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Sample records for resources practical implications

  1. Resource depletion promotes automatic processing: implications for distribution of practice.

    Scheel, Matthew H

    2010-12-01

    Recent models of cognition include two processing systems: an automatic system that relies on associative learning, intuition, and heuristics, and a controlled system that relies on deliberate consideration. Automatic processing requires fewer resources and is more likely when resources are depleted. This study showed that prolonged practice on a resource-depleting mental arithmetic task promoted automatic processing on a subsequent problem-solving task, as evidenced by faster responding and more errors. Distribution of practice effects (0, 60, 120, or 180 sec. between problems) on rigidity also disappeared when groups had equal time on resource-depleting tasks. These results suggest that distribution of practice effects is reducible to resource availability. The discussion includes implications for interpreting discrepancies in the traditional distribution of practice effect.

  2. Implications of applying solar industry best practice resource estimation on project financing

    Pacudan, Romeo

    2016-01-01

    Solar resource estimation risk is one of the main solar PV project risks that influences lender’s decision in providing financing and in determining the cost of capital. More recently, a number of measures have emerged to mitigate this risk. The study focuses on solar industry’s best practice energy resource estimation and assesses its financing implications to the 27 MWp solar PV project study in Brunei Darussalam. The best practice in resource estimation uses multiple data sources through the measure-correlate-predict (MCP) technique as compared with the standard practice that rely solely on modelled data source. The best practice case generates resource data with lower uncertainty and yields superior high-confidence energy production estimate than the standard practice case. Using project financial parameters in Brunei Darussalam for project financing and adopting the international debt-service coverage ratio (DSCR) benchmark rates, the best practice case yields DSCRs that surpass the target rates while those of standard practice case stay below the reference rates. The best practice case could also accommodate higher debt share and have lower levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) while the standard practice case would require a lower debt share but having a higher LCOE. - Highlights: •Best practice solar energy resource estimation uses multiple datasets. •Multiple datasets are combined through measure-correlate-predict technique. •Correlated data have lower uncertainty and yields superior high-confidence energy production. •Best practice case yields debt-service coverage ratios (DSCRs) that surpass the benchmark rates. •Best practice case accommodates high debt share and have low levelized cost of electricity.

  3. Screening for diabetes in unconventional locations: resource implications and economics of screening in optometry practices.

    Howse, Jennifer H; Jones, Steve; Hungin, A Pali S

    2011-10-01

    Unconventional locations outwith general medical practice may prove opportunities for screening. The aim was to determine the resource implications and economics of a screening service using random capillary blood glucose (rCBG) tests to detect raised blood glucose levels in the "at risk" population attending high street optometry practices. A screening service was implemented in optometry practices in North East England: the cost of the service and the implication of different screening strategies was estimated. The cost of a screening test was £5.53-£11.20, depending on the screening strategy employed and who carried out the testing. Refining the screening strategy to target those ≥40 years with BMI of ≥25 kg/m(2) and/or family history of diabetes resulted in a cost per case referred to the GP of £14.38-£26.36. Implementing this strategy in half of optometric practices in England would have the potential to identify up to 150,000 new cases of diabetes and prediabetes a year. Optometry practices provide an effective way of identifying people who would benefit from further investigation for diabetes. Effectiveness could be improved further by improving cooperation and communication between optometrists and medical practitioners. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality in Human Resource Practice

    Nielsen, Kjeld

    Abstract: Quality in Human Resource Practice – a process perspective The purpose of this article is to establish criteria for what quality in human resource practice (HRP) actually means. The general thesis is that quality in human resource practices is shaped within social processes in the HRM...... areas (recruitment, training, work environment etc.). Initially the concept of quality is defined in general on the basis of selections from the HRM literature, and then related to human resource practice. The question posed in the article is then answered using examples from case studies of human...... resource practice in industrial and service-related work processes. The focus in these studies is directed at behavioural processes between managers and employees, especially at individual and group level. The conclusion is that quality in human resource practice can be considered to be a social process...

  5. Implications for Forest Resource Degradation and Deforestation ...

    Effects of Socio-Economic Status and Food Consumption Pattern on Household Energy uses: Implications for Forest Resource Degradation and Deforestation around Wondo Genet Catchments, South-Central Ethiopia.

  6. Cultural Implications of Human Resource Development.

    Hiranpruk, Chaiskran

    A discussion of the cultural effects of economic and, by extension, human resource development in Southeast Asia looks at short- and long-term implications. It is suggested that in the short term, increased competition will affect distribution of wealth, which can promote materialism and corruption. The introduction of labor-saving technology may…

  7. Resources to Manage a Private Practice.

    Aigner, John; Cheek, Fredricka; Donati, Georgia; Zuravicky, Dori

    1997-01-01

    Includes four theme articles: "The Digital Toolkit: Electronic Necessities for Private Practice" (John Aigner); "Organizing a Private Practice: Forms, Fees, and Physical Set-up (Fredricka Cheek); "Career Development Resources: Guidelines for Setting Up a Private Practice Library" (Georgia Donati); and "Books to…

  8. Retention practices in education human resources management ...

    Retention practices in education human resources management. ... education system in South Africa, particularly in public schools, faces serious problems. ... of quality management which aim at continual increase of the accountability in ...

  9. Strategic Information Resources Management: Fundamental Practices.

    Caudle, Sharon L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses six fundamental information resources management (IRM) practices in successful organizations that can improve government service delivery performance. Highlights include directing changes, integrating IRM decision making into a strategic management process, performance management, maintaining an investment philosophy, using business…

  10. Human Resource Management Practices in Nigeria

    Sola Fajana; Oluwakemi Owoyemi; Tunde Elegbede; Mariam Gbajumo-Sheriff

    2011-01-01

    The globalization of business is having a significant impact on human resource management practices; and it is has now become more imperative than ever for business organizations to engage in human resource management practices on an international standard. While the management of people is mostly associated with HRM, the definition, parameter and context are contested by different writers. Some authors such as Kane (1996) argued that HRM is in its infancy, while other authors such as Welbour...

  11. Human Resource Management Practices and Innovation

    Laursen, Keld; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2014-01-01

    This article surveys, organizes, and critically discusses the literature on the role of human resource practices for explaining innovation outcomes. We specifically put an emphasis on what is often called ‘new’ or ‘modern’ HRM practices—practices that imply high levels of delegation of decisions...

  12. Hospital administrative characteristics and volunteer resource management practices.

    Intindola, Melissa; Rogers, Sean; Flinchbaugh, Carol; Della Pietra, Doug

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the links between various characteristics of hospital administration and the utilization of classes of volunteer resource management (VRM) practices. Design/methodology/approach - This paper uses original data collected via surveys of volunteer directors in 122 hospitals in five Northeastern and Southern US states. Findings - Structural equation modeling results suggest that number of paid volunteer management staff, scope of responsibility of the primary volunteer administrator, and hospital size are positively associated with increased usage of certain VRM practices. Research limitations/implications - First, the authors begin the exploration of VRM antecedents, and encourage others to continue this line of inquiry; and second, the authors assess dimensionality of practices, allowing future researchers to consider whether specific dimensions have a differential impact on key individual and organizational outcomes. Practical implications - Based on the findings of a relationship between administrative characteristics and the on-the-ground execution of VRM practice, a baseline audit comparing current practices to those VRM practices presented here might be useful in determining what next steps may be taken to focus investments in VRM that can ultimately drive practice utilization. Originality/value - The exploration of the dimensionality of volunteer management adds a novel perspective to both the academic study, and practice, of volunteer management. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first empirical categorization of VRM practices.

  13. Implications of Risk Management Practices on Financial ...

    Implications of Risk Management Practices on Financial Performance of Sugar ... The respondents were functional heads of the companies under the survey. ... of downside losses in order to minimize the negative impact of risk on returns.

  14. Strategic human resource management practices and ...

    This paper examined the theoretical perspectives of Strategic Human Resource Management Practices (SHRMPs) and organizational growth. The essence was to establish a relationship between SHRMPs and organizational growth. A qualitative research approach was adopted in an attempt to draw a relationship ...

  15. Human resource management practices stimulating knowledge sharing

    Matošková Jana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The major goal of the paper was to develop a theoretical framework that conceptualizes the indirect impact on human resource management practice on knowledge sharing in the organization. In the current competitive environment, the ability to use knowledge assets and to continuously renovate it is required for organizational success. Therefore, the field of human resource management should dedicate great effort to understanding how to enhance the knowledge flows within the organization. Theoretical indications were provided about HRM practices that influence the quality and quantity of knowledge sharing within an organization. Further, a conceptual model of relations between HRM practices and factors influencing knowledge sharing within an organization was introduced. It is supposed that HRM practices have direct impacts on personality traits of employees, organizational culture, characteristics of managers, and instruments used for knowledge sharing. Subsequently, these factors have direct effects on the perceived intensity of knowledge sharing. The paper offers 12 testable propositions for the indirect relation between HRM practices and knowledge sharing in the organization. The suggested model could assist future research to examine the influence of HRM practices upon managing knowledge is a more complex way. Via a theoretical contribution to the debate on the influence on HRM practices upon managing knowledge, the study contributes to further research development in this field.

  16. Practical implications of 'postmodern philosophy'

    Savić Mile V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the implications of the discourse about postmodernity. Postmodernity is analyzed as a complex discursive figure. Within the discourse about postmodernity three levels are distinguished: the postmodern condition, postmodernism, and reflection of the postmodern condition. Special attention is paid to globalization and the problem of the enforcement of modern projects in East-European societies, particularly Serbia. These societies are termed object-societies, while their modification of modernity is called eastmodernity. The author's answer to the complexity of the postmodern condition is a conception of the politics of subsistence.

  17. Global megatrends and their implications for environmental assessment practice

    Retief, Francois, E-mail: francois.retief@nwu.ac.za [Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); Bond, Alan [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia (United Kingdom); Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); Pope, Jenny [Integral Sustainability (Australia); Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); Morrison-Saunders, Angus [Murdoch University (Australia); Research Unit for Environmental, Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); King, Nicholas [Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa)

    2016-11-15

    This paper addresses the future of environmental assessment (EA) practice in light of a rapidly changing world. We apply a literature review-based methodology to firstly identify key global megatrends and then reflect upon the implications for EA practice based on some known challenges. The key megatrends identified are synthesised into six categories: i) demographics, ii) urbanization, iii) technological innovation, iv) power shifts, v) resource scarcity and vi) climate change. We then discuss the implications of these megatrends for EA practice against four known EA challenges namely: dealing with i) complexity and uncertainty, ii) efficiency, iii) significance and iv) communication and participation. Our analysis suggests important implications for EA practice such as: increased difficulties with accuracy of prediction; the need for facilitative adaptation; an increase in the occurrence of unexpected events; higher expectations for procedural efficiency; challenges with information and communication management; dealing with significance judgements; and mitigation amidst resource scarcity and increasing pressures on earth systems. The megatrends underscore the need for continued evolution of EA thinking and practice, especially moving away from seeking a predictable single future or outcome towards the possibility of multiple scenarios with associated adaptability and enhanced system resilience capable of responding to rapid change.

  18. Global megatrends and their implications for environmental assessment practice

    Retief, Francois; Bond, Alan; Pope, Jenny; Morrison-Saunders, Angus; King, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the future of environmental assessment (EA) practice in light of a rapidly changing world. We apply a literature review-based methodology to firstly identify key global megatrends and then reflect upon the implications for EA practice based on some known challenges. The key megatrends identified are synthesised into six categories: i) demographics, ii) urbanization, iii) technological innovation, iv) power shifts, v) resource scarcity and vi) climate change. We then discuss the implications of these megatrends for EA practice against four known EA challenges namely: dealing with i) complexity and uncertainty, ii) efficiency, iii) significance and iv) communication and participation. Our analysis suggests important implications for EA practice such as: increased difficulties with accuracy of prediction; the need for facilitative adaptation; an increase in the occurrence of unexpected events; higher expectations for procedural efficiency; challenges with information and communication management; dealing with significance judgements; and mitigation amidst resource scarcity and increasing pressures on earth systems. The megatrends underscore the need for continued evolution of EA thinking and practice, especially moving away from seeking a predictable single future or outcome towards the possibility of multiple scenarios with associated adaptability and enhanced system resilience capable of responding to rapid change.

  19. Resources for our Future. Key issues and best practices in resource efficiency

    Weterings, R.; Bastein, T.; Tukker, A. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Rademaker, M.; De Ridder, M. [The Hague Centre for Strategic studies HCSS, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    This book provides an analysis of the issues surrounding international resources and inspiring accounts of industrial best practices. The book consists of two distinct parts. The first part of the book brings together the results of years of research into the geopolitical, economic and ecological dimensions of material scarcity and resource efficiency. Chapter 2 discusses the main challenges and constraints related to the use of energy resources, water and land, industrial and metallic minerals, construction minerals and biotic resources, including water use and ecosystem degradation. The chapter also addresses important linkages between these various resources. Chapter 3 describes the international trends that are shaping the geopolitics of natural resources and looks at the implications for Europe and the Netherlands. Chapter 4 presents a wide range of strategies by which governments, producers and consumers may contribute to the more sustainable use of natural resources. The second part of the book describes 21 inspiring best practices in resource efficiency in a variety of industrial sectors. Based on a series of interviews with industrial pioneers, these chapters relate their first-hand experiences in improving resource efficiency. These business cases demonstrate that innovation and entrepreneurship can result in substantial improvements in resource efficiency. Chapter 5 focuses on best practices in the built environment, where substantial amounts of energy and minerals are used. Chapter 6 presents four ambitious strategies to promote sustainable food production and consumption. Chapter 7 describes recent developments in the chemical process industry, which produces most of the ingredients, compounds and semi-products for the vast range of products used by society. Chapter 8 provides four examples of the state-of-the-art in resource efficiency in the metal and high-tech industries. This chapter presents four business cases highlighting the benefits of the

  20. Integrative learning for practicing adaptive resource management

    Craig A. McLoughlin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive resource management is a learning-by-doing approach to natural resource management. Its effective practice involves the activation, completion, and regeneration of the "adaptive management cycle" while working toward achieving a flexible set of collaboratively identified objectives. This iterative process requires application of single-, double-, and triple-loop learning, to strategically modify inputs, outputs, assumptions, and hypotheses linked to improving policies, management strategies, and actions, along with transforming governance. Obtaining an appropriate balance between these three modes of learning has been difficult to achieve in practice and building capacity in this area can be achieved through an emphasis on reflexive learning, by employing adaptive feedback systems. A heuristic reflexive learning framework for adaptive resource management is presented in this manuscript. It is built on the conceptual pillars of the following: stakeholder driven adaptive feedback systems; strategic adaptive management (SAM; and hierarchy theory. The SAM Reflexive Learning Framework (SRLF emphasizes the types, roles, and transfer of information within a reflexive learning context. Its adaptive feedback systems enhance the facilitation of single-, double-, and triple-loop learning. Focus on the reflexive learning process is further fostered by streamlining objectives within and across all governance levels; incorporating multiple interlinked adaptive management cycles; having learning as an ongoing, nested process; recognizing when and where to employ the three-modes of learning; distinguishing initiating conditions for this learning; and contemplating practitioner mandates for this learning across governance levels. The SRLF is a key enabler for implementing the "adaptive management cycle," and thereby translating the theory of adaptive resource management into practice. It promotes the heuristics of adaptive management within a cohesive

  1. Understanding human resource management practices in Botswana's public health sector.

    Seitio-Kgokgwe, Onalenna Stannie; Gauld, Robin; Hill, Philip C; Barnett, Pauline

    2016-11-21

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the management of the public sector health workforce in Botswana. Using institutional frameworks it aims to document and analyse human resource management (HRM) practices, and make recommendations to improve employee and health system outcomes. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws from a large study that used a mixed methods approach to assess performance of Botswana's Ministry of Health (MOH). It uses data collected through document analysis and in-depth interviews of 54 key informants comprising policy makers, senior staff of the MOH and its stakeholder organizations. Findings Public health sector HRM in Botswana has experienced inadequate planning, poor deployment and underutilization of staff. Lack of comprehensive retention strategies and poor working conditions contributed to the failure to attract and retain skilled personnel. Relationships with both formal and informal environments affected HRM performance. Research limitations/implications While document review was a major source of data for this paper, the weaknesses in the human resource information system limited availability of data. Practical implications This paper presents an argument for the need for consideration of formal and informal environments in developing effective HRM strategies. Originality/value This research provides a rare system-wide approach to health HRM in a Sub-Saharan African country. It contributes to the literature and evidence needed to guide HRM policy decisions and practices.

  2. Introducing change in organization: implication for human resource ...

    Introducing change in organization: implication for human resource ... that one of the most obvious and urgent problems at management level in organizations is ... to change their attitude and behavior as rapidly as their organization requires.

  3. The nursing human resource planning best practice toolkit: creating a best practice resource for nursing managers.

    Vincent, Leslie; Beduz, Mary Agnes

    2010-05-01

    Evidence of acute nursing shortages in urban hospitals has been surfacing since 2000. Further, new graduate nurses account for more than 50% of total nurse turnover in some hospitals and between 35% and 60% of new graduates change workplace during the first year. Critical to organizational success, first line nurse managers must have the knowledge and skills to ensure the accurate projection of nursing resource requirements and to develop proactive recruitment and retention programs that are effective, promote positive nursing socialization, and provide early exposure to the clinical setting. The Nursing Human Resource Planning Best Practice Toolkit project supported the creation of a network of teaching and community hospitals to develop a best practice toolkit in nursing human resource planning targeted at first line nursing managers. The toolkit includes the development of a framework including the conceptual building blocks of planning tools, manager interventions, retention and recruitment and professional practice models. The development of the toolkit involved conducting a review of the literature for best practices in nursing human resource planning, using a mixed method approach to data collection including a survey and extensive interviews of managers and completing a comprehensive scan of human resource practices in the participating organizations. This paper will provide an overview of the process used to develop the toolkit, a description of the toolkit contents and a reflection on the outcomes of the project.

  4. From Risk factors to health resources in medical practice

    Hollnagel, Hanne; Malterud, Kirsti

    2000-01-01

    autonomy, communication, empowerment, epidemiology, general practice, healing, health resources, informed consent, preventive medicine, risk factors, salutogenesis......autonomy, communication, empowerment, epidemiology, general practice, healing, health resources, informed consent, preventive medicine, risk factors, salutogenesis...

  5. Arctic Energy Resources: Security and Environmental Implications

    Peter Johnston

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available n recent years, there has been considerable interest in the Arctic as a source for resources, as a potential zone for commercial shipping, and as a region that might experience conflict due to its strategic importance. With regards to energy resources, some studies suggest that the region contains upwards of 13 percent of global undiscovered oil, 30 percent of undiscovered gas, and multiples more of gas hydrates. The decreasing amount and duration of Arctic ice cover suggests that extraction of these resources will be increasingly commercially viable. Arctic and non-arctic states wish to benefit from the region's resources and the potential circum-polar navigation possibilities. This has led to concerns about the environmental risks of these operations as well as the fear that competition between states for resources might result in conflict. Unresolved offshore boundaries between the Arctic states exacerbate these fears. Yet, the risk of conflict seems overstated considering the bilateral and multilateral steps undertaken by the Arctic states to resolve contentious issues. This article will examine the potential impact of Arctic energy resources on global security as well as the regional environment and examine the actions of concerned states to promote their interests in the region.

  6. Teacher's experiences in PBL: implications for practice

    Alves, Anabela C.; Sousa, Rui M.; Fernandes, Sandra; Cardoso, Elisabete; Carvalho, Maria Alice; Figueiredo, Jorge; Pereira, Rui M. S.

    2016-03-01

    Project-Based Learning (PBL) has been implemented in the first year of the Industrial Engineering and Management programme at the University of Minho, Portugal, since 2004/2005. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss teachers' experiences in PBL in this programme and to explore its implications for student learning and for teaching practices in higher education. For data collection, the research method used was written narratives to these teachers, at the end of the PBL semester. Findings suggest that teachers express a positive view of PBL as a learning approach. They identify student motivation and engagement, along with a better understanding of the application of concepts in real-life situations, as important outcomes of the project for students. Besides this, teachers also highlight the importance of the development of transversal skills by students throughout the project. Recommendations for future work and implications for practice will also be discussed.

  7. Climate change: Implications for water and ecological resources

    Wall, G.; Sanderson, M.

    1990-01-01

    A conference was held to discuss the implications of climate change on water and ecological resources. The meeting consisted of a number of plenary sessions, luncheon speeches, an open forum, and five workshops. Presentations concerned regional and global issues, climate modelling, international aspects of climate change, water resources supply and demand, wetlands, wildlife and fisheries, agriculture and forests, and conservation strategies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 32 presentations from the conference

  8. Nursing intellectual capital theory: implications for research and practice.

    Covell, Christine L; Sidani, Souraya

    2013-05-31

    Due to rising costs of healthcare, determining how registered nurses and knowledge resources influence the quality of patient care is critical. Studies that have investigated the relationship between nursing knowledge and outcomes have been plagued with conceptual and methodological issues. This has resulted in limited empirical evidence of the impact of nursing knowledge on patient or organizational outcomes. The nursing intellectual capital theory was developed to assist with this area of inquiry. Nursing intellectual capital theory conceptualizes the sources of nursing knowledge available within an organization and delineates its relationship to patient and organizational outcomes. In this article, we review the nursing intellectual capital theory and discuss its implications for research and practice. We explain why the theory shows promise for guiding research on quality work environments and how it may assist with administrative decision-making related to nursing human resource management and continuing professional development.

  9. Human Resource Management Practices and Innovation

    Laursen, Keld; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    We survey, organize, and discuss the literature on the role of organizational practices for explaining innovation outcomes. We discuss how individual practices influence innovation, and how the clustering of specific practices matters for innovation outcomes. Relatedly, we discuss various possibl...

  10. Employment of people with disabilities: Implications for HR management practices

    P. Gida

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to, firstly, present the findings of an empirical study in which the human resource management practices associated with the employment of people with disabilities were investigated. The human resource management challenges related to employment of people with disabilities were also identified in the empirical study and are presented in this paper. A further purpose of this paper is to propose a number of recommendations focused on human resource management practices and principles aimed at assisting managers and human resource management specialists in their endeavours to effectively deal with the employment of people with disabilities. Design/Methodology/Approach: This paper is based on an empirical study in which interviews were conducted with respondents from 19 different organisations identified in the Financial Mail's 'Top 100 Organisations in South Africa' list. Findings: The findings from the empirical study suggest that very few organisations are dealing with the employment of people with disabilities as a priority in their equity strategies. Where attention is being given to this issue, respondents seem to either address it as a legal compliance issue or a social responsibility 'project'. Furthermore, very little has been done to review current human resource management practices to determine whether they are discriminatory towards people with disabilities. Based on the insights gained from these findings and in line with best practice principles identified in the relevant literature, a number of recommendations focusing on human resource management practices and principles in relation to the employment of people with disabilities are proposed. Implications: This paper provides a number of practical steps to consider as part of an organisation's response to equity strategies related to the employment of people with disabilities. Originality/Value: In the Employment Equity Commission's Annual Report

  11. Resource implications of adopting a restrictive neonatal blood ...

    Resource implications of adopting a restrictive neonatal blood transfusion policy. ... Objective. To determine whether adopting a restrictive BTF policy results in fewer transfusions. Methods. Data were retrospectively collected on all infants who received BTFs in the GSH nursery over a 6-month period following adoption of a ...

  12. Building human resources capability in health care: a global analysis of best practice--Part II.

    Zairi, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper is the second from a series of three, addressing human resource practices using best practice examples. The analysis covered is based on the experiences of organisations that have won the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) in the USA. The subcriteria covered in this benchmarking comparative analysis covers the following areas: human resource planning and management; employee involvement; employee education and training; employee performance and recognition; employee wellbeing and satisfaction. The paper concludes by reflecting on the likely implications for health-care professionals working in the human resource field.

  13. Paradigms and problems: The practice of social science in natural resource management

    Michael E. Patterson; Daniel R. Williams

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly, natural resource management is seeing calls for new paradigms. These calls pose challenges that have implications not only for planning and management, but also for the practice of science. As a consequence, the profession needs to deepen its understanding of the nature of science by exploring recent advances in the philosophy of science....

  14. Innovative Human Resource Management Practices and Firm ...

    In this study, the effect of innovative HRM practices on the financial performance of banks in Nigeria is examined. Results indicate that strategic integration and devolvement of HRM are practiced to a moderate extent in the Nigerian banking sector. Findings also show that innovative HRM practices have significant positive ...

  15. The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on ...

    The focus of this paper is on the impact of HRM practices on private sector organisations performance in Nigeria. Guinness Nigeria Plc is a private sector driving entity. Its human resource practices can be crucial to its performance. The purpose of this study therefore was to assess whether Guinness‟s human resource ...

  16. Human Resource Management Practices and Innovation

    Laursen, Keld; Foss, Nicolai J.

    2012-01-01

    We survey, organize, and discuss the literature on the role of organizational practices for explaining innovation outcomes. We discuss how individual practices influence innovation, and how the clustering of specific practices matters for innovation outcomes. Relatedly, we discuss various possible mediators of the HRM/innovation link, such as knowledge sharing, social capital and network effects. We argue that the causal mechanisms underlying the HRM/innovation links are still ...

  17. Natural resource economic implications of geothermal area use

    Darby, d' E Charles

    1993-01-28

    Large-scale use of geothermal energy is likely to result in depletion of natural resources that support both biodiversity and other human uses. Most of the problems could be averted with competent planning and adherence to agreed conditions, but they commonly develop because they are not perceived to be directly geothermal in origin and hence are not taken into account adequately. Some of the implications of such issues are discussed below, with particular reference to countries where all or most resources are held under traditional principals of custom ownership.

  18. Language practice as games: Implications for sociology of ...

    Language practice as games: Implications for sociology of translation in development contexts in Africa. ... Abstract. Drawing from Game Theory, the article conceptualises language practice as games, that is ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  19. Child Rearing Practices in Nigeria: Implications for Mental Health ...

    Child Rearing Practices in Nigeria: Implications for Mental Health. ... over time are important, especially as this region is undergoing rapid transformation. ... Through policy and aggressive health education, traditional child rearing practices in ...

  20. Relationship between islamic human resources management (IHRM practices and trust: An empirical study

    Nik Mutasim Nik Ab. Rahman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore and examines the theoretical frameworks of Islamic human resource management practices and trust in organization. Additionally, to investigate the extent to which Islamic HRM practices inspire and revival employees trust in organization.Design/methodology/approach: This study comprised sample of 236 Islamic Bank employees in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional research design was used to examine the relationship between Islamic Human Resource Management practices and trust. Data were gathered based on personal administered questionnaire.Findings and Originality/value: This study results show that knowledge, understanding and practices of Islamic principles, recruitment and selection, training and development, and reward system significantly related to the trust. But performance appraisal are found have insignificant relationship.Research limitations/implications: The data for this study are collected by self-administered questionnaire, a method with well-known shortcomings. Second, this study concentrated on the Islamic bank employees in Bangladesh.Practical implications: An important implication of this research is that the interesting findings give some insight to the management of Islamic bank to focus on improving Islamic Human Resource Management practices, in their all kind of management, as that could improve their trust in the bank.Originality/value: The findings are original and unique and are based on the literature from different researches. The results are based on a sample of Islamic Bank employees in Bangladesh. The research findings are useful to academics and management of Islamic bank all over the world.

  1. Education System Reform in China after 1978: Some Practical Implications

    Sun, Miantao

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of education system reform in China since 1978, and its practical implications. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from literature review and interview. An overview of education system reform and its practical implications was found through data analysis. Findings: There has been two…

  2. Some practical implications of source term reassessment

    1988-03-01

    This report provides a brief summary of the current knowledge of severe accident source terms and suggests how this knowledge might be applied to a number of specific aspects of reactor safety. In preparing the report, consideration has been restricted to source term issues relating to light water reactors (LWRs). Consideration has also generally been restricted to the consequences of hypothetical severe accidents rather than their probability of occurrence, although it is recognized that, in the practical application of source term research, it is necessary to take account of probability as well as consequences. The specific areas identified were as follows: Exploration of the new insights that are available into the management of severe accidents; Investigating the impact of source term research on emergency planning and response; Assessing the possibilities which exist in present reactor designs for preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents and how these might be used effectively; Exploring the need for backfitting and assessing the implications of source term research for future designs; and Improving the quantification of the radiological consequences of hypothetical severe accidents for probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) and informing the public about the realistic risks associated with nuclear power plants. 7 refs

  3. Practical implications of neutron survey instrument performance

    Tanner, R. J.; Bartlett, D. T.; Hager, I. G.; Jones, I. N.; Molinos, C.; Roberts, N. J.; Taylor, G. C.; Thomas, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    Improvements have been made to the Monte Carlo modelling used to calculate the response of the neutron survey instruments most commonly used in the UK, for neutron energies up to 20 MeV. The improved modelling of the devices includes the electronics and battery pack, allowing better calculations of both the energy and angle dependence of response. These data are used to calculate the response of the instruments in rotationally and fully isotropic, as well as unidirectional fields. Experimental measurements with radionuclide sources and monoenergetic neutron fields have been, and continue to be made, to test the calculated response characteristics. The enhancements to the calculations have involved simulation of the sensitivity of the response to variations in instrument manufacture, and will include the influence of the user and floor during measurements. The practical implications of the energy and angle dependence of response, variations in manufacture, and the influence of the user are assessed by folding the response characteristics with workplace energy and direction distributions. (authors)

  4. Relative age effect: implications for effective practice.

    Andronikos, Georgios; Elumaro, Adeboye Israel; Westbury, Tony; Martindale, Russell J J

    2016-01-01

    Physical and psychological differences related to birthdate amongst athletes of the same selection year have been characterised as the "relative age effects" (RAEs). RAEs have been identified in a variety of sports, both at youth and adult level, and are linked with dropout of athletes and a reduction of the talent pool. This study examined the existence, mechanisms and possible solutions to RAEs using qualitative methodology. Seven experts in the field of talent identification and development were interviewed. Inductive analysis of the data showed that, while there was mixed evidence for the existence of RAEs across sports, the eradication of RAEs was attributed to controllable features of the development environment. The factors reported included the structure of "categories" used to group athletes within the sport (e.g. age, weight, size, skills), recognition and prioritisation of long-term development over "short term win focus." Education of relevant parties (e.g. coaches, scouts, clubs) about RAEs and the nature of "talent" within a long-term context was suggested, along with careful consideration of the structure of the development environment (e.g. delayed selection, provision for late developers, focus on skills not results, use of challenge). Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  5. Practical implications of the new risk perspectives

    Aven, Terje

    2013-01-01

    In recent years several authors have argued for the adoption of certain new types of risk perspectives which highlight uncertainties rather than probabilities in the way risk is understood and measured. The theoretical rationale for these new perspectives is well established, but the practical implications have not been so clearly demonstrated. There is a need to show how the new perspectives change the way risk is described and communicated in real-life situations and in its turn the effects on risk management and decision making. The present paper aims at contributing to this end by considering two cases, related to a national risk level, and a specific analysis concerning an LNG plant. The paper concludes that the new risk perspectives influence the current regime in many ways, in particular the manner in which the knowledge dimension is described and dealt with. Two methods for characterising the strength of knowledge are presented, one of them based on a new concept, the “assumption deviation risk”, reflecting risks related to the deviations from the conditions/states defined by the assumption made

  6. Programme evaluation: Can it improve human resource management practice?

    Johann Louw

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This is the final article in the special edition on human resource (HR programmes and evaluation. Its starting point is that programme evaluation is the application of a wide range of social science research methods that provide credible information about the need, use, planning, effectiveness and cost of a programme. Research purpose: The purpose of this article is to review the other articles in this volume, and to draw out general conclusions about their contributions to knowledge in the field. Motivation for the study: If evaluations are undertaken in the HR domain in South Africa, they remain mostly unpublished, and thus cannot contribute to a knowledge base for the field. Research design, approach and method: This article provides a theory-based approach to programme evaluation. The seven articles were analysed in terms of two major functions of programme evaluation, namely to ask ‘How does a programme work?’, and ‘Does it work?‘ Main findings: Eight overarching themes are identified in the articles included in this volume. Practical/managerial implications: The evidence discussed here can be used to make better decisions, promote organisational learning, improve practice, and enhance employee wellbeing. Contribution/value-add: The main contribution of this concluding article is its argument that research and theory in this field can enhance the work of HR professionals, by providing evidence about how ‘good’ a programme is, and why it is good. This adds substantial value in a world characterised by accountability and evidence-based practice.

  7. The Influence of Human Resource Practices on Internal Customer Satisfaction and Organizational Effectiveness

    Irfan Ullah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that the impact of Human Resource Practices on internal customer satisfaction can create comparative advantage for the organizational performance. The main objective of this study was to find out the impact of Human Resource Practices on internal customer satisfaction and organizational effectiveness. The impact of human resource practices on the overall performance of organizations has been a leading subject of research and the results have been encouraging, indicative of positive relationship between Human Resource practices and organizational effectiveness. Data was collected through personally administered questionnaire-based survey from 290 banking personnel of Pakistan. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the anticipated model. The results showed that some Human Resource Practices appear to be linked to internal customer satisfaction and organizational effectiveness. The implications for practitioners were to modify and emphasize certain human resource practices, and to emphasize the role of internal customers for organizational effectiveness enhancement. These findings revealed the importance of internal customers in enhancing employee morale, organizational commitment, employee productivity, turnover rate and the organization’s ability to attract talent.

  8. Emergency department surge: models and practical implications.

    Nager, Alan L; Khanna, Kajal

    2009-08-01

    Emergency Department crowding has long been described. Despite the daily challenges of managing emergency department volume and acuity; a surge response during a disaster entails even greater challenges including collaboration, intervention, and resourcefulness to effectively carry out pediatric disaster management. Understanding surge and how to respond with appropriate planning will lead to success. To achieve this, we sought to analyze models of surge; review regional and national data outlining surge challenges and factors that impact surge; and to outline potential solutions. We conducted a systemic review and included articles and documents that best described the theoretical and practical basis of surge response. We organized the systematic review according to the following questions: What are the elements and models that are delineated by the concept of surge? What is the basis for surge response based on regional and national published sources? What are the broad global solutions? What are the major lessons observed that will impact effective surge capacity? Multiple models of surge are described including public health, facility-based and community-based; a 6-tiered response system; and intrinsic or extrinsic surge capacity. In addition, essential components (4 S's of surge response) are described along with regional and national data outlining surge challenges, impacting factors, global solutions, and lesions observed. There are numerous shortcomings regionally and nationally affecting our ability to provide an effective and coordinated surge response. Planning, education, and training will lead to an effective pediatric disaster management response.

  9. Human Resources practices and workplace environmental support

    Noel Ngwenya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The key to retaining employees lies on the organization’s capability of supporting employees by understanding and answering to their intrinsic motivators. It is important for employees to perceive a positive and valuing attitude of the organization toward them in order to have greater motivation for staying in the organization. Such condition for employee retention is based on the social exchange theory which holds that the exchange relationship between employer and employee goes beyond exchange of impersonal resources such as money, information, and service. One of the leading challenges in creating attractive and supporting working environment has be implementing effective human development strategies to enhance organizational performance and employee commitment. Therefore, managing human resources plays a crucial role in a process of increasing organization, starting from line managers who need to be aware of factors that motivate their subordinates to make them perform well, ending up with human resources professionals who have to understand motivation to effectively design and implement reward structure and systems. In employment situation, as in personal relationships, commitment is a tow-away street. If employers want committed employees, they need to be committed employers. Committed employees do better work than uncommitted ones and organizations with committed workers do better financially than organizations with uncommitted ones. Employers need to determine what is responsible for this disparity. Many employees perceive that employers do not value loyalty and are willing to sacrifice workers to maintain the financial bottom line. Employees points to decades of downsizing, rightsizing, and re-engineering as the evidence that employers treat them as expendable commodities when times get tough (Bragg, 2002.

  10. Revitalizing Society: Practicing Human Resource Development through the Lifespan.

    Carter, Phillip Dean

    1988-01-01

    It is time to practice sound principles of human resources development in learning environments and to promote a cooperative, creative, collaboative, and participative leadership style in education as well as in industry, business, and government. (JOW)

  11. The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Employee Turnover

    Ozoliņa-Ozola, I

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify the human resource management practices that are effective for employee turnover reducing. For this purpose the methods of document analysis and expert survey were used. On the basis of analysis of the scientific literature retrieved from academic databases the human resource management practices, which were mentioned in connection with employee turnover, were detected and described its effect on employee turnover. By conducting two separate expert sur...

  12. Minerals resource implications of a tokamak fusion reactor economy

    Cameron, E; Conn, R W; Kulcinski, G L; Sviatoslavsky, I

    1979-09-01

    The mineral resource implications of an economy of tokamak-type fusion reactors are assessed based upon the recent conceptual reactor design study, NUWMAK, developed at the University of Wisconsin. For comparative purposes, various structural alloys of vanadium and steel are assumed to be usable in the NUWMAK design in place of the titanium alloy originally selected. In addition, the inner blanket core and magnet system of the conceptual reactor, HFCTR, developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, are assumed to be interchangeable with the comparable components in NUWMAK. These variations permit a range of likely requirements to be assessed.

  13. Minerals resource implications of a tokamak fusion reactor economy

    Cameron, E.; Conn, R.W.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Sviatoslavsky, I.

    1979-09-01

    The mineral resource implications of an economy of tokamak-type fusion reactors are assessed based upon the recent conceptual reactor design study, NUWMAK, developed at the University of Wisconsin. For comparative purposes, various structural alloys of vanadium and steel are assumed to be usable in the NUWMAK design in place of the titanium alloy originally selected. In addition, the inner blanket core and magnet system of the conceptual reactor, HFCTR, developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, are assumed to be interchangeable with the comparable components in NUWMAK. These variations permit a range of likely requirements to be assessed

  14. Driving Performance Improvements by Integrating Competencies with Human Resource Practices

    Lee, Jin Gu; Park, Yongho; Yang, Gi Hun

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the issues in the development and application of a competency model and provides implications for more precise integration of competencies into human resource (HR) functions driving performance improvement. This research is based on a case study from a Korean consumer corporation. This study employed document reviews,…

  15. Alignment of Human Resource Practices and Teacher Performance Competency

    Heneman III, Herbert G.; Milanowski, Anthony T.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we argue that human resource (HR) management practices are important components of strategies for improving student achievement in an accountability environment. We present a framework illustrating the alignment of educational HR management practices to a teacher performance competency model, which in turn is aligned with student…

  16. Resources, mediators, and identities: Home literacy practices of ...

    Everyday home literacy practices of bilingual students who are learning English as an Additional Language (EAL) is an under-explored topic in South Africa. In this qualitative case study, home literacy practices of these students are viewed as a resource that can enhance their literacy development, while affirming their lived ...

  17. Teacher's reading comprehension: Implication for teaching practices

    Adriana Benevides Soares

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A question of interest for educational workers is the reading comprehension process, a fundamental ability for progress in more advanced years of schooling, and its effect on pedagogical practices. This is a study that explores this question. A reading comprehension instrument composed by four structural levels of text and a scale of pedagogical practice composed by four sub-scales involving: cognitive practices with linguistic focus, cognitive practices, affective and motor practices, continuous education, was used. The results of 53 children suggest a slight tendency of teacher to prioritize cognitive practices independently of their reading comprehension level.

  18. CULTURAL DIMENSIONS IN GLOBAL HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR NIGERIA

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As enterprise operations continue to be globalized through overseas expansions, joint ventures, mergers and acquisitions as well as strategic relationships and partnerships transnational organizations need to give attention to issues of culture in human resource management practices as a panacea for prosperity. The global organization is competent if only it is able to bridge the gap between management and culture so that personal relationships with other peoples in the organization and society become in harmony. This is critical because cultural relativity and reality in organizations influence operations. The study was designed to explore possible relationships between cultural dimensions and global human resource management. The survey research design was employed and data generated through primary and secondary sources. The participants comprised of 385 respondents from a cross-section of the population in Nigeria. By Chi-Square test, it was found that culture has a significant positive relationship with global human resource management.

  19. Ethical, Legal, and Social Implication of Cancer Research | Resources | CDP

    The Cancer Diagnosis Program strives to improve the diagnosis and assessment of cancer by effectively moving new scientific knowledge into clinical practice. This national program stimulates, coordinates and funds resources and research for the development of innovative in vitro diagnostics, novel diagnostic technologies and appropriate human specimens in order to better characterize cancers and allow improved medical decision making and evaluation of response to treatment.

  20. Implementing Comprehensive Reform: Implications for Practice

    Stout, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the challenges and practical barriers community colleges face when implementing comprehensive reform, exploring how reforms are leading to some improvements but not often scaled improvements.

  1. Democratic Schooling in Norway: Implications for Leadership in Practice

    Moller, Jorunn

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the meaning of an education based on democratic values and the implications for school leadership in practice. Based on findings from a case study in a Norwegian upper secondary school, the study describes democratic school leadership in practice, with particular attention to the distribution of power and leadership in the…

  2. Human Resource Management Practices, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment

    Murat KoC; Mustafa Fedai Cavus; Turgay Saracoglu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the role of human resource management (HRM) practices, job satisfaction and organizational commitment intentions of employees working in Turkish private organizations. A total of 200 employees participated in the study. The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between HRM practices (recruitment and selection, training and development, compensation and benefits, performance appraisals) and job satisfaction and organizational commitment....

  3. TECHNICAL AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF SHORT SELLING

    Radu BORES

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing insight into some of the implication of short selling for markets, investors as well as regulators. Findings show that capital flows are adversely affected by strict regulation and bans of short sales, while market liquidity, and bid-ask spread can be improved by allowing short selling. Additionally portfolios that incorporate short selling strategies can have lower volatility in returns. The informational content of short sales can provide important feedback for informed investors and lead to better price discovery.

  4. Medical Malpractice Implications of Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    Ruhl, Douglas S; Siegal, Gil

    2017-08-01

    Clinical practice guidelines aim to improve medical care by clarifying and making useful recommendations to providers. Although providers should account for patients' unique characteristics when determining a treatment plan, it is generally perceived as good practice to follow guidelines when applicable. This is of interest in malpractice litigation, where it is essential to establish a standard of care to evaluate the performances of providers. Although the opinions of expert witnesses are used to determine standards of care, guidelines are expected to play a leading role. Guidelines alone should not establish a legal standard but may help inform this discussion in the courtroom. Therefore, it is incumbent that excellent, practical, and timely guidelines are continually created and updated in a transparent way. These guidelines must be very clear and underscore the various strengths of recommendation based on the quality of available evidence.

  5. Practicalities of health survey fieldwork research in a resource ...

    Cite as: Abimanyi-Ochom J. Practicalities of health survey field work research in a resource limited setting: challenges and ... vided only ART while TASO provided social support in ..... first aid box in case of any minor accident but was limited.

  6. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  7. Beginning Teachers' Perceptions of School Human Resource Practices

    Kwan, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Human resource (HR) management is defined as the sum of activities employed by an organization to attract, develop, and retain people with the appropriate knowledge and skills for effectively and efficiently achieving organizational goals. An understanding of the HR practices in schools is important, as the assembly of a team of qualified and…

  8. An investigation into the practices of resource sharing among ...

    The study investigated the practice of resource sharing among Academic Libraries in Federal Universities in the South-South Geo-Political zone of Nigeria. The survey research design was employed for the study. The population for the study consists of the federal universities in the zone, except the Federal University of ...

  9. Human Resource Management Practice Tourism and Hotel Industry

    Al Hrou S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of human resources management (HRM in promoting competitiveness in tourism and hotel industry, this review intend to enhance the understanding of practical issues of HRM more importantly since it involve organizing the management of human resources, with respect to accomplishment of organizational objective further more it shows that the issues either related to external factors, which include technological change, legislation and regulation, and national culture, globalization, or internal factors including size, industry and sector characteristic and structure of an organization, strategy and past practice of HRM. On the issue of human resources capability training, this research review recommend provision of array of opportunity for capability building and conducive working environment to promote productivity. Also worth considering, employee, employer relationship, Other variables such as attitude and productivity of employees, relationship between employees and employers, increase and decrease in financial assets should be taken into account.

  10. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF LOCATION-BASED SCHEDULING

    Andersson, Niclas; Christensen, Knud

    2007-01-01

    The traditional method for planning, scheduling and controlling activities and resources in construction projects is the CPM-scheduling, which has been the predominant scheduling method since its introduction in the late 1950s. Over the years, CPM has proven to be a very powerful technique...... that will be used in this study. LBS is a scheduling method that rests upon the theories of line-of-balance and which uses the graphic representation of a flowline chart. As such, LBS is adapted for planning and management of workflows and, thus, may provide a solution to the identified shortcomings of CPM. Even...

  11. Stem cell terminology: practical, theological and ethical implications.

    Shanner, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Stem cell policy discussions frequently confuse embryonic and fetal sources of stem cells, and label untested, non-reproductive cloning as "therapeutic." Such misnomers distract attention from significant practical and ethical implications: accelerated research agendas tend to be supported at the expense of physical risks to women, theological implications in a multi-faith community, informed consent for participation in research, and treatment decisions altered by unrealistic expectations.

  12. Impact of human resource management practices on nursing home performance.

    Rondeau, K V; Wagar, T H

    2001-08-01

    Management scholars and practitioners alike have become increasingly interested in learning more about the ability of certain 'progressive' or 'high-performance' human resource management (HRM) practices to enhance organizational effectiveness. There is growing evidence to suggest that the contribution of various HRM practices to impact firm performance may be synergistic in effect yet contingent on a number of contextual factors, including workplace climate. A contingency theory perspective suggests that in order to be effective, HMR policies and practices must be consistent with other aspects of the organization, including its environment. This paper reports on empirical findings from research that examines the relationship between HRM practices, workplace climate and perceptions of organizational performance, in a large sample of Canadian nursing homes. Data from 283 nursing homes were collected by means of a mail survey that included questions on HRM practices, programmes, and policies, on human resource aspects of workplace climate, as well as a variety of indicators that include employee, customer/resident and facility measures of organizational performance. Results derived from ordered probit analysis suggest that nursing homes in our sample which had implemented more 'progressive' HRM practices and which reported a workplace climate that strongly values employee participation, empowerment and accountability tended to be perceived to generally perform better on a number of valued organizational outcomes. Nursing homes in our sample that performed best overall were found to be more likely to not only have implemented more of these HRM practices, but also to report having a workplace climate that reflects the seminal value that it places on its human resources. This finding is consistent with the conclusion that simply introducing HRM practices or programmes, in the absence of an appropriately supportive workplace climate, will be insufficient to attain

  13. Contemporary marketing practice : theoretical propositions and practical implications

    Lindgreen, A.; Palmer, R.; Vanhamme, J.

    2004-01-01

    Marketing has changed significantly since it first emerged as a distinct business and management phenomenon. We identify some of the major factors causing the observed change in marketing practice. We then describe a classification scheme that is based on transaction marketing and relationship

  14. The effect of human resource practices on psychological contracts at an iron ore mining company in South Africa

    Caren B. Scheepers

    2011-08-01

    psychological contracts. Practical/managerial implications: The influence of human resource practices on relational contracts could assist organisations to invest in human resource practices. During recessions, organisations tend to reduce expenditure on human resource practices, especially training and development. The findings of this study, about the relationship between training and development and relational contracts, highlight the negative effect that this trend could have on psychological contracts, individual and organisational behaviour and, ultimately, organisational performance. Contribution/value-add: Based on this empirical study, the researchers proposed a conceptual model to illustrate the relationship between different psychological contracts and specific human resource practices, like training and development, which had the strongest relationships with relational contracts.

  15. Integrating policy, disintegrating practice: water resources management in Botswana

    Swatuk, Larry A.; Rahm, Dianne

    Botswana is generally regarded as an African ‘success story’. Nearly four decades of unabated economic growth, multi-party democracy, conservative decision-making and low-levels of corruption have made Botswana the darling of the international donor community. One consequence of rapid and sustained economic development is that water resources use and demands have risen dramatically in a primarily arid/semi-arid environment. Policy makers recognize that supply is limited and that deliberate steps must be taken to manage demand. To this end, and in line with other members of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), Botswana devised a National Water Master Plan (NWMP) and undertook a series of institutional and legal reforms throughout the 1990s so as to make water resources use more equitable, efficient and sustainable. In other words, the stated goal is to work toward Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in both policy and practice. However, policy measures have had limited impact on de facto practice. This paper reflects our efforts to understand the disjuncture between policy and practice. The information presented here combines a review of primary and secondary literatures with key informant interviews. It is our view that a number of constraints-cultural, power political, managerial-combine to hinder efforts toward sustainable forms of water resources use. If IWRM is to be realized in the country, these constraints must be overcome. This, however, is no small task.

  16. Implications of radiation risk for practical dosimetry

    Dennis, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Radiobiological experiments with animals and cells have led to an expectation that the risks of cancer and hereditary effects are reduced at low doses and low dose rates of low LET radiation. Risk estimates derived from human exposures at high doses and dose rates usually contain an allowance for low dose effects in comparison with high dose effects, but no allowance may have been made for low dose rate effects. Although there are reasons for thinking that leukaemia risks may possibly have been underestimated, the total cancer risk assumed by ICRP for occupational exposures is reasonably realistic. For practical dosimetry the primary dose concepts and limits have to be translated into secondary quantities that are capable of practical realisation and measurement, and which will provide a stable and robust system of metrology. If the ICRP risk assumptions are approximately correct, it is extremely unlikely that epidemiological studies of occupational exposures will detect the influence of radiation. Elaboration of dosimetry and dose recording for epidemiological purposes is therefore unjustified except possibly in relation to differences between high and low LET radiations. (author)

  17. DOES PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT MEDIATE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT?

    Aizzat Mohd. Nasurdin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines a model involving Human Resource Management (HRM practices, perceived organizational support, and organizational commitment. It was hypothesized that HRM practices (performance appraisal, training and career development will be positively related to organizational commitment, and that perceived organizational support would serve as a mediator in the relationship between HRM practices and commitment. The statistical results on data gathered from a sample of 214 employees within the Malaysian manufacturing sector demonstrated that career development and performance appraisal have direct, positive and significant relationships with organizational commitment. In addition, perceived organizational support was found to partially mediate the relationships between two of the three HRM practices (career development and performance appraisal and commitment. Theoretical and managerial implications are suggested.

  18. Reflective practice and its implications for pharmacy education.

    Tsingos, Cherie; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Smith, Lorraine

    2014-02-12

    Pharmacy students require critical-thinking and problem-solving skills to integrate theory learned in the classroom with the complexities of practice, yet many pharmacy students fall short of acquiring these skills.(1-2) Reflective practice activities encourage learning from the student's own experiences and those of others, and offer a possible solution for the integration of knowledge-based curricula with the ambiguities of practice, as well as enhance communication and collaboration within a multidisciplinary team. Although reflective practices have been embraced elsewhere in health professions education, their strengths and shortcomings need to be considered when implementing such practices into pharmacy curricula. This review provides an overview of the evolution of theories related to reflective practice, critically examines the use of reflective tools (such as portfolios and blogs), and discusses the implications of implementing reflective practices in pharmacy education.

  19. Measuring the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration

    Lefevre, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Economic assessments of the welfare effects of energy insecurity are typically uncertain and fail to provide clear guidance to policy makers. As a result, governments have had little analytical support to complement expert judgment in the assessment of energy security. This is likely to be inadequate when considering multiple policy goals, and in particular the intersections between energy security and climate change mitigation policies. This paper presents an alternative approach which focuses on gauging the causes of energy insecurity as a way to assist policy making. The paper focuses on the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration and distinguishes between the price and physical availability components of energy insecurity. It defines two separate indexes: the energy security price index (ESPI), based on the measure of market concentration in competitive fossil fuel markets, and the energy security physical availability index (ESPAI), based on the measure of supply flexibility in regulated markets. The paper illustrates the application of ESPI and ESPAI with two case studies-France and the United Kingdom-looking at the evolution of both indexes to 2030.

  20. Measuring the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration

    Lefevre, Nicolas [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, New Jersey (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Economic assessments of the welfare effects of energy insecurity are typically uncertain and fail to provide clear guidance to policy makers. As a result, governments have had little analytical support to complement expert judgment in the assessment of energy security. This is likely to be inadequate when considering multiple policy goals, and in particular the intersections between energy security and climate change mitigation policies. This paper presents an alternative approach which focuses on gauging the causes of energy insecurity as a way to assist policy making. The paper focuses on the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration and distinguishes between the price and physical availability components of energy insecurity. It defines two separate indexes: the energy security price index (ESPI), based on the measure of market concentration in competitive fossil fuel markets, and the energy security physical availability index (ESPAI), based on the measure of supply flexibility in regulated markets. The paper illustrates the application of ESPI and ESPAI with two case studies - France and the United Kingdom - looking at the evolution of both indexes to 2030. (author)

  1. Teachers' work engagement: Considering interaction with pupils and human resources practices as job resources

    Runhaar, P.R.; Sanders, K.; Konermann, J.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of these 2 studies was to investigate whether teachers' work engagement is related to the extent to which they experience their interactions with pupils and human resource (HR) practices within their schools as motivating. Study 1 was a qualitative study, including document analysis and

  2. The effects of human resource practices on firm growth

    Vlachos, I.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the connection between firm growth and labour is well documented in economics literature, only recently the link between human resources (HR and firm growth has attracted the interest of researchers. This study aims to assess the extent, if any, to which, specific HR practices may contribute to firm growth. We review a rich literature on the links between firm performance and the following HR practices: (1 job security (2 selective hiring, (3 self-managed teams (4 compensation policy, (5 extensive training, and (6 information sharing. We surveyed HR managers and recorded their perceptions about the links between HR practices and firm growth. Results demonstrated that compensation policy was the strongest predictor of sales growth. Results provide overall support for all HR practices except of job security. Eventually, selecting, training, and rewarding employees as well as giving them the power to decide for the benefit of their firm, contribute significantly to firm growth.

  3. Computed tomographic practice and dosimetry: implications for nuclear medicine: editorial

    Mountford, P.J.; Harding, L.K.

    1992-01-01

    This editorial briefly discusses the results of an NRPB survey of x-ray computed tomography practice and dosimetry in the UK. A wide variation in practice and patient doses was revealed. The implications for nuclear medicine are considered. The NRPB is to issue formal guidance on protection of the patient undergoing a CT investigation with the aim of achieving a more systematic approach to the justification and optimization of such exposures. (UK)

  4. Safeguarding and Protecting Children in Maternity Services: Implications for Practice

    Lazenbatt, Anne; Greer, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This article debates the issues involved in safeguarding and protecting children in maternity services and offers implications for professional practice. Midwives and other staff who work as members of the maternity team have a safeguarding role to play in the identification of babies and children who have been abused, or are at risk of abuse, and…

  5. Implications of teacher educators' practices in assessment for ...

    This study presents findings on teacher educators' practices in assessment and their implications for student learning in Tanzania. Research on classroom assessment has been dichotomizing assessment and teaching-learning processes instead of viewing assessment as an integral part of the teachinglearning process.

  6. Perinatal pathology: practice suggestions for limited-resource settings.

    Roberts, Drucilla J

    2013-06-01

    The practice of perinatal pathology in much of the world suffers, as do all subspecialties of anatomic pathology, from inadequate resources (equipment, consumables, and both professional and technical personnel), from lack of education (not only of the pathologist but also of the clinicians responsible for sending the specimens, and the technicians processing the specimens), and from lack of appropriate government sector support. Perinatal pathology has significant public health-related utility and should be championing its service by providing maternal and fetal/infant mortality and morbidity data to governmental health ministries. It is with this pathologic data that informed decisions can be made on health-related courses of action and allocation of resources. These perinatal pathology data are needed to develop appropriate public health initiatives, specifically toward achieving the Millennium Developmental Goals as the best way to effectively decrease infant and maternal deaths and to determine causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity. The following overview will focus on the utility of perinatal pathology specifically as related to its public health function and will suggest methods to improve its service in resource-poor settings. This article is offered not as a critique of the current practice that most pathologists find themselves working in globally, but to provide suggestions for improving perinatal pathology services, which could be implemented with the limited available resources and manpower most pathology departments currently have. In addition, we offer suggestions for graded improvements ("ramping up") over time.

  7. Best practices in nursing homes. Clinical supervision, management, and human resource practices.

    Dellefield, Mary Ellen

    2008-07-01

    Human resource practices including supervision and management are associated with organizational performance. Evidence supportive of such an association in nursing homes is found in the results of numerous research studies conducted during the past 17 years. In this article, best practices related to this topic have been culled from descriptive, explanatory, and intervention studies in a range of interdisciplinary research journals published between 1990 and 2007. Identified best practices include implementation of training programs on supervision and management for licensed nurses, certified nursing assistant job enrichment programs, implementation of consistent nursing assignments, and the use of electronic documentation. Organizational barriers and facilitators of these best practices are described. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Resource regulation by a twig-girdling beetle has implications for desertification

    1. Resource regulation by insects is the phenomenon by which herbivory enhances resources for the progeny of the herbivore. This report provides an example of resource regulation with implications for desertification in the Chihuahuan Desert of North America. 2. Female Oncideres rhodosticta beetles...

  9. Connecting congregations: technology resources influence parish nurse practice.

    Zerull, Lisa M; Near, Kelly K; Ragon, Bart; Farrell, Sarah P

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive pilot study evaluated the influence of health resource information education and the use of Web-based communication technology on the professional practice of the parish nurse in the congregational setting. Five parish nurse participants from varied denominations in rural and nonrural Virginia received a laptop computer, printer, video projector, and webcam along with high-speed Internet access in each congregational setting. The nurses attended two group education sessions that incorporated computer applications and training in accessing and using quality health information resources and communication applications such as a group "chat" software and webcam to communicate with others through high-speed Internet access. Qualitative analysis from semistructured interviews of nurses confirmed that participants found the project to be beneficial in terms of awareness, education, and applicability of technology use in parish nurse practice. Quantitative data from preproject and postproject surveys found significant differences in nurses' abilities and confidence with technology use and application. Findings showed that the knowledge and experience gained from this study enhanced parish nurse practice and confidence in using technology for communication, health education, and counseling.

  10. Modern human resources management practice in Peoples Republic of China

    Zakić Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dealing with the explanation of the development of human resources management (HRM in China through: explanation of reasons and time of formation and development of HRM in China; different types of HRM in different types of companies that are working in China; the Labor Law that defines HRM practice in China. Based on presented data, conclusions will be given about the development of HRM in China and challenges that are still expecting Chinese employers as well as Chinese employees in this area. Beside that, the degree of correlation between development of economy in Chi- na and development of management of human resources will be shown. The aim of this paper is to show that HRM is still developing in China, weather we are considering it as a scientific discipline or a business function within a company.

  11. How the Government Defines "Rural" Has Implications for Education Policies and Practices. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-010

    Arnold, Michael L.; Biscoe, Belinda; Farmer, Thomas W.; Robertson, Dylan L.; Shapley, Kathy L.

    2007-01-01

    Clearly defining what rural means has tangible implications for public policies and practices in education, from establishing resource needs to achieving the goals of No Child Left Behind in rural areas. The word "rural" has many meanings. It has been defined in reference to population density, geographic features, and level of economic…

  12. Resource file: practical publications for energy management, edition III

    1980-03-01

    The Resource File is an in-depth bibliography of 166 practical and action-oriented energy conservation publications and materials. It is a reference tool, designed for Federal, state, and local energy managers or people who are asked to recommend how-to conservation guides to the public. Each listing describes a publication's intended audience and provides a summary of its contents. Included are operations and maintenance manuals, life-cycle costing handbooks, home insulation manuals, films on fuel-saving driving techniques, and courses devoted exclusively to home weatherization. 166 items.

  13. Uranium resources and their implications for fission breeder and fusion hybrid development

    Max, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    Present estimates of uranium resources and reserves in the US and the non-Communist world are reviewed. The resulting implications are considered for two proposed breeder technologies: the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) and the fusion hybrid reactor. Using both simple arguments and detailed scenarios from the published literature, conditions are explored under which the LMFBR and fusion hybrid could respectively have the most impact, considering both fuel-supply and economic factors. The conclusions emphasize strong potential advantages of the fusion hybrid, due to its inherently large breeding rate. A discussion is presented of proposed US development strategies for the fusion hybrid, which at present is far behind the LMFBR in its practical application and maturity

  14. Exploring accountability of clinical ethics consultants: practice and training implications.

    Weise, Kathryn L; Daly, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    Clinical ethics consultants represent a multidisciplinary group of scholars and practitioners with varied training backgrounds, who are integrated into a medical environment to assist in the provision of ethically supportable care. Little has been written about the degree to which such consultants are accountable for the patient care outcome of the advice given. We propose a model for examining degrees of internally motivated accountability that range from restricted to unbounded accountability, and support balanced accountability as a goal for practice. Finally, we explore implications of this model for training of clinical ethics consultants from diverse academic backgrounds, including those disciplines that do not have a formal code of ethics relating to clinical practice.

  15. Practical implications of incentive systems are utilized by dental franchises.

    Yavner, S B

    1989-01-01

    The success of any dental practice depends, among other factors, on the critical role of staff employees. In order to encourage desired staff behaviors, incentive systems can be designed for employee dentists, assistants/hygienists and managers. A survey of dental franchises was conducted in 1987 for the purpose of examining their incentive control systems. The specific incentives employed by these dental franchises for their employees are analyzed. The implications of these incentive systems used by dental franchise organizations for all dental practices are then discussed.

  16. Environmental and natural resource implications of sustainable urban infrastructure systems

    Bergesen, Joseph D.; Suh, Sangwon; Baynes, Timothy M.; Kaviti Musango, Josephine

    2017-12-01

    As cities grow, their environmental and natural resource footprints also tend to grow to keep up with the increasing demand on essential urban services such as passenger transportation, commercial space, and thermal comfort. The urban infrastructure systems, or socio-technical systems providing these services are the major conduits through which natural resources are consumed and environmental impacts are generated. This paper aims to gauge the potential reductions in environmental and resources footprints through urban transformation, including the deployment of resource-efficient socio-technical systems and strategic densification. Using hybrid life cycle assessment approach combined with scenarios, we analyzed the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water use, metal consumption and land use of selected socio-technical systems in 84 cities from the present to 2050. The socio-technical systems analyzed are: (1) bus rapid transit with electric buses, (2) green commercial buildings, and (3) district energy. We developed a baseline model for each city considering gross domestic product, population density, and climate conditions. Then, we overlaid three scenarios on top of the baseline model: (1) decarbonization of electricity, (2) aggressive deployment of resource-efficient socio-technical systems, and (3) strategic urban densification scenarios to each city and quantified their potentials in reducing the environmental and resource impacts of cities by 2050. The results show that, under the baseline scenario, the environmental and natural resource footprints of all 84 cities combined would increase 58%-116% by 2050. The resource-efficient scenario along with strategic densification, however, has the potential to curve down GHG emissions to 17% below the 2010 level in 2050. Such transformation can also limit the increase in all resource footprints to less than 23% relative to 2010. This analysis suggests that resource-efficient urban infrastructure and decarbonization of

  17. Practice implications and recommendations for managing codeine misuse and dependence

    Bergin Michael

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Codeine, a weak opiate, requires increased pharmacovigilance relating to availability, heterogeneous nature of misuse, dependence and associated harm. A scoping review of literature on codeine was conducted using Arksey & O’Malley’s framework (1. Databases searched included PubMed, EBSCO Host, Science Direct, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane library and Medline from 1994 to 2014. Follow-up search strategies involved hand searching and searching of pharmaceutical, health, medical and drug related websites. Initial zscreening identified 3,105 articles with 475 meeting the inclusion criteria. Eight broad categories organised the literature, data charting and qualitative synthesis. This paper presents implications for practice and makes recommendations to address these issues. Themes identified relate to raising public and practitioner awareness, risk management, dispensing practices and monitoring and surveillance of codeine. Evidence to inform law enforcement, drug surveillance, public health initiatives, harm reduction approaches, pharmacy, clinical and treatment practices is warranted.

  18. Natural resources conflicts and the biofuel industry: implications and ...

    2010-09-07

    Sep 7, 2010 ... Keywords: Bio.fuel; natural resources conflicts,- land grabbing; Jatropha curcas .... arrangement, the legal interest in the Ashanti and Akyem lands went to the ..... economically competitive with it, and be producible in sufficient ...

  19. Ideology and community social psychology: theoretical considerations and practical implications.

    Montenegro, Marisela

    2002-08-01

    This paper addresses the importance of the concept of ideology in community work. The implications of a Marxist approach to ideology in community practice are analyzed in terms of the concepts of problematization (P. Freire, 1979) and consciousness-raising (J. Barreiro, 1976), illustrating the point with some examples. The traditional Marxist perspective is also examined in relation to the perspectives of social constructionism (I. Ibáñez, 1996), cultural studies (A. McRobbie, 1992), post-Marxism (E. Laclau & C. Mouffe, 1985), and feminism (D. Haraway, 1991). It is argued that the concepts of hegemony and habitus (P. Bourdieu, 1985) can be useful to community social psychology theory and practice. A "situated perspective"--in which it is possible to dialogue from different "subject positions," and articulate transformation and political action--is argued. The implications of this shifting in the concept of ideology by means of theoretical developments outside social communitypsychology can help to define the external (outside) agent's position in community practice.

  20. Impact of euthanasia rates, euthanasia practices, and human resource practices on employee turnover in animal shelters.

    Rogelberg, Steven G; Reeve, Charlie L; Spitzmüller, Christiane; DiGiacomo, Natalie; Clark, Olga L; Teeter, Lisa; Walker, Alan G; Starling, Paula G; Carter, Nathan T

    2007-03-01

    To examine the effects of euthanasia rates, euthanasia practices, and human resource practices on the turnover rate among employees with euthanasia responsibilities at animal shelters. Cross-sectional original study. 36 shelters across the United States that employed at least 5 full-time employees and performed euthanasia on site. By mail, 1 survey was sent to each shelter. Surveys were completed by a senior member of management and were returned by mail. Questions assessed characteristics (eg, euthanasia rates) and practices of the animal shelter, along with employee turnover rates. By use of correlation coefficients and stepwise regression analyses, key predictors of turnover rates among employees with euthanasia responsibilities were investigated. Employee turnover rates were positively related to euthanasia rate. Practices that were associated with decreased turnover rates included provision of a designated euthanasia room, exclusion of other live animals from vicinity during euthanasia, and removal of euthanized animals from a room prior to entry of another animal to be euthanized. Making decisions regarding euthanasia of animals on the basis of factors other than behavior and health reasons was related to increased personnel turnover. With regard to human resources practices, shelters that used a systematic personnel selection procedure (eg, standardized testing) had comparatively lower employee turnover. Data obtained may suggest several specific avenues that can be pursued to mitigate turnover among employees with euthanasia responsibilities at animal shelters and animal control or veterinary medical organizations.

  1. The importance and implication of genetic resources in agriculture

    Milošević Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance and preservation of biodiversity is going through the processes of conservation and restoration of disturbed ecosystems and habitats, as well as the preservation and recovery of species. Genetic diversity means the variety and total number of genes contained in plant and animal species and microorganisms. Genetic diversity is the basic unit of diversity, which is responsible for differences between individuals, populations and species. Genetic diversity is very important for the preservation of biodiversity and can be saved in several ways. Part of the germplasm is maintained through breeding programs as they evaluate germplasm stored and used as a source of needed diversity. The Convention on Biological Diversity is one of the most important international agreements to protect nature and conserve genetic resources. International treaties governing the use of genetic resources for food and agriculture are a way to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of plant resources for food and agriculture, and to regulate the rights of farmers.

  2. Implications of Lean Manufacturing for Human Resource Strategy.

    Forrester, Rosalind

    1995-01-01

    Lean production changes organizational style and structure, roles of team leaders and members, training needs, problem-solving approaches, labor relations, and pay practices. The profound cultural changes it causes may trigger defenses that cause it to fail. (SK)

  3. Developing Entrepreneurial Resilience: Implications for Human Resource Development

    Lee, Jin; Wang, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Leadership development has attracted much research attention within the human resource development (HRD) community. However, little scholarly effort has been made to study a special group of leaders--entrepreneurs. This paper aims to fill in this knowledge gap by taking a close look at entrepreneurial resilience, a key ability of…

  4. Global mega forces: Implications for the future of natural resources

    George H. Kubik

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of leading global mega forces and their importance to the future of natural resource decisionmaking, policy development, and operation. Global mega forces are defined as a combination of major trends, preferences, and probabilities that come together to produce the potential for future high-impact outcomes. These...

  5. The independent Baltic states: Maritime law and resource management implications

    Canfield, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The achievement of independence by the Baltic states impacts nearly all aspects of the maritime law and resource management regimes appertaining to the Baltic Sea. The unique position of these states, given their maritime history and role as a bridge between East and West, warrants reconsideration. The Baltic Sea basin is among the most highly industrialized shorelines in the world, accounting for approximately 15% of world industrial output, and is relatively dense in population. Large quantities of pollutants water its waters by way of industrial, agricultural, and municipal waste. A lack of adequate sewage treatment accounts for much of the waste. The Baltic is also especially sensitive to oil pollution as the relatively cold water inhibits bacteriological breakdown. Important issues of maritime border delimitation, treaty devolution, and the potential for reinstitution of exclusionary regimes reappeared with the attainment of independence. Further, the legacy of Soviet maritime environment and resource management has engendered fundamental political, social, and economic conflicts for which resources and effective management structures are lacking. The competing requirements of economic development, reintegration into Western markets, and management of critical marine resources highlights the need for comprehensive and regionally focused approaches to the problems identified

  6. Implications of Child Labour on Household Resource Management ...

    This study investigated the relevance of children in household resource management. Data were collected using interview schedule from 186 randomly selected respondents. Data were described while analysis of variance, correlation and regression analyses were used to establish differences and relationships of ...

  7. TEHORIES OF CONNECTIONS – PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS IN ACQUIRING MOTOR SKILLS

    Zoran Milošević

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Theories of learning which are classified in two broad schools as theories of connections and cognitive theories, differ among themselves according to specific interaction relationships between external stimulus (S, reaction and behavior and organism (R, i.e. particular learner (O. In relation to pedagogical practices, predominance of a certain school is not rare, often without any objective insight into their potentials related to age, sex, learning contents and other determinants. Well-known approaches within the theories of relations include classical Pavlov reflex, Guthry’s close conditioning, associating of Thorndyke, and Skinner’s efficient conditioning. Practical implications of these theories in acquiring motor skills are related to an active learner’s approach, significance of repetition – exercising, supporting, and rewarding correct answers, as well as strengthening a new behavior by imitation of a sample – modeling.

  8. Renewable energy resources and technologies practice in Bangladesh

    Rofiqul Islam, M.; Rafiqul Alam Beg, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi 6204 (Bangladesh); Rabiul Islam, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi 6204 (Bangladesh)

    2008-02-15

    Bangladesh has very limited nonrenewable energy resources of its own. She is facing energy crisis and serious desertification problem in rural areas. These issues could be removed if renewable energy is used as a primary source of energy in rural areas. It is essential for scientists and researchers to find out the renewable energy resources and effective technologies. Bangladesh is endowed with vast renewable energy resources such as biomass and solar insolation. Besides, hydro and wind power can be considered as potential renewable energy resources. Harnessing these resources appears to be a promising solution for improving the quality of life of rural villagers. The government and many non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have tried to comprehend and have strived to address the problem of energy. This paper reviews the renewable energy resources and renewable energy technologies (RETs) practicing in Bangladesh in terms of its implementation, research and development activities. The development and trial of systems are mostly funded so far by donor agencies in collaboration with government and NGOs. Biomass energy sources are traditionally used for domestic cooking and in small rural industries. Approximately 60% of total energy demand of the country is supplied by indigenous biomass based fuels. Activities on the development and promotion of biomass technologies have been going on for one decade. Some national and international funds have been available for biogas technology, improved biomass cookers and production of biomass briquettes. At the time, around 25,000 biogas plants exist all over the country in rural areas and educational institutes, etc. More than 0.20 million improve stoves have been installed to save biomass fuel. Over 900 briquetting machines have been operating in the country on commercial basis. The annual solar radiation availability in Bangladesh is as high as 1700 kWh/m{sup 2}. Research and demonstration activities carried out for one

  9. Evolutionary adaptations: theoretical and practical implications for visual ergonomics.

    Fostervold, Knut Inge; Watten, Reidulf G; Volden, Frode

    2014-01-01

    The literature discussing visual ergonomics often mention that human vision is adapted to light emitted by the sun. However, theoretical and practical implications of this viewpoint is seldom discussed or taken into account. The paper discusses some of the main theoretical implications of an evolutionary approach to visual ergonomics. Based on interactional theory and ideas from ecological psychology an evolutionary stress model is proposed as a theoretical framework for future research in ergonomics and human factors. The model stresses the importance of developing work environments that fits with our evolutionary adaptations. In accordance with evolutionary psychology, the environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA) and evolutionarily-novel environments (EN) are used as key concepts. Using work with visual display units (VDU) as an example, the paper discusses how this knowledge can be utilized in an ergonomic analysis of risk factors in the work environment. The paper emphasises the importance of incorporating evolutionary theory in the field of ergonomics. Further, the paper encourages scientific practices that further our understanding of any phenomena beyond the borders of traditional proximal explanations.

  10. Resource-based learning strategies: implications for students and institutions

    Malcolm Ryan

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In its strategic plan, the University of Greenwich envisages a significant shift to resource-based learning (RBL. Enterprise in Higher Education (EHE has funded five pilot RBL projects during the past year, including one in introductory economics. The project was managed by three lecturers in the School of Social Sciences, supported by an Academic Development Officer. Learning outcomes were completely revised, and a range of assessment strategies, including computer-based tests, was identified. A resources guide was produced which identified the materials and activities that would enable students to achieve the learning outcomes. A number of innovations were adopted, including: • computer-based curriculum delivery, assessment, and student evaluation of the course; • an open approach to assessment; • abolishing lectures in favour of a diverse range of teaching and learning activities.

  11. DEVELOPING ETHICAL BEHAVIOURS AT BPK THROUGH HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    Yusuf Setiawan Syukur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the 1945 Constitution, the Audit Board of the Republic of Indonesia (BPK has an important role in fostering good governance and combating corruption in Indonesia’s public sector through its audit works. To be successful, BPK must implement and enforce ethical behaviours within the organisation. There are laws and regulations (e.g., civil servants’ code of ethics and employee discipline and systems, policies, and practices set up by authorities at BPK (e.g., BPK’s code of ethics, whistle-blowing procedure, the Honourary Council of BPK’s Code of Ethics (MKKE, and ethics training that regulate and influence behaviours of employees and members of the board. When reviewing literature, this paper attempts to understand the antecedents of ethical/unethical behaviours in organisations and look for best practices (including human resource management practices in developing ethical behaviours in organisations. It turns out that the ethical frameworks within BPK have a strong theoretical support. Despite the strong theoretical support from the literature, this study attempts to identify gaps between the best practices and ethical frameworks within BPK. In response to the gaps, this study attempts to offer recommendations so as to close the gaps and improve the ethical frameworks within BPK. In the end, this study produces seventeen recommendations. KEYWORDS code of ethics, ethical behaviours, human resource management, ethics audit, and ethical climate survey. ABSTRAK Berdasarkan Undang-undang Dasar 1945, Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan Republik Indonesia (BPK mempunyai peran penting dalam meningkatkan tata kelola pemerintahan yang baik dan memberantas korupsi di sektor publik di Indonesia melalui kegiatan pemeriksaannya. Agar sukses dalam mencapai tujuan tersebut, BPK harus menerapkan dan menegakkan perilaku etis di dalam organisasi. Ada undang-undang dan peraturan peraturan (contoh: kode etik Pegawai Negeri Sipil (PNS dan peraturan disiplin

  12. Finding Practical Approaches to Integrated Water Resources Management

    John Butterworth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM has often been interpreted and implemented in a way that is only really suited to countries with the most developed water infrastructures and management capacities. While sympathetic to many of the criticisms levelled at the IWRM concept and recognising the often disappointing levels of adoption, this paper and the series of papers it introduces identify some alternative ways forward in a developmental context that place more emphasis on the practical in-finding solutions to water scarcity. A range of lighter, more pragmatic and context-adapted approaches, strategies and entry points are illustrated with examples from projects and initiatives in mainly 'developing' countries. The authors argue that a more service-orientated (WASH, irrigation and ecosystem services, locally rooted and balanced approach to IWRM that better matches contexts and capacities should build on such strategies, in addition to the necessary but long-term policy reforms and river basin institution-building at higher levels. Examples in this set of papers not only show that the 'lighter', more opportunistic and incremental approach has potential as well as limitations but also await wider piloting and adoption.

  13. ISLAMIC HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICES AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE: A PRELIMINARY FINDING OF ISLAMIC ORGANIZATIONS IN MALAYSIA

    Ilhaamie Abdul Ghani Azmi

    2010-01-01

    At the moment, there are lots of studies on conventional human resource practices. However, there are quite a few studies done on Islamic human resource practices. Using simple random sampling technique, final copies of questionnaires were sent to 300 Islamic organizations. However, only 114 questionnaires were returned and 111 were usable. These Islamic organizations implement Islamic human resource practices due to Islam; the religion is the way of life, type of their organizations and orga...

  14. The Improvement of Human Resources Management through the Development of Best Practices

    Anohi Ionut; Bujduveanu Aurica; ?tefãnicã Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Human resources management practice has been subject of numerous studies. Specialists have brought into discussion the concept of human resources management best practice. The issues related with this concept have generated intense debates among specialists. This paper aims to present the theoretical background of the concept and the influence that could exercise upon the level of development for human resources management practice. A clearer image on this issue could be achieved by discussin...

  15. High School Teachers' Openness to Adopting New Practices: The Role of Personal Resources and Organizational Climate.

    Johnson, Stacy R; Pas, Elise T; Loh, Deanna; Debnam, Katrina J; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2017-03-01

    Although evidence-based practices for students' social, emotional, and behavioral health are readily available, their adoption and quality implementation in schools are of increasing concern. Teachers are vital to implementation; yet, there is limited research on teachers' openness to adopting new practices, which may be essential to successful program adoption and implementation. The current study explored how perceptions of principal support, teacher affiliation, teacher efficacy, and burnout relate to teachers' openness to new practices. Data came from 2,133 teachers across 51 high schools. Structural equation modeling assessed how organizational climate (i.e., principal support and teacher affiliation) related to teachers' openness directly and indirectly via teacher resources (i.e., efficacy and burnout). Teachers with more favorable perceptions of both principal support and teacher affiliation reported greater efficacy, and, in turn, more openness; however, burnout was not significantly associated with openness. Post hoc analyses indicated that among teachers with high levels of burnout, only principal support related to greater efficacy, and in turn, higher openness. Implications for promoting teachers' openness to new program adoption are discussed.

  16. The link between perceived human resource management practices, engagement and employee behaviour : A moderated mediation model

    Alfes, K.; Shantz, A.D.; Truss, C.; Soane, E.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study contributes to our understanding of the mediating and moderating processes through which human resource management (HRM) practices are linked with behavioural outcomes. We developed and tested a moderated mediation model linking perceived HRM practices to organisational citizenship

  17. Project Galaxy - Sustianable Resource Supply and Environmental Implications

    Downing, Mark [ORNL; Wimmer, Robert [Toyota Motor Corp.

    2012-03-01

    Understanding what it takes to move from a corn-based liquid fuels industry to one that is cellulosic-based requires a complex transition over time. This transition implies, among other things, a shift from annual cropping systems considered under United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) policy as commodity crops, to perennial lignocellulosic crops that are herbaceous and wood-based. Because of changes in land use as well as biomass and other crop supplies, land-based environmental amenities such as water quality, soil health and tilth, air quality, and animal and avian species populations and their diversity change also. Environmental effects are measured as magnitudes (how much they are impacted), and direction of the impact (either positive or negative). By developing a series of quantitative and qualitative metrics, the larger issue of defining relative sustainability may be addressed, and this can be done at a finer detail of regional (scale) and environmental amenity-specific impacts. Although much literature exists about research relevant to specific environmental variables, there is no published, documented, nor research literature on direct application of environmental over-compliance with regards a 'biorefinery.' Our three goals were to (1) understand and quantify bioenergy sustainability and some key environmental effects in a generic set of examples; (2) explain the effort and means to define and quantify specific qualitative environmental measures, and to determine a way to understand changes in these measures over time and what their implications might be; and (3) use these outcomes to evaluate potential sites in any geographic area. This would permit assessment of candidate locations, combined with an understanding of co-production of fuels, chemicals, and electric power, to interpret sustainability measures and the relationship between environmental sustainability and economic sustainability. The process of determining environmental

  18. TEHORIES OF CONNECTIONS – PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS IN ACQUIRING MOTOR SKILLS

    Zoran Milošević

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Theories of learning which are classified in two broad schools as theories of connections and cognitive theories, differ among themselves according to specific interaction relationships between external stimulus (S, reaction and behavior and organism (R, i.e. particular learner (O. In relation to pedagogical practices, predominance of a certain school is not rare, often without any objective insight into their potentials related to age, sex, learning contents and other determinants. Supporters of the theories of connections treat behavior as a result of relations or associations, whereas learning occurs when these relations are strengthened by repetition or when new relations are formed. These theories are usually classified as theories of stimulus-reaction (S-R, whereas associating in this sense is used to stress the concept most theories usually agree upon: that learning consists of relations and link between stimuli (S-S, between stimuli and reactions (S-R, or between reaction and impulse (R-P. Well-known approaches within the theories of relations include classical Pavlov reflex, Guthry’s close conditioning, associating of Thorndyke, and Skinner’s efficient conditioning. Practical implications of these theories in acquiring motor skills are related to an active learner’s approach, significance of repetition – exercising, supporting, and rewarding correct answers, as well as strengthening a new behavior by imitation of a sample – modeling.

  19. Theory Development and Convergence of Human Resource Fields: Implications for Human Performance Technology

    Cho, Yonjoo; Yoon, Seung Won

    2010-01-01

    This study examines major theory developments in human resource (HR) fields and discusses implications for human performance technology (HPT). Differentiated HR fields are converging to improve organizational performance through knowledge-based innovations. Ruona and Gibson (2004) made a similar observation and analyzed the historical evolution…

  20. Resource utilization implications of treatment were able to be assessed from appropriately reported clinical trial data

    Poole-Wilson, Philip A.; Kirwan, Bridget-Anne; Voko, Zoltan; de Brouwer, Sophie; Dunselman, Peter H. J. M.; van Dalen, Frederik J.; Lubsen, Jacobus

    Background and Objective: Published clinical trial data rarely allow assessment of the health care resource utilization implications of treatment. We give an example of how these can be assessed given appropriate tabulation of data. Methods: Data from a trial comparing long-acting nifedipine

  1. Innovative human resource practices in U.S. hospitals: an empirical study.

    Platonova, Elena A; Hernandez, S Robert

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary organizations increasingly recognize human resource (HR) capabilities as a source of sustained competitive advantage; about 80% of an organization's value is attributable to intangible assets, including human assets and capital. Some scholars consider effective human resource management (HRM) the single most important factor affecting organizational performance. This study examined (1) the extent to which HRM strategies were included in organizational strategic planning and (2) the association between the involvement of senior HR professionals in strategic planning and the use of innovative HR practices in U.S. hospitals employing strategic HRM theory. A survey was administered to 168 chief executive officers and HR executives from 85 hospitals during spring 2005. Binary logistic regression was conducted to determine whether HRM involvement was associated with the use of innovative HRM strategies in the hospitals. We found significant associations between HRM strategy inclusion in the strategic planning process and senior HR professionals' involvement in organizational strategic planning and in three innovative HR activities: finding talent in advance for key job openings (odds ratio [OR] = 4.61, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-7.38), stressing organizational culture and values in the selection process (OR = 3.97, 95% CI: 1.01-3.97), and basing individual or team compensation on goal-oriented results (OR = 6.17, 95% CI: 1.17-3.37). Our data indicate that innovative HR practices were underused in some U.S. hospitals despite their potential to improve overall hospital performance. Hospitals that emphasized effective HRM were more likely to use some of the innovative HR approaches. In this article, we discuss this research and the practical implications of the findings.

  2. Human resource management practices in public and private ...

    The results, among others, showed that private schools generally better managed their human resources than the public ones. Hence, it was recommended that there should be standard guidelines for operators of schools while human resource managers in the school system should be groomed in managerial psychology.

  3. Relationship between perceived organizational politics, organizational trust, human resource management practices and turnover intention among Nigerian nurses

    Ramatu Abdulkareem Abubakar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has indicated that employee turnover is detrimental to both individuals and organisations. Because a turnover intention in the workplace is detrimental, several factors have been suggested to better understand the reasons why employees may decide to leave their organisations. Some of the organizational-related factors that have been considered by previous research include perceived organizational justice, job satisfaction, perceived psychological contract breach, and perceived organizational support, among others. Despite these empirical studies, literatures indicate that less attention has been paid to the influence of perceived organisational politics, organizational trust, and perceived human resource practices management (HRM practices on employee turnover. Hence, the present study fills in the gap by examining the relationship between perceived organisational politics, organizational trust, perceived human resource management practices and employee turnover among Registered Nurses in Nigerian public hospitals using multiple regression analysis technique. One hundred and seventy five Registered Nurses participated in the study. Result indicated that perceived organisational politics was significantly and positively related to turnover intentions. The result also showed that both organizational trust and perceived human resource practices were significantly and negatively related to turnover intentions. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.

  4. Infection control practice in countries with limited resources

    Alp Emine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nosocomial infections and their control are a world-wide challenge. The prevalence of nosocomial infections is generally higher in developing countries with limited resources than industrialized countries. In this paper we aimed to further explain the differences with regard to infection control challenges between Turkey, a country with "limited" resources, and the Netherlands, a country with "reasonable" resources. Infrastructure of hospitals, low compliance of hand hygiene, understaffing, overcrowding, heavy workload, misuse of personal protective equipments, late establishment of infection control programme are major problems in limited-resources countries. These problems cause high infection rates and spread of multi-drug resistant pathogens. To improve the control and prevention of infections in countries with limited resources, a multi-facet approach is needed.

  5. Assessment of human resources management practices in Lebanese hospitals.

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Tchaghchagian, Victoria; Jamal, Diana

    2010-01-01

    Sound human resources (HR) management practices are essential for retaining effective professionals in hospitals. Given the recruitment and retention reality of health workers in the twenty-first century, the role of HR managers in hospitals and those who combine the role of HR managers with other responsibilities should not be underestimated. The objective of this study is to assess the perception of HR managers about the challenges they face and the current strategies being adopted. The study also aims at assessing enabling factors including role, education, experience and HR training. A cross-sectional survey design of HR managers (and those who combine their role as HR manager with other duties) in Lebanese hospitals was utilized. The survey included a combination of open- and close-ended questions. Questions included educational background, work experience, and demographics, in addition to questions about perceived challenges and key strategies being used. Quantitative data analysis included uni-variate analysis, whereas thematic analysis was used for open-ended questions. A total of 96 respondents from 61 hospitals responded. Respondents had varying levels of expertise in the realm of HR management. Thematic analysis revealed that challenges varied across respondents and participating hospitals. The most frequently reported challenge was poor employee retention (56.7%), lack of qualified personnel (35.1%), and lack of a system for performance evaluation (28.9%). Some of the strategies used to mitigate the above challenges included offering continuing education and training for employees (19.6%), improving salaries (14.4%), and developing retention strategies (10.3%). Mismatch between reported challenges and strategies were observed. To enable hospitals to deliver good quality, safe healthcare, improving HR management is critical. There is a need for a cadre of competent HR managers who can fully assume these responsibilities and who can continuously improve

  6. Assessment of human resources management practices in Lebanese hospitals

    Jamal Diana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sound human resources (HR management practices are essential for retaining effective professionals in hospitals. Given the recruitment and retention reality of health workers in the twenty-first century, the role of HR managers in hospitals and those who combine the role of HR managers with other responsibilities should not be underestimated. The objective of this study is to assess the perception of HR managers about the challenges they face and the current strategies being adopted. The study also aims at assessing enabling factors including role, education, experience and HR training. Methods A cross-sectional survey design of HR managers (and those who combine their role as HR manager with other duties in Lebanese hospitals was utilized. The survey included a combination of open- and close-ended questions. Questions included educational background, work experience, and demographics, in addition to questions about perceived challenges and key strategies being used. Quantitative data analysis included uni-variate analysis, whereas thematic analysis was used for open-ended questions. Results A total of 96 respondents from 61 hospitals responded. Respondents had varying levels of expertise in the realm of HR management. Thematic analysis revealed that challenges varied across respondents and participating hospitals. The most frequently reported challenge was poor employee retention (56.7%, lack of qualified personnel (35.1%, and lack of a system for performance evaluation (28.9%. Some of the strategies used to mitigate the above challenges included offering continuing education and training for employees (19.6%, improving salaries (14.4%, and developing retention strategies (10.3%. Mismatch between reported challenges and strategies were observed. Conclusion To enable hospitals to deliver good quality, safe healthcare, improving HR management is critical. There is a need for a cadre of competent HR managers who can fully

  7. The impact of union elections on human resources management practices in hospitals.

    Deshpande, Satish P

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore top management's perceptions of how various human resources management (HRM) practices changed in hospitals (n = 101) after union elections. Significant increases in many HRM practices that are believed to lead to competitive advantage through human resources were reported in firms in which unions lost elections but not in firms where unions were certified.

  8. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  9. Creation and Long-term Preservation of Digital Multimedia Resources:Some Preliminary Practices

    ZHAO BAOYING; LUO YUNCHUAN

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives a comprehensive introduction of National Cultural Information Resources Sharing Project.It discusses the best practices in creation and long-term preservation of multimedia digital resources,and recommends solutions to the key issues in resource selection,standards & specifications and copyright.

  10. Open access part II: the structure, resources, and implications for nurses.

    Nick, Jan

    2011-11-23

    Electronic publishing has changed the landscape for broadcasting scholarly information. Now Open Access is globalizing scholarly work. Open Access facilitates lifelong learning habits; enhances dissemination and distribution of information; impacts the informatics curriculum; supports active learning; and provides areas for nursing informatics research. In the last 10 years the Open Access Movement has formalized into a distinct publishing paradigm. Many free, full-text resources are now available to guide nursing practice. This article describes the Open Access structure, and provides suggestions for using Open Access resources in classroom and practice settings. The nursing community is only beginning to accept and use Open Access. Yet all nurses should be aware of the unique opportunity to obtain free, current, and scholarly information through a variety of avenues and also to incorporate this information into their daily practice. The resources presented in this article can be used to increase nursing knowledge and support evidence-based practice.

  11. Implications of current resident work-hour guidelines on the future practice of surgery in Canada.

    Maruscak, Adam A; VanderBeek, Laura; Ott, Michael C; Kelly, Stephen; Forbes, Thomas L

    2012-01-01

    Work-hour restrictions have had a profound impact on surgical training. However, little is known of how work-hour restrictions may affect the future practice patterns of current surgical residents. The purpose of this study is to compare the anticipated career practice patterns of surgical residents who are training within an environment of work-hour restrictions with the current practice of faculty surgeons. An electronic survey was sent to all surgery residents and faculty at 2 Canadian university-affiliated medical centers. The survey consisted of questions regarding expected (residents) or current (faculty) practice patterns. A total of 149 residents and 125 faculty members completed the survey (50.3% and 52.3% response rates, respectively). A greater proportion of males were in the faculty cohort than in the resident group (77.6% vs 62.4%, p = 0.0003). More faculty than residents believed that work-hour restrictions have a negative impact on both residency education (40.8% vs 20.8%, p = 0.008) and preparation for a surgical career (56.8% vs 19.5%, p implications and might require larger surgical groups and reconsideration of resource allocation. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Collaborative Learning in Practice: Examples from Natural Resource ...

    2010-12-01

    Dec 1, 2010 ... Case studies show how, through joint efforts with researchers and other actors, local ... address and learn from challenges in managing natural resources. ... health, and health systems research relevant to the emerging crisis.

  13. Practicing natural resource management with a policy orientation

    Clark, Tim W.

    1992-07-01

    All natural resource managers want to contribute to successful conservation programs. Having and applying an explicit policy orientation is indispensable. The policy sciences are described and a case is made that, if natural resource managers utilize this set of conceptual and applied tools in their natural resource work, their effectiveness could be enhanced. The policy sciences offer a contextual, problem-oriented, and multimethod approach to meeting complex problems. Two kinds of knowledge are needed to solve problems—substantive knowledge about the resource and process knowledge about the decision and policy processes used to derive courses of management action. The interplay of science, analysis, and politics are examined. The wildlife management community is used to illustrate many points, including the important role implementation plays in the overall policy process.

  14. Cervical cancer screening and practice in low resource countries ...

    Key words: Cervical cancer screening; human papillomavirus, low resource countries; Nigeria; premalignant disease. ... has led to a significant decline in the incidence of cervical .... and malignant lesions as integration of the viral DNA into the.

  15. Compilation Of An Econometric Human Resource Efficiency Model For Project Management Best Practices

    G. van Zyl; P. Venier

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to introduce a human resource efficiency model in order to rank the most important human resource driving forces for project management best practices. The results of the model will demonstrate how the human resource component of project management acts as the primary function to enhance organizational performance, codified through improved logical end-state programmes, work ethics and process contributions. Given the hypothesis that project management best practices i...

  16. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT BEST PRACTICES AND FIRM PERFORMANCE: A UNIVERSALISTIC PERSPECTIVE APPROACH

    Loo-See Beh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The universalistic perspective of human resource management practices perceives that a set of practices can achieve competitive advantage and firm performance. This study sought to investigate the relationship between best human resource practices and firm performance. A descriptive survey research design was used to gather primary data using self-administered questionnaire. The study population (n=312 was comprised of non-executives, executives, managers, and top management from seven major insurance firms at headquarters in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. The study found that performance appraisal, internal communication, SHRM alignment in the organization, and career planning were the human resource management best practices.

  17. Empowerment and Social Support: Implications for Practice and Programming among Minority Women with Substance Abuse and Criminal Justice Histories

    Barringer, Alexandra; Hunter, Bronwyn A.; Salina, Doreen; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Programs for women with substance abuse and criminal justice histories often incorporate empowerment and social support into service delivery systems. Women’s empowerment research has focused on the relationship between women’s personal identities and the larger sociopolitical context, with an emphasis on how community based resources are critical for promoting well-being. Social support often protects against negative outcomes for individuals who live with chronic stress. However, few studies have evaluated community resource knowledge and empowerment among marginalized women or how social support might strengthen or weaken this relationship. This study investigated resource knowledge, social support and empowerment among 200 minority women in substance abuse recovery who had recent criminal justice involvement. Results indicated that resource knowledge was related to empowerment and belonging social support marginally moderated this relationship. In addition, education level increased and current involvement in the criminal justice system decreased empowerment. Implications for research, practice and policy are discussed. PMID:27084362

  18. Practical adaptation to climate change in regional natural resources management

    Kiem, Anthony S.; Clifton, Craig; Jordan, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Recent climatic conditions (i.e. drier than average conditions for the last 10 years or more) have placed many water resource systems in south-eastern Australia near critical thresholds. Management systems are, or soon will be, at the limits of their adaptive capacity. While it is possible this situation largely reflects vulnerability to natural climatic variability, impacts of anthropogenic climate change may further expose the vulnerability of these systems. Water management in Australia has traditionally been carried out on the assumption that the historical record of rainfall, evaporation, streamflow and recharge is representative of current and future climatic conditions. In many circumstances, this does not adequately address the potential risks to supply security for towns, industry, irrigators and the environment. This is because the Australian climate varies markedly due to natural cycles that operate over periods of several years to several decades, and is also being increasingly affected by anthropogenic influences. Both factors will continue to influence Australia's climate, even if immediate action is taken to curtail greenhouse gas emissions. Long-term resource planning by water authorities must account for both climate variation and climate change to avoid over-allocation of water resources and to ensure economic activity based on utilisation of water resources is not unnecessarily restricted. Awareness of the vulnerability of water resources to anthropogenic climate change and uncertainty about the nature of those changes has lead to a reappraisal of which climate sequence(s) should be used in water resource planning

  19. The impact of human resource practices on psychological empowerment

    Fatemeh Moradi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, human capital is considered a key factor of achieving the competitive advantage in different industries. The present study, as an applied and descriptive research, aims at providing formulation and evaluation of human resource development of an Iranian Petrochemical Company (APC. The human resource experts and managers of APC together with university professors of human capital and familiar with local conditions of Khuzestan province, Iran, made up the statistical population of this research. In this connection, first the internal factors (including advantages and disadvantages were identified using human resource excellence indicators. Then, the opportunities and threats of human resource system were found via PESTEL approach. In the next step, the primary strategies were formulated using the strength, weakness, opportunities and threats (SWOT Matrix. The next phases of the study were included evaluation and ranking of human resource development strategies based on analytical network process (ANP multi-criteria decision making method and grey systems theory. According to results of the research, defensive strategies (WT are suggested as the best and most appropriate strategies in human resource area. In other words, the internal and external factors of APC are problematic. Accordingly, APC is expected to adopt WT strategy, minimize the weaknesses, and avoid threats. Subsequent to the above policy, the strategies of WO, ST, and SO are advised to employ.

  20. Contracting for safety with patients: clinical practice and forensic implications.

    Garvey, Keelin A; Penn, Joseph V; Campbell, Angela L; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Spirito, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The contract for safety is a procedure used in the management of suicidal patients and has significant patient care, risk management, and medicolegal implications. We conducted a literature review to assess empirical support for this procedure and reviewed legal cases in which this practice was employed, to examine its effect on outcome. Studies obtained from a PubMed search were reviewed and consisted mainly of opinion-based surveys of clinicians and patients and retrospective reviews. Overall, empirically based evidence to support the use of the contract for safety in any population is very limited, particularly in adolescent populations. A legal review revealed that contracting for safety is never enough to protect against legal liability and may lead to adverse consequences for the clinician and the patient. Contracts should be considered for use only in patients who are deemed capable of giving informed consent and, even in these circumstances, should be used with caution. A contract should never replace a thorough assessment of a patient's suicide risk factors. Further empirical research is needed to determine whether contracting for safety merits consideration as a future component of the suicide risk assessment.

  1. Interactions In Online Education Implications For Theory & Practice

    Askim KURT

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This book was edited by, Charles Juwah, Senior EducationDevelopment Officer at Robert Gordon University, where heruns the postgraduate learning and teaching qualificationcourse. It was published by Routledge in 2006.Interaction is very important in open and flexible learning,and apparent at all levels of engagement, whether betweenstudents, students and tutors, online learning materials orinterfacing with the learning environment. A student whoactively engages with learning materials, interactions helpto improve learning by fortifying knowledge and providingcontext, encouraging reflection, questioning and deeplyunderstanding of a subject.This book provides international perspectives on key topics including analyzing and designing e-learning interactions, social and conceptual dimensions of learning, interactions in online discussions, interactions in pair learning, and professional development of online facilitators. In this book a collection of research and innovative case material drawn from practitioners and academicians and it covers the theory and the practical implications of related issues. It is essential reading for all those involved in the design,implementation, management and use of open and flexible learning.

  2. Cognitive load theory: Practical implications and an important challenge

    Jimmie Leppink, Ph.D.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The field of medical education has adopted a wide variety of theories from other fields. A fairly recent example is cognitive load theory, which originated in educational psychology. Several empirical studies inspired by cognitive load theory and reviews of practical implications of cognitive load theory have contributed to guidelines for the design of medical education. Simultaneously, several research groups have developed instruments for the measurement of cognitive load in a medical education context. These developments notwithstanding, obtaining evidence for different types of cognitive load remains an important challenge. Therefore, the aim of this article is twofold: to provide medical educators with three key guidelines for the design of instruction and assessment and to discuss several fundamental issues in the remaining challenges presented by different types of cognitive load. The guidelines revolve around minimizing cognitive activity that does not contribute to learning, working with specific learning goals in mind, and appreciating the multifaceted relation between learning and assessment. Key issues around the types of cognitive load include the context in which learning occurs, the continued use of single-item mental effort ratings, and the timing of cognitive load and learning outcome measurements.

  3. Practical implications of pre-employment nurse assessments.

    Kuthy, James E; Ramon, Cheree; Gonzalez, Ronald; Biddle, Dan A

    2013-01-01

    Hiring nurses is a difficult task that can have serious repercussions for medical facilities. If nurses without proper skills are hired, patients can suffer from insufficient quality of care and potentially life-threatening conditions. Nurse applicants' technical knowledge is extremely important to avoid negative outcomes; however, there are soft skills that factor into their success, such as bedside manner, personality, communication, and decision making. In order for medical facilities to select and maintain high-performing nurse staff, hiring managers must incorporate evaluations for these types of skills in their hiring process. The current study focused on using content/criterion-related validation design to create assessments by which nurse applicants can be evaluated for both technical knowledge/skills and soft skills. The study included participation of more than 876 nursing staff members. To rank applicants on divergent skills, 3 assessment types were investigated, resulting in the creation of an assessment with 3 components. The clinical, situational, and behavioral components that were created measure applicants' job knowledge, interpersonal competency in medical facility-related situations, and aspects of personality and behavior, respectively. Results indicate that using the assessment can predict 45% of a nurse applicant's future job performance. Practical implications include hiring and maintaining a higher quality of nurses and decreased hiring costs.

  4. Positive engagement and job resources in dental practice.

    Gorter, Ronald C; Te Brake, Hans J H M; Hoogstraten, Johan; Eijkman, Michiel A J

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the level of engagement among dentists, and subsequently, to investigate which dental job resources are positively correlated with engagement. By stratifying on gender, age, and region, a representative sample of 848 general dental practitioners was drawn at random, plus an extra group of 95 female dentists for gender comparison purposes. Engagement was assessed using the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), consisting of three subscales: Vigor, Dedication; and Absorption. Job resources were measured using the Dentists' Experienced Job Resources Scale (DEJRS). Six hundred and thirty two dentists (67%) responded, 76% male and 25% female. Mean age: 44.6 years (SD = 9.0). Engagement: Dedication and Absorption mean scores were higher among dentists when compared with manual norm scores, based upon a variety of professions, whereas Vigor mean scores were comparable to manual norm scores. Job resources:'Immediate results / Aesthetics' and '(Long term) Patient results' showed highest mean scores among all dentists. Gender differences were found on '(Long term) Patient results' and 'Patient care'. Engagement and job resources: All DEJRS subscales and the full scale showed statistically significant positive correlations (pmcc) with the UWES subscales. Dentists showed relatively high mean scores on an engagement measure when compared with manual norm scores. No gender differences in mean scores were found. Job resources most valued were 'Immediate results / Aesthetics'. The job resources, 'Idealism/Pride' and 'Patient care', showed most predictive value with regard to engagement among dentists. In order to prevent burnout, it is recommended to raise dentists' awareness of the importance to create sufficient time and space for stimulating aspects in their work.

  5. Environmental scan and evaluation of best practices for online systematic review resources

    Robin M. N. Parker

    2018-04-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed that resources include appropriate content but are less likely to adhere to principles of online training design and interactivity. Awareness of these resources will allow librarians to make informed recommendations for training based on patrons’ needs. Future online systematic review training resources should use established best practices for e-learning to provide high-quality resources, regardless of format or user time commitment.

  6. Food beliefs and practices in urban poor communities in Accra: implications for health interventions.

    Boatemaa, Sandra; Badasu, Delali Margaret; de-Graft Aikins, Ama

    2018-04-02

    Poor communities in low and middle income countries are reported to experience a higher burden of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and nutrition-related NCDs. Interventions that build on lay perspectives of risk are recommended. The objective of this study was to examine lay understanding of healthy and unhealthy food practices, factors that influence food choices and the implications for developing population health interventions in three urban poor communities in Accra, Ghana. Thirty lay adults were recruited and interviewed in two poor urban communities in Accra. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed thematically. The analysis was guided by the socio-ecological model which focuses on the intrapersonal, interpersonal, community, structural and policy levels of social organisation. Food was perceived as an edible natural resource, and healthy in its raw state. A food item retained its natural, healthy properties or became unhealthy depending on how it was prepared (e.g. frying vs boiling) and consumed (e.g. early or late in the day). These food beliefs reflected broader social food norms in the community and incorporated ideas aligned with standard expert dietary guidelines. Healthy cooking was perceived as the ability to select good ingredients, use appropriate cooking methods, and maintain food hygiene. Healthy eating was defined in three ways: 1) eating the right meals; 2) eating the right quantity; and 3) eating at the right time. Factors that influenced food choice included finances, physical and psychological state, significant others and community resources. The findings suggest that beliefs about healthy and unhealthy food practices are rooted in multi-level factors, including individual experience, family dynamics and community factors. The factors influencing food choices are also multilevel. The implications of the findings for the design and content of dietary and health interventions are discussed.

  7. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  8. Home-based telecommuting and quality of life: further evidence on an employee-oriented human resource practice.

    Hornung, Severin; Glaser, Jürgen

    2009-04-01

    Building on previous research, further evidence for the potential of home-based telecommuting as an employee-oriented human resource practice is provided from a study in the German public administration. Survey data from 1,008 public employees were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Mean age of the sample was 43.6 yr. (SD = 8.8 yr.), and 27.5% (277) of the participants were women. Analysis supported the roles of higher Autonomy and lower Work-Family Conflict as psychological mediators between Telecommunication Intensity and both Job Satisfaction and Quality of Life. Implications for the design of flexible working arrangements are discussed.

  9. Clarifying the Effects of Human Resource Diversity Management Practices on Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Mediating Role of Diversity Receptiveness

    Ahmad Nizan Mat Noor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to scrutinize the impact of employees’ perceptions of their organization’s human resource diversity management (HRDM practices on their organizational citizenship behavior (OCB level. The influence of diversity receptiveness as a mediator in the proposed relationship is also examined. Survey data were gathered from operational employees attached to large hotel in Malaysia. 430 usable questionnaires were used in statistical analyses. The results indicated that the hypothesized linkage between HRDM practices and diversity receptiveness as well as between HRDM practices and OCB were partially supported. The mediating role of diversity receptiveness in the relationship was also partially supported. Implications and limitations of the findings are specified. Finally, directions for future research are suggested.

  10. Dynamical implications of bi-directional resource exchange within a meta-ecosystem.

    Rodriguez, Marisabel Rodriguez; Kopp, Darin; Allen, Daniel; Kang, Yun

    2018-05-05

    The exchange of resources across ecosystem boundaries can have large impacts on ecosystem structures and functions at local and regional scales. In this article, we develop a simple model to investigate dynamical implications of bi-directional resource exchanges between two local ecosystems in a meta-ecosystem framework. In our model, we assume that (1) Each local ecosystem acts as both a resource donor and recipient, such that one ecosystem donating resources to another results in a cost to the donating system and a benefit to the recipient; and (2) The costs and benefits of the bi-directional resource exchange between two ecosystems are correlated in a nonlinear fashion. Our model could apply to the resource interactions between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems that are supported by the literature. Our theoretical results show that bi-directional resource exchange between two ecosystems can indeed generate complicated dynamical outcomes, including the coupled ecosystems having amensalistic, antagonistic, competitive, or mutualistic interactions, with multiple alternative stable states depending on the relative costs and benefits. In addition, if the relative cost for resource exchange for an ecosystem is decreased or the relative benefit for resource exchange for an ecosystem is increased, the production of that ecosystem would increase; however, depending on the local environment, the production of the other ecosystem may increase or decrease. We expect that our work, by evaluating the potential outcomes of resource exchange theoretically, can facilitate empirical evaluations and advance the understanding of spatial ecosystem ecology where resource exchanges occur in varied ecosystems through a complicated network. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Best Practices in Human Resource Management: The Source of Excellent Performance and Sustained Competitiveness

    Martin Šikýř

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on summarizing the results of the global research on human resource management and the author’s dissertation research on best practices in human resource management, the paper attempts to explain the essence of the positive relationship between best practices in human resource management and organizational performance and competitiveness. It supports the assumption that the essence is the optimal system of human resource management, based on proven best practices in job design, employee selection, performance management, employee compensation or employee training, that enables managers to achieve expected organizational performance and competitiveness by achieving desired employee abilities, motivation and performance. The author's dissertation research verified the theoretical assumptions about application of best practices in human resources management and through a questionnaire survey examined the views of executives and HR managers from Czech TOP 100 companies or the best employers in the Czech Republic.

  12. Local government and best practices in land resource management

    Basili, M.; Bertini, I.; Citterio, M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the efforts of public administration in the correct environmental management of territorial systems. A data base and census on best practices over territory is desirable [it

  13. Human Resource Development Scholar-Practitioners: Connecting the Broken Divide of Research and Practice

    Banks, Claretha H.; Wang, Jia; Zheng, Wei; McLean, Laird

    2007-01-01

    The challenge of combining research and practice in HRD [Human Resource Development] led to continuing debate concerning who are scholar-practitioners and how they combine research and practice in the workplace. A study of seven scholar-practitioners provides some answers for HRD scholar-practitioners on connecting research and practice. The…

  14. Professional Learning in Human Resource Management: Problematising the Teaching of Reflective Practice

    Griggs, V.; Holden, R.; Rae, J.; Lawless, A.

    2015-01-01

    Reflection and reflective practice are much discussed aspects of professional education. This paper conveys our efforts to problematise teaching reflective practice in human resources (HR) education. The research, on which the paper is based, engages with stakeholders involved in the professional learning and education of reflective practice in…

  15. Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Clusters in Latin America Natural ResourceImplication and Future Challenges

    Tomás Bas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural resources play a very important role in the economy of the Latin America countries, but follow the classical models of resource exploitation and scale do not add much more value to the products or services like other knowledge-based industries (biotechnology or IT. The cluster approach assembled around the pattern of innovation and entrepreneurship characteristics can help to improve these kinds of industries. Nevertheless, the “Natural Resource Clusters” have a particular task and they are based primary in environmental characteristics. However, this type of clusters is very different from “Technology Clusters” with a high innovation and entrepreneurship structure that needs explicitly more intellectual capacities and non-specific environmental characteristics. The authors suggest that in Latin America, clusters, innovation and entrepreneurship based in the natural resources has a supplementary significance, but they need add much value based in the knowledge. This article discuss the challenge of Latin American economies and the implication to transform the natural resources based industries in others with more innovation and knowledge based assets and shows a framework based on Chile’s particular experiences on salmon; wine and mining industries. Economics implications and future research are discussed.

  16. Positive engagement and job resources in dental practice

    Gorter, R.C.; te Brake, J.H.M.; Hoogstraten, J.; Eijkman, M.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the level of engagement among dentists, and subsequently, to investigate which dental job resources are positively correlated with engagement. Methods: By stratifying on gender, age, and region, a representative sample of 848 general dental

  17. Infection control practice in countries with limited resources.

    Alp, E.; Leblebicioglu, H.; Doganay, M.; Voss, A.

    2011-01-01

    Nosocomial infections and their control are a world-wide challenge. The prevalence of nosocomial infections is generally higher in developing countries with limited resources than industrialized countries. In this paper we aimed to further explain the differences with regard to infection control

  18. Semantic web implications for technologies and business practices

    2016-01-01

    This book examines recent developments in semantic systems that can respond to situations and environments and events. The contributors to this book cover how to design, implement, and utilize disruptive technologies from the semantic and Web 3.0 arena. The editor and the contributors discuss two fundamental sets of disruptive technologies: the development of semantic technologies including description logics, ontologies, and agent frameworks; and the development of semantic information rendering including graphical forms of displays of high-density time-sensitive data to improve situational awareness. Beyond practical illustrations of emerging technologies, the goal of this book is to help readers learn about managing information resources in new ways and reinforcing the learning as they read on.   ·         Examines the contrast of competing paradigms and approaches to problem solving and decision-making using technology tools and techniques ·         Covers how to use semantic principle...

  19. Exploring Privilege in the Digital Divide: Implications for Theory, Policy, and Practice.

    Fang, Mei Lan; Canham, Sarah L; Battersby, Lupin; Sixsmith, Judith; Wada, Mineko; Sixsmith, Andrew

    2018-05-10

    The digital revolution has resulted in innovative solutions and technologies that can support the well-being, independence, and health of seniors. Yet, the notion of the "digital divide" presents significant inequities in terms of who accesses and benefits from the digital landscape. To better understand the social and structural inequities of the digital divide, a realist synthesis was conducted to inform theoretical understandings of information and communication technologies (ICTs); to understand the practicalities of access and use inequities; to uncover practices that facilitate digital literacy and participation; and to recommend policies to mitigate the digital divide. A systematic search yielded 55 articles published between 2006 and 2016. Synthesis of existing knowledge, combined with user-experience elicited through a deliberative dialogue session with community stakeholders (n = 35), made visible a pattern of privilege that determined individual agency in ICT access and use. Though age is consistently centralized as the key determinant of the digital divide, our analyses, which encompassed both van Dijk's resources and appropriation theory and intersectionality, appraised this notion and revealed that age is not the sole determinant. Findings highlight the role of other factors that contribute to digital inequity among community-dwelling middle-aged (45-64) and older (65+) adults, including education, income, gender, and generational status. Informed by results of a realist synthesis that was guided by intersectional perspectives, a conceptual framework was developed outlining implications for theory, policy, and practice to address the wicked problem that is the digital divide.

  20. Compilation Of An Econometric Human Resource Efficiency Model For Project Management Best Practices

    G. van Zyl

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to introduce a human resource efficiency model in order to rank the most important human resource driving forces for project management best practices. The results of the model will demonstrate how the human resource component of project management acts as the primary function to enhance organizational performance, codified through improved logical end-state programmes, work ethics and process contributions. Given the hypothesis that project management best practices involve significant human resource and organizational changes, one would reasonably expect this process to influence and resonate throughout all the dimensions of an organisation.

  1. Variability of CSF Alzheimer's disease biomarkers: implications for clinical practice.

    Stephanie J B Vos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers are increasingly being used for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of CSF intralaboratory and interlaboratory variability on diagnostic CSF-based AD classification of subjects and identified causes of this variation. METHODS: We measured CSF amyloid-β (Aβ 1-42, total tau (t-tau, and phosphorylated tau (p-tau by INNOTEST enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays (ELISA in a memory clinic population (n = 126. Samples were measured twice in a single or two laboratories that served as reference labs for CSF analyses in the Netherlands. Predefined cut-offs were used to classify CSF biomarkers as normal or abnormal/AD pattern. RESULTS: CSF intralaboratory variability was higher for Aβ1-42 than for t-tau and p-tau. Reanalysis led to a change in biomarker classification (normal vs. abnormal of 26% of the subjects based on Aβ1-42, 10% based on t-tau, and 29% based on p-tau. The changes in absolute biomarker concentrations were paralleled by a similar change in levels of internal control samples between different assay lots. CSF interlaboratory variability was higher for p-tau than for Aβ1-42 and t-tau, and reanalysis led to a change in biomarker classification of 12% of the subjects based on Aβ1-42, 1% based on t-tau, and 22% based on p-tau. CONCLUSIONS: Intralaboratory and interlaboratory CSF variability frequently led to change in diagnostic CSF-based AD classification for Aβ1-42 and p-tau. Lot-to-lot variation was a major cause of intralaboratory variability. This will have implications for the use of these biomarkers in clinical practice.

  2. Work-life Balance Decision-making of Norwegian Students: Implications for Human Resources Management

    Gawlik, Remigiusz; Jacobsen, Gorm

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The paper aims at identifying and assessing the significance of work-life balance determinants between the Youth of highly developed societies and its implications for human resources management on the example of Norway. Research Design & Methods: The research target group consists of 236 respondents recruited among Norwegian tertiary education students. It employed literature analysis , two-stage exploratory research: direct individual in-depth interviews, survey based on a se...

  3. A Study on Human Resource Practices of Mother Dairy, Delhi

    Shilpy Verma; Prof. Rajesh Mehrotra

    2017-01-01

    From past few decades the dairy industry is crucially concentrating on their human resource, as they are the most valued and most treasured assets as per latest studies. To assess the dairy sector Human Resource’s competiveness, the performance analysis in this research looked at four functions: 1. Recruitment and Selection, 2. Training and development, 3. Performance Management System, 4. Compensation and Benefits. The organizations should carefully map the available HR while recruiting the ...

  4. Water Resources Implications of Cellulosic Biofuel Production at a Regional Scale

    Christopher, S. F.; Schoenholtz, S. H.; Nettles, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent increases in oil prices, a strong national interest in greater energy independence, and a concern for the role of fossil fuels in global climate change, have led to a dramatic expansion in use of alternative renewable energy sources in the U.S. The U.S. government has mandated production of 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels by 2022, of which 16 billion gallons are required to be cellulosic biofuels. Production of cellulosic biomass offers a promising alternative to corn-based systems because large-scale production of corn-based ethanol often requires irrigation and is associated with increased erosion, excess sediment export, and enhanced leaching of nitrogen and phosphorus. Although cultivation of switchgrass using standard agricultural practices is one option being considered for production of cellulosic biomass, intercropping cellulosic biofuel crops within managed forests could provide feedstock without primary land use change or the water quality impacts associated with annual crops. Catchlight Energy LLC is examining the feasibility and sustainability of intercropping switchgrass in loblolly pine plantations in the southeastern U.S. Ongoing research is determining efficient operational techniques and information needed to evaluate effects of these practices on water resources in small watershed-scale (~25 ha) studies. Three sets of four to five sub-watersheds are fully instrumented and currently collecting calibration data in North Carolina, Alabama, and Mississippi. These watershed studies will provide detailed information to understand processes and guide management decisions. However, environmental implications of cellulosic systems need to be examined at a regional scale. We used the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a physically-based hydrologic model, to examine water quantity effects of various land use change scenarios ranging from switchgrass intercropping a small percentage of managed pine forest land to conversion of all managed

  5. Human resource management practices in a medical complex in the ...

    staff, accountability, general HR efficiency, occupation-specific dispensation adjustments and performance management and development system efficiency, and availability of HR staff. All these characteristics were judged to be poor. Conclusion. HRM practices in this Eastern Cape medical complex were inadequate and a ...

  6. Attitudes Toward Older Workers and Human Resource Practices

    Kluge, Annette; Krings, Franciska

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes towards older employees, perceived age discrimination, and HR practices (personnel development and reward) in 240 employees. Attitudes toward older employees were largely positive, thus supporting the notion that attitudes toward older employees are becoming increasingly positive. Older employees' attitudes towards older employees were more positive, but younger employees' attitudes were still favorable. Moreover, older and younger employees reported benefiti...

  7. Space as a Resource in Creative Design Practices

    Vyas, Dhaval; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Gross, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Based on longitudinal ethnographic fieldwork in two industrial design departments and two design companies, we explore the role of spatial arrangements for supporting creative design practices within different design studios. From our results, we show that designers explicitly make use of the

  8. The Ventilator-Assisted Child: A Practical Resource Guide.

    Driver, Lynn E.; Nelson, Virginia Simson; Warschausky, Seth A.

    The 16 chapters comprising this manual are intended to provide a practical guide for meeting the needs of ventilator-assisted children. Chapters have the following titles and authors: (1)"Spectrum of Care" (Virginia Simson Nelson and Lynn E. Driver); (2) "Long-Term Airway Management for the Ventilator-Assisted Child" (Ann Marie…

  9. Black Truffle Harvesting in Spanish Forests: Trends, Current Policies and Practices, and Implications on its Sustainability

    Garcia-Barreda, Sergi; Forcadell, Ricardo; Sánchez, Sergio; Martín-Santafé, María; Marco, Pedro; Camarero, J. Julio; Reyna, Santiago

    2018-04-01

    The European black truffle is a mycorrhizal fungus native to Spanish Mediterranean forests. In most Spanish regions it was originally commercially harvested in the second half of the 20th century. Experts agree that wild truffle yields suffered a sharp decline during the 1970s and 1980s. However, official statistics for Spanish harvest are scarce and seemingly conflicting, and little attention has been paid to the regime for the exploitation of truffle-producing forests and its implications on the sustainability of this resource. Trends in harvest from 1969 to 2013 and current harvesting practices were analyzed as a case study, taking into account that Spain is a major truffle producer worldwide, but at the same time truffles have only recently been exploited. The available statistical sources, which include an increasing proportion of cultivated truffles since the mid-1990s, were explored, with estimates from Truffle Harvesters Federation showing higher consistency. Statistical sources were then compared with proxies for wild harvest (rents from truffle leases in public forests) to corroborate time trends in wild harvesting. Results suggest that black truffle production is recovering in recent years thanks to plantations, whereas wild harvest is still declining. The implications of Spanish legal and institutional framework on sustainability of wild truffle use are reviewed. In the current scenario, the decline of wild harvest is likely to continue and eventually make commercial harvesting economically unattractive, thus aggravating sustainability issues. Strengthening of property rights, rationalization of harvesting pressure, forest planning and involvement of public stakeholders are proposed as corrective measures.

  10. Environmental scan and evaluation of best practices for online systematic review resources.

    Parker, Robin M N; Boulos, Leah M; Visintini, Sarah; Ritchie, Krista; Hayden, Jill

    2018-04-01

    Online training for systematic review methodology is an attractive option due to flexibility and limited availability of in-person instruction. Librarians often direct new reviewers to these online resources, so they should be knowledgeable about the variety of available resources. The objective for this project was to conduct an environmental scan of online systematic review training resources and evaluate those identified resources. The authors systematically searched for electronic learning resources pertaining to systematic review methods. After screening for inclusion, we collected data about characteristics of training resources and assigned scores in the domains of (1) content, (2) design, (3) interactivity, and (4) usability by applying a previously published evaluation rubric for online instruction modules. We described the characteristics and scores for each training resource and compared performance across the domains. Twenty training resources were evaluated. Average overall score of online instructional resources was 61%. Online courses (n=7) averaged 73%, web modules (n=5) 64%, and videos (n=8) 48%. The top 5 highest scoring resources were in course or web module format, featured high interactivity, and required a longer (>5hrs) time commitment from users. This study revealed that resources include appropriate content but are less likely to adhere to principles of online training design and interactivity. Awareness of these resources will allow librarians to make informed recommendations for training based on patrons' needs. Future online systematic review training resources should use established best practices for e-learning to provide high-quality resources, regardless of format or user time commitment.

  11. Antimicrobial Stewardship in Daily Practice: Managing an Important Resource

    Nicole Le Saux

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial stewardship is a recent concept that embodies the practical, judicious use of antimicrobials to decrease adverse outcomes from antimicrobials while optimizing the treatment of bacterial infections to reduce the emergence of resistant pathogens. The objectives of the present statement are to illustrate the principles of antimicrobial stewardship and to offer practical examples of how to make antimicrobial stewardship part of everyday hospital and outpatient practice. Vital components of antimicrobial stewardship include appropriate testing to diagnose whether infections are viral or bacterial, and using clinical follow-up rather than antibiotics in cases in which the child is not very ill and uncertainty exists. Other specific, important actions include questioning whether positive urine cultures are contaminated when there is no evidence of pyuria or inflammatory changes, and obtaining a chest radiograph to support a diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia. Optimizing the choice and dosage of antimicrobials also reduces the probability of clinical failures and subsequent courses of antimicrobials. A list of common clinical scenarios to promote stewardship is included.

  12. Institutionalization of Human Resource Management Practice in Russia

    Elena P. Kostenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article touches upon the imperatives of forming HR- management practice in modern Russia. On the basis of the institutional theory and works by D. Nort, R. Scott, R. Coase, G. Buchanan, O. Williamson, P. Tolbert, and L. Zucker, we distinguished three main stages of introduction foreign HR- management models and technologies into the managing of local companies: Preinstitutional stage, characterized by the limited number of companies using this instrument; halfinstitutional stage when all the implanted approaches of HR-management become normative; complete institutionalization when this or that HR- management instrument is standard and legitimate. On the basis of research, conducted in 39 companies in SFD, the article gives the characteristics of HR-management instruments and technologies in terms of their institutionalization. In the article also showed the barriers which prevent fast and effective introduction of foreign management technologies into the HR-management practice in Russia. We pointed out some key instruments of Russian HR-management model and brought out possible directions in transformation of HR-management practice in our country.

  13. A Study on the Relationship between Human Resource Management Practices and Organizational Performance

    Özden AKIN; Hayat Ebru ERDOST ÇOLAK

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to investigate the relationship between organizational performance variables and Human Resource Management practices. Workforce planning, training and development, performance appraisal, rewarding, firm-employee relationship, and internal communication are used as human resource management practices. Employee turnover rate, employee productivity, and sales are used as organizational performance variables. The results are collected by survey from 108 companies wh...

  14. Assessing health in an urban neighborhood: community process, data results and implications for practice.

    Idali Torres, M

    1998-06-01

    This article examines the community process and data results of a health assessment conducted in an urban neighborhood of a middle-size city in Western Massachusetts. It describes the four-stage development process of the Health Assessment Project (HAP), a collaboration of the UMASS School of Public Health faculty and students, community based organizations and youth residents: (1) planning with a contemporary participatory approach, (2) implementing the data collection with traditional survey methodology, (3) tailoring the data analysis for a presentation at a community forum and report, and (4) incorporating the community's reaction to data results. In addition, it presents selected data results on health conditions of individual household members and perceived community health concerns and resources. Salient data results include high rates of chronic health conditions such as asthma and other respiratory problems among residents 0-18, back pain and other musculoskeletal among younger adults 19-54, and high blood pressure and other cardi-circulatory problems among older adults age 55 and older. The three most prevalent perceived community concerns are substance abuse, gangs and drug dealing. Identified community resources include sources of (1) providers of primary care, (2) health information as family/friends and Spanish media, (3) social activity such as churches and schools. Finally, this paper concludes by discussing implications for community health practice.

  15. SLT Beliefs about Collaborative Practice: Implications for Education and Learning

    Jago, Suzanne; Radford, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Effective collaborative practice is expected of newly qualified speech and language therapists (SLTs) in order to achieve the best outcomes for clients. Research into collaborative practice has identified a number of barriers to and facilitators of collaborative practice, but there has been limited research into how well prepared newly qualified…

  16. Work-life Balance Decision-making of Norwegian Students: Implications for Human Resources Management

    Remigiusz Gawlik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The paper aims at identifying and assessing the significance of work-life balance determinants between the Youth of highly developed societies and its implications for human resources management on the example of Norway. Research Design & Methods: The research target group consists of 236 respondents recruited among Norwegian tertiary education students. It employed literature analysis, two-stage exploratory research: direct individual in-depth interviews, survey based on a self-administered, web-based questionnaire with single-answer, limited choice qualitative & quantitative, as well as explanatory research (informal moderated group discussions. Findings: The research on perceptions of determinants of quality of life and attractiveness of life strategies shows that in a country with relatively high socio-economic development level, such as Norway, differences in rankings do exist. They can be observed in relevance to both material and non-material QoL determinants. Implications & Recommendations: The study revealed a need for deeper research on individually driven early decision-making of future employees and entrepreneurs. This will result in closer modelling of socio-economic phenomena, including more accurate adaptation to trends on the labour market and creation of new business models. Contribution & Value Added: Research value added comes from the comparison of perceptions of quality of life determinants between countries at various stages of socio-economic development and its implications for human resource management.

  17. Public health implications of post-harvest fish handling practices in ...

    A wide range of handling practices for harvested fish exists and they have economic as well as public health implications. This paper is a review of the existing problems in fish handling technologies at post-harvest in Nigeria. The public health aspects with the associated implications are highlighted. Status of policy on fish ...

  18. CONVENTIONAL RESOURCES OF BIHOR COUNTY AND THE IMPLICATIONS OF THEIR USE

    Diana Perticas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of achieving a sustainable development was greatly discussed during the last decades, especially due to the negative implications of pollution on the surrounding environment. During such conferences each country was requested to cut down the pollution level. Of course, ideal would be that this diminishing of green house effect gases to be obtained by gradually replacing the present resources we use with those less damaging to the entire planet, replacement which, as we know, cannot be done as a whole, at least not now. In this paper we have focused our attention on the county of Bihor from Romania, county that has both conventional resources, which, as it may be seen here, are heavily exploited, and also important unconventional ones. The paper has two parts: the first part presents in a nutshell the natural background of Bihor County as well as the existent conventional resources and the situation generated by the exploitation of such resources in order to assure the thermal comfort of the inhabitants. In the second part we describe a scenario about the emissions of CO2 in Bihor County, under the conditions of assuring the peoples’ thermal comfort only by burning fossil fuels. The scenario starts from existent data about the average quantity of thermal energy used by one inhabitant of Bihor County corroborated with the manner of obtaining the thermal energy in this part of the country. What it is intended to highlight in this work are the strong ecological implications (and, implicitly the deriving economic and social ones of using conventional resources in this area, considering that Bihor County sits on a large geothermal water basin.

  19. Language policies and communication in multinational companies : Alignment with strategic orientation and human resource management practices

    van den Born, Floor; Peltokorpi, Vesa

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the degree of alignment among multinational company (MNC) strategic orientation, human resource management (HRM) practices, and language policies. On the one hand, the authors propose that the coherent, tight alignment among the HRM practices, language policies, and MNC

  20. Human Resource Development Practices as Determinant of HRD Climate and Quality Orientation

    Hassan, Arif; Hashim, Junaidah; Ismail, Ahmad Zaki Hj

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to measure employees' perception of human resource development (HRD) practices, to explore whether ISO certification leads to any improvements in HRD system, and to examine the role of HRD practices on employees' development climate and quality orientation in the organization. Design/methodology/approach: A total…

  1. Model Test Bed for Evaluating Wave Models and Best Practices for Resource Assessment and Characterization

    Neary, Vincent Sinclair [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Water Power Technologies; Yang, Zhaoqing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Coastal Sciences Division; Wang, Taiping [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Coastal Sciences Division; Gunawan, Budi [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Water Power Technologies; Dallman, Ann Renee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Water Power Technologies

    2016-03-01

    A wave model test bed is established to benchmark, test and evaluate spectral wave models and modeling methodologies (i.e., best practices) for predicting the wave energy resource parameters recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC TS 62600-101Ed. 1.0 ©2015. Among other benefits, the model test bed can be used to investigate the suitability of different models, specifically what source terms should be included in spectral wave models under different wave climate conditions and for different classes of resource assessment. The overarching goal is to use these investigations to provide industry guidance for model selection and modeling best practices depending on the wave site conditions and desired class of resource assessment. Modeling best practices are reviewed, and limitations and knowledge gaps in predicting wave energy resource parameters are identified.

  2. Excel 2013 for human resource management statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    Quirk, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    This book shows how Microsoft Excel is able to teach human resource management statistics effectively. Similar to the previously published Excel 2010 for Human Resource Management Statistics, it is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical human resource management problems. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel, a widely available computer program for students and managers, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in human resource management courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2013 for Human Resource Management Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how to apply Excel to ...

  3. Excel 2016 for human resource management statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    Quirk, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    This book shows the capabilities of Microsoft Excel in teaching human resource management statistics effectively. Similar to the previously published Excel 2013 for Human Resource Management Statistics, this book is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical human resource management problems. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel, a widely available computer program for students and managers, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in human resource management courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2016 for Human Resource Management Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how ...

  4. Practical Approaches to Adaptive Resource Allocation in OFDM Systems

    N. Y. Ermolova

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Whenever a communication system operates in a time-frequency dispersive radio channel, the link adaptation provides a benefit in terms of any system performance metric by employing time, frequency, and, in case of multiple users, multiuser diversities. With respect to an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM system, link adaptation includes bit, power, and subcarrier allocations. While the well-known water-filling principle provides the optimal solution for both margin-maximization and rate-maximization problems, implementation complexity often makes difficult its application in practical systems. This paper presents a few suboptimal (low-complexity adaptive loading algorithms for both single- and multiuser OFDM systems. We show that the single-user system performance can be improved by suitable power loading and an algorithm based on the incomplete channel state information is derived. At the same time, the power loading in a multiuser system only slightly affects performance while the initial subcarrier allocation has a rather big impact. A number of subcarrier allocation algorithms are discussed and the best one is derived on the basis of the order statistics theory.

  5. Theory to practice: The scope, purpose and practice of prefeasibility studies for critical resources in the era of sustainable development

    Hilton, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Safety and Sustainability: • A strong mutual dependency has been identified between the objectives of HSE and sustainable development goals, such as the sustainable management and use of critical mineral resources. • A practice cannot be described as sustainable that is not also safe.

  6. Relational Aggression, Victimization, and Language Development: Implications for Practice

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Godleski, Stephanie A.

    2007-01-01

    This review explores the development of relational aggression and relational victimization among peers, with specific emphasis on clinical implications for speech-language pathologists. Developmental manifestations of relational aggression and victimization are reviewed from early childhood through emerging adulthood. The concurrent and…

  7. Pumps vs. airlifts: Theoretical and practical energy implications

    In the design of a recirculating aquaculture system five life-supporting issues should be considered which include aeration, degasification, circulation, biofiltration, and clarification. The implications associated with choosing a pumped system versus an airlift system to address these issues was e...

  8. Managing carbon regulatory risk in utility resource planning: Current practices in the Western United States

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Concerns about global climate change have substantially increased the likelihood that future policy will seek to minimize carbon dioxide emissions. As such, even today, electric utilities are making resource planning and investment decisions that consider the possible implications of these future carbon regulations. In this article, we examine the manner in which utilities assess the financial risks associated with future carbon regulations within their long-term resource plans. We base our analysis on a review of the most recent resource plans filed by 15 electric utilities in the Western United States. Virtually all of these utilities made some effort to quantitatively evaluate the potential cost of future carbon regulations when analyzing alternate supply- and demand-side resource options for meeting customer load. Even without federal climate regulation in the US, the prospect of that regulation is already having an impact on utility decision-making and resource choices. That said, the methods and assumptions used by utilities to analyze carbon regulatory risk, and the impact of that analysis on their choice of a particular resource strategy, vary considerably, revealing a number of opportunities for analytic improvement. Though our review focuses on a subset of US electric utilities, this work holds implications for all electric utilities and energy policymakers who are seeking to minimize the compliance costs associated with future carbon regulations

  9. Recapitalization, Implications for Educational Policy and Practice and Future Research

    Scheerens, Jaap; Scheerens, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    In this concluding chapter conclusions are drawn, and the relevance of the results for educational science and policy and practice are discussed. Illustrations are provided that were drawn from the exploration of policy and practices in the Netherlands. Synthetic answers to the three research

  10. Practical implications of empirically studying moral decision making

    Heinzelmann, N.; Ugazio, G.; Tobler, P.N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the practical question of why people do not behave in the way they ought to behave. This question is a practical one, reaching both into the normative and descriptive domains of morality. That is, it concerns moral norms as well as empirical facts. We argue that two main

  11. Integrating Practice Guidelines into Professional Training: Implications for Diversity Competence

    Miville, Marie L.; Duan, Changming; Nutt, Roberta L.; Waehler, Charles A.; Suzuki, Lisa; Pistole, M. Carole; Arredondo, Patricia; Duffy, Michael; Mejia, Brenda X.; Corpus, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The authors present the findings of a special task group (STG) organized to explore effective training strategies for the practice guidelines focused on diverse populations. They provide a brief literature review and summarize survey data from academic training directors regarding current use of practice guidelines. The authors then describe the…

  12. Practice stories in natural resource management continuing professional education: springboards for learning

    Stummann, Cathy Brown

    2014-01-01

    in supporting professional learning of new concepts. These uses of practice stories are not evident in public natural resource management (NRM) continuing professional education. In light of greater public involvement in NRM practice over the last 20 years, however, the use of practice stories could now...... practice. Feedback from workshop participants suggests that practice stories may be able to support NRM professionals in reflecting on previous experiences, learning from colleague's practice experiences and serving as a springboard for learning by fostering linkages between social science knowledge......The use of stories from professional experience in continuing professional education has been on the rise in many fields, often aimed at bolstering capacity through sharing professional knowledge and/or supporting reflective practice. Practice stories are also suggested to be beneficial...

  13. Perspectives on the Present State and Future of Higher Education Faculty Development in Kazakhstan: Implications for National Human Resource Development

    Seitova, Dinara

    2016-01-01

    The article aims at examining the present state of higher education faculty development in Kazakhstan in the context of multidimensional nationwide development reforms and exploring implications for the National Human Resource Development of the country. For the purpose of this research, theoretical human resource development (HRD) and…

  14. Using structural equation modelling to integrate human resources with internal practices for lean manufacturing implementation

    Protik Basu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore and integrate the role of human resources with the internal practices of the Indian manufacturing industries towards successful implementation of lean manu-facturing (LM. An extensive literature survey is carried out. An attempt is made to build an ex-haustive list of all the input manifests related to human resources and internal practices necessary for LM implementation, coupled with a similar exhaustive list of the benefits accrued from its suc-cessful implementation. A structural model is thus conceptualized, which is empirically validated based on the data from the Indian manufacturing sector. Hardly any survey based empirical study in India has been found to integrate human resources with the internal processes towards success-ful LM implementation. This empirical research is thus carried out in the Indian manufacturing in-dustries. The analysis reveals six key input constructs and three output constructs, indicating that these constructs should act in unison to maximize the benefits of implementing lean. The structural model presented in this paper may be treated as a guide to integrate human resources with internal practices to successfully implement lean, leading to an optimum utilization of resources. This work is one of the very first researches to have a survey-based empirical analysis of the role of human resources and internal practices of the Indian manufacturing sector towards an effective lean im-plementation.

  15. Trends in dermatology practices and the implications for the workforce.

    Ehrlich, Alison; Kostecki, James; Olkaba, Helen

    2017-10-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) practice profile surveys have been conducted for more than a decade to gauge trends in our workforce supply and demand. To update the trends and current workforce issues for the field of dermatology. The AAD Practice Profile Survey is sent by both e-mail and postal mail to a random sample of practicing dermatologists who are AAD members. Shifts are noted in the primary practice setting; fewer dermatologists are in solo practice and more are in group practices than in previous years. Teledermatology use trended upward from 7% to 11% between 2012 and 2014. The implementation of electronic health records increased from 51% in 2011 to 70% in 2014. There is potential for response bias and inaccurate self-reporting. Survey responses collected may not be representative of all geographic areas. The demand for dermatology services remains strong. Shifts in the practice setting may be related to increases in overhead costs that are partially associated with the implementation of technology-based medical records. Integration of electronic health records and utilization of telemedicine are increasing. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Medicine as a Community of Practice: Implications for Medical Education.

    Cruess, Richard L; Cruess, Sylvia R; Steinert, Yvonne

    2018-02-01

    The presence of a variety of independent learning theories makes it difficult for medical educators to construct a comprehensive theoretical framework for medical education, resulting in numerous and often unrelated curricular, instructional, and assessment practices. Linked with an understanding of identity formation, the concept of communities of practice could provide such a framework, emphasizing the social nature of learning. Individuals wish to join the community, moving from legitimate peripheral to full participation, acquiring the identity of community members and accepting the community's norms.Having communities of practice as the theoretical basis of medical education does not diminish the value of other learning theories. Communities of practice can serve as the foundational theory, and other theories can provide a theoretical basis for the multiple educational activities that take place within the community, thus helping create an integrated theoretical approach.Communities of practice can guide the development of interventions to make medical education more effective and can help both learners and educators better cope with medical education's complexity. An initial step is to acknowledge the potential of communities of practice as the foundational theory. Educational initiatives that could result from this approach include adding communities of practice to the cognitive base; actively engaging students in joining the community; creating a welcoming community; expanding the emphasis on explicitly addressing role modeling, mentoring, experiential learning, and reflection; providing faculty development to support the program; and recognizing the necessity to chart progress toward membership in the community.

  17. Cultural relativism and cultural diversity: implications for nursing practice.

    Baker, C

    1997-09-01

    This article examines the doctrine of cultural relativism in nursing practice. To introduce the issue, an overview of the intellectual history of cultural relativism is presented. The academic themes of the debate surrounding cultural relativism are illustrated with an example of the social controversy in France involving cultural relativism as used to defend the practice of female genital excision among immigrant communities. The dilemma faced by nursing in making cross-cultural judgments is then examined in the light of the academic and social debates. The article concludes with a theoretical resolution of the issue of cultural relativism for nursing practice that is based on hermeneutic philosophy.

  18. Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Related to AIDS among Prisoners: Implications for Social Work Practice.

    Miah, M. Mizanur Rahman; Olivero, J. Michael

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 33 male and 5 female prisoners examined their knowledge of AIDS and HIV transmission modes, current sexual behavior and safe sex practices, and sources of AIDS information and degree of trust in these sources. Discusses implications for social work practices and development of AIDS education for prisoners. (SV)

  19. Analytical Implications of Using Practice Theory in Workplace Information Literacy Research

    Moring, Camilla; Lloyd, Annemaree

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This paper considers practice theory and the analytical implications of using this theoretical approach in information literacy research. More precisely the aim of the paper is to discuss the translation of practice theoretical assumptions into strategies that frame the analytical focus and interest when researching workplace…

  20. Training and Best Practice Guidelines: Implications for Metadata Creation

    Chuttur, Mohammad Y.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the rapid development of digital libraries over the past decade, researchers have focused on the use of metadata as an effective means to support resource discovery within online repositories. With the increasing involvement of libraries in digitization projects and the growing number of institutional repositories, it is anticipated…

  1. Nursing practice implications of the year of ethics.

    Harris, Karen T

    2015-01-01

    e 2015 ANA Code of Ethics is foundational to professional nursing practice and is aligned with AWHONN’s core values, standards of care and position statement on ethical decision-making in the clinical setting. Understanding the roles and responsibilities of nurses to ensure an ethical practice environment is critical to perinatal health outcomes and sta engagement and to the prevention of moral distress.

  2. Continuing medical education revisited: theoretical assumptions and practical implications: a qualitative study.

    Dionyssopoulos, Alexander; Karalis, Thanassis; Panitsides, Eugenia A

    2014-12-31

    Recent research has evidenced that although investment in Continuing Medical Education (CME), both in terms of participation as well as financial resources allocated to it, has been steadily increasing to catch up with accelerating advances in health information and technology, effectiveness of CME is reported to be rather limited. Poor and disproportional returns can be attributed to failure of CME courses to address and stimulate an adult audience. The present study initially drew on research findings and adult learning theories, providing the basis for comprehending adult learning, while entailing practical implications on fostering effectiveness in the design and delivery of CME. On a second level, a qualitative study was conducted with the aim to elucidate parameters accounting for effectiveness in educational interventions. Qualitative data was retrieved through 12 in-depth interviews, conducted with a random sample of participants in the 26th European Workshop of Advanced Plastic Surgery (EWAPS). The data underwent a three level qualitative analysis, following the "grounded theory" methodology, comprising 'open coding', 'axial coding' and 'selective coding'. Findings from the EWAPS study come in line with relevant literature, entailing significant implications for the necessity to apply a more effective and efficient paradigm in the design and delivery of educational interventions, advocating for implementing learner-centered schemata in CME and benefiting from a model that draws on the learning environment and social aspects of learning. What emerged as a pivotal parameter in designing educational interventions is to focus on small group educational events which could provide a supportive friendly context, enhance motivation through learner-centered approaches and allow interaction, experimentation and critical reflection. It should be outlined however that further research is required as the present study is limited in scope, having dealt with a limited

  3. A RESEARCH AIMED AT DETERMINATION BETWEEN HUMAN RESOURCES PRACTICES AND PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT RELATIONSHIP IN ORGANIZATIONS

    EBRU AYKAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Perceived Organizational Support (POS which was popularized in the early 1990s, is conception that may have both positive and negative effect on the staff and organization. In many ways perceived organizational support can determine the continuity of an organization over the long term. This study look at relationship between human resources practices which is taken on five dimensions and perceived organizational support. An investigation has been conduct over bed and supplier industry in Kayseri. The research that was performed with 227 worker is concluded that there are positive relations between training and human resources politics practices and perceived organizational support as of dimensions and between human resource management practices and perceived organizational support as of general.

  4. Green Lean TQM Human Resource Management Practices in Malaysian Automotive Companies

    Noor Azlina Mohd Salleh; Salmiah Kasolang; Ahmed Jaffar

    2012-01-01

    Green Lean Total Quality Management (LTQM) Human Resource Management (HRM) System is a system comprises of HRM in Environmental Management System (EMS) practices which is integrated to TQM with Lean Manufacturing (LM) principles. HRM is essential especially in dealing with low motivation and less productive employees. The ultimate goal of this system is to focus on achieving total human resource development that is motivated and capable to optimize their creativity to be a part of Green and L...

  5. Scenario-Based Analysis on Water Resources Implication of Coal Power in Western China

    Jiahai Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 58% of coal-fired power generation capacity is located in eastern China, where the demand for electricity is strong. Serious air pollution in China, in eastern regions in particular, has compelled the Chinese government to impose a ban on the new construction of pulverized coal power plants in eastern regions. Meanwhile, rapid economic growth is thirsty for electric power supply. As a response, China planned to build large-scale coal power bases in six western provinces, including Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Ningxia and Gansu. In this paper, the water resource implication of the coal power base planning is addressed. We find that, in a business-as-usual (BAU scenario, water consumption for coal power generation in these six provinces will increase from 1130 million m3 in 2012 to 2085 million m3 in 2020, experiencing nearly a double growth. Such a surge will exert great pressure on water supply and lead to serious water crisis in these already water-starved regions. A strong implication is that the Chinese Government must add water resource constraint as a critical point in its overall sustainable development plan, in addition to energy supply and environment protection. An integrated energy-water resource plan with regionalized environmental carrying capacity as constraints should be developed to settle this puzzle. Several measures are proposed to cope with it, including downsizing coal power in western regions, raising the technical threshold of new coal power plants and implementing retrofitting to the inefficient cooling system, and reengineering the generation process to waterless or recycled means.

  6. Improving statistical reasoning theoretical models and practical implications

    Sedlmeier, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This book focuses on how statistical reasoning works and on training programs that can exploit people''s natural cognitive capabilities to improve their statistical reasoning. Training programs that take into account findings from evolutionary psychology and instructional theory are shown to have substantially larger effects that are more stable over time than previous training regimens. The theoretical implications are traced in a neural network model of human performance on statistical reasoning problems. This book apppeals to judgment and decision making researchers and other cognitive scientists, as well as to teachers of statistics and probabilistic reasoning.

  7. Diversified integration of practical teaching resources in ideological and political course in colleges and universities

    Xu, Jin; Chu, Biao

    2018-03-01

    To promote diversified integration and integrated use of practical teaching resources in ideological and political education in colleges and universities is helpful to extend the ideological and political teaching activities in colleges and universities, to update and supplement ideological and political knowledge, to build a harmonious learning environment for students and to comprehensively improve their ideological and political accomplishments. This article will analyze of ideological and political practical teaching resources diversified integration and the integration of programs by examples, and put forward personal opinions.

  8. Automated external defibrillation as part BLS: implications for education and practice.

    Moule, Pam; Albarran, John W

    2002-09-01

    The latest Adult Basic Life Support (BLS) guidelines support the inclusion of the use of the automated external defibrillator (AED), as part of basic life support (BLS). Emphasis on the provision of early defibrillation as part of BLS acknowledges the importance of this manoeuvre in the successful termination of ventricular fibrillation. The ramifications of such changes for both first responders and organisations implementing the guidelines should not be underestimated. Issues relating to resourcing, content and duration of training and retraining, auditing and evaluation require further exploration. To consider these issues now seems particularly pertinent, given the recent launch of the UK Government's paper on public health, 'Saving Lives-Our Healthier Nation' which seeks to deploy AEDs in busy public places for use by trained members of the lay public. Additionally, defibrillation has been identified as one of the key competencies that all trained nurses and other health care providers should be able to undertake. This paper will consider the background to the current guideline changes, analyse the wider implications of translating the recommendations into practice, and offer possible solutions to address the issues raised. Whilst the analysis is particularly pertinent to the United Kingdom, many of the issues raised have international importance.

  9. Significant Structuring Resources in the Reading Practices of a Digital Classroom

    Annika Lantz-Andersson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since reading and writing digitally demand partially different competencies, there is a change in some of the premises of related educational practices. This study aims to contribute to the knowledge of educational reading practices by scrutinizing how literacy events evolve in a digital classroom where each student has a personal digital device (1:1, iPads in this study. Our study is grounded in sociocultural theories of learning and focuses on the structuring resources utilized by students, namely the notion of multiple ongoing activities and the ways in which specific resources take precedence in shaping these activities. One class of 13–14 year-old students was studied for a week across several subjects through video-recordings and observations. The findings imply that the students moved among vast array of reading practices. However, the main structuring resource is a strong focus on task-solving and the practice of schooling, which mainly builds on principles emanating from traditional text. It is only occasionally that structuring resources that also include the opportunities associated with digital technology are utilized. This indicates the importance of further studies on how educational practices could be organized to scaffold the basis of traditional reading comprehension as well as other approaches required in digital environments.

  10. Overview of the Practical and Theoretical Approaches to the Estimation of Mineral Resources. A Financial Perspective

    Leontina Pavaloaia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mineral resources represent an important natural resource whose exploitation, unless it is rational, can lead to their exhaustion and the collapse of sustainable development. Given the importance of mineral resources and the uncertainty concerning the estimation of extant reserves, they have been analyzed by several national and international institutions. In this article we shall present a few aspects concerning the ways to approach the reserves of mineral resources at national and international level, by considering both economic aspects and those aspects concerned with the definition, classification and aggregation of the reserves of mineral resources by various specialized institutions. At present there are attempts to homogenize practices concerning these aspects for the purpose of presenting correct and comparable information.

  11. Exploring Principals' Instructional Leadership Practices in Malaysia: Insights and Implications

    Harris, Alma; Jones, Michelle; Cheah, Kenny Soon Lee; Devadason, Edward; Adams, Donnie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline the findings from a small-scale, exploratory, study of principals' instructional leadership practice in Malaysian primary schools. The dimensions and functions of instructional leadership, explicitly explored in this study, are those outlined in the Hallinger and Murphy's (1985) model.…

  12. Miscommunication between patients and general practitioners: implications for clinical practice

    Morgan S

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Effective communication is integral to the general practice consultation, yet it is acknowledged that problems commonly occur. Previous research has shown that misunderstandings with potentially significant consequences occur frequently, but does not provide a clear picture of how and why miscommunication occurs, or how such problems can be prevented or resolved. This study explored the occurrence and management of specific examples of miscommunication in two routine general practice consultations. METHODS: A multi-method case study approach was used. The primary data collected for each case included a video-recorded consultation and post-consultation interviews with each general practitioner (GP and patient. Instances of communication mismatch were examined using in-depth interaction analysis techniques. FINDINGS: GPs and patients may not be aware when misunderstandings have occurred. In-depth analysis of the case studies revealed the complexity of miscommunication: it was not a straightforward matter to locate when or why instances of communication mismatch had occurred, and each of the mismatches was quite distinctive: (1 they were identified in different ways; (2 they occurred at different points in the communication process; (3 they arose because of problems occurring at different levels of the communication, and (4 they had different consequences. CONCLUSION: Given the frequency and complexity of miscommunication in general practice consultations, GPs need to consider adopting various strategies, at both the practice/systems level and the level of the consultation interaction to minimise the risk of communication problems.

  13. Critical Theory: Implications for School Leadership Theory and Practice.

    Peca, Kathy

    The school leader's behaviors are inspired by theories, and theories are intrinsic to practice. This paper provides an overview of an emerging perspective in educational administration, critical theory. The paper first highlights the philosophies of Immanuel Kant, Fichte, Hegel, Marx, and the Frankfurt School. It then discusses critical theory…

  14. Typologies of Cohabitation: Implications for Clinical Practice and Research

    Gold, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    This article will explore the current evolution in the practice of cohabitation. The intent of this literature- and web-based article is to acquaint counselors with three typologies of cohabitation. These categories can be utilized in the development of psychoeducational and remedial interventions and in the identification of areas of future…

  15. Integrating Social Class into Vocational Psychology: Theory and Practice Implications

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ali, Saba Rasheed

    2009-01-01

    Although social class plays a salient and significant role in career development and occupational attainment, social class is underrepresented in vocational psychology theory, scholarship, and practice. Vocational psychologists are in a unique position to meet the career development needs of persons from all social classes by integrating a fuller…

  16. Freudian Notion of Psychoanalysis: Its Implications in Contemporary Teaching Practices

    Awan, Muhammad Afzal

    2017-01-01

    The author has engaged in a critical review of Frued's notion of psychoanalysis and its vitality in teaching. Illustrating from Freud's own assertions and through the interpretations of the later critics, the author has pointed out certain noticeable pitfalls and, or incapacities of contemporary teaching practices. The forces of aggression and sex…

  17. Implications of the law on video recording in clinical practice.

    Henken, Kirsten R; Jansen, Frank Willem; Klein, Jan; Stassen, Laurents P S; Dankelman, Jenny; van den Dobbelsteen, John J

    2012-10-01

    Technological developments allow for a variety of applications of video recording in health care, including endoscopic procedures. Although the value of video registration is recognized, medicolegal concerns regarding the privacy of patients and professionals are growing. A clear understanding of the legal framework is lacking. Therefore, this research aims to provide insight into the juridical position of patients and professionals regarding video recording in health care practice. Jurisprudence was searched to exemplify legislation on video recording in health care. In addition, legislation was translated for different applications of video in health care found in the literature. Three principles in Western law are relevant for video recording in health care practice: (1) regulations on privacy regarding personal data, which apply to the gathering and processing of video data in health care settings; (2) the patient record, in which video data can be stored; and (3) professional secrecy, which protects the privacy of patients including video data. Practical implementation of these principles in video recording in health care does not exist. Practical regulations on video recording in health care for different specifically defined purposes are needed. Innovations in video capture technology that enable video data to be made anonymous automatically can contribute to protection for the privacy of all the people involved.

  18. Beauty: A Concept with Practical Implications for Teacher Researchers

    Winston, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Hillman's (2001) simple affirmation that "an idea of beauty is useful, functional, practical" is one this article attempts to pursue with teacher researchers in mind, based on the belief that to move from the "re"pression of beauty to its "ex"pression--or, at the very least, to its articulation--will enlighten rather than distract individuals. The…

  19. The impacts of human resource management practices and pay inequality on workers' job satisfaction

    A I Petrescu; R Simmons; S Bradley

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationship between Human Resource Management (HRM) practices and workers' overall job satisfaction and their satisfaction with pay. To investigate these issues we use British data from the 'Changing Employment Relationships, Employment Contracts and the Future of Work Survey' and the 'Workplace Employment Relations Survey'. After controlling for personal, job and firm characteristics, it is shown that several HRM practices raise workers overall job satisfact...

  20. The Relationship between Human Resource Practices and Employee Attitudes in a Travel Agency

    R Steyn; A Grobler

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the case of a large travel agency and relationships between HR practices and employee attitudes (EA) in that specific organisation. A number of studies have shown that effective human resource (HR) practices correlate with positive employee attitudes (EA).The attitudes of interest in this study were job satisfaction, organisational commitment, work engagement as well as intention to quit. Positive EA are desirable as these are considered to constitu...

  1. Human resource management outsourcing in Spanish firms: Evolution over time and implication for devolution

    Debora Gottardello

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper aim to explore the evolution in the use of HRO in Spanish firms, and determine the differences in the degree of implementation of HRO since 1999 until 2014, and also analyze the relationship between HR outsourcing and devolution of HR responsibilities to line managers in Spanish organizations. Design/methodology/approach: This paper combines quantitative and qualitative methods. Namely the article is based on international Cranet HRM survey data collected from private and public organizations and also interviews with HR external providers. Findings: The analysis of developments, based on the Cranet surveys and interviews with HR external providers shows that during the past few years there has been an increasing use of HRO in parallel with the tendency to devolve more HR responsibility to line managers. Research limitations/implications: The main limitation of this research is the limitation of data about reasons for devolution that the CRANET questionnaire provides. However, the interviews carried out enrich the survey data with qualitative results. Practical implications: The findings can be used to guide management teams in outsourcing and devolution decisions to maximize benefits to their organizations. Originality/value: This paper is about the evolution of HRO in Spain as a European Union country where published research on HRO and also its implications is relatively limited. The originality of this paper is mainly the involvement of line manager in the outsourcing process which have been poorly analyzed until now.

  2. Sustaining "meaningful use" of health information technology in low-resource practices.

    Green, Lee A; Potworowski, Georges; Day, Anya; May-Gentile, Rachelle; Vibbert, Danielle; Maki, Bruce; Kiesel, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of electronic health records (EHRs) has been extensively studied, but their maintenance once implemented has not. The Regional Extension Center (REC) program provides implementation assistance to priority practices-those with limited financial, technical, and organizational resources-but the assistance is time limited. Our objective was to identify potential barriers to maintenance of meaningful use of EHRs in priority primary care practices using a qualitative observational study for federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) and priority practices in Michigan. We conducted cognitive task analysis (CTA) interviews and direct observations of health information technology implementation in FQHCs. In addition, we conducted semistructured interviews with implementation specialists serving priority practices to detect emergent themes relevant to maintenance. Maintaining EHR technology will require ongoing expert technical support indefinitely beyond implementation to address upgrades and security needs. Maintaining meaningful use for quality improvement will require ongoing support for leadership and change management. Priority practices not associated with larger systems lack access to the necessary technical expertise, financial resources, and leverage with vendors to continue alone. Rural priority practices are particularly challenged, because expertise is often not available locally. Priority practices, especially in rural areas, are at high risk for falling on the wrong side of a "digital divide" as payers and regulators enact increasing expectations for EHR use and information management. For those without affiliation to maintain the necessary expert staff, ongoing support will be needed for those practices to remain viable. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  3. Commercial property loan valuations in the UK : implications of current trends in practice and liability

    Crosby, Neil; Lavers, Anthony; Foster , Henry

    1997-01-01

    This paper is the second of two papers which aim to examine the major legal liability implications of changes to the commercial property loan valuation process caused by the recession in the UK property market and to make recommendations to valuers and their professional institutions to improve the quality of the process and the result. The objectives of this paper are to address a number of the practical implications of changes to the loan valuation process within the context of legal liabil...

  4. Understanding implementation in complex public organizations – implication for practice

    Gry Cecilie Høiland

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effective implementation of politically initiated public service innovations to the front-lines of the public service organization, where the innovation is to be applied, is a challenge that both practitioners and researchers struggle to solve. We highlight the importance of analysing contextual factors at several levels of the implementation system, as well as the importance of considering how the practical everyday work situations of the front-line workers influence their application of the innovation in question. We illustrate this by exploring the implementation process of a specific work inclusion measure, looking at its wider context and some of its implementation outcomes at a specific public agency. The intention is to illustrate the significance of considering the contextual complexity influencing implementation work as a reminder for practitioners to take this into account in their planning and practices.

  5. TEHORIES OF CONNECTIONS – PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS IN ACQUIRING MOTOR SKILLS

    Zoran Milošević; Nebojša Maksimović; Nada Milošević; Borislav Obradović

    2010-01-01

    Theories of learning which are classified in two broad schools as theories of connections and cognitive theories, differ among themselves according to specific interaction relationships between external stimulus (S), reaction and behavior and organism (R), i.e. particular learner (O). In relation to pedagogical practices, predominance of a certain school is not rare, often without any objective insight into their potentials related to age, sex, learning contents and other determinants. Suppor...

  6. Perspectives on academic misconduct: implications for education and practice.

    Klainberg, Marilyn B; McCrink, Andrea; Eckardt, Patricia; Schecter, Rose; Bongiorno, Anne; Sedhom, Laila

    2014-01-01

    From Harvard to high school, concern related to academic misconduct, specifically cheating and its impact on societal issues, has become a great concern for educational communities. While a significant number of studies on ethical behaviors in practice in other professions such as business have been published, little research exists on registered nurses in practice. Even fewer studies have, for registered nurses, addressed if there is an association between perceived academic misconduct as students and perceived unethical behaviors in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between perceptions of registered professional nurses' (RNs) current workplace behaviors and the RNs' retrospective perceptions of their academic misconduct as students. A convenience sample of 1 66 RNs enrolled in master's degree programs at four university schools of nursing completed questionnaires regarding their beliefs and behaviors. The outcome of this study was significant. Results revealed a strong relationship between unethical behaviors of the RN in practice and their prior academic misconduct when they were students.

  7. Informal Online Learning Practices: Implications for Distance Education

    Fawn Winterwood

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative ethnographic study examines five American teenagers’ historical and current digitally-mediated multiliteracy practices within digital popular culture. The participants included three male and two female students of a private high school in the Midwestern United States. The study is framed by the notion that literacy is a socially, culturally, and historically situated discursive construct rather than a purely individualized cognitive endeavor. This social constructivist theory of literacy emphasizes the social conditions necessary to navigate the economic, social, and political worlds of the 21st century. The purpose of the study was to explore the students’ multiliteracy practices that they enact through their activities within digital popular culture. Data collection methods included synchronous interviews facilitated by video conferencing tools as well as observation of the participants’ online activities and member checks conducted via email and instant messaging. The analytic strategy employed during this study was informed by Clarke’s (2005 situational analysis method. The study’s findings indicate that literacy practices in which the study participants have engaged through informal learning activities within digital youth culture have had a much greater impact on enabling them to cultivate the multimodal literacies necessary within a postmodern digital era than have their formal educational experiences

  8. General practice registrars' intentions for future practice: implications for rural medical workforce planning.

    Harding, Catherine; Seal, Alexa; McGirr, Joe; Caton, Tim

    2016-11-01

    The models of practice that general practice registrars (GPRs) envisage undertaking will affect workforce supply. The aim of this research was to determine practice intentions of current GPRs in a regional general practice training program (Coast City Country General Practice Training). Questionnaires were circulated to 220 GPRs undertaking general practice placements to determine characteristics of ideal practice models and intentions for future practice. Responses were received for 99 participants (45%). Current GPRs intend to work an average of less than eight half-day sessions/week, with male participants intending to work more hours (t(91)=3.528, P=0.001). More than one-third of this regional cohort intends to practice in metropolitan centres. Proximity to family and friends was the most important factor influencing the choice of practice location. Men ranked remuneration for work as more important (t (88)=-4.280, Pmedical graduates intend to own their own practice compared with 52% of international medical graduates (χ 2 (1)=8.498, P=0.004). Future general practitioners (GPs) intend to work fewer hours than current GPs. Assumptions about lifestyle factors, practice models and possible professional roles should be carefully evaluated when developing strategies to recruit GPs and GPRs into rural practice.

  9. Some of the practices of human resources management fostering entrepreneurship in the danger of crisis

    Joanna Żarnik Żuławska

    2012-12-01

    The study reveals examples of human resource management practices that encourage creativity among employees and productivity growth. The paper is an attempt to assess the relationship between the undertaken actions and the competitive edge of a company. The paper includes some examples of modern methods of personnel management, including the measures of their effectiveness.

  10. Policy Change and Its Effect on Australian Community-Based Natural Resource Management Practices

    Cooke, Penelope R.; Hemmings, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    The authors of this article report on a qualitative study of Australian community-based natural resource management groups known as Landcare groups. They discuss how four Landcare groups contributed to sustainability practices and how a policy change implemented in 2003 influenced the efforts of the groups to remain active in their activities.…

  11. The influence of culture on human resource management processes and practices: The propositions for Serbia

    Bogićević-Milikić Biljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to address the influence of national culture on HRM practices and processes in order to draw conclusions for Serbian HR practitioners, multinational corporations operating in Serbia, and any other country or organizational context that has similar cultural characteristics. To achieve this we first review the relevant literature to identify the interdependencies between Hofstede's cultural dimensions and HRM practices and processes. On the basis of recognized relationships we put forward 11 propositions about likely appropriate HRM practices (such as job analysis, recruitment and selection, human resource planning and career management for the Serbian cultural context, characterized by high Uncertainty Avoidance, high Power Distance, Collectivism and Femininity.

  12. Dos and don’ts in human resources management a practical guide

    2015-01-01

    With this book, an international group of approximate 50 HR leaders, professors and senior consultants compiled their knowledge and experience in an easy-to-navigate format to allow busy HR executives finding exactly the advice they need. Re-inventing the wheel – unfortunately – still is a common practice in Human Resources Management. Traditional literature on HR fails to provide advice based on current, real-life experience and online forums lack a logical structure. Hence, there is a clear need for a resource with practical, structured and experience-based advice on Human Resources Management. The book also provides readers from other functional areas and job starters a realistic insight into today's HR management – be it as a personal career orientation or as a way to enrich their overall management knowledge.

  13. KNOWLEDGE OF DIVERSE LEARNERS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PRACTICE OF TEACHING

    Fadzilah Abd Rahman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of Diverse Learners (KDL is increasingly recognized as an essential component of knowledge base for effective teaching as in today’s schools, teachers must be prepared to teach a diverse population of student (Banks et al. 2005. In other words, teachers need to be aware that their students in a classroom are and always have been different from one another in a variety of ways. KDL refers to an understanding of diversity of students in terms of their abilities and interests and how they respond to diverse situations; an application of different teaching strategies; and how various types of classroom activities might be managed. Although KDL has come to be seen as important, details of its development, depth and quality among pre-service teachers (PSTs has remained something of mystery, as has the capability of PSTs to adapt and employ KDL into their actual teaching. As an effort to develop coherent understanding of the feature of prospective teachers regarding KDL, this paper addresses three questions. First, to what extent are the PSTs prepared for KDL as they are finishing the teacher education programmes? Secondly, how do the PSTs apply the KDL in their teaching practices? Thirdly, how do PSTs reflect on their practice in undertaking the elements of KDL during the teaching practices? This paper illustrates the results of a study involving a sample of 74 PSTs at a university in Malaysia. At the beginning of the study, 74 PSTs were given a questionnaire. 11 PSTs have been observed and interviewed. Result indicates that PSTs were able to develop KDL and show their understanding of it, yet not readily apply such knowledge in modified situations.

  14. The uses and implications of standards in general practice consultations

    Lippert, Maria Laura; Reventlow, Susanne; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm

    2017-01-01

    Quality standards play an increasingly important role in primary care through their inscription in various technologies for improving professional practice. While ‘hard’ biomedical standards have been the most common and debated, current quality development initiatives increasingly seek to include...... as manifestations of an inherent conflict between principles of patient-centredness and formal biomedical quality standards. However, this study suggests that standards on the ‘softer’ aspects of care may just as well interfere with a clinical approach relying on situated and attentive interactions with patients....

  15. [Cultural diversity and stereotyping: implication for the medical practice].

    Durieux-Paillard, S; Loutan, L

    2005-09-28

    Increasing number of migrants worldwide brings doctors to treat patients of various origins. Patients' diversity enriches health professionals but also induces a risk of mutual incomprehension, due to cultural and language barriers. Multicultural context stimulates unwittingly stereotyping, based on a simplistic assessment of the patient's culture. Stereotyping is also influenced by the political and media coverage. Studies underscored that universally, minorities patients have an unequal access to health care in host countries. Health professionals should be aware that racial stereotyping exists in medical practice: it is a first step to bridge cultural gap between them and their patients.

  16. Toward an Ontology of Practices in Educational Administration: Theoretical Implications for Research and Practice

    Newton, Paul; Riveros, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we argue for a study of educational administration centered on an "ontology of practices." This is an initial proposal for thinking about and conceptualizing practices in educational administration. To do this, first, we explore how practices are constituted and how they configure the social realities of practitioners.…

  17. Current knowledge on radon risk. Implications for practical radiation protection?

    Mueller, Wolfgang-Ulrich; Giussani, Augusto; Kreuzer, Michaela; Sobotzki, Christina; Ruehm, Werner; Lecomte, Jean-Francois; Harrison, John; Breckow, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    ICRP suggested a strategy based on the distinction between a protection approach for dwellings and one for workplaces in the previous recommendations on radon. Now, the Commission recommends an integrated approach for the protection against radon exposure in all buildings irrespective of their purpose and the status of their occupants. The strategy of protection in buildings, implemented through a national action plan, is based on the application of the optimisation principle below a derived reference level in concentration (maximum 300 Bq m -3 ). A problem, however, arises that due to new epidemiological findings and application of dosimetric models, ICRP 115 (Ann ICRP 40, 2010) presents nominal probability coefficients for radon exposure that are approximately by a factor of 2 larger than in the former recommendations of ICRP 65 (Ann ICRP 23, 1993). On the basis of the so-called epidemiological approach and the dosimetric approach, the doubling of risk per unit exposure is represented by a doubling of the dose coefficients, while the risk coefficient of ICRP 103 (2007) remains unchanged. Thus, an identical given radon exposure situation with the new dose coefficients would result in a doubling of dose compared with the former values. This is of serious conceptual implications. A possible solution of this problem was presented during the workshop. (orig.)

  18. Current knowledge on radon risk. Implications for practical radiation protection?

    Mueller, Wolfgang-Ulrich [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Institut fuer Medizinische Strahlenbiologie, Essen (Germany); Giussani, Augusto; Kreuzer, Michaela; Sobotzki, Christina [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Ruehm, Werner [German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Lecomte, Jean-Francois [International Affaires Directorate, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, P.O. Box 17, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Harrison, John [Oxford Brookes University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom); Breckow, Joachim [THM University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Giessen (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    ICRP suggested a strategy based on the distinction between a protection approach for dwellings and one for workplaces in the previous recommendations on radon. Now, the Commission recommends an integrated approach for the protection against radon exposure in all buildings irrespective of their purpose and the status of their occupants. The strategy of protection in buildings, implemented through a national action plan, is based on the application of the optimisation principle below a derived reference level in concentration (maximum 300 Bq m{sup -3}). A problem, however, arises that due to new epidemiological findings and application of dosimetric models, ICRP 115 (Ann ICRP 40, 2010) presents nominal probability coefficients for radon exposure that are approximately by a factor of 2 larger than in the former recommendations of ICRP 65 (Ann ICRP 23, 1993). On the basis of the so-called epidemiological approach and the dosimetric approach, the doubling of risk per unit exposure is represented by a doubling of the dose coefficients, while the risk coefficient of ICRP 103 (2007) remains unchanged. Thus, an identical given radon exposure situation with the new dose coefficients would result in a doubling of dose compared with the former values. This is of serious conceptual implications. A possible solution of this problem was presented during the workshop. (orig.)

  19. Practical Implications of Empirically Studying Moral Decision-Making

    Heinzelmann, Nora; Ugazio, Giuseppe; Tobler, Philippe N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the practical question of why people do not behave in the way they ought to behave. This question is a practical one, reaching both into the normative and descriptive domains of morality. That is, it concerns moral norms as well as empirical facts. We argue that two main problems usually keep us form acting and judging in a morally decent way: firstly, we make mistakes in moral reasoning. Secondly, even when we know how to act and judge, we still fail to meet the requirements due to personal weaknesses. This discussion naturally leads us to another question: can we narrow the gap between what people are morally required to do and what they actually do? We discuss findings from neuroscience, economics, and psychology, considering how we might bring our moral behavior better in line with moral theory. Potentially fruitful means include nudging, training, pharmacological enhancement, and brain stimulation. We conclude by raising the question of whether such methods could and should be implemented. PMID:22783157

  20. Practical implications of empirically studying moral decision-making.

    Heinzelmann, Nora; Ugazio, Giuseppe; Tobler, Philippe N

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the practical question of why people do not behave in the way they ought to behave. This question is a practical one, reaching both into the normative and descriptive domains of morality. That is, it concerns moral norms as well as empirical facts. We argue that two main problems usually keep us form acting and judging in a morally decent way: firstly, we make mistakes in moral reasoning. Secondly, even when we know how to act and judge, we still fail to meet the requirements due to personal weaknesses. This discussion naturally leads us to another question: can we narrow the gap between what people are morally required to do and what they actually do? We discuss findings from neuroscience, economics, and psychology, considering how we might bring our moral behavior better in line with moral theory. Potentially fruitful means include nudging, training, pharmacological enhancement, and brain stimulation. We conclude by raising the question of whether such methods could and should be implemented.

  1. Resource use and costs of exenatide bid or insulin in clinical practice: the European CHOICE study

    Kiiskinen U

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Urpo Kiiskinen,1 Stephan Matthaei,2 Matthew Reaney,3 Chantal Mathieu,4 Claes-Göran Östenson,5 Thure Krarup,6 Michael Theodorakis,7,* Jacek Kiljanski,8 Carole Salaun-Martin,9 Hélène Sapin,9 Bruno Guerci10 1Eli Lilly, Helsinki, Finland; 2Quakenbrück Diabetes Center, Quakenbrück, Germany; 3Eli Lilly, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 4Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium; 5Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 6Department of Endocrinology, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 7Department of Clinical Therapeutics, University of Athens School of Medicine, Athens, Greece; 8Eli Lilly, Warsaw, Poland; 9Eli Lilly, Neuilly Cedex, France; 10Department of Diabetes, Metabolic Diseases, and Nutrition, Hôpital Brabois, Vandoeuvre-Lès-Nancy, France *Michael Theodorakis was affiliated with the institution shown above at the time of the study, but has since left this institution Purpose: CHOICE (CHanges to treatment and Outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes initiating InjeCtablE therapy assessed patterns of exenatide bid and initial insulin therapy usage in clinical practice in six European countries and evaluated outcomes during the study. Methods: CHOICE was a 24-month, prospective, noninterventional observational study. Clinical and resource use data were collected at initiation of first injectable therapy (exenatide bid or insulin and at regular intervals for 24 months. Costs were evaluated from the national health care system perspective at 2009 prices. Results: A total of 2515 patients were recruited. At the 24-month analysis, significant treatment change had occurred during the study in 42.2% of 1114 eligible patients in the exenatide bid cohort and 36.0% of 1274 eligible patients in the insulin cohort. Improvements in glycemic control were observed over the course of the study in both cohorts (P < 0.001 for both, but mean weight was reduced in the exenatide bid cohort (P < 0

  2. A Mesoamerican origin of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.): Implications for the conservation of plant genetic resources.

    Larranaga, N; Albertazzi, F J; Fontecha, G; Palmieri, M; Rainer, H; van Zonneveld, M; Hormaza, J I

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge on the structure and distribution of genetic diversity is a key aspect to plan and execute an efficient conservation and utilization of the genetic resources of any crop as well as for determining historical demographic inferences. In this work, a large data set of 1,765 accessions of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill, Annonaceae), an underutilized fruit tree crop native to the Neotropics and used as a food source by pre-Columbian cultures, was collected from six different countries across the American continent and amplified with nine highly informative microsatellite markers. The structure analyses, fine representation of the genetic diversity and an ABC approach suggest a Mesoamerican origin of the crop, contrary to previous reports, with clear implications for the dispersion of plant germplasm between Central and South America in pre-Columbian times. These results together with the potential distribution of the species in a climatic change context using two different climate models provide new insights for the history and conservation of extant genetic resources of cherimoya that can be applied to other currently underutilized woody perennial crops. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A multidirectional communication model: implications for social marketing practice.

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L

    2009-04-01

    The landscape of sending and receiving information has changed dramatically in the past 25 years. The communication process is changing from being unidirectional to multidirectional as consumers are becoming active participants by creating, seeking, and sharing information using a variety of channels and devices. The purpose of this article is to describe how this shift in the communication process- where gatekeepers control the creation and content of information and consumers are less active recipients to one that reflects a multidirectional and more dynamic process with participative consumers-will affect the social marketing process. This shift in communication does not represent an option for social marketers so much as a necessity. As professionals respond to this evolving communication model, the practice of social marketing can remain vibrant as a relevant consumer-oriented approach to behavior change.

  4. Organizational change theory: implications for health promotion practice.

    Batras, Dimitri; Duff, Cameron; Smith, Ben J

    2016-03-01

    Sophisticated understandings of organizational dynamics and processes of organizational change are crucial for the development and success of health promotion initiatives. Theory has a valuable contribution to make in understanding organizational change, for identifying influential factors that should be the focus of change efforts and for selecting the strategies that can be applied to promote change. This article reviews select organizational change models to identify the most pertinent insights for health promotion practitioners. Theoretically derived considerations for practitioners who seek to foster organizational change include the extent to which the initiative is modifiable to fit with the internal context; the amount of time that is allocated to truly institutionalize change; the ability of the agents of change to build short-term success deliberately into their implementation plan; whether or not the shared group experience of action for change is positive or negative and the degree to which agencies that are the intended recipients of change are resourced to focus on internal factors. In reviewing theories of organizational change, the article also addresses strategies for facilitating the adoption of key theoretical insights into the design and implementation of health promotion initiatives in diverse organizational settings. If nothing else, aligning health promotion with organizational change theory promises insights into what it is that health promoters do and the time that it can take to do it effectively. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. High performance work practices in small firms : A resource-poverty and strategic decision-making perspective

    Kroon, B.; van de Voorde, F.C.; Timmers, J.

    2013-01-01

    High performance work practices (HPWPs) are human resource management practices aimed at stimulating employee and organisational performance. The application of HPWPs is not widespread in small organisations. We examine whether the implementation of coherent bundles of HPWPs (aimed at employee

  6. High performance work practices in small firms: a resource-poverty and strategic decision-making perspective

    Kroon, B.; Voorde, F.C. van de; Timmers, J.

    2013-01-01

    High performance work practices (HPWPs) are human resource management practices aimed at stimulating employee and organisational performance. The application of HPWPs is not widespread in small organisations. We examine whether the implementation of coherent bundles of HPWPs (aimed at employee

  7. South Asia river-flow projections and their implications for water resources

    Mathison, C.; Wiltshire, A. J.; Falloon, P.; Challinor, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    could mean additional water resources for irrigation, the largest usage of water in this region, but has implications in terms of inundation risk. These projected increases could be more than countered by changes in demand due to depleted groundwater, increases in domestic use or expansion of water intense industries. Including missing hydrological processes in the model would make these projections more robust but could also change the sign of the projections.

  8. Cost Implications of Uncertainty in CO{sub 2} Storage Resource Estimates: A Review

    Anderson, Steven T., E-mail: sanderson@usgs.gov [National Center, U.S. Geological Survey (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Carbon capture from stationary sources and geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is an important option to include in strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. However, the potential costs of commercial-scale CO{sub 2} storage are not well constrained, stemming from the inherent uncertainty in storage resource estimates coupled with a lack of detailed estimates of the infrastructure needed to access those resources. Storage resource estimates are highly dependent on storage efficiency values or storage coefficients, which are calculated based on ranges of uncertain geological and physical reservoir parameters. If dynamic factors (such as variability in storage efficiencies, pressure interference, and acceptable injection rates over time), reservoir pressure limitations, boundaries on migration of CO{sub 2}, consideration of closed or semi-closed saline reservoir systems, and other possible constraints on the technically accessible CO{sub 2} storage resource (TASR) are accounted for, it is likely that only a fraction of the TASR could be available without incurring significant additional costs. Although storage resource estimates typically assume that any issues with pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection will be mitigated by reservoir pressure management, estimates of the costs of CO{sub 2} storage generally do not include the costs of active pressure management. Production of saline waters (brines) could be essential to increasing the dynamic storage capacity of most reservoirs, but including the costs of this critical method of reservoir pressure management could increase current estimates of the costs of CO{sub 2} storage by two times, or more. Even without considering the implications for reservoir pressure management, geologic uncertainty can significantly impact CO{sub 2} storage capacities and costs, and contribute to uncertainty in carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems. Given the current state of available information and the

  9. Psychoacoustic entropy theory and its implications for performance practice

    Strohman, Gregory J.

    This dissertation attempts to motivate, derive and imply potential uses for a generalized perceptual theory of musical harmony called psychoacoustic entropy theory. This theory treats the human auditory system as a physical system which takes acoustic measurements. As a result, the human auditory system is subject to all the appropriate uncertainties and limitations of other physical measurement systems. This is the theoretic basis for defining psychoacoustic entropy. Psychoacoustic entropy is a numerical quantity which indexes the degree to which the human auditory system perceives instantaneous disorder within a sound pressure wave. Chapter one explains the importance of harmonic analysis as a tool for performance practice. It also outlines the critical limitations for many of the most influential historical approaches to modeling harmonic stability, particularly when compared to available scientific research in psychoacoustics. Rather than analyze a musical excerpt, psychoacoustic entropy is calculated directly from sound pressure waves themselves. This frames psychoacoustic entropy theory in the most general possible terms as a theory of musical harmony, enabling it to be invoked for any perceivable sound. Chapter two provides and examines many widely accepted mathematical models of the acoustics and psychoacoustics of these sound pressure waves. Chapter three introduces entropy as a precise way of measuring perceived uncertainty in sound pressure waves. Entropy is used, in combination with the acoustic and psychoacoustic models introduced in chapter two, to motivate the mathematical formulation of psychoacoustic entropy theory. Chapter four shows how to use psychoacoustic entropy theory to analyze the certain types of musical harmonies, while chapter five applies the analytical tools developed in chapter four to two short musical excerpts to influence their interpretation. Almost every form of harmonic analysis invokes some degree of mathematical reasoning

  10. Helmet wearing in Kenya: prevalence, knowledge, attitude, practice and implications.

    Bachani, A M; Hung, Y W; Mogere, S; Akunga, D; Nyamari, J; Hyder, A A

    2017-03-01

    In light of the increasing prevalence of motorcycles on Kenyan roads, there is a need to address the safety of individuals using this mode of transport. Helmet use has been proven to be effective in preventing head injuries and fatalities in the event of a crash. This study aims to understand the prevalence of helmet use as well as knowledge, attitudes, and practices in two districts in Kenya over a 5-year period (2010-2014). Observational studies on helmet use at randomly selected locations throughout each district were done every quarter to estimate the prevalence of helmet use. Roadside knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys were done two times a year in each district. Helmet use among motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thika and Naivasha was assessed through systematic observations at randomly selected locations in the two districts between August 2010 and December 2014. Roadside KAP surveys were administered in both sites to motorcyclists in areas where they stopped, including motorcycle bays, petrol stations and rest areas near the helmet observation sites. Secondary analysis of trauma registries was also used. Negative binomial regressions were used to assess trends of helmet wearing among motorcyclists over time, and logistic regressions were used to analyze associated risk factors as well as association with health outcomes among those admitted to the four hospitals. A total of 256,851 motorcycles were observed in the two target districts during the study period. Overall, prevalence of helmet use among motorcycle drivers in Thika and Naivasha across all periods was 35.12% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.87%-35.38%) and 37.42% (95% CI: 37.15%-37.69%) respectively. Prevalence of helmet wearing remained similar after the passage of a traffic amendment bill. These results were not statistically significant in either Thika or in Naivasha. Data from the KAP survey showed that respondents recognized the life-saving effect of wearing a helmet, but

  11. The implication of transcultural psychiatry for clinical practice.

    Moldavsky, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    This article deals with the main concepts of Transcultural Psychiatry and their applications to everyday psychiatric practice. Transcultural psychiatry has undergone a conceptual reformulation in the last two decades. Having started with a comparative approach, which focused on the diverse manifestations of mental disorders among different societies, it broadened its scope, aiming at present to incorporate social and cultural aspects of illness into the clinical framework. Therefore, transcultural psychiatry now focuses more on what is called the illness experience than on the disease process, the latter understood as illness as it is viewed by health practitioners. Western medicine, of which psychiatry is a part, is grounded in positivist epistemological principles that stress the biological processes of disease. The intention of the paper is to develop an interest in alternative but also complementary ways of thinking. Modern transcultural psychiatry interprets some epidemiological and clinical aspects of major mental disorders (such as schizophrenia and depression) in a different light. However, it also distances itself from the absolute relativism of antipsychiatry, centering on clinical facts and helping clinicians in their primary task of alleviating suffering. An important contribution in addressing this task is the formulation of a cultural axis within the DSM model of multiaxial evaluation. A clinical vignette of a cultural formulation applied to a clinical discussion of a case is described.

  12. Blood specimen labelling errors: Implications for nephrology nursing practice.

    Duteau, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Patient safety is the foundation of high-quality health care, as recognized both nationally and worldwide. Patient blood specimen identification is critical in ensuring the delivery of safe and appropriate care. The practice of nephrology nursing involves frequent patient blood specimen withdrawals to treat and monitor kidney disease. A critical review of the literature reveals that incorrect patient identification is one of the major causes of blood specimen labelling errors. Misidentified samples create a serious risk to patient safety leading to multiple specimen withdrawals, delay in diagnosis, misdiagnosis, incorrect treatment, transfusion reactions, increased length of stay and other negative patient outcomes. Barcode technology has been identified as a preferred method for positive patient identification leading to a definitive decrease in blood specimen labelling errors by as much as 83% (Askeland, et al., 2008). The use of a root cause analysis followed by an action plan is one approach to decreasing the occurrence of blood specimen labelling errors. This article will present a review of the evidence-based literature surrounding blood specimen labelling errors, followed by author recommendations for completing a root cause analysis and action plan. A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) will be presented as one method to determine root cause, followed by the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU) as a framework for implementation of strategies to reduce blood specimen labelling errors.

  13. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF USING INDUCED TRANSIENTS FOR LEAK DETECTION

    Marko V. Ivetic

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with practical problems of leak detection by methods based on hydraulic transient analysis. Controlled and safe transients can be generated and the response of the network, with the relevant information, can be monitored and analysed. Information about leaks, contained in the monitored pressure signal, cannot be easily retrieved, due to reflections, noise etc. On the basis of numerical experiments on a simple network, merits and limitations of several methods for signal analysis (time domain analysis, spectral density function and wavelet transform have been examined. Certain amount of information can be extracted from the time history of the pressure signal, assuming the first reflection of the pressure wave is captured with very high time resolution and accuracy. Only relatively large leaks can be detected using this methodology. As a way to increase the sensitivity of this method it is suggested that transforms in frequency domain and, especially, wavelet transforms, are used. The most promising method for leakage location and quantification seems to be based on wavelet analysis.

  14. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF USING INDUCED TRANSIENTS FOR LEAK DETECTION

    Marko V. Ivetic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with practical problems of leak detection by methods based on hydraulic transient analysis. Controlled and safe transients can be generated and the response of the network, with the relevant information, can be monitored and analysed. Information about leaks, contained in the monitored pressure signal, cannot be easily retrieved, due to reflections, noise etc. On the basis of numerical experiments on a simple network, merits and limitations of several methods for signal analysis (time domain analysis, spectral density function and wavelet transform have been examined. Certain amount of information can be extracted from the time history of the pressure signal, assuming the first reflection of the pressure wave is captured with very high time resolution and accuracy. Only relatively large leaks can be detected using this methodology. As a way to increase the sensitivity of this method it is suggested that transforms in frequency domain and, especially, wavelet transforms, are used. The most promising method for leakage location and quantification seems to be based on wavelet analysis.

  15. Greek Immigrants in Australia: Implications for Culturally Sensitive Practice.

    Georgiades, Savvas Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This exploratory research examined adjustment challenges, resiliencies, attitudes, emotional health, economic stability, criminal involvement, victimization and service experiences, and some cultural propensities of Greek Immigrants (GIs) in Australia using a convenient multi-generational sample (n = 123; response rate = .5). Data were collected via surveys, telephone, and personal-interviews in four major Australian cities. Among other things, the study revealed that Greek identity and cultural customs are often significant to first generation GIs. Adjustment challenges upon entry include primarily language, housing, and transportation difficulties, nostalgia for relatives and the motherland, unfamiliarity with socio-cultural systems, unemployment, money challenges, and lack of friendships. Christian faith, the extended family, family values and traditions, cultural pride for ancient Greek achievements, and a hard 'work ethic' are notable resiliencies that support GIs in their struggles and solidify their pursuit for happiness and success. Financial concerns, aging, and nostalgia for relatives and the motherland were the primary causes of socio-emotional instability. Attitudinal differences in the respondents based on age, gender, and socio-economic status, cross-cultural comparisons, and recommendations for culturally-sensitive practice with GIs are analyzed and methodological limitations illuminated. Future research needs in the field are also highlighted.

  16. Do Resources, Justice Administration Practices And Federalism Have An Impact On Registered And Sentenced Crime Prevalence?

    Christophe Koller

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution, based on a statistical approach, undertakes to link data on resources (personnel and financial means and the working of the administration of penal justice (prosecution, sentencing taking into account the nationality of those prosecuted. In order to be able to distinguish prosecution and sentencing practices of judicial authorities and possible processes of discrimination, diverse sources have been used such as data from court administrations, public finances and police forces, collected by the Swiss Federal Statistical Office and the Swiss Federal administration of finances. The authors discuss discrimination in prosecution and sentencing between Swiss residents and foreigners taking into account localization and resources regarding personnel and public finances.

  17. Youth Work Transitions: A Review with Implications for Counselling and Career Practice

    Parada, Filomena; Young, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    We critically review studies highlighting youth's work transitions and derive some implications for career and counselling theory and practice. We first discuss today's hypermodern world, specifically the meanings being conveyed by today's complex social realities and their impact on individuals' (work) lives. An overview of…

  18. Understanding Parental Grief as a Response to Mental Illness: Implications for Practice

    Penzo, Jeanine A.; Harvey, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children and…

  19. "Forest Grove School District v. T.A." Supreme Court Case: Implications for School Psychology Practice

    Dixon, Shauna G.; Eusebio, Eleazar C.; Turton, William J.; Wright, Peter W. D.; Hale, James B.

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 "Forest Grove School District v. T.A." United States Supreme Court case could have significant implications for school psychology practice. The Court ruled that the parents of a student with a disability were entitled to private school tuition reimbursement even though T.A. had not been identified with a disability or previously…

  20. SOME IMPLICATIONS OF A CONCEPT OF GROWTH MOTIVATION FOR ADULT EDUCATION THEORY AND PRACTICE.

    NOREEN, DAVID SHELDON

    THIS STUDY EXAMINED GROWTH MOTIVATION AS A DEVELOPING CONCEPT AND AS A THEORETICAL CONSTRUCT, AND THE IMPLICATIONS OF THIS THEORY FOR ADULT EDUCATION THEORY AND PRACTICE. SPECIAL ATTENTION WAS GIVEN TO THE THEORETICAL CONSTRUCTS OF ABRAHAM MASLOW, TO THE NATURE OF GROWTH MOTIVATION CONCEPTS IN GENERAL, AND TO FORMS OF SELF UNDERSTANDING AND…

  1. Addressing Cross-Cultural Teamwork Barriers: Implications for Industry Practice and Higher Education Curricula

    Levitt, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores cultural factors affecting international team dynamics and the implications for industry practice and higher education. Despite decades of studying and experience with cultural diversity, international work groups continue to be challenged by ethnocentrism and prejudices. Central to the context is that cultural differences in…

  2. Suitability of Local Resource Management Practices Based on Supernatural Enforcement Mechanisms in the Local Social-cultural Context

    Masatoshi Sasaoka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental anthropological studies on natural resource management have widely demonstrated and thematized local resource management practices based on the interactions between local people and supernatural agencies and their role in maintaining natural resources. In Indonesia, even though the legal status of local people's right to the forest and forest resources is still weak, the recent transition toward decentralization presents a growing opportunity for local people to collaborate with outsiders such as governmental agencies and environmental nongovernmental organizations in natural resource management. In such situations, in-depth understanding of the value of local resource management practices is needed to promote self-directed and effective resource management. Here, we focus on local forest resource management and its suitability in the local social-cultural context in central Seram, east Indonesia. Local resource management appears to be embedded in the wider social-cultural context of the local communities. However, few intensive case studies in Indonesia have addressed the relationship between the Indigenous resource management practices closely related to a people's belief in supernatural agents and the social-cultural context. We illustrate how the well-structured use of forest resources is established and maintained through these interactions. We then investigate how local resource management practices relate to the social-cultural and natural resources context of an upland community in central Seram and discuss the possible future applications for achieving conservation.

  3. Elder Abuse: Systematic Review and Implications for Practice.

    Dong, Xin Qi

    2015-06-01

    This article is based on the lecture for the 2014 American Geriatrics Society Outstanding Scientific Achievement for Clinical Investigation Award. Elder abuse is a global public health and human rights problem. Evidence suggests that elder abuse is prevalent, predictable, costly, and sometimes fatal. This review will highlight the global epidemiology of elder abuse in terms of its prevalence, risk factors, and consequences in community populations. The global literature in PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, BIOSIS, Science Direct, and Cochrane Central was searched. Search terms included elder abuse, elder mistreatment, elder maltreatment, prevalence, incidence, risk factors, protective factors, outcomes, and consequences. Studies that existed only as abstracts, case series, or case reports or recruited individuals younger than 60; qualitative studies; and non-English publications were excluded. Tables and figures were created to highlight the findings: the most-detailed analyses to date of the prevalence of elder abuse according to continent, risk and protective factors, graphic presentation of odds ratios and confidence intervals for major risk factors, consequences, and practical suggestions for health professionals in addressing elder abuse. Elder abuse is common in community-dwelling older adults, especially minority older adults. This review identifies important knowledge gaps, such as a lack of consistency in definitions of elder abuse; insufficient research with regard to screening; and etiological, intervention, and prevention research. Concerted efforts from researchers, community organizations, healthcare and legal professionals, social service providers, and policy-makers should be promoted to address the global problem of elder abuse. © 2015, Copyright the Author Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Analytical implications of using practice theory in workplace information literacy research

    Moring, Camilla Elisabeth; Lloyd, Annemaree

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This paper considers practice theory and the analytical implications of using this theoretical approach in information literacy research. More precisely the aim of the paper is to discuss the translation of practice theoretical assumptions into strategies that frame the analytical...... focus and interest when researching workplace information literacy. Two practice theoretical perspectives are selected, one by Theodore Schatzki and one by Etienne Wenger, and their general commonalities and differences are analysed and discussed. Analysis: The two practice theories and their main ideas...... of what constitute practices, how practices frame social life and the central concepts used to explain this, are presented. Then the application of the theories within workplace information literacy research is briefly explored. Results and Conclusion: The two theoretical perspectives share some...

  5. South Asia river flow projections and their implications for water resources

    Mathison, C.; Wiltshire, A. J.; Falloon, P.; Challinor, A. J.

    2015-06-01

    benchmark for comparison against the downscaled GCMs. On the basis that these simulations are among the highest resolution climate simulations available we examine how useful they are for understanding the changes in water resources for the South Asia region. In general the downscaled GCMs capture the seasonality of the river flows, with timing of maximum river flows broadly matching the available observations and the downscaled ERA-Interim simulation. Typically the RCM simulations over-estimate the maximum river flows compared to the observations probably due to a positive rainfall bias and a lack of abstraction in the model although comparison with the downscaled ERA-Interim simulation is more mixed with only a couple of the gauges showing a bias compared with the downscaled GCM runs. The simulations suggest an increasing trend in annual mean river flows for some of the river gauges in this analysis, in some cases almost doubling by the end of the century; this trend is generally masked by the large annual variability of river flows for this region. The future seasonality of river flows does not change with the future maximum river flow rates still occuring during the ASM period, with a magnitude in some cases, greater than the present day natural variability. Increases in river flow during peak flow periods means additional water resource for irrigation, the largest usage of water in this region, but also has implications in terms of inundation risk. Low flow rates also increase which is likely to be important at times of the year when water is historically more scarce. However these projected increases in resource from rivers could be more than countered by changes in demand due to reductions in the quantity and quality of water available from groundwater, increases in domestic use due to a rising population or expansion of other industries such as hydro-electric power generation.

  6. Biological variation in musculoskeletal injuries: current knowledge, future research and practical implications.

    Collins, Malcolm; September, Alison V; Posthumus, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Evidence from familial and genetic association studies have reported that DNA sequence variants play an important role, together with non-genetic factors, in the aetiology of both exercise-associated and occupational-associated acute and chronic musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries. The associated variants, which have been identified to date, may contribute to the interindividual variation in the structure and, by implication, mechanical properties of the collagen fibril and surrounding matrix within musculoskeletal soft tissues, as well as their response to mechanical loading and other stimuli. Future work should focus on the establishment of multidisciplinary international consortia for the identification of biologically relevant variants involved in modulating injury risk. These consortia will improve the limitations of the published hypothesis-driven genetic association studies, since they will allow resources to be pooled in recruiting large well-characterised cohorts required for whole-genome screening. Finally, clinicians and coaches need to be aware that many direct-to-consumer companies are currently marketing genetic tests directly to athletes without it being requested by an appropriately qualified healthcare professional, and without interpretation alongside other clinical indicators or lifestyle factors. These specific genetic tests are premature and are not necessarily required to evaluate susceptibility to musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Current practice should rather consider susceptibility through known risk factors such as a positive family history of a specific injury, a history of other tendon and/or ligament injuries and participation in activities associated with the specific musculoskeletal injuries. Potential susceptible athletes may then be individually managed to reduce their risk profile. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Implications of the new sepsis definition on research and practice.

    Peach, Brian C

    2017-04-01

    practice will be essential, to determine if the Sepsis 3 definition, its associated clinical criteria, and the qSOFA need further revision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Potential implications for expansion of freeze-tolerant eucalyptus plantations on water resources in the southern United States

    James M. Vose; Chelcy F. Miniat; Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell

    2014-01-01

    The potential expansion of freeze-tolerant (FT) Eucalyptus plantations in the United States has raised concerns about the implications for water resources. Modeling was used to examine the potential effects of expanding the distribution of FT Eucalyptus plantations in US Department of Agriculture Plant Hardiness Zones 8b and...

  9. Towards Core Modelling Practices in Integrated Water Resource Management: An Interdisciplinary View of the Modelling Process

    Jakeman, A. J.; Elsawah, S.; Pierce, S. A.; Ames, D. P.

    2016-12-01

    The National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC) Core Modelling Practices Pursuit is developing resources to describe core practices for developing and using models to support integrated water resource management. These practices implement specific steps in the modelling process with an interdisciplinary perspective; however, the particular practice that is most appropriate depends on contextual aspects specific to the project. The first task of the pursuit is to identify the various steps for which implementation practices are to be described. This paper reports on those results. The paper draws on knowledge from the modelling process literature for environmental modelling (Jakeman et al., 2006), engaging stakeholders (Voinov and Bousquet, 2010) and general modelling (Banks, 1999), as well as the experience of the consortium members. We organise the steps around the four modelling phases. The planning phase identifies what is to be achieved, how and with what resources. The model is built and tested during the construction phase, and then used in the application phase. Finally, models that become part of the ongoing policy process require a maintenance phase. For each step, the paper focusses on what is to be considered or achieved, rather than how it is performed. This reflects the separation of the steps from the practices that implement them in different contexts. We support description of steps with a wide range of examples. Examples are designed to be generic and do not reflect any one project or context, but instead are drawn from common situations or from extremely different ones so as to highlight some of the issues that may arise at each step. References Banks, J. (1999). Introduction to simulation. In Proceedings of the 1999 Winter Simulation Conference. Jakeman, A. J., R. A. Letcher, and J. P. Norton (2006). Ten iterative steps in development and evaluation of environmental models. Environmental Modelling and Software 21, 602-614. Voinov, A

  10. Earth Science Informatics Community Requirements for Improving Sustainable Science Software Practices: User Perspectives and Implications for Organizational Action

    Downs, R. R.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Robinson, E.

    2014-12-01

    Science software is integral to the scientific process and must be developed and managed in a sustainable manner to ensure future access to scientific data and related resources. Organizations that are part of the scientific enterprise, as well as members of the scientific community who work within these entities, can contribute to the sustainability of science software and to practices that improve scientific community capabilities for science software sustainability. As science becomes increasingly digital and therefore, dependent on software, improving community practices for sustainable science software will contribute to the sustainability of science. Members of the Earth science informatics community, including scientific data producers and distributers, end-user scientists, system and application developers, and data center managers, use science software regularly and face the challenges and the opportunities that science software presents for the sustainability of science. To gain insight on practices needed for the sustainability of science software from the science software experiences of the Earth science informatics community, an interdisciplinary group of 300 community members were asked to engage in simultaneous roundtable discussions and report on their answers to questions about the requirements for improving scientific software sustainability. This paper will present an analysis of the issues reported and the conclusions offered by the participants. These results provide perspectives for science software sustainability practices and have implications for actions that organizations and their leadership can initiate to improve the sustainability of science software.

  11. The Prevalence and Distribution of Aging-Friendly Human Resource Practices.

    Segel-Karpas, Dikla; Bamberger, Peter A; Bacharach, Samuel B

    2015-07-01

    The aging of the workforce in the developed world has prompted organizations to implement human resource (HR) policies and practices encouraging older workers to defer retirement. However, little is known about the prevalence of such practices, and the organizational factors associated with their adoption. In this study, we used data collected from 2008 to 2009 from a national probability sample of retirement eligible workers in the United States (N = 407) to assess the prevalence of aging-friendly human resource practices (AFHRP), and their organizational predictors. Results indicate that employee wellness programs, unpaid leave, and reassignment based on physical needs are among the most prevalent AFHRP. However, in the vast majority of enterprises, AFHRP are limited. Results also indicate that projected organizational growth and a focus on internal labor market practices are positively associated with the adoption of AFHRP. Organizational size and the degree of unionization, while positively associated with aging-friendly benefits, were inversely associated with flexibility practices. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Ceramics Studio to Podiatry Clinic: The Impact of Multimedia Resources in the Teaching of Practical Skills across Diverse Disciplines

    Matheson, Ruth; Mathieson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on the experiences of students from two vastly different disciplines to both explore the theoretical background supporting the use of multimedia resources to teach practical skills and provide a qualitative evaluation of student perceptions and experiences of using bespoke resources. Within ceramics and podiatry, practical skills…

  13. The role of human resource management in open innovation: exploring the relation between HR practices and OI

    Paul, Svenja

    2013-01-01

    How do human resource practices strengthen open innovation activities? This inductive study of six cases led to propositions exploring that question. I thereby investigated the role of human resource management in open innovation, specifically the relation between HR practices and an employee's willingness to embrace open innovation.

  14. A Study on the Relationship between Human Resource Management Practices and Organizational Performance

    Özden AKIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to investigate the relationship between organizational performance variables and Human Resource Management practices. Workforce planning, training and development, performance appraisal, rewarding, firm-employee relationship, and internal communication are used as human resource management practices. Employee turnover rate, employee productivity, and sales are used as organizational performance variables. The results are collected by survey from 108 companies which are the members of Istanbul Chamber of Industry (ICI. Analyses show that workforce planning has a significant effect on employee productivity and sales, but no significant effect on employee turnover rate. The results also show that employee turnover rate is negatively associated with employee productivity and sales.

  15. Building human resources capability in health care: a global analysis of best practice--Part III.

    Zairi, M

    1998-01-01

    This is the last part of a series of three papers which discussed very comprehensively best practice applications in human resource management by drawing special inferences to the healthcare context. It emerged from parts I and II that high performing organisations plan and intend to build sustainable capability through a systematic consideration of the human element as the key asset and through a continuous process of training, developing, empowering and engaging people in all aspects of organisational excellence. Part III brings this debate to a close by demonstrating what brings about organisational excellence and proposes a road map for effective human resource development and management, based on world class standards. Healthcare human resource professionals can now rise to the challenge and plan ahead for building organisational capability and sustainable performance.

  16. The practice of career development in the international human resource management of the European countries

    Berber Nemanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The function very close to the training in the management of human resources is certainly the human resource development. Specifically, the employees acquire new knowledge, abilities and skills during the training process, but also gain new experiences through various business tasks during their working life, developing themselves both, in private life and in the professional sense. Human resource development is seen as the development of the expertise of people through organizational development and training of employees in order of improvement of the performances. In this paper authors explored the practice of carrier development in European countries. Research was based on data from international project, CRANET, in the period from 2008 to 2010. The authors presented data about the usage of techniques for evaluation of career development and investigated obtained results.

  17. Practices and health perception of preparation of Brassica vegetables: translating survey data to technological and nutritional implications

    Nugrahedi, P.Y.; Hantoro, I.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Steenbekkers, L.P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Food preparation practices are known to have large nutritional implications on the final product. This article describes survey data on preparation practices of Brassica vegetables and the translation of these data into technological and nutritional implications using knowledge on the mechanisms of

  18. Work-Life Balance Practices Among Irish Hotel Employees:Implications for HRM

    Farrell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine work-life balance in the Irish hotel sector from an employee perspective with implications for HRM. 246 questionnaires from employees were returned which was a 22% response rate. Company benefits were not associated with numerical flexibility, but company benefits were associated with functional flexibility and work-life balance supports. This would suggest an integrated approach to human resource management (HRM), whereby some companies engage in a contemp...

  19. Undergraduate students as co-producers in the creation of first-year practical class resources

    Hubbard, KE; Brown, R; Deans, S; García, MP; Pruna, M-G; Mason, Matthew James

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate students are increasingly working with academic staff to evaluate and design teaching materials in Higher Education, thereby moving from being passive consumers of knowledge to genuine partners in their education. Here we describe a student partnership project run at the University of Cambridge, which aimed to improve undergraduate biology practical class teaching. Student interns were recruited to act as researchers, pedagogical consultants and producers of teaching resources. ...

  20. Do commitment based human resource practices influence job embeddedness and intention to quit?

    Debjani Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This empirical paper provides evidence that commitment based human resource practices (CBHRP influence employees' turnover intentions by embedding newcomers more extensively into organisations. The study was conducted with 501 managers in 19 financial service organisations in India. Results reveal that CBHRP enable organisations to actively embed employees. The results also indicate that on-the-job embeddedness (on-the-JE is negatively related to turnover intentions and mediates relationships between CBHRP and employees' intention to quit.

  1. The Influence of Human Resource Management Practices on Career Satisfaction: Evidence from Malaysia

    Hee, Ong Choon; Cheng, Teo Yin; Yaw, Chang Chun; Gee, Wong Vee; Kamaludin, Siti Maryam; Prabhagaran, Jasveena R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between Human Resource Management (HRM) practices (Training and Development, Compensation and Benefit, Performance Management) and career satisfaction. Data was collected through questionnaire from 80 employees of various banks in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. The results of the regression analysis showed that training and development and compensation and benefitwere significantlyrelated to employee career satisfaction. Thefindings suggested t...

  2. Managers' perspectives on recruitment and human resource development practices in primary health care.

    Lammintakanen, Johanna; Kivinen, Tuula; Kinnunen, Juha

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to describe primary health care managers' attitudes and views on recruitment and human resource development in general and to ascertain whether there are any differences in the views of managers in the southern and northern regions of Finland. A postal questionnaire was sent to 315 primary health care managers, of whom 55% responded. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and cross-tabulation according to the location of the health centre. There were few differences in managers' attitudes and views on recruitment and human resource development. In the southern region, managers estimated that their organization would be less attractive to employees in the future and they were more positive about recruiting employees abroad. Furthermore, managers in the northern region were more positive regarding human resource development and its various practices. Although the results are preliminary in nature, it seems that managers in different regions have adopted different strategies in order to cope with the shrinking pool of new recruits. In the southern region, managers were looking abroad to find new employees, while in the northern region, managers put effort into retaining the employees in the organization with different human resource development practices.

  3. Excel 2010 for human resource management statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    Quirk, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    This is the first book to show the capabilities of Microsoft Excel to teach human resource  management statistics effectively.  It is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical human resource management problems.  If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you.  Excel, a widely available computer program for students and managers, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in human resource management courses.  Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past.  However, Excel 2010 for Human Resource Management Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how to apply Excel to statistical techniques necessary in their courses and ...

  4. STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND ITS IMPACT ON WORK LIFE BALANCE OF EMPLOYEES OF AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY IN PUNE REGION

    Dr. K. Ramamurthi; Mr. Lambodar Saha

    2017-01-01

    Various strategic practices have already been established to promote the value of Human Resource Management in organizations. The Human Resource Management function is now considered as a strategic tool in the formulation and implementation of organizational strategies to attain its objectives. Automobile Industries are chosen as subjects for this study with specific aspects relating to various strategic human resource management practices and its impact on work-life balance and to determine ...

  5. Best practice recommendations for the development, implementation, and evaluation of online knowledge translation resources in rehabilitation.

    Levac, Danielle; Glegg, Stephanie M N; Camden, Chantal; Rivard, Lisa M; Missiuna, Cheryl

    2015-04-01

    The knowledge-to-practice gap in rehabilitation has spurred knowledge translation (KT) initiatives aimed at promoting clinician behavior change and improving patient care. Online KT resources for physical therapists and other rehabilitation clinicians are appealing because of their potential to reach large numbers of individuals through self-paced, self-directed learning. This article proposes best practice recommendations for developing online KT resources that are designed to translate evidence into practice. Four recommendations are proposed with specific steps in the development, implementation, and evaluation process: (1) develop evidence-based, user-centered content; (2) tailor content to online format; (3) evaluate impact; and (4) share results and disseminate knowledge. Based on KT evidence and instructional design principles, concrete examples are provided along with insights gained from experiences in creating and evaluating online KT resources for physical therapists. In proposing these recommendations, the next steps for research are suggested, and others are invited to contribute to the discussion. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  6. The Relationship between Human Resource Practices and Employee Attitudes in a Travel Agency

    R Steyn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the case of a large travel agency and relationships between HR practices and employee attitudes (EA in that specific organisation. A number of studies have shown that effective human resource (HR practices correlate with positive employee attitudes (EA.The attitudes of interest in this study were job satisfaction, organisational commitment, work engagement as well as intention to quit. Positive EA are desirable as these are considered to constitute antecedents to organisational performance. As HR practices are under the control of managers, EA and organisational performance can be optimised should managers engage in implementing effective HR practices. Arguments for the use of universalistic, contingency and configurational perspectives in the implementation of HR practices are found in academic literature. However, literature generally does not indicate which perspective is applicable to a specific organisation. To optimise the validity of the results the relationship between HR practices and EA in the selected travel agency is contrasted with that of nine other organisations. Although the overall results suggest a confirmation of the universalistic perspective, where all HR practices generally relate to the desirable EA outcomes, the configuration of HR practices which relate to desirable EA outcomes in the travel agency was unique. This supports a configurational perspective in the particular organisation. The HR practice of training and development was found to be the most important predictor of EA in this travel agency. The generalisation of these results should however be done with caution, as the results are based on only one sample. Managers of travel agencies are therefore urged to investigate the possibility of the implementation or sustainment of training and development initiatives as this HR practice seems to have the most profound influence on EA in such organisations.

  7. Probability of causation tables and their possible implications for the practice of diagnostic radiology

    Gur, D.; Wald, N.

    1986-01-01

    In compliance with requirements in the Orphan Drug Act (97-414) of 1983, tables were recently constructed by an ad hoc committee of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in which the probabilities that certain specific cancers are caused by previous radiation exposure are estimated. The reports of the NIH committee and a National Academy of Science oversight committee may have broad implications for the future practice of diagnostic radiology. The basis on which the probability of causation tables were established and some of the possible implications for diagnostic radiology are discussed

  8. Ancient Ethical Practices of Dualism and Ethical Implications for Future Paradigms in Nursing.

    Milton, Constance L

    2016-07-01

    Paradigms contain theoretical structures to guide scientific disciplines. Since ancient times, Cartesian dualism has been a prominent philosophy incorporated in the practice of medicine. The discipline of nursing has continued the body-mind emphasis with similar paradigmatic thinking and theories of nursing that separate body and mind. Future trends for paradigm and nursing theory development are harkening to former ways of thinking. In this article the author discusses the origins of Cartesian dualism and implications for its current usage. The author shall illuminate what it potentially means to engage in dualism in nursing and discuss possible ethical implications for future paradigm and theory development in nursing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Implications of Postharvest Food Loss/Waste Prevention to Energy and Resources Conservation

    Cai, X.; Shafiee-Jood, M.

    2015-12-01

    World's growing demand for food is driven by population and income growth, dietary changes, and the ever-increasing competition between food, feed and bioenergy challenges food security; meanwhile agricultural expansion and intensification threats the environment by the various detrimental impacts. Researchers have attempted to explore strategies to overcome this grand challenge. One of the promising solutions that have attracted considerable attention recently is to increase the efficiency of food supply chain by reducing food loss and waste (FLW). According to recent studies conducted by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nation, almost one third of the food produced for human consumption globally is lost or wasted along the food supply chain. This amount of food discarded manifests a missing, yet potential, opportunity to sustainably enhance both food security and environmental sustainability. However, implementing the strategies and technologies for tackling FLW does not come up as an easy solution since it requires economic incentives, benefit and cost analysis, infrastructure development, and appropriate market mechanism. In this presentation I will provide a synthesis of knowledge on the implications of postharvest food loss/waste prevention to energy and resource conservation, environmental protection, as well as food security. I will also discuss how traditional civil and environmental engineering can contribute to the reduction of postharvest food loss, an important issue of sustainable agriculture.

  10. A water resources model to explore the implications of energy alternatives in the southwestern US

    Yates, D.; Averyt, Kristen; Flores-Lopez, Francisco; Meldrum, J.; Sattler, S.; Sieber, J.; Young, C.

    2013-12-01

    This letter documents the development and validation of a climate-driven, southwestern-US-wide water resources planning model that is being used to explore the implications of extended drought and climate warming on the allocation of water among competing uses. These model uses include a separate accounting for irrigated agriculture; municipal indoor use based on local population and per-capita consumption; climate-driven municipal outdoor turf and amenity watering; and thermoelectric cooling. The model simulates the natural and managed flows of rivers throughout the southwest, including the South Platte, the Arkansas, the Colorado, the Green, the Salt, the Sacramento, the San Joaquin, the Owens, and more than 50 others. Calibration was performed on parameters of land cover, snow accumulation and melt, and water capacity and hydraulic conductivity of soil horizons. Goodness of fit statistics and other measures of performance are shown for a select number of locations and are used to summarize the model’s ability to represent monthly streamflow, reservoir storages, surface and ground water deliveries, etc, under 1980-2010 levels of sectoral water use.

  11. The Implications of Growing Bioenergy Crops on Water Resources, Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics

    Jain, A. K.; Song, Y.; Kheshgi, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    What is the potential for the crops Corn, Miscanthus and switchgrass to meet future energy demands in the U.S.A., and would they mitigate climate change by offsetting fossil fuel greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions? The large-scale cultivation of these bioenergy crops itself could also drive climate change through changes in albedo, evapotranspiration (ET), and GHG emissions. Whether these climate effects will mitigate or exacerbate climate change in the short- and long-term is uncertain. This uncertainty stems from our incomplete understanding of the effects of expanded bioenergy crop production on terrestrial water and energy balance, carbon and nitrogen dynamics, and their interactions. This study aims to understand the implications of growing large-scale bioenergy crops on water resources, carbon and nitrogen dynamics in the United States using a data-modeling framework (ISAM) that we developed. Our study indicates that both Miscanthus and Cave-in-Rock switchgrass can attain high and stable yield over parts of the Midwest, however, this high production is attained at the cost of increased soil water loss as compared to current natural vegetation. Alamo switchgrass can attain high and stable yield in the southern US without significant influence on soil water quantity.

  12. A new economic model for resource industries-implications for universities

    Romig, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    The upheaval in the US petroleum industry has had repercussions in the university community. Geoscience enrollments have plummeted, financial support has declined, and there are rumors that some programs have reduced mathematical rigor to maintain enrollment. While the adverse affects have been widespread, there is disagreement about implications and expectations for the future. Some argue that emphasis on short-term profitability produces ill-conceived, precipitous reactions which perpetuate the turmoil. Others respond that the resource and environmental needs of a burgeoning global population will ensure long-term growth. Both arguments miss the point. The fundamental economic structure of the industry is changing from revenue-driven to marginal-return. In marginal-return industries, investments depend on quantitative assessments of risk and return, and the use of interdisciplinary teams is the norm. University programs must educate students in engineering design and structured decision-making processes, develop integrated numeric models and create infrastructures that support multidisciplinary collaboration. Educational programs must begin teaching principles of engineering design and structured decision-making, with increased emphasis on outreach to the experienced employee. Meeting those needs will require closer collaboration between industry and the universities. Universities that are successful will reap a fringe benefit; their graduate will be better-qualified to be leaders in the environmentally geoscience field, which one day may be bigger than the oil industry

  13. Human Resource Management Practices and Employee Satisfaction in Microfinance Banks in Nigeria

    Chijioke Esogwa Nwachukwu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The role of microfinance banks (MFBs in the growth and development of businesses in an emerging market such as Nigeria cannot be overemphasised. Implementing sound human resource practices can enable MFBs satisfy their employees and sustain competitive advantage. Methodology/methods: A purposive sample of 60 senior employees of 10 microfinance banks in Nigeria was used for this study. All the 60 questionnaires were returned but 59 were found usable for the analysis, accounting for 98.3% response rate. In analyzing our data, Pearson correlation, ANOVA, and multiple regression techniques were used. Scientific aim: The goal of this study is to investigate HRM practices and employee satisfaction in microfinance banks in Nigeria. Findings: The result shows that a significant positive association exists between human resource planning, training and development, employee compensation and employee satisfaction. However, an insignificant positive relationship exists between work environment and employee satisfaction. Only three out of the four hypotheses are supported. Conclusions: HRM practices are tools used by organisations to get the best out of their workers, thus, achieve superior business performance. The authors, therefore, recommend that organizations that want to remain competitive must ensure that various stakeholders are satisfied (including employees by implementing a robust HRM practices.

  14. Metering Best Practices, A Guide to Achieving Utility Resource Efficiency, Release 2.0

    Sullivan, Greg; Hunt, W. D.; Pugh, Ray; Sandusky, William F.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Boyd, Brian K.

    2011-08-31

    This release is an update and expansion of the information provided in Release 1.0 of the Metering Best Practice Guide that was issued in October 2007. This release, as was the previous release, was developed under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The mission of FEMP is to facilitate the Federal Government's implementation of sound cost-effective energy management and investment practices to enhance the nation's energy security and environmental stewardship. Each of these activities is directly related to achieving requirements set forth in the Energy Policy Acts of 1992 and 2005, the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, and the goals that have been established in Executive Orders 13423 and 13514 - and also those practices that are inherent in sound management of Federal financial and personnel resources.

  15. Australian general practitioner attitudes to clinical practice guidelines and some implications for translating osteoarthritis care into practice.

    Basedow, Martin; Runciman, William B; Lipworth, Wendy; Esterman, Adrian

    2016-11-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been shown to improve processes of care and health outcomes, but there is often a discrepancy between recommendations for care and clinical practice. This study sought to explore general practitioner (GP) attitudes towards CPGs, in general and specifically for osteoarthritis (OA), with the implications for translating OA care into practice. A self-administered questionnaire was conducted in January 2013 with a sample of 228 GPs in New South Wales and South Australia. Seventy-nine GPs returned questionnaires (response rate 35%). Nearly all GPs considered that CPGs support decision-making in practice (94%) and medical education (92%). Very few respondents regarded CPGs as a threat to clinical autonomy, and most recognised that individual patient circumstances must be taken into account. Shorter CPG formats were preferred over longer and more comprehensive formats, with preferences being evenly divided among respondents for short, 2-3-page summaries, flowcharts or algorithms and single page checklists. GPs considered accessibility to CPGs to be important, and electronic formats were popular. Familiarity and use of The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners OA Guideline was poor, with most respondents either not aware of it (30%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 27 - 41%), had never used it (19%; 95% CI 12 - 29%) or rarely used it (34%; 95% CI 25-45%). If CPGs are to assist with the translation of evidence into practice, they must be easily accessible and in a format that encourages use.

  16. From clinical practice guidelines, to clinical guidance in practice - implications for design of computerized guidance

    Lyng, Karen Marie

    2010-01-01

    an extensive application of what we have named second order guiding artifacts. The deployed protocols underwent a local adaptation and transformation process when initiated. The protocols were adapted to match the local resources and transformed into several activity specific second order guiding artifacts....... The transformation from protocols was executed according to a standard operating procedure. Each activity type had a standardized template ensuring uniformity across second order guiding artifacts within a clinic. The guiding artifacts were multi-functional and a wide variety of standardized graphical attributes...

  17. Natural Resources Management on Corps of Engineers Water Resources Development Projects: Practices, Challenges, and Perspectives on the Future

    Kasual, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Natural resources management on U.S. Army Corps of Engineers water resources development projects was documented from the responses of management personnel to a detailed questionnaire mailed to a stratified random sample of projects...

  18. Human Resources Management Policies and Practices Scale (HRMPPS: Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Gisela Demo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the strategic relevance of Human Resources Management (HRM in organizations and the lack of scientific instruments to measure employees’ perceptions about policies and practices of HRM, this study aimed to validate the Human Resources Management Policies and Practices Scale (HRMPPS through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis using the maximum likelihood method. The study has a quantitative design, but also included qualitative analysis required for the development of a scale. Employees from various organizations composed a sample of 632 people. Scale reliability was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha and Jöreskog’s rho. A sixfactor model was generated showing high-reliability and good fit. Construct validity was provided through convergent and discriminant analyses. The factors were consistent with the literature review and explained about 58% of the construct’s total variance. This study contributes to the scientific production in the area of Human Resources Management since HRMPPS can be used not only in relational studies but also as an evaluation instrument by managers who wish to improve their employees’ well-being as well as organizational outcomes.

  19. New Careers in Nursing Scholar Alumni Toolkit: Development of an Innovative Resource for Transition to Practice.

    Mauro, Ann Marie P; Escallier, Lori A; Rosario-Sim, Maria G

    2016-01-01

    The transition from student to professional nurse is challenging and may be more difficult for underrepresented minority nurses. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation New Careers in Nursing (NCIN) program supported development of a toolkit that would serve as a transition-to-practice resource to promote retention of NCIN alumni and other new nurses. Thirteen recent NCIN alumni (54% male, 23% Hispanic/Latino, 23% African Americans) from 3 schools gave preliminary content feedback. An e-mail survey was sent to a convenience sample of 29 recent NCIN alumni who evaluated the draft toolkit using a Likert scale (poor = 1; excellent = 5). Twenty NCIN alumni draft toolkit reviewers (response rate 69%) were primarily female (80%) and Hispanic/Latino (40%). Individual chapters' mean overall rating of 4.67 demonstrated strong validation. Mean scores for overall toolkit content (4.57), usability (4.5), relevance (4.79), and quality (4.71) were also excellent. Qualitative comments were analyzed using thematic content analysis and supported the toolkit's relevance and utility. A multilevel peer review process was also conducted. Peer reviewer feedback resulted in a 6-chapter document that offers resources for successful transition to practice and lays the groundwork for continued professional growth. Future research is needed to determine the ideal time to introduce this resource. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Modelling Management Practices in Viticulture while Considering Resource Limitations: The Dhivine Model.

    Roger Martin-Clouaire

    Full Text Available Many farming-system studies have investigated the design and evaluation of crop-management practices with respect to economic performance and reduction in environmental impacts. In contrast, little research has been devoted to analysing these practices in terms of matching the recurrent context-dependent demand for resources (labour in particular with those available on the farm. This paper presents Dhivine, a simulation model of operational management of grape production at the vineyard scale. Particular attention focuses on representing a flexible plan, which organises activities temporally, the resources available to the vineyard manager and the process of scheduling and executing the activities. The model relies on a generic production-system ontology used in several agricultural production domains. The types of investigations that the model supports are briefly illustrated. The enhanced realism of the production-management situations simulated makes it possible to examine and understand properties of resource-constrained work-organisation strategies and possibilities for improving them.

  1. The down syndrome behavioral phenotype: implications for practice and research in occupational therapy.

    Daunhauer, Lisa A; Fidler, Deborah J

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal cause of intellectual disability. The genetic causes of DS are associated with characteristic outcomes, such as relative strengths in visual-spatial skills and relative challenges in motor planning. This profile of outcomes, called the DS behavioral phenotype, may be a critical tool for intervention planning and research in this population. In this article, aspects of the DS behavioral phenotype potentially relevant to occupational therapy practice are reviewed. Implications and challenges for etiology-informed research and practice are discussed.

  2. The human resource implications of improving financial risk protection for mothers and newborns in Zimbabwe

    2013-01-01

    Background A paradigm shift in global health policy on user fees has been evident in the last decade with a growing consensus that user fees undermine equitable access to essential health care in many low and middle income countries. Changes to fees have major implications for human resources for health (HRH), though the linkages are rarely explicitly examined. This study aimed to examine the inter-linkages in Zimbabwe in order to generate lessons for HRH and fee policies, with particular respect to reproductive, maternal and newborn health (RMNH). Methods The study used secondary data and small-scale qualitative fieldwork (key informant interview and focus group discussions) at national level and in one district in 2011. Results The past decades have seen a shift in the burden of payments onto households. Implementation of the complex rules on exemptions is patchy and confused. RMNH services are seen as hard for families to afford, even in the absence of complications. Human resources are constrained in managing current demand and any growth in demand by high external and internal migration, and low remuneration, amongst other factors. We find that nurses and midwives are evenly distributed across the country (at least in the public sector), though doctors are not. This means that for four provinces, there are not enough doctors to provide more complex care, and only three provinces could provide cover in the event of all deliveries taking place in facilities. Conclusions This analysis suggests that there is a strong case for reducing the financial burden on clients of RMNH services and also a pressing need to improve the terms and conditions of key health staff. Numbers need to grow, and distribution is also a challenge, suggesting the need for differentiated policies in relation to rural areas, especially for doctors and specialists. The management of user fees should also be reviewed, particularly for non-Ministry facilities, which do not retain their revenues

  3. The human resource implications of improving financial risk protection for mothers and newborns in Zimbabwe.

    Chirwa, Yotamu; Witter, Sophie; Munjoma, Malvern; Mashange, Wilson; Ensor, Tim; McPake, Barbara; Munyati, Shungu

    2013-05-28

    A paradigm shift in global health policy on user fees has been evident in the last decade with a growing consensus that user fees undermine equitable access to essential health care in many low and middle income countries. Changes to fees have major implications for human resources for health (HRH), though the linkages are rarely explicitly examined. This study aimed to examine the inter-linkages in Zimbabwe in order to generate lessons for HRH and fee policies, with particular respect to reproductive, maternal and newborn health (RMNH). The study used secondary data and small-scale qualitative fieldwork (key informant interview and focus group discussions) at national level and in one district in 2011. The past decades have seen a shift in the burden of payments onto households. Implementation of the complex rules on exemptions is patchy and confused. RMNH services are seen as hard for families to afford, even in the absence of complications. Human resources are constrained in managing current demand and any growth in demand by high external and internal migration, and low remuneration, amongst other factors. We find that nurses and midwives are evenly distributed across the country (at least in the public sector), though doctors are not. This means that for four provinces, there are not enough doctors to provide more complex care, and only three provinces could provide cover in the event of all deliveries taking place in facilities. This analysis suggests that there is a strong case for reducing the financial burden on clients of RMNH services and also a pressing need to improve the terms and conditions of key health staff. Numbers need to grow, and distribution is also a challenge, suggesting the need for differentiated policies in relation to rural areas, especially for doctors and specialists. The management of user fees should also be reviewed, particularly for non-Ministry facilities, which do not retain their revenues, and receive limited investment in

  4. THE EUROPEAN PUBLIC SYSTEM OF HUMAN RESOURCES. PERFORMANCE IN ORGANIZATIONS AND GOOD PRACTICES FOR ROMANIA

    Dan-Călin BEȘLIU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fact that recruitment and selection activities are vital in ensuring the human resources flow in every private or public organization sector, the present paper seeks to elaborate a proposal aimed to modernize the recruiting and selection process within the Romanian public service based on best practices models implemented in other European states. From the perspective of providing adequate training skills and abilities needed by the qualified personnel, initial training is very poor. Practical training is not on the same level of quality with theoretical one and the current system of examinations in education units, based predominantly on theoretical assessment, do not motivate learners well enough in order to gain practical skills. Continuous training programs organized by the units do not always take into account the needs of the personnel or are not adapted to the job description, the category and level of specialization of the beneficiaries' functions and the degree of novelty and utility of most of the presented theoretical information is usually low. The costs of selecting one person for the public service are usually very high, including not only the cost of the initial recruiting, but also the long term cost, represented by the continuous training of the employee. Consequently, recruiting human resources is a basic part of both public and private systems.

  5. Domestic Banks in Bangladesh Could Ensure Efficiency by Improving Human Resource Management Practices

    Muhammad Masum, Abdul Kadar; Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Hoque, Kazi Enamul; Beh, Loo-See

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to examine the influence of human resource management (HRM) practices on bank efficiency using Malmquist index of total factor productivity. The model comprises HRM index that represents the quality of HRM practices. The results are decomposed into three efficiency scores, namely, technical efficiency, pure efficiency, and scale efficiency. In this study, panel data for 44 banks in Bangladesh are used for the period 2008-2013. This paper reveals that foreign banks are ahead in converting the influence of HRM practices into efficiency scores (0.946>0.833). On the other hand, domestic banks performed better than foreign banks in terms of pure efficiency and scale efficiency. But, in terms of technical efficiency, the domestic banks are regressed by 6.7% annually whereas foreign banks are progressed with a yearly value of 5.8%. The results are robust, because the Mann-Whitney test and Kruskall-Wallis test (non-parametric tests) also confirm the same results. This study emphasizes HRM practices in the banking industry to ensure efficiency in the long-term scenario. Domestic banks are suggested to ensure continuous development in HRM practices in order to compete with foreign banks. PMID:26221727

  6. Domestic Banks in Bangladesh Could Ensure Efficiency by Improving Human Resource Management Practices.

    Abdul Kadar Muhammad Masum

    Full Text Available The paper aims to examine the influence of human resource management (HRM practices on bank efficiency using Malmquist index of total factor productivity. The model comprises HRM index that represents the quality of HRM practices. The results are decomposed into three efficiency scores, namely, technical efficiency, pure efficiency, and scale efficiency. In this study, panel data for 44 banks in Bangladesh are used for the period 2008-2013. This paper reveals that foreign banks are ahead in converting the influence of HRM practices into efficiency scores (0.946>0.833. On the other hand, domestic banks performed better than foreign banks in terms of pure efficiency and scale efficiency. But, in terms of technical efficiency, the domestic banks are regressed by 6.7% annually whereas foreign banks are progressed with a yearly value of 5.8%. The results are robust, because the Mann-Whitney test and Kruskall-Wallis test (non-parametric tests also confirm the same results. This study emphasizes HRM practices in the banking industry to ensure efficiency in the long-term scenario. Domestic banks are suggested to ensure continuous development in HRM practices in order to compete with foreign banks.

  7. Domestic Banks in Bangladesh Could Ensure Efficiency by Improving Human Resource Management Practices.

    Masum, Abdul Kadar Muhammad; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Hoque, Kazi Enamul; Beh, Loo-See

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to examine the influence of human resource management (HRM) practices on bank efficiency using Malmquist index of total factor productivity. The model comprises HRM index that represents the quality of HRM practices. The results are decomposed into three efficiency scores, namely, technical efficiency, pure efficiency, and scale efficiency. In this study, panel data for 44 banks in Bangladesh are used for the period 2008-2013. This paper reveals that foreign banks are ahead in converting the influence of HRM practices into efficiency scores (0.946>0.833). On the other hand, domestic banks performed better than foreign banks in terms of pure efficiency and scale efficiency. But, in terms of technical efficiency, the domestic banks are regressed by 6.7% annually whereas foreign banks are progressed with a yearly value of 5.8%. The results are robust, because the Mann-Whitney test and Kruskall-Wallis test (non-parametric tests) also confirm the same results. This study emphasizes HRM practices in the banking industry to ensure efficiency in the long-term scenario. Domestic banks are suggested to ensure continuous development in HRM practices in order to compete with foreign banks.

  8. Bedside resource stewardship in disasters: a provider's dilemma practicing in an ethical gap.

    Daniel, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    During disasters, clinicians may be forced to play dual roles, as both a provider and an allocator of scarce resources. At present, a clear framework to govern resource stewardship at the bedside is lacking. Clinicians who find themselves practicing in this ethical gap between clinical and public health ethics can experience significant moral distress. One provider describes her experience allocating an oxygen tank in the intensive care unit at a hospital in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, immediately following the 2010 earthquake. Using a clinical vignette and reflective narrative she attempts to identify the factors that influenced her allocation decision, opening up the factors for commentary and debate by an ethicist. A better paradigm for the ethical care of patients during disasters is needed to better guide provider choices in the future.

  9. Partnership between CTSI and business schools can promote best practices for core facilities and resources.

    Reeves, Lilith; Dunn-Jensen, Linda M; Baldwin, Timothy T; Tatikonda, Mohan V; Cornetta, Kenneth

    2013-08-01

    Biomedical research enterprises require a large number of core facilities and resources to supply the infrastructure necessary for translational research. Maintaining the financial viability and promoting efficiency in an academic environment can be particularly challenging for medical schools and universities. The Indiana Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute sought to improve core and service programs through a partnership with the Indiana University Kelley School of Business. The program paired teams of Masters of Business Administration students with cores and programs that self-identified the need for assistance in project management, financial management, marketing, or resource efficiency. The projects were developed by CTSI project managers and business school faculty using service-learning principles to ensure learning for students who also received course credit for their participation. With three years of experience, the program demonstrates a successful partnership that improves clinical research infrastructure by promoting business best practices and providing a valued learning experience for business students. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Stoichiometric imbalances between terrestrial decomposer communities and their resources: mechanisms and implications of microbial adaptations to their resources

    Maria eMooshammer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial microbial decomposer communities thrive on a wide range of organic matter types that rarely ever meet their elemental demands. In this review we synthesize the current state-of-the-art of microbial adaptations to resource stoichiometry, in order to gain a deeper understanding of the interactions between heterotrophic microbial communities and their chemical environment. The stoichiometric imbalance between microbial communities and their organic substrates generally decreases from wood to leaf litter and further to topsoil and subsoil organic matter. Microbial communities can respond to these imbalances in four ways: first, they adapt their biomass composition towards their resource in a non-homeostatic behaviour. Such changes are, however, only moderate, and occur mainly because of changes in microbial community structure and less so due to cellular storage of elements in excess. Second, microbial communities can mobilize resources that meet their elemental demand by producing specific extracellular enzymes, which, in turn, is restricted by the C and N requirement for enzyme production itself. Third, microbes can regulate their element use efficiencies (ratio of element invested in growth over total element uptake, such that they release elements in excess depending on their demand (e.g., respiration and N mineralization. Fourth, diazotrophic bacteria and saprotrophic fungi may trigger the input of external N and P to decomposer communities. Theoretical considerations show that adjustments in element use efficiencies may be the most important mechanism by which microbes regulate their biomass stoichiometry. This review summarizes different views on how microbes cope with imbalanced supply of C, N and P, thereby providing a framework for integrating and linking microbial adaptation to resource imbalances to ecosystem scale fluxes across scales and ecosystems.

  11. Reasons and resources for being explicit about the practices of science

    Egger, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) promote a fundamental shift in the way science is taught. The new focus is on three-dimensional learning, which brings science and engineering practices together with disciplinary core ideas and cross-cutting concepts. A key component is performance expectations rather than bullet lists of content that students should know. One of the stated goals is that "all students should have sufficient knowledge of science and engineering to engage in public discussions on related issues." While the NGSS were developed for K-12, college instructors benefit from familiarity with them in two critical ways: first, they provide a research-based and clearly articulated approach to three-dimensional learning that applies across the grade spectrum, and second, future K-12 teachers are sitting in their college-level science courses, and awareness of the skills those future teachers need can help direct course design. More specifically, while most college-level science courses make use of the science and engineering practices described in the NGSS, few offer explicit instruction in them or how they intertwine with disciplinary core ideas and cross-cutting concepts. Yet this explicit instruction is critical to building scientific literacy in future teachers—and all students. Many textbooks and laboratory courses limit a discussion of the process of science to one chapter or exercise, and expect students to be able to apply those concepts. In contrast, new resources from Visionlearning (http://www.visionlearning.com), InTeGrate (http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate), and other projects hosted at the Science Education Resource Center (http://serc.carleton.edu) were developed with explicit and pervasive integration of the nature and practices of science in mind. These freely available, classroom-tested and reviewed resources support instructors in introductory/general education courses as well as teacher preparation and more advanced courses.

  12. Prehospital care practices for venomous snakebites in resource-limited settings: A narrative review

    Godpower Chinedu Michael

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Venomous snakebite is a medical emergency encountered worldwide, especially in resource-limited communities. It usually leaves victims at the mercy of traditional care, whose effectiveness have come under scrutiny over time. Several of these traditional/ first aid practices have also been reported over time. Controversies over their efficacy often result in confusion among snakebite victims, their caregivers, and sometimes, among health-care providers. This narrative review describes reported prehospital interventions for venomous snakebites highlighting their usefulness, dangers, and/or limitations associated with their use and the currently widely recommended prehospital activities for venomous snakebite.

  13. INTRODUCING WESTERN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES TO CHINA: SHOPFLOOR WORKERS' PERSPECTIVES

    Jos Gamble

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of host country employees is often portrayed as a particularly fraught dimension for multinational firms. The problems involved are considered exponentially greater when there are substantial institutional differences and 'cultural distance' between the host country and a firm's parent country, as is assumed to be the case for Western firms operating in China. Based upon detailed case study research conducted at a UK-invested firm in China between 1999 and 2003 and a comparative study of a Chinese state-owned firm, this paper explores the veracity of such assumptions. The findings indicate that Western human resource management practices can be transplanted successfully and questions the degree to which foreign-invested enterprises need to adopt 'the Chinese way of doing things'. Indeed, such practices can be innovative in the Chinese context and provide a competitive source of differentiation for multinationals as employees.

  14. Impact of human resource practices on the organizational performance in nestle pakistan

    Tayyaba, A.; Fiaz, M.; Shoaib, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses the contribution effect of HRM (Human Resource Management) practices such as T and D (Training and Development), R and S (Recruitment and Selection), PA (Performance Appraisal System), CPD (Career Planning and Development), CMP (Compensation) and EP (Employee Participation) on the employee performance in Nestle Pakistan. It also elaborates the impact of employee performance on the OP (Organizational Performance). The results conclude the significantly positive relationship of the HRM Practices with the OP with a considerable influence on employee performance as a mediator.300 respondents are selected for the analysis from target population of all the professionals, working on 1st and 2nd level management through random sampling. We proposed that the conceptual results of the study are highly significant for the practitioners and researchers for future research. (author)

  15. Education and information for practicing school nurses: which technology-supported resources meet their needs?

    Anderson, Lori S; Enge, Karmin J

    2012-10-01

    School nurses care for children with a variety of health-related conditions and they need information about managing these conditions, which is accessible, current, and useful. The goal of this literature review was to gather and synthesize information on technology-supported resources and to determine which met the educational needs of school nurses. Successful online educational programs were interactive and self-directed. The most common barriers were lack of time to find educational information, lack of knowledge about computers, technology, the Internet and specific programs, and lack of administrative support from school officials to use technology to access information and evidence for practice. Recommendations for successful use of technology to meet practicing school nurse's educational needs are offered.

  16. Impact of Human Resource Practices on the Organizational Performance in Nestle Pakistan

    Asma Tayyaba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the contribution effect of HRM (Human Resource Management practices such as T&D (Training and Development, R&S (Recruitment and Selection, PA (Performance Appraisal System, CPD (Career Planning and Development, CMP (Compensation and EP (Employee Participation on the employee performance in Nestle Pakistan. It also elaborates the impact of employee performance on the OP (Organizational Performance. The results conclude the significantly positive relationship of the HRM Practices with the OP with a considerable influence on employee performance as a mediator.300 respondents are selected for the analysis from target population of all the professionals, working on 1st and 2nd level management through random sampling. We proposed that the conceptual results of the study are highly significant for the practitioners and researchers for future research

  17. Determinism and Underdetermination in Genetics: Implications for Students' Engagement in Argumentation and Epistemic Practices

    Jiménez-Aleixandre, María Pilar

    2014-02-01

    In the last two decades science studies and science education research have shifted from an interest in products (of science or of learning), to an interest in processes and practices. The focus of this paper is on students' engagement in epistemic practices (Kelly in Teaching scientific inquiry: Recommendations for research and implementation. Sense Publishers, Rotterdam, pp 99-117, 2008), or on their practical epistemologies (Wickman in Sci Educ 88(3):325-344, 2004). In order to support these practices in genetics classrooms we need to take into account domain-specific features of the epistemology of genetics, in particular issues about determinism and underdetermination. I suggest that certain difficulties may be related to the specific nature of causality in genetics, and in particular to the correspondence between a given set of factors and a range of potential effects, rather than a single one. The paper seeks to bring together recent developments in the epistemology of biology and of genetics, on the one hand, with science education approaches about epistemic practices, on the other. The implications of these perspectives for current challenges in learning genetics are examined, focusing on students' engagement in epistemic practices, as argumentation, understood as using evidence to evaluate knowledge claims. Engaging in argumentation in genetics classrooms is intertwined with practices such as using genetics models to build explanations, or framing genetics issues in their social context. These challenges are illustrated with studies making part of our research program in the USC.

  18. Resource limits and conversion efficiency with implications for climate change and California's energy supply

    Croft, Gregory Donald

    There are two commonly-used approaches to modeling the future supply of mineral resources. One is to estimate reserves and compare the result to extraction rates, and the other is to project from historical time series of extraction rates. Perceptions of abundant oil supplies in the Middle East and abundant coal supplies in the United States are based on the former approach. In both of these cases, an approach based on historical production series results in a much smaller resource estimate than aggregate reserve numbers. This difference is not systematic; natural gas production in the United States shows a strong increasing trend even though modest reserve estimates have resulted in three decades of worry about the gas supply. The implication of a future decline in Middle East oil production is that the market for transportation fuels is facing major changes, and that alternative fuels should be analyzed in this light. Because the U.S. holds very large coal reserves, synthesizing liquid hydrocarbons from coal has been suggested as an alternative fuel supply. To assess the potential of this process, one has to look at both the resource base and the net efficiency. The three states with the largest coal production declines in the 1996 to 2006 period are among the top 5 coal reserve holders, suggesting that gross coal reserves are a poor indicator of future production. Of the three categories of coal reserves reported by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, reserves at existing mines is the narrowest category and is approximately the equivalent of proved developed oil reserves. By this measure, Wyoming has the largest coal reserves in the U.S., and it accounted for all of U.S. coal production growth over the 1996 to 2006 time period. In Chapter 2, multi-cycle Hubbert curve analysis of historical data of coal production from 1850 to 2007 demonstrates that U.S. anthracite and bituminous coal are past their production peak. This result contradicts estimates based

  19. Factors Affecting Human Resource Management Practices of Foreign Subsidiaries: Acase study of Japanese Multinational Companies in Malaysia

    Iberahim, Hadijah

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how firm-level human resources management (HRM) practices are transformed to fit the organization's needs of developing skilled workers as core competence, in a changing environment where resources are scarce. This paper deals with the issue of factors influencing HRM practices in the development of competent workforce at two Japanese multinational companies (JMNCs)of Malaysian electric and electrical industry. This qualitative study applied longitudinal and comparat...

  20. Contested Practice: Political Activism in Nursing and Implications for Nursing Education.

    Buck-McFadyen, Ellen; MacDonnell, Judith

    2017-07-27

    Canadian nurses have a social mandate to address health inequities for the populations they serve, as well as to speak out on professional and broader social issues. Although Canadian nursing education supports the role of nurses as advocates for social justice and leadership for health care reform, little is known about how nurse educators understand activism and how this translates in the classroom. A comparative life history study using purposeful sampling and a critical feminist lens was undertaken to explore political activism in nursing and how nurse educators foster political practice among their students. Findings from interviews and focus groups with 26 Ontario nurse educators and nursing students suggested that neoliberal dynamics in both the practice setting and in higher education have constrained nurses' activist practice and favour a technical rational approach to nursing education. Implications and strategies to inspire political action in nursing education are discussed.

  1. Women's self-perception and self-care practice: implications for health care delivery.

    Mendias, E P; Clark, M C; Guevara, E B

    2001-01-01

    Mexican American women experience unique health care needs related to integration of Mexican and American cultures. To learn how to better promote self-care practices and service utilization in women of Mexican origin living in Texas, researchers used a qualitative approach to interview a convenience sample of 11 low-income women attending a health clinic. Researchers collected narrative data about the women's perceptions of health, wellness, and self-care. Using the matrix approach described by Miles and Huberman, we organized findings around women's roles, including participants' descriptions of themselves, their health and wellness awareness, self-care practices for health/illness and wellness/nonwellness, barriers to self-care, origin of self-care practices, and perceptions of life control. Implications for health planning and service delivery are presented.

  2. Reflecting on reflection in interprofessional education: implications for theory and practice.

    Clark, Phillip G

    2009-05-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) involves learning, and learning requires reflection. Educators need to "reflect more on reflection" if they are to be effective teachers in ensuring the learning outcomes essential for teamwork and interprofessional practice (IPP), including incorporating both theory and practice into the development of educational interventions. First, this discussion surveys the IPE-relevant literature on reflection, and then defines and refines the multidimensional concept of reflection as it relates to IPE in developing and implementing teamwork learning programs and experiences. Second, specific methods to promote reflection are presented and explored, including self-assessments, journaling, and written papers. Actual samples from student journals and assignments provide examples of the impacts of using these methods on participant reflection and learning. Finally, implications for an expanded understanding and application of reflection for IPE will be discussed, and recommendations made for educational practice and research in this area.

  3. [A framework for evaluating ethical issues of public health initiatives: practical aspects and theoretical implications].

    Petrini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The "Framework for the Ethical Conduct of Public Health Initiatives", developed by Public Health Ontario, is a practical guide for assessing the ethical implications of evidence-generating public health initiatives, whether research or non-research activities, involving people, their biological materials or their personal information. The Framework is useful not only to those responsible for determining the ethical acceptability of an initiative, but also to investigators planning new public health initiatives. It is informed by a theoretical approach that draws on widely shared bioethical principles. Two considerations emerge from both the theoretical framework and its practical application: the line between practice and research is often blurred; public health ethics and biomedical research ethics are based on the same common heritage of values.

  4. Success Factors in Integrated Natural Resource Management R&D: Lessons from Practice

    Jürgen Hagmann

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes integrated natural resource management (INRM lessons and success factors based on a practical case study over more than 10 years in Zimbabwe. The work was geared toward enhancing the adaptive management capacity of the stakeholders in their resource-use systems. One main result was the development and institutionalization of an approach for participatory and integrated NRM research and extension. The INRM approach described is grounded in a learning paradigm and a combination of theories: the constructivist perspective to development, systemic intervention, and learning process approaches. Participatory action research and experiential learning, in which researchers engage themselves as actors rather than neutral analysts in an R&D process to explore the livelihood system and develop appropriate solutions together with the resource users, has shown high potential. However, this should be guided by a clear strategy, impact orientation, and high-quality process facilitation at different levels. The case study revealed the importance of a "reflective practitioner" approach by all actors. More effective response to the challenges of increasing complexity in NRM requires a shift in thinking from the linearity of research-extension-farmer to alternative, multiple-actor institutional arrangements and innovation systems. To overcome the weak attribution of research outcomes to actual impact, it also suggests an alternative to conventional impact assessment in INRM R&D interventions.

  5. Science, practice and mythology: a definition and examination of the implications of scientism in medicine.

    Loughlin, Michael; Lewith, George; Falkenberg, Torkel

    2013-06-01

    Scientism is a philosophy which purports to define what the world 'really is'. It adopts what the philosopher Thomas Nagel called 'an epistemological criterion of reality', defining what is real as that which can be discovered by certain quite specific methods of investigation. As a consequence all features of experience not revealed by those methods are deemed 'subjective' in a way that suggests they are either not real, or lie beyond the scope of meaningful rational inquiry. This devalues capacities that (we argue) are in fact essential components of good reasoning and virtuous practice. Ultimately, the implications of scientism for statements of value undermine value-judgements essential for science itself to have a sound basis. Scientism has implications, therefore, for ontology, epistemology and also for which claims we can assert as objective truths about the world. Adopting scientism as a world view will have consequences for reasoning and decision-making in clinical and other contexts. We analyse the implications of this approach and conclude that we need to reject scientism if we are to avoid stifling virtuous practice and to develop richer conceptions of human reasoning.

  6. NICE guideline on antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis: attitudes to the guideline and implications for dental practice in Ireland.

    2009-03-28

    To investigate attitudes of Irish dental practitioners, cardiologists and patients with cardiac lesions to the new NICE guideline for antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis and to determine the implications of this guideline for dental practice in Ireland.

  7. On the Assessment of Paramedic Competence: A Narrative Review with Practice Implications.

    Tavares, W; Boet, S

    2016-02-01

    Paramedicine is experiencing significant growth in scope of practice, autonomy, and role in the health care system. Despite clinical governance models, the degree to which paramedicine ultimately can be safe and effective will be dependent on the individuals the profession deems suited to practice. This creates an imperative for those responsible for these decisions to ensure that assessments of paramedic competence are indeed accurate, trustworthy, and defensible. The purpose of this study was to explore and synthesize relevant theoretical foundations and literature informing best practices in performance-based assessment (PBA) of competence, as it might be applied to paramedicine, for design or evaluation of assessment programs. A narrative review methodology was applied to focus intentionally, but broadly, on purpose relevant, theoretically derived research that could inform assessment protocols in paramedicine. Primary and secondary studies from a number of health professions that contributed to and informed best practices related to the assessment of paramedic clinical competence were included and synthesized. Multiple conceptual frameworks, psychometric requirements, and emerging lines of research are forwarded. Seventeen practice implications are derived to promote understanding as well as best practices and evaluation criteria for educators, employers, and/or licensing/certifying bodies when considering the assessment of paramedic competence. The assessment of paramedic competence is a complex process requiring an understanding, appreciation for, and integration of conceptual and psychometric principles. The field of PBA is advancing rapidly with numerous opportunities for research.

  8. Green Service Practices: Performance Implications and the Role of Environmental Management Systems

    Christina W. Y. Wong; Chee Yew Wong; Sakun Boon-itt

    2013-01-01

    Research on the effects of environmental management has largely neglected the importance of green service practices and their impact on environmental protection and cost reduction. There is also little knowledge on how service-oriented firms may leverage their efforts in providing green services to achieve performance improvement through their existing environmental management system (EMS). Grounded in the natural resource-based view in conjunction with the contingency theory, we develop a mo...

  9. Teacher Strategies for Effective Intervention with Students Presenting Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties: Implications for Policy and Practice

    Cooper, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper some key practice and policy implications emerging from a review of literature on effective teacher strategies for social, emotional and behavioural difficulties are set out. Particular attention is given to implications in relation to the development of teachers' skills.

  10. National Implications for Urban School Systems: Strategic Planning in the Human Resource Management Department in a Large Urban School District

    Johnson, Clarence; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses several key ongoing issues in a large urban school district. Literature focuses on what make a large urban school district effective in Human Resource Management. The effectiveness is addressed through recruitment and retention practices. A comparison of the school district with current research is the main approach to the…

  11. Toward human resource management in inter-professional health practice: linking organizational culture, group identity and individual autonomy.

    Tataw, David

    2012-01-01

    The literature on team and inter-professional care practice describes numerous barriers to the institutionalization of inter-professional healthcare. Responses to slow institutionalization of inter-professional healthcare practice have failed to describe change variables and to identify change agents relevant to inter-professional healthcare practice. The purpose of this paper is to (1) describe individual and organizational level barriers to collaborative practice in healthcare; (2) identify change variables relevant to the institutionalization of inter-professional practice at individual and organizational levels of analysis; and (3) identify human resource professionals as change agents and describe how the strategic use of the human resource function could transform individual and organizational level change variables and therefore facilitate the healthcare system's shift toward inter-professional practice. A proposed program of institutionalization includes the following components: a strategic plan to align human resource functions with organizational level inter-professional healthcare strategies, activities to enhance professional competencies and the organizational position of human resource personnel, activities to integrate inter-professional healthcare practices into the daily routines of institutional and individual providers, activities to stand up health provider champions as permanent leaders of inter-professional teams with human resource professionals as consultants and activities to bring all key players to the table including health providers. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Toward best practice framing of uncertainty in scientific publications: A review of Water Resources Research abstracts

    Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Helgeson, Casey; Elsawah, Sondoss; Jakeman, Anthony J.; Kummu, Matti

    2017-08-01

    Uncertainty is recognized as a key issue in water resources research, among other sciences. Discussions of uncertainty typically focus on tools and techniques applied within an analysis, e.g., uncertainty quantification and model validation. But uncertainty is also addressed outside the analysis, in writing scientific publications. The language that authors use conveys their perspective of the role of uncertainty when interpreting a claim—what we call here "framing" the uncertainty. This article promotes awareness of uncertainty framing in four ways. (1) It proposes a typology of eighteen uncertainty frames, addressing five questions about uncertainty. (2) It describes the context in which uncertainty framing occurs. This is an interdisciplinary topic, involving philosophy of science, science studies, linguistics, rhetoric, and argumentation. (3) We analyze the use of uncertainty frames in a sample of 177 abstracts from the Water Resources Research journal in 2015. This helped develop and tentatively verify the typology, and provides a snapshot of current practice. (4) We make provocative recommendations to achieve a more influential, dynamic science. Current practice in uncertainty framing might be described as carefully considered incremental science. In addition to uncertainty quantification and degree of belief (present in ˜5% of abstracts), uncertainty is addressed by a combination of limiting scope, deferring to further work (˜25%) and indicating evidence is sufficient (˜40%)—or uncertainty is completely ignored (˜8%). There is a need for public debate within our discipline to decide in what context different uncertainty frames are appropriate. Uncertainty framing cannot remain a hidden practice evaluated only by lone reviewers.

  13. Implications of Nursing Clinical Practice to The Student’s Spiritual Health

    Bhandesa Asthadi Mahendra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the implications of Nursing Clinical Practice (PLKK to the spiritual health of STIKES Bali students. This study employed purposive sampling method to determine the number of respondents. To conduct this study, the fourth grade of nursing students were recruited as the sample with total number 136 respondents. A questionnaire about spirituality from World Health Organization (WHO was used in this study as the instrument. In addition, the data were analysed by using quantitative descriptive technique. The result showed that 50.0% of students had a very good spiritual health, 42.6% had good spiritual health, 6.6% had moderate spiritual health, and 0.7 % had poor spiritual health. It can be interpreted that spiritual health of nursing students of STIKES Bali is good after conducting Nursing Clinical Practice. Thus, this study can be concluded that Nursing Clinical Practice has implication to the ability of students to love themselves and others meaningfully as the evidence of students’ spiritual health.

  14. Citizen Science and Biomedical Research: Implications for Bioethics Theory and Practice

    Chris W Callaghan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Certain trends in scientific research have important relevance to bioethics theory and practice. A growing stream of literature relates to increasing transparency and inclusivity of populations (stakeholders in scientific research, from high volume data collection, synthesis, and analysis to verification and ethical scrutiny. The emergence of this stream of literature has implications for bioethics theory and practice. This paper seeks to make explicit these streams of literature and to relate these to bioethical issues, through consideration of certain extreme examples of scientific research where bioethical engagement is vital. Implications for theory and practice are derived, offering useful insights derived from multidisciplinary theory. Arguably, rapidly developing fields of citizen science such as informing science and others seeking to maximise stakeholder involvement in both research and bioethical engagement have emerged as a response to these types of issues; radically enhanced stakeholder engagement in science may herald a new maximally inclusive and transparent paradigm in bioethics based on lessons gained from exposure to increasingly uncertain ethical contexts of biomedical research.

  15. The Structure of Trade in Genetic Resources: Implications for the International ABS Regime Negotiation

    Mikyung Yun

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The intensive exploitation of genetic resources at the international level has led to a negotiation of an international regime on Access and Benefit-Sharing (ABS of genetic resources. Due to lack of systematic data, little is known about the structure of trade in genetic resources to inform the negotiators. This study attempts to shed a greater insight into genetic resources trade in the pharmaceutical sector in Korea, mainly relying on interviews of industry practitioners and scientists in related fields. The study finds that Korea is mainly a genetic resource importer, but that pharmaceutical firms rarely carry out bioprospecting directly, relying on semi-processed biochemicals imports trough agents. Therefore, the impact of the to-be negotiated international ABS negotiation will be larger if derivatives are included in its scope. However, the general impact on the economy as a whole would be small, given the small share of genetic resources trade compared to total trade volumes.

  16. Systematic review of the links between human resource management practices and performance.

    Patterson, M; Rick, J; Wood, S; Carroll, C; Balain, S; Booth, A

    2010-10-01

    In recent years human resource management (HRM) has been seen as an important factor in the successful realisation of organisational change programmes. The UK NHS is undergoing substantial organisational change and there is a need to establish which human resource (HR) initiatives may be most effective. To assess the results from a wide-ranging series of systematic reviews of the evidence on HRM and performance. The first part assesses evidence on use of HRM in the UK and fidelity of practice implemented. The second part considers evidence for the impact of HRM practices on intermediate outcomes, which can impact on final outcomes, such as organisational performance or patient care. The following databases were searched: Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), British Nursing Index (BNI), Business Source Premier, Campbell Collaboration, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE), DH-Data, EMBASE, Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC), International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS), King's Fund database, MEDLINE, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), National Research Register (NRR), PREMEDLINE, PsycINFO, ReFeR, Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) and Science Citation Index (SCI). The searches were conducted in May/June 2006. Broad categories of HRM interventions and intermediate outcomes were generated: 10 HRM categories and 12 intermediate outcome categories. Seven patient final outcomes were derived from the NHS Performance Indicators and the NHS Improvement Plan. The quality criteria used to select papers incorporated a longitudinal study design filter to provide evidence of the causal direction of relationships between HRM and relevant outcomes. Single HRM practices were considered. Within the health-specific literature, focus was on the

  17. Provider-agency fit in substance abuse treatment organizations: implications for learning climate, morale, and evidence-based practice implementation.

    Ramsey, Alex T; van den Berk-Clark, Carissa

    2015-05-12

    Substance abuse agencies have been slow to adopt and implement evidence-based practices (EBPs), due in part to poor provider morale and organizational climates that are not conducive to successful learning and integration of these practices. Person-organization fit theory suggests that alignment, or fit, between provider- and agency-level characteristics regarding the implementation of EBPs may influence provider morale and organizational learning climate and, thus, implementation success. The current study hypothesized that discrepancies, or lack of fit, between provider- and agency-level contextual factors would negatively predict provider morale and organizational learning climate, outcomes shown to be associated with successful EBP implementation. Direct service providers (n = 120) from four substance abuse treatment agencies responded to a survey involving provider morale, organizational learning climate, agency expectations for EBP use, agency resources for EBP use, and provider attitudes towards EBP use. Difference scores between combinations of provider- and agency-level factors were computed to model provider-agency fit. Quadratic regression analyses were conducted to more adequately and comprehensively model the level of the dependent variables across the entire "fit continuum". Discrepancies, or misfit, between agency expectations and provider attitudes and between agency resources and provider attitudes were associated with poorer provider morale and weaker organizational learning climate. For all hypotheses, the curvilinear model of provider-agency discrepancies significantly predicted provider morale and organizational learning climate, indicating that both directions of misfit (provider factors more favorable than agency factors, and vice-versa) were detrimental to morale and climate. However, outcomes were most negative when providers viewed EBPs favorably, but perceived that agency expectations and resources were less supportive of EBP use. The

  18. 'Practical' resources to support patient and family engagement in healthcare decisions: a scoping review.

    Kovacs Burns, Katharina; Bellows, Mandy; Eigenseher, Carol; Gallivan, Jennifer

    2014-04-15

    Extensive literature exists on public involvement or engagement, but what actual tools or guides exist that are practical, tested and easy to use specifically for initiating and implementing patient and family engagement, is uncertain. No comprehensive review and synthesis of general international published or grey literature on this specific topic was found. A systematic scoping review of published and grey literature is, therefore, appropriate for searching through the vast general engagement literature to identify 'patient/family engagement' tools and guides applicable in health organization decision-making, such as within Alberta Health Services in Alberta, Canada. This latter organization requested this search and review to inform the contents of a patient engagement resource kit for patients, providers and leaders. Search terms related to 'patient engagement', tools, guides, education and infrastructure or resources, were applied to published literature databases and grey literature search engines. Grey literature also included United States, Australia and Europe where most known public engagement practices exist, and Canada as the location for this study. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were set, and include: English documents referencing 'patient engagement' with specific criteria, and published between 1995 and 2011. For document analysis and synthesis, document analysis worksheets were used by three reviewers for the selected 224 published and 193 grey literature documents. Inter-rater reliability was ensured for the final reviews and syntheses of 76 published and 193 grey documents. Seven key themes emerged from the literature synthesis analysis, and were identified for patient, provider and/or leader groups. Articles/items within each theme were clustered under main topic areas of 'tools', 'education' and 'infrastructure'. The synthesis and findings in the literature include 15 different terms and definitions for 'patient engagement', 17 different

  19. Reflections on Klein's radical notion of phantasy and its implications for analytic practice.

    Blass, Rachel B

    2017-06-01

    Analysts may incorporate many of Melanie Klein's important contributions (e.g., on preoedipal dynamics, envy, and projective identification) without transforming their basic analytic approach. In this paper I argue that adopting the Kleinian notion of unconscious phantasy is transformative. While it is grounded in Freud's thinking and draws out something essential to his work, this notion of phantasy introduces a radical change that defines Kleinian thinking and practice and significantly impacts the analyst's basic clinical approach. This impact and its technical implications in the analytic situation are illustrated and discussed. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  20. The Influence of Ethnic Diversity on Social Network Structure in a Common-Pool Resource System: Implications for Collaborative Management

    Michele Barnes-Mauthe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Social networks have recently been identified as key features in facilitating or constraining collaborative arrangements that can enhance resource governance and adaptability in complex social-ecological systems. Nonetheless, the effect of ethnicity on social network structure in an ethnically diverse common-pool resource system is virtually unknown. We characterize the entire social network of Hawaii's longline fishery, an ethnically diverse competitive pelagic fishery, and investigate network homophily, network structure, and cross-scale linkages. Results show that ethnicity significantly influences social network structure and is responsible for a homophily effect, which can create challenges for stakeholder collaboration across groups. Our analysis also suggests that ethnicity influences the formation of diverse network structures, and can affect the level of linkages to outside industry leaders, government or management officials, and members of the scientific community. This study provides the first empirical examination of the impact of ethnic diversity on resource user's social networks in the common-pool resource literature, having important implications for collaborative resource management.

  1. Implications of Boy Scout group use of public lands for natural resource managers: a regional comparison

    Gail A. Vander Stoep

    1992-01-01

    Resource managers can apply group-specific rather than generic communications and management strategies to different public land user groups. This study compares use patterns of one user group, Boy Scout troops, from two regions of the United States. It identifies their public land use patterns, activities, needs, and motivations. Results can be used by resource...

  2. The scale concept and sustainable development: implications on the energetics and water resources

    Demanboro, Antonio Carlos; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto

    1999-01-01

    The relationships between both the demographic growth and the water and energetic resources are focused. The planet scale and carrying capacity are discussed starting from the maximum and optimum sustainable concepts, both anthropocentric and biocentric. Two scenarios denominated 'sustainable agriculture' and 'sharing-water' are elaborated with the available resources of water, fertile lands and energy consumption, and with the population trends. (author)

  3. A critical review of the Job demands-Resources model: Implications for improving work and health

    Schaufeli, W.B.; Taris, T.W.

    2014-01-01

    The Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R model) became highly popular among researchers. The current version of the model proposes that high job demands lead to strain and health impairment (the health impairment process), and that high resources lead to increased motivation and higher productivity

  4. Human Resource Management: Managerial Efficacy in Recruiting and Retaining Teachers-- National Implications

    Butcher, Jennifer; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    Human Resource Management is a branch of an organization which recruits and develops personnel to promote the organization's objectives. Human Resource Management involves interviewing applicants, training staff, and employee retention. Compensation, benefits, employee/labor relations, health, safety, and security issues are a few of the aspects…

  5. Resource-driven encounters among consumers and implications for the spread of infectious disease

    Flynn, Jason M.

    2017-01-01

    Animals share a variety of common resources, which can be a major driver of conspecific encounter rates. In this work, we implement a spatially explicit mathematical model for resource visitation behaviour in order to examine how changes in resource availability can influence the rate of encounters among consumers. Using simulations and asymptotic analysis, we demonstrate that, under a reasonable set of assumptions, the relationship between resource availability and consumer conspecific encounters is not monotonic. We characterize how the maximum encounter rate and associated critical resource density depend on system parameters like consumer density and the maximum distance from which consumers can detect and respond to resources. The assumptions underlying our theoretical model and analysis are motivated by observations of large aggregations of black-backed jackals at carcasses generated by seasonal outbreaks of anthrax among herbivores in Etosha National Park, Namibia. As non-obligate scavengers, black-backed jackals use carcasses as a supplemental food resource when they are available. While jackals do not appear to acquire disease from ingesting anthrax carcasses, changes in their movement patterns in response to changes in carcass abundance do alter jackals' conspecific encounter rate in ways that may affect the transmission dynamics of other diseases, such as rabies. Our theoretical results provide a method to quantify and analyse the hypothesis that the outbreak of a fatal disease among herbivores can potentially facilitate outbreaks of an entirely different disease among jackals. By analysing carcass visitation data, we find support for our model's prediction that the number of conspecific encounters at resource sites decreases with additional increases in resource availability. Whether or not this site-dependent effect translates to an overall decrease in encounters depends, unexpectedly, on the relationship between the maximum distance of detection and

  6. What do social processes mean for quality of human resource practice?

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Pedersen, Louise Møller

    2014-01-01

    Well implemented Human Resource Practice (HRP) is linked to increased performance, innovation, and the well-being of both managers and employees. In the literature, a distinction between the hard and the soft HRM-models is drawn: the hard model focuses on employees as a cost, whereas the soft HRM......-model treats them as a potential (Nielsen 2008a). However, little is known about the informal aspects of HRP and which social processes actually lead to implementation success or failure. The purpose of this paper is to develop a concept of social processes between managers and employees which can increase...... of the quality of HRP. Moreover, a good psychological working environment and systematic priority of HRP are essential contextual factors which can enable or hinder social processes. Otherwise, production pressure and power relations between managers and employees can hinder the implementation of the new concept...

  7. STRATEGIC PLANNING AND HIGH PERFORMANCE HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN PAKISTANI SMES

    Abdul RAZIQ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the relationship between Strategic Planning and High Performance Human Resource Management Practices (HPHRMP. The study was conducted in the context of Small & Medium-size Enterprises (SMEs in the service and manufacturing sector in Pakistani. The primary data was collected through a survey of HPHRMP and as such the study is quantitative in nature. The target population of the study consisted of SMEs operating in the city of Karachi, Pakistan. Stratified random sampling method was applied to collect data from 357 SMEs. An independent-sample t-test test was employed to see whether group means of Strategic Planning are significantly different in relation to prevalence of HPHRMP. The overall results were mixed and partially supportive of a positive relationship between Strategic Planning and the adoption of HPHRMP.

  8. Learning to multitask: effects of video game practice on electrophysiological indices of attention and resource allocation.

    Maclin, Edward L; Mathewson, Kyle E; Low, Kathy A; Boot, Walter R; Kramer, Arthur F; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele

    2011-09-01

    Changes in attention allocation with complex task learning reflect processing automatization and more efficient control. We studied these changes using ERP and EEG spectral analyses in subjects playing Space Fortress, a complex video game comprising standard cognitive task components. We hypothesized that training would free up attentional resources for a secondary auditory oddball task. Both P3 and delta EEG showed a processing trade-off between game and oddball tasks, but only some game events showed reduced attention requirements with practice. Training magnified a transient increase in alpha power following both primary and secondary task events. This contrasted with alpha suppression observed when the oddball task was performed alone, suggesting that alpha may be related to attention switching. Hence, P3 and EEG spectral data are differentially sensitive to changes in attentional processing occurring with complex task training. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. Physician practice management companies: implications for hospital-based integrated delivery systems.

    Burns, L R; Robinson, J C

    1997-01-01

    Physician practice management companies (PPMCs) are one of the most visible entrants into the industry of managing physician practices, and anywhere from 100-150 are already in operation. Although PPMCs and hospital-based integrated delivery systems (IDSs) differ from each other in many ways, they share a number of common features, including the pursuit of capitation contracts from payors. As a result, PPMCs pose a growing, direct threat to hospital systems in competing for managed care contracts that cover physician service. PPMCs also provide an alternative to hospital-based IDSs at the local market level for physician group consolidation. This article looks at the structure, operation, and strategy of PPMCs and examines what implications their growth will have for hospital-based IDSs.

  10. Future trends in health and health care: implications for social work practice in an aging society.

    Spitzer, William J; Davidson, Kay W

    2013-01-01

    Major economic, political, demographic, social, and operational system factors are prompting evolutionary changes in health care delivery. Of particular significance, the "graying of America" promises new challenges and opportunities for health care social work. At the same time, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, evolution of Accountable Care Organizations, and an emphasis on integrated, transdisciplinary, person-centered care represent fundamental shifts in service delivery with implications for social work practice and education. This article identifies the aging shift in American demography, its impact on health policy legislation, factors influencing fundamentally new service delivery paradigms, and opportunities of the profession to address the health disparities and care needs of an aging population. It underscores the importance of social work inclusion in integrated health care delivery and offers recommendations for practice education.

  11. Optimal use of video for teaching the practical implications of studying business information systems

    Fog, Benedikte; Ulfkjær, Jacob Kanneworff Stigsen; Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup

    that video should be introduced early during a course to prevent students’ misconceptions of working with business information systems, as well as to increase motivation and comprehension within the academic area. It is also considered of importance to have a trustworthy person explaining the practical......The study of business information systems has become increasingly important in the Digital Economy. However, it has been found that students have difficulties understanding the practical implications thereof and this leads to a motivational decreases. This study aims to investigate how to optimize...... not sufficiently reflect the theoretical recommendations of using video optimally in a management education. It did not comply with the video learning sequence as introduced by Marx and Frost (1998). However, it questions if the level of cognitive orientation activities can become too extensive. It finds...

  12. Interviewing children in custody cases: implications of research and policy for practice.

    Saywitz, Karen; Camparo, Lorinda B; Romanoff, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Research on child interviewing has burgeoned over the past 25 years as expectations about children's agency, competence, and participation in society have changed. This article identifies recent trends in research, policy, and theory with implications for the practice of interviewing children in cases of contested divorce and for the weight to be given the information children provide. A number of fields of relevant research are identified, including studies of families who have participated in the family law system, studies of child witnesses in the field, experimental studies of the effects of interview techniques on children's memory and suggestibility, and ethnographic methods that elicit children's views of their own experiences. Finally, a set of 10 principles for practice are delineated based on the best available science. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. A survey on critical care resources and practices in low- and middle-income countries.

    Vukoja, Marija; Riviello, Elisabeth; Gavrilovic, Srdjan; Adhikari, Neill K J; Kashyap, Rahul; Bhagwanjee, Satish; Gajic, Ognjen; Kilickaya, Oguz

    2014-09-01

    Timely and appropriate care is the key to achieving good outcomes in acutely ill patients, but the effectiveness of critical care may be limited in resource-limited settings. This study sought to understand how to implement best practices in intensive care units (ICU) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and to develop a point-of-care training and decision-support tool. An internationally representative group of clinicians performed a 22-item capacity-and-needs assessment survey in a convenience sample of 13 ICU in Eastern Europe (4), Asia (4), Latin America (3), and Africa (2), between April and July 2012. Two ICU were from low-income, 2 from low-middle-income, and 9 from upper-middle-income countries. Clinician respondents were asked about bed capacity, patient characteristics, human resources, available medications and equipment, access to education, and processes of care. Thirteen clinicians from each of 13 hospitals (1 per ICU) responded. Surveyed hospitals had median of 560 (interquartile range [IQR]: 232, 1,200) beds. ICU had a median of 9 (IQR: 7, 12) beds and treated 40 (IQR: 20, 67) patients per month. Many ICU had ≥ 1 staff member with some formal critical care training (n = 9, 69%) or who completed Fundamental Critical Care Support (n = 7, 54%) or Advanced Cardiac Life Support (n = 9, 69%) courses. Only 2 ICU (15%) used any kind of checklists for acute resuscitation. Ten (77%) ICU listed lack of trained staff as the most important barrier to improving the care and outcomes of critically ill patients. In a convenience sample of 13 ICU from LMIC, specialty-trained staff and standardized processes of care such as checklists are frequently lacking. ICU needs-assessment evaluations should be expanded in LMIC as a global priority, with the goal of creating and evaluating context-appropriate checklists for ICU best practices. Copyright © 2014 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. What do Social Processes mean for Quality of Human Resource Practice?

    Kjeld Nielsen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Well implemented human resource practice (HRP is linked to increased performance, innovation, and the well-being of both managers and employees. In the literature, a distinction between the hard and the soft HRM-models is drawn: the hard model focuses on employees as a cost, whereas the soft HRM-model treats them as a potential Nielsen (2008a. However, little is known about the informal aspects of HRP and which social processes actually lead to implementation success or failure. The purpose of this paper is to develop a concept of social processes between managers and employees that can increase the implementation and quality of HR-performance Two studies of HRP within two manufacturing companies are used to illustrate the pros and cons of this new theoretical concept from a performance perspective. Involvement, commitment, and competence development are identified as key aspects of the quality of HRP. Moreover, a good psychological working environment and systematic priority of HRP are essential contextual factors that can enable or hinder social processes. Otherwise, production pressure and power relations between managers and employees can hinder the implementation of the new concept. The concept of social processes can help HRP to contribute on social processes between managers and employees as important aspects of quality in work with human resources. However, the influence of team organization and the social processes between employees needs to be explored further.

  15. Using best practices in designing a lifelong learning strategy for human resources in Romania

    Dorel Mihai Paraschiv

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the understanding that society as a whole can not move forward without sufficient incentives, we initiated this research aiming to identify good practices in formulating strategies on lifelong learning in order to emphasize the need to create a stable framework for the development and training of human resources. Considering that in the last decade there has been a growing desire among higher education graduates to study abroad after their mobility period and showed the willingness to engage in the labor market in other european countries, we think that the proposed research theme fully justify its relevance, in terms of the need to create medium and long term strategies in order to ensure compliance with the next european regulations framework and a set of elements that have the capacity to regain the qualified romanian human resources employed abroad. Without a european workforce that is able to respond promptly to training tasks throughout life, Romania and after that Europe will not gain the skills needed to achieve an competitive advantage among other world economies. In this respect, we think that the present theme is sufficiently anchored in the realities of our contemporary society on the one hand and on the other hand requires to identify the concrete measures that could be put in place in order to improve the issues presented.

  16. Human resource aspects of antiretroviral treatment delivery models: current practices and recommendations.

    Assefa, Yibeltal; Van Damme, Wim; Hermann, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE OF VIEW: To illustrate and critically assess what is currently being published on the human resources for health dimension of antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery models. The use of human resources for health can have an effect on two crucial aspects of successful ART programmes, namely the scale-up capacity and the long-term retention in care. Task shifting as the delegation of tasks from higher qualified to lower qualified cadres has become a widespread practice in ART delivery models in low-income countries in recent years. It is increasingly shown to effectively reduce the workload for scarce medical doctors without compromising the quality of care. At the same time, it becomes clear that task shifting can only be successful when accompanied by intensive training, supervision and support from existing health system structures. Although a number of recent publications have focussed on task shifting in ART delivery models, there is a lack of accessible information on the link between task shifting and patient outcomes. Current ART delivery models do not focus sufficiently on retention in care as arguably one of the most important issues for the long-term success of ART programmes. There is a need for context-specific re-designing of current ART delivery models in order to increase access to ART and improve long-term retention.

  17. Cost-effectiveness and resource implications of aggressive action on tuberculosis in China, India, and South Africa: a combined analysis of nine models.

    Menzies, Nicolas A; Gomez, Gabriela B; Bozzani, Fiammetta; Chatterjee, Susmita; Foster, Nicola; Baena, Ines Garcia; Laurence, Yoko V; Qiang, Sun; Siroka, Andrew; Sweeney, Sedona; Verguet, Stéphane; Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Azman, Andrew S; Bendavid, Eran; Chang, Stewart T; Cohen, Ted; Denholm, Justin T; Dowdy, David W; Eckhoff, Philip A; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Handel, Andreas; Huynh, Grace H; Lalli, Marek; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Mandal, Sandip; McBryde, Emma S; Pandey, Surabhi; Salomon, Joshua A; Suen, Sze-Chuan; Sumner, Tom; Trauer, James M; Wagner, Bradley G; Whalen, Christopher C; Wu, Chieh-Yin; Boccia, Delia; Chadha, Vineet K; Charalambous, Salome; Chin, Daniel P; Churchyard, Gavin; Daniels, Colleen; Dewan, Puneet; Ditiu, Lucica; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Grant, Alison D; Hippner, Piotr; Hosseini, Mehran; Mametja, David; Pretorius, Carel; Pillay, Yogan; Rade, Kiran; Sahu, Suvanand; Wang, Lixia; Houben, Rein M G J; Kimerling, Michael E; White, Richard G; Vassall, Anna

    2016-11-01

    The post-2015 End TB Strategy sets global targets of reducing tuberculosis incidence by 50% and mortality by 75% by 2025. We aimed to assess resource requirements and cost-effectiveness of strategies to achieve these targets in China, India, and South Africa. We examined intervention scenarios developed in consultation with country stakeholders, which scaled up existing interventions to high but feasible coverage by 2025. Nine independent modelling groups collaborated to estimate policy outcomes, and we estimated the cost of each scenario by synthesising service use estimates, empirical cost data, and expert opinion on implementation strategies. We estimated health effects (ie, disability-adjusted life-years averted) and resource implications for 2016-35, including patient-incurred costs. To assess resource requirements and cost-effectiveness, we compared scenarios with a base case representing continued current practice. Incremental tuberculosis service costs differed by scenario and country, and in some cases they more than doubled existing funding needs. In general, expansion of tuberculosis services substantially reduced patient-incurred costs and, in India and China, produced net cost savings for most interventions under a societal perspective. In all three countries, expansion of access to care produced substantial health gains. Compared with current practice and conventional cost-effectiveness thresholds, most intervention approaches seemed highly cost-effective. Expansion of tuberculosis services seems cost-effective for high-burden countries and could generate substantial health and economic benefits for patients, although substantial new funding would be required. Further work to determine the optimal intervention mix for each country is necessary. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. ERRORS AND CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK IN WRITING: IMPLICATIONS TO OUR CLASSROOM PRACTICES

    Maria Corazon Saturnina A Castro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Error correction is one of the most contentious and misunderstood issues in both foreign and second language teaching. Despite varying positions on the effectiveness of error correction or the lack of it, corrective feedback remains an institution in the writing classes. Given this context, this action research endeavors to survey prevalent attitudes of teachers and students toward corrective feedback and examine their implications to classroom practices.  This paper poses the major problem:  How do teachers’ perspectives on corrective feedback match the students’ views and expectations about error treatment in their writing? Professors of the University of the Philippines who teach composition classes and over a hundred students enrolled in their classes were surveyed.  Results showed that there are differing perceptions of teachers and students regarding corrective feedback. These oppositions must be addressed as they have implications to current pedagogical practices which include constructing and establishing appropriate lesson goals, using alternative corrective strategies, teaching grammar points in class even in the tertiary level, and further understanding the learning process.

  19. Learning from collaborative research on sustainably managing fresh water: implications for ethical research-practice engagement

    Margaret L. Ayre

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-2000s, there has been increasing recognition of the promise of collaborative research and management for addressing complex issues in sustainably managing fresh water. A large variety of collaborative freshwater research and management processes is now evident around the world. However, how collective knowledge development, coproduction, or cocreation is carried out in an ethical manner is less well known. From the literature and our experiences as applied, transdisciplinary researchers and natural resource management practitioners, we seek to describe and explore these aspects of empirical cases of collaborative freshwater research and management. Drawing on cases from Indigenous community-based natural resource management in northern Australia, flood and drought risk management in Bulgaria, water management and climate change adaptation in the Pacific, and regional catchment and estuary management in Victoria and New South Wales in Australia, we identify lessons to support improved collaborative sustainable freshwater management research and practice. Cocreation represents an emerging approach to participation and collaboration in freshwater management research-practice and can be seen to constitute four interlinked and iterative phases: coinitiation, codesign, coimplementation, and coevaluation. For freshwater researchers and managers and their collaborators, paying attention to these phases and the ethical dilemmas that arise within each phase will support the cocreation of more effective and ethical research-practice through: sensitizing collaborators to the need for reflexivity in research-practice, proposing action research codesign as a method for managing emergent questions and outcomes, and supporting more equitable outcomes for collaborators through an emphasis on coevaluation and collaborative articulation of the links between research outputs and practice outcomes.

  20. Influence of the Human Resources Practices on the Employees Attachment. Empirical Study within the Companies in the Processing Industry

    Liviu ILIES

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to show a series of results obtained during a research whose objective was the elaboration of an analysis and assessment model of human resources management practices in order to identify the factors that determine the performance of the management system for the purpose of perfecting it, within the organizations in the processing industry in Romania. The study aims to show the importance of the influence that the human resources practices have on the employees attachment towards the organizations they are a part of. The research has as base quantitative methods of analysis, therefore, as a tool for gathering data was used the survey based on questionnaire, composed of sets of simple questions, using a measurement scale of the agreement of Likert type, from 1 to 5 (1 = total disagreement - 5 = total agreement. The study is based on questioning a number of 463 employees within 27 companies in the processing industry in Romania. Among the main conclusions obtained, we mention that, the perception of the questioned employees on the human resources practices within the analyzed organizations is relatively good, respectively the attachment of the employees towards the organizations is also relatively good. We have identified that there is a strong and positive association between the human resources practices and the employees attachment, therefore, the organizations questioned need to make efforts in order to improve the human resources practices for consolidating the employees attachment.

  1. Nurse practitioner organizational climate in primary care settings: implications for professional practice.

    Poghosyan, Lusine; Nannini, Angela; Stone, Patricia W; Smaldone, Arlene

    2013-01-01

    The expansion of the nurse practitioner (NP) workforce in primary care is key to meeting the increased demand for care. Organizational climates in primary care settings affect NP professional practice and the quality of care. This study investigated organizational climate and its domains affecting NP professional practice in primary care settings. A qualitative descriptive design, with purposive sampling, was used to recruit 16 NPs practicing in primary care settings in Massachusetts. An interview guide was developed and pretested with two NPs and in 1 group interview with 7 NPs. Data collection took place in spring of 2011. Individual interviews lasted from 30-70 minutes, were audio recorded, and transcribed. Data were analyzed using Atlas.ti 6.0 software by 3 researchers. Content analysis was applied. Three previously identified themes, NP-physician relations, independent practice and autonomy, and professional visibility, as well as two new themes, organizational support and resources and NP-administration relations emerged from the analyses. NPs reported collegial relations with physicians, challenges in establishing independent practice, suboptimal relationships with administration, and lack of support. NP contributions to patient care were invisible. Favorable organizational climates should be promoted to support the expanding of NP workforce in primary care and to optimize recruitment and retention efforts. © 2013.

  2. Human ResourceManagement Practices and Employee Performance in Banking Sector of Bangladesh

    Abdus Salam Sarker

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the first growing banking sector like Bangladesh, there are 56 banks offered financial services with different stratagem and always looking for faster growth through employee performance by all means. Performance assessment is highly important while achieving the goals of the organization and determining the individual contributions to the organization. The purpose is to measure the effect of human resource (HR practices on the employee performance in banking sector of Bangladesh. The research has performed through a sample survey on convenience sampling based data set about 328 different levels of employees from the banks in different locations of Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data related to some HR issues namely- institutional Commitment and motivation, Employee relations, Compensation, Physical Work Environment, Training & Development, Promotion, Job Satisfaction (independent variables and the employee performance (dependent variable of the designed banks. The study revealed that all the HR practices except compensation and training & development have significant impact on the employee performance in the banking industry of Bangladesh. The findings of study provide a clear guidance to the banking practitioners/policy makers to take further steps in achieving the organizational goal through the employee performance.

  3. Infection prevention and control in outpatient settings in China-structure, resources, and basic practices.

    Qiao, Fu; Huang, Wenzhi; Zong, Zhiyong; Yin, Weijia

    2018-01-25

    More than 7 billion visits are made by patients to ambulatory services every year in mainland China. Healthcare-associated infections are becoming a new source of illness for outpatients. Little is known about infection prevention, control structure, resources available, and basic practices in outpatient settings. In 2014, we conducted a multisite survey. Five provinces were invited to participate based on geographic dispersion. Self-assessment questionnaires regarding the structure, infrastructure, apparatus and materials, and basic activities of infection prevention and control were issued to 25 hospitals and 5 community health centers in each province. A weight was assigned to each question according to its importance. Overall, 146 of 150 facilities (97.3%) participated in this study. The average survey score was 77.6 (95% confidence interval 75.7-79.5) and varied significantly between the different gross domestic product areas (P infection prevention and control was practiced consistently, although there were lapses in some areas. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. View Points of an Ecologist on Practical Environmental Ethic: Socioecology, Common-Pool Resources and Conservation.

    Castilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The paper centers on environmental practical ethic point of views according to a professional ecologist. Ecology and the science of Socio-ecology are defined. The framework of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment initiative (MA 2003), including the use of ecosystems as the environmental unit of analysis, ecosystem services and human well-being as the center for assessment are discussed. Common-pool resources (CPR) and the allegory of the tragedy of the commons are used to illustrate main scientific and ethical environmental approaches, and above all to highlight the case of climate change, considering ″air-atmosphere″ as a CPR. The need to adopt practical personal environmental ethical positions is highlighted. Furthermore, on climate change, a discussion on the need to develop environmental and socio-ecological polycentric approaches: top-down and bottom-up, is included. An updated discussion on the concept of conservation, including main scientific and ethic points of view, is presented. Pope Francis's Encyclical, Laudato Si', is used to highlight environmental, socio-ecological and ethical aspects behind the comprehensive concept of Integral Ecology. The paper ends with a short synthesis on Earth modern unseen and astonishing environmental and socio-ecological rates of changes, and identifying the main barriers for personal environmental engagement. A call is done regarding the urgent need for socio-environmental ethic personal engagement and collective actions.

  5. Analysis of referral appropriateness in the Western Cape, South Africa, and implications for resource allocation

    David B. Richards

    2012-06-01

    Discussion: 22% (60/270 of transfers could have been avoided if specific resources or training were available to CHCs or if patients requiring tertiary care were identified prior to transfer to a secondary facility. The next step will be to compare the cost of providing these resources to the savings from decreased patient transfers. We believe the techniques used in this study can serve as a model for efficiency assessment of tiered health care systems throughout South Africa and beyond.

  6. Best practices for assessing forage fish fisheries-seabird resource competition

    Sydeman, William J.; Thompson, Sarah Ann; Anker-Nilssen, Tycho; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Bennison, Ashley; Bertrand, Sophie; Boersch-Supan, Philipp; Boyd, Charlotte; Bransome, Nicole C.; Crawford, Robert J.M.; Daunt, Francis; Furness, Robert W.; Gianuca, Dimas; Gladics, Amanda; Koehn, Laura; Lang, Jennifer W.; Loggerwell, Elizabeth; Morris, Taryn L.; Phillips, Elizabeth M.; Provencher, Jennifer; Punt, André E..; Saraux, Claire; Shannon, Lynne; Sherley, Richard B.; Simeone, Alejandro; Wanless, Ross M.; Wanless, Sarah; Zador, Stephani

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, in recent years capture fisheries targeting lower-trophic level forage fish and euphausiid crustaceans have been substantial (∼20 million metric tons [MT] annually). Landings of forage species are projected to increase in the future, and this harvest may affect marine ecosystems and predator-prey interactions by removal or redistribution of biomass central to pelagic food webs. In particular, fisheries targeting forage fish and euphausiids may be in competition with seabirds, likely the most sensitive of marine vertebrates given limitations in their foraging abilities (ambit and gape size) and high metabolic rate, for food resources. Lately, apparent competition between fisheries and seabirds has led to numerous high-profile conflicts over interpretations, as well as the approaches that could and should be used to assess the magnitude and consequences of fisheries-seabird resource competition. In this paper, we review the methods used to date to study fisheries competition with seabirds, and present “best practices” for future resource competition assessments. Documenting current fisheries competition with seabirds generally involves addressing two major issues: 1) are fisheries causing localized prey depletion that is sufficient to affect the birds? (i.e., are fisheries limiting food resources?), and 2) how are fisheries-induced changes to forage stocks affecting seabird populations given the associated functional or numerical response relationships? Previous studies have been hampered by mismatches in the scale of fisheries, fish, and seabird data, and a lack of causal understanding due to confounding by climatic and other ecosystem factors (e.g., removal of predatory fish). Best practices for fisheries-seabird competition research should include i) clear articulation of hypotheses, ii) data collection (or summation) of fisheries, fish, and seabirds on matched spatio-temporal scales, and iii) integration of observational and experimental

  7. Stimulation of Efficient Employee Performance through Human Resource Management Practices: A Study on the Health Care Sector of Bangladesh

    Fatema Nusrat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As the world is becoming more competitive and unstable than ever before; health care sector, especially in a developing country like Bangladesh, is seeking to gain competitive advantage through the performance of its employees and is turning to be more innovative in this perspective through human resource management (HRM practices. Experts view HRM practices as a set of internally consistent policies and practices designed and implemented to ensure that the human capital of the organization contributes to the achievement of its objectives. This paper examined the effects of human resource management (HRM practices on stimulating or enhancing efficient employee performance in the health care sector of Bangladesh. Ten dimensions and 43 item statements of human resource management (HRM practices and efficient employee performance have been adopted to undertake this study. Data have been gathered following a quantitative survey by a structured questionnaire conducted among a diverse group of employees (N = 240 working in 20 different health care service providing organizations of Bangladesh following simple random sampling method. Several statistical techniques consisting of descriptive analysis, Pearson correlations, ANOVA, Coefficient and regression analysis have been applied using SPSS software to analyze the collected data for taking decisions regarding the hypotheses. The results of the statistical analysis reveal that human resource management (HRM practices positively stimulates efficient employee performance. This study therefore recommends among others: enhancement of motivation among employees, improvement in the reward system, establishment of strong organizational culture, training and re-training of employees,  and employees participation in decision making.

  8. Assessing healthcare professional knowledge, attitudes, and practices on hypertension management. Announcing a new World Hypertension League resource.

    Campbell, Norm R C; Dashdorj, Naranjargal; Baatarsuren, Uurtsaikh; Myanganbayar, Maral; Dashtseren, Myagmartseren; Unurjargal, Tsolmon; Zhang, Xin-Hua; Veiga, Eugenia Velludo; Beheiry, Hind Mamoun; Mohan, Sailesh; Almustafa, Bader; Niebylski, Mark; Lackland, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    To assist hypertension control programs and specifically the development of training and education programs on hypertension for healthcare professionals, the World Hypertension League has developed a resource to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices on hypertension management. The resource assesses: (1) the importance of hypertension as a clinical and public health risk; (2) education in national or international hypertension recommendations; (3) lifestyle causes of hypertension; (4) measurement of blood pressure, screening, and diagnosis of hypertension; (5) lifestyle therapy counseling; (6) cardiovascular risk assessment; (7) antihypertensive drug therapy; and (8) adherence to therapy. In addition, the resource assesses the attitudes and practices of healthcare professionals for task sharing/shifting, use of care algorithms, and use of registries with performance reporting functions. The resource is designed to help support the Global Hearts Alliance to provide standardized and enhanced hypertension control globally. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Genomics and infectious disease: a call to identify the ethical, legal and social implications for public health and clinical practice.

    Geller, Gail; Dvoskin, Rachel; Thio, Chloe L; Duggal, Priya; Lewis, Michelle H; Bailey, Theodore C; Sutherland, Andrea; Salmon, Daniel A; Kahn, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    Advances in genomics are contributing to the development of more effective, personalized approaches to the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. Genetic sequencing technologies are furthering our understanding of how human and pathogen genomic factors - and their interactions - contribute to individual differences in immunologic responses to vaccines, infections and drug therapies. Such understanding will influence future policies and procedures for infectious disease management. With the potential for tailored interventions for particular individuals, populations or subpopulations, ethical, legal and social implications (ELSIs) may arise for public health and clinical practice. Potential considerations include balancing health-related benefits and harms between individuals and the larger community, minimizing threats to individual privacy and autonomy, and ensuring just distribution of scarce resources. In this Opinion, we consider the potential application of pathogen and host genomic information to particular viral infections that have large-scale public health consequences but differ in ELSI-relevant characteristics such as ease of transmission, chronicity, severity, preventability and treatability. We argue for the importance of anticipating these ELSI issues in advance of new scientific discoveries, and call for the development of strategies for identifying and exploring ethical questions that should be considered as clinical, public health and policy decisions are made.

  10. The social context of career choice among millennial nurses: implications for interprofessional practice.

    Price, Sheri; McGillis Hall, Linda; Angus, Jan; Peter, Elizabeth

    2013-11-01

    Health human resource and workforce planning is a global priority. Given the critical nursing shortage, and the fact that nurses are the largest group of healthcare providers, health workforce planning must focus on strategies to enhance both recruitment and retention of nurses. Understanding early socialization to career choice can provide insight into professional perceptions and expectations that have implications for recruitment, retention and interprofessional collaboration. This interpretive narrative inquiry utilized Polkinghorne's theory of narrative emplotment to understand the career choice experiences of 12 millennial nurses (born between 1980 and 2000) in Eastern Canada. Participants were interviewed twice, face-to-face, 4 to 6 weeks apart prior to commencing their nursing program. The narratives present career choice as a complex consideration of social positioning. The findings provide insight into how nursing is perceived to be positioned in relation to medicine and how the participants struggled to locate themselves within this social hierarchy. Implications of this research highlight the need to ensure that recruitment messaging and organizational policies promote interprofessional collaboration from the onset of choosing a career in the health professions. Early professional socialization strategies during recruitment and education can enhance future collaboration between the health professions.

  11. Assessment of Land and Water Resource Implications of the UK 2050 Carbon Plan

    Konadu, D. D.; Sobral Mourao, Z.; Skelton, S.; Lupton, R.

    2015-12-01

    The UK Carbon Plan presents four low-carbon energy system pathways that achieves 80% GHG emission targets by 2050, stipulated in the UK Climate Change Act (2008). However, some of the energy technologies prescribed under these pathways are land and water intensive; but would the increase demand for land and water under these pathways lead to increased competition and stress on agricultural land, and water resources in the UK? To answer the above question, this study uses an integrated modelling approach, ForeseerTM, which characterises the interdependencies and evaluates the land and water requirement for the pathways, based on scenarios of power plant location, and the energy crop yield projections. The outcome is compared with sustainable limits of resource appropriation to assess potential stresses and competition for water and land by other sectors of the economy. The results show the Carbon Plan pathways have low overall impacts on UK water resources, but agricultural land use and food production could be significantly impacted. The impact on agricultural land use is shown to be mainly driven by projections for transport decarbonisation via indigenously sourced biofuels. On the other hand, the impact on water resources is mainly associated with increased inland thermal electricity generation capacity, which would compete with other industrial and public water demands. The results highlight the need for a critical appraisal of UK's long term low-carbon energy system planning, in particular bioenergy sourcing strategy, and the siting of thermal power generation in order to avert potential resource stress and competition.

  12. Antecedents and Outcomes of Workplace Incivility: Implications for Human Resource Development Research and Practice

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Ghosh, Rajashi

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional, correlational study (N = 402) examined the relationships among select demographics, workplace adaptation, employee affect, and incivility and physical health and job satisfaction. The paper-and-pencil survey battery consisted of nine scales. The hypotheses were tested through correlational, factor analytic, and hierarchical…

  13. Competition explains limited attention and perceptual resources: implications for perceptual load and dilution theories

    Paige E. Scalf

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Both perceptual load theory and dilution theory purport to explain when and why task-irrelevant information, or so-called distractors are processed. Central to both explanations is the notion of limited resources, although the theories differ in the precise way in which those limitations affect distractor processing. We have recently proposed a neurally plausible explanation of limited resources in which neural competition among stimuli hinders their representation in the brain. This view of limited capacity can also explain distractor processing, whereby the competitive interactions and bias imposed to resolve the competition determine the extent to which a distractor is processed. This idea is compatible with aspects of both perceptual load and dilution models of distractor processing, but also serves to highlight their differences. Here we review the evidence in favor of a biased competition view of limited resources and relate these ideas to both classic perceptual load theory and dilution theory.

  14. Competition explains limited attention and perceptual resources: implications for perceptual load and dilution theories.

    Scalf, Paige E; Torralbo, Ana; Tapia, Evelina; Beck, Diane M

    2013-01-01

    Both perceptual load theory and dilution theory purport to explain when and why task-irrelevant information, or so-called distractors are processed. Central to both explanations is the notion of limited resources, although the theories differ in the precise way in which those limitations affect distractor processing. We have recently proposed a neurally plausible explanation of limited resources in which neural competition among stimuli hinders their representation in the brain. This view of limited capacity can also explain distractor processing, whereby the competitive interactions and bias imposed to resolve the competition determine the extent to which a distractor is processed. This idea is compatible with aspects of both perceptual load and dilution models of distractor processing, but also serves to highlight their differences. Here we review the evidence in favor of a biased competition view of limited resources and relate these ideas to both classic perceptual load theory and dilution theory.

  15. Factors that affect general practice as a choice of medical speciality: implications for policy development.

    Vohra, Amit; Ladyshewsky, Richard; Trumble, Stephen

    2017-11-28

    Objective This article critically appraises the range of personal, professional and social factors that affect the choice of speciality across medical students, prevocational doctors, general practice registrars and general practitioners. Methods This qualitative study applied constructs from the fields of decision theory and career theory to better understand the complex nature of choosing a speciality. In all, 47 in-depth interviews were conducted with participants at different stages of their career cycle. The data was codified and analysed using NVivo to identify key factors that influenced speciality choice. Results The research identified 77 individual findings influencing general practice as a choice of medical speciality. These were distilled into a matrix to show that factors such as money, prestige and peer interaction did not have a compelling effect, whereas clinical and academic role models, flexibility, work-life balance, scope of practice, connection with patients, training environment and practical opportunities did. Conclusion The findings indicate that the decision in relation to the choice of medical speciality is a complex cognitive process that is undertaken within a personal, social and professional context particular to each individual. What is known about the topic? Current literature aims to quantify changes in attitudes towards choice of speciality or the effect of particular variables in isolation while ignoring the complexity of this decision process and how the numerous variables compare with each other. What does this paper add? The present study is the first intergenerational research on this topic in the Australian context and the paper dismisses the role of prestige and remuneration as key drivers of choice in picking general practice as a speciality, noting that money is merely a 'hygiene factor'. What are the implications for policy makers? A policy framework outlining 10 key principles is presented to assist policy makers seeking

  16. Geologic and geophysical models for Osage County, Oklahoma, with implications for groundwater resources

    Hudson, Mark R.; Smith, David V.; Pantea, Michael P.; Becker, Carol J.

    2016-06-16

    This report summarizes a three-dimensional (3-D) geologic model that was constructed to provide a framework to investigate groundwater resources of the Osage Nation in northeastern Oklahoma. This report also presents an analysis of an airborne electromagnetic (AEM) survey that assessed the spatial variation of electrical resistivity to depths as great as 300 meters in the subsurface. The report and model provide support for a countywide assessment of groundwater resources, emphasizing the Upper Pennsylvanian rock units in the shallow subsurface of central and eastern Osage County having electrical resistivity properties that may indicate aquifers.

  17. Implications of leading crop production practices on environmental quality and human health.

    Udeigwe, Theophilus K; Teboh, Jasper M; Eze, Peter N; Stietiya, M Hashem; Kumar, Vipan; Hendrix, James; Mascagni, Henry J; Ying, Teng; Kandakji, Tarek

    2015-03-15

    Globally, much weight is currently being placed on agriculture to provide food for the growing population as well as feedstock for the bioenergy industry. Unfortunately, the intensification of agricultural operations to satisfy these growing needs has been associated with a number of environmental and human health risks. A review of publications on the subject was conducted and emphasis was placed on articles focusing on agriculture, environment, and public health as well as their interactions. Supporting information was also gathered from publications of various agricultural and environmental agencies. Agricultural practices with potential negative implications on the environment and human health were identified broadly as: (a) utilization of biosolids and animal manures, (b) use of agricultural chemicals, (c) management of post-harvest residue, (d) irrigation, and (e) tillage operations. Soil, water, and air contamination by nutrients, heavy metals, pathogens, and pesticides, as well as air contamination by particulate matters, noxious gases, and pathogens were among the leading environmental impacts. Some of the human-health impacts identified included neurological and reproductive defects, cardiovascular risks, cancers and other diseases (of kidney, liver, lung, and skin), skin allergies, gastroenteritis, and methemoglobinemia. Continual awareness on the impacts of the reviewed agricultural practices on environmental quality and human health and the implementation of experimentally-backed best management practices in agricultural systems remain indispensable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Informal care and the self-management partnership: implications for Australian health policy and practice.

    Essue, Beverley M; Jowsey, Tanisha; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Mirzaei, Masoud; Pearce-Brown, Carmen L; Aspin, Clive; Usherwood, Tim P

    2010-11-01

    The Serious and Continuing Illness Policy and Practice Study (SCIPPS) aims to improve the care and support for patients with chronic illness and their family carers. Here we describe the carers' contribution to the self-management partnership and discuss the policy and practice implications that are relevant to improving the support available for informal care in Australia. A secondary analysis of SCIPPS data. Fourteen carers of patients between 45 and 85 years with chronic heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes were conveniently sampled from western Sydney and the Australian Capital Territory. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Key roles that carers perform in the self-management partnership included: home helper; lifestyle coach; advocate; technical care manager; and health information interpreter. Two negative consequences of juggling these roles included: self-neglect and conflict. Rigid eligibility criteria limit carers' access to essential support programs which underestimates and undervalues their contributions to the self-management partnership. Support services should focus on the development of practical skills to perform the caregiving roles. In addition, health professionals require support to work more effectively with carers to minimise the conflict that can overshadow the care and self-management partnership.

  19. The role of natural resource amenities in attracting retirees: implications for economic growth policy

    Neelam C. Poudyal; Donald G. Hodges; H. Ken Cordell

    2008-01-01

    Increasing criticism of resource-extractive and polluting heavy duty industries in urbanareas, as well as continuing declines in timbering, farming and mining in rural areas, havecreated challenges for planners and policy makers seeking sustainable rural economies.Earlier studies have concluded that a...

  20. Andragology and social capital theory: the implications for human resource development

    Kessels, Joseph; Poell, Rob F.

    2004-01-01

    The problem and the solution. This article portrays a perspective from andragogy, individual learning, and social capital theory as a contribution to the discussion on the relationship between adult learning theory and human resource development (HRD). Andragogy and social capital theory may offer a

  1. Performance Costs when Emotion Tunes Inappropriate Cognitive Abilities: Implications for Mental Resources and Behavior

    Storbeck, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Emotion tunes cognition, such that approach-motivated positive states promote verbal cognition, whereas withdrawal-motivated negative states promote spatial cognition (Gray, 2001). The current research examined whether self-control resources become depleted and influence subsequent behavior when emotion tunes an inappropriate cognitive tendency.…

  2. The Resource-Based Theory and Disaster Management: Implication for Local Government in Managing a Disaster

    Kusumasari, Bevaola

    2012-01-01

    Artikel ini adalah kajian evaluasi mengenai kapabilitas pemerintah daerah Bantul menangani bencana gempa. Tujuan utama adalah untuk mengerahkan semua sumber daya yang ada untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi yang berkaitan dengan melindungi dan menguangi kerentanan masyarakat terhadap bencana. Pemahaman teori berbasis sumber daya (resource based theory.RBT) dapat membantu organisasi mengidentifikasi sumber daya yang dimiliki organisasi untuk mencapai tujuannya. RBT menggunakan perspektif dari kap...

  3. Print to Pixels: the Implications for the Development of Learning Resources

    Griffiths, David

    2006-01-01

    Littlejohn (Littlejohn 2003) describes how numerous national and international initiatives have been funded to investigate ways in which digital learning resources might be developed, shared and reused by teachers and learners around the world (so as to benefit from economies of scale). The idea of

  4. Human migration and natural resources: implications for land managers and challenges for researchers.

    Stephen F. McCool; Linda E. Kruger

    2003-01-01

    Rural areas of the Pacific Northwest experienced a dramatic growth in population during the late 1980s to early 1990s. This growth was fueled by both push and pull factors, including environmental and natural resource based amenities. Such growth has not only stressed the capacity of rural counties and communities to cope with change but also has raised important...

  5. Legal and Ethical Implications of Using Social Media in Human Resource Management

    Lu Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Now more than ever we live in a society saturated with technology and media.  We are captured by the technology whirlwind such as the internet, instant messages, emails, and social media such as Twitter and Facebook.  Technologies not only are changing the way people live, work, and interact with each other but also the way companies conduct their businesses.  Social media no doubt is one of such technologies that enables companies to market their products and services in new and unique dimensions.  Beyond marketing, social media is also changing the way human resource professionals recruit and select employees.   Recruiting and selecting potential new employees using social media, is gaining popularity.  There are even software programs that capitalize on the information available on social media sites to assist human resources professionals to source, screen, and track job applicants.  Although there are many advantages in using social media networks to assist HR to select and filter job candidates, there are reasons for concerns.  In this paper, we’ll examine the legal and ethical consequences of using social media in the area of human resource management.   Keywords: Social Media, Facebook, Human Resources, Management.

  6. Clinical neurofeedback: case studies, proposed mechanism, and implications for pediatric neurology practice.

    Legarda, Stella B; McMahon, Doreen; Othmer, Siegfried; Othmer, Sue

    2011-08-01

    Trends in alternative medicine use by American health care consumers are rising substantially. Extensive literature exists reporting on the effectiveness of neurofeedback in the treatment of autism, closed head injury, insomnia, migraine, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, and posttraumatic stress disorder. We speculated that neurofeedback might serve as a therapeutic modality for patients with medically refractory neurological disorders and have begun referring patients to train with clinical neurofeedback practitioners. The modality is not always covered by insurance. Confident their child's medical and neurological needs would continue to be met, the parents of 3 children with epilepsy spectrum disorder decided to have their child train in the modality. The children's individual progress following neurofeedback are each presented here. A proposed mechanism and practice implications are discussed.

  7. Teacher education policies, practices, and reform in Scotland: Implications in the Indian context

    Pradeep Kumar Misra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available India, a country of 1.27 billion, nowadays needs reforms, improvements, and new approaches in teacher education to cater to the demands of changing economy and society. This call to improve teacher education becomes more significant considering the fact that 50% of India’s current population is below the age of 25 and over 65% below 35. There are two ways to proceed in this direction. First, making an internal review and assessment of present scenario of teacher education and suggesting need-based measures. The second one is to learn from those countries that have recently reviewed their teacher education systems and are continuously working for the betterment of teacher education. Following second approach, present paper analyzes teacher education policies, practices, and reform in Scotland, argues that concerns and commitments to reform teacher education in India and Scotland are similar, and suggests implications of Scottish experiences in the Indian context.

  8. State Definitions of Social Work Practice: Implications for our Professional Identity.

    Hill, Katharine; Fogel, Sondra; Plitt Donaldson, Linda; Erickson, Christina

    2017-01-01

    For over a century, the social work profession has been concerned with describing the unique and specific characteristics that define its core functions in society; however, the profession has yet to agree to a single definition of social work. In the absence of a unifying definition, 51 different statutory definitions of social work have been created by each state and the District of Columbia. Using qualitative methods, each statutory definition of social work was analyzed to gain an understanding of how social work is defined and understood across the United States. Findings indicate that 57% of the statutory language blend the full range of micro to macro social work practice skills into their definition. However, even within these and those remaining, there are vast differences in definitions. Implications for state licensing laws, are considered, along with how this impacts education, the work force, and professional identity.

  9. Implications of American Indian gambling for social work research and practice.

    Momper, Sandra L

    2010-04-01

    Since the 1988 passage of the Indian Gaming and Regulatory Act (IGRA), American Indian tribal communities have rapidly opened up casinos. American Indian participation in recreational gambling has increased, resulting in an increase in problem and pathological gambling. However, increased revenues from gaming have significantly benefited tribes. Background information on the Supreme Court case that led to passage of the IGRA and subsequently the opening of casinos on Indian reservations is provided. Data are presented on American Indian gambling studies that explore the impact of gambling on the development of problem or pathological gambling among American Indians. Reports and data are presented on the effects of gambling on the socioeconomic development of tribal communities. The implications of American Indian gaming for social work research and practice are discussed.

  10. On some practical implications of the recent EU-directive on radiation protection

    Tschurlovits, M

    1998-01-01

    The following practical implications of the EU 96 directive on radiation protection in Austria are discussed: Quantitative justification and optimization of the recent standards is needed. The reduction of the annual dose limit to 20 mSv will affect a very small percentage of the persons subject to monitoring. The reduction of dose limits in external exposure of the population will not be dramatic at all. The model used to set up limits for internal exposure was changed to single intake; this implies some changes in design and monitoring. The deletion of convenient figures for 'unknown' radionuclides will make environmental and release monitoring more complex without gaining a higher level of protection. (A.K.)

  11. The socio-materiality of learning practices and implications for the field of learning technology

    Aditya Johri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the use of digital information technologies in education has becomecommonplace, there are few, if any, central guiding frameworks or theories thatexplicate the relationship between technology and learning practices. In thispaper, I argue that such a theoretical framework can assist scholars and practitionersalike by working as a conduit to study and design learning technologies.Towards this goal, I propose socio-materiality as a key theoretical construct withvaluable insights and implications for the field of learning technology. Sociomaterialityhelps balance the disproportionate attention given to either the socialimplications of technology use or the material aspects of technology design.Furthermore, I forward ‘socio-material bricolage' as a useful analytical frameworkto examine and design technology-infused learning environments. I illustratethe value of the framework by applying it to three case studies of formaland informal technology-based learning.

  12. The hypothesis of a continuum in suicidality: a discussion on its validity and practical implications

    Jerneja Sveticic

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a progression in suicide phenomena, from death wishes to suicide attempts and completed suicides, is quite old and widely present in literature. This model of interpreting suicidality has great relevance in preventative approaches, since it gives the opportunity of intercepting suicidal trajectories at several different stages. However, this may not be the case for many situations, and the hypothesis of a continuum can be true only in a limited number of cases, probably embedded with a specific psychopathological scenario (e.g. depression and with a frequency that should not permit generalisations. This paper reviews the available evidence about the existence and validity of this construct, and discusses its practical implications.

  13. Patient acceptability and practical implications of pharmacokinetic studies in patients with advanced cancer.

    Dobbs, N A; Twelves, C J; Ramirez, A J; Towlson, K E; Gregory, W M; Richards, M A

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the practical implications and acceptability to patients of pharmacokinetic studies in 34 women receiving anthracyclines for advanced breast cancer. The following parameters were recorded: age, ECOG performance status, psychological state (Rotterdam Symptom Checklist), cytotoxic drug and dose, number of venepunctures for treatment and sampling, and time when the sampling cannula was removed. Immediately after finishing pharmacokinetic sampling, patients completed a questionnaire which revealed that (i) all patients understood sampling was for research, (ii) 35% of patients experienced problems with sampling, (iii) benefits from participation were perceived by 56% of patients. Of 20 patients later questioned after completion of their treatment course, 40% recalled difficulties with blood sampling. Factors identifying in advance those patients who tolerate pharmacokinetic studies poorly were not identified but the number of venepunctures should be minimised. Patients may also perceive benefits from 'non-therapeutic' research.

  14. Female science teacher beliefs and attitudes: implications in relation to gender and pedagogical practice

    Zapata, Mara; Gallard, Alejandro J.

    2007-10-01

    Beliefs and attitudes resulting from the unique life experiences of teachers frame interactions with learners promoting gender equity or inequity and the reproduction of social views about knowledge and power as related to gender. This study examines the enactment of a female science teacher's pedagogy (Laura), seeking to understand the implications of her beliefs and attitudes, as framed by her interpretations and daily manifestations, as she interacts with students. Distinct influences inform the conceptual framework of this study: (a) the social organization of society at large, governed by understood and unspoken patriarchy, present both academically and socially; (b) the devaluing of women as "knowers" of scientific knowledge as defined by a western and male view of science; (c) the marginalization or "feminization" of education and pedagogical knowledge. The findings reflect tensions between attitudes and beliefs and actual teacher practice suggesting the need for awareness within existing or new teachers about their positions as social agents and the sociological implications related to issues of gender within which we live and work, inclusive of science teaching and learning.

  15. The practice and clinical implications of tablet splitting in international health

    Elliott, Ivo; Mayxay, Mayfong; Yeuichaixong, Sengchanh; Lee, Sue J; Newton, Paul N

    2014-01-01

    Objective Tablet splitting is frequently performed to facilitate correct dosing, but the practice and implications in low-income settings have rarely been discussed. Methods We selected eight drugs, with narrow therapeutic indices or critical dosages, frequently divided in the Lao PDR (Laos). These were split, by common techniques used in Laos, by four nurses and four laypersons. The mean percentage deviation from the theoretical expected weight and weight loss of divided tablets/capsules were recorded. Results Five of eight study drugs failed, on splitting, to meet European Pharmacopoeia recommendations for tablet weight deviation from the expected weight of tablet/capsule halves with 10% deviating by more than 25%. There was a significant difference in splitting accuracy between nurses and laypersons (P = 0.027). Coated and unscored tablets were less accurately split than uncoated (P = 0.03 and 0.0019 for each half) and scored (0.0001 for both halves) tablets. Conclusion These findings have potential clinical implications on treatment outcome and the development of antimicrobial resistance. Investment by drug companies in a wider range of dosage units, particularly for narrow therapeutic index and critical dosage medicines, is strongly recommended. PMID:24702766

  16. Implications of Derived Rule Following of Roulette Gambling for Clinical Practice.

    Wilson, Alyssa N; Grant, Tara

    2015-05-01

    Problem gambling is a global concern, and behavior analytic attention has increasingly focused on reasons for why problem gambling occurs and conditions under which it is maintained. However, limited knowledge currently exists on the process to which self-generated rules maintain gambling behaviors. Therefore, the current study assessed six recreational gamblers on a roulette game before and after discrimination training to establish a self-rule to wager on red or black. Following discrimination training, all six participants altered their response allocation among red or black and consistently responded according to the newly derived self-rule. Results maintained during 1-week follow-up sessions across all participants. Implications for clinical application of self-awareness and self-generated rule following are discussed. Implications for practice • Demonstration of how stimuli such as color can alter gambling behavior • Procedures to assist clients with changing self-rules about gambling behavior • Using self-generated rule formulation for more contextually appropriate target behaviors • Highlights how self-generated rules can be altered to change clinical target behaviors.

  17. Historical perspective of traditional indigenous medical practices: the current renaissance and conservation of herbal resources.

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Litscher, Gerhard; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal "renaissance" occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs.

  18. Health Care providers and Teen Driving Safety: Topics Discussed and Educational Resources Used in Practice.

    Dellinger, Ann M; West, Bethany A

    2015-11-01

    Traffic crashes are the leading cause of death among teens. Health care providers have an opportunity to address what works to keep teens safe on the road during the patient visit. An online survey was conducted of 1088 health care providers who saw patients at or near driving age. The survey assessed which road safety topics were discussed and which types of educational products were used most often. Family and general practice physicians represented 44.3% of the sample, followed by pediatricians (22.5%), nurse practitioners (17.6%), and internists (15.5%). Nearly all respondents (92.9%) reported addressing one or more driving safety factors (seat belt use, nighttime driving, fatigue, teen passengers, alcohol/drug use, speeding/reckless driving, and cell phone use/texting) with adolescent patients and/or their parents. Seat belt use was reported more often (83.7%) than other topics. The use of parent-teen driving agreements, a known effective intervention, was reported by less than 10% of respondents. Since health care providers expressed interest in receiving written resource materials, distribution of parent-teen driving agreements to health care providers might encourage greater uptake and use of this effective intervention.

  19. Multiobjective optimization of urban water resources: Moving toward more practical solutions

    Mortazavi, Mohammad; Kuczera, George; Cui, Lijie

    2012-03-01

    The issue of drought security is of paramount importance for cities located in regions subject to severe prolonged droughts. The prospect of "running out of water" for an extended period would threaten the very existence of the city. Managing drought security for an urban water supply is a complex task involving trade-offs between conflicting objectives. In this paper a multiobjective optimization approach for urban water resource planning and operation is developed to overcome practically significant shortcomings identified in previous work. A case study based on the headworks system for Sydney (Australia) demonstrates the approach and highlights the potentially serious shortcomings of Pareto optimal solutions conditioned on short climate records, incomplete decision spaces, and constraints to which system response is sensitive. Where high levels of drought security are required, optimal solutions conditioned on short climate records are flawed. Our approach addresses drought security explicitly by identifying approximate optimal solutions in which the system does not "run dry" in severe droughts with expected return periods up to a nominated (typically large) value. In addition, it is shown that failure to optimize the full mix of interacting operational and infrastructure decisions and to explore the trade-offs associated with sensitive constraints can lead to significantly more costly solutions.

  20. Historical Perspective of Traditional Indigenous Medical Practices: The Current Renaissance and Conservation of Herbal Resources

    Si-Yuan Pan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal “renaissance” occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world’s populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs.

  1. Historical Perspective of Traditional Indigenous Medical Practices: The Current Renaissance and Conservation of Herbal Resources

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal “renaissance” occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs. PMID:24872833

  2. Scientific and practical tools for dealing with water resource estimations for the future

    D. A. Hughes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Future flow regimes will be different to today and imperfect knowledge of present and future climate variations, rainfall–runoff processes and anthropogenic impacts make them highly uncertain. Future water resources decisions will rely on practical and appropriate simulation tools that are sensitive to changes, can assimilate different types of change information and flexible enough to accommodate improvements in understanding of change. They need to include representations of uncertainty and generate information appropriate for uncertain decision-making. This paper presents some examples of the tools that have been developed to address these issues in the southern Africa region. The examples include uncertainty in present day simulations due to lack of understanding and data, using climate change projection data from multiple climate models and future catchment responses due to both climate and development effects. The conclusions are that the tools and models are largely available and what we need is more reliable forcing and model evlaution information as well as methods of making decisions with such inevitably uncertain information.

  3. Human Resource Management Practices and Employees’ Satisfaction Towards Private Banking Sector in Bangladesh

    Md. Tofael Hossain Majumder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic advances of Information and Communication Technology (ICT, changing mix and personal values of the workforce, emergence of the knowledge economy and increasing global competition have created enormous challenges on organizations. To cope with the challenges efficiently, human resource has been considered as one of the most important factors in today’s hyper-competitive market place. The focus of this study is to gain an insight into the current HRM practices and its impact on employee’s satisfaction on the private banking sector in Bangladesh. For conducting this research, 100 bank employees are selected from the chosen banks and out of this 88 employees responses properly, the response rate is 88 percent. The questionnaire consists of different questions on nine HRM dimensions such as recruitment and selection systems, compensation package, job security, career growth, training and development, management style, job design and responsibilities, reward and motivation and working environment. The questionnaire was developed by using a five point Likert scale. In this study, some statistical measures such as Z-test, mean and proportion analysis is used to examine employee’s satisfaction. The study reveals that all HRM dimensions exercised in the private banking sector of Bangladesh does not satisfied to the employees equally. Most of the employees are dissatisfied with compensation package followed by reward and motivation, career growth, training and development, management style, and job design and responsibilities. So, these HRM dimensions quality should be improved for the betterment of the bank’s success.

  4. Student Web Use, Columbia Earthscape, and Their Implications for Online Earth Science Resources

    Haber, J.; Luby, M.; Wittenberg, K.

    2002-12-01

    For three years, Columbia Earthscape, www.earthscape.org, has served as a test bed for the development and evaluation of Web-based geoscience education. Last fall (EOS Trans. AGU, 82(47), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract ED11A-11, 2001), we described how librarian, scientist, instructor, and student feedback led to sweeping changes in interface and acquisitions. Further assessment has looked at the value of a central online resource for Earth-system science education in light of patterns of study. Columbia Earthscape aimed to create an authoritative resource that reflects the interconnectedness of the Internet, of the disciplines of Earth-systems science, and of research, education, and public policy. Evaluation thus has three parts. The editors and editorial advisory board have evaluated projects for the site for accuracy and relevance to the project?s original context of Earth issues and topical mini-courses. Second, our research sought patterns of student use and library acquisition of Internet sources. Last, we asked if and how students benefit from Columbia Earthscape. We found, first, that while libraries are understandably reluctant to add online resources to strained budgets, almost all students work online; they vary almost solely in personal Web use. Second, Web use does not discourage use of print. Third, researchers often search Columbia Earthscape, but students, especially in schools, prefer browsing by topic of interest. Fourth, if they did not have this resource, most would surf, but many feel lost on the Web, and few say they can judge the quality of materials they used. Fifth, students found Columbia Earthscape helpful, relevant, and current, but most often for its research and policy materials. Many commented on issue-related collections original to Columbia Earthscape. While indeed we intended our Classroom Models and Sample Syllabi primarily as aids to instructor course design, we conclude, first, that students stick anyway to assigned materials and

  5. Caffeine's implications for women's health and survey of obstetrician-gynecologists' caffeine knowledge and assessment practices.

    Anderson, Britta L; Juliano, Laura M; Schulkin, Jay

    2009-09-01

    Caffeine has relevance for women's health and pregnancy, including significant associations with spontaneous abortion and low birth weight. According to scientific data, pregnant women and women of reproductive age should be advised to limit their caffeine consumption. This article reviews the implications of caffeine for women's psychological and physical health, and presents data on obstetrician-gynecologists' (ob-gyns) knowledge and practices pertaining to caffeine. Ob-gyns (N = 386) who are members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network responded to a 21-item survey about caffeine. Although most knew that caffeine is passed through breast milk, only 24.8% were aware that caffeine metabolism significantly slows as pregnancy progresses. Many respondents were not aware of the caffeine content of commonly used products, such as espresso and Diet Coke, with 14.3% and 57.8% indicating amounts within an accurate range, respectively. Furthermore, ob-gyns did not take into account large differences in caffeine content across different caffeinated beverages with most recommending one to two servings of coffee or tea or soft drinks per day. There was substantial inconsistency in what was considered to be "high levels" of maternal caffeine consumption, with only 31.6% providing a response. When asked to indicate the risk that high levels of caffeine have on various pregnancy outcomes, responses were not consistent with scientific data. For example, respondents overestimated the relative risk of stillbirths and underestimated the relative risk of spontaneous abortion. There was great variability in assessment and advice practices pertaining to caffeine. More than half advise their pregnant patients to consume caffeine under certain circumstances, most commonly to alleviate headache and caffeine withdrawal. The data suggest that ob-gyns could benefit from information about caffeine and its relevance to their

  6. Climate Change and Poor Water Resource Management Will Have Serious Security Implications in the Balkan Peninsula

    2015-06-12

    climate change on water resources. Many of these areas (e.g., Mediterranean Basin, western United States, southern Africa, northeast Brazil , southern...urbanizing, more affluent populations, and substantial economic growth in India, China, Brazil , and other nations, will devastate homes, land, and...portion (90%) came from Europe and 70% from EU countries. In 2003, the accommodation capacity was approximately 650,000 beds in more than 8,500 hotels

  7. Pandemic influenza-implications for critical care resources in Australia and New Zealand.

    Anderson, Therese A; Hart, Graeme K; Kainer, Marion A

    2003-09-01

    To quantify resource requirements (additional beds and ventilator capacity), for critical care services in the event of pandemic influenza. Cross-sectional survey about existing and potential critical care resources. Participants comprised 156 of the 176 Australasian (Australia and New Zealand) critical care units on the database of the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) Research Centre for Critical Care Resources. The Meltzer, Cox and Fukuda model was adapted to map a range of influenza attack rate estimates for hospitalisation and episodes likely to require intensive care and to predict critical care admission rates and bed day requirements. Estimations of ventilation rates were based on those for community-acquired pneumonia. The estimated extra number of persons requiring hospitalisation ranged from 8,455 (10% attack rate) to 150,087 (45% attack rate). The estimated number of additional admissions to critical care units ranged from 423 (5% admission rate, 10% attack rate) to 37,522 (25% admission rate, 45% attack rate). The potential number of required intensive care bed days ranged from 846 bed days (2 day length of stay, 10% attack rate) to 375,220 bed days (10 day length of stay, 45% attack rate). The number of persons likely to require mechanical ventilation ranged from 106 (25% of projected critical care admissions, 10% attack rate) to 28,142 (75% of projected critical care admissions, 45% attack rate). An additional 1,195 emergency ventilator beds were identified in public sector and 248 in private sector hospitals. Cancellation of elective surgery could release a potential 76,402 intensive care bed days (per annum), but in the event of pandemic influenza, 31,150 bed days could be required over an 8- to 12-week period. Australasian critical care services would be overwhelmed in the event of pandemic influenza. More work is required in relation to modelling, contingency plans, and resource allocation.

  8. Performance costs when emotion tunes inappropriate cognitive abilities: implications for mental resources and behavior.

    Storbeck, Justin

    2012-08-01

    Emotion tunes cognition, such that approach-motivated positive states promote verbal cognition, whereas withdrawal-motivated negative states promote spatial cognition (Gray, 2001). The current research examined whether self-control resources become depleted and influence subsequent behavior when emotion tunes an inappropriate cognitive tendency. In 2 experiments, either an approach-motivated positive state or a withdrawal-motivated negative state was induced, and then participants completed a verbal or a spatial working memory task creating conditions of emotion-cognition alignment (e.g., approach/verbal) or misalignment (e.g., approach/spatial). A control condition was also included. To examine behavioral costs due to depleted self-control resources, participants completed either a Stroop task (Stroop, 1935; Experiment 1) or a Black/White implicit association test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998; Experiment 2). Participants in the misalignment conditions performed worse on the Stroop task, and they were worse at controlling their implicit attitude biases on the IAT. Thus, when emotion tunes inappropriate cognitive tendencies for one's current environment, self-control resources become depleted, impairing behavioral control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Resource conflict and cooperation between human host and gut microbiota: implications for nutrition and health.

    Wasielewski, Helen; Alcock, Joe; Aktipis, Athena

    2016-05-01

    Diet has been known to play an important role in human health since at least the time period of the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates. In the last decade, research has revealed that microorganisms inhabiting the digestive tract, known as the gut microbiota, are critical factors in human health. This paper draws on concepts of cooperation and conflict from ecology and evolutionary biology to make predictions about host-microbiota interactions involving nutrients. To optimally extract energy from some resources (e.g., fiber), hosts require cooperation from microbes. Other nutrients can be utilized by both hosts and microbes (e.g., simple sugars, iron) in their ingested form, which may lead to greater conflict over these resources. This framework predicts that some negative health effects of foods are driven by the direct effects of these foods on human physiology and by indirect effects resulting from microbiome-host competition and conflict (e.g., increased invasiveness and inflammation). Similarly, beneficial effects of some foods on host health may be enhanced by resource sharing and other cooperative behaviors between host and microbes that may downregulate inflammation and virulence. Given that some foods cultivate cooperation between hosts and microbes while others agitate conflict, host-microbe interactions may be novel targets for interventions aimed at improving nutrition and human health. © 2016 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Icelandic nurses' beliefs, skills, and resources associated with evidence-based practice and related factors: a national survey.

    Thorsteinsson, Hrund S

    2013-05-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is essential to the improvement of patient outcomes and the quality of care. Nurses' use of evidence in practice, however, remains limited. Assessing nurses' readiness for EBP where it is not as prominent as in countries leading EBP research was of particular interest. To determine Icelandic registered nurses' (RNs') ability to provide care based on evidence as measured by their beliefs, perception of skills, and access to resources associated with EBP. A descriptive survey was used in which a random sample of 540 Icelandic RNs completed the translated and modified version of the Information Literacy for Evidence-Based Nursing Practice and the translated EBP Beliefs Scale. Descriptive statistics, correlations, chi-square tests, t tests and one-way ANOVAs were used to analyze the data. Participants strongly believed in the value of EBP for patient care, but were less confident regarding their own knowledge and skills needed for EBP. Most (82%) of the respondents (i.e., RNs) turned to peers when in need of information, rather than peer-reviewed resources. Although over half of the RNs (54%) had received instructions in the use of electronic databases, only a third indicated success in using them. They considered "lack of search skills" as the primary barrier to use of research in practice. Using research findings in practice was associated with positive EBP beliefs, familiarity with EBP and other EBP-related activities. Clinical RNs were found to be at a disadvantage when it came to access to EBP-related resources and participated less frequently in EBP-related activities other than using research in practice. Icelandic RNs' beliefs regarding EBP are similar to those of RNs in other countries. Their access to EBP resources is generally good, but they lack the skills and knowledge needed for EBP. Strategies aimed at changing the organizational and practice context need to be developed. © Sigma Theta Tau International.

  11. The Impact of Bundled High Performance Human Resource Practices on Intention to Leave: Mediating Role of Emotional Exhaustion

    Jyoti, Jeevan; Rani, Roomi; Gandotra, Rupali

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating effect of emotional exhaustion (EE) in between bundled high-performance human resource practices (HPHRPs) and intention to leave (ITL) in the education sector. Design/methodology/approach: A survey questionnaire method was used to collect data from a sample of 514 teachers working in…

  12. Making working in retailing interesting: A study of human resource management practices in Danish grocery retail chains

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Buck, Nuka

    In this paper we investigate the human resource management practices of five Danish grocery retail chains from the perspective of both retailers and employees. We present an analytical framework for analysing the social and institutional context of Danish retailing and interpret our case study...

  13. How the Organizational Learning Process Mediates the Impact of Strategic Human Resource Management Practices on Performance in Korean Organizations

    Cho, Sei Hyoung; Song, Ji Hoon; Yun, Suk Chun; Lee, Cheol Ki

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research is to examine the structural relationships among several workplace-related constructs, including strategic human resource management (HRM) practices, organizational learning processes, and performance improvement in the Korean business context. More specifically, the research examined the mediating effect of…

  14. Resource-use efficiencies of three indigenous tree species planted in resource islands created by shrubs: implications for reforestation of subtropical degraded shrublands

    Nan Liu; Qinfeng Guo

    2012-01-01

    Shrub resource islands are characterized by resources accumulated shrubby areas surrounded by relative barren soils. This research aims to determine resource-use efficiency of native trees species planted on shrub resource islands, and to determine how the planted trees may influence the resource islands in degraded shrublands in South China. Shrub (Rhodomyrtus...

  15. STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONAL PATHOLOGY AND IMPLICATIONS ON HUMAN RESOURCES JOB SATISFACTION, ALSO ON THE EMPLOYMENT OF THE LABOR MARKET

    Diana-Elena, SERB

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available People need to face the demands resulting induced neurotic styles of their leaders. The result is lower morale, affect behavior, dissatisfaction at work. This paper aims to present the point of view of theoretical and practical implications of failures in the organization on job satisfaction of employees. The practical part of this article is the analysis of statistically labor employment level , and a marketing research field, a survey using questionnaire as the main instrument. The main objectives during the research aims: knowledge labor employment in Romania, identify employee satisfaction on labor relations between managers and subordinates, knowledge of the involvement of the manager in providing a suitable work environment, to determine the extent the problems arising in the workplace creates dissatisfaction which ultimately rebounds on return. The main results drawn as a result of research carried out show that existing pathology in an organization is felt on one side by the employee the aggression and persecution has implications for morale, and on the other hand these disturbances are felt at employment in that workplace, stress employees resign and this leads to higher unemployment.

  16. Position of the American Dietetic Association: dietetics professionals can implement practices to conserve natural resources and protect the environment. (Previously titled "natural resource conservation and waste management").

    2001-10-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association to encourage environmentally responsible practices that conserve natural resources, minimize the quantity of waste that is generated, and have the least adverse affect on the health of all living organisms and the environment. All components of the food system, from farmer to consumer, are affected by the availability and cost of energy and the availability and quality of water. Outdoor and indoor air quality significantly impacts the health of all living organisms. Decisions that dietetics professionals make as practitioners and consumers can affect the quantity and type of solid waste generated. The demand for natural resources should be evaluated when selecting the most cost-effective, environmentally sensitive approach to the management of solid waste. Special precautions are needed when using and disposing of hazardous and medical waste to protect the safety of our clients and employees. This position paper provides information and resources for dietetics professionals for addressing the complexity of the environmental issue presented. Conservation strategies are identified that dietetics professionals can use in their worksites and at home. These conservation practices may reduce cost and decrease the environmental impact we have on our communities and the world.

  17. Practical implications of ICRP26 for recording and regulation of radiation exposure

    Ward, F.A.; Woodhouse, J.A.; Kennedy, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The paper compares the system of dose limitation recommended in ICRP Publication 26 with that based upon previous ICRP Publications upon which the current United Kingdom Legislation is based. Particular attention is given to the implication of the place given to the concept of committed dose in the system of dose limitation. The present dosimetry procedures in use within British Nuclear Fuels Ltd are outlined together with their practical limitations, and attention is drawn to the particular technical problems associated with plutonium uptake assessments. A number of other practical issues are identified such as dose records and the supplementary dose information which would require recording and the need for the re-education of employees in the new control concepts. A proposal is presented for internal dose recording based initially upon environmental measurements but subject to subsequent modification by preferred assessments based upon in-vivo and urinalysis techniques. Finally an assessment and, where appropriate, suspension procedure is proposed to control long-term exposure arising from plutonium intakes based upon an averaging period of 15 years. (author)

  18. [Network clusters of symptoms as elementary syndromes of psychopathology: implications for clinical practice].

    Goekoop, R; Goekoop, J G

    2016-01-01

    In a recent publication we reported the existence of around 11 (to 15) 'elementary syndromes' that may combine in various ways, rather like 'building blocks', to explain the wide range of psychiatric symptoms. 'Bridge symptoms' seem to be responsible both for combining large sets of symptoms into elementary syndromes and for combining the various elementary syndromes to form one globally connected network structure. To discuss the implication of these findings for clinical practice. We performed a network analysis of symptom scores. Elementary syndromes provide a massive simplification of the description of psychiatric disease. Instead of the more than 300 categories in DSM-5, we now need to consider only a handful of elementary syndromes and personality domains. This modular representation of psychiatric illnesses allows us to make a complete, systematic and efficient assessment of patients and a systematic review of treatment options. Clinicians, patients, managerial staff and insurance companies can verify whether symptom reduction is taking place in the most important domains of psychopathology. Unlike classic multidimensional methods of disease description, network models of psychopathology can be used to explain comorbidity patterns, predict the clinical course of psychopathology and to designate primary targets for therapeutic interventions. A network view on psychopathology could significantly improve everyday clinical practice.

  19. Narrative in interprofessional education and practice: implications for professional identity, provider-patient communication and teamwork.

    Clark, Phillip G

    2014-01-01

    Health and social care professionals increasingly use narrative approaches to focus on the patient and to communicate with each other. Both effective interprofessional education (IPE) and practice (IPP) require recognizing the various values and voices of different professions, how they relate to the patient's life story, and how they interact with each other at the level of the healthcare team. This article analyzes and integrates the literature on narrative to explore: self-narrative as an expression of one's professional identity; the co-creation of the patient's narrative by the professional and the patient; and the interprofessional multi-vocal narrative discourse as co-constructed by members of the healthcare team. Using a narrative approach to thinking about professional identity, provider-patient communication, and interprofessional teamwork expands our thinking about both IPE and IPP by providing new insights into the nature of professional practice based on relationships to oneself, the patient, and others on the team. How professionals define themselves, gather and present information from the patient, and communicate as members of a clinical team all have important dimensions that can be revealed by a narrative approach. Implications and conclusions for the further development of the narrative approach in IPE and IPP are offered.

  20. Interrogating the Contested Spaces of Rural Aging: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice.

    Skinner, Mark W; Winterton, Rachel

    2018-01-18

    Informed by a critical turn underway in rural gerontology, this article explores how the intersection of global and local trends relating to population aging and rural change create contested spaces of rural aging. The aim is to build our understanding of rural as a dynamic context within which the processes, outcomes, and experiences of aging are created, confronted, and contested by older adults and their communities. A review of key developments within gerontology and rural studies reveals how competing policies, discourses, and practices relating to healthy aging and aging in place, rural citizenship and governmentality, and social inclusion and inequality combine in particular ways to empower or disempower a diverse range of older rural adults aging in a diverse range of rural communities. The article provides a contextually sensitive perspective on potential sources of conflict and exclusion for older adults in dynamic rural spaces and further enhances our understanding of how rural physical and social environments are constructed and experienced in older age. A framework for interrogating emergent questions about aging in rural contexts is developed and implications for advancing research, policy, and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Implications of RDoC for the research and practice of psychotherapy.

    Hershenberg, Rachel; Goldfried, Marvin R

    2015-03-01

    The field of psychotherapy is at an important juncture. Recent changes in the field include (a) the skeptical reception of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and (b) NIMH's prioritization of an alternative classification system to guide translational and intervention research. Moreover, (c) the field continues to be held accountable to governmental agencies and third-party payers to demonstrate its empirical basis. Thus, psychological research as it relates to the practice of psychotherapy is at a crossroads. In this article, we provide a brief overview of several generations of psychotherapy outcome research, including the consequences that followed in the 1980s as psychotherapy research moved toward randomized controlled trials for clinical disorders. We delineate the inherent strengths and limitations of this movement and address how the NIMH has recently responded with the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). We then address philosophical and practical implications of the emphasis on a neuroscientific conceptualization of psychological problems. Finally, we discuss opportunities for a next generation of convergent science that incorporates, rather than replaces, psychosocial variables across stages of translational research and treatment development. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Technological Implications of Supply Chain Practices in Agri-Food Sector: A Review

    Rahul Mor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, the global business environment compels enterprises to consider rest of the world in their competitive strategy analysis where firms ignore external factors such as economic trends, competitive positions or technology advancement in other countries. While going truly global with supply chain management, a company develops product in the United States, produce in India and trade in Europe, and they have changed the traditional operation management & logistical activities. This change in trade and the modernization of transport infrastructures have elevated the importance of flow management to new levels. Manufacturers and researchers have noticed many problems concerning supply chain activities, and usually either a system or subcomponent in supply chains is discussed in the literature, but they fails to answer the rational (why, what, how behind them. This paper addresses a review of the principles, bottlenecks and strategies of supply chain practices for organizations with an emphasis on the implications of Indian agri-food sector. Findings of this review reveal that the human & environmental issues, improved product visibility, food safety/quality and the associated economic benefits in sustainable agri-food supply chains can be achieved through innovation, collaboration, elimination of uncertainties and introducing global SCM practices into green & lean initiatives.

  3. EDUCATIONAL POLICIES AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS FOR CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Aleksandra Karovska Ristovska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Educational policy for children with intellectual disability in Republic of Macedonia is not always consistent with the practical implications. The subject of this research was to gain an insight into the current condition of the persons with intellectual disabilities in Macedonia, before all an insight into the barriers that they are facing in their attempts to access educational information and services. This was done through conducting a qualitative (desk-top analyses of the national legislations; semi-structured interviews with parents of persons with intellectual disabilities and focus groups with relevant stakeholders and a quantitative research (quality of life research for the disabled persons. In the research a total number of 213 examinees were included. As in many other cases, and in many other countries, policy and practice are not always coherent. Legislation in the area of education in our country has to be modified and accommodated to the needs of the persons with disabilities and their parents or care-givers. The final conclusion from our research is that the persons with ID are still on the margins of society, and they lead everyday battles to prove that their needs must be taken into consideration in context of their human rights. Although awareness for the importance of the rightful treatment of this problem is not on a satisfactory level, still we can notice a shift in perception and liberation of prejudice.

  4. Breaking bad news revisited: the push for negotiated disclosure and changing practice implications.

    Arber, Anne; Gallagher, Ann

    2003-04-01

    This article revisits the ethical, legal, professional and emotional issues involved with disclosing bad news. The authors examine the push for disclosure that has come from a number of quarters in the UK, including ethical and legal challenges, in particular the Bristol Royal Inquiry Report, professional codes of conduct, health policy and the expectations of the public. The contribution of nurses to breaking bad news is not widely discussed in the literature. With the development of new nursing roles and evidence-based practice it is timely to consider the role of nurses in this process. The article highlights some limitations with current guidelines for breaking bad news, in particular, that these guidelines tend to be constructed from a professional standpoint and lack patient-centred evidence. The issue of emotional labour and how it relates to giving bad news is discussed with respect to professional staff and patients. The article concludes by raising some practice implications, including: the importance of context and continuity; the significance of information and support; the desirable qualities of the professional; and issues to consider in determining patient preferences.

  5. Resource selection and its implications for wide-ranging mammals of the brazilian cerrado.

    Vynne, Carly; Keim, Jonah L; Machado, Ricardo B; Marinho-Filho, Jader; Silveira, Leandro; Groom, Martha J; Wasser, Samuel K

    2011-01-01

    Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), jaguar (Panthera onca), and puma (Puma concolor). We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for conservation, arguing

  6. Resource selection and its implications for wide-ranging mammals of the brazilian cerrado.

    Carly Vynne

    Full Text Available Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus, giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, jaguar (Panthera onca, and puma (Puma concolor. We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for

  7. Partial and incremental PCMH practice transformation: implications for quality and costs.

    Paustian, Michael L; Alexander, Jeffrey A; El Reda, Darline K; Wise, Chris G; Green, Lee A; Fetters, Michael D

    2014-02-01

    To examine the associations between partial and incremental implementation of the Patient Centered Medical Home (PCMH) model and measures of cost and quality of care. We combined validated, self-reported PCMH capabilities data with administrative claims data for a diverse statewide population of 2,432 primary care practices in Michigan. These data were supplemented with contextual data from the Area Resource File. We measured medical home capabilities in place as of June 2009 and change in medical home capabilities implemented between July 2009 and June 2010. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the mean effect of these PCMH measures on total medical costs and quality of care delivered in physician practices between July 2009 and June 2010, while controlling for potential practice, patient cohort, physician organization, and practice environment confounders. Based on the observed relationships for partial implementation, full implementation of the PCMH model is associated with a 3.5 percent higher quality composite score, a 5.1 percent higher preventive composite score, and $26.37 lower per member per month medical costs for adults. Full PCMH implementation is also associated with a 12.2 percent higher preventive composite score, but no reductions in costs for pediatric populations. Incremental improvements in PCMH model implementation yielded similar positive effects on quality of care for both adult and pediatric populations but were not associated with cost savings for either population. Estimated effects of the PCMH model on quality and cost of care appear to improve with the degree of PCMH implementation achieved and with incremental improvements in implementation. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  8. Healthy Choices for Every Body Adult Curriculum Improves Participants' Food Resource Management Skills and Food Safety Practices.

    Adedokun, Omolola A; Plonski, Paula; Jenkins-Howard, Brooke; Cotterill, Debra B; Vail, Ann

    2018-04-03

    To evaluate the impact of the University of Kentucky's Healthy Choices for Every Body (HCEB) adult nutrition education curriculum on participants' food resource management (FRM) skills and food safety practices. A quasi-experimental design was employed using propensity score matching to pair 8 intervention counties with 8 comparison counties. Independent-samples t tests and ANCOVA models compared gains in FRM skills and food safety practices between the intervention and comparison groups (n = 413 and 113, respectively). Propensity score matching analysis showed a statistical balance and similarities between the comparison and intervention groups. Food resource management and food safety gain scores were statistically significantly higher for the intervention group (P food safety practices of participants. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rhamnolipid biosurfactants: evolutionary implications, applications and future prospects from untapped marine resource.

    Kiran, George Seghal; Ninawe, Arun Shivanth; Lipton, Anuj Nishanth; Pandian, Vijayalakshmi; Selvin, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Rhamnolipid-biosurfactants are known to be produced by the genus Pseudomonas, however recent literature reported that rhamnolipids (RLs) are distributed among diverse microbial genera. To integrate the evolutionary implications of rhamnosyl transferase among various groups of microorganisms, a comprehensive comparative motif analysis was performed amongst bacterial producers. Findings on new RL-producing microorganism is helpful from a biotechnological perspective and to replace infective P. aeruginosa strains which ultimately ensure industrially safe production of RLs. Halotolerant biosurfactants are required for efficient bioremediation of marine oil spills. An insight on the exploitation of marine microbes as the potential source of RL biosurfactants is highlighted in the present review. An economic production process, solid-state fermentation using agro-industrial and industrial waste would increase the scope of biosurfactants commercialization. Potential and prospective applications of RL-biosurfactants including hydrocarbon bioremediation, heavy metal removal, antibiofilm activity/biofilm disruption and greener synthesis of nanoparticles are highlighted in this review.

  10. Identification, assessment and intervention--Implications of an audit on dyslexia policy and practice in Scotland.

    Reid, Gavin; Deponio, Pamela; Davidson Petch, Louise

    2005-08-01

    This article reports on research commissioned by the Scottish Executive Education Department (SEED). It aimed to establish the range and extent of policy and provision in the area of specific learning difficulties (SpLD) and dyslexia throughout Scotland. The research was conducted between January and June 2004 by a team from the University of Edinburgh. The information was gathered from a questionnaire sent to all education authorities (100% response rate was achieved). Additional information was also obtained from supplementary interviews and additional materials provided by education authorities. The results indicated that nine education authorities in Scotland (out of 32) have explicit policies on dyslexia and eight authorities have policies on SpLD. It was noted however that most authorities catered for dyslexia and SpLD within a more generic policy framework covering aspects of Special Educational Needs or within documentation on 'effective learning'. In relation to identification thirty-six specific tests, or procedures, were mentioned. Classroom observation, as a procedure was rated high by most authorities. Eleven authorities operated a formal staged process combining identification and intervention. Generally, authorities supported a broader understanding of the role of identification and assessment and the use of standardized tests was only part of a wider assessment process. It was however noted that good practice in identification and intervention was not necessarily dependent on the existence of a dedicated policy on SpLD/dyslexia. Over fifty different intervention strategies/programmes were noted in the responses. Twenty-four authorities indicated that they had developed examples of good practice. The results have implications for teachers and parents as well as those involved in staff development. Pointers are provided for effective practice and the results reflect some of the issues on the current debate on dyslexia particularly relating to early

  11. Disambiguating Praxis from Practice in Natural Resource Management: A Practical Space for Enhancing Experiential Learning in the Eastern Coast of Tanzania

    Sabai Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It is evident that practice and praxis have significantly contributed to knowledge generation in the Tanzanian coastal belt, especially where Integrated Coastal Management (ICM programmes have been adopted and practiced such as Tanga, Dar es Salaam, Mtwara, Lindi, and the Coastal region (KICAMP, 2001; NICEMS, 2003. In spite of such learning evidences, users of generated natural resource data in the coastal area tend to employ practice and praxis interchangeably, conflating the two concepts together; leading to a situation where one may hardly ascribe generated knowledge appropriately to contexts that favour occurrence of each of the two constructs. The paper adopts ethnographic approach in a defined coastal case study to examine contexts and situations that signals “conflationˮ and it employs examples that may help readers of the article to disambiguate praxis from practice.

  12. What factors influence the effectiveness of financial incentives on long-term natural resource management practice change?

    Emma Swann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial incentives are used by natural resource management organisations to encourage landholders to adopt sustainable practices where the outcomes on a farm scale may be negative or marginal. There is a growing body of research aimed at understanding why landholders do or do not agree to participate in financial incentive programs, however research that considers when and how financial incentives work to bring about long-term behaviour change is relatively immature. The purpose of this review is to answer the question ‘What factors influence the effectiveness of financial incentives on long-term natural resource management practice change?’ In synthesising the evidence, it was found that there are numerous characteristics of the practice change itself, along with the program design and implementation, which are important to understand long-term behaviour change. These include whether inexpensive maintenance or long-term funding is available; whether the changes are relatively simple to sustain; whether the program involves structural changes; whether there is land use rigidity; and whether the changes have resulting environmental benefits that are highly observable. Additionally, it is advisable for programs that use financial incentives to include the following program features: ongoing extension support and a focus on building relationship and trust; flexibility in how the practice change is applied; active landholder involvement from planning to evaluation; and contract length that is appropriate for the complexity of the NRM practice. These characteristics can be used to guide policy makers in their natural resource management investment decisions. There is a clear need for greatly increased monitoring and evaluation of existing programs, both during the program and after its conclusion, in order to more fully understand its long-term impacts and ultimate effectiveness. Finally, landholders undertaking a practice change generally

  13. Sustainable local development in citizen and community spheres. Implications for the governance of natural resources

    Javier Carreón Guillén

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic, political, citizen, and community spheres, whether global or local, are regulated by systems of governance, which create public interest agendas including tariffs for public services derived from the use of natural resources. In this regard, this paper presents the agreements and disagreements between entrepreneurial, municipal, citizen, and community organizations to establish local development scenarios in reference to the global market. This discussion will create a series of representations that symbolize the dissonance between prosperity and austerity in order to contrast lifestyles oriented towards globalization and livelihoods aimed at sustainability. In this context, different identities have emerged from the alliances between civil and business organizations, in which development is not necessarily a priority; however, such vicissitudes provide central themes for the discussion of economic models.  This paper is important because it envisages a governance scheme that permits including natural resources in the civil, political, and business agenda.  In other words, governance regulates the intrusion of transnational corporations in communities and the inclusion of SMEs in the international market.

  14. Resource use of Japanese macaques in heavy snowfall areas: implications for habitat management.

    Enari, Hiroto; Sakamaki-Enari, Haruka

    2013-07-01

    Populations of Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) that inhabit the northernmost distribution of any nonhuman primates have been listed as endangered in Japan; however, macaques are widely known for being pests that cause agricultural damage. This study identified priority areas for the conservation and management of macaque habitats, by comparing the resource use of troops occupying remote mountains (montane troops) against troops inhabiting disturbed forests adjacent to settlements (rural troops). We collected species presence data across 2 years by radio-tracking two montane troops and two rural troops in the Shirakami Mountains. We developed seasonal utilization distributions by using the kernel method, and identified habitat characteristics by using ecological-niche factor analysis (ENFA). Our results indicate that environmental factors influencing the potential habitat varied widely with season in montane troops as compared with that in rural troops. ENFA results demonstrated that rural troops exhibited more biased resource use and narrower niche breadths than montane troops. Based on our findings, we propose that (1) primary broadleaf forests are the spring habitat conservation priority of montane troops; (2) the habitat unit--the product of habitat suitability index and its surface area--for montane troops is enhanced by removing old conifer plantations from the forest edge at low elevations; (3) such removal around settlements may also contribute toward removing a frontline refuge for rural troops intruding farmlands; and (4) intensive prevention measures against macaque intrusions into settlements during the bottleneck snowy season contribute toward reducing the habitat unit of rural troops.

  15. Multi-population comparison of resource exploitation by island foxes: Implications for conservation

    B.L. Cypher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Imperiled island foxes are inherently resource-limited by their insular ecology. We examined food use on all 6 islands where they occur to assess resource exploitation patterns. Over 40 different food items were identified with item use varying among islands. Sixteen items occurred with ≥10% frequency in annual fox diets: deer mice, birds, lizards, beetles, beetle larvae, Jerusalem crickets, silk-spinning sand crickets, grasshoppers, earwigs, snails, and fruits of toyon, manzanita, prickly pear cactus, ice plant, Australian saltbush, and summer holly. Foxes used a diversity of food items with variations among islands attributable to island-specific availabilities. Deer mice in particular appeared to be preferred. Foxes also exhibited extensive use of non-native items, such as ice plant fruits, European snails, and earwigs, and foxes may even be dependent on these items on some islands. To increase food security and promote population stability, we recommend (1 continuing and enhancing habitat restoration efforts on all islands, (2 increasing the abundance of native items in association with any removals of non-native species used by foxes, and (3 monitoring annual trends in abundance of key food items as well as periodic monitoring of item use by foxes to determine functional responses to changes in item availability. Keywords: Channel islands, Endangered species, Food-item selection, Foraging ecology, Island fox, Urocyon littoralis

  16. A multi-disciplinary approach to medication safety and the implication for nursing education and practice.

    Adhikari, Radha; Tocher, Jennifer; Smith, Pam; Corcoran, Janet; MacArthur, Juliet

    2014-02-01

    Medication management is a complex multi-stage and multi-disciplinary process, involving doctors, pharmacists, nurses and patients. Errors can occur at any stage from prescribing, dispensing and administering, to recording and reporting. There are a number of safety mechanisms built into the medication management system and it is recognised that nurses are the final stage of defence. However, medication error still remains a major challenge to patient safety globally. This paper aims to illustrate two main aspects of medication safety practices that have been elicited from an action research study in a Scottish Health Board and three local Higher Education Institutions: firstly current medication safety practices in two clinical settings; and secondly pre and post-registration nursing education and teaching on medication safety. This paper is based on Phase One and Two of an Action Research project. An ethnography-style observational method, influenced by an Appreciative Inquiry (AI) approach was adapted to study the everyday medication management systems and practices of two hospital wards. This was supplemented by seven in-depth interviews with nursing staff, numerous informal discussions with healthcare professionals, two focus-groups, one peer-interview and two in-depth individual interviews with final year nursing students from three Higher Education Institutions in Scotland. This paper highlights the current positive practical efforts in medication safety practices in the chosen clinical areas. Nursing staff do employ the traditional 'five right' principles - right patient, right medication, right dose, right route and right time - for safe administration. Nursing students are taught these principles in their pre-registration nursing education. However, there are some other challenges remaining: these include the establishment of a complete medication history (reconciliation) when patients come to hospital, the provision of an in-depth training in

  17. The gap between research and practice: a replication study on the HR professionals' beliefs about effective human resource practices

    Sanders, Karin; van Riemsdijk, Maarten; Groen, B.A.C.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002 Rynes, Colbert and Brown asked human resource (HR) professionals to what extent they agreed with various HR research findings. Responses from 959 American participants showed that there are large discrepancies between research findings and practitioners' beliefs about effective human

  18. Methods for assessing the socioeconomic impacts of large-scale resource developments: implications for nuclear repository siting

    Murdock, S.H.; Leistritz, F.L.

    1983-03-01

    An overview of the major methods presently available for assessing the socioeconomic impacts of large-scale resource developments and includes discussion of the implications and applications of such methods for nuclear-waste-repository siting are provided. The report: (1) summarizes conceptual approaches underlying, and methodological alternatives for, the conduct of impact assessments in each substantive area, and then enumerates advantages and disadvantages of each alternative; (2) describes factors related to the impact-assessment process, impact events, and the characteristics of rural areas that affect the magnitude and distribution of impacts and the assessment of impacts in each area; (3) provides a detailed review of those methodologies actually used in impact assessment for each area, describes advantages and problems encountered in the use of each method, and identifies the frequency of use and the general level of acceptance of each technique; and (4) summarizes the implications of each area of projection for the repository-siting process, the applicability of the methods for each area to the special and standard features of repositories, and makes general recommendations concerning specific methods and procedures that should be incorporated in assessments for siting areas

  19. The use of a resource-based relative value scale (RBRVS) to determine practice expense costs: a novel technique of practice management for the vascular surgeon.

    Mabry, C D

    2001-03-01

    Vascular surgeons have had to contend with rising costs while their reimbursements have undergone steady reductions. The use of newer accounting techniques can help vascular surgeons better manage their practices, plan for future expansion, and control costs. This article reviews traditional accounting methods, together with activity-based costing (ABC) principles that have been used in the past for practice expense analysis. The main focus is on a new technique-resource-based costing (RBC)-which uses the widely available Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS) as its basis. The RBC technique promises easier implementation as well as more flexibility in determining true costs of performing various procedures, as opposed to more traditional accounting methods. It is hoped that RBC will assist vascular surgeons in coping with decreasing reimbursement. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  20. Kindergartners' Mental Models of the Day and Night Cycle: Implications for Instructional Practices in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Saçkes, Mesut

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine kindergarten children's mental models of the day and night cycle and provide implications for pedagogical practices targeting space science concepts in early childhood classrooms. A total of 46 kindergartners participated in the study, their age ranging from 60 to 75 months, including 22 boys and 24 girls.…

  1. In the "Best Interest" of the Student: Perceptions and Implications for Leadership Practices in Secondary Schools in Kenya

    Jwan, Julius Ouma

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the contrasting views of what constitutes the "best interests" of students and the implications of such perceptions for leadership practices in secondary schools in Kenya. The paper is based on a study conducted to establish the students', teachers' and principals' perceptions of democratic school leadership--in line…

  2. The Implications of the National Minimum Wage for Training Practices and Skill Utilisation in the United Kingdom Hospitality Industry

    Norris, Gill; Williams, Steve; Adam-Smith, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Two key issues thrown up by the 1999 introduction of the National Minimum Wage (NMW) in the United Kingdom are its likely impact on employers' training practices in low paying sectors of the economy and the implications for skills. Based on a study of the hospitality industry, this article assesses the limited significance of the differential,…

  3. Implications of a conceptual model for the allocation of energy resources by small mammals

    Wunder, B.A.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual model describing the manner in which small mammals utilize energy and the ways in which the physical environment influences allocation of energy resources. It is suggested that for homeothermic mammals, thermoregulation is a first priority for energy utilization and feeding a second priority. Once these needs are met additional energy gathered may be allocated to production or other behaviors. Deductions from the model, coupled with conclusions from field studies of weather effects on small mammal reproduction and the effects of supplemental feeding experiments on reproduction, suggest that many difficulties in interpreting such studies may be due to inattention to the interactive effects of food and weather on reproduction. The paper then describes the manner in which three sorts of environments (subarctic-boreal, north temperate grassland, and deserts) vary seasonally in their productivity and level of cold stress for small mammals

  4. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  5. Trends of Climate Change in Saudi Arabia: Implications on Water Resources

    Qassem Y. Tarawneh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is an important factor for sustainable water resource management in the arid and semi-arid countries. In this study, future trends of temperature and rainfall were assessed for several regions in Saudi Arabia. The linear and Mann–Kendall analyses showed an increase of temperature in all regions and decrease of rainfall in many regions. Following trend analysis, the outputs of the NCAR Community Climate System Model were obtained for three emission scenarios (high: representative concentration pathways RCP8.5; high medium: RCP6; and low: RCP2.6 for the assessment periods of 2025–2044, 2045–2064 and 2065–2084 respectively, and compared with the average values from the reference period (1986–2005. In all emission scenarios, temperature showed an increase from 1986 to 2005 in all regions. For RCP8.5, increase of temperature are in the ranges of 0.8–1.6 °C, 0.9–2.7 °C and 0.7–4.1 °C during 2025–2044, 2045–2064 and 2065–2084 respectively. However, rainfall showed variable patterns with respect to emission scenarios and assessment periods. In most regions, the RCP6 showed decrease in rainfall from the reference period while the RCP8.5 and RCP2.6 showed variable patterns. The increase of temperature and variable pattern of rainfall may increase uncertainty in developing sustainable water resource management strategies.

  6. Implications for paediatric shock management in resource-limited settings: a perspective from the FEAST trial.

    Houston, Kirsty Anne; George, Elizabeth C; Maitland, Kathryn

    2018-05-04

    Although the African "Fluid Expansion as Supportive therapy" (FEAST) trial showed fluid resuscitation was harmful in children with severe febrile illness managed in resource-limited hospitals, the most recent evidence reviewed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines continue to recommend fluid boluses in children with shock according to WHO criteria "WHO shock", arguing that the numbers included in the FEAST trial were too small to provide reasonable certainty. We re-analysed the FEAST trial results for all international definitions for paediatric shock including hypotensive (or decompensated shock) and the WHO criteria. In addition, we examined the clinical relevance of the WHO criteria to published and unpublished observational studies reporting shock in resource-limited settings. We established that hypotension was rare in children with severe febrile illness complicating only 29/3170 trial participants (0.9%). We confirmed that fluid boluses were harmful irrespective of the definitions of shock including the very small number with WHO shock (n = 65). In this subgroup 48% of bolus recipients died at 48 h compared to 20% of the non-bolus control group, an increased absolute risk of 28%, but translating to an increased relative risk of 240% (p = 0.07 (two-sided Fisher's exact test)). Examining studies describing the prevalence of the stringent WHO shock criteria in children presenting to hospital we found this was rare (~ 0.1%) and in these children mortality was very high (41.5-100%). The updated WHO guidelines continue to recommend boluses for a very limited number of children presenting at hospital with the strict definition of WHO shock. Nevertheless, the 3% increased mortality from boluses seen across FEAST trial participants would also include this subgroup of children receiving boluses. Recommendations aiming to differentiate WHO shock from other definitions will invariably lead to "slippage" at the bedside, with the potential of exposing a wider group

  7. From Premise to Practice: a Critical Assessment of Integrated Water Resources Management and Adaptive Management Approaches in the Water Sector

    Wietske Medema

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of natural resource use processes and dynamics is now well accepted and described in theories ranging across the sciences from ecology to economics. Based upon these theories, management frameworks have been developed within the research community to cope with complexity and improve natural resource management outcomes. Two notable frameworks, Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM and Adaptive Management (AM have been developed within the domain of water resource management over the past thirty or so years. Such frameworks provide testable statements about how best to organise knowledge production and use to facilitate the realisation of desirable outcomes including sustainable resource use. However evidence for the success of IWRM and AM is mixed and they have come under criticism recently as failing to provide promised benefits. This paper critically reviews the claims made for IWRM and AM against evidence from their implementation and explores whether or not criticisms are rooted in problems encountered during the translation from research to practice. To achieve this we review the main issues that challenge the implementation of both frameworks. More specifically, we analyse the various definitions and descriptions of IWRM and AM. Our findings suggest that similar issues have affected the lack of success that practitioners have experienced throughout the implementation process for both frameworks. These findings are discussed in the context of the broader societal challenge of effective translation of research into practice, science into policy and ambition into achievement.

  8. A Case Study with an Identified Bully: Policy and Practice Implications

    Huddleston, Lillie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bullying is a serious public health problem that may include verbal or physical injury as well as social isolation or exclusion. As a result, research is needed to establish a database for policies and interventions designed to prevent bullying and its negative effects. This paper presented a case study that contributed to the literature by describing an intervention for bullies that has implications for research, practice and related policies regarding bullying.Methods: An individualized intervention for an identified bully was implemented using the Participatory Culture-Specific Intervention Model (PCSIM; Nastasi, Moore, & Varjas, 2004 with a seventh-grade middle school student. Ecological and culture-specific perspectives were used to develop and implement the intervention that included psychoeducational sessions with the student and consultation with the parent and school personnel. A mixed methods intervention design was used with the following informants: the target student, the mother of the student, a teacher and the school counselor. Qualitative data included semi-structured interviews with the parent, teacher and student, narrative classroom observations and evaluation/feedback forms filled out by the student and interventionist. Quantitative data included the following quantitative surveys (i.e., Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index [CPTS-RI] and the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children, 2nd Edition. Both qualitative and quantitative data were used to evaluate the acceptability, integrity and efficacy of this intervention.Results: The process of intervention design, implementation and evaluation are described through an illustrative case study. Qualitative and quantitative findings indicated a decrease in internalizing, externalizing and bullying behaviors as reported by the teacher and the mother, and a high degree of acceptability and treatment integrity as reported by multiple stakeholders.Conclusion: This case

  9. Impact of Information Technology, Clinical Resource Constraints, and Patient-Centered Practice Characteristics on Quality of Care

    JongDeuk Baek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Factors in the practice environment, such as health information technology (IT infrastructure, availability of other clinical resources, and financial incentives, may influence whether practices are able to successfully implement the patient-centered medical home (PCMH model and realize its benefits. This study investigates the impacts of those PCMH-related elements on primary care physicians’ perception of quality of care. Methods: A multiple logistic regression model was estimated using the 2004 to 2005 CTS Physician Survey, a national sample of salaried primary care physicians (n = 1733. Results: The patient-centered practice environment and availability of clinical resources increased physicians’ perceived quality of care. Although IT use for clinical information access did enhance physicians’ ability to provide high quality of care, a similar positive impact of IT use was not found for e-prescribing or the exchange of clinical patient information. Lack of resources was negatively associated with physician perception of quality of care. Conclusion: Since health IT is an important foundation of PCMH, patient-centered practices are more likely to have health IT in place to support care delivery. However, despite its potential to enhance delivery of primary care, simply making health IT available does not necessarily translate into physicians’ perceptions that it enhances the quality of care they provide. It is critical for health-care managers and policy makers to ensure that primary care physicians fully recognize and embrace the use of new technology to improve both the quality of care provided and the patient outcomes.

  10. Don’t ask, don’t tell: Two views on human resource practices for people with disabilities

    Mukta Kulkarni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we explore how employees with physical disabilities and their human resource managers perceive practices aimed at entry, integration, and development of disabled employees. The results indicate that both sets of respondents want to treat people with disabilities as ‘regular’ employees and take attention away from disability. The results also indicate that employees would like to get additional help, but are afraid to ask. Employers do not offer additional support unless asked, not wanting to highlight the disability given fears of stigmatisation. Given this reluctance from both employees and employers, it is possible that people with disabilities remain an underutilised resource.

  11. Climate variability and El Niño Southern Oscillation: implications for natural coastal resources and management

    Thatje, Sven; Heilmayer, Olaf; Laudien, Jürgen

    2008-03-01

    The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) significantly influences marine ecosystems and the sustained exploitation of marine resources in the coastal zone of the Humboldt Current upwelling system. Both its warm (El Niño: EN) and cold (La Niña: LN) phase have drastic implications for the ecology, socio-economy and infrastructure along most of Pacific South America. Local artisanal fisheries, which especially suffer from the effects of EN, represent a major part for the domestic economy of Chile and Peru and in consequence a huge amount of published and unpublished studies exists aiming at identifying effects of EN and LN. However, most processes and underlying mechanisms fostering the ecology of organisms along Pacific South America have not been analyzed yet and for the marine realm most knowledge is traditionally based on rather descriptive approaches. We herein advocate that small-scale comparative and interdisciplinary process studies work as one possible solution to understand better the variability observed in EN/LN effects at local scale. We propose that differences in small-scale impacts of ENSO along the coast rather than the macro-ecological and oceanographic view are essential for the sustainable management of costal ecosystems and the livelihood of the people depending on it. Based on this, we summarize the conceptual approach from the EU-funded International Science and Technology Cooperation (INCO) project “Climate variability and El Niño Southern Oscillation: Implications for Natural Coastal Resources and Management (CENSOR)” that aims at enhancing the detection, compilation, and understanding of EN and LN effects on the coastal zone and its natural resources. We promote a multidisciplinary avenue within present international funding schemes, with the intention to bridge the traditional gap between basic and applied coastal research. The long-term aim is an increased mitigation of harm caused by EN as well as a better use of beneficial effects

  12. Assessment method for analyzing and developing human resource management practices in nuclear power industry

    Maeki, E.; Pahkin, K.; Lindstroem, S.; Kurki, A-L.

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of HRM practices is often devolved from the HRM unit to front line managers and supervisors. However, the implementation of these practices by line managers and supervisors may vary significantly. They may, for example, be unaware of how to implement HRM practices or skeptical towards the effectiveness of the intended practices. Based on the literature, interviews and workshops in the nuclear power industry, a self-assessment method of HRM practices for intra-organizational use was developed. The assessment method was piloted in four nuclear power organizations. The assessment method seems to be a good tool for generating fruitful discussion on HRM practices, finding areas of HRM practices that need to be developed, and triggering peer-to-peer knowledge sharing and learning on HRM practices. (authors)

  13. Assessment method for analyzing and developing human resource management practices in the nuclear power industry

    Maeki, Eerikki; Pahkin, Krista; Lindstroem, S.; Kurki, Anna-Leena

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of HRM practices is often devolved from the HRM unit to front line managers and supervisors. However, the implementation of these practices by line managers and supervisors may vary significantly. They may, for example, be unaware of how to implement HRM practices or sceptical towards the effectiveness of the intended practices. Based on the literature, interviews and workshops in the nuclear power industry, a self-assessment method of HRM practices for intra-organizational use was developed. The assessment method was piloted in four nuclear power organizations. The assessment method seems to be a good tool for generating fruitful discussion on HRM practices, finding areas of HRM practices that need to be developed, and triggering peer-to-peer knowledge sharing and learning on HRM practices.

  14. Assessment method for analyzing and developing human resource management practices in the nuclear power industry

    Maeki, Eerikki [Aalto Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Industrial Engineering and Management; Pahkin, Krista; Lindstroem, S.; Kurki, Anna-Leena [Finnish Institue of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland). Centre of Expertise for the Development of Work and Organizations

    2015-04-15

    Implementation of HRM practices is often devolved from the HRM unit to front line managers and supervisors. However, the implementation of these practices by line managers and supervisors may vary significantly. They may, for example, be unaware of how to implement HRM practices or sceptical towards the effectiveness of the intended practices. Based on the literature, interviews and workshops in the nuclear power industry, a self-assessment method of HRM practices for intra-organizational use was developed. The assessment method was piloted in four nuclear power organizations. The assessment method seems to be a good tool for generating fruitful discussion on HRM practices, finding areas of HRM practices that need to be developed, and triggering peer-to-peer knowledge sharing and learning on HRM practices.

  15. Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for Exploration, Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    Abell, P. A.; Sanders, G. B.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; Drake, B. G.; Friedensen, V. P.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction: In 2009 the Augustine Commission identified near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. NEA Space-Based Survey and Robotic Precursor Missions: The most suitable targets for human missions are NEAs in Earth-like orbits with long synodic periods. However, these mission candidates are often not observable from Earth until the timeframe of their most favorable human mission opportunities, which does not provide an appropriate amount of time for mission development. A space-based survey telescope could more efficiently find these targets in a timely, affordable manner. Such a system is not only able to discover new objects, but also track and characterize objects of interest for human space flight consideration. Those objects with characteristic signatures representative of volatile-rich or metallic materials will be considered as top candidates for further investigation due to their potential for resource utilization and scientific discovery. Once suitable candidates have been identified, precursor spacecraft are required to perform basic reconnaissance of a few NEAs under consideration for the human-led mission. Robotic spacecraft will assess targets for potential hazards that may pose a risk to the deep space transportation vehicle, its deployable assets, and the crew. Additionally, the information obtained about the NEA's basic physical characteristics will be crucial for planning operational activities, designing in-depth scientific/engineering investigations, and identifying sites on the NEA for sample collection. Human Exploration

  16. Managing information resources in libraries collection management in theory and practice

    Clayton, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The management of information resources in libraries is of greater importance in the digital world. This book encompasses different areas of collection management and cover topics, such as: collection management in the organizational context; collection development policies; selection principles and resources; budget management; and more.

  17. Improved genomic resources and new bioinformatic workflow for the carcinogenic parasite Clonorchis sinensis: Biotechnological implications.

    Wang, Daxi; Korhonen, Pasi K; Gasser, Robin B; Young, Neil D

    Clonorchis sinensis (family Opisthorchiidae) is an important foodborne parasite that has a major socioeconomic impact on ~35 million people predominantly in China, Vietnam, Korea and the Russian Far East. In humans, infection with C. sinensis causes clonorchiasis, a complex hepatobiliary disease that can induce cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a malignant cancer of the bile ducts. Central to understanding the epidemiology of this disease is knowledge of genetic variation within and among populations of this parasite. Although most published molecular studies seem to suggest that C. sinensis represents a single species, evidence of karyotypic variation within C. sinensis and cryptic species within a related opisthorchiid fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini) emphasise the importance of studying and comparing the genes and genomes of geographically distinct isolates of C. sinensis. Recently, we sequenced, assembled and characterised a draft nuclear genome of a C. sinensis isolate from Korea and compared it with a published draft genome of a Chinese isolate of this species using a bioinformatic workflow established for comparing draft genome assemblies and their gene annotations. We identified that 50.6% and 51.3% of the Korean and Chinese C. sinensis genomic scaffolds were syntenic, respectively. Within aligned syntenic blocks, the genomes had a high level of nucleotide identity (99.1%) and encoded 15 variable proteins likely to be involved in diverse biological processes. Here, we review current technical challenges of using draft genome assemblies to undertake comparative genomic analyses to quantify genetic variation between isolates of the same species. Using a workflow that overcomes these challenges, we report on a high-quality draft genome for C. sinensis from Korea and comparative genomic analyses, as a basis for future investigations of the genetic structures of C. sinensis populations, and discuss the biotechnological implications of these explorations. Copyright © 2018

  18. Practical and Scholarly Implications of Information Behaviour Research: A Pilot Study of Research Literature

    Koh, Kyungwon; Rubenstein, Ellen; White, Kelvin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This pilot study examined how current information behaviour research addresses the implications and potential impacts of its findings. The goal was to understand what implications and contributions the field has made and how effectively authors communicate implications of their findings. Methods: We conducted a content analysis of 30…

  19. Behavioral Attitudes and Preferences in Cooking Practices with Traditional Open-Fire Stoves in Peru, Nepal, and Kenya: Implications for Improved Cookstove Interventions

    Evelyn L. Rhodes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Global efforts are underway to develop and promote improved cookstoves which may reduce the negative health and environmental effects of burning solid fuels on health and the environment. Behavioral studies have considered cookstove user practices, needs and preferences in the design and implementation of cookstove projects; however, these studies have not examined the implications of the traditional stove use and design across multiple resource-poor settings in the implementation and promotion of improved cookstove projects that utilize a single, standardized stove design. We conducted in-depth interviews and direct observations of meal preparation and traditional, open-fire stove use of 137 women aged 20–49 years in Kenya, Peru and Nepal prior in the four-month period preceding installation of an improved cookstove as part of a field intervention trial. Despite general similarities in cooking practices across sites, we identified locally distinct practices and norms regarding traditional stove use and desired stove improvements. Traditional stoves are designed to accommodate specific cooking styles, types of fuel, and available resources for maintenance and renovation. The tailored stoves allow users to cook and repair their stoves easily. Women in each setting expressed their desire for a new stove, but they articulated distinct specific alterations that would meet their needs and preferences. Improved cookstove designs need to consider the diversity of values and needs held by potential users, presenting a significant challenge in identifying a “one size fits all” improved cookstove design. Our data show that a single stove design for use with locally available biomass fuels will not meet the cooking demands and resources available across the three sites. Moreover, locally produced or adapted improved cookstoves may be needed to meet the cooking needs of diverse populations while addressing health and environmental concerns of

  20. Behavioral Attitudes and Preferences in Cooking Practices with Traditional Open-Fire Stoves in Peru, Nepal, and Kenya: Implications for Improved Cookstove Interventions

    Rhodes, Evelyn L.; Dreibelbis, Robert; Klasen, Elizabeth; Naithani, Neha; Baliddawa, Joyce; Menya, Diana; Khatry, Subarna; Levy, Stephanie; Tielsch, James M.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Kennedy, Caitlin; Checkley, William

    2014-01-01

    Global efforts are underway to develop and promote improved cookstoves which may reduce the negative health and environmental effects of burning solid fuels on health and the environment. Behavioral studies have considered cookstove user practices, needs and preferences in the design and implementation of cookstove projects; however, these studies have not examined the implications of the traditional stove use and design across multiple resource-poor settings in the implementation and promotion of improved cookstove projects that utilize a single, standardized stove design. We conducted in-depth interviews and direct observations of meal preparation and traditional, open-fire stove use of 137 women aged 20–49 years in Kenya, Peru and Nepal prior in the four-month period preceding installation of an improved cookstove as part of a field intervention trial. Despite general similarities in cooking practices across sites, we identified locally distinct practices and norms regarding traditional stove use and desired stove improvements. Traditional stoves are designed to accommodate specific cooking styles, types of fuel, and available resources for maintenance and renovation. The tailored stoves allow users to cook and repair their stoves easily. Women in each setting expressed their desire for a new stove, but they articulated distinct specific alterations that would meet their needs and preferences. Improved cookstove designs need to consider the diversity of values and needs held by potential users, presenting a significant challenge in identifying a “one size fits all” improved cookstove design. Our data show that a single stove design for use with locally available biomass fuels will not meet the cooking demands and resources available across the three sites. Moreover, locally produced or adapted improved cookstoves may be needed to meet the cooking needs of diverse populations while addressing health and environmental concerns of traditional stoves. PMID

  1. Selecting for creativity and innovation potential: implications for practice in healthcare education.

    Patterson, Fiona; Zibarras, Lara Dawn

    2017-05-01

    The ability to innovate is an important requirement in many organisations. Despite this pressing need, few selection systems in healthcare focus on identifying the potential for creativity and innovation and so this area has been vastly under-researched. As a first step towards understanding how we might select for creativity and innovation, this paper explores the use of a trait-based measure of creativity and innovation potential, and evaluates its efficacy for use in selection for healthcare education. This study uses a sample of 188 postgraduate physicians applying for education and training in UK General Practice. Participants completed two questionnaires (a trait-based measure of creativity and innovation, and a measure of the Big Five personality dimensions) and were also rated by assessors on creative problem solving measured during a selection centre. In exploring the construct validity of the trait-based measure of creativity and innovation, our research clarifies the associations between personality, and creativity and innovation. In particular, our study highlights the importance of motivation in the creativity and innovation process. Results also suggest that Openness to Experience is positively related to creativity and innovation whereas some aspects of Conscientiousness are negatively associated with creativity and innovation. Results broadly support the utility of using a trait-based measure of creativity and innovation in healthcare selection processes, although practically this may be best delivered as part of an interview process, rather than as a screening tool. Findings are discussed in relation to broader implications for placing more priority on creativity and innovation as selection criteria within healthcare education and training in future.

  2. Practical implications for RPV irradiation surveillance under long term operation based on latest research results

    Hein, H.; Keim, E.; Barthelmes, J.; Schnabel, H.

    2015-01-01

    The international programs CARISMA, CARINA and LONGLIFE belong to the research programs which have been performed during the last 10 years to study the irradiation behavior of RPV steels under long term operation of more than 60 years. Some characteristic but different irradiated RPV steels used in Pressurized Water Reactors have been extensively investigated in each of those three programs. Whereas the CARISMA and CARINA programs were mainly focused on material testing to study the irradiation-induced change of material properties in terms of fracture toughness, the main objective of LONGLIFE was to investigate the change of microstructure with various analysis techniques and to understand the mechanisms behind. In this way it was possible to get a comprehensive material characterization in terms of macro-physical properties and micro-structural features for a number of RPV steels which have been studied at different irradiation levels up to 8*10 19 cm -2 (E > 1 MeV). The essential macro-physical and micro-structural results are summarized, in particular regarding the impact of copper and nickel, and the neutron flux on the irradiation behavior and with respect to possible late irradiation effects under long term operation. Moreover, the change of material properties is linked with embrittlement mechanisms such as formation of element specific precipitations, segregations, and matrix defects. Well-known trend curves are also applied to the measured T 41 and T 0 data in order to assess their appropriateness for long term operation. Based on the comprehensive available data base, practical implications for RPV irradiation surveillance programs under long term operation are highlighted with respect to issues like material specific application of reference temperature concepts, data scattering, prediction of high fluence behavior and how to cope with possible late irradiation effects. Finally, best practices for RPV irradiation surveillance programs are suggested from

  3. Factors Influencing Mini-CEX Rater Judgments and Their Practical Implications: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Lee, Victor; Brain, Keira; Martin, Jenepher

    2017-06-01

    At present, little is known about how mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) raters translate their observations into judgments and ratings. The authors of this systematic literature review aim both to identify the factors influencing mini-CEX rater judgments in the medical education setting and to translate these findings into practical implications for clinician assessors. The authors searched for internal and external factors influencing mini-CEX rater judgments in the medical education setting from 1980 to 2015 using the Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ERIC, PubMed, and Scopus databases. They extracted the following information from each study: country of origin, educational level, study design and setting, type of observation, occurrence of rater training, provision of feedback to the trainee, research question, and identified factors influencing rater judgments. The authors also conducted a quality assessment for each study. Seventeen articles met the inclusion criteria. The authors identified both internal and external factors that influence mini-CEX rater judgments. They subcategorized the internal factors into intrinsic rater factors, judgment-making factors (conceptualization, interpretation, attention, and impressions), and scoring factors (scoring integration and domain differentiation). The current theories of rater-based judgment have not helped clinicians resolve the issues of rater idiosyncrasy, bias, gestalt, and conflicting contextual factors; therefore, the authors believe the most important solution is to increase the justification of rater judgments through the use of specific narrative and contextual comments, which are more informative for trainees. Finally, more real-world research is required to bridge the gap between the theory and practice of rater cognition.

  4. Wind energy in Vietnam: Resource assessment, development status and future implications

    Nguyen, Khanh Q.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the technical potential of wind energy in Vietnam and discuss strategies for promoting the market penetration of wind energy in the country. For the wind resource assessment, a geographical information system (GIS)- assisted approach has been developed. It is found that Vietnam has a good potential for wind energy. About 31,000 km 2 of land area can be available for wind development in which 865 km 2 equivalents to a wind power of 3572 MW has a generation cost less than 6 US cents/kWh. The study also proves that wind energy could be a good solution for about 300,000 rural non-electrified households. While wind energy brings about ecological, economic and social benefits, it is only modestly exploited in Vietnam, where the main barrier is the lack of political impetus and a proper framework for promoting renewable energy. The priority task therefore is to set a target for renewable energy development and to find instruments to achieve such a target. The main instruments proposed here are setting feed-in tariff and providing investment incentives

  5. Genetic differentiation and trade among populations of peach palm ( Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the Peruvian Amazon-implications for genetic resource management.

    Adin, A; Weber, J C; Sotelo Montes, C; Vidaurre, H; Vosman, B; Smulders, M J M

    2004-05-01

    Peach palm ( Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is cultivated for fruit and 'heart of palm', and is an important component of agroforestry systems in the Peruvian Amazon. In this study, AFLP was used to compare genetic diversity among domesticated populations along the Paranapura and Cuiparillo rivers, which are managed by indigenous and colonist farming communities, respectively. Gene diversity was 0.2629 for the populations in indigenous communities and 0.2534 in colonist communities. Genetic differentiation among populations ( G(st)) was 0.0377-0.0416 ( Prodents is thought to occur only across relatively short distances (100-200 m), it is likely that exchange of material by farmers and commercial traders is responsible for most of the 'long-distance' (over more than 20 km) gene flow among populations along the two rivers studied. This exchange of material may be important to counteract the effects of selection as well as genetic drift in small groups of trees in farmers' fields, much as in a metapopulation, and may account for the weak genetic differentiation between the two rivers ( G(st)=0.0249, PPeru and Brazil showed the existence of an isolation-by-distance structure up to 3,000 km, consistent with gene flow on a regional scale, likely mediated by trade in the Amazon Basin. Results are discussed with regard to practical implications for the management of genetic resources with farming communities.

  6. The Healthy Aging Research Network: Resources for Building Capacity for Public Health and Aging Practice

    Wilcox, Sara; Altpeter, Mary; Anderson, Lynda A.; Belza, Basia; Bryant, Lucinda; Jones, Dina L.; Leith, Katherine H.; Phelan, Elizabeth A.; Satariano, William A.

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to translate science into practice and help enhance the capacity of professionals to deliver evidence-based programming. We describe contributions of the Healthy Aging Research Network in building professional capacity through online modules, issue briefs, monographs, and tools focused on health promotion practice, physical activity, mental health, and environment and policy. We also describe practice partnerships and research activities that helped inform product development and ways these products have been incorporated into real-world practice to illustrate possibilities for future applications. Our work aims to bridge the research-to-practice gap to meet the demands of an aging population. PMID:24000962

  7. Practices and discourses of ubuntu: Implications for an African model of disability?

    Maria Berghs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Southern African scholars and activists working in disability studies have argued that ubuntu or unhu is a part of their world view. Objectives: Thinking seriously about ubuntu, as a shared collective humanness or social ethics, means to examine how Africans have framed a struggle for this shared humanity in terms of decolonisation and activism. Method: Three examples of applications of ubuntu are given, with two mainly linked to making explicit umaka. Firstly, ubuntu is linked to making visible the invisible inequalities for a common humanity in South Africa. Secondly, it becomes correlated to the expression of environmental justice in West and East African countries. Results: An African model of disability that encapsulates ubuntu is correlated to how Africans have illustrated a social ethics of a common humanity in their grassroots struggles against oppression and disablement in the 20th century. Ubuntu also locates disability politically within the wider environment and practices of sustainability which are now important to the post-2105 agenda, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD and the (UN Sustainable Development Goals linked to climate change. Conclusion: A different kind of political action linked to social justice seems to be evolving in line with ubuntu. This has implications for the future of disability studies.

  8. Practices and discourses of ubuntu: Implications for an African model of disability?

    Berghs, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Southern African scholars and activists working in disability studies have argued that ubuntu or unhu is a part of their world view. Thinking seriously about ubuntu, as a shared collective humanness or social ethics, means to examine how Africans have framed a struggle for this shared humanity in terms of decolonisation and activism. Three examples of applications of ubuntu are given, with two mainly linked to making explicit umaka. Firstly, ubuntu is linked to making visible the invisible inequalities for a common humanity in South Africa. Secondly, it becomes correlated to the expression of environmental justice in West and East African countries. An African model of disability that encapsulates ubuntu is correlated to how Africans have illustrated a social ethics of a common humanity in their grassroots struggles against oppression and disablement in the 20th century. Ubuntu also locates disability politically within the wider environment and practices of sustainability which are now important to the post-2105 agenda, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) and the (UN) Sustainable Development Goals linked to climate change. A different kind of political action linked to social justice seems to be evolving in line with ubuntu . This has implications for the future of disability studies.

  9. Implications for research and practice of the biographic approach for storytelling.

    Ewens, Beverley; Hendricks, Joyce; Sundin, Deb

    2017-01-23

    Background Intensive care unit survivors face many physical and psychological difficulties during their recovery following discharge from hospital. These difficulties can significantly affect their quality of life. Healthcare providers and survivors' families often do not understand what recovery means in this population, which may affect the support provided. Aim To consider the potential of the biographical method in helping to create stories that illustrate recovery in intensive care survivors and other populations. Discussion This paper identifies how the biographical approach has provided survivors with a way to uncover the hidden parts of their lives through diaries and interviews, and reveal the hidden stories of intensive care survivorship and recovery. Conclusion The application of the biographical method enabled stories to be created that identified the disruption survivors encounter as they struggle to appear recovered. Implications for practice The biographical method can illuminate experiences uncaptured by other methods. This insight into recovery journeys can help healthcare practitioners and family members to understand and recognise the need for support during recovery.

  10. Mapping patterns of change in emotion-focused psychotherapy: Implications for theory, research, practice, and training.

    Watson, Jeanne C

    2018-05-01

    An important objective in humanistic-experiential psychotherapies and particularly emotion-focused psychotherapy (EFT) is to map patterns of change. Effective mapping of the processes and pathways of change requires that in-session processes be linked to in-session resolutions, immediate post-session changes, intermediate outcome, final therapy outcome, and longer-term change. This is a challenging and long-term endeavour. Fine-grained descriptions of in-session processes that lead to resolution of specific interpersonal and intrapersonal issues linked with longer-term outcomes are the foundation of EFT, the process-experiential approach. In this paper, evidence in support of EFT as a treatment approach will be reviewed along with research on two mechanisms of change, viewed as central to EFT, clients' emotional processing and the therapeutic relationship conditions. The implications for psychotherapy research are discussed. Given the methodological constraints, there is a need for more innovative methodologies and strategies to investigate specific psychotherapy processes within and across different approaches to map patterns and mechanisms of change to enhance theory, research, practice, and training.

  11. "Suffering" in palliative sedation: Conceptual Analysis and Implications for Decision-Making in Clinical Practice.

    Bozzaro, Claudia; Schildmann, Jan

    2018-04-21

    Palliative sedation is an increasingly used and, simultaneously, challenging practice at the end of life. Many controversies associated with this therapy are rooted in implicit differences regarding the understanding of "suffering" as prerequisite for palliative sedation. The aim of this paper is to inform the current debates by a conceptual analysis of two different philosophical accounts of suffering, (1) the subjective and holistic concept and (2) the objective and gradual concept and by a clinical-ethical analysis of the implications of each account for decisions about palliative sedation. We will show that while the subjective and holistic account of suffering fits well with the holistic approach of palliative care, there are considerable challenges to justify limits to requests for palliative sedation. By contrast, the objective and gradual account fits well with the need for an objective basis for clinical decisions in the context of palliative sedation, but runs the risk of falling short when considering the individual and subjective experience of suffering at the end of life. We will conclude with a plea for the necessity of further combined conceptual and empirical research to develop a sound and feasible understanding of suffering which can contribute to consistent decision-making about palliative sedation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. English in the multilingual classroom: implications for research, policy and practice

    Janina Brutt-Griffler

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The shift in the function of English as a medium of instruction together with its use in knowledge construction and dissemination among scholars continue to fuel the global demand for high-level proficiency in the language. These components of the global knowledge economy mean that the ability of nations to produce multilinguals with advanced English proficiency alongside their mastery of other languages has become a key to global competitiveness. That need is helping to drive one of the greatest language learning experiments the world has ever known. It carries significant implications for new research agendas and teacher preparation in applied linguistics. Design/methodology/approach – Evidence-based decision-making, whether it pertains to language policy decisions, instructional practices, teacher professional development or curricula/program building, needs to be based on a rigorous and systematically pursued program of research and assessment. Findings – This paper seeks to advance these objectives by identifying new research foci that underscore a student-centered approach. Originality/value – It introduces a new theoretical construct – multilingual proficiency – to underscore the knowledge that the learner develops in the process of language learning that makes for the surest route to the desired high levels of language proficiency. The paper highlights the advantages of a student-centered approach that focuses on multilingual proficiency for teachers and explores the concomitant conclusions for teacher development.

  13. Evidence behind FDA alerts for drugs with adverse cardiovascular effects: implications for clinical practice.

    Rackham, Daniel M; C Herink, Megan; Stevens, Ian G; Cardoza, Natalie M; Singh, Harleen

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) periodically publishes Drug Safety Communications and Drug Alerts notifying health care practitioners and the general public of important information regarding drug therapies following FDA approval. These alerts can result in both positive and negative effects on patient care. Most clinical trials are not designed to detect long-term safety end points, and postmarketing surveillance along with patient reported events are often instrumental in signaling the potential harmful effect of a drug. Recently, many cardiovascular (CV) safety announcements have been released for FDA-approved drugs. Because a premature warning could discourage a much needed treatment or prompt a sudden discontinuation, it is essential to evaluate the evidence supporting these FDA alerts to provide effective patient care and to avoid unwarranted changes in therapy. Conversely, paying attention to these warnings in cases involving high-risk patients can prevent adverse effects and litigation. This article reviews the evidence behind recent FDA alerts for drugs with adverse CV effects and discusses the clinical practice implications. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  14. Child abuse and neglect in Cambodian refugee families: characteristics and implications for practice.

    Chang, Janet; Rhee, Siyon; Berthold, S Megan

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics and patterns of child maltreatment among Cambodian refugee families in Los Angeles and assesses the implications for child welfare practice with Cambodian refugee families. Data were extracted from 243 active Cambodian case files maintained by the Los Angeles County Department of Children and Family Services (LAC-DCFS). Some of the major findings include (1) Cambodian child maltreatment cases were most frequently reported to the LAC-DCFS among various Asian Pacific ethnic groups; (2) Cambodian refugee families were more likely to be charged with neglect, while their Asian Pacific counterparts were more likely charged with physical abuse; (3) the circumstances under which maltreatment occurred most frequently were parental substance abuse and mental illness; and (4) while fathers who maltreated their child were likely to use alcohol, mothers were also more likely to have a mental health problem such as depression. This study suggests the importance of collaboration between Child Protective Service agencies, substance abuse programs, traditional healers, mental health services, and other social service agencies for effective child abuse prevention and intervention efforts.

  15. Weaning at Anglo-Saxon Raunds: Implications for changing breastfeeding practice in Britain over two millennia.

    Haydock, Hannah; Clarke, Leon; Craig-Atkins, Elizabeth; Howcroft, Rachel; Buckberry, Jo

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated stable-isotope ratio evidence of weaning for the late Anglo-Saxon population of Raunds Furnells, Northamptonshire, UK. δ(15)N and δ(13)C values in rib collagen were obtained for individuals of different ages to assess the weaning age of infants within the population. A peak in δ(15) N values at about 2-year-old, followed by a decline in δ(15) N values until age three, indicates a change in diet at that age. This change in nitrogen isotope ratios corresponds with the mortality profile from the site, as well as with archaeological and documentary evidence on attitudes towards juveniles in the Anglo-Saxon period. The pattern of δ(13) C values was less clear. Comparison of the predicted age of weaning to published data from sites dating from the Iron Age to the 19th century in Britain reveals a pattern of changing weaning practices over time, with increasingly earlier commencement and shorter periods of complementary feeding in more recent periods. Such a change has implications for the interpretation of socioeconomic changes during this period of British history, since earlier weaning is associated with decreased birth spacing, and could thus have contributed to population growth. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Alaska Tundra Travel Modeling Project and implications for seismic best management practices

    Schultz, G. [Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Much of the oil and gas exploration in the Alaskan North Slope depends on winter off-road travel to gain access to remote exploration areas. A study was conducted to relate vehicular off-road travel to tundra disturbance. Four types of vehicles were driven on the tundra on specific plots at various times throughout early to mid winter in an effort to determine if travel could occur earlier than current practice without impacting tundra integrity. Variables were measured the summer before travel, at the time of travel and the summers following travel. The results were used to develop a management tool to determine when conditions are adequate to allow winter vehicular off-road travel. It was determined that the soil temperature should be 5 degrees C or colder at a depth of 30 cm, with snow depths of 15 cm in coastal sedge tundra or 23 cm in foothills tussock tundra. This presentation also discussed the implications for managing off-road travel associated with seismic operations and recent changes in the types of vehicles used for these operations. figs.

  17. Analytical Methods for Quantification of Vitamin D and Implications for Research and Clinical Practice.

    Stokes, Caroline S; Lammert, Frank; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2018-02-01

    A plethora of contradictory research surrounds vitamin D and its influence on health and disease. This may, in part, result from analytical difficulties with regard to measuring vitamin D metabolites in serum. Indeed, variation exists between analytical techniques and assays used for the determination of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Research studies into the effects of vitamin D on clinical endpoints rely heavily on the accurate assessment of vitamin D status. This has important implications, as findings from vitamin D-related studies to date may potentially have been hampered by the quantification techniques used. Likewise, healthcare professionals are increasingly incorporating vitamin D testing and supplementation regimens into their practice, and measurement errors may be also confounding the clinical decisions. Importantly, the Vitamin D Standardisation Programme is an initiative that aims to standardise the measurement of vitamin D metabolites. Such a programme is anticipated to eliminate the inaccuracies surrounding vitamin D quantification. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  18. Accuracy of flash glucose monitoring and continuous glucose monitoring technologies: Implications for clinical practice.

    Ajjan, Ramzi A; Cummings, Michael H; Jennings, Peter; Leelarathna, Lalantha; Rayman, Gerry; Wilmot, Emma G

    2018-02-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring and flash glucose monitoring technologies measure glucose in the interstitial fluid and are increasingly used in diabetes care. Their accuracy, key to effective glycaemic management, is usually measured using the mean absolute relative difference of the interstitial fluid sensor compared to reference blood glucose readings. However, mean absolute relative difference is not standardised and has limitations. This review aims to provide a consensus opinion on assessing accuracy of interstitial fluid glucose sensing technologies. Mean absolute relative difference is influenced by glucose distribution and rate of change; hence, we express caution on the reliability of comparing mean absolute relative difference data from different study systems and conditions. We also review the pitfalls associated with mean absolute relative difference at different glucose levels and explore additional ways of assessing accuracy of interstitial fluid devices. Importantly, much data indicate that current practice of assessing accuracy of different systems based on individualised mean absolute relative difference results has limitations, which have potential clinical implications. Healthcare professionals must understand the factors that influence mean absolute relative difference as a metric for accuracy and look at additional assessments, such as consensus error grid analysis, when evaluating continuous glucose monitoring and flash glucose monitoring systems in diabetes care. This in turn will ensure that management decisions based on interstitial fluid sensor data are both effective and safe.

  19. Sociolegal and practice implications of caring for LGBT people with dementia.

    Peel, Elizabeth; Taylor, Helen; Harding, Rosie

    2016-11-30

    The needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) people with dementia are poorly recognised. This is due partly to assumptions that all older people are heterosexual or asexual. One quarter of gay or bisexual men and half of lesbian or bisexual women have children, compared with 90% of heterosexual women and men, which means LGBT older adults are more likely to reside in care homes. Older LGBT people may be unwilling to express their sexual identities in care settings and this can affect their care. Members of older people's informal care networks must be recognised to ensure their involvement in the lives of residents in care settings continues. However, healthcare professionals may not always realise that many LGBT people rely on their families of choice or wider social networks more than on their families of origin. This article explores sociolegal issues that can arise in the care of older LGBT people with dementia, including enabling autonomy, capacity and applying legal frameworks to support their identities and relationships. It also highlights implications for practice.

  20. Practicing Multicultural Education through Religiously Affiliated Schools and Its Implications for Social Change

    Miftahur Rohman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Having varied ethnics, cultures, religions, or faiths, Indonesia is considered a multicultural nation in today’s world. This equity can be dangerous; but also can be advantageous if myriad interests of citizens are able to be nurtured through education, including religious schools. The research was conducted to explore multicultural practices in the State-owned Islamic High School (MAN 3 and the Catholic High School (SMA Stella Duce 2 in Yogyakarta Indonesia. Data was gathered via qualitative method by means of comparative study, aiming at seeking similarities and differences on promoting multicultural education values. Findings show similarities of teachers’ attitudes and characteristics as facilitator, accommodator, or assimilator whereas the differences include their leadership role in intrareligious dialog at MAN 3 and dialog leaders at SMA Stella Duce 2. Other issues include diverse understandings of religion and its perceived violence. The research formulates two categories of teacher as being multicultural-intrareligious pluralist and multicultural-intrareligious humanist. It also discusses implications on social change as a result of cultural interchange at those schools.

  1. Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases and Their Unique Cognitive Profiles: Implications for Nursing Practice and Research

    Vance, David E.; Dodson, Joan E.; Watkins, Jason; Kennedy, Bridgett H.; Keltner, Norman L.

    2013-01-01

    To successfully negotiate and interact with one’s environment, optimal cognitive functioning is needed. Unfortunately, many neurological and psychiatric diseases impede certain cognitive abilities such as executive functioning or speed of processing; this can produce a poor fit between the patient and the cognitive demands of his or her environment. Such non-dementia diseases include bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress syndrome, depression, and anxiety disorders, just to name a few. Each of these diseases negatively affects particular areas of the brain, resulting in distinct cognitive profiles (e.g., deficits in executive functioning but normal speed of processing as seen in schizophrenia). In fact, it is from these cognitive deficits in which such behavioral and emotional symptoms may manifest (e.g., delusions, paranoia). This article highlights the distinct cognitive profiles of such common neurological and psychiatric diseases. An understanding of such disease-specific cognitive profiles can assist nurses in providing care to patients by knowing what cognitive deficits are associated with each disease and how these cognitive deficits impact everyday functioning and social interactions. Implications for nursing practice and research are posited within the framework of cognitive reserve and neuroplasticity. PMID:23422693

  2. Surgical Pathology of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Practical Implications of Morphologic and Molecular Heterogeneity for Precision Medicine.

    Charville, Gregory W; Longacre, Teri A

    2017-11-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract, exhibits diverse histologic and clinical manifestations. With its putative origin in the gastrointestinal pacemaker cell of Cajal, GIST can arise in association with any portion of the tubular gastrointestinal tract. Morphologically, GISTs are classified as spindled or epithelioid, though each of these subtypes encompasses a broad spectrum of microscopic appearances, many of which mimic other histologic entities. Despite this morphologic ambiguity, the diagnosis of GIST is aided in many cases by immunohistochemical detection of KIT (CD117) or DOG1 expression. The natural history of GIST ranges from that of a tumor cured by surgical resection to that of a locally advanced or even widely metastatic, and ultimately fatal, disease. This clinicopathologic heterogeneity is paralleled by an underlying molecular diversity: the majority of GISTs are associated with spontaneous activating mutations in KIT, PDGFRA, or BRAF, while additional subsets are driven by genetic lesions-often inherited-of NF1 or components of the succinate dehydrogenase enzymatic complex. Specific gene mutations correlate with particular anatomic or morphologic characteristics and, in turn, with distinct clinical behaviors. Therefore, prognostication and treatment are increasingly dictated not only by morphologic clues, but also by accompanying molecular genetic features. In this review, we provide a comprehensive description of the heterogenous molecular underpinnings of GIST, including implications for the practicing pathologist with regard to morphologic identification, immunohistochemical diagnosis, and clinical management.

  3. Resources to Support Ethical Practice in Evaluation: An Interview with the Director of the National Center for Research and Professional Ethics

    Goodyear, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Where do evaluators find resources on ethics and ethical practice? This article highlights a relatively new online resource, a centerpiece project of the National Center for Professional and Research Ethics (NCPRE), which brings together information on best practices in ethics in research, academia, and business in an online portal and center. It…

  4. Milkfish (Chanos chanos Fry Concession System in Bolinao, Pangasinan: Implications to Coastal Resources Management

    Severino Salmo III

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The ecological and socioeconomic implications of the concession system on milkfish (Chanos chanos Forssk. fry in Bolinao, Pangasinan were evaluated from 1996 to 1999. Monitoring of landed catch from 1996 to 1998 showed that the seasonal trend and annual volume of catch varied widely during the three-year period. The fry season in 1996 and 1997 lasted seven months, starting from the second week of April to the second week of October. However, during the 1998 season, fry were available for eight months starting in the second week of March and ending in November. The peak period also varied considerably during the three-year period. In 1996, peak abundance of fry was observed in the last week of July while in 1997 and 1998, the peak was during the second week of May. The volume of total catch for the entire season also varied widely, from as low as ~400,000 fry (1997 to as high as 2,400,000 fry (1996. The concessionaire “postor” has the sole right to buy all fry caught within the municipal waters. Thus, s/he dictates the buying price. Moreover, the existing concession system has no mechanism to regulate harvest of milkfish fry gathering. This arrangement allows the concessionaire to enjoy huge economic benefits while the fry gatherers only get a minimal share in the income. To promote sustainable and equitable harvest of milkfish fry, a new access arrangement through a permit system was proposed by the fry gatherers. The proposed permit system will promote a sustainable harvest of milkfish fry through the implementation of a closed period during the fry season. Compared to the present concession system, the permit system is believed to be more equitable because of the abolition of the 1/3 cut levied by the concessionaire on the landed catch. The permit system also facilitates a mechanism that provides for transparency on the selling/buying price. More importantly, fry gatherers will have the opportunity to sell to buyers offering a relatively

  5. Climate change implications for wind power resources in the Northwest United States

    Sailor, David J.; Smith, Michael; Hart, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Using statistically downscaled output from four general circulation models (GCMs), we have investigated scenarios of climate change impacts on wind power generation potential in a five-state region within the Northwest United States (Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming). All GCM simulations were extracted from the standardized set of runs created for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Analysis of model runs for the 20th century (20c3m) simulations revealed that the direct output of wind statistics from these models is of relatively poor quality compared with observations at airport weather stations within each state. When the GCM output was statistically downscaled, the resulting estimates of current climate wind statistics are substantially better. Furthermore, in looking at the GCM wind statistics for two IPCC future climate scenarios from the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES A1B and A2), there was significant disagreement in the direct model output from the four GCMs. When statistical downscaling was applied to the future climate simulations, a more coherent story unfolded related to the likely impact of climate change on the region's wind power resource. Specifically, the results suggest that summertime wind speeds in the Northwest may decrease by 5-10%, while wintertime wind speeds may decrease by relatively little, or possibly increase slightly. When these wind statistics are projected to typical turbine hub heights and nominal wind turbine power curves are applied, the impact of the climate change scenarios on wind power may be as high as a 40% reduction in summertime generation potential. (author)

  6. Use and abuse of the urban groundwater resource: Implications for a new management strategy

    Drangert, J.-O.; Cronin, A. A.

    Various human activities threaten the groundwater quality and resource under urban areas, and yet residents increasingly depend on it for their livelihood. The anticipated expansion of the world's urban population from 3 to 6 billion in the coming 50 years does not only pose a large water management threat but also provides an opportunity to conserve groundwater in a better way than up to now. The authors argue for a new way to manage urban activities in order to conserve the precious groundwater resource. The focus is on the quality of the discharged water after use in households. Restrictions on what is added to water while using it, e.g. detergents, excreta, paint residues, oils, and pharmaceuticals, are important to simplify the treatment and reuse of used water. Avoiding mixing different wastewater flows has the same positive effect. If increased volumes of wastewater can be treated and reused, the demand on the groundwater resource is reduced, as also occurs with demand management measures. Reduced discharge of polluted water to the environment from households and utilities also conserves the quality of groundwater and reduces sophisticated treatment costs. L'urbanisation conduit à une demande élevée et concentrée d'eau de qualité adéquate, accompagnée du rejet d'importants volumes correspondants d'eaux usées. La nourriture est importée dans les villes tandis que les micro-organismes et les nutriments provenant des excrétas humains sont rejetés dans les rivières, les lacs et aussi les eaux souterraines. De plus, une large gamme de biens de consommation est évacuée par les égouts. Les créances environnementales, c'est-à-dire l'appauvrissement des conditions environnementales qui demandera des apports humains et économiques pour la réhabilitation, sont habituelles dans toutes les villes, et pas seulement dans l'hémisphère sud, comme cela est indiqué dans le rapport sur l'alimentation en eau et la santé publique du monde (publié par l

  7. Implications of the presence of petroleum resources on the integrity of the WIPP

    Silva, M.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the US Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves of potash, crude oil, and natural gas. These are attractive targets for exploratory drilling which could disrupt the integrity of the transuranic waste repository. The performance assessment calculations published to date have identified future drilling for oil and gas reserves as an event that may disrupt the repository and may release radionuclides in excess of the standards. Therefore, the probability of inadvertent human intrusion into the repository by drilling and its impact on the integrity of the repository must be carefully assessed. This report evaluates: (1) the studies funded by the DOE to examine the crude oil potential in the immediate vicinity of the WIPP; (2) the use of an elicitation exercise to predict future drilling rates for use in the calculation of the repository performance; and (3) the observed limitations of institutional controls. This report identifies the following issues that remain to be resolved: (1) the limited performance of blowout preventers after drilling into high pressure zones immediately adjacent to the WIPP Site Boundary; (2) reported problems with waterflooding operations in southeastern New Mexico; (3) reported water level rises in several wells completed in the Rustler Formation, south of the WIPP Site, possibly due to oil and gas wells or leaking injection wells; and (4) reports of inadequate well abandonment practices on BLM leases and the continued absence of enforceable regulations

  8. Interest of seeing Precision Viticulture through two distributed competences: Determination of resources and schemes allowing some practical recommendations

    Moreiro Leslie B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to better understand resources needed and constraints to avoid in implementation of Precision Viticulture technologies. In this view, we adapt distributed cognition theory to multilevel model of competence in management sciences. We use a qualitative methodology based on semi-structured interviews in 7 cases study. The main results allow us to distinguish the two aspects of Precision Viticulture, artifacts, providers of resources, and their utilization scheme. Furthermore, Precision Viticulture is decomposed here in two tasks. The first task is characterization of heterogeneity. The second is modulation of technical itineraries. These two tasks are complementary. In addition, we present ours results by highlighting resources used by firm using these technologies and constraints that they face. Finally, with these results, we can do some practical recommendations to designers and users of these technologies.

  9. Digital Media for STEM Learning: Developing scientific practice skills in the K-12 STEM classroom with resources from WGBH and PBS LearningMedia

    Foster, J.; Connolly, R.

    2017-12-01

    WGBH's "Bringing the Universe to America's Classrooms" project is a 5-year effort to design, produce and evaluate digital media tools and resources that support scientific practice skills in diverse K-12 learners. Resources leverage data and content from NASA and WGBH signature programs, like NOVA, into sound instructional experiences that provide K-12 STEM teachers with free, quality resources for teaching topics in the Earth and Space Sciences. Resources address the content and practices in the new K-12 Framework for Science Education and are aligned with the NGSS. Participants will learn about design strategies, findings from our evaluation efforts, and how to access free resources on PBS LearningMedia.

  10. Relative Importance of Human Resource Practices on Affective Commitment and Turnover Intention in South Korea and United States

    Jaeyoon Lee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of perceived HR practices on affective commitment and turnover intention. This study explored which HR practices were relatively more important in predicting affective commitment and turnover intention. A total of 302 employees from the United States and 317 from South Korea completed the same questionnaires for assessing the aforementioned relationships. The results illustrated that among perceived HR practices, internal mobility had the most significant association with turnover intention in both the United States and South Korea. While internal mobility was a stronger predictor of affective commitment for the United States sample, training was the most important variable for predicting affective commitment in South Korea. The second purpose of the study was to examine whether individuals’ positive affect influences the relationship between perceived HR practices and affective commitment and turnover intention. In the United States, positive affect moderated the relationship between perceived HR practices and affective commitment and turnover intention such that the relationships were stronger for individuals reporting high positive affect relative to those reporting low positive affect. However, these relationships were not significant in South Korea. We discuss the implications of these results, study limitations, and practical suggestions for future research.

  11. External resources in Libraries: the practice of Fundraising in the State Public Library in Cáceres.

    Margarita Pérez Pulido

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundraising is presented as a technique of marketing and communication for managing external resources in libraries. The convergence of the fundraising plan and conceptual planning model can prove the importance of fundraising as a planning tool. From the analysis of a case study, Caceres Public Library, are made some improvements to consolidate this practice as an essential element of the planning libraries.

  12. Clearing Hurdles: The Challenges of Implementation of Mental Health Evidence-Based Practices in Under-resourced Schools.

    Eiraldi, Ricardo; Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Locke, Jill; Beidas, Rinad

    Schools have become the main provider of services to children with mental health needs. Although there is substantial literature on barriers to implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in under-resourced school districts, less has been written on how to overcome those barriers. Providing mental health services in the school setting presents a tremendous opportunity to increase access to quality mental health care for underserved youth. This review provides a brief overview of the barriers to successful implementation and sustainment of EBPs in under-resourced public schools and provides recommendations for overcoming them. The discussion is organized around an established conceptual framework adapted for the delivery of services in under-resourced schools that focuses on interdependent factors that exist at the individual-, team, school-, and macro-levels. This manuscript explores some recommendations and strategies for effectively addressing challenges related to implementation of EBPs. Research ideas are offered to bridge the research-to-practice gap that impacts many under-resourced public school districts.

  13. Clearing Hurdles: The Challenges of Implementation of Mental Health Evidence-Based Practices in Under-resourced Schools

    Eiraldi, Ricardo; Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Locke, Jill; Beidas, Rinad

    2015-01-01

    Schools have become the main provider of services to children with mental health needs. Although there is substantial literature on barriers to implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in under-resourced school districts, less has been written on how to overcome those barriers. Providing mental health services in the school setting presents a tremendous opportunity to increase access to quality mental health care for underserved youth. This review provides a brief overview of the barriers to successful implementation and sustainment of EBPs in under-resourced public schools and provides recommendations for overcoming them. The discussion is organized around an established conceptual framework adapted for the delivery of services in under-resourced schools that focuses on interdependent factors that exist at the individual-, team, school-, and macro-levels. This manuscript explores some recommendations and strategies for effectively addressing challenges related to implementation of EBPs. Research ideas are offered to bridge the research-to-practice gap that impacts many under-resourced public school districts. PMID:26336512

  14. Systematic Review of Cyberbullying Interventions for Youth and Parents With Implications for Evidence-Based Practice.

    Hutson, Elizabeth; Kelly, Stephanie; Militello, Lisa K

    2018-02-01

    Cyberbullying is a new risk factor for the well-being of pediatric populations. Consequences of cyberbullying include both physical and mental health concerns such as depression, anxiety, and somatic concerns. Adolescents who have been victims of cyberbullying and developed secondary symptoms are often recommended to visit a healthcare provider to obtain effective, evidence-based treatment. To date, no interventions exist in the healthcare setting for adolescents who are victims of cyberbullying. The purpose of this project is to review interventional studies on cyberbullying that have components for adolescents who have been involved with cyberbullying and their parents and to provide recommendations on effective intervention components with the goal of guiding clinical practice. A systematic review was conducted using the Institute of Medicine guidelines. A comprehensive electronic literature search was completed targeting interventions of cyberbullying in any setting. No date limits were used. Literature was searched in MEDLINE, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Education Information Resource Center (ERIC), and PsycINFO databases. The following search terms were applied "cyberbullying" + "intervention" or "treatment" or "therapy" or "program." Only articles with a pediatric population were selected for review. Seventeen cyberbullying intervention programs in 23 articles were found to meet the search criteria. The most frequently used intervention components included education on cyberbullying for the adolescent, coping skills, empathy training, communication and social skills, and digital citizenship. Parent education on cyberbullying was also found to be important and was included in programs with significant outcomes. As youth present to healthcare providers with symptoms related to cyberbullying, effective interventions are needed to guide evidence-based practice. This review

  15. Lifelong educational practices and resources in enabling health literacy among older adults

    Wister, Andrew; Malloy-Weir, Leslie; Rootman, Irving

    2010-01-01

    .  These included education level; self-study in the form of reading manuals, reference books and journals; computer/Internet use, use of the library; leisure reading of books; reading letters, notes and emails; and volunteerism. Implications:  Programs and policies that encourage access to, and the uptake of...

  16. Implications of food insecurity on global health policy and nursing practice.

    Kregg-Byers, Claudia M; Schlenk, Elizabeth A

    2010-09-01

    The purpose is to discuss the concept of food insecurity (FI) and its impact on current global health policy and nursing practice. Food insecurity. Literature review. FI means a nonsustainable food system that interferes with optimal self-reliance and social justice. Individuals experiencing FI lack nutritionally adequate and safe foods in their diet. Resources play a significant role in FI by affecting whether or not people obtain culturally, socially acceptable food through regular marketplace sources as opposed to severe coping strategies, such as emergency food sources, scavenging, and stealing. Persons who are living in poverty, female heads of household, single parents, people living with many siblings, landless people, migrants, immigrants, and those living in certain geographical regions constitute populations at risk and most vulnerable to FI. FI influences economics through annual losses of gross domestic product due to reduced human productivity. FI affects individuals and households and is largely an unobservable condition, making data collection and analysis challenging. Policy and research have focused on macronutrient sufficiency and deprivation, making it difficult to draw attention and research dollars to FI. Persons experiencing FI exhibit clinical signs such as less healthy diets, poor health status, poor diabetes and chronic disease management, and impaired cognitive function. Nurses can recognize the physical, psychosocial, and personal consequences that those with FI face and manage daily.

  17. Practice Stories in Natural Resource Management Continuing Professional Education: Springboards for Learning

    Stummann, Cathy Brown

    2014-01-01

    The use of stories from professional experience in continuing professional education has been on the rise in many fields, often aimed at bolstering capacity through sharing professional knowledge and/or supporting reflective practice. Practice stories are also suggested to be beneficial in supporting professional learning of new concepts. These…

  18. Empowering European communities to improve natural resource management for human well-being: the OPPLA web portal & communities of practice

    Metzger, M.; Brown, C.; Pérez-Soba, M.; Rounsevell, M.; Verweij, P.; Delbaere, B.; Cojocaru, G.; Saarikoski, H.; Harrison, P.; Zellmer, K.

    2014-12-01

    The ecosystem services concept is seen by many as a useful paradigm to support decision-making at the complex interface between science, policy and practice. However, to be successful, it requires a strong willingness for collaboration and joint understanding. In support of this aspiration, OPPLA is being developed as a web portal to enable European communities to better manage ecosystems for human well-being and livelihoods. OPPLA will provide access to a variety of online resources such as tools, case studies, lessons learned, videos, manuals and training and educational materials. It will also provide expert forums and spaces for discussions between researchers, practitioners and decision makers. Hence a critical aspect of the success of OPPLA is the co-evolution of communities of practice. An example of a community of practice is the recently launched Ecosystem Services Community - Scotland (ESCom-Scotland; escomscotland.wordpress.com). ESCom-Scotland aims to support better management of Scotland's natural resources by helping to establish a community of practice between individuals and groups involved in the science, policy and practice behind sustainable ecosystem management. It aspires to encourage the sharing of ideas, increase collaboration and to initiate a support network for those engaging with the ecosystem services concept and it will use the OPPLA resources to support these activities. OPPLA is currently at the developmental stage and was instigated by two large European Commission funded research projects: OPERAs (www.operas-project.eu) and OpenNESS (www.openness-project.eu), with a combined budget of ca. €24m. These projects aim to improve understanding of how ecosystem services contribute to human well-being in different social-ecological systems. Research will establish whether, how and under what conditions the ecosystem services concept can move beyond the academic domain towards practical implementation in support of sustainable ecosystem

  19. Cattle brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practice in Southern and Eastern Ethiopia, and its zoonotic implication

    Niguse Fekadu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cattle brucellosis has significant economic and zoonotic implication for the rural communities in Ethiopia in consequence of their traditional life styles, feeding habits and disease patterns. Hence, knowledge of brucellosis occurrence in traditional livestock husbandry practice has considerable importance in reducing the economic and public health impacts of the disease. Methods A total of 1623 cattle sera were serially tested using the rose Bengal test as screening and complement fixation test as confirmatory tests. The Stata survey command was used to establish prevalences for the overall and individual variables, while potential risk factors for seropositivity were analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results The results showed that 3.5% (95% CI = 2.4, 4.5% of the animals and 26.1% (95% CI = 18.6, 33.7 of the herds tested had antibodies against Brucella species. Village level seroprevalence ranged from 0% to 100%. A higher seroprevalence was observed in pastoral system than mixed farming although this variable was not significant in the final model. The final logistic regression model identified herd size; with large (odd ratio (OR = 8.0, 95% CI = 1.9, 33.6 and medium herds (OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 1.9, 34.2 showing higher risk of Brucella infection when compared to small herds. Similarly, the odds of Brucella infection was higher in cattle aged above 4 years when compared to age groups of 1-2 (OR = 5.4, 2.1, 12.9 and 3-4 years (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.0, 9.6. Herd level analysis of the risk factors revealed that large and medium herds as well as herds kept with multiple livestock species were at higher risk of acquiring Brucella infection. Brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practices certainly poses a zoonotic risk to the public, in consequence of raw milk consumption, close contact with animals and provision of assistance during parturition. Due to lack of diagnostic facilities and

  20. Predicting the unpredictable: Critical analysis and practical implications of predictive anticipatory activity

    Julia eMossbridge

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A recent meta-analysis of experiments from seven independent laboratories (n=26 published since 1978 indicates that the human body can apparently detect randomly delivered stimuli occurring 1-10 seconds in the future (Mossbridge, Tressoldi, & Utts, 2012. The key observation in these studies is that human physiology appears to be able to distinguish between unpredictable dichotomous future stimuli, such as emotional vs. neutral images or sound vs. silence. This phenomenon has been called presentiment (as in feeling the future. In this paper we call it predictive anticipatory activity or PAA. The phenomenon is predictive because it can distinguish between upcoming stimuli; it is anticipatory because the physiological changes occur before a future event; and it is an activity because it involves changes in the cardiopulmonary, skin, and/or nervous systems. PAA is an unconscious phenomenon that seems to be a time-reversed reflection of the usual physiological response to a stimulus. It appears to resemble precognition (consciously knowing something is going to happen before it does, but PAA specifically refers to unconscious physiological reactions as opposed to conscious premonitions. Though it is possible that PAA underlies the conscious experience of precognition, experiments testing this idea have not produced clear results. The first part of this paper reviews the evidence for PAA and examines the two most difficult challenges for obtaining valid evidence for it: expectation bias and multiple analyses. The second part speculates on possible mechanisms and the theoretical implications of PAA for understanding physiology and consciousness. The third part examines potential practical applications.