharan Africa, maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity are major problems. Service availability and quality of care in health facilities are heterogeneous and most often inadequate. In resource-poor settings, the facility-based maternal death review or audit is one of the most promising strategies to improve health service performance. We aim to explore and describe health workers' perceptions of facility-based maternal death reviews and to identify barriers to and facilitators of the implementation of this approach in pilot health facilities of Senegal. Methods This study was conducted in five reference hospitals in Senegal with different characteristics. Data were collected from focus group discussions, participant observations of audit meetings, audit documents and interviews with the staff of the maternity unit. Data were analysed by means of both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Results Health professionals and service administrators were receptive and adhered relatively well to the process and the results of the audits, although some considered the situation destabilizing or even threatening. The main barriers to the implementation of maternal deaths reviews were: (1 bad quality of information in medical files; (2 non-participation of the head of department in the audit meetings; (3 lack of feedback to the staff who did not attend the audit meetings. The main facilitators were: (1 high level of professional qualifications or experience of the data collector; (2 involvement of the head of the maternity unit, acting as a moderator during the audit meetings; (3 participation of managers in the audit session to plan appropriate and realistic actions to prevent other maternal deaths. Conclusion The identification of the barriers to and the facilitators of the implementation of maternal death reviews is an essential step for the future adaptation of this method in countries with few resources. We

  3. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Compliance Demonstration for DOE Order 435.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonds, J.

    2007-11-06

    This compliance demonstration document provides an analysis of the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Complex compliance with DOE Order 435.1. The ICDF Complex includes the disposal facility (landfill), evaporation pond, administration facility, weigh scale, and various staging/storage areas. These facilities were designed and constructed to be compliant with DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery act Subtitle C, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl design and construction standards. The ICDF Complex is designated as the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) facility for the receipt, staging/storage, treatment, and disposal of INL Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) waste streams.

  4. Non-linear Feedbacks Between Forest Mortality and Climate Change: Implications for Snow Cover, Water Resources, and Ecosystem Recovery in Western North America (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, P. D.; Harpold, A. A.; Biederman, J. A.; Gochis, D. J.; Litvak, M. E.; Ewers, B. E.; Broxton, P. D.; Reed, D. E.

    2013-12-01

    Unprecedented levels of tree mortality from insect infestation and wildfire are dramatically altering forest structure and composition in Western North America. Warming temperatures and increased drought stress have been implicated as major factors in the increasing spatial extent and frequency of these forest disturbances, but it is unclear how these changes in forest structure will interact with ongoing climate change to affect snowmelt water resources either for society or for ecosystem recovery following mortality. Because surface discharge, groundwater recharge, and ecosystem productivity all depend on seasonal snowmelt, a critical knowledge gap exists not only in predicting discharge, but in quantifying spatial and temporal variability in the partitioning of snowfall into abiotic vapor loss, plant available water, recharge, and streamflow within the complex mosaic of forest disturbance and topography that characterizes western mountain catchments. This presentation will address this knowledge gap by synthesizing recent work on snowpack dynamics and ecosystem productivity from seasonally snow-covered forests along a climate gradient from Arizona to Wyoming; including undisturbed sites, recently burned forests, and areas of extensive insect-induced forest mortality. Both before-after and control-impacted studies of forest disturbance on snow accumulation and ablation suggest that the spatial scale of snow distribution increases following disturbance, but net snow water input in a warming climate will increase only in topographically sheltered areas. While forest disturbance changes spatial scale of snowpack partitioning, the amount and especially the timing of snow cover accumulation and ablation are strongly related to interannual variability in ecosystem productivity with both earlier snowmelt and later snow accumulation associated with decreased carbon uptake. Empirical analyses and modeling are being developed to identify landscapes most sensitive to

  5. Post-Closure Report for Closed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Corrective Action Units, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, for Fiscal Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvas, Alissa J. [Nevada Field Office, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report serves as the combined annual report for post-closure activities for several Corrective Action Units (CAUs). The locations of the sites are shown in Figure 1. This report covers fiscal year 2014 (October 2013–September 2014). The post-closure requirements for these sites are described in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit Number NEV HW0101 and summarized in each CAU-specific section in Section 1.0 of this report. The results of the inspections, a summary of maintenance activities, and an evaluation of monitoring data are presented in this report. Site inspections are conducted semiannually at CAUs 90 and 91 and quarterly at CAUs 92, 110, 111, and 112. Additional inspections are conducted at CAU 92 if precipitation occurs in excess of 0.50 inches (in.) in a 24-hour period and at CAU 111 if precipitation occurs in excess of 1.0 in. in a 24-hour period. Inspections include an evaluation of the condition of the units, including covers, fences, signs, gates, and locks. In addition to visual inspections, soil moisture monitoring, vegetation evaluations, and subsidence surveys are conducted at CAU 110. At CAU 111, soil moisture monitoring, vegetation evaluations, subsidence surveys, direct radiation monitoring, air monitoring, radon flux monitoring, and groundwater monitoring are conducted. The results of the vegetation surveys and an analysis of the soil moisture monitoring data at CAU 110 are presented in this report. Results of additional monitoring at CAU 111 are documented annually in the Nevada National Security Site Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites and in the Nevada National Security Site Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, which will be prepared in approximately June 2015. All required inspections, maintenance, and monitoring were conducted in accordance with the post-closure requirements of the permit. It is recommended to continue

  6. 202-S Hexone Facility supplemental information to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingle, S.J.

    1996-03-01

    This document is a unit-specific contingency plan for the 202-S Hexone Facility and is intended to be used as a supplement to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan. This unit-specific plan is to be used to demonstrate compliance with the contingency plan requirements of WAC 173-303 for certain Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) waste management units. The 202-S Hexone Facility is not used to process radioactive or nonradioactive hazardous material. Radioactive, dangerous waste material is contained in two underground storage tanks, 276-S-141 and 276-S-142. These tanks do not present a significant hazard to adjacent facilities, personnel, or the environment. Currently, dangerous waste management activities are not being applied at the tanks. It is unlikely that any incidents presenting hazards to public health or the environment would occur at the 202-S Hexone Facility

  7. Tenth oil recovery conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleeper, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Tertiary Oil Recovery Project is sponsored by the State of Kansas to introduce Kansas producers to the economic potential of enhanced recovery methods for Kansas fields. Specific objectives include estimation of the state-wide tertiary oil resource, identification and evaluation of the most applicable processes, dissemination of technical information to producers, occasional collaboration on recovery projects, laboratory studies on Kansas applicable processes, and training of students and operators in tertiary oil recovery methods. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  8. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Chapter D, Appendix D1 (conclusion): Volume 3, Revision 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    This report, Part B (Vol. 3) of the permit application for the WIPP facility, contains information related to the site characterization of the facility, including geology, design, rock salt evaluations, maps, drawings, and shaft excavations. (CBS)

  9. The impact of a human resource management intervention on the capacity of supervisors to support and supervise their staff at health facility level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uduma, Ogenna; Galligan, Marie; Mollel, Henry; Masanja, Honorati; Bradley, Susan; McAuliffe, Eilish

    2017-08-30

    A systematic and structured approach to the support and supervision of health workers can strengthen the human resource management function at the district and health facility levels and may help address the current crisis in human resources for health in sub-Saharan Africa by improving health workers' motivation and retention. A supportive supervision programme including (a) a workshop, (b) intensive training and (c) action learning sets was designed to improve human resource management in districts and health facilities in Tanzania. We conducted a randomised experimental design to evaluate the impact of the intervention. Data on the same measures were collected pre and post the intervention in order to identify any changes that occurred (between baseline and end of project) in the capacity of supervisors in intervention a + b and intervention a + b + c to support and supervise their staff. These were compared to supervisors in a control group in each of Tanga, Iringa and Tabora regions (n = 9). A quantitative survey of 95 and 108 supervisors and 196 and 187 health workers sampled at baseline and end-line, respectively, also contained open-ended responses which were analysed separately. Supervisors assessed their own competency levels pre- and post-intervention. End-line samples generally scored higher compared to the corresponding baseline in both intervention groups for competence activities. Significant differences between baseline and end-line were observed in the total scores on 'maintaining high levels of performance', 'dealing with performance problems', 'counselling a troubled employee' and 'time management' in intervention a + b. In contrast, for intervention a + b + c, a significant difference in distribution of scores was only found on 'counselling a troubled employee', although the end-line mean scores were higher than their corresponding baseline mean scores in all cases. Similar trends to those in the supervisors' reports are seen in

  10. The Challenges of Preserving Historic Resources During the Deactivation and Decommissioning of Highly Contaminated Historically Significant Plutonium Process Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, A.; Minette, M.; Sorenson, D.; Heineman, R.; Gerber, M.; Charboneau, S.; Bond, F.

    2006-01-01

    The Manhattan Project was initiated to develop nuclear weapons for use in World War II. The Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) was established in eastern Washington State as a production complex for the Manhattan Project. A major product of the HEW was plutonium. The buildings and process equipment used in the early phases of nuclear weapons development are historically significant because of the new and unique work that was performed. When environmental cleanup became Hanford's central mission in 1991, the Department of Energy (DOE) prepared for the deactivation and decommissioning of many of the old process facilities. In many cases, the process facilities were so contaminated, they faced demolition. The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) requires federal agencies to evaluate the historic significance of properties under their jurisdiction for eligibility for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places before altering or demolishing them so that mitigation through documentation of the properties can occur. Specifically, federal agencies are required to evaluate their proposed actions against the effect the actions may have on districts, sites, buildings or structures that are included or eligible for inclusion in the National Register. In an agreement between the DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL), the Washington State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP), the agencies concurred that the Hanford Site Historic District is eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places and that a Site-wide Treatment Plan would streamline compliance with the NHPA while allowing RL to manage the cleanup of the Hanford Site. Currently, many of the old processing buildings at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) are undergoing deactivation and decommissioning. RL and Fluor Hanford project managers at the PFP are committed to preserving historical artifacts of the plutonium production process. They

  11. Mixed Waste Management Facility closure at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, M.F.

    1991-08-01

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility of the Savannah River Plant received hazardous and solid low level radioactive wastes from 1972 until 1986. Because this facility did not have a permit to receive hazardous wastes, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure was performed between 1987 and 1990. This closure consisted of dynamic compaction of the waste trenches and placement of a 3-foot clay cap, a 2-foot soil cover, and a vegetative layer. Operations of the waste disposal facility, tests performed to complete the closure design, and the construction of the closure cap are discussed herein

  12. Nuclear R and D image and roles in the coming century, with emphasis on management of educational, training and facility resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, S.

    1997-01-01

    The conventional roles of nuclear R and D are presented. On the other hand, suggested innovations in such roles for the next century are discussed and justified. The innovative roles, not only add to the conventional ones, but come up to supplanting, wholly or partially some of them. However, distinction is made, wherever possible, between the roles relevant to developed and developing countries, particularly in the field of technology transfer modalities. The various proposed techniques for managing the nuclear R and D training, and facility resources in the future were indicated. Indeed, in a world of perpetual and rapid change embracing all life aspects, it is expected that these managerial techniques will be pivoted on cost-effective approaches. (author)

  13. Calcined solids storage facility closure study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlmeir, M.M.; Tuott, L.C.; Spaulding, B.C.

    1998-02-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes now stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is currently mandated under a open-quotes Settlement Agreementclose quotes (or open-quotes Batt Agreementclose quotes) between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. Under this agreement, all high-level waste must be treated as necessary to meet the disposal criteria and disposed of or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. In order to comply with this agreement, all calcined waste produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility and stored in the Calcined Solids Facility must be treated and disposed of by 2035. Several treatment options for the calcined waste have been studied in support of the High-Level Waste Environmental Impact Statement. Two treatment methods studied, referred to as the TRU Waste Separations Options, involve the separation of the high-level waste (calcine) into TRU waste and low-level waste (Class A or Class C). Following treatment, the TRU waste would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for final storage. It has been proposed that the low-level waste be disposed of in the Tank Farm Facility and/or the Calcined Solids Storage Facility following Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure. In order to use the seven Bin Sets making up the Calcined Solids Storage Facility as a low-level waste landfill, the facility must first be closed to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) standards. This study identifies and discusses two basic methods available to close the Calcined Solids Storage Facility under the RCRA - Risk-Based Clean Closure and Closure to Landfill Standards. In addition to the closure methods, the regulatory requirements and issues associated with turning the Calcined Solids Storage Facility into an NRC low-level waste landfill or filling the bin voids with clean grout are discussed

  14. Calcined solids storage facility closure study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlmeir, M.M.; Tuott, L.C.; Spaulding, B.C. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes now stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is currently mandated under a {open_quotes}Settlement Agreement{close_quotes} (or {open_quotes}Batt Agreement{close_quotes}) between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. Under this agreement, all high-level waste must be treated as necessary to meet the disposal criteria and disposed of or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. In order to comply with this agreement, all calcined waste produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility and stored in the Calcined Solids Facility must be treated and disposed of by 2035. Several treatment options for the calcined waste have been studied in support of the High-Level Waste Environmental Impact Statement. Two treatment methods studied, referred to as the TRU Waste Separations Options, involve the separation of the high-level waste (calcine) into TRU waste and low-level waste (Class A or Class C). Following treatment, the TRU waste would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for final storage. It has been proposed that the low-level waste be disposed of in the Tank Farm Facility and/or the Calcined Solids Storage Facility following Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure. In order to use the seven Bin Sets making up the Calcined Solids Storage Facility as a low-level waste landfill, the facility must first be closed to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) standards. This study identifies and discusses two basic methods available to close the Calcined Solids Storage Facility under the RCRA - Risk-Based Clean Closure and Closure to Landfill Standards. In addition to the closure methods, the regulatory requirements and issues associated with turning the Calcined Solids Storage Facility into an NRC low-level waste landfill or filling the bin voids with clean grout are discussed.

  15. Nuclear energy: Environmental issues at DOE's nuclear defense facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    GAO's review of nine Department of Energy defense facilities identified a number of significant environmental issues: (1) eight facilities have groundwater contaminated with radioactive and/or hazardous substances to high levels; (2) six facilities have soil contamination in unexpected areas, including offsite locations; (3) four facilities are not in full compliance with the Clean Water Act; and (4) all nine facilities are significantly changing their waste disposal practices to obtain a permit under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. GAO is recommending that DOE develop and overall groundwater and soil protection strategy that would provide a better perspective on the environmental risks and impacts associated with operating DOE's nuclear defense facilities. GAO also recommends that DOE allow outside independent inspections of the disposal practices used for any waste DOE self-regulates and revise its order governing the management of hazardous and mixed waste

  16. Plutonium metal burning facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausburg, D.E.; Leebl, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    A glove-box facility was designed to convert plutonium skull metal or unburned oxide to an oxide acceptable for plutonium recovery and purification. A discussion of the operation, safety aspects, and electrical schematics are included

  17. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 83, quarter ending June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    Summaries of 41 research projects on enhanced recovery are presented under the following sections: (1) chemical flooding; (2) gas displacement; (3) thermal recovery; (4) geoscience technology; (5) resource assessment technology; and (6) reservoir classes. Each presentation gives the title of the project, contract number, research facility, contract date, expected completion data, amount of the award, principal investigator, and DOE program manager, and describes the objectives of the project and a summary of the technical progress.

  18. A Simulated Annealing Approach for the Composite Facility Location and Resource Allocation Problem: A Study of Strategic Positioning of US Air Force Munitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, John

    2003-01-01

    .... This model is a combination facility location model and inventory allocation model which is aimed at simultaneously determining where to locate facilities and how to position inventory quantities...

  19. Development and evaluation of a full-scale spray scrubber for ammonia recovery and production of nitrogen fertilizer at poultry facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlocon, Lara Jane S; Manuzon, Roderick B; Zhao, Lingying

    2015-01-01

    Significant ammonia emissions from animal facilities need to be controlled due to its negative impacts on human health and the environment. The use of acid spray scrubber is promising, as it simultaneously mitigates and recovers ammonia emission for fertilizer. Its low pressure drop contribution on axial fans makes it applicable on US farms. This study develops a full-scale acid spray scrubber to recover ammonia emissions from commercial poultry facilities and produce nitrogen fertilizer. The scrubber performance and economic feasibility were evaluated at a commercial poultry manure composting facility that released ammonia from exhaust fans with concentrations of 66-278 ppmv and total emission rate of 96,143 kg yr(-1). The scrubber consisted of 15 spray scrubber modules, each equipped with three full-cone nozzles that used dilute sulphuric acid as the medium. Each nozzle was operated at 0.59 MPa with a droplet size of 113 μm and liquid flow rate of 1.8 L min(-1). The scrubber was installed with a 1.3-m exhaust fan and field tested in four seasons. Results showed that the scrubber achieved high NH3 removal efficiencies (71-81%) and low pressure drop (scrubber effluents containing 22-36% (m/v) ammonium sulphate are comparable to the commercial-grade nitrogen fertilizer. Preliminary economic analysis indicated that the break-even time is one year. This study demonstrates that acid spray scrubbers can economically and effectively recover NH3 from animal facilities for fertilizer.

  20. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers - KML

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a KML file for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  1. Recovery Act. Tapoco project. Cheoah upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Paul [Alcoa Inc., Alcoa Center, PA (United States)

    2013-10-02

    Under Funding Opportunity Announcement Number: DE-FOA-0000120, Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Modernization, Alcoa Power Generating Inc. (APGI), a fully owned subsidiary of Alcoa Inc., implemented major upgrades at its Cheoah hydroelectric facility near Robbinsville, North Carolina.

  2. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Web Academy Webinar: Wasted Food to Energy: How 6 Water Resource Recovery Facilities are Boosting Biogas Production & the Bottom Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a webinar page for the Sustainable Management of Materials (SMM) Web Academy webinar titled Let’s WRAP (Wrap Recycling Action Program): Best Practices to Boost Plastic Film Recycling in Your Community

  3. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford Facilities: Progress report for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989 - Volume 1 - Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-12-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, completion/inspection reports, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled, completed, or logged during this period. Volume 2 can be found on microfiche in the back pocket of Volume 1. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the sampled aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality.

  4. Cost Recovery Through Depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Robert T.; Wesolowski, Leonard V.

    1983-01-01

    The approach of adopting depreciation rather than use allowance in order to recover more accurately the cost of college buildings and equipment used on federal projects is considered. It is suggested that depreciation will offer most colleges and universities a higher annual recovery rate, and an opportunity for better facilities planning. For…

  5. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 7: Revision 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This permit application (Vol. 7) for the WIPP facility contains appendices related to the following information: Ground water protection; personnel; solid waste management; and memorandums concerning environmental protection standards.

  6. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B, Permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revison 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information related to the permit application for the WIPP facility. Information is presented on solid waste management; personnel safety; emergency plans; site characterization; applicable regulations; decommissioning; and ground water monitoring requirements.

  7. Providing Anesthesia Care in Resource-limited Settings: A 6-year Analysis of Anesthesia Services Provided at Médecins Sans Frontières Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyo, Promise; Trelles, Miguel; Helmand, Rahmatullah; Amir, Yama; Hassani, Ghulam Haidar; Mftavyanka, Julien; Nzeyimana, Zenon; Akemani, Clemence; Ntawukiruwabo, Innocent Bagura; Charles, Adelin; Yana, Yanang; Moussa, Kalla; Kamal, Mustafa; Suma, Mohamed Lamin; Ahmed, Mowlid; Abdullahi, Mohamed; Wong, Evan G; Kushner, Adam; Latif, Asad

    2016-03-01

    Anesthesia is integral to improving surgical care in low-resource settings. Anesthesia providers who work in these areas should be familiar with the particularities associated with providing care in these settings, including the types and outcomes of commonly performed anesthetic procedures. The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of anesthetic procedures performed at Médecins Sans Frontières facilities from July 2008 to June 2014. The authors collected data on patient demographics, procedural characteristics, and patient outcome. The factors associated with perioperative mortality were analyzed. Over the 6-yr period, 75,536 anesthetics were provided to adult patients. The most common anesthesia techniques were spinal anesthesia (45.56%) and general anesthesia without intubation (33.85%). Overall perioperative mortality was 0.25%. Emergent procedures (0.41%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 15.86; 95% CI, 2.14 to 115.58), specialized surgeries (2.74%; AOR, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.27 to 11.47), and surgical duration more than 6 h (9.76%; AOR, 4.02; 95% CI, 1.09 to 14.88) were associated with higher odds of mortality than elective surgeries, minor surgeries, and surgical duration less than 1 h, respectively. Compared with general anesthesia with intubation, spinal anesthesia, regional anesthesia, and general anesthesia without intubation were associated with lower perioperative mortality rates of 0.04% (AOR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.18), 0.06% (AOR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.92), and 0.14% (AOR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.45), respectively. A wide range of anesthetics can be carried out safely in resource-limited settings. Providers need to be aware of the potential risks and the outcomes associated with anesthesia administration in these settings.

  8. Recovery Act. Direct Confirmation of Commercial Geothermal Resources in Colorado Using Remote Sensing and On-Site Exploration, Testing, and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Paul [Pagosa Verde LLC, Pagosa Springs, CO (United States); Skeehan, Kirsten [Pagosa Verde LLC, Pagosa Springs, CO (United States); Smith, Jerome [Pagosa Verde LLC, Pagosa Springs, CO (United States); Mink, Roy [Pagosa Verde LLC, Pagosa Springs, CO (United States); Geohydro, Mink [Pagosa Verde LLC, Pagosa Springs, CO (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Report on the confirmation of Commercial Geothermal Resources in Colorado describing the on site testing and analysis to confirm remote sensing identified potential resources. A series of thermal gradient wells were drilled in the Pagosa Springs region and the data collected is analyzed within.

  9. One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-11-01

    Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

  10. Data recovery program to mitigate the effects of the construction of space transportation system facilities on seven archaeological sites on Vandenberg Air Force Base, Santa Barbara County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glassow, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    A plan is proposed for the recovery of data from three prehistoric habitation sites, 4-SBa-539, 670, and 931, which will be adversely affected by the Space Transportation System Project, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Phase II testing suggests that SBa-539 and 670, fall within the Late Period, AD 1000 to European contact, with a possible Middle-Period component at 670, while SBa-931, radiocarbon-dated to BC 6000, represents the Early Period, or Millingstone Horizon, of Southern California prehistory. Excavation will utilize conventional fine scale techniques and specialized sample collection. Data analysis will provide information on prehistoric subsistence and settlement patterns, inter-regional trade, and functions of distinctive artifact types. Cultural change will be identified and comparisons made between cultural developments of Vandenberg and neighboring regions

  11. RCRA Facility Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes hazardous waste information, which is mostly contained in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo) System, a national...

  12. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit Application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This is the RCRA required permit application for Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; Cyanide Treatment Unit. All four of these units are associated with the recovery of enriched uranium and other metals from wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials.

  13. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit Application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This is the RCRA required permit application for Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; Cyanide Treatment Unit. All four of these units are associated with the recovery of enriched uranium and other metals from wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials

  14. Recovery of thorium and rare earths by their peroxides precipitation from a residue produced in the thorium purification facility; Recuperacao de torio e terras raras via peroxido do residuo originado na unidade de purificacao de torio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Antonio Alves de

    2008-07-01

    As consequence of the operation of a Thorium purification facility, for pure Thorium Nitrate production, the IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares) has stored away a solid residue called RETOTER (REsiduo de TOrio e TErras Raras). The RETOTER is rich in Rare-Earth Elements and significant amount of Thorium-232 and minor amount of Uranium. Furthermore it contains several radionuclides from the natural decay series. Significant radioactivity contribution is generated by the Thorium descendent, mainly the Radium-228(T{sub 1/2}=5.7y), known as meso thorium and Thorium-228(T{sub 1/2} 1.90y). An important thorium daughter is the Lead-208, a stable isotope present with an expressive quantity. After the enclosure of the operation of the Thorium purification facility, many researches have been developed for the establishment of methodologies for recovery of Thorium, Rare-Earth Elements and Lead-208 from the RETOTER. This work presents a method for RETOTER decontamination, separating and bordering upon some radioactive isotopes. The residue was digested with nitric acid and the Radium-228 was separated by the Barium Sulphate co-precipitation procedure. Finally, the Thorium was separated by the peroxide precipitation and the Rare-Earth Elements were also recovered by the Rare-Earth peroxide precipitation in the filtrate solution.(author)

  15. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  16. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for container storage units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document contains Part B of the Permit Application for Container Storage Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Sections cover the following areas: Facility description; Waste characteristics; Process information; Ground water monitoring; Procedures to prevent hazards; Contingency plan; Personnel training; Closure plan, post closure plan, and financial requirements; Recordkeeping; Other federal laws; Organic air emissions; Solid waste management units; and Certification.

  17. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for container storage units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document contains Part B of the Permit Application for Container Storage Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Sections cover the following areas: Facility description; Waste characteristics; Process information; Ground water monitoring; Procedures to prevent hazards; Contingency plan; Personnel training; Closure plan, post closure plan, and financial requirements; Recordkeeping; Other federal laws; Organic air emissions; Solid waste management units; and Certification

  18. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the tank farms facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crummel, G.M.; Gustavson, R.D.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Moeller, M.P.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum three years. A variety of liquid wastes are generated in processing treatment, and disposal operations throughout the Hanford Site. The Tank Farms Project serves a major role in Hanford Site waste management activities as the temporary repository for these wastes. Stored wastes include hazardous components regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and as by-product material regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. A total of 177 single- and double-shell tanks (SST and DST) have been constructed in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site. These facilities were constructed to various designs from 1943 to 1986. The Tank Farms Project is comprised of these tanks along with various transfer, receiving, and treatment facilities

  19. Recovery of resources for advanced life support space applications: effect of retention time on biodegradation of two crop residues in a fed-batch, continuous stirred tank reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Alazraki, M. P.; Cook, K.; Garland, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Bioreactor retention time is a key process variable that will influence costs that are relevant to long distance space travel or long duration space habitation. However. little is known about the effects of this parameter on the microbiological treatment options that are being proposed for Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. Two bioreactor studies were designed to examine this variable. In the first one, six retention times ranging from 1.3 to 21.3 days--were run in duplicate, 81 working-volume continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) that were fed ALS wheat residues. Ash-free dry weight loss, carbon mineralization, soluble TOC reduction, changes in fiber content (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin), bacterial numbers, and mineral recoveries were monitored. At short retention times--1.33 days--biodegradation was poor (total: 16-20%, cellulose - 12%, hemicellulose - 28%) but soluble TOC was decreased by 75-80% and recovery of major crop inorganic nutrients was adequate, except for phosphorus. A high proportion of the total bacteria (ca. 83%) was actively respiring. At the longest retention time tested, 21.3 days, biodegradation was good (total: 55-60%, cellulose ca. 70%, hemicellulose - ca. 55%) and soluble TOC was decreased by 80%. Recovery of major nutrients, except phosphorus, remained adequate. A very low proportion of total bacteria was actively respiring (ca. 16%). The second bioreactor study used potato residue to determine if even shorter retention times could be used (range 0.25-2.0 days). Although overall biodegradation deteriorated, the degradation of soluble TOC continued to be ca. 75%. We conclude that if the goal of ALS bioprocessing is maximal degradation of crop residues, including cellulose, then retention times of 10 days or longer will be needed. If the goal is to provide inorganic nutrients with the smallest volume/weight bioreactor possible, then a retention time of 1 day (or less) is sufficient.

  20. Status of ground-water resources at U.S. Navy Support Facility, Diego Garcia; summary of hydrologic and climatic data, January 1993 through December 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torikai, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains hydrologic and climatic data that describe the status of ground-water resources at U.S. Navy Support Facility, Diego Garcia. Data presented are from January 1993 through December 1995, although the report focuses on hydrologic events from October through December 1995 (fourth quarter of 1995). Cumulative rainfall for October through December 1995 was about 41 inches, which is 32 percent more than the mean cumulative rainfall of about 31 inches for October through December. The period October through December is within the annual wet season. Mean cumulative rainfall is calculated for the fixed base period 1951-90. Ground-water withdrawal during October through December 1995 averaged 931,000 gallons per day. Withdrawal for the same 3 months in 1994 averaged 902,900 gallons per day. Patterns of withdrawal during the fourth quarter of 1995 did not change significantly since 1993 at all five ground-water production areas. At the end of December 1995, the chloride concentration of the composite water supply was 60 milligrams per liter, well below the 250 milligrams per liter secondary drinking-water standard established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Chloride concentrations of the composite water supply from October through December 1995 ranged between 28 and 67 milligrams per liter. Chloride concentration of ground water in monitoring wells at Cantonment and Air Operations continued to decrease during the fourth quarter of 1995, with water from the deepest monitoring wells decreasing in chloride concentration by as much as 2,000 milligrams per liter. This trend follows increases in chloride concentration during the first half of 1995. A fuel leak at Air Operations caused the shutdown of ten wells in May 1991. Four of the wells resumed pumping for water-supply purposes in April 1992. The remaining six wells are being used to hydraulically divert fuel migration away from water-supply wells by recirculating about 150,000 gallons of water

  1. Status of ground-water resources at U.S. Navy Support Facility, Diego Garcia; summary of hydrologic and climatic data, January 1992 through September 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torikai, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains hydrologic and climatic data that describe the status of ground-water resources at U.S. Navy Support Facility, Diego Garcia. Data are presented from January 1992 through September 1994. This report concentrates on data from July through September 1994, and references historic data from 1992 through June 1994. Total rainfall for the first nine months of 1994 was about 77 inches which is 72 percent of the mean annual rainfall of 106 inches. In comparison, total rainfall for the first nine months of 1992 and 1993 was 67 inches and 69 inches, respectively. Annual rainfall totals in 1992 and 1993 were 93 inches and 95 inches, respectively. Ground-water withdrawal during July through September 1994 has averaged 919,400 gallons per day, while annual withdrawals in 1992 and 1993 averaged 935,900 gallons per day and 953,800 gallons per day, respectively. At the end of September 1994, the chloride concentration of the composite water supply was 56 milligrams per liter, well below the 250 milligrams per liter secondary drinking-water standard established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Chloride concentrations of the composite water supply from July through September 1994 ranged between 51 and 78 milligrams per liter. Chloride concentration of ground water in monitoring wells at Cantonment and Air Operations increased in July and August, but have leveled off or decreased in September. There has been a general trend of increasing chloride concentrations in the deeper monitoring wells since the 1992 dry season, which began in March 1992. A fuel leak at Air Operations caused the shutdown of ten wells in May 1991. Four of the wells resumed pumping for water-supply purposes in April 1992. The remaining six wells are being used to hydraulically contain and divert fuel migration by recirculating 150,000 gallons of water each day.

  2. Status of ground-water resources at U.S. Navy Support Facility, Diego Garcia; summary of hydrologic and climatic data, January 1993 through March 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torikai, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains hydrologic and climatic data that describe the status of ground-water resources at U.S. Navy Support Facility, Diego Garcia. Data presented are from January 1993 through March 1995, although the report focuses on hydrologic events from January through March 1995. Cumulative rainfall for January through March 1995 was about 42 inches which is higher than the mean cumulative rainfall of about 33 inches for the same 3 months in a year. January and February are part of the annual wet season and March is the start of the annual dry season. Rainfall for each month was above average from the respective mean monthly rainfall. Ground- water withdrawal during January through March 1995 averaged 894,600 gallons per day. Withdrawal for the same 3 months in 1994 averaged 999,600 gallons per day. At the end of March 1995, the chloride concentration of the composite water supply was 26 milligrams per liter, well below the 250 milligrams per liter secondary drinking-water standard established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Chloride concentrations of the composite water supply from January through March 1995 ranged between 19 and 49 milligrams per liter. Chloride concentration of ground water in monitoring wells at Cantonment and Air Operations decreased since November 1994. The deepest monitoring wells show declines in chloride concentration by as much as 4,000 milligrams per liter. A fuel leak at Air Operations caused the shutdown of ten wells in May 1991. Four of the wells resumed pumping for water- supply purposes in April 1992. The remaining six wells are being used to hydraulically contain and divert fuel migration by recirculating about 150,000 gallons of water each day.

  3. Status of ground-water resources at U.S. Navy Support Facility, Diego Garcia; summary of hydrologic and climatic data, January 1993 through September 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torikai, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains hydrologic and climatic data that describe the status of ground-water resources at U.S. Navy Support Facility, Diego Garcia. Data presented are from January 1993 through September 1995, although the report focuses on hydrologic events from July through September 1995. Cumulative rainfall for July through September 1995 was about 15 inches which is 32 percent less than the mean cumulative rainfall of about 22 inches for July through September. July and August are within the annual dry season, while September is the start of the annual wet season. Mean cumulative rainfall is calculated for the fixed base period 1951-90. Ground-water withdrawal during July through September 1995 averaged 888,500 gallons per day. Withdrawal for the same 3 months in 1994 averaged 919,400 gallons per day. Patterns of withdrawal during the third quarter of 1995 did not change significantly since 1993 at all five ground-water production areas. At the end of September 1995, the chloride concentration of the composite water supply was 51 milligrams per liter, well below the 250 milligrams per liter secondary drinking-water standard established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Chloride concentrations of the composite water supply from July through September 1995 ranged between 42 and 68 milligrams per liter. Chloride concentration of ground water in monitoring wells at Cantonment and Air Operations continued to increase since April 1995, with water from the deepest monitoring wells increasing in chloride concentration by as much as 2,000 milligrams per liter. A fuel leak at Air Operations caused the shutdown of ten wells in May 1991. Four of the wells resumed pumping for water-supply purposes in April 1992. The remaining six wells are being used to hydraulically divert fuel migration away from water-supply wells by recirculating about 150,000 gallons of water each day.

  4. Status of ground-water resources at U.S. Navy Support Facility, Diego Garcia; summary of hydrologic and climatic data, January 1994 through September 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torikai, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the status of ground-water resources at U.S. Navy Support Facility, Diego Garcia. Data presented are from January 1994 through September 1996, with a focus on data from July through September 1996 (third quarter of 1996). A complete database of ground-water withdrawals and chloride-concentration records since 1985 is maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey. Total rainfall for the period July through September 1996 was 8.94 inches, which is 60 percent less than the mean rainfall of 22.23 inches for the period July through September. July and August are part of the annual dry season, while September is the start of the annual wet season. Ground-water withdrawal during July through September 1996 averaged 1,038,300 gallons per day. Withdrawal for the same 3 months in 1995 averaged 888,500 gallons per day. Ground-water withdrawals have steadily increased since about April 1995. At the end of September 1996, the chloride concentration of water from the elevated tanks at Cantonment and Air Operations were 68 and 150 milligrams per liter, respectively. The chloride concentration from all five production areas increased throughout the third quarter of 1996, and started the upward trend in about April 1995. Chloride concentration of ground water in monitoring wells at Cantonment and Air Operations also increased throughout the third quarter of 1996, with the largest increases from water in the deepest monitoring wells. Chloride concentrations have not been at this level since the dry season of 1994. A fuel-pipeline leak at Air Operations in May 1991 decreased total islandwide withdrawals by 15 percent. This lost pumping capacity is being offset by increased pumpage at Cantonment. Six wells do not contribute to the water supply because they are being used to hydraulically divert fuel migration away from water-supply wells by a program of ground-water withdrawal and injection.

  5. Status of ground-water resources at U.S. Navy Support Facility, Diego Garcia; summary of hydrologic and climatic data, January 1993 through June 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torikai, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains hydrologic and climatic data that describe the status of ground-water resources at U.S. Navy Support Facility, Diego Garcia. Data presented are from January 1993 through June 1995, although the report focuses on hydrologic events from April through June 1995. Cumulative rainfall for April through June 1995 was about 14 inches which is 70 percent of the mean cumulative rainfall of about 20 inches for the same 3 months in a year. April through June is within the annual dry season. Rainfall for each month was below average from the respective mean monthly rainfall. All mean rainfall values are calculated for the fixed base period 1951-90. Ground-water withdrawal during April through June 1995 averaged 833,700 gallons per day. Withdrawal for the same 3 months in 1994 averaged 950,000 gallons per day. At the end of June 1995, the chloride concentration of the composite water supply was 57 milligrams per liter, well below the 250 milligrams per liter secondary drinking-water standard established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Chloride concentrations of the composite water supply from April through June 1995 ranged between 26 and 62 milligrams per liter. Chloride concentration of ground water in monitoring wells at Cantonment and Air Operations increased since April 1995, with water from the deepest monitoring wells increasing in chloride concentra- tion by about 1000 milligrams per liter. A fuel leak at Air Operations caused the shutdown of ten wells in May 1991. Four of the wells resumed pumping for water-supply purposes in April 1992. The remaining six wells are being used to hydraulically contain and divert fuel migration away from water-supply wells by recirculating about 150,000 gallons of water each day.

  6. Waste heat and water recovery opportunities in California tomato paste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amón, Ricardo; Maulhardt, Mike; Wong, Tony; Kazama, Don; Simmons, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Water and energy efficiency are important for the vitality of the food processing industry as demand for these limited resources continues to increase. Tomato processing, which is dominated by paste production, is a major industry in California – where the majority of tomatoes are processed in the United States. Paste processing generates large amounts of condensate as moisture is removed from the fruit. Recovery of the waste heat in this condensate and reuse of the water may provide avenues to decrease net energy and water use at processing facilities. However, new processing methods are needed to create demand for the condensate waste heat. In this study, the potential to recover condensate waste heat and apply it to the tomato enzyme thermal inactivation processing step (the hot break) is assessed as a novel application. A modeling framework is established to predict heat transfer to tomatoes during the hot break. Heat recovery and reuse of the condensate water are related to energy and monetary savings gained through decreased use of steam, groundwater pumping, cooling towers, and wastewater processing. This analysis is informed by water and energy usage data from relevant unit operations at a commercial paste production facility. The case study indicates potential facility seasonal energy and monetary savings of 7.3 GWh and $166,000, respectively, with most savings gained through reduced natural gas use. The sensitivity of heat recovery to various process variables associated with heat exchanger design and processing conditions is presented to identify factors that affect waste heat recovery. - Highlights: • The potential to recovery waste heat in tomato paste processing is examined. • Heat transfer from evaporator condensate to tomatoes in the hot break is modeled. • Processing facility data is used in model to predict heat recovery energy savings. • The primary benefit of heat recovery is reduced use of natural gas in boilers. • Reusing

  7. Oil removal of spent hydrotreating catalyst CoMo/Al2O3 via a facile method with enhanced metal recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Xu, Shengming; Li, Zhen; Wang, Jianlong; Zhao, Zhongwei; Xu, Zhenghe

    2016-11-15

    Deoiling process is a key issue for recovering metal values from spent hydrotreating catalysts. The oils can be removed with organic solvents, but the industrialized application of this method is greatly hampered by the high cost and complex processes. Despite the roasting method is simple and low-cost, it generates hardest-to-recycle impurities (CoMoO4 or NiMoO4) and enormous toxic gases. In this study, a novel and facile approach to remove oils from the spent hydrotreating catalysts is developed. Firstly, surface properties of spent catalysts are characterized to reveal the possibility of oil removal. And then, oils are removed with water solution under the conditions of 90°C, 0.1wt% SDS, 2.0wt% NaOH and 10ml/gL/S ratio for 4h. Finally, thermal treatment and leaching tests are carried out to further explore the advantages of oil removal. The results show that no hardest-to-recycle impurity CoMoO4 is found in XPS spectra of thermally treated samples after deoiling and molybdenum is leached completely with sodium carbonate solution. It means that the proposed deoiling method can not only remove oils simply and without enormous harmful gases generating, but also avoid the generation of detrimental impurity and promote recycling of valuable metals from spent hydrotreating catalysts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) general contingency plan for hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaggs, B.E.

    1993-11-01

    The Y-12 RCRA Contingency Plan will be continually reviewed and revised if any of the following occur: the facility permit is revised, the plan is inadequate in an emergency, the procedures herein can be improved, the operations of the facility change in a way that alters the plan, the emergency coordinator changes, or the emergency equipment list changes. Copies of the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan are available at the Plant Shift Superintendent's Office and the Emergency Management Office. This document serves to supplement the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan to be appropriate for all RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal units. The 90-day accumulation areas at the Y-12 Plant have a separate contingency supplement as required by RCRA and are separate from this supplement

  9. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) contingency plan for hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Y-12 RCRA Contingency Plan will be continually reviewed and revised if any of the following occur: the facility permit is revised, the plan is inadequate in an emergency, the procedures can be improved, the operations of the facility change in a way that alters the plan, the emergency coordinator changes, or the emergency equipment list changes. Copies of the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan are available at the Plant Shift Superintendent's Office and the Emergency Management Office. This document serves to supplement the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan to be appropriate for all RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal units. The 90-day accumulation areas at the Y-12 Plant have a separate contingency supplement as required by RCRA and are separate from this supplement

  10. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    Attention is focused on permit applications for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; and Cyanide Treatment Unit. This report addresses the following areas: facility description; waste characteristics; process information; ground water monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plan; personnel training; closure plan, post closure plant, and financial requirements; record keeping; other federal laws; organic air emissions; solid waste management units; and certification

  11. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 4, Chapter D, Appendix D1 (beginning), Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappin, A. R.

    1993-03-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is designed for receipt, handling, storage, and permanent isolation of defense-generated transuranic wastes, is being excavated at a depth of approximately 655 m in bedded halites of the Permian Salado Formation of southeastern New Mexico. Site-characterization activities at the present WIPP site began in 1976. Full construction of the facility began in 1983, after completion of ``Site and Preliminary Design Validation`` (SPDV) activities and reporting. Site-characterization activities since 1983 have had the objectives of updating or refining the overall conceptual model of the geologic, hydrologic, and structural behavior of the WIPP site and providing data adequate for use in WIPP performance assessment. This report has four main objectives: 1. Summarize the results of WIPP site-characterization studies carried out since the spring of 1983 as a result of specific agreements between the US Department of Energy and the State of New Mexico. 2. Summarize the results and status of site-characterization and facility-characterization studies carried out since 1983, but not specifically included in mandated agreements. 3. Compile the results of WIPP site-characterization studies into an internally consistent conceptual model for the geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and structural behavior of the WIPP site. This model includes some consideration of the effects of the WIPP facility and shafts on the local characteristics of the Salado and Rustler Formations. 4. Discuss the present limitations and/or uncertainties in the conceptual geologic model of the WIPP site and facility. The objectives of this report are limited in scope, and do not include determination of whether or not the WIPP Project will comply with repository-performance criteria developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40CFR191).

  12. Post-Closure Report for Closed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Corrective Action Units, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, for fiscal year 2013 (October 2012 - September 2013)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This report serves as the combined annual report for post-closure activities for the following closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs): CAU 90, Area 2 Bitcutter Containment; CAU 91, Area 3 U-3fi Injection Well; CAU 92, Area 6 Decon Pond Facility; CAU 110, Area 3 WMD U-3ax/bl Crater; CAU 111, Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits; and, CAU 112, Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches

  13. Post-Closure Report for Closed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Corrective Action Units, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for fiscal year 2013 (October 2012 - September 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-01-31

    This report serves as the combined annual report for post-closure activities for the following closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs): CAU 90, Area 2 Bitcutter Containment; CAU 91, Area 3 U-3fi Injection Well; CAU 92, Area 6 Decon Pond Facility; CAU 110, Area 3 WMD U-3ax/bl Crater; CAU 111, Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits; and, CAU 112, Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches.

  14. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Attention is focused on permit applications for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; and Cyanide Treatment Unit. This report addresses the following areas: facility description; waste characteristics; process information; ground water monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plan; personnel training; closure plan, post closure plant, and financial requirements; record keeping; other federal laws; organic air emissions; solid waste management units; and certification.

  15. Resource conversation and recovery act (RCRA) Contingency Plan for interim status or permitted units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The official mission of the Y-12 Plant is to serve as a manufacturing technology center for key processes such that capabilities are maintained for safe, secure, reliable, and survivable nuclear weapons systems and other applications of national importance. The Y-12 RCRA Contingency Plan will be reviewed and revised if necessary if the facility RCRA operating permits are revised, the plan is inadequate in an emergency, the procedures herein can be improved, the facility's operations change in a manner that alters the plan, the emergency coordinator changes, or the emergency equipment list changes. Copies of the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan are available at the Plant Shift Superintendent's Office and the Emergency Preparedness Office. This document serves to supplement the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan to be appropriate for all RCRA hazardous waste interim status or permitted treatment, storage, or disposal facilities. The 90-day storage areas at the Y-12 Plant have a separate contingency supplement as required by RCRA and are separate from this supplement

  16. Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2132. Stage II Vapor Recovery Systems for Control of Vehicle Refuelling Emissions at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities; SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) and 2016-02-29 (LAd47) to 2017-09-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2132. Stage II Vapor Recovery Systems for Control of Vehicle Refuelling Emissions at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities; SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) and 2016-02-29 (LAd47) to 2017-09-27

  17. A joint European and African research & innovation agenda on waste management. Waste as a resource: Recycling & recovery of raw materials (2014-2020)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research and Innovation Agenda, provides the platform for addressing these basic waste management practices in our municipalities, in innovative ways that will realise the potential provided by waste as a renewable resource and thus grow the waste economy...

  18. Projects at the component development and integration facility. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This quarterly technical progress report presents progress on the projects at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) during the third quarter of FY94. The CDIF is a major Department of Energy test facility in Butte, Montana, operated by MSE, Inc. Projects in progress include: Biomass Remediation Project; Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soil Project; MHD Shutdown; Mine Waste Technology Pilot Program; Plasma Projects; Resource Recovery Project; and Spray Casting Project

  19. Complying with the Federal Facilities Compliance Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavetto, C.S.; Watmore, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA), signed into law on October 6, 1992, amended the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to place significant additional environmental compliance responsibilities on federal facilities. The federal government has expressly waived sovereign immunity regarding hazardous waste enforcement action taken against these facilities by the states and the EPA. An exception exists for mixed waste violations. The FFCA defines mixed waste as hazardous waste, as defined by RCRA, combined with source, special nuclear or by-product material that is subject to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. As the majority owner of mixed waste in the United States, the Department of Energy (DOE) must satisfy several new requirements under the FFCA for their facilities. This paper reviews the FFCA's requirements and how they apply to and may affect the DOE and other federal facilities. Included in the review are responsibilities of federal agencies involved and the role of the EPA and the states. In addition, this paper discusses the intent of the FFCA to encourage development of federal facility agreements (FFA) between federal agencies, the EPA and state environmental regulatory agencies

  20. Spring 2009 Semiannual (III.H. and I.U.) Report for the HWMA/RCRA Post-Closure Permit for the INTEC Waste Calcining Facility at the INL Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, Ann M.

    2009-01-01

    The Waste Calcining Facility is located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. In 1999, the Waste Calcining Facility was closed under and approved Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure plan. Vessels and spaces were grouted and then covered with a concrete cap. This permit sets forth procedural requirements for groundwater characterization and monitoring, maintenance, and inspections of the Waste Calcining Facility to ensure continued protection of human health and the environment.

  1. Spring 2009 Semiannual (III.H. and I.U.) Report for the HWMA/RCRA Post-Closure Permit for the INTEC Waste Calcining Facility at the INL Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmer, Ann M.

    2009-05-31

    The Waste Calcining Facility is located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. In 1999, the Waste Calcining Facility was closed under and approved Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure plan. Vessels and spaces were grouted and then covered with a concrete cap. This permit sets forth procedural requirements for groundwater characterization and monitoring, maintenance, and inspections of the Waste Calcining Facility to ensure continued protection of human health and the environment.

  2. Status of ground-water resources at U.S. Navy Support Facility, Diego Garcia; summary of hydrologic and climatic data, January 1994 through March 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torikai, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the status of ground-water resources at U.S. Navy Support Facility, Diego Garcia. Data presented are from January 1994 through March 1996, with a focus on data from January through March 1996 (first quarter of 1996). A complete database of ground-water withdrawals and chloride-concentration records since 1985 is maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey. Cumulative rainfall for January through March 1996 was about 30 inches, which is 9 percent less than the mean cumulative rainfall of about 33 inches for January through March. The period January through February is the end of the annual wet season, while March marks the start of the annual dry season. Ground-water withdrawal during January through March 1996 averaged 970,300 gallons per day. Withdrawal for the same 3 months in 1995 averaged 894,600 gallons per day. With- drawal patterns during the first quarter of 1996 did not change significantly since 1991, with the Cantonment and Air Operations areas supplying about 99 percent of total islandwide pumpage. At the end of March 1996, the chloride concentration of water from the elevated tanks at Cantonment and Air Operations were 47 and 80 milligrams per liter, respectively. The chloride data from all five production areas showed no significant upward or downward trends throughout the first quarter of 1996. Potable levels of chloride concentrations have been maintained by adjusting individual pumping rates, and also because of the absence of long-term droughts. Chloride concentration of ground water in monitoring wells at Cantonment and Air Operations also showed no significant trends throughout the first quarter of 1996. Chloride concentrations have been about the same since the last quarter of 1995. A fuel-pipeline leak at Air Operations in May 1991 decreased total islandwide withdrawals by 15 percent. This lost pumping capacity is being offset by increased pumpage at Cantonment. Six wells do not contribute to the water supply because they

  3. Status of ground-water resources at U.S. Navy Support Facility, Diego Garcia; summary of hydrologic and climatic data, January 1992 through December 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torikai, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains hydrologic and climatic data that describe the status of ground-water resources at U.S. Navy Support Facility, Diego Garcia. Data presented are from January 1992 through December 1994. This report concentrates on data from October through December 1994, and references previous data from 1992 through 1994. Cumulative rainfall for October through December 1994 was 55 inches which is higher than the mean cumulative rainfall of about 31 inches for the same 3 months. Total rainfall for 1994 was 131 inches which is 24 percent higher than the mean annual rainfall of 106 inches. In com- parison, total rainfall in 1992 and 1993 were 93 inches and 95 inches, respectively. Ground-water withdrawal during October through December 1994 averaged 903,000 gallons per day, while the annual withdrawal in 1994 was 942,700 gallons per day. Annual withdrawals in 1992 and 1993 averaged 935,900 gallons per day and 953,800 gallons per day, respectively. At the end of December 1994, the chloride concentration of the composite water supply was 28 milligrams per liter, well below the 250 milligrams per liter secondary drinking-water standard established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Chloride concentrations of the composite water supply from October through December 1994 ranged between 28 and 86 milligrams per liter. Chloride concentration of ground water in monitoring wells at Cantonment and Air Operations decreased in November and December, and seems to have leveled off by the end of the year. Although chloride concen- trations have decreased during the fourth quarter of 1994, there has been a general trend of increasing chloride concentrations in the deeper monitoring wells since the 1992 dry season, which began in March 1992. A fuel leak at Air Operations caused the shutdown of ten wells in May 1991. Four of the wells resumed pumping for water-supply purposes in April 1992. The remaining six wells are being used to hydraulically contain and divert fuel

  4. Status of ground-water resources at U.S. Navy Support Facility, Diego Garcia; summary of hydrologic and climatic data, January 1994 through June 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torikai, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the status of ground-water resources at U.S. Navy Support Facility, Diego Garcia. Data presented are from January 1994 through June 1996, with a focus on data from April through June 1996 (second quarter of 1996). A complete database of ground-water withdrawals and chloride-concentration records since 1985 is maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey. Cumulative rainfall for April through June 1996 was 22.64 inches, which is 12 percent more than the mean cumulative rainfall of 20.21 inches for April through June. The period April through June is part of the annual dry season. Ground-water withdrawal during April through June 1996 averaged 1,048,000 gallons per day. Withdrawal for the same 3 months in 1995 averaged 833,700 gallons per day. Withdrawal patterns during the second quarter of 1996 did not change significantly since 1991, with the Cantonment and Air Operations areas supplying about 99 percent of total islandwide pumpage. At the end of June 1996, the chloride concentration of water from the elevated tanks at Cantonment and Air Operations were 52 and 80 milligrams per liter, respectively. The chloride data from all five production areas showed no significant upward or downward trends throughout the second quarter of 1996. Potable levels of chloride concentrations have been maintained by adjusting individual pumping rates, and also because of the absence of long-term droughts. Chloride concentration of ground water in monitoring wells at Cantonment and Air Operations also showed no significant trends throughout the second quarter of 1996. Chloride concentrations have been about the same since the last quarter of 1995. A fuel-pipeline leak at Air Operations in May 1991 decreased total islandwide withdrawals by 15 percent. This lost pumping capacity is being offset by increased pumpage at Cantonment. Six wells do not contribute to the water supply because they are being used to hydraulically divert fuel migration away from water

  5. Report on follow-up for joint research of valuable resources recovery techniques from brackish water; Kansuichu no yuka shigen kaishu gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku follow up hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report describes follow-up for research and development on the recovery of valuable resources, such as magnesium, bromine and boron, contained in the brackish water for manufacture of common salt in the coastal region of Mexico. For the field survey, salt garden, irrigation plant and manufacturing plant of dinning salt were inspected. The optimum site was examined by assuming desalination plant and solar pond. The groundwater in coastal regions is progressively salified. Since the coastal region is a tourist resort with an round-trip area of whales, environmental protection is indispensable. For the joint research with invited researchers, the solar pond system and fresh water generation were studied. As a result, it was found that the solar pond system is an excellent method for keeping thermal energy in a low cost at the salt garden with abundant solar energy, and that the desalination system combined with distilling is the most suitable method. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  6. 190-C Facility <90 Day Storage Pad supplemental information to the Hanford facility contingency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, N.C.

    1996-12-01

    The 190-C Facility <90 Day Storage Pad stores waste oils primarily contaminated with lead generated while draining equipment within the building of residual lubricating oils. Waste oils are packaged and stored in fifty-five gallon drums, or other containers permitted by the Site Specific Waste Management Instruction. Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI) manual BHI-EE-02, Environmental Requirements Procedures, references this document. This document is to be used to demonstrate compliance with the contingency plan requirements in Washington Administrative Code, Chapter 173-303, Dangerous Waste Regulations, for certain Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) waste management units (units). Refer to BHI-EE-02, for additional information

  7. Managing Waste Inventory and License Limits at the Perma-Fix Northwest Facility to Meet CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Deliverables - 12335

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moak, Don J.; Grondin, Richard L. [Perma-Fix Environmental Services, Inc. - PESI, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Triner, Glen C.; West, Lori D. [East Tennessee Materials and Energy Corporation - M and EC, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    facility in accordance with the facility's radioactive materials license(s) (RML). While both CHPRC and PFNW maintain waste databases to track all waste movements, it became evident early in the process that a tool was needed that married the two systems to better track SNM inventories and sequence waste from the point of generation, through the PFNW facility, and back to the Hanford site for final disposition. This tool, known as the Treatment Integration and Planning Tool (TIPT), has become a robust planning tool that provides real-time data to support compliant and efficient waste generation, transportation, treatment, and disposition. TIPT is developing into the next generation tool that will change the way in which legacy wastes, retrieval wastes and decontamination and decommissioning operations are conducted on the Plateau Remediation Contract (PRC). The real value of the TIPT is its predictive capability. It allows the W and FMP to map out optimal windows for processing waste through the PFNW facility, or through any process that is in some way resource limited. It allows project managers to identify and focus on problem areas before shipments are affected. It has been modified for use in broader applications to predict turnaround times and identify windows of opportunity for processing higher gram wastes through PFNW and to allow waste generators, site-wide, to accurately predict scope, cost, and schedule for waste generation to optimize processing and eliminate storage, double handling, and related costs and unnecessary safety risks. The TIPT addresses the years old problem of how to effectively predict not only what needs to be done, but when. 'When' is the key planning parameter that has been ignored by the generator and processor for many years, but has proven to be the most important parameter for both parties. While further refinement is a natural part of any development process, the current improvements on the TIPT have shown that prediction

  8. Elevated Fixed Platform Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Elevated Fixed Platform (EFP) is a helicopter recovery test facility located at Lakehurst, NJ. It consists of a 60 by 85 foot steel and concrete deck built atop...

  9. Airborne Evaluation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — AFRL's Airborne Evaluation Facility (AEF) utilizes Air Force Aero Club resources to conduct test and evaluation of a variety of equipment and concepts. Twin engine...

  10. Request for modification of 200 Area effluent treatment facility final delisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWMAN, R.C.

    1998-11-19

    A Delisting Petition submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in August 1993 addressed effluent to be generated at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility from treating Hanford Facility waste streams. This Delisting Petition requested that 71.9 million liters per year of treated effluent, bearing the designation 'F001' through 'F005', and/or 'F039' that is derived from 'F001' through 'F005' waste, be delisted. On June 13, 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency published the final rule (Final Delisting), which formally excluded 71.9 million liters per year of 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility effluent from ''being listed as hazardous wastes'' (60 FR 31115 now promulgated in 40 CFR 261). Given the limited scope, it is necessary to request a modification of the Final Delisting to address the management of a more diverse multi-source leachate (F039) at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. From past operations and current cleanup activities on the Hanford Facility, a considerable amount of both liquid and solid Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 regulated mixed waste has been and continues to be generated. Ultimately this waste will be treated as necessary to meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Land Disposal Restrictions. The disposal of this waste will be in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act--compliant permitted lined trenches equipped with leachate collection systems. These operations will result in the generation of what is referred to as multi-source leachate. This newly generated waste will receive the listed waste designation of F039. This waste also must be managed in compliance with the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  11. Request for modification of 200 Area effluent treatment facility final delisting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    A Delisting Petition submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in August 1993 addressed effluent to be generated at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility from treating Hanford Facility waste streams. This Delisting Petition requested that 71.9 million liters per year of treated effluent, bearing the designation 'F001' through 'F005', and/or 'F039' that is derived from 'F001' through 'F005' waste, be delisted. On June 13, 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency published the final rule (Final Delisting), which formally excluded 71.9 million liters per year of 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility effluent from ''being listed as hazardous wastes'' (60 FR 31115 now promulgated in 40 CFR 261). Given the limited scope, it is necessary to request a modification of the Final Delisting to address the management of a more diverse multi-source leachate (F039) at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. From past operations and current cleanup activities on the Hanford Facility, a considerable amount of both liquid and solid Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 regulated mixed waste has been and continues to be generated. Ultimately this waste will be treated as necessary to meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Land Disposal Restrictions. The disposal of this waste will be in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act--compliant permitted lined trenches equipped with leachate collection systems. These operations will result in the generation of what is referred to as multi-source leachate. This newly generated waste will receive the listed waste designation of F039. This waste also must be managed in compliance with the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  12. ICPP custom dissolver explosion recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmer, R.; Hawk, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the recovery from the February 9, 1991 small scale explosion in a custom processing dissolver at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Custom processing is a small scale dissolution facility which processes nuclear material in an economical fashion. The material dissolved in this facility was uranium metal, uranium oxides, and uranium/fissium alloy in nitric acid. The paper explained the release of fission material, and the decontamination and recovery of the fuel material. The safety and protection procedures were also discussed. Also described was the chemical analysis which was used to speculate the most probable cause of the explosion. (MB)

  13. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 5, Chapter D, Appendix D1 (conclusion), Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Neville G.W.; Heuze, Francois E.; Miller, Hamish D.S.; Thoms, Robert L.

    1993-03-01

    The reference design for the underground facilities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant was developed using the best criteria available at initiation of the detailed design effort. These design criteria are contained in the US Department of Energy document titled Design Criteria, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Revised Mission Concept-IIA (RMC-IIA), Rev. 4, dated February 1984. The validation process described in the Design Validation Final Report has resulted in validation of the reference design of the underground openings based on these criteria. Future changes may necessitate modification of the Design Criteria document and/or the reference design. Validation of the reference design as presented in this report permits the consideration of future design or design criteria modifications necessitated by these changes or by experience gained at the WIPP. Any future modifications to the design criteria and/or the reference design will be governed by a DOE Standard Operation Procedure (SOP) covering underground design changes. This procedure will explain the process to be followed in describing, evaluating and approving the change.

  14. Pyrochemical recovery of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses an important advantage of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) which is its ability to recycle fuel in the process of power generation, extending fuel resources by a considerable amount and assuring the continued viability of nuclear power stations by reducing dependence on external fuel supplies. Pyroprocessing is the means whereby the recycle process is accomplished. It can also be applied to the recovery of fuel constituents from spent fuel generated in the process of operation of conventional light water reactor power plants, offering the means to recover the valuable fuel resources remaining in that material

  15. Pyrochemical recovery of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laidler, J.J.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses an important advantage of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) which is its ability to recycle fuel in the process of power generation, extending fuel resources by a considerable amount and assuring the continued viability of nuclear power stations by reducing dependence on external fuel supplies. Pyroprocessing is the means whereby the recycle process is accomplished. It can also be applied to the recovery of fuel constituents from spent fuel generated in the process of operation of conventional light water reactor power plants, offering the means to recover the valuable fuel resources remaining in that material.

  16. Pyrochemical recovery of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laidler, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses an important advantage of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) which is its ability to recycle fuel in the process of power generation, extending fuel resources by a considerable amount and assuring the continued viability of nuclear power stations by reducing dependence on external fuel supplies. Pyroprocessing is the means whereby the recycle process is accomplished. It can also be applied to the recovery of fuel constituents from spent fuel generated in the process of operation of conventional light water reactor power plants, offering the means to recover the valuable fuel resources remaining in that material.

  17. Directions in low-level radioactive-waste management. Incentives and compensation: providing resources for communities hosting low-level waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    State responsibility for the management of low-level radioactive waste necessitates the selection of candidate locations for a disposal facility. Concern over potential impacts can be expected from segments of the citizenry neighboring a proposed site. A number of national organizations comprising state and local officials have recommended the use of incentives and compensation to help offset the negative local impacts. This document explores that concept. Discussion provides background information on potential local impacts from a low-level waste facility and considers the nature and types of incentives and compensation benefits that could be provided. The document then examines realistic options for planning and implementing the benefit program. This information is intended, primarily, to assist state officials - executive, legislative, and agency - in planning for and managing low-level waste disposal facilities

  18. Environmental regulations handbook for enhanced oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, T.D.

    1980-08-01

    A guide to environmental laws and regulations which have special significance for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is presented. The Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, federal regulations, and state regulations are discussed. This handbook has been designed as a planning tool and a convenient reference source. The 16 states included comprise the major oil-producing states in various regions of the state. The major topics covered are: general guidelines for complying with environmental laws and regulations; air pollution control; water pollution control; protecting drinking water: underground injection control; hazardous waste management; and federal laws affecting siting or operation of EOR facilities. (DMC)

  19. Environmental impact of geopressure - geothermal cogeneration facility on wetland resources and socioeconomic characteristics in Louisiana Gulf Coast region. Final report, October 10, 1983-September 31, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smalley, A.M.; Saleh, F.M.S.; Fontenot, M.

    1984-08-01

    Baseline data relevant to air quality are presented. The following are also included: geology and resource assessment, design well prospects in southwestern Louisiana, water quality monitoring, chemical analysis subsidence, microseismicity, geopressure-geothermal subsidence modeling, models of compaction and subsidence, sampling handling and preparation, brine chemistry, wetland resources, socioeconomic characteristics, impacts on wetlands, salinity, toxic metals, non-metal toxicants, temperature, subsidence, and socioeconomic impacts. (MHR)

  20. Intra-facility linkage of HIV-positive mothers and HIV-exposed babies into HIV chronic care: rural and urban experience in a resource limited setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Mugasha

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Linkage of HIV-infected pregnant women to HIV care remains critical for improvement of maternal and child outcomes through prevention of maternal-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT and subsequent chronic HIV care. This study determined proportions and factors associated with intra-facility linkage to HIV care and Early Infant Diagnosis care (EID to inform strategic scale up of PMTCT programs. METHODS: A cross-sectional review of records was done at 2 urban and 3 rural public health care facilities supported by the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI. HIV-infected pregnant mothers, identified through routine antenatal care (ANC and HIV-exposed babies were evaluated for enrollment in HIV clinics by 6 weeks post-delivery. RESULTS: Overall, 1,025 HIV-infected pregnant mothers were identified during ANC between January and June, 2012; 267/1,025 (26% in rural and 743/1,025 (74% in urban facilities. Of these 375/1,025 (37% were linked to HIV clinics [67/267(25% rural and 308/758(41% urban]. Of 636 HIV-exposed babies, 193 (30% were linked to EID. Linkage of mother-baby pairs to HIV chronic care and EID was 16% (101/636; 8/179 (4.5%] in rural and 93/457(20.3% in urban health facilities. Within rural facilities, ANC registration <28 weeks-of-gestation was associated with mothers' linkage to HIV chronic care [AoR, 2.0 95% CI, 1.1-3.7, p = 0.019] and mothers' multi-parity was associated with baby's linkage to EID; AoR 4.4 (1.3-15.1, p = 0.023. Stigma, long distance to health facilities and vertical PMTCT services affected linkage in rural facilities, while peer mothers, infant feeding services, long patient queues and limited privacy hindered linkage to HIV care in urban settings. CONCLUSION: Post-natal linkage of HIV-infected mothers to chronic HIV care and HIV-exposed babies to EID programs was low. Barriers to linkage to HIV care vary in urban and rural settings. We recommend targeted interventions to rapidly improve linkage to

  1. 15 CFR 971.503 - Diligent commercial recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Resource Development... expenditures for commercial recovery by the permittee, taking into account the size of the area of the deep... required to initiate commercial recovery of hard mineral resources within the time limit established by the...

  2. Recovery Spirituality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Kurtz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A. and other secular, spiritual, and religious frameworks of long-term addiction recovery. The present paper explores the varieties of spiritual experience within A.A., with particular reference to the growth of a wing of recovery spirituality promoted within A.A. It is suggested that the essence of secular spirituality is reflected in the experience of beyond (horizontal and vertical transcendence and between (connection and mutuality and in six facets of spirituality (Release, Gratitude, Humility, Tolerance, Forgiveness, and a Sense of Being-at-home shared across religious, spiritual, and secular pathways of addiction recovery. The growing varieties of A.A. spirituality (spanning the “Christianizers” and “Seculizers” reflect A.A.’s adaptation to the larger diversification of religious experience and the growing secularization of spirituality across the cultural contexts within which A.A. is nested.

  3. Agriculture/municipal/industrial waste management and resource recovery feasibility study : renewable energy clusters and improved end-use efficiency : a formula for sustainable development[Prepared for the North Okanagan Waste to Energy Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-15

    The North Okanagan Waste to Energy Consortium initiated a study that evaluated the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of a proposed biomass to renewable energy eco-system, using the technologies of anaerobic digestion (AD), cogeneration and hydroponics in a centralized waste treatment and recovery facility. The Okanagan Valley is well suited for the demonstration plant because of its concentration of food producers and processors and abundance of rich organic waste stream. The agricultural, municipal and industrial waste management consortium consisted of a dairy farm, 5 municipalities and local waste handlers. The consortium proposed to combine several organic waste streams such as dairy manure, slaughterhouse offal and source separated municipal solid waste (MSW) to produce biogas in an anaerobic digester. The methane would be processed into renewable energy (heat and electricity) for a hydroponics barley sprout operation. It is expected that the synergies resulting from this project would increase productivity, end-use efficiency and profitability. This study reviewed the basics of AD technology, technological options and evaluated several technology providers. The type and quantity of waste available in the area was determined through a waste audit and analysis. The potential to market the system by-products locally was also reviewed as well as the general economic viability of a centralized system. The study also evaluated site selection, preliminary design and costing, with reference to proximity to feedstock and markets, access to roads, impacts on neighbours and insurance of minimal environmental impact. 84 refs., 82 figs., 10 appendices.

  4. 303-K Storage Facility closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Recyclable scrap uranium with zircaloy-2 and copper silicon alloy, uranium-titanium alloy, beryllium/zircaloy-2 alloy, and zircaloy-2 chips and fines were secured in concrete billets (7.5-gallon containers) in the 303-K Storage Facility, located in the 300 Area. The beryllium/zircaloy-2 alloy and zircaloy-2 chips and fines are designated as mixed waste with the characteristic of ignitability. The concretion process reduced the ignitability of the fines and chips for safe storage and shipment. This process has been discontinued and the 303-K Storage Facility is now undergoing closure as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Dangerous Waste Regulations, WAC 173-303-040. This closure plan presents a description of the 303-K Storage Facility, the history of materials and waste managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the 303-K Storage Facility. The 303-K Storage Facility is located within the 300-FF-3 (source) and 300-FF-5 (groundwater) operable units, as designated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1992). Contamination in the operable units 300-FF-3 and 300-FF-5 is scheduled to be addressed through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 remedial action process. Therefore, all soil remedial action at the 304 Facility will be conducted as part of the CERCLA remedial action of operable units 300-FF-3 and 300-FF-5

  5. 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaus, Z.C.

    1995-01-01

    This is the decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan for the closure activities at the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility at Hanford Reservation. This document supports the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Closure Plan, DOE-RL-90-25. The 105-DR LSFF, which operated from about 1972 to 1986, was a research laboratory that occupied the former ventilation supply room on the southwest side of the 105-DR Reactor facility in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site. The LSFF was established to investigate fire fighting and safety associated with alkali metal fires in the liquid metal fast breeder reactor facilities. The decontamination, sampling, and analysis plan identifies the decontamination procedures, sampling locations, any special handling requirements, quality control samples, required chemical analysis, and data validation needed to meet the requirements of the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Closure Plan in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  6. DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FACILITY REUSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, Steven J.; Blair, Danielle M.

    2003-01-01

    As nuclear research and production facilities across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex are slated for deactivation and decommissioning (D and D), there is a need to decontaminate some facilities for reuse for another mission or continued use for the same mission. Improved technologies available in the commercial sector and tested by the DOE can help solve the DOE's decontamination problems. Decontamination technologies include mechanical methods, such as shaving, scabbling, and blasting; application of chemicals; biological methods; and electrochemical techniques. Materials to be decontaminated are primarily concrete or metal. Concrete materials include walls, floors, ceilings, bio-shields, and fuel pools. Metallic materials include structural steel, valves, pipes, gloveboxes, reactors, and other equipment. Porous materials such as concrete can be contaminated throughout their structure, although contamination in concrete normally resides in the top quarter-inch below the surface. Metals are normally only contaminated on the surface. Contamination includes a variety of alpha, beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides and can sometimes include heavy metals and organic contamination regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper describes several advanced mechanical, chemical, and other methods to decontaminate structures, equipment, and materials

  7. 18 CFR 1317.410 - Comparable facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparable facilities... facilities. A recipient may provide separate toilet, locker room, and shower facilities on the basis of sex, but such facilities provided for students of one sex shall be comparable to such facilities provided...

  8. Waste sampling and characterization facility (WSCF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) complex consists of the main structure (WSCF) and four support structures located in the 600 Area of the Hanford site east of the 200 West area and south of the Hanford Meterology Station. WSCF is to be used for low level sample analysis, less than 2 mRem. The Laboratory features state-of-the-art analytical and low level radiological counting equipment for gaseous, soil, and liquid sample analysis. In particular, this facility is to be used to perform Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 sample analysis in accordance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Protocols, room air and stack monitoring sample analysis, waste water treatment process support, and contractor laboratory quality assurance checks. The samples to be analyzed contain very low concentrations of radioisotopes. The main reason that WSCF is considered a Nuclear Facility is due to the storage of samples at the facility. This maintenance Implementation Plan has been developed for maintenace functions associate with the WSCF

  9. A Bridge to Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Loya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sexual violence can trigger adverse economic events for survivors, including increased expenses and decreased earnings. Using interview data, this exploratory study examines how access to assets (liquid assets, familial financial assistance, and homeownership affects survivors’ economic well-being during recovery. In keeping with asset theory, liquid assets and familial assistance can help offset post-assault expenses and facilitate access to services. Homeownership, meanwhile, appears to have mixed effects on survivors’ economic well-being. These findings suggest that the economic costs of sexual violence can burden survivors with fewer financial resources more heavily than those who own significant assets. As such, these findings shift the focus toward a dimension of inequality in recovery from sexual violence that is often overlooked in research and that may have implications for public policy and victim services.

  10. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume VII. Nuclear facility profiles, AG--CH. [Brief tabulated information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    In this compendium each profile of a nuclear facility is a capsule summary of pertinent facts regarding that particular installation. The facilities described include the entire fuel cycle in the broadest sense, encompassing resource recovery through waste management. Power plants and all US facilities have been excluded. To facilitate comparison the profiles have been recorded in a standard format. Because of the breadth of the undertaking some data fields do not apply to the establishment under discussion and accordingly are blank. The set of nuclear facility profiles occupies four volumes; the profiles are ordered by country name, and then by facility code. Each nuclear facility profile volume contains two complete indexes to the information. The first index aggregates the facilities alphabetically by country. It is further organized by category of facility, and then by the four-character facility code. It provides a quick summary of the nuclear energy capability or interest in each country and also an identifier, the facility code, which can be used to access the information contained in the profile.

  11. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume VIII. Nuclear facility profiles, CO--HU. [Brief tabulated information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    In this compendium each profile of a nuclear facility is a capsule summary of pertinent facts regarding that particular installation. The facilities described include the entire fuel cycle in the broadest sense, encompassing resource recovery through waste management. Power plants and all US facilities have been excluded. To facilitate comparison the profiles have been recorded in a standard format. Because of the breadth of the undertaking some data fields do not apply to the establishment under discussion and accordingly are blank. The set of nuclear facility profiles occupies four volumes; the profiles are ordered by country name, and then by facility code. Each nuclear facility profile volume contains two complete indexes to the information. The first index aggregates the facilities alphabetically by country. It is further organized by category of facility, and then by the four-character facility code. It provides a quick summary of the nuclear energy capability or interest in each country and also an identifier, the facility code, which can be used to access the information contained in the profile.

  12. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume IX. Nuclear facility profiles, IN--PL. [Brief tabulated information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    In this compendium each profile of a nuclear facility is a capsule summary of pertinent facts regarding that particular installation. The facilities described include the entire fuel cycle in the broadest sense, encompassing resource recovery through waste management. Power plants and all US facilities have been excluded. To facilitate comparison the profiles have been recorded in a standard format. Because of the breadth of the undertaking some data fields do not apply to the establishment under discussion and accordingly are blank. The set of nuclear facility profiles occupies four volumes; the profiles are ordered by country name, and then by facility code. Each nuclear facility profile volume contains two complete indexes to the information. The first index aggregates the facilities alphabetically by country. It is further organized by category of facility, and then by the four-character facility code. It provides a quick summary of the nuclear energy capability or interest in each country and also an identifier, the facility code, which can be used to access the information contained in the profile.

  13. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume VIII. Nuclear facility profiles, CO--HU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    In this compendium each profile of a nuclear facility is a capsule summary of pertinent facts regarding that particular installation. The facilities described include the entire fuel cycle in the broadest sense, encompassing resource recovery through waste management. Power plants and all US facilities have been excluded. To facilitate comparison the profiles have been recorded in a standard format. Because of the breadth of the undertaking some data fields do not apply to the establishment under discussion and accordingly are blank. The set of nuclear facility profiles occupies four volumes; the profiles are ordered by country name, and then by facility code. Each nuclear facility profile volume contains two complete indexes to the information. The first index aggregates the facilities alphabetically by country. It is further organized by category of facility, and then by the four-character facility code. It provides a quick summary of the nuclear energy capability or interest in each country and also an identifier, the facility code, which can be used to access the information contained in the profile

  14. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume IX. Nuclear facility profiles, IN--PL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    In this compendium each profile of a nuclear facility is a capsule summary of pertinent facts regarding that particular installation. The facilities described include the entire fuel cycle in the broadest sense, encompassing resource recovery through waste management. Power plants and all US facilities have been excluded. To facilitate comparison the profiles have been recorded in a standard format. Because of the breadth of the undertaking some data fields do not apply to the establishment under discussion and accordingly are blank. The set of nuclear facility profiles occupies four volumes; the profiles are ordered by country name, and then by facility code. Each nuclear facility profile volume contains two complete indexes to the information. The first index aggregates the facilities alphabetically by country. It is further organized by category of facility, and then by the four-character facility code. It provides a quick summary of the nuclear energy capability or interest in each country and also an identifier, the facility code, which can be used to access the information contained in the profile

  15. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume VII. Nuclear facility profiles, AG--CH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    In this compendium each profile of a nuclear facility is a capsule summary of pertinent facts regarding that particular installation. The facilities described include the entire fuel cycle in the broadest sense, encompassing resource recovery through waste management. Power plants and all US facilities have been excluded. To facilitate comparison the profiles have been recorded in a standard format. Because of the breadth of the undertaking some data fields do not apply to the establishment under discussion and accordingly are blank. The set of nuclear facility profiles occupies four volumes; the profiles are ordered by country name, and then by facility code. Each nuclear facility profile volume contains two complete indexes to the information. The first index aggregates the facilities alphabetically by country. It is further organized by category of facility, and then by the four-character facility code. It provides a quick summary of the nuclear energy capability or interest in each country and also an identifier, the facility code, which can be used to access the information contained in the profile

  16. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume X. Nuclear facility profiles, PO--ZA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    In this compendium each profile of a nuclear facility is a capsule summary of pertinent facts regarding that particular installation. The facilities described include the entire fuel cycle in the broadest sense, encompassing resource recovery through waste management. Power plants and all US facilities have been excluded. To facilitate comparison the profiles have been recorded in a standard format. Because of the breadth of the undertaking some data fields do not apply to the establishment under discussion and accordingly are blank. The set of nuclear facility profiles occupies four volumes; the profiles are ordered by country name, and then by facility code. Each nuclear facility profile volume contains two complete indexes to the information. The first index aggregates the facilities alphabetically by country. It is further organized by category of facility, and then by the four-character facility code. It provides a quick summary of the nuclear energy capability or interest in each country and also an identifier, the facility code, which can be used to access the information contained in the profile

  17. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume X. Nuclear facility profiles, PO--ZA. [Brief tabulated information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    In this compendium each profile of a nuclear facility is a capsule summary of pertinent facts regarding that particular installation. The facilities described include the entire fuel cycle in the broadest sense, encompassing resource recovery through waste management. Power plants and all US facilities have been excluded. To facilitate comparison the profiles have been recorded in a standard format. Because of the breadth of the undertaking some data fields do not apply to the establishment under discussion and accordingly are blank. The set of nuclear facility profiles occupies four volumes; the profiles are ordered by country name, and then by facility code. Each nuclear facility profile volume contains two complete indexes to the information. The first index aggregates the facilities alphabetically by country. It is further organized by category of facility, and then by the four-character facility code. It provides a quick summary of the nuclear energy capability or interest in each country and also an identifier, the facility code, which can be used to access the information contained in the profile.

  18. Used water resource recovery using green microalgae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wágner, Dorottya Sarolta

    is to develop a consensus-based microalgal process model (ASM-A) accounting for photoautotrophic and heterotrophic microalgal growth, the uptake and storage of nitrogen and phosphorus and decay. The model was developed in the ASM framework as an extension to ASM-2d, thus it can be readily connected to bacterial...

  19. Resource recovery from waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa

    Affaldsforbrænding er i mange lande en vigtig teknologi til behandling og energiudnyttelse af affald. Udover energi resulterer forbrænding også i produktion af asker. Størstedelen af askerne udgøres af slagge, som efter behandling har gode tekniske egenskaber og kan anvendes til bygge- og anlægsf...

  20. Distillation Brine Purification for Resource Recovery Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wastewater processing systems for space generate residual brine that contains water and salts that could be recovered to reduce life support consumables. The project...

  1. Facilities & Leadership

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The facilities web service provides VA facility information. The VA facilities locator is a feature that is available across the enterprise, on any webpage, for the...

  2. Biochemistry Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Biochemistry Facility provides expert services and consultation in biochemical enzyme assays and protein purification. The facility currently features 1) Liquid...

  3. Facility transition instruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    The Bechtel Hanford, Inc. facility transition instruction was initiated in response to the need for a common, streamlined process for facility transitions and to capture the knowledge and experience that has accumulated over the last few years. The instruction serves as an educational resource and defines the process for transitioning facilities to long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M). Generally, these facilities do not have identified operations missions and must be transitioned from operational status to a safe and stable configuration for long-term S and M. The instruction can be applied to a wide range of facilities--from process canyon complexes like the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility or B Plant, to stand-alone, lower hazard facilities like the 242B/BL facility. The facility transition process is implemented (under the direction of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office [RL] Assistant Manager-Environmental) by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. management, with input and interaction with the appropriate RL division and Hanford site contractors as noted in the instruction. The application of the steps identified herein and the early participation of all organizations involved are expected to provide a cost-effective, safe, and smooth transition from operational status to deactivation and S and M for a wide range of Hanford Site facilities

  4. Conical scan impact study. Volume 2: Small local user data processing facility. [multispectral band scanner design alternatives for earth resources data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, D. H.; Chase, P. E.; Dye, J.; Fahline, W. C.; Johnson, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    The impact of a conical scan versus a linear scan multispectral scanner (MSS) instrument on a small local-user data processing facility was studied. User data requirements were examined to determine the unique system rquirements for a low cost ground system (LCGS) compatible with the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) system. Candidate concepts were defined for the LCGS and preliminary designs were developed for selected concepts. The impact of a conical scan MSS versus a linear scan MSS was evaluated for the selected concepts. It was concluded that there are valid user requirements for the LCGS and, as a result of these requirements, the impact of the conical scanner is minimal, although some new hardware development for the LCGS is necessary to handle conical scan data.

  5. The impact of two fluoropolymer manufacturing facilities on downstream contamination of a river and drinking water resources with per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Boiteux, Virginie; Colin, Adeline; Hemard, Jessica; Sagres, Véronique; Rosin, Christophe; Munoz, Jean-François

    2017-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are emerging contaminants that have been detected in the environment, biota, and humans. Drinking water is a route of exposure for populations consuming water contaminated by PFAS discharges. This research study reports environmental measurement concentrations, mass flows, and the fate of dozens of PFASs in a river receiving effluents from two fluoropolymer manufacturing facilities. In addition to quantified levels of PFASs using LC- and GC-MS analytical methods, the total amount of unidentified PFASs and precursors was assessed using two complementary analytical methods, absorbable organic fluorine (AOF) determination and oxidative conversion of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) precursors. Several dozen samples were collected in the river (water and sediment) during four sampling campaigns. In addition, samples were collected in two well fields and from the outlet of the drinking water treatment plants after chlorination. We estimated that 4295 kg PFHxA, 1487 kg 6:2FTSA, 965 kg PFNA, 307 kg PFUnDA, and 14 kg PFOA were discharged in the river by the two facilities in 2013. High concentrations (up to 176 ng/g dw) of odd long-chain PFASs (PFUnDA and PFTrDA) were found in sediment samples. PFASs were detected in all 15 wells, with concentrations varying based on the location of the well in the field. Additionally, the presence of previously discharged PFASs was still measurable. Significant discrepancies between PFAS concentration profiles in the wells and in the river suggest an accumulation and transformation of PFCA precursors in the aquifer. Chlorination had no removal efficiency and no unidentified PFASs were detected in the treated water with either complementary analytical method. Although the total PFAS concentrations were high in the treated water, ranging from 86 to 169 ng/L, they did not exceed the currently available guideline values.

  6. Annual report for RCRA groundwater monitoring projects at Hanford Site facilities for 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, M.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the annual hydrogeologic evaluation of 19 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 facilities and 1 nonhazardous waste facility at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Although most of the facilities no longer receive dangerous waste, a few facilities continue to receive dangerous waste constituents for treatment, storage, or disposal. The 19 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act facilities comprise 29 waste management units. Nine of the units are monitored under groundwater quality assessment status because of elevated levels of contamination indicator parameters. The impact of those units on groundwater quality, if any, is being investigated. If dangerous waste or waste constituents have entered groundwater, their concentration profiles, rate, and extent of migration are evaluated. Groundwater is monitored at the other 20 units to detect leakage, should it occur. This report provides an interpretation of groundwater data collected at the waste management units between October 1994 and September 1995. Groundwater quality is described for the entire Hanford Site. Widespread contaminants include nitrate, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, tritium, and other radionuclides

  7. Annual report for RCRA groundwater monitoring projects at Hanford site facilities for 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This report presents the annual hydrogeologic evaluation of 19 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 facilities and 1 nonhazardous waste facility at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Although most of the facilities no longer receive dangerous waste, a few facilities continue to receive dangerous waste constituents for treatment, storage, or disposal. The 19 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act facilities comprise 29 waste management units. Nine of the units are monitored under groundwater quality assessment status because of elevated levels of contamination indicator parameters. The impact of those units on groundwater quality, if any, is being investigated. If dangerous waste or waste constituents have entered groundwater, their concentration profiles, rate, and extent of migration are evaluated. Groundwater is monitored at the other 20 units to detect leakage, should it occur. This report provides an interpretation of groundwater data collected at the waste management units between October 1993 and September 1994. Groundwater quality is described for the entire Hanford Site. Widespread contaminants include nitrate, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, tritium, and other radionuclides

  8. ICPP custom dissolver explosion recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmer, R.; Hawk, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the recovery from the February 9, 1991, small scale explosion in a custom processing dissolver at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) a Department of Energy facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The custom processing facility is a limited production area designed to recover unirradiated uranium fuel. A small amount of the nuclear material received and stored at the ICPP is unique and incompatible with the major head end dissolution processes. Custom processing is a small scale dissolution facility for processing these materials in an economical fashion in the CPP-627 hot chemistry laboratory. Two glass dissolvers were contained in a large walk in hood area. Utilities for dissolution and connections to the major ICPP uranium separation facility were provided. The fuel processing operations during this campaign involved dissolving uranium metal, uranium oxides, and uranium/fissium alloy in nitric acid

  9. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations, landfills and recycling facilities for construction and demolition materials, electronics, household hazardous waste, metals, tires, and vehicles in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In this update, facilities in the 7 states that border the EPA Region 5 states were added to assist interstate disaster debris management. Also, the datasets for composters, construction and demolition recyclers, demolition contractors, and metals recyclers were verified and source information added for each record using these sources: AGC, Biocycle, BMRA, CDRA, ISRI, NDA, USCC, FEMA Debris Removal Contractor Registry, EPA Facility Registry System, and State and local listings.

  10. Dance Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Dudley, Ed.; Irey, Charlotte, Ed.

    This booklet represents an effort to assist teachers and administrators in the professional planning of dance facilities and equipment. Three chapters present the history of dance facilities, provide recommended dance facilities and equipment, and offer some adaptations of dance facilities and equipment, for elementary, secondary and college level…

  11. Sustainable Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten; Hoffmann, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    The Danish public housing sector has more than 20 years of experience with sustainable facilities management based on user involvement. The paper outlines this development in a historical perspective and gives an analysis of different approaches to sustainable facilities management. The focus...... is on the housing departments and strateies for the management of the use of resources. The research methods used are case studies based on interviews in addition to literature studies. The paper explores lessons to be learned about sustainable facilities management in general, and points to a need for new...

  12. Wind Energy Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurie, Carol

    2017-02-01

    This book takes readers inside the places where daily discoveries shape the next generation of wind power systems. Energy Department laboratory facilities span the United States and offer wind research capabilities to meet industry needs. The facilities described in this book make it possible for industry players to increase reliability, improve efficiency, and reduce the cost of wind energy -- one discovery at a time. Whether you require blade testing or resource characterization, grid integration or high-performance computing, Department of Energy laboratory facilities offer a variety of capabilities to meet your wind research needs.

  13. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-01-01

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information

  14. New treatment facility for low level process effluents at the Savannah River site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebra, M.A.; Bibler, J.P.; Johnston, B.S.; Kilpatrick, L.L.; Poy, F.L.; Wallace, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    A new facility, the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (F/H ETF) is under construction at the Savannah River site. It will decontaminate process effluents containing low levels of radionuclides and hazardous chemicals prior to discharge to a surface stream. These effluents, which are currently discharged to seepage basins, originate in the chemical separations and high-level radioactive waste processing areas, known as F-Area and H-Area. The new facility will allow closure of the basins in order to meet the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act by November 1988. A high degree of reliability is expected from this design as a result of extensive process development work that has been conducted at the Savannah River Laboratory. This work has included both bench scale testing of individual unit operations and pilot scale testing of an integrated facility, 150 to 285 L/min (40 to 75 gpm), that contains the major operations

  15. Nova Scotia's solid waste-resource management strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, B. [Nova Scotia Dept. of the Environment, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The efforts that the province of Nova Scotia has made to establish a sustainable economy and environment were discussed. In 1989, the province of 930,000 people generated about 630,000 tonnes of municipal waste annually. At the time, there were no recycling or recovery facilities. The province's 1995 Solid Waste-Resource Management Strategy has changed this around with the following key measures: a commitment to 50 per cent diversion of solid waste by 2000, regionalisation to optimize costs, an expanded deposit-refund system for all beverage containers, increased disposal standards for landfilling/incineration, industry example for waste products, support for economic opportunities in resource recovery, and bans on the disposal of recyclable wastes. These measures have produced dramatic results in trying to balance resource supply with demand. The materials sectors which are examples of the strategy's success include fibre, used tires, plastics and composting.

  16. A Survey of Structural Design of Diagnostic X-ray Imaging Facilities and Compliance to Shielding Design Goals in a Limited Resource Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavious B. Nkubli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To survey structural designs of x-ray rooms and compliance to shielding design goals of three x-ray imaging facilities. Methods and Materials: The survey was conducted in three radiodiagnostic centers in South East Nigeria, labeled X, Y and Z for anonymity. A stretchable non-elastic meter rule was used to measure x-ray room dimensions. A Vernier caliper was used to measure lead thickness while a calibrated digital survey meter Radalert 100x was used for radiation survey of controlled and uncontrolled areas. Simple statistical tools such as mean and standard deviation were used for analysis with the aid of Microsoft Excel version 2007. Results: Center X had a room dimension of 2.4 m × 2.1 m, Center Y had an x-ray room dimension of 3.6 m × 3.3 m, and Center Z had two x-ray rooms with identical dimensions of 6.3 m × 3.6 m. Measured exit radiation doses for controlled areas in all the centers were: 0.00152 mSv/wk; 0.00496 mSv/wk; 0.00168 mSv/wk; 0.00224 mSv/wk respectively. Lead was the common shielding material used. Conclusion: Based on the parameters studied, Center Z had the ideal room size and layout. Relative distances from the x-ray tubes to the nearest walls were not optimized in all the centers except in Center Z. Measured exit doses were within recommended limits except in Center Y. The location of the control consoles and measured doses were appropriate and within recommended design goals.

  17. F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Corrective Action Report - Third and Fourth Quarter 1999, Volumes I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    2000-01-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) monitors groundwater quality at the F-Area Hazardous Waste management Facility (HWMF) and provides results of this monitoring to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) semiannually as required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit. SRS also performs monthly sampling of the Wastewater Treatment Unit (WTU) effluent in accordance with Section C of the Underground Injection Control (UIC) application

  18. 30 CFR 816.181 - Support facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Support facilities. 816.181 Section 816.181... § 816.181 Support facilities. (a) Support facilities shall be operated in accordance with a permit... results. (b) In addition to the other provisions of this part, support facilities shall be located...

  19. 30 CFR 57.6160 - Main facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main facilities. 57.6160 Section 57.6160...-Underground Only § 57.6160 Main facilities. (a) Main facilities used to store explosive material underground... facilities will not prevent escape from the mine, or cause detonation of the contents of another storage...

  20. 30 CFR 56.20008 - Toilet facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Toilet facilities. 56.20008 Section 56.20008... Toilet facilities. (a) Toilet facilities shall be provided at locations that are compatible with the mine operations and that are readily accessible to mine personnel. (b) The facilities shall be kept clean and...