WorldWideScience

Sample records for resources ocs oil

  1. Oil-Spill Analysis: Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Lease Sales, Eastern Planning Area, 2003-2007 and Gulfwide OCS Program, 2003-2042

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The Federal Government plans to offer U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lands in the Eastern Planning Area of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) for oil and gas leasing. This report summarizes results of that analysis, the objective of which was to estimate the risk of oil-spill contact to sensitive offshore and onshore environmental resources and socioeconomic features from oil spills accidentally occurring from the OCS activities.

  2. Competition and performance in OCS oil and gas lease sales and lease development, 1954-1969

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Walter J.; Sorensen, Philip Edward

    1980-01-01

    The oil and gas resources of the Outer Continental Shelf represent one of America's largest publicly-owned assets. Through 1978, OCS oil and gas leases had yielded \\$40.5 billion in gross production value and produced over \\$28.3 billion in direct revenue to the federal government.Policies and procedures for managing the oil and gas resources of the OCS were established by Congress in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act of 1953. The Department of Interior was given the central responsibility for carrying out this management role in the 1953 Act; this responsibility has been re-established in the 1978 Amendments to the OCS Lands Act. As stated in the 1978 legislation, the goals of OCS management are to:...preserve, protect and develop oil and natural gas resources in a manner which is consistent with the need (A) to make such resources available to meet the Nation's energy needs as rapidly as possible... (C) to insure the public a fair and equitable return on the resources of the Outer Continental Shelf, and (D) to preserve and maintain free enterprise competition.As part of its continuing effort to monitor the effectiveness of federal policies relating to OCS oil and gas resources, the Conservation Division of U.S. Geological Survey, Department of Interior, has sponsored the research which is the basis for the present report. The objectives of the research have been to determine the extent to which the historical policies of OCS management have resulted in achievement of the goals set forth by Congress in the section quoted above.

  3. Environmental components of OCS policy committee recommendations regarding national oil spill prevention and response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groat, C.G.; Thorman, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989 resulted in thousands of pages of analytical reports assessing the environmental, organizational, legal, procedural, social, economic, and political aspects of the event. Even though the accident was a transportation incident, it had a major impact on the public and political perception of offshore oil operations. This caused the OCS Policy Committee, which advises the Secretary of the Interior and the Minerals Management Service on Outer Continental Shelf resource development and environmental matters, to undertake a review of the reports for the purpose of developing recommendations to the secretary for improvements in OCS operations that would insure maximum efforts to prevent spills and optimal ability to deal with any that occur. The Committee felt strongly that 'a credible national spill prevention and response program from both OCS and non-OCS oil spills in the marine environment is needed to create the political climate for a viable OCS program.' The report of the Committee described eight essential elements of this program; four of these focused on the environmental aspects of oil spills, calling for (1) adequate characterization of the marine and coastal environment, including both information and analysis, accessible to decision makers, (2) the capacity to restore economic and environmental resources as quickly as possible if damage occurs, (3) a mechanism for research on oil spill impacts, and (4) a meaningful role for all interested and responsible parties, including the public, in as many of these activities as possible, from spill prevention and contingency planning to environmental oversight of ongoing operations and participation in clean-up and restoration activities

  4. 76 FR 50245 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... (BOEMRE), Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of a Final Supplemental Environmental Impact... sale's incremental contribution to the cumulative impacts on environmental and socioeconomic resources... Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas Lease Sale for the...

  5. Potential impacts of OCS oil and gas activities on fisheries. Volume 2. Annotated bibliography for OCS oil and gas impact studies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tear, L.M.

    1989-10-01

    The volume is the second of two volumes to the final report, Potential Impacts of OCS Oil and Gas Activities on Fisheries. The volume presents an annotated bibliography of published and grey literature related to OCS oil and gas activity impacts of finfish and shellfish in marine and estuaring waters. The studies presented in the bibliography include those related to the following pollutants or impact-causing activities: Rig/reef effects, Drilling discharges (muds or cuttings), Oil (petroleum hydrocarbons), Trace metals, Produced water, Habitat alteration, Debris, Rig placement (avoidance), Pipelines, and Socioeconomic effects. The studies are listed alphabetically by the primary author's last name. An index is provided to help the reader identify studies related to a specific impact

  6. 33 CFR 135.103 - Levy and payment of barrel fee on OCS oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Levy of Fees § 135.103 Levy and payment of barrel fee on OCS oil. (a) A fee of $.03 per... paragraph (a) of this section applies whenever the unobligated Fund balance is less than $200,000,000. (d...

  7. 76 FR 30956 - Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Point Hope et al., v. Salazar, No. 1:08-cv-00004-RRB (D. Alaska)]. The sale was conducted in February... Continental Shelf, Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193 AGENCY: Bureau of...: BOEMRE announces the availability of a Revised Draft SEIS, OCS Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193, Chukchi Sea...

  8. 78 FR 52562 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Central Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). SUMMARY: Consistent with the regulations... Supplemental EIS will update the environmental and socioeconomic analyses in the Gulf of Mexico OCS Oil and Gas... Area Lease Sales 227, 231, 235, 241, and 247, Final Environmental Impact Statement (OCS EIS/EA BOEM...

  9. Additional studies of competition and performance in OCS oil and gas sales, 1954-1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Walter J.; Sorensen, Philip Edward

    1980-01-01

    Economic rent is commonly defined in economics as any payment to a factor of production in excess of the minimum necessary to engage it in production. In the case of OCS lands owned by the federal government, the minimum supply price necessary to induce the federal government to lease production rights would be the costs of establishing and administering lease contracts. Assuming, for the sake of simplicity, that these costs are small enough to be ignored in the analysis, all payments to the federal government for use of OCS lands are forms of economic rent. An ideal leasing system should transfer the full amount of economic rent implicit in OCS resources to the federal government. Whether such a complete transfer of economic rent occurs depends upon the conditions of competition in the market for OCS leases. The principal means for capturing economic rent under the bidding system employed by the federal government over the years 1954-1969 are the bonus paid by the highest bidder and a royalty payment which has historically been fixed at 16 2/3 percent of gross production value. Of less importance is an annual rental payment, usually about \\$3.00 per acre, which is paid as long as a tract under lease is not producing.In the sections which follow, major factors affecting the capture of economic rent by the federal government are discussed and data are presented which demonstrate the importance of the different means used. In computing the amounts of economic rent captured by the federal government, the discounted cash flow technique is employed. This requires selection of an appropriate discount rate, in contrast to the internal rate of return analysis used in Part I, above.

  10. China's oil resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesegart, K

    1981-03-01

    The United Nations International Meeting on Petroleum Geology is being held this month from 18-25 in China, a country whose oil reserves up to mid-sixties had been judged by foreign observers to be minute and the development of her oil sector of no major importance. Today, with an annual crude output of 106 mn tons, China already ranks ninth among the world's oil producers. And, with the prospect of a further advance towards leadership among producers and exporters of the coveted energy material, the West is showing growing interest in China's energy potential. How real is this prospect forms the subject of this article. 3 tables.

  11. 78 FR 60892 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... Area offer greater resource potential, while minimizing potential conflicts with environmental.... Existing Information An extensive Environmental Studies Program, including environmental, social, and... limiting conflicts with environmentally sensitive areas and subsistence use by making certain...

  12. 78 FR 59715 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Chukchi Sea Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... resource potential, while minimizing potential conflicts with environmental subsistence considerations... extensive Environmental Studies Program, including environmental, social, and economic studies in the... while limiting conflicts with environmentally sensitive areas and subsistence use by making certain...

  13. World resources of oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnaterre, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    In a first part, the author outlines that the issue of density of an oil product raises the question of the validity of a counting approach based on volumes. As oil industries produce always less heavy products and always more light products, this means that always less oil is needed to produce a gallon or a litre of fuel out of a refinery. The author comments the evolution of crude oil extraction. In a second part, he outlines that hydrocarbon productions become always more complex with respect to their origin. Thus, during gas extraction, humid gases are recovered which contain an important part of hydrocarbons similar to light oil. These aspects and the development of shale gas exploitation will make the USA the first oil producer in the world whereas they still have to import heavy oil to feed their refineries. He discusses the level of reserves and production costs with respect to the product type or its extraction location. He discusses the evolution of the estimates of world ultimately recoverable resources (synthesis processes excluded). He comments the level of condensate extraction ratio of the main shale gas fields in the USA and outlines the cost of natural gas imports for France. He outlines the importance of GTL (gas to liquid) processes, the increasing importance of bio-fuels (notably isobutanol biosynthesis and terpene biosynthesis). In the third part, the author states that the barrel price should keep on increasing and, in the fourth part, proposes a list of issues which will impact the future of the oil market

  14. 76 FR 70156 - Proposed 5-Year Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2012-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Analysis for the OCS 5-Year Program 2012-2017: Theory and Methodology (BOEM 050-2011), a paper containing a..., which remain the two areas of highest resource potential and interest, the Proposed Program schedules..., and setting the fiscal terms and conditions by individual lease sale, based on a current assessment of...

  15. Canada's crude oil resources : crude oil in our daily lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, R.

    2001-10-01

    Created in 1975, the Petroleum Communication Foundation is a not-for-profit organization. The objective of the Foundation is to inform Canadians about the petroleum industry in Canada. It produces educational, fact-based publications and programs, employing a multi-stakeholder review process. The first section of this publication is devoted to crude oil and the benefits that are derived from it. It begins by providing a brief definition of crude oil, then moves to the many uses in our daily lives and the environmental impacts like air pollution, spills, and footprint on the land from exploration and production activities. Section 2 details the many uses of crude oil and identifies the major oil producing regions of Canada. A quick mention is made of non-conventional sources of crude oil. The search for crude oil is the topic of section 3 of the document, providing an overview of the exploration activities, the access rights that must be obtained before gaining access to the resource. The drilling of oil is discussed in section 4. Section 5 deals with issues pertaining to reservoirs within rocks, while section 6 covers the feeding of the refineries, discussing topics from the movement of oil to market to the refining of the crude oil, and the pricing issues. In section 7, the uncertain future is examined with a view of balancing the supply and demand, as crude oil is a non-renewable resource. Supplementary information is provided concerning additional publications published by various organizations and agencies. figs

  16. Resources and future supply of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaerstad, Jan; Johnsson, Filip

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines global oil resources and the future global oil supply/demand balance. The paper builds upon several comprehensive databases designed during the work and considerable efforts have been made to review what must be considered the most reliable data. Global oil resources have been investigated on three levels; country, company and field levels. Although no decisive conclusions or quantitative assessments can be made with respect to the global oil resource base, remaining resources appear to be sufficient to meet demand up to 2030 as projected in the 2006 (and 2007) world energy outlook by the IEA. Significant resources have already been discovered beyond proven reserves, many prospective regions remain to be fully explored and there are vast volumes of recoverable unconventional oil. However, it is also concluded that global supply of oil probably will continue to be tight, both in the medium term as well as in the long term mainly as a consequence of above-ground factors such as investment constraints, geopolitical tensions, limited access to reserves and mature super-giant fields. Production of unconventional oil and synthetic fuels is not believed to significantly alter this situation. Although an increasing number of recent reports have indicated an imminent or 'soon to come' peak in global oil supply, it has not been found that any of these reports have contributed with any new information on oil resources or oil supply ability. Nevertheless, there is a distinct possibility that global oil production may peak or plateau in a relatively near future, not caused by limited resources but because too many factors over long time constrain investments into exploration and production. The lack of transparency within the oil industry obviously prevents any accurate analysis of future production and supply ability. Moreover, our ability to analyse the sector will become more difficult in the future as oil increasingly will have to be sourced from

  17. MMS trims proposed schedule for OCS oil and gas lease sales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the U.S. Interior Department has proposed only 18 Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas lease sales in its new 5 year schedule. Eleven of the sales are in the Gulf of Mexico, one off the east Coast, none off the West Coast, and six off Alaska. Congress has 60 days in which to reject the 5 year lease sale plan but is not expected to. An earlier draft plan called for 23 sales. The Minerals Management Service, which administers the offshore leasing program, the the new schedule emphasizes leasing of gas prone areas

  18. Imported resources - gas/oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, K. [MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Company, Budapest (Hungary)

    1995-12-01

    The goal of this presentation is to provide information on issues of crude oil and natural gas supply at a conference addressing the problems of energy in Eastern and Central Europe. Although this can inevitably be performed through the {open_quotes}binoculars{close_quotes} of the petroleum sector of my country, I will try to present the issues and challenges that are thought to be characteristic in general for the region.

  19. Example of activities of the MERCATOR-Océan Project : oil spill and yacht race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumazou, V.; Greiner, E.; Blanc, F.; Lellouche, J. M.; Nouel, L.

    2003-04-01

    MERCATOR-Ocean is the french group aiming at developing an operational capacity for global ocean analysis and forecasting monitoring, based on near-real-time assimilation of satellite and in situ ocean observations in three-dimensional ocean models. MERCATOR-Ocean is supported by the six major french agencies involved in oceanography : CNES (French Space Agency), CNRS (National Center for Scientific Research), IFREMER (French Institute of Research and Exploitation of the Sea), IRD (Research Institute for Development), Météo-France (French Meteorological Agency) and SHOM (Navy Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service) - with a strong engagement of their subsidiaries CERFACS (European Center for Research and Advanced Training in Scientific Computation) and CLS (Collecte Localisation Satellite) in the success of the project. Every week since January 17, 2001, MERCATOR provides the oceanographic community with a set of maps and data about the underlying variables of the ocean, such as velocity, salinity, temperature and sea level anomalies, which describe the ocean in all its dimensions, from instantaneous analysis to 2-week forecasts, from the sea surface to the sea floor. Since november 2002, MERCATOR-Ocean has been involved in two major events. Early november 2002, the project provided skippers of the Route du Rhum transatlantic yacht race with prevision of sea-surface currents. In the mean time, on Tuesday November 19, the oil tanker Prestige sank in the Atlantic off the Portuguese and Spanish coasts. Called upon from the outset, MERCATOR OCEAN began November 20 to provide analyses and forecasts for two weeks in the future for the state of the ocean in the area, both on the surface and at depth, to teams of specialists of the crisis unit coordinated by CEDRE. This talk details these recent activities and draws the main lines of MERCATOR-Ocean actuality and future.

  20. Oil and resource-backed aggression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    A common misperception about oil politics is that it has a uniform, monolithic effect on policy development. This paper argues that in fact the net political effect of oil varies dramatically depending on the nature of the petrostate. It shows that oil income, when combined with revolutionary governments in petrostates, generates strong incentives for foreign policy aggression and international conflict. The aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states is shown to have consequences in both military and economic spheres of international relations. Militarily, the aggressiveness of this type of state leads to a high rate of armed conflicts. Economically, the aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states shapes global oil markets and international economic relations. The argument is tested using statistical analysis of international conflicts and economic sanctions. The policy implications are then considered, focusing on the negative global impacts of dependence on oil consumption. - Research highlights: → A radical reconsideration of the link between oil and international conflict is needed. → Resource-backed aggression, not resource-competition, is the major source of conflict. → Petro-revolutionary states instigate 250% more military conflicts than typical states. → Petro-revolutionary states are also more frequently targeted for economic sanctions.

  1. 78 FR 64242 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Western Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... (NOA) of the Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Public Meetings. SUMMARY: BOEM... Impact Statement (OCS EIS/EA BOEM 2012-019) (2012- 2017 WPA/CPA Multisale EIS) and in the Gulf of Mexico... Lease Sale 231, Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (OCS EIS/EA BOEM 2013-0118) (WPA 233...

  2. OCS National Compendium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, G.J.; Karpas, R.M.; Slitor, D.L.

    1991-06-01

    The Minerals Management Service's (MMS) Outer Continental Shelf Information Program (OCSIP) is responsible for making available to affected coastal States, local governments, and other interested parties data and information related to the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Program. Since its establishment through Section 26 of the OCS Lands Act (OCSLA) Amendments of 1978, OCSIP has prepared regional summary reports, updates, and indexes on leasing, exploration, development, and production activities to fulfill the mandates of the OCSLA Amendments. The OCSIP receives many requests for out-of-print summary reports, updates, and indexes. The purpose of the OCS National Compendium is to consolidate these historical data and to present the data on an OCS-wide and regional scale. The single-volume approach allows the reader access to historical information and facilitates regional comparisons. The fold-out chart in the front of this publication provides the reader with a timeline (January 1988--November 1990) of events since publication of the last Compendium. Some of the events are directly related to the 5-year Oil and Gas Program, whereas others may or may not have an effect on the program. A predominantly graphic format is used in the report so that the large accumulation of data can be more readily comprehended. In some cases, it is not possible to update information through October 21, 1990, because of the nature of the data. For example, production data normally lags 3 months. 58 figs., 37 tabs.

  3. 78 FR 42544 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sale, Western Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) SUMMARY: Consistent with the regulations... 248; Central Planning Area (CPA) Lease Sales 227, 231, 235, 241, and 247, Final Environmental Impact... Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (OCS EIS/EA BOEM 2013-0118) (WPA 233/CPA 231 Supplemental EIS). The...

  4. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Othman, Jamal; Jafari, Yaghoob

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia. The physical and monetary balance sheets for crude oil and natural gas for the period 2000- 2007 was constructed. The net present value of expected future incomes to reflect the value of resource change was calculated based on a physical extraction and a resource rent scenario. Resource rent is gross operating surplus less the estimated user cost of produced capital in the crude oil and ...

  5. Gulf of Mexico OCS oil and gas lease sales 171, 174, 177, and 180 - Western Planning Area. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    The Minerals Management Service proposes to hold annual oil and gas lease sales in the Western Planning Area (WPA) of the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). The proposed actions are the Western Gulf sales scheduled in the Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program: 1997-2002 (Sale 171 in 1998, Sale 174 in 1999, Sale 177 in 2000, and Sale 180 in 2001). This environmental impact statement (EIS) serves as a decision document for proposed Sale 171. This document includes the purpose and background of the proposed actions, identification of the alternatives, description of the affected environment, and an analysis of the potential environmental impacts of the proposed actions, alternatives, and associated activities, including proposed mitigating measures and their potential effects. Potential contributions to cumulative impacts resulting from activities associated with the proposed actions are also analyzed. Each of the proposed actions will offer for lease all unleased blocks in the Western Planning Area of the Gulf of Mexico OCS, with the exclusion of the East and West Flower Garden Banks (Blocks A-375 and A-398 in the High Island Area, East Addition, South Extension) and three blocks used for Naval mine warfare testing and training (Blocks 793, 799, and 816 in the Mustang Island Area). Additionally, discussions between the United States and Mexico regarding tracts beyond the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone are ongoing and may result in the deferral of those tracts for Sale 171 (approximately 277 tracts) in the open-quotes Northern Portion of the Western Gapclose quotes (Figure 1-1). Additional copies of this EIS and the referenced visuals may be obtained from the MMS, Gulf of Mexico OCS Region, Public Information Office (MS 5034), 1201 Elmwood Park Boulevard, New Orleans, Louisiana 70123-2394, or by telephone at I-800-200-GULF

  6. 75 FR 69122 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western and Central Planning Areas, Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... focus on updating the baseline conditions and potential environmental effects of oil and natural gas.... Comments Public meetings will be held in locations near these areas in early to mid November 2010. The...

  7. Plant oil renewable resources as green alternatives in polymer science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, M.A.R.; Metzger, J.O.; Schubert, U.S.

    2007-01-01

    The utilization of plant oil renewable resources as raw materials for monomers and polymers is discussed and reviewed. In an age of increasing oil prices, global warming and other environmental problems (e.g. waste) the change from fossil feedstock to renewable resources can considerably contribute

  8. Oil. From mineral resource treasure to resource plague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabezas, M.

    2006-01-01

    Rising oil prices in the seventies resulted, also because of overspending, in disappointing economic development in the oil-producing countries. Although policy reactions to the current rise of the oil prices did not have that effect so far, there is the danger for financial instability [nl

  9. 75 FR 22623 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Mid-Atlantic Proposed Oil and Gas Lease Sale 220 and Geological and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... (canceling the Sale); (3) implementing appropriate restrictions on oil and gas activities based on... during scoping help us form the content of the EIS and are summarized for Departmental decisionmakers... City State University Fine Arts Complex, 1704 Weeksville Road, Elizabeth City, North Carolina 27909...

  10. 75 FR 29996 - Review of MMS NEPA Policies, Practices, and Procedures for OCS Oil and Gas Exploration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) policies, practices, and procedures for the Minerals Management Service (MMS... applies NEPA in its management of Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas exploration and development and make recommendations for revisions. The scope of the review is intended to be holistic, i.e. from leasing decisions to...

  11. Corruption and reduced oil production: An additional resource curse factor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kasim, Farouk; Søreide, Tina; Williams, Aled

    2013-01-01

    Prominent contributions to the resource curse literature suggest weak governance and corruption are important factors behind the wide welfare variations observed among oil producing countries. How weak governance and corruption influence revenue management and expenditure decisions, as well as the possible welfare benefits derived from oil, are broadly discussed. How they impact upon volumes of oil produced has, however, attracted little attention. This paper combines a review of the resource curse and oil production literatures with findings from qualitative interviews with oil sector experts to appreciate the feasibility of connections between corruption and oil production below its potential. We make particular reference to environments where regulatory institutions or political accountability are weak and focus primarily on producer government and oil firm relations. Drawing on insights from geology, political science and economics, we suggest suboptimal production solutions can impact volumes of oil actually produced and create constraints on long term revenues for oil producing countries. We argue greater disclosure of information on oil production efficiency on a field-by-field and country-by-country basis will assist further investigation of the relationships between corruption and volumes of oil produced. - Highlights: ► We combine a literature review with qualitative interviews with oil experts. ► We focus on feasible connections between corruption and oil production levels. ► We suggest suboptimal production solutions can impact volumes of oil produced. ► Corruption may reinforce suboptimal oil production. ► More data on oil production efficiency by field and country will assist research

  12. 77 FR 2991 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Central Planning Area (CPA), Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... circumstances and information arising from, among other things, the Deepwater Horizon event. This Final... Supplemental EIS and in consideration of the Deepwater Horizon event, including scientific journals; interviews... resources and socioeconomic factors. This analysis considers both routine activities and accidental events...

  13. 76 FR 70478 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer... studies, NEPA analysis, resource evaluation, economic analysis, and renewable energy. BSEE is responsible... Program AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA...

  14. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 1.6 billion barrels of undiscovered conventional oil and 17 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered conventional natural gas in three geologic provinces of Thailand using a geology-based methodology. Most of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resource is estimated to be in the area known as offshore Thai Basin province.

  15. Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinti, Jennifer [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Birgenheier, Lauren [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, Milind [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Facelli, Julio [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, Michal [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, Kerry [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Miller, Jan [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); McLennan, John [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ring, Terry [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ruple, John [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Uchitel, Kirsten [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This report summarizes the significant findings from the Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources program sponsored by the Department of Energy through the National Energy Technology Laboratory. There were four principle areas of research; Environmental, legal, and policy issues related to development of oil shale and oil sands resources; Economic and environmental assessment of domestic unconventional fuels industry; Basin-scale assessment of conventional and unconventional fuel development impacts; and Liquid fuel production by in situ thermal processing of oil shale Multiple research projects were conducted in each area and the results have been communicated via sponsored conferences, conference presentations, invited talks, interviews with the media, numerous topical reports, journal publications, and a book that summarizes much of the oil shale research relating to Utah’s Uinta Basin. In addition, a repository of materials related to oil shale and oil sands has been created within the University of Utah’s Institutional Repository, including the materials generated during this research program. Below is a listing of all topical and progress reports generated by this project and submitted to the Office of Science and Technical Information (OSTI). A listing of all peer-reviewed publications generated as a result of this project is included at the end of this report; Geomechanical and Fluid Transport Properties 1 (December, 2015); Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis (February, 2015); and Rates and Mechanisms of Oil Shale Pyrolysis: A Chemical Structure Approach (November, 2014); Policy Issues Associated With Using Simulation to Assess Environmental Impacts (November, 2014); Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience (September, 2013); V-UQ of Generation 1 Simulator with AMSO Experimental Data (August, 2013); Lands with Wilderness Characteristics, Resource Management Plan Constraints, and Land Exchanges

  16. An Estimate of Recoverable Heavy Oil Resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2009-01-01

    The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the La Luna-Quercual Total Petroleum System encompasses approximately 50,000 km2 of the East Venezuela Basin Province that is underlain by more than 1 trillion barrels of heavy oil-in-place. As part of a program directed at estimating the technically recoverable oil and gas resources of priority petroleum basins worldwide, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated the recoverable oil resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit. This estimate relied mainly on published geologic and engineering data for reservoirs (net oil-saturated sandstone thickness and extent), petrophysical properties (porosity, water saturation, and formation volume factors), recovery factors determined by pilot projects, and estimates of volumes of oil-in-place. The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean volume of 513 billion barrels of technically recoverable heavy oil in the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the East Venezuela Basin Province; the range is 380 to 652 billion barrels. The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit thus contains one of the largest recoverable oil accumulations in the world.

  17. Capability Development at Imperial Oil Resources Ltd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerington, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Striving to be learning organization, Imperial Oil of Canada focused on organizational, divisional, and individual capability development. Lessons learned include the following: (1) all levels of employees are potential professionals; (2) learning must be continuous; (3) intrinsic motivation and commitment are essential; and (4) organizational…

  18. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Jamal, E-mail: jortman@ukm.my; Jafari, Yaghoob, E-mail: yaghoob.jafari@gmail.com [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Faculty of Economics and Management (Malaysia)

    2012-12-15

    Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000-2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

  19. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Jamal; Jafari, Yaghoob

    2012-01-01

    Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000–2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

  20. Natural resource injury at oil spills: A new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecil, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    1993 is a critical time to review the actions taken at past spills and to formulate a new approach to natural resource injury at oil spills. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 has replaced the oil spill provisions of the Clean Water Act, and new regulations to govern natural resource damage assessments are due to be published by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) this year. The new law and regulations provide impetus for new directions. The new approach advocates cooperative damage assessments utilizing the new NOAA procedures. Litigation must be regarded as a last resort because it does not foster the goals of either the trustees or the oil industry. There are significant advantages to both trustees and industry from this approach

  1. 78 FR 21969 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) Lease Sale 233...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    .... ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of the Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS... Environmental Impact Statement (OCS EIS/EA BOEM 2012-019) (2012-2017 Multisale EIS), completed in July 2012, in... to the cumulative impacts on environmental and socioeconomic resources. The oil and gas resource...

  2. Site Selection and Resource Allocation of Oil Spill Emergency Base for Offshore Oil Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunbin; Liu, Jingxian; Wei, Lei; Wu, Weihuang

    2018-02-01

    Based on the analysis of the historical data about oil spill accidents in the Bohai Sea, this paper discretizes oil spilled source into a limited number of spill points. According to the probability of oil spill risk, the demand for salvage forces at each oil spill point is evaluated. Aiming at the specific location of the rescue base around the Bohai Sea, a cost-benefit analysis is conducted to determine the total cost of disasters for each rescue base. Based on the relationship between the oil spill point and the rescue site, a multi-objective optimization location model for the oil spill rescue base in the Bohai Sea region is established. And the genetic algorithm is used to solve the optimization problem, and determine the emergency rescue base optimization program and emergency resources allocation ratio.

  3. Energetic dependency on the oil reserve- resources of crude oil in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marína Sidorová

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil belongs to the most important energy resources nowadays., However its reserves are the smallest in comparison with other energy resources as coal, gas or uranium. The world oil consumption continuously increases and within 20-year period there could be about one third. So, the consumption of combustibles will probably increase and the reserves will decrease. Promising are new resources or a better utilization of primary sources. It´s a question of a short time when world scientists should think about this indisputably worldwide problem and would provide an equivalent substitution with an available ecological solution.

  4. Upgrading Unconventional Oil Resources with the EST Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbianco, Alberto; Meli, Salvatori; Panariti, Nicolleta; Rispoli, Giacomo

    2007-07-01

    We strongly believe that unconventional oils will play a much larger role in the growth of supply than is currently recognized. As a matter of fact, whereas the earth's conventional proven world oil reserves are 1.3 trillion barrels, extra-heavy plus bitumen resources amount to about 4 trillion barrels. The unconventional oils are characterized by low API gravity (<10), high viscosity and high concentration of poisons such as sulphur, nitrogen, metals, and asphaltenes. For this reason, a key role for the full exploitation of these hydrocarbon resources is played by the downstream processes that are required to upgrade and convert them into valuable products. In this scenario, Eni has developed a novel hydrocracking process (EST: Eni Slurry Technology) which is particularly well-suited for the conversion and upgrading of heavy feedstocks (conventional vacuum residues, extra-heavy oils and bitumen). EST employs nano-sized hydrogenation catalysts and an original process scheme that allow complete feedstock conversion to an upgraded synthetic crude oil (SCO) with an API gravity gain greater than 20 and avoid the production of residual by-products, such as pet-coke or heavy fuel oil. A Commercial Demonstration Unit (CDP) of 1200 bbl/d capacity is successfully operating in the Eni's Taranto refinery since November 2005. (auth)

  5. World resources of crude oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    An abstract is given of a paper presented at the World Petroleum Congress 1991 on the world estimates of identified reserves and undiscovered resources for crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. Data are presented for Canada, Mexico, USA, South America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, USSR, Africa, Middle East, Asia/Oceania and Antartica. (UK).

  6. Washington's marine oil spill compensation schedule - simplified resource damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geselbracht, L.; Logan, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Washington State Preassessment Screening and Oil Spill Compensation Schedule Rule (Chapter 173-183 Washington Administrative Code), which simplifies natural resource damage assessment for many oil spill cases, became effective in May 1992. The approach described in the rule incorporates a number of preconstructed rankings that rate environmental sensitivity and the propensity of spilled oil to cause environmental harm. The rule also provides guidance regarding how damages calculated under the schedule should be reduced to take into account actions taken by the responsible party that reduce environmental injury. To apply the compensation schedule to marine estuarine spills, the resource trustees need only collect a limited amount of information such as type of product spilled, number of gallons spilled, compensation schedule subregions the spill entered, season of greatest spill impact, percent coverage of habitats affected by the spill, and actions taken by the responsible party. The result of adding a simplified tool to the existing assortment of damage assessment approaches is that resource trustees will now be able to assess damages for most oil spill cases and shift more effort than was possible in the past to resource restoration

  7. 18 CFR 284.303 - OCS blanket certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OCS blanket certificates. 284.303 Section 284.303 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Pipelines on Behalf of Others § 284.303 OCS blanket certificates. Every OCS pipeline [as that term is...

  8. Shale Gas and Oil in Germany - Resources and Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladage, Stefan; Blumenberg, Martin; Houben, Georg; Pfunt, Helena; Gestermann, Nicolai; Franke, Dieter; Erbacher, Jochen

    2017-04-01

    In light of the controversial debate on "unconventional" oil and gas resources and the environmental impacts of "fracking", the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) conducted a comprehensive resource assessment of shale gas and light tight oil in Germany and studied the potential environmental impacts of shale gas development and hydraulic fracturing from a geoscientific perspective. Here, we present our final results (BGR 2016), incorporating the majority of potential shale source rock formations in Germany. Besides shale gas, light tight oil has been assessed. According to our set of criteria - i.e. thermal maturity 0.6-1.2 %vitrinite reflectance (VR; oil) and >1.2 % VR (gas) respectively, organic carbon content > 2%, depth between 500/1000 m and 5000 m as well as a net thickness >20 m - seven potentially generative shale formations were indentified, the most important of them being the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) Posidonia shale with both shale gas and tight oil potential. The North German basin is by far the most prolific basin. The resource assessment was carried out using a volumetric in-place approach. Variability inherent in the input parameters was accounted for using Monte-Carlo simulations. Technically recoverable resources (TRR) were estimated using recent, production-based recovery factors of North American shale plays and also employing Monte-Carlo simulations. In total, shale gas TRR range between 320 and 2030 bcm and tight oil TRR between 13 and 164 Mio. t in Germany. Tight oil potential is therefore considered minor, whereas the shale gas potential exceeds that of conventional resources by far. Furthermore an overview of numerical transport modelling approaches concerning environmental impacts of the hydraulic fracturing is given. These simulations are based on a representative lithostratigraphy model of the North-German basin, where major shale plays can be expected. Numerical hydrogeological modelling of frac fluid

  9. 77 FR 34405 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Geophysical Survey, SEA M09- Planning Area of the 013. Gulf of Mexico. Energy Resource Technology GOM, South... Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... documents prepared for OCS mineral proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region SUMMARY: BOEM, in accordance...

  10. OCS in He droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebenev, V.

    2000-06-01

    Phenomenon of superfluidity of para-hydrogen (pH{sub 2}){sub 1-17} and helium {sup 4}He{sub 1-7000} systems doped with an OCS chromophore molecule was investigated in this work. The study of such systems became possible after the development of the depletion spectroscopy technique in helium droplets. The droplets can be easily created and doped with up to 100 particles such as OCS, para-hydrogen or ortho-hydrogen molecules and {sup 4}He atoms. The measured infrared depletion spectra give the information about the temperature of the droplets and their aggregate state. The depletion spectrum of OCS in pure {sup 4}He droplets was comprehensively studied. The rovibrational OCS spectrum shows well resolved narrow lines. The spectrum is shifted to the red relative to the corresponding gas phase spectrum and the rotational constant of OCS in {sup 4}He droplet is three times smaller than that for free molecule. Different models of OCS rotation in the helium environment were discussed. It was shown that the shapes of the rovibrational lines are defined mainly by inhomogeneous broadening due to the droplet size distribution. The sub-rotational structure of the OCS rovibrational lines was revealed in microwave-infrared double resonance experiments. This structure arises due to the interaction of the OCS with the He environment. However, the information obtained in the experiments was not enough to understand the nature of this interaction. (orig.)

  11. Ghana and the Oil Sector: Beyond the Resource Curse?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellerin, Mathieu

    2015-09-01

    Four years after the Jubilee block went into production, we can make an initial assessment of the governance of Ghana's oil resources. In terms of its institutional structure, Ghana is seen as a model for the entire continent. This structure is certainly not an empty shell and serves as an effective regulator for this strategic sector and, singularly, for the use of oil revenues. Although this framework clearly has its limitations, as highlighted in this paper, the balance sheet is a positive one and there have been notable improvements since 2011. The relative success of this governance is a direct consequence of Ghana's political maturity. This is evidenced by the preeminent role played by Parliament and civil society in formulating, implementing, monitoring and continuously improving this framework for governance. Conditions seem to be reunited for Ghana to transform its oil potential into opportunities for success. However, this is not the case, and this is due to economic obstacles as much as a Ghanaian sense of disillusion concerning oil exploitation and the benefits thereof. (author)

  12. Natural resource damage assessments for oil spills: Status of rules and application to recent oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robilliard, G.A.; Winfield, T.P.; Lebednik, P.A.; Markarian, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    The natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) process is based on the concept that all natural resources managed by government agencies or Indian tribes (trustees) are available to the public for its use and enjoyment. These resources have an economic value that can be affected by a spill of oil or other chemicals. The spiller or potentially responsible party (PRP) is responsible to the public, through the trustees, for paying damages and for restoration of the resource. The NRDA process should also determine the appropriate means of restoration, provide a cost for doing so and for conducting the NRDA, and should implement the appropriate restoration activities. The legal and regulatory authority behind NRDA in the USA is explained and reasons why PRPs should be concerned about NRDAs in the context of oil spills are presented. US Department of the Interior regulations describe two procedures for implementing a NRDA. A simplified procedure intended for small spills uses a computer model to generate a damage value. A more thorough and complicated procedure involves a number of phases and steps within the phases, and may include field sampling, data collection and analysis, and detailed evaluation of restoration alternatives. The NRDA experience in oil spills to date is reviewed and the future of NRDA is assessed. Examples cited include the 1988 Shell Oil spill from the Martinez Refinery, the Exxon Bayway pipeline leak of 1990, the Mega Borg spill in the Texas offshore, and the Exxon Valdez spill. It is speculated that trustees will focus on the NRDA process as a cooperative one that includes the trustees and PRPs, with the ultimate goal being restoration of the foregone services provided by natural resources. 5 refs., 1 fig

  13. World oil and gas resources-future production realities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    Welcome to uncertainty was the phrase Jack Schanz used to introduce both layman and professionals to the maze of petroleum energy data that must be comprehended to achieve understanding of this critical commodity. Schanz was referring to the variables as he and his colleagues with Resources for the Future saw them in those years soon after the energy-awakening oil embargo of 1973. In some respects, the authors have made progress in removing uncertainty from energy data, but in general, we simply must accept that there are many points of view and many ways for the blindman to describe the elephant. There can be definitive listing of all uncertainties, but for this paper the authors try to underscore those traits of petroleum occurrence and supply that the author's believe bear most heavily on the understanding of production and resource availability. Because oil and gas exist in nature under such variable conditions and because the products themselves are variable in their properties, the authors must first recognize classification divisions of the resource substances, so that the reader might always have a clear perception of just what we are talking about and how it relates to other components of the commodity in question

  14. Crude Oil Resource: A Blessing Or Curse To Nigeria – The Case Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude Oil Resource: A Blessing Or Curse To Nigeria – The Case Of The Niger Delta. S Tamuno, JM Felix. Abstract. This paper examines the question as to whether crude oil resource is a blessing or curse to Nigeria: The case of the Niger Delta Region. The paper traces the origin of oil exploration and exploitation from ...

  15. Human-resource planning in the Venezuelan oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, S J.V.

    1985-01-01

    Because the economy of Venezuela is heavily dependent on its oil industry, the company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. was chosen for the detailed study. It was found that the system in use in the period 1980-81 was defective in that it did not address the serious medium- and long-term issues of manpower supply in a country seriously short of the skills needed. There was a lack of linkage between human resource planning and the corporation's long term objectives. Too much emphasis was being placed on quantitative, and too little on qualitative approaches to the problem. A new approach was developed to complement the existing shorter term quantitative approach. This involved a direct and active interaction with corporate planning. Within this framework a qualitative method of human resource planning was proposed and implemented. It has proved its usefulness in defining the type of personnel required by the organization in the distant future.

  16. Natural Resources, Oil and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Janda, Karel; Quarshie, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    This paper takes a critical look at the natural resource curse in countries in sub-Saharan Africa and it highlights the role of institutionalised authority. The paper first provides a comprehensive literature review of natural resource curse, Dutch disease and the role of oil resources in resource curse. This is follow by the description of the relevant economic factors in sub-Saharan Africa, which is taken as prime example of the region with both important oil and other natural resources and...

  17. Oil resource panel finds more oil in United States by adding dollars and advancing recovery technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Three years ago, the experts figures the US had only 49.4 Bbo in undiscovered, recoverable reserves. Now, there's more undiscovered resources and more reserve growth. Those figures include present proved reserves of 25 Bbo. They also include undiscovered recoverable resources ranging from 43 Bbo to 90 Bbo and reserve growth in existing fields ranging from 31 Bbo to 89 Bbo. Those are the estimates from a panel of oil resource analysts assembled August 31 and September 1 by the University of Texas at Austin's Bureau of Economic Geology and the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research. At current US production of 2.7 Bbo/year, the estimate gives the US a supply lasting from 35 to 75 years

  18. Financial development and oil resource abundance-growth relations: evidence from panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Siong Hook; Moradbeigi, Maryam

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates whether financial development dampens the negative impact of oil resource abundance on economic growth. Because of substantial cross-sectional dependence in our data, which contain a core sample of 63 oil-producing countries from 1980 through 2010, we use the common correlated effect mean group (CCEMG) estimator to account for the high degree of heterogeneity and drop the outlier countries. The empirical results reveal that oil resource abundance affects the growth rate in output contingent on the degree of development in financial markets. More developed financial markets can channel the revenues from oil into more productive activities and thus offset the negative effects of oil resource abundance on economic growth. Thus, better financial development can reverse resource curse or enhance resource blessing in oil-rich economies.

  19. Energy security: it's not only oil. Increasing and replacing oil resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandil, C.; Appert, O.

    2006-01-01

    The security of energy supplies is once again right at the top of the list of energy policy subjects, following the political tensions in the Middle East, as well as major electricity failures of recent years, the hurricanes of August and September 2005 and the gas dispute between Russia and Ukraine. Even if the system of strategic oil stocks managed by the International Energy Agency has proved to be efficient, today keywords for guarding against the risks are diversification (of energy, of its sources, its suppliers and of its supply lines) and flexibility. Dialogue with the producers is essential. It will be difficult to find substitutes for hydrocarbons (oil and natural gas) in the short and medium terms to meet the needs of transport and for the petrochemical industry; they are likely to represent, in the order of two-thirds of the total demand for the world energy by the year 2030. In order to replace oil resources, taking account of all the risks of climate change, technological innovation will play a major role and should allow us to benefit from today potentially unreliable hydrocarbon supplies for many more years, allowing our society sufficient time to develop other sources of energy, and to do so at a cost that is acceptable to everybody. (authors)

  20. The user cost of energy resource and its reasonable tax rate-A case of oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifan, Liu

    2017-12-01

    The development and use of natural resources bring about the externality of resources depletion, especially for non-renewable resources. This paper takes oil as an example to analyze the user cost of energy resource with EI Serafy User cost method, and discusses the rationality of the resource tax. Meanwhile, this paper determines oil resource tax rate in consideration of resource sustainable development. The results show that, the user cost of oil isn’t compensated fully, it is too low to make compensation to the environment and the profit of future generation, and the resource tax is a little low. At last of the paper, some conclusions and policy suggestions on resource tax reform are given.

  1. Fugitive hydrocarbon emissions from pacific OCS facilities. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In January 1989, the Minerals Management Service (MMS) conducted a study using the latest approved methods for emission screening and sampling solely on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas platforms in the Santa Barbara Channel in order to determine platform emission rates more representative of that region. The study was designed and reviewed throughout its conduct by a Quality Review Board (QRB) composed of air resource agencies and industry. Representatives from the Tri-county Air Pollution Control Districts and the MMS actively participated at these meetings. Some participants expressed concerns about some of the methods used and the study results. ABB's thorough responses to these questions and comments were submitted to all reviewers before the printing of the final report, and are contained in appendices of the study final report now available to the public. The results of the MMS study show that the average emission factors for the Pacific OCS oil and gas facilities measured in 1989 are 3.5 times lower than those Pacific OCS facilities sampled in the 1979 API/Rockwell study, and 7.8 times lower than the Gulf of Mexico OCS facilities sampled in the same 1979 study. Efforts to determine the quantitative effect of inspection and maintenance programs on controlling emissions were inconclusive

  2. The case for conserving oil resources: the fundamentals of supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    This article summarises the evidence for an oil price shock and argues that oil producers, both OPEC and non-OPEC, need to cut back oil production more, in order to conserve oil for the future and to avert sudden extreme movements in oil prices in the next five-to-ten years. Four physical fundamentals determine long-run changes in oil prices: supply, demand, technology and substitutes. We show that supply, technology and substitutes are limited and demand is growing strongly. As demand pushes against supply, prices will rise rapidly. It would be better to conserve oil now, in order to have a smoother transition to higher-priced oil in the future. In addition, oil is such a valuable resource for the worlds economies in general, that we should conserve it for future generations. The world, in its haste for economic growth, should support OPEC conservation efforts. (author)

  3. The Mexican Oil Industry: Governance, Resource and Social Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    production, refining, etc. 10 That same year, Petroleos Mexicanos, or Pemex, the state owned oil company was created. 11 In 1940, a constitutional...http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/23/28/43371045.pdf 6. 67 Paul Segal, “The Future of Mexico, El petroleo es nuestro: The Distribution of Oil Reserves in...El petroleo es nuestro: The Distribution of Oil Reserves in Mexico. Houston: James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy, Rice University, 2011

  4. Geological characteristics and resource potentials of oil shale in Ordos Basin, Center China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunlai, Bai; Yingcheng, Zhao; Long, Ma; Wu-jun, Wu; Yu-hu, Ma

    2010-09-15

    It has been shown that not only there are abundant oil, gas, coal, coal-bed gas, groundwater and giant uranium deposits but also there are abundant oil shale resources in Ordos basin. It has been shown also that the thickness of oil shale is, usually, 4-36m, oil-bearing 1.5%-13.7%, caloric value 1.66-20.98MJ/kg. The resource amount of oil shale with burial depth less than 2000 m is over 2000x108t (334). Within it, confirmed reserve is about 1x108t (121). Not only huge economic benefit but also precious experience in developing oil shale may be obtained in Ordos basin.

  5. Oil sands geologists in an industry-school partnership : a resource and teaching opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, J.S.; Doram, T.

    1999-01-01

    The province of Alberta has developed a credit course within their Career and Technology Studies Program on the earth science of oil sands for senior high school science students. The course helps students learn to apply basic sciences to earth science through workplace site visits, resource material and team work. This paper described the increasing demand for, and success of, industry-high school partnerships, and provided special emphasis on the Bowness Senior High School-Imperial Oil partnership in Calgary, Alberta. Imperial Oil Resources is a major producer of oil sands and an employer of earth scientists in a variety of careers in which a wide range of technologies is applied. Students enrolled in the credit study program visit the Imperial Oil Resources Research Centre on five different occasions to gain skills and qualities sought by the workplace including communication, adaptability, team work, and science literacy and its application. 9 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  6. Energy security of supply and oil shale resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkarmi, F.

    1994-01-01

    Jordan must utilize its huge oil shale deposits in order to increase domestic security of energy supply and benefit financially. Utilization processes will require large scale financial expenditures, beyond Jordan's means. Therefore, the BOT scheme seems to be the perfects solution. Since oil shale retorting technology will produce oil which can be traded to generate valuable foreign exchange revenues, it is more advantageous than direct burning technology which produces electricity limited to local consumption regardless of economics. Under the BOT scheme, the incentive, for the foreign sponsor is to return his investment via quantities of oil; for Jordan the aim is to meet local energy demand and acquire the plant infrastructure in the long term. Recent events in the more traditional oil fields of the region make such a project in Jordan more attractive. (author) 3 tabs. 2 figs

  7. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Cuyo Basin Province, Argentina, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-18

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 236 million barrels of oil and 112 billion cubic feet of associated gas in the Cuyo Basin Province, Argentina.

  8. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the North-Central Montana Province, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Finn, Thomas M.; Pitman, Janet K.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2018-02-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 55 million barrels of oil and 846 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana Province.

  9. Assessment of undiscovered, conventional oil and gas resources of Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Weaver, Jean N.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 19 billion barrels of oil and 83 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas resources in 10 geologic provinces of Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize.

  10. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the Perth Basin Province, Australia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-17

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 223 million barrels of oil and 14.5 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Perth Basin Province, Australia.

  11. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Cooper and Eromanga Basins, Australia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2016-05-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean conventional resources of 68 million barrels of oil and 964 billion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper and Eromanga Basins of Australia.

  12. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of the Cooper Basin, Australia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2016-07-15

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean continuous resources of 482 million barrels of oil and 29.8 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper Basin of Australia.

  13. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-09-19

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 164 million barrels of oil and 24.6 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan.

  14. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Susitna Basin, southern Alaska, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.; Potter, Christopher J.; Lewis, Kristen A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Shah, Anjana K.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Valin, Zenon C.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Haines, Seth S.; Higley, Debra K.; Houseknecht, David W.; Le, Phuong A.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Paxton, Stanley T.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.

    2018-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Susitna Basin of southern Alaska. Using a geology-based methodology, the USGS estimates that mean undiscovered volumes of about 2 million barrels of oil and nearly 1.7 trillion cubic feet of gas may be found in this area.

  15. Assessment of undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources of the Baltic Depression Province, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 282 million barrels of conventional oil, 576 billion cubic feet of conventional gas, 1.3 billion barrels of continuous oil, and 4.6 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Baltic Depression Province.

  16. The Alberta dilemma: optimal sharing of a water resource by an agricultural and an oil sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaudet, G.; Moreaux, M.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    We fully characterize the optimal time paths of production and water usage by an agricultural and an oil sector that share a limited water resource. We show that for any given water stock, if the oil stock is sufficiently large, it will become optimal to have a phase during which the agricultural

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF TIGHT OIL RESOURCES IN USA: PROFITABILITY OF EXPLOITATION AND EFFECT OF MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS IN VOLATILE OIL PRICE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Strpić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Large scale development of tight oil resources in US started after 2010. with following five-year period of favorable steady increase in crude oil price. During this relatively short expansion cycle, operating and capital expenses changed drastically for main tight oil plays due to technological improvements in both well drilling and completion, expansion of service sector as well as loose government monetary policy which allowed favorable financing. This paper analyzed trends in costs during expansion period, as well as correlation of oil price to number of operating rigs and production quotas. After 2008/2009. world financial crisis economy recovery in US was somewhat sluggish and it caused extreme volatile environment in both equity and commodity markets. In such volatile environment intra-day crude oil prices, as well as other commodities and equities, show significant reaction to monthly published macroeconomic indicator reports, which give better overviews of trends in economic recovery. Prior to announcement, these reports always have forecasted value determined by consensus among market analysts. Therefore, any positive or negative surprise in real value tends to influence price of oil. This paper investigated influence of such macroeconomic reports to closing intraday oil price, as well as effect of other important daily market indices. Analysis showed that only Producer Price Index (PPI, among other indicators, has statistical significance of affecting intraday closing oil price.

  18. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Ventura Basin Province, California, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Lillis, Paul G.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-10-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a geology-based assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional and continuous oil and gas resources in the part of the Ventura Basin Province that lies onshore or within State waters (within 3 miles of the shoreline) of California (fig. 1). Conventional oil and gas resources are those that have migrated upward into structural or stratigraphic traps from deep zones where the oil and gas is generated; water is present below the oil or gas. Continuous accumulations, in contrast, are those in which oil or gas is pervasively present in essentially all wells that penetrate them, that may not be structurally or stratigraphically trapped, and that typically lack oil-water or gas-water contacts. They are commonly produced with well-stimulation technology, such as hydraulic fracturing, referred to as “unconventional.” The same stimulation technology, however, is also used in many conventionally trapped accumulations. We estimated both the likely range of oil and gas volumes remaining to be discovered in accumulations similar to existing conventional oil and gas fields in the Ventura Basin Province (previously assessed by Keller [1995] as 1,060 million barrels of oil [MMBO], 1,900 billion cubic feet of gas [BCFG], and 60 million barrels of natural gas liquids [MMBNGL]), and the potential for oil and gas that might be present in a continuous accumulation at extreme depth in the floor of the basin.

  19. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Tamikazu Kume; Tachibana, H.

    2002-01-01

    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  20. Oil spills and AI: How to manage resources through simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giribone, P.; Bruzzone, A.G.; Caddeo, S.

    1995-01-01

    Today, in the Mediterranean theater of the Upper Tyrrhenian, the ecological risk involving oil installations is still quite high. This is due to the fact that valuable environmental and tourist areas exist together with large industrial and port structures; in particular, recent events have demonstrated the danger involving oil spills along the Ligurian coastline. This study proposes an approach to plan the operations that should be performed when accidents occur, based on the use of AI techniques

  1. Government and industry roles in heavy oil resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Developing a heavy oil deposit in Canada requires proper reservoir selection and ongoing resrvoir management. The number of unexploited heavy oil reservoirs whch can be economically produced through primary methods is rapidly declining. In addition, primary recoveries of 5-10% of the heavy oil in place are unacceptable and recovery rates of over 50% are needed. Enhanced thermal recovery projects are therefore needed, but these entail significant technical and commodity pricing risks. It is suggested that provincial governments recognize those risks and offer incentives by not encumbering such projects with up-front royalties. If industry is to assume the risks, governments must develop a fiscal regime that allows for a satisfactory return on capital and acceptable sharing of profits. At the federal level, it is suggested to broaden the interpretation of research and development activity to include enhanced recovery projects, making the tax breaks available to scientific research also available to heavy oil development. Government policies favoring heavy oil in Saskatchewan and Alberta are cited as good examples of ways to encourage the heavy oil industry

  2. World oil and gas resources: status and outlook - A rational attempt at an emotional issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burri, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the status of world oil and gas resources and attempts to provide a rational view of the situation and the prospects available. The author states that only about a quarter of the world's estimated ultimately recoverable oil resources and one eighth of the ultimate gas resources have been produced until today. Further, the author is of the opinion that very significant reserve additions are to be expected not only from the still existing exploration frontiers (e.g. deep water and Arctic fields) but even more so from new hydrocarbon detection tools, advanced recovery technology and from unconventional oil and gas resources. The price situation is discussed as are various developments that not only have a negative but also a positive impact on supplies. Reserves and unconventional resources are discussed, particularly from the pricing point of view. The effect of pricing on consumption is examined, as are new technologies for recovery and the potential available for future exploration

  3. Assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Eocene Green River Formation, a foundation for calculating recoverable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The recently completed assessment of in-place resources of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, Colorado; the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado; and the Greater Green River Basin Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah and their accompanying ArcGIS projects will form the foundation for estimating technically-recoverable resources in those areas. Different estimates will be made for each of the various above-ground and in-situ recovery methodologies currently being developed. Information required for these estimates include but are not limited to (1) estimates of the amount of oil shale that exceeds various grades, (2) overburden calculations, (3) a better understanding of oil shale saline facies, and (4) a better understanding of the distribution of various oil shale mineral facies. Estimates for the first two are on-going, and some have been published. The present extent of the saline facies in all three basins is fairly well understood, however, their original extent prior to ground water leaching has not been studied in detail. These leached intervals, which have enhanced porosity and permeability due to vugs and fractures and contain significant ground water resources, are being studied from available core descriptions. A database of all available xray mineralogy data for the oil shale interval is being constructed to better determine the extents of the various mineral facies. Once these studies are finished, the amount of oil shale with various mineralogical and physical properties will be determined.

  4. Material flow analysis for resource management towards resilient palm oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamahara, H.; Faisal, M.; Hasanudin, U.; Fujie, K.; Daimon, H.

    2018-03-01

    Biomass waste generated from palm oil mill can be considered not only as the feedstock of renewable energy but also as the nutrient-rich resources to produce organic fertilizer. This study explored the appropriate resource management towards resilient palm oil production by applying material flow analysis. This study was conducted based on two palm oil mills in Lampung, Indonesia. The results showed that the empty fruit bunch (EFB) has the largest potential in terms of amount and energy among the biomass waste. The results also showed that the palm oil mills themselves had already self-managed their energy consumption thatwas obtained from palm kernel shell and palm press fiber. Finally, this study recommended the several utilization options of EFB for improvement of soil sustainability to contribute towards resilient palm oil production.

  5. Oil minorities and the politics of resource control in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the contentious nature of resource control and distribution in Nigeria. It avers that resource control has been a big problem confronting the Nigerian state from inception. This fact has not been helped by the heterogeneous nature of Nigeria, the weak capacity of the Nigerian state, the politics of resource ...

  6. An outlook of Malaysian energy, oil palm industry and its utilization of wastes as useful resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, F.; Abdullah, N.; Gerhauser, H.; Shariff, A.

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia has an abundance of energy resources, both renewable and non-renewable. The largest non-renewable energy resource found in Malaysia is oil, and second, is natural gas, primarily liquefied natural gas. The production and consumption of oil, gas and coal in Malaysia are given in this paper. The energy demand and supply by source are also shown in relation to the country's fuel diversification policy. In order to reduce the overall dependence on a single source of energy, efforts were undertaken to encourage the utilization of renewable resources. Forest residue and oil palm biomass are found to be potentially of highest energy value and considered as the main renewable energy option for Malaysia. Palm oil and related products represent the second largest export of Malaysia. The total oil palm planted area in Malaysia has increased significantly in recent years. This paper gives a detailed representation of oil palm planted and produced together with its yield from the year 1976 onwards. The large amounts of available forest and palm oil residues resulting from the harvest can be utilized for energy generation and other by-products in a manner that also addresses environmental concerns related to current waste disposal methods. -- Highlights: →Palm oil and related products represent the second largest export of Malaysia. →Malaysia has an abundance of energy resources, both renewable and non-renewable. →Forest and oil palm residues are the main renewable energy option for Malaysia. →Efforts were undertaken to encourage the utilization of renewable resources.

  7. Geothermal and heavy-oil resources in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seni, S.J.; Walter, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    In a five-county area of South Texas, geopressured-geothermal reservoirs in the Paleocene-Eocene Wilcox Group lie below medium- to heavy-oil reservoirs in the Eocene Jackson Group. This fortuitous association suggests the use of geothermal fluids for thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR). Geothermal fairways are formed where thick deltaic sandstones are compartmentalized by growth faults. Wilcox geothermal reservoirs in South Texas are present at depths of 11,000 to 15,000 ft (3,350 to 4,570 m) in laterally continuous sandstones 100 to 200 ft (30 to 60 m) thick. Permeability is generally low (typically 1 md), porosity ranges from 12 to 24 percent, and temperature exceeds 250{degrees}F (121{degrees}C). Reservoirs containing medium (20{degrees} to 25{degrees} API gravity) to heavy (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) oil are concentrated along the Texas Coastal Plain in the Jackson-Yegua Barrier/Strandplain (Mirando Trend), Cap Rock, and Piercement Salt Dome plays and in the East Texas Basin in Woodbine Fluvial/Deltaic Strandplain and Paluxy Fault Line plays. Injection of hot, moderately fresh to saline brines will improve oil recovery by lowering viscosity and decreasing residual oil saturation. Smectite clay matrix could swell and clog pore throats if injected waters have low salinity. The high temperature of injected fluids will collapse some of the interlayer clays, thus increasing porosity and permeability. Reservoir heterogeneity resulting from facies variation and diagenesis must be considered when siting production and injection wells within the heavy-oil reservoir. The ability of abandoned gas wells to produce sufficient volumes of hot water over the long term will also affect the economics of TEOR.

  8. Distribution and quantitative assessment of world crude oil reserves and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Charles D.; Root, David H.; Dietzman, William D.

    1983-01-01

    World Demonstrated Reserves of crude oil are approximately 723 billion barrels of oil (BBO). Cumulative production is 445 BBO and annual production is 20 BBO. Demonstrated Reserves of crude-oil have declined over the past 10 years consistent with discoveries lagging production over the same period. The assessment of Undiscovered Resources shows a 90 percent probability that the amount discoverable lies between 321 and 1,417 BBO, 550 BBO being the most likely value. The most likely value for Ultimate recoverable resources is 1,718 BBO. The distribution of Ultimate Resources of crude oil will remain highly skewed toward the Middle East; no frontier areas that have potentials large enough to significantly affect present distribution are recognized. Rates of discovery have continued to decline over the past 20 years even though exploration activity has increased in recent years. Prudence dictates, therefore, that the low side of the assessment of Undiscovered Resources be responsibly considered and that alternate energy sources be a part of future planning. Extra-heavy oil and bitumen are assessed separately, with Reserves being figured as the annual productive capacity of installed facilities times 25 years. The annual production of extra-heavy oil is about 8 million barrels and of bitumen about 60 million barrels.

  9. Kinetic comparison of two basic heterogenous catalysts obtained from sustainable resources for transesterification of waste cooking oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Moradi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline earth metal oxides are appropriate catalysts for biodiesel production and among them, CaO and MgO are known for possessing the best efficiency. In this study, catalysts synthesized from economical and sustainable resources were used for biodiesel production. More specifically, waste mussel shells and demineralized (DM water treatment precipitates as calcium and magnesium carbonate sources, were converted into calcium and magnesium oxides at temperatures above 900 oC. Methanol and waste cooking oil were reacted in a 250 mL two-necked flask at 24:1 and 22.5:1 ratios in presence of 12 and 9.08 wt% of mussel shell-based and DM water treatment precipitates-based catalysts, respectively. The effects of temperature (328, 333, 338, 343 and 348 K and time (1, 3, 5, 7 and 8 h at a stirrer speed of 350 rpm on the conversion of the oil into biodiesel were investigated. The results obtained indicated a pseudo-first order kinetics for the transesterification reaction using both catalysts. The activation energies in the presence of the DM water treatment precipitates and mussel shell catalysts were measured at 77.09 and 79.83 kJ.mol-1, respectively. Accordingly, the DM water treatment precipitates catalyst resulted in a faster reaction due to its lower activation energy value. Moreover, the catalysts were reused five times and the results obtained showed that the methanol-driven extraction of CaO contained in the DM water treatment precipitates catalyst was lower than the waste mussel shell catalyst proving the higher stability of the new heterogeneous catalyst i.e. the calcinated DM water treatment precipitates.

  10. Imported resources - oil crude oil processing in the Czech Republic and its prospectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soucek, I.; Ottis, I. [Kaucuk, Kralupy nad Vitavou (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    This paper examines the availability of various crude oils, addressing specifically crude oil pipelines to the Czech Republic, both existing and under construction. Secondly, the economic status of two main Czech refineries is examined in comparison to international trends, technical configurations, and product supply and demand.

  11. Caspian energy: Oil and gas resources and the global market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amineh, M.P.; Houweling, H.

    2003-01-01

    his article develops several concepts of critical geopolitics and relates them to the energy resources of the Caspian Region. Energy resources beyond borders may be accessed by trade, respectively by conquest, domination and changing property rights. These are the survival strategies of human groups

  12. GIS-and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Minnick, Matthew [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Geza, Mengistu [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Murray, Kyle [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Mattson, Earl [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-09-30

    The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) was awarded a grant by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a research project en- titled GIS- and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development in October of 2008. The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a water resource geo-spatial infrastructure that serves as “baseline data” for creating solutions on water resource management and for supporting decisions making on oil shale resource development. The project came to the end on September 30, 2012. This final project report will report the key findings from the project activity, major accomplishments, and expected impacts of the research. At meantime, the gamma version (also known as Version 4.0) of the geodatabase as well as other various deliverables stored on digital storage media will be send to the program manager at NETL, DOE via express mail. The key findings from the project activity include the quantitative spatial and temporal distribution of the water resource throughout the Piceance Basin, water consumption with respect to oil shale production, and data gaps identified. Major accomplishments of this project include the creation of a relational geodatabase, automated data processing scripts (Matlab) for database link with surface water and geological model, ArcGIS Model for hydrogeologic data processing for groundwater model input, a 3D geological model, surface water/groundwater models, energy resource development systems model, as well as a web-based geo-spatial infrastructure for data exploration, visualization and dissemination. This research will have broad impacts of the devel- opment of the oil shale resources in the US. The geodatabase provides a “baseline” data for fur- ther study of the oil shale development and identification of further data collection needs. The 3D geological model provides better understanding through data interpolation and

  13. Future Oil and Gas Resources of the World: A Coming Supply Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T. S.

    2002-05-01

    Is the world running out of oil? Where will future oil and gas supplies come from? To help answer these questions, the U.S. Geological Survey completed in 2000 a new assessment of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources and potential additions to reserves from field growth. One hundred and twenty-eight provinces were assessed in a 100 man-year effort from 1995-2000. The assessed provinces included 76 priority provinces containing 95 percent of the world's discovered oil and gas and an additional 52 "boutique" provinces, many of which may be highly prospective. Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were identified and described for each of these provinces along with associated Assessment Units (AU) that are the basic units for assessing undiscovered petroleum. The assessment process coupled geologic analysis with a probabilistic methodology to estimate remaining potential. Within the 128 assessed provinces, were 159 TPS and 274 AU. For these provinces, the endowment of recoverable oil, which includes cumulative production, remaining reserves, reserve growth, and undiscovered resources is estimated at about 3 trillion barrels of oil (TBO). The natural gas endowment is estimated at 2.6 trillion barrels of oil equivalent (TBOE). Oil reserves are currently 1.1 TBO; world consumption is about .028 TBO per year. Natural gas reserves are about .8 TBOE; world consumption is about .014 TBOE. Thus, without any additional discoveries of oil, gas or natural gas liquids, we have about 2 TBOE of proved petroleum reserves. Of the oil and gas endowment of about 5.6 TBOE, we estimate that the world has consumed about 1 TBOE, or 18 percent leaving about 82 percent of endowment to be utilized or found. Half of the world's undiscovered potential is offshore. Arctic basins with about 25 percent of undiscovered petroleum resources make up the next great frontier. An additional 279 provinces contain some oil and gas and, if considered, would increase the oil and gas endowment

  14. Rapeseed Oil as Renewable Resource for Polyol Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirna, Uldis; Fridrihsone, Anda; Misane, Marija; Vilsone, Dzintra

    2011-01-01

    Vegetable oils are one of the most important platform chemicals due to their accessibility, specific structure of oils and low price. Rapeseed oil (RO) polyols were prepared by amidization of RO with diethanolamine (DEA). To determine the kinetics of amidization reaction, experiments were carried out. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), amine (NH) value was determined. Group contribution method by Fedor‵s was used to calculate solubility parameters, van der Waals volume was calculated by Askadskii. Obtained polyol‵s OH and NH value are from 304 up to 415 mg KOH/g. RO polyols synthesis meets the criteria of "green chemistry". In the present study, reaction of RO amidization with DEA was investigated, as well as optimum conditions for polyol synthesis was established to obtain polyols for polyurethane production. Calculations of solubility parameter and cohesion energy density were calculated, as RO polyols will be used as side chains in polymers, and solubility parameter will be used to explain properties of polymers.

  15. Politics Does Matter: The Nigerian State and Oil (Resource) Curse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    Conventional explanations of the resource curse, or the paradox of abundance, correlate ..... Middle Class In Colonial India, Oxford University Press, A Book Review ... Department of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge. Ron, J., 2005 ...

  16. Energy planning and investment for increased earnings: the case of Nigeria's oil and gas resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojo, A T

    1984-03-01

    In view of Nigeria's limited reserves of oil and the high growth rate of oil consumption, and in the wake of the developments in the world oil market since 1981 which have resulted in a drastic shortfall in Nigeria's revenues, the main objective of this article is to highlight some important issues that would spur policy makers towards improved energy planning and increased energy investment in Nigeria so as to assist her in the rationalization of the energy production-mix and consumption, as well as in earning increased revenues from her oil and gas resources. Policymakers in Nigeria are called upon to put an end to further procrastination concerning the liquefied natural gas (LNG) investment project so that the bulk of the country's gas, which is presently being flared, can be re-injected, consumed locally, and exported to supplement dwindling oil revenues. 23 notes and references, 3 tables.

  17. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Zyryanka Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Zyryanka Basin Province as part of the 2008 USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province is in the Russian Federation and is situated on the Omolon superterrane of the Kolyma block. The one assessment unit (AU) that was defined for this study, called the Zyryanka Basin AU, which coincides with the province, was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the Zyryanka Basin Province are ~72 million barrels of crude oil, 2,282 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 61 million barrels of natural-gas liquids. About 66 percent of the study area and undiscovered petroleum resources are north of the Arctic Circle.

  18. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Laptev Sea Shelf Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2017-12-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Laptev Sea Shelf Province as part of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA) program. The province is situated in the Russian Federation and is located between the Taimyr Peninsula and the Novosibirsk (New Siberian) Islands. Three assessment units (AUs) were defined for this study: the West Laptev Grabens AU, the East Laptev Horsts AU, and the Anisin-Novosibirsk AU, two of which were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The East Laptev Horsts AU was not quantitatively assessed. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered oil and gas for the Laptev Sea Shelf Province are approximately 3 billion barrels of crude oil, 32 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and <1 billion barrels of natural gas liquids, all north of the Arctic Circle.

  19. Oil. From mineral resource treasure to resource plague; Olie. Van bodemschat tot grondstofvloek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabezas, M. [Divisie Financiele Stabiliteit, De Nederlandsche Bank, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-12-01

    Rising oil prices in the seventies resulted, also because of overspending, in disappointing economic development in the oil-producing countries. Although policy reactions to the current rise of the oil prices did not have that effect so far, there is the danger for financial instability. [Dutch] De olieprijsstijgingen in de jaren zeventig leidden door overbesteding tot tegenvallende economische prestaties bij veel olieproducerende landen. De beleidsreacties op de recente olieprijsstijging zijn tot dusverre hoopgevend, maar desondanks liggen er gevaren voor de financiele stabiliteit op de Ioer.

  20. Validation of the natural resource damage assessment model using historical observations on oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.; Rines, H.

    1995-01-01

    The Natural Resource Damage Assessment Model for Coastal and Marine Environments (NRDAM/CME) was developed by Applied Science Associates to simulate the fate and effects of oil and chemical spills into estuarine and marine environments. The US Department of the Interior has proposed the NRDAM/CME for use in Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) regulations under CERCLA. As part of the evaluation of model performance, the NRDAM/CME has been validated with observational data from case histories of oil spills, including the Exxon Valdez, World Prodigy, Mega Borg, Apex Houston and a number of others. Primarily, the data available for validation were of oil slick trajectory and coverage (e.g., overflight maps), length of shoreline oiled, area of marshes oiled, and a number of oiled birds recovered. Model performance was dependent on the accuracy of available wind and current data (the primary forces affecting fate) and bird abundances. Where these data sources were good (relatively well quantified), model performance was excellent. Results of the model simulations also provide an interesting sensitivity analysis and indications of relative effects of oil under various spill scenarios and conditions

  1. [Perilla resources of China and essential oil chemotypes of Perilla leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chang-Ling; Guo, Bao-Lin; Zhang, Chen-Wu; Zhang, Fen; Tian, Jing; Bai, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Shun-Nan

    2016-05-01

    This study, based on the findings for Perilla resources, aimed to describe the species, distribution, importance, features, utilization and status of quantitative Perilla resources in China. This not only helps people to know well about the existing resources and researching development, but also indicates the overall distribution, selection and rational use of Perilla resource in the future. According to the output types, Perilla resources are divided into two categories: wild resources and cultivated resources; and based on its common uses, the cultivated resources are further divided into medicine resources, seed-used resources and export resources. The distribution areas of wild resources include Henan, Sichuan, Anhui, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Hunan, Jiangsu and Zhejiang. The distribution areas of medicine resources are concentrated in Hebei, Anhui, Chongqing, Guangxi and Guangdong. Seed-used resources are mainly distributed in Gansu, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Chongqing and Yunnan. Export resource areas are mainly concentrated in coastal cities, such as Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shandong and Zhejiang. For the further study, the essential oil of leaf samples from different areas were extracted by the steam distillation method and analyzed by GC-MS. The differences in essential oil chemotypes among different Perilla leaves were compared by analyzing their chemical constituents. The main 31 constituents of all samples included: perillaketone (0.93%-96.55%), perillaldehyde (0.10%-61.24%), perillene (52.15%), caryophyllene (3.22%-26.67%), and α-farnesene (2.10%-21.54%). These samples can be classified into following five chemotypes based on the synthesis pathways: PK-type, PA-type, PL-type, PP-type and EK-type. The chemotypes of wild resources included PK-type and PA-type, with PK-type as the majority. All of the five chemotypes are included in cultivated resources, with PA-type as the majority. Seed-used resources are all PK-type, and export resources are all PA-type. The P

  2. Vibrational relaxation in OCS mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, C.J.S.M.; Gait, P.D.; Simmie, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental measurements are reported of vibrational relaxation times which may be used to show whether there is near resonant vibration-rotation energy transfer between OCS and H 2 , D 2 or HD. Vibrational relaxation times have been measured in OCS and OCS mixtures over the temperature range 360 to 1000 K using a shock tube and a laser schlieren system. The effectiveness of the additives in reducing the relaxation time of OCS is in the order 4 He 3 He 2 2 and HD. Along this series the effect of an increase in temperature changes from the case of speeding up the rate with 4 He to retarding it with D 2 , HD and H 2 . There is no measurable difference in the effectiveness of n-D 2 and o-D 2 and little, or no, difference between n-H 2 and p-H 2 . Thus the experimental results do not give clear evidence for rotational-vibration energy transfer between hydrogen and OCS. This contrasts with the situation for CO 2 + H 2 mixtures. (author)

  3. Pollution potential of oil-contaminated soil on groundwater resources in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literathy, P.; Quinn, M.; Al-Rashed, M.

    2003-01-01

    The only natural freshwater resource of Kuwait occurs as lenses floating on the saline groundwater in the northern part of the country, near to the oil fields. Rainwater is the only means of recharge of this limited groundwater resource. This groundwater is used as bottled drinking water and the fresh groundwater aquifer is considered as a strategic drinking water reserve for Kuwait. As a result of the 1991 Gulf War, the upper soil layer has been widely contaminated with crude oil and crude oil combustion products, which are potential pollutants likely affecting the groundwater resources. Significant efforts have been made to assess this pollution. These included: (a) a soil survey for assessing the soil contamination, and (b) leaching experiments to characterise the mobilization of the soil-associated pollutants. Fluorescence measurement techniques were used during field surveys as well as for laboratory testing. In addition, determination of the total extractable matter (TEM), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and GC/MS measurement of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were performed for the assessments. The laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurement, having good correlation with the other laboratory measurements, was proved to provide necessary information for the assessment of the oil-contamination level in the desert soil. The subsequent leaching test with water demonstrated the mobilization of the fluorescing compounds (e.g. PAHs), and the alteration in the leaching characteristics of the contamination during the long term environmental weathering of the oil. (author)

  4. A systematic framework for CAFD and resources allocation optimisation using MINLP in vegetable oil processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaglia, Alberto; Sarup, Bent; Sin, Gürkan

    Although being a mature and well established industry segment, over the last few decades the vegetable oil industry has been facing many important new challenges due to emerging new products (such as biodiesel and nutraceuticals compounds), as well as new trends and regulations with regards....... In this paper, a systematic framework for Computer-Aided Flowsheet Syntesis and Design (CAFD) and resources allocation for the vegetable oil sector is presented. In the framework a Mixed Integer Non Linear Programming (MINLP) problem is formulated and solved for a soybean processing case study, to determine...... the optimal processing network for vegetable oil extraction and refining (including biodiesel production and various options for byproducts valorization), as well as the optimal material flows to each processing step. In order to optimize the resources needed to solve such a large and complex problem...

  5. Role of oil service companies in developing human resources worldwide to implement new technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, D.E.; Bismuth, B.

    1983-01-01

    The role of specialized oil service companies in helping the oil industry develop the hydrocarbon resources of the world efficiently has increased over the last 20 yr. This trend is expected to continue as the complexity and variety of the techniques required increased. In order to provide a large range of services worldwide, the oil service industry has to be highly flexible and mobile. At the same time, successful implementation of these services requires a knowledge of and empathy with local conditions and cultures. The challenge will be to attract, train, and develop technical people from all corners of the globe to become part of the process of developing and implementing new technology. The involvement of the developing nations in the technical evolution of the oil service companies is perhaps the only long-lasting method of transferring these technologies.

  6. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the Middle and Upper Magdalena Basins, Colombia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-09-22

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 0.45 billion barrels of oil and 1.0 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Middle and Upper Magdalena Basins, Colombia.

  7. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the San Jorge Basin Province, Argentina, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-18

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 78 million barrels of oil and 8.9 trillion cubic feet of gas in the San Jorge Basin Province, Argentina.

  8. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of six geologic provinces of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered conventional petroleum resources in six geologic provinces of China at 14.9 billion barrels of oil, 87.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  9. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Bohaiwan Basin Province, China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Potter, Christopher J.

    2018-02-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 2.0 billion barrels of oil and 20.3 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Bohaiwan Basin Province, China.

  10. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Canning Basin Province, Australia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2018-05-31

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 1.3 billion barrels of oil and 34.4 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Canning Basin Province of Australia.

  11. SOLVENT-BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES TO DEVELOP WEST SAK ALASKA NORTH SLOPE HEAVY OIL RESOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David O. Ogbe; Tao Zhu

    2004-01-01

    A one-year research program is conducted to evaluate the feasibility of applying solvent-based enhanced oil recovery processes to develop West Sak and Ugnu heavy oil resources found on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The project objective is to conduct research to develop technology to produce and market the 300-3000 cp oil in the West Sak and Ugnu sands. During the first phase of the research, background information was collected, and experimental and numerical studies of vapor extraction process (VAPEX) in West Sak and Ugnu are conducted. The experimental study is designed to foster understanding of the processes governing vapor chamber formation and growth, and to optimize oil recovery. A specially designed core-holder and a computed tomography (CT) scanner was used to measure the in-situ distribution of phases. Numerical simulation study of VAPEX was initiated during the first year. The numerical work completed during this period includes setting up a numerical model and using the analog data to simulate lab experiments of the VAPEX process. The goal was to understand the mechanisms governing the VAPEX process. Additional work is recommended to expand the VAPEX numerical study using actual field data obtained from Alaska North Slope.

  12. Enhanced oil recovery chemicals from renewable wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grune, W.N.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Crenshaw, J.M.

    1979-04-01

    Most of the wood pulp in the U.S. is produced by cooking, or digesting, wood chips in a chemical solution. These pulping processes have effluent streams which contain dissolved lignins, lignin breakdown products, and carbohydrates. There is a substantial economic incentive to use these materials as feedstocks for the production of high-valued micellar flood chemicals. The pulp and paper industries have practiced chemical recovery for almost a century. The largest chemical recycle processes are the internal recycle of inorganic salts for reuse in pulping. This is coupled with the use of waste organic compounds in the liquor as a fuel for directly-fired evaporation processes. Diversion of effluent and low valued streams for chemical recovery using fermentation, purification, or synthesis methods appears technically feasible in several cases. The use of new recovery processes could yield a variety of different wood-effluent based products. Some of the sugar acids in pulping liquors might be used as sequestering agents in reservoirs where there are large amounts of multivalent cations in flood brines. Fermentation production of high viscosity polymers, sequestering agents, and coagent alcohols appears worth further investigation. Tall oil acids and their derivatives can be used as surfactants in some reservoirs. Some waste constituents may adsorb preferentially on formations and thereby reduce loss of surfactants and other higher-valued chemicals.

  13. 15 CFR 930.73 - OCS plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false OCS plan. 930.73 Section 930.73...) Exploration, Development and Production Activities § 930.73 OCS plan. (a) The term “OCS plan” means any plan... described in detail in OCS plans approved by the Secretary of the Interior or designee prior to management...

  14. Natural resource injury assessment of a crude oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischel, M.; Mancini, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    In January 1994, a 6.7 magnitude earthquake in southern California ruptured a pipeline releasing approximately 4,200 barrels of blended San Joaquin Valley crude oil. A smaller volume entered the Santa Clara River and flowed 25 km downstream to an emergency containment dam. Ruptured water mains and chlorinated discharges from a damaged sewage treatment plant also affected water quality in the river. Quantitative injury assessment studies were initiated within days of the spill and included water/sediment chemistry, benthic macroinvertebrate community analyses and aquatic toxicity tests. Water quality values for TPH, BTEX, and chlorine ranged from nondetectable to 78 mg/l (TPH), nondetectable to 5.4 microg/l (total BTEX constituents) and nondetectable to 600 microg/l (residual chlorine) within 72 hours of the spill. Ammonia concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 12.1 mg/l within 10 days of the spill. Hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments ranged from nondetectable to 3,900 mg/kg within 8 to 12 weeks post-spill. Both the density and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates were reduced immediately after the spill but were not significantly different from reference areas four months later. River water collected from numerous locations within 72 hrs of the earthquake was transferred to the laboratory for static renewal acute toxicity tests using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). TPH concentrations in test containers ranged from nondetectable to 23 mg/l, BTEX constituents were nondetectable, and chlorine, measured at 600 microg/l in one sample, was titrated with sodium thiosulfate prior to testing. No acute toxicity was observed in either species

  15. World oil and gas resources: status and outlook - A rational attempt at an emotional issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burri, P.

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the status of world oil and gas resources and attempts to provide a rational view of the situation and the prospects available. The author states that only about a quarter of the world's estimated ultimately recoverable oil resources and one eighth of the ultimate gas resources have been produced until today. Further, the author is of the opinion that very significant reserve additions are to be expected not only from the still existing exploration frontiers (e.g. deep water and Arctic fields) but even more so from new hydrocarbon detection tools, advanced recovery technology and from unconventional oil and gas resources. The price situation is discussed as are various developments that not only have a negative but also a positive impact on supplies. Reserves and unconventional resources are discussed, particularly from the pricing point of view. The effect of pricing on consumption is examined, as are new technologies for recovery and the potential available for future exploration

  16. Lack of oil and gas resources leads to concentration on coal and nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-20

    The Bulgarian energy sector is characterised by a marked shortage of domestic resources. The country has no oil to speak of, no gas, relatively little hydro potential compared with its neighbours, and the one resource it does have in fair abundance - coal - is of the poorest quality. This poverty of resources has led to an extraordinary dependence on the Soviet Union for supplies of every resource and for technology to utilise them. Most oil, all gas, some electricity and even significant quantities of coal are all imported from the USSR. There is little Bulgaria can do about its oil needs for the transport sector, but otherwise current policy is to concentrate development in the nuclear and coal sectors. One of the main thrusts of the energy policy is to continue expansion of coal, largely opencast lignite deposits, in order to feed thermal power stations and, when clean coal technology is developed, to use coal in CHP plants. The country uses a small amount of natural gas but no development is foreseen; instead district heating is considered a more efficient use of resources. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Sublinear absorption in OCS gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogani, F.; Querzoli, R.; Ernst, K.

    1988-01-01

    Sublinear absorption in OCS gas has been experimentally studied in detail by means of an optoacustic technique and transmission measurements. The best fit of the results is obtained by a phenomenological model, that considers the process as the sum of one-and two-photon absorptions

  18. Adequacy of environmental information for outer continental shelf oil and gas decisions: Georges Bank. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Georges Bank, a large, shallow marine bank with important fishery resources and possibly important oil and gas resources, lies east of Massachusetts in the territorial waters of both the United States and Canada. The Department of the Interior has planned since 1974 to lease parts of the north Atlantic outer continental shelf (OCS)--including part of Georges Bank--for oil and gas exploration. As a result of public concern about the environmental impacts of oil and gas production on the U.S. OCS, Congress declared a moratorium on drilling on Georges Bank and an area to the southwest. The report--by the NRC's Committee to Review the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program and its panels on physical oceanography, ecology, and socioeconomics--reviews the adequacy of information bearing on the potential environmental impacts of OCS oil and gas activities for the Georges Bank sale area

  19. Watered down : overcoming federal inaction on the impact of oil sands development to water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droitsch, D.

    2009-11-01

    The oil sands industry is having a negative impact on Canada's fresh water resources and aquatic ecosystems. Members of the Government of the Northwest Territories (NT) and experts from scientific, non-governmental, and First Nations groups have stated at federal hearings that the federal government must involve itself in the protection of Canada's water resources. This report discussed compelling testimony from recent federal hearings by the House of Commons Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development.The federal government must establish enforceable standards for key toxic substances created by oil sands activity. A water-sharing agreement must be established between Alberta, NT, Saskatchewan, and First Nations governments. Other recommendations included the establishment of a peer-reviewed assessment of the health impacts of industrial oil sands development on First Nations communities; the establishment of cumulative effects assessment procedures; the identification and protection of listed species at risk; and the establishment of proactive measures designed to ensure that oil sands operators pay for the environmental damage caused to water resources. 94 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Yukon Flats Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Kenneth J.; Stanley, Richard G.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2017-12-22

    The hydrocarbon potential of the Yukon Flats Basin Province in Central Alaska was assessed in 2004 as part of an update to the National Oil and Gas Assessment. Three assessment units (AUs) were identified and assessed using a methodology somewhat different than that of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA). An important difference in the methodology of the two assessments is that the 2004 assessment specified a minimum accumulation size of 0.5 million barrels of oil equivalent (MMBOE), whereas the 2008 CARA assessment specified a minimum size of 50 MMBOE. The 2004 assessment concluded that >95 percent of the estimated mean undiscovered oil and gas resources occur in a single AU, the Tertiary Sandstone AU. This is also the only AU of the three that extends north of the Arctic Circle.For the CARA project, the number of oil and gas accumulations in the 2004 assessment of the Tertiary Sandstone AU was re-evaluated in terms of the >50-MMBOE minimum accumulation size. By this analysis, and assuming the resource to be evenly distributed across the AU, 0.23 oil fields and 1.20 gas fields larger than 50 MMBOE are expected in the part of the AU north of the Arctic Circle. The geology suggests, however, that the area north of the Arctic Circle has a lower potential for oil and gas accumulations than the area to the south where the sedimentary section is thicker, larger volumes of hydrocarbons may have been generated, and potential structural traps are probably more abundant. Because of the low potential implied for the area of the AU north of the Arctic Circle, the Yukon Flats Tertiary Sandstone AU was not quantitatively assessed for the 2008 CARA.

  1. Methodology for assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources for the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The methodological procedures used in the geologic assessments of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA) were based largely on the methodology developed for the 2000 U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment. The main variables were probability distributions for numbers and sizes of undiscovered accumulations with an associated risk of occurrence. The CARA methodology expanded on the previous methodology in providing additional tools and procedures more applicable to the many Arctic basins that have little or no exploration history. Most importantly, geologic analogs from a database constructed for this study were used in many of the assessments to constrain numbers and sizes of undiscovered oil and gas accumulations.

  2. Considerations when ranking stochastically modeled oil sands resource models for mining applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etris, E.L. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Petro-Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada); Idris, Y.; Hunter, A.C. [Petro-Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Alberta's Athabasca oil sands deposit has been targeted as a major resource for development. Bitumen recovery operations fall into 2 categories, namely mining and in situ operations. Mining recovery is done above ground level and consists of open pit digging, disaggregation of the bitumen-saturated sediment through crushing followed by pipeline transport in a water-based slurry and then separation of oil, water and sediment. In situ recovery consists of drilling wells and stimulating the oil sands in the subsurface with a thermal treatment to reduce the viscosity of the bitumen and allow it to come to the surface. Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is the most popular thermal treatment currently in use. Resource models that simulate the recovery process are needed for both mining and in situ recovery operations. Both types can benefit from the advantages of a stochastic modeling process for resource model building and uncertainty evaluation. Stochastic modeling provides a realistic geology and allows for multiple realizations, which mining operations can use to evaluate the variability of recoverable bitumen volumes and develop mine plans accordingly. This paper described the processes of stochastic modelling and of determining the appropriate single realization for mine planning as applied to the Fort Hills oil sands mine which is currently in the early planning stage. The modeling exercise was used to estimate the in-place resource and quantify the uncertainty in resource volumes. The stochastic models were checked against those generated from conventional methods to identify any differences and to make the appropriate adaptations. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 16 figs.

  3. Modeling Oil Exploration and Production: Resource-Constrained and Agent-Based Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsson, Kristofer

    2010-05-01

    Energy is essential to the functioning of society, and oil is the single largest commercial energy source. Some analysts have concluded that the peak in oil production is soon about to happen on the global scale, while others disagree. Such incompatible views can persist because the issue of 'peak oil' cuts through the established scientific disciplines. The question is: what characterizes the modeling approaches that are available today, and how can they be further developed to improve a trans-disciplinary understanding of oil depletion? The objective of this thesis is to present long-term scenarios of oil production (Paper I) using a resource-constrained model; and an agent-based model of the oil exploration process (Paper II). It is also an objective to assess the strengths, limitations, and future development potentials of resource-constrained modeling, analytical economic modeling, and agent-based modeling. Resource-constrained models are only suitable when the time frame is measured in decades, but they can give a rough indication of which production scenarios are reasonable given the size of the resource. However, the models are comprehensible, transparent and the only feasible long-term forecasting tools at present. It is certainly possible to distinguish between reasonable scenarios, based on historically observed parameter values, and unreasonable scenarios with parameter values obtained through flawed analogy. The economic subfield of optimal depletion theory is founded on the notion of rational economic agents, and there is a causal relation between decisions made at the micro-level and the macro-result. In terms of future improvements, however, the analytical form considerably restricts the versatility of the approach. Agent-based modeling makes it feasible to combine economically motivated agents with a physical environment. An example relating to oil exploration is given in Paper II, where it is shown that the exploratory activities of individual

  4. Government Resource Subsidy and its Spillover Effects: Evidence from the Excessive Oil Consumption in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattaphon Wuthisatian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analyzing the consecutive consequences of government resource subsidies in a particular industry, which can lead to the excessive oil consumption by other sectors and end users. To fully illustrate the investigation, we use the subsidies in Chinese steel production as a case study and a beginning point to develop theoretical and empirical models to examine the spillover effects, going from steel industry to a rapidly increase of overall country’s oil consumption. The theoretical model applies the market equilibrium concept to demonstrate a relationship among three economic sectors; steel industry, automobile, and households. Particularly, the government subsidies in Chinese steel production will enable the steel firms to obtain resource inputs at the lower price, making the output price of steels cheaper than the market price. As steel is a required input in automobile industry, this cheaper price of steels will induce the automotive firms to increase their production capacity, producing more cars and selling them at the cheaper price, which eventually results in the excessive usage of oil and gasoline by individuals. Using the data during the period of 1980-2012, the empirical analysis involves OLS regression and cointegration test to approve the validity of the theoretical model, which emphasizes on the strong relationship between Chinese oil consumption and steel production.

  5. Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tham, M.K.; Burchfield, T.; Chung, Ting-Horng; Lorenz, P.; Bryant, R.; Sarathi, P.; Chang, Ming Ming; Jackson, S.; Tomutsa, L.; Dauben, D.L.

    1991-10-01

    NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K ampersand A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs

  6. Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tham, M.K.; Burchfield, T.; Chung, Ting-Horng; Lorenz, P.; Bryant, R.; Sarathi, P.; Chang, Ming Ming; Jackson, S.; Tomutsa, L. (National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)); Dauben, D.L. (K and A Energy Consultants, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States))

    1991-10-01

    NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs.

  7. Resource Wars’ in the Post-Cold War Era: The Persian Gulf Oil, US, and the Iraq War

    OpenAIRE

    S Naji

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the strategic region of the Persian Gulf and its oil resources, the US energy policy, and the Iraq War as a case in point. It refers to the importance of the Persian Gulf oil in the US policies and the US geopolitical practices to launch conflicts and wars in the post-Cold War era that scholars have categorized as “resource wars.” Reviewing relevant studies has revealed that amongst the natural resources oil as the most vital commodity has always played a major role in ...

  8. Brine contamination to aquatic resources from oil and gas development in the Williston Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Robert A.; Contributions by Chesley-Preston, Tara L.; Coleman, James L.; Haines, Seth S.; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy L.; Peterman, Zell E.; van der Burg, Max Post; Preston, Todd M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Tangen, Brian A.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    The Williston Basin, which includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States and the provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada, has been a leading domestic oil and gas producing region for more than one-half a century. Currently, there are renewed efforts to develop oil and gas resources from deep geologic formations, spurred by advances in recovery technologies and economic incentives associated with the price of oil. Domestic oil and gas production has many economic benefits and provides a means for the United States to fulfill a part of domestic energy demands; however, environmental hazards can be associated with this type of energy production in the Williston Basin, particularly to aquatic resources (surface water and shallow groundwater) by extremely saline water, or brine, which is produced with oil and gas. The primary source of concern is the migration of brine from buried reserve pits that were used to store produced water during recovery operations; however, there also are considerable risks of brine release from pipeline failures, poor infrastructure construction, and flow-back water from hydraulic fracturing associated with modern oilfield operations. During 2008, a multidisciplinary (biology, geology, water) team of U.S. Geological Survey researchers was assembled to investigate potential energy production effects in the Williston Basin. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey participated in field tours and met with representatives from county, State, tribal, and Federal agencies to identify information needs and focus research objectives. Common questions from agency personnel, especially those from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, were “are the brine plumes (plumes of brine-contaminated groundwater) from abandoned oil wells affecting wetlands on Waterfowl Production Areas and National Wildlife Refuges?” and “are newer wells related to Bakken and Three Forks development different than the older

  9. Evaluation of the production potential of bio-oil from Vietnamese biomass resources by fast pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, Binh M.Q.; Duong, Long T.; Nguyen, Viet D.; Tran, Trong B.; Nguyen, My H.H.; Nguyen, Luong H.; Nguyen, Duc A.; Luu, Loc C.

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural activities in Vietnam generate about 62 million tonnes of biomass (rice straw, rice husk, bagasse, corn cob, corn stover, etc.) annually. In this work, four different types of biomass from Vietnam, namely rice straw, rice husk, factory bagasse, and corn cob, have been studied as potential raw materials to produce bio-oil by fast pyrolysis technology. Test runs were conducted in a fluidized-bed reactor at a temperature of 500 °C and residence time less than 2 s. Size and moisture content of the feed were less than 2 mm and 2%, respectively. It was found that yields of bio-oil as a liquid product obtained from pyrolysis of these feedstocks were more than 50% and that obtained from the bagasse was the highest. Bio-oil quality from Vietnamese biomass resources satisfies ASTM D7544-12 standard for pyrolysis liquid biofuels. These results showed the potential of using biomass in Vietnam to produce bio-oil which could be directly used as a combustion fuel or upgraded into transportation fuels and chemicals. - Highlights: • Four types of Vietnamese biomass were firstly analyzed in detail. • Optimal conditions for fast pyrolysis reaction for Vietnamese biomass types. • Bio-oil product adapted to the standard specification for pyrolysis liquid biofuel

  10. Why do leaders nationalize the oil industry? The politics of resource expropriation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdavi, Paasha

    2014-01-01

    Why do leaders nationalize the oil industry? In line with a general utility-maximizing theory, I argue that leaders nationalize to maximize state revenues while minimizing costs. The latter includes international retaliation and domestic political constraints. Using a novel longitudinal dataset on the establishment of national oil companies (NOCs), the empirical evidence presented in this paper lends support to four primary findings. States are most likely to establish NOCs (1) in periods of high oil prices, when the risks of expropriation are outweighed by the financial benefits; (2) in non-democratic systems, where executive constraints are limited; (3) in “waves”, that is, after other countries have nationalized, reflecting reduced likelihood of international retaliation; and, though with weaker empirical support, (4) in political settings marked by resource nationalism. This last factor is proxied by OPEC membership in large-N analysis and, in a two-case comparison, by the difference in retained profits between the host and foreign governments. The theory and empirics presented here offer some clues for policy makers and multinational companies alike as to when to expect leaders to opt for nationalization. - Highlights: • I model determinants of oil nationalizations for 65 producing countries 1945–2005. • I offer a new measure of nationalization using the establishment of NOCs. • Oil prices, political institutions, cross-country diffusion predict nationalization. • Nationalization is also likely when revenue is perceived to be shared unfairly. • Operator-led contract renegotiation can reduce likelihood of nationalization

  11. Global resources and energy trade. An overview for coal, natural gas, oil and uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remme, U.; Blesl, M.; Fahl, U.

    2007-07-15

    Despite efforts to improve energy effi-ciency and increase the usage of renewable energy carriers, fossil fuels and nuclear energy will continue to be important sources of global energy supply for the coming decades. Present global oil and gas supply is characterized by a concentration of production in a few world areas, mainly the Middle East and the Former Soviet Union, and a transport from these regions to the industrialized countries. Depletion of conventional reserves, especially oil, in combination with a surge for energy in emerging economies, as China and India, how-ever, is expected to change this picture in the future: unconventional resources in other world regions may be exploited to cover the surge energy demand, infrastructure for energy transport along new routes may have to be established. To provide a data base for such ques-tions, this report gives an overview of the current global resource situation for coal, natural gas, oil and uranium. In the first part, an assessment of the con-ventional and unconventional reserves and resources as well as their supply costs is given for the different regions of the world. The second part describes the current energy trade infrastructure between world regions and estimates the costs for existing and new trade links between these regions. (orig.)

  12. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Kansas and Oklahoma. Volume 5, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma for five other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to Kansas' known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD ampersand D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD ampersand D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the state of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma and the nation as a whole

  13. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of New Mexico and Wyoming. Volume 4, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of New Mexico and Wyoming. Individual reports for six other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to New Mexico's known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD ampersand D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD ampersand D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the states of New Mexico and Wyoming and the nation as a whole

  14. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of California. Volume 2, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As a part of this larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of California. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to California's known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD ampersand D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD ampersand D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, California oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the state of California and the nation as a whole

  15. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Louisiana and Texas. Volume 3, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of Louisiana and Texas. Individual reports for six other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS)

  16. The Utilization Of Resources And Regulation Along With Companys Strategies In Managing Oil And Natural Gas Industry In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Rahardjo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas production in Indonesia has been declined since 1995 up to now the effort to increase the production has been done but it does not result yet. In contrast day by day the investment is getting increased and huge on the other hands it becomes a problem and a challenge for Indonesia to meet oil needs as raw material for refined fuel oil either for transportation or industries. Day by day the needs of refined fuel oil is getting increased and huge as it is correlated to the increasing of the number of motorcycles either two-wheeled or four-wheeled as well as the increasing of oil and gas or non-oil and gas industries. Oil and natural industry Resource Base has specific characteristics those are internal factor that uses resource such as high technology huge investment cost as well as competent human resources. Besides the external factor those are good regulations either in the central and regional levels as well as the sector which is very important toward the production performance and the of company managements strategies to manage this industry. This paper attempts to figure out the impact of internal factor in the form of resources and external factor in the form of regulation as well as the effect of production performance toward petroleum companies of upstream sectors in Indonesia and managements role especially petroleum industrialists in managing the company. The wane of oil production and the increasing of refined fuel oil need in Indonesia as well as the increasing of oil production cost then it will affect the industrialists strategies in managing the companies. The resources consist of human resource oil reserve as well as petroleum technologies. While regulation consists of law central and regional government regulations and rules in oil and gas sector. Whereas the companys strategies are explained by production volume and selling volume of oil. Companys performance which sets to work in upstream sector is influenced by

  17. Modeling of response, socioeconomic, and natural resource damage costs for hypothetical oil spill scenarios in San Francisco Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, D.S.; French McCay, D.; Whittier, N.; Sankaranarayanan, S.; Jennings, J.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of oil type, spill size, response strategy and location factors on oil spill response costs, with particular reference to the cost benefits of the use of dispersants. Modeling has been conducted for a hypothetical oil spill in San Francisco Bay to determine biological impacts, damages to natural resources and response costs. The SIMAP modeling software by the Applied Science Associates was used to model 3 spill sizes (20, 50 and 95 percentile by volume) and 4 types of oil (gasoline, diesel, heavy fuel oil, and crude oil). Response costs, natural resource damages and socioeconomic impact were determined based on spill trajectory and fate. Mechanical recovery-based operations carry higher response costs than dispersant-based operations. Response costs for diesel and gasoline spills make up 20 per cent of the total costs, compared to 43 per cent for crude and heavy fuel oil spills. Damages to natural resources are higher for spills of toxic lighter fuels such as gasoline and diesel because gasoline has a greater impact on the water column with less shoreline oiling, resulting in more damages to natural resources. Heavier oils have a greater impact on shorelines and higher response and socioeconomic costs. Although socioeconomic costs varied by location, they tend to be greater than response costs and natural resource damage costs. Proportions of the different costs were described with reference to various spill factors. Socioeconomic costs are 61, 76, 45 and 53 per cent respectively for gasoline, diesel, crude oil, and heavy fuel oil spills. 27 refs., 23 tabs., 5 figs

  18. Oil for health in sub-Saharan Africa: health systems in a 'resource curse' environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calain, Philippe

    2008-10-21

    In a restricted sense, the resource curse is a theory that explains the inverse relationship classically seen between dependence on natural resources and economic growth. It defines a peculiar economic and political environment, epitomized by oil extraction in sub-Saharan Africa. Based on secondary research and illustrations from four oil-rich geographical areas (the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, Angola, southern Chad, Southern Sudan), I propose a framework for analysing the effects of the resource curse on the structure of health systems at sub-national levels. Qualitative attributes are emphasised. The role of the corporate sector, the influence of conflicts, and the value of classical mitigation measures (such as health impact assessments) are further examined. Health systems in a resource curse environment are classically fractured into tripartite components, including governmental health agencies, non-profit non-governmental organisations, and the corporate extractive sector. The three components entertain a range of contractual relationships generally based on operational considerations which are withdrawn from social or community values. Characterisation of agencies in this system should also include: values, operating principles, legitimacy and operational spaces. From this approach, it appears that community health is at the same time marginalized and instrumentalized toward economic and corporate interests in resource curse settings. From a public health point of view, the resource curse represents a fundamental failure of dominant development theories, rather than a delay in creating the proper economy and governance environment for social progress. The scope of research on the resource curse should be broadened to include more accurate or comprehensive indicators of destitution (including health components) and more open perspectives on causal mechanisms.

  19. Oil for health in sub-Saharan Africa: health systems in a 'resource curse' environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calain Philippe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a restricted sense, the resource curse is a theory that explains the inverse relationship classically seen between dependence on natural resources and economic growth. It defines a peculiar economic and political environment, epitomised by oil extraction in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Based on secondary research and illustrations from four oil-rich geographical areas (the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, Angola, southern Chad, Southern Sudan, I propose a framework for analysing the effects of the resource curse on the structure of health systems at sub-national levels. Qualitative attributes are emphasised. The role of the corporate sector, the influence of conflicts, and the value of classical mitigation measures (such as health impact assessments are further examined. Results Health systems in a resource curse environment are classically fractured into tripartite components, including governmental health agencies, non-profit non-governmental organisations, and the corporate extractive sector. The three components entertain a range of contractual relationships generally based on operational considerations which are withdrawn from social or community values. Characterisation of agencies in this system should also include: values, operating principles, legitimacy and operational spaces. From this approach, it appears that community health is at the same time marginalised and instrumentalised toward economic and corporate interests in resource curse settings. Conclusion From a public health point of view, the resource curse represents a fundamental failure of dominant development theories, rather than a delay in creating the proper economy and governance environment for social progress. The scope of research on the resource curse should be broadened to include more accurate or comprehensive indicators of destitution (including health components and more open perspectives on causal mechanisms.

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource point data for access sites, airports, aquaculture sites, beaches, boat ramps, marinas, coast guard facilities, oil...

  1. Assessment of potential unconventional lacustrine shale-oil and shale-gas resources, Phitsanulok Basin, Thailand, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed potential technically recoverable mean resources of 53 million barrels of shale oil and 320 billion cubic feet of shale gas in the Phitsanulok Basin, onshore Thailand.

  2. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Kansas: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Kansas. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Kansas oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit the state of Kansas and the nation as a whole.

  3. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Louisiana: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Louisiana. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Louisiana oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit both the state of Louisiana and the nation as a whole.

  4. Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.; Wescott, K.; Greby, M.; Anast, G.; Nesta, M.; Walston, L.; Tate, R.; Azzarello, A.; Vinikour, B.; Van Lonkhuyzen, B.; Quinn, J.; Yuen, R.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-01

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sands leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future

  5. Investigating the barriers of the green human resource management implementation in oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Fayyazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing need for the integration of environmental management into Human Resource Management (HRM practices; such effort is known as Green HRM initiatives. The aim of this study is to identify barriers of green human resource management in Iran's oil industry. For this purpose, mixed method has been used. In the article, existing literature was examined and questions were designed and 12 experts of international oil industry were interviewed. The aim of these interviews was to design questionnaire and collects the necessary information. To examine the reliability of the questionnaires, Cronbach alpha coefficient was equal to 0.732, which validated the reliability of the questionnaire. Finally, the questionnaires were shared among 31 members of oil's experts and HR managers. The results of the study have shown that the lack of comprehensive plan to implement green HRM and ambiguous of green values were in the highest level and they were considered as the most important barriers. Furthermore, staff resistance had the lowest importance.

  6. Potential water resource impacts of hydraulic fracturing from unconventional oil production in the Bakken shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Namita; Chilkoor, Govinda; Wilder, Joseph; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Stone, James J

    2017-01-01

    Modern drilling techniques, notably horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, have enabled unconventional oil production (UOP) from the previously inaccessible Bakken Shale Formation located throughout Montana, North Dakota (ND) and the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The majority of UOP from the Bakken shale occurs in ND, strengthening its oil industry and businesses, job market, and its gross domestic product. However, similar to UOP from other low-permeability shales, UOP from the Bakken shale can result in environmental and human health effects. For example, UOP from the ND Bakken shale generates a voluminous amount of saline wastewater including produced and flowback water that are characterized by unusual levels of total dissolved solids (350 g/L) and elevated levels of toxic and radioactive substances. Currently, 95% of the saline wastewater is piped or trucked onsite prior to disposal into Class II injection wells. Oil and gas wastewater (OGW) spills that occur during transport to injection sites can potentially result in drinking water resource contamination. This study presents a critical review of potential water resource impacts due to deterministic (freshwater withdrawals and produced water management) and probabilistic events (spills due to leaking pipelines and truck accidents) related to UOP from the Bakken shale in ND. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The U.S. Shale Oil and Gas Resource - a Multi-Scale Analysis of Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'sullivan, F.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decade, the large-scale production of natural gas, and more recently oil, from U.S. shale formations has had a transformative impact on the energy industry. The emergence of shale oil and gas as recoverable resources has altered perceptions regarding both the future abundance and cost of hydrocarbons, and has shifted the balance of global energy geopolitics. However, despite the excitement, shale is a resource in its nascency, and many challenges surrounding its exploitation remain. One of the most significant of these is the dramatic variation in resource productivity across multiple length scales, which is a feature of all of today's shale plays. This paper will describe the results of work that has looked to characterize the spatial and temporal variations in the productivity of the contemporary shale resource. Analysis will be presented that shows there is a strong stochastic element to observed shale well productivity in all the major plays. It will be shown that the nature of this stochasticity is consistent regardless of specific play being considered. A characterization of this stochasticity will be proposed. As a parallel to the discussion of productivity, the paper will also address the issue of "learning" in shale development. It will be shown that "creaming" trends are observable and that although "absolute" well productivity levels have increased, "specific" productivity levels (i.e. considering well and stimulation size) have actually falling markedly in many plays. The paper will also show that among individual operators' well ensembles, normalized well-to-well performance distributions are almost identical, and have remained consistent year-to-year. This result suggests little if any systematic learning regarding the effective management of well-to-well performance variability has taken place. The paper will conclude with an articulation of how the productivity characteristics of the shale resource are impacting on the resources

  8. Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort's electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils number-sign 2 and number-sign 6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort

  9. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-12-29

    Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes

  10. Analytical resource assessment method for continuous (unconventional) oil and gas accumulations - The "ACCESS" Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, Robert A.; revised by Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) periodically assesses petroleum resources of areas within the United States and the world. The purpose of this report is to explain the development of an analytic probabilistic method and spreadsheet software system called Analytic Cell-Based Continuous Energy Spreadsheet System (ACCESS). The ACCESS method is based upon mathematical equations derived from probability theory. The ACCESS spreadsheet can be used to calculate estimates of the undeveloped oil, gas, and NGL (natural gas liquids) resources in a continuous-type assessment unit. An assessment unit is a mappable volume of rock in a total petroleum system. In this report, the geologic assessment model is defined first, the analytic probabilistic method is described second, and the spreadsheet ACCESS is described third. In this revised version of Open-File Report 00-044 , the text has been updated to reflect modifications that were made to the ACCESS program. Two versions of the program are added as appendixes.

  11. Changes, challenges, choices: Human resources in the upstream oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manthey, M.

    1993-01-01

    A comprehensive study of human resources in the Canadian upstream oil and gas industry was conducted in 1992. Three segments of the industry were examined: exploration and production companies; geophysical, drilling, and oilfield services and supply firms; and two oil sands operations. Between 1988 and 1991, total employment in these segments fell from 79,500 to 68,000. Much of this downsizing occurred with the second segment companies, where staff was reduced by 27%. Continued property rationalization and organizational restructuring are expected until 1994 or 1995, with attendant reductions in the workforce. Then, depending on favorable economic trends for oil and natural gas, activity and demand for employees may begin to recover. However, employment levels at the end of the decade are not expected to rebound to pre-1991 levels. Workforce reduction has been accomplished by layoffs, induced retirements, and cutbacks in recruitment. The low inflow of new talent coupled with an outflow of experienced staff may eventually cause shortages in certain industry-specific occupations. A disproportionately high proportion of employees was found to be in their late thirties, and this will present another challenge in the future. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Energy planning and investment for increased earnings: the case of Nigeria's oil and gas resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojo, A.T.

    1984-03-01

    In view of Nigeria's limited reserves of oil and the high growth rate of oil consumption, and in the wake of the developments in the world oil market since 1981 which have resulted in a drastic shortfall in Nigeria's revenues, the main objective of this article is to highlight some important issues that would spur policy makers towards improved energy planning and increased energy investment in Nigeria so as to assist her in the rationalization of the energy production-mix and consumption, as well as in earning increased revenues from her oil and gas resources. Policymakers in Nigeria are called upon to put an end to further procrastination concerning the liquefied natural gas (LNG) investment project so that the bulk of the country's gas, which is presently being flared, can be re-injected, consumed locally, and exported to supplement dwindling oil revenues. 23 notes and references, 3 tables.

  13. Future Oil Spills and Possibilities for Intervention: A Model for the Coupled Human-Environmental Resource Extraction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shughrue, C. M.; Werner, B.; Nugnug, P. T.

    2010-12-01

    The catastrophic Deepwater Horizon oil spill highlights the risks for widespread environmental damage resulting from petroleum resource extraction. Possibilities for amelioration of these risks depend critically on understanding the dynamics and nonlinear interactions between various components of the coupled human-environmental resource extraction system. We use a complexity analysis to identify the levels of description and time scales at which these interactions are strongest, and then use the analysis as the basis for an agent-based numerical model with which decadal trends can be analyzed. Oil industry economic and technological activity and associated oil spills are components of a complex system that is coupled to natural environment, legislation, regulation, media, and resistance systems over annual to decadal time scales. In the model, oil spills are produced stochastically with a range of magnitudes depending on a reliability-engineering-based assessment of failure for the technology employed, human factors including compliance with operating procedures, and risks associated with the drilling environment. Oil industry agents determine drilling location and technological investment using a cost-benefit analysis relating projected revenue from added production to technology cost and government regulation. Media outlet agents reporting on the oil industry and environmental damage from oil spills assess the impacts of aggressively covering a story on circulation increases, advertiser concerns and potential loss of information sources. Environmental advocacy group agents increase public awareness of environmental damage (through media and public contact), solicit memberships and donations, and apply direct pressure on legislators for policy change. Heterogeneous general public agents adjust their desire for change in the level of regulation, contact their representatives or participate in resistance via protest by considering media sources, personal

  14. EPA Participates in Energy Roundtable with States, Tribes, Businesses and Environmental Groups to Enhance Coordination and Promote Responsible Domestic Production of Oil and Gas Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA News Release: EPA Participates in Energy Roundtable with States, Tribes, Businesses and Environmental Groups to Enhance Coordination and Promote Responsible Domestic Production of Oil and Gas Resources

  15. Outer continental shelf oil and gas activities. Pacific update: August 1987 - November 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slitor, Douglas L.; Wiese, Jeffrey D.; Karpas, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    This Pacific Update focuses on the geology and petroleum potential of the Central California and Washington-Oregon OCS Planning Areas. This report discusses the following topics: offshore oil and gas resources of the Pacific region; project-specific developments and status; and magnitude and timing of offshore developments. (CBS)

  16. Proceedings of the Infonex oil sands 2005 conference : an industry summit on emerging trends in exploration, production and resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This conference provided a forum to discuss the opportunities and challenges facing the oil sands industry with particular reference to resource characterization and supply and market outlooks to 2015. The driving forces behind oil sands development were also identified. The conference featured 12 presentations that dealt with a range of issues including resource management; operations management; price and cost sharing; emerging transmission pipeline challenges and opportunities; the fiscal regime for oil sands; minimizing the environmental impact of oil sands development; cumulative effects management and the regulatory approval process. An overview of a joint venture by Alberta Environment Northern Region and the Alberta Geological Survey to update existing maps of buried bedrock and drift channels in the oil sands mining and in-situ recoverable areas was included along with an overview of economic and environmental benefits of gasification. A new technology known as multiphase superfine atomized residue (MSAR) as an alternate fuel in oil sands production was discussed along with the issue of bridging the gap between the oil sand industry and First Nations partners. Three of the 12 presentations were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  17. Joint exploration and development: A self-salvation road to sustainable development of unconventional oil and gas resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Zheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Commercial production of unconventional oil and gas resources will not be easily achieved without large-scale engineering measures, let alone the additional operation cost, increasingly stricter requirement for safety and environment, fluctuating low oil and gas prices, etc., defeating the confidence of those investors. Therefore, unconventional measures are urgently needed to guide the exploration and exploitation of unconventional oil and gas resources. Thus, we put forward the concept of joint exploration and development by integrating research methodologies and operating techniques for a variety of oil and gas resources to simultaneously achieve analysis, construction, gathering and exploitation of multiple hydrocarbon sources. In this way, the annoying interference between the produced mixture of hydrocarbon flow resulting in the reduction of single-well flowrate will be possibly turned into a dynamic mutual force to enhance the well's flowrate. We also point out that the inevitability of joint exploration and development is determined by the occurrence conditions of oil and gas resources, its feasibility relies on the advancement of technologies, and its arduous and long-term nature is attributed to the current energy market and environment. In spite of various problems and difficulties, we believe that joint exploration and development will be a feasible option to achieve both cost reduction and production & benefit enhancement, boost investors' confidence, raise energy comprehensive utilization, and enhance energy supply efficiency. In conclusion, the advantages of joint exploration and development outweigh its disadvantages for both countries and enterprises.

  18. What to think about the shortage of oil resources and of the evolution of crude oil price?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, Denis; Bauquis, Pierre-Rene

    2007-09-01

    Produced by the 'Oil' work-group of the French Academy of Technologies, this report first proposes a synthesis of different points of view (optimistic, pessimistic, public bodies) on the issue of oil reserves and of oil world peak production. A second part analyzes the mechanisms of oil pricing while highlighting the long term dimension, but without addressing the market short-term operation. The last part discusses various possible evolution scenarios for production and price profiles on a middle and on a long term

  19. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Janet K.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 86 billion barrels of oil and 336 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas resources in the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt. The USGS assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional oil and gas accumulations within the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt as part of the USGS World Petroleum Resources Project. Twenty-three assessment units within seven petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed in this study, which represents a reassessment of this area last published in 2000.

  20. Population, petroleum, and politics: Mexico at the crossroads. Part 2. The potentials and problems of Mexican oil resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, C F

    1980-01-01

    The 2 most important factors which will influence Mexico's future economic development are the country's overpopulation problem and the manner in which the country's oil reserves are exploited. This document describes the historical development of Mexico's oil industry and the current struggle of the government to ensure that the oil resources contribute toward the sound economic development of the country. The government expropriated foreign oil companies in 1938 and today most of the oil operations in Mexico are conducted by the state controlled Pemex Company. In recent years extensive oil reserves were discovered in Mexico and the country is now in the position of having large oil reserves at a time when oil prices are increasing. Known crude oil reserves are estimated at 31 billion barrels; however, an unconfirmed report by Pemex in 1980 placed the known reserves at 50 billion barrels. In the past the management of Pemex was corrupt and inefficient and many top positions in the company were filled by retired politicians. The recent appointment of Jose Andres de Oteyza as Chairman of the Board and of Jorge Diaz Serrano as the Director-General should greatly improve Pemex operations. In developing the country's oil industry the government wants 1) to keep production low enough to offset inflation and to preserve the resource but 2) to produce enough oil so that the country has sufficient funds for investment and for operating needed social programs. The government may not be able to keep oil production down to acceptable levels. It may be forced to increase oil exports to compensate for its growing reliance on imported food and other imported products. In recent years Mexico's industrial productivity and its agricultural production declined. The government wants to avoid being placed in the position where it will be forced to trade large quantities of oil for needed food. The current government is promoting investment in agriculture and industrial development in

  1. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Hope Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Kenneth J.; Houseknecht, David W.; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2018-01-04

    The Hope Basin, an independent petroleum province that lies mostly offshore in the southern Chukchi Sea north of the Chukotka and Seward Peninsulas and south of Wrangel Island, the Herald Arch, and the Lisburne Peninsula, is the largest in a series of postorogenic (successor) basins in the East Siberian-Chukchi Sea region and the only one with exploratory-well control and extensive seismic coverage.In spite of the seismic coverage and well data, the petroleum potential of the Hope Basin Province is poorly known. The adequacy of hydrocarbon charge, in combination with uncertainties in source-rock potential and maturation, was the greatest risk in this assessment. A single assessment unit was defined and assessed, resulting in mean estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources that include ~3 million barrels of oil and 650 billion cubic feet of nonassociated gas.

  2. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic, social, and political benefits of improved oil recovery to the nation as a whole. Individual reports for major oil producing states have been separately published. The individual state reports include California, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and Wyoming. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). TORIS is a tested and verified system maintained and operated by the Department of Energy's Bartlesville Project Office. The TORTS system was used to evaluate over 2,300 major reservoirs in a consistent manner and on an individual basis, the results of which have been aggregated to arrive at the national total

  3. Mismanagement of Oil and Gas Resource Revenues in Africa: Lessons for Ghana’s Budding Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    discovered in Venezuela in the 1920s and the country immediately set about diversifying its production and export structure. Prior to the oil discovery... exports of coffee and cocoa and dependence on its agricultural structure (Di John 2009, 19). After the discovery of oil, the country became a...32 Venezuela as a Case Study

  4. System analysis for effective use of palm oil waste as energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiew, Yoon Lin; Iwata, Tomoko; Shimada, Sohei

    2011-01-01

    Biomass refers to renewable energy sources and comes from biological materials such as trees, plants, manure as well as municipal solid wastes. Effective utilization of biomass as an energy resource requires the use of an optimization model to take into account biomass availability, transportation distances, and the scales and locations of power facilities within a region. In this study, we develop a new analytical tool that integrates cost, energy savings, greenhouse gas considerations, scenario analysis, and a Geographic Information System (GIS) to provide a comprehensive analysis of alternative systems for optimizing biomass energy production. The goal is to find a system that optimizes the use of biomass waste by analyzing the cost, net avoided CO 2 emission, and net energy savings with the objective of profit maximization. In this paper, we describe an application of the modeling tool described above to one of the fastest growing agriculture industries in Asia, the palm oil industry, for the case of Malaysia. Five scenarios utilizing palm oil waste as energy resources are discussed. The scenario of installing of new Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants in the region yielded a number of benefits in terms of net energy savings, net avoided CO 2 emission, and profits. The results also demonstrate the benefits of utilizing excess heat for biomass pre-treatment. The choice of a suitable CHP plant scale, management strategies for biomass seasonal availability, and market price of biomass are also important factors for effective use of the biomass in a region. -- Highlights: → We develop an optimization model for energy production from agricultural biomass. → We model 5 scenarios to optimize plant size, plant location and biomass distribution. → We evaluate the net energy savings, net avoided CO 2 emission, and profits. → We demonstrate the benefits of utilizing excess heat for biomass pre-treatment. → We determine additional factors which may impact

  5. Adequacy of environmental information for outer continental shelf oil and gas decisions: Florida and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The environmental impacts of oil and gas production on the U.S. outer continental shelf (OCS) have been studied and debated for many years. The issues derive from the complexity of coastal and offshore marine processes and ecosystems, human socio-economic systems, and interactions with OCS oil and gas development activities. On Feb. 9, 1989, President Bush announced his decision to postpone leasing for OCS areas off southwestern Florida (sale 116, part 2), northern California (sale 91), and southern California (sale 95). At the same time, the President created a cabinet-level task force to review the environmental concerns for these three OCS areas, and he also requested independent advice from the National Research Council (NRC). The NRC was asked to assess the adequacy of the available scientific and technical information on estimated hydrocarbon resources and potential environmental effects for the three specified areas. The report, by the OCS Committee and its three panels dealing with ecology, physical oceanography, and socioeconomics, reviews the adequacy of information bearing upon the potential environmental impacts of OCS oil and gas activities for the three sale areas

  6. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Kara Basins and Platforms Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Kara Basins and Platforms Province as part of the its Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. This geologic province is north of western Siberia, Russian Federation, in the North Kara Sea between Novaya Zemlya to the west and Severnaya Zemlya to the east. One assessment unit (AU) was defined, the North Kara Basins and Platforms AU, which coincides with the geologic province. This AU was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The total estimated mean volumes of undiscovered petroleum resources in the province are ~1.8 billion barrels of crude oil, ~15.0 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and ~0.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids, all north of the Arctic Circle.

  7. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province, north of the Arctic Circle, as part of the Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province is in the Russian Federation and is situated between the Verkhoyansk fold-and-thrust belt and the Siberian craton. The one assessment unit (AU) defined for this study—the Northern Priverkhoyansk Foredeep AU—was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the Northern Priverkhoyansk Foredeep in the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province are ~400 million barrels of crude oil, 1.3 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 40 million barrels of natural-gas liquids, practically all (99.49 percent) of which is north of the Arctic Circle.

  8. The U.S. natural gas and oil resource base is abundant; but can we produce what the country needs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies agree that the United States has abundant resources of gas and oil left to find and produce over the next 50--75 years -- if its exploration and production companies are given the resources to do the job. The NPC's estimate of 1,295 TCF of natural gas (advanced technology case) represents a resource/present production ration of 68 years. A similar estimate for oil gives 62 years. Furthermore, these resource estimates have been increasing through the 1980s, as the effects of new geological, geophysical, and engineering technologies has become more apparent. However, only 30% of this tremendous resource will be available under today's business-as-usual economic regime. The rest of the resource will be accessed if: (1) tax policies (and financial and trade policies) are adopted to stabilize prices and stimulate exploration and production (estimated 27% of the resource base); (2) technology is developed, transferred, and used (17%); (3) environmental regulation is held to a balanced level, considers economic costs as well as environmental benefits, and is applied consistently (13%); (4) access to Federal lands is eased for environmentally responsible drilling and development (13%). To convert America's gas and oil resources into delivered products in a timely manner, assuring the nation's gas users of a reliable supply -- and contribute up to $8.7 trillion to the nation's economy -- a doubling of industry effort is required, even at today's high levels of finding and producing efficiency. Coordinated action by industry, government, and the investment community is required to secure the future development of energy supplies. Government in particular must develop policies that encourage the needed investment in America's natural gas and oil

  9. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the Wyoming Thrust Belt Province, Wyoming, Idaho, and Utah, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Finn, Thomas M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2018-02-16

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 26 million barrels of oil and 700 billion cubic feet of gas in the Wyoming Thrust Belt Province, Wyoming, Idaho, and Utah.

  10. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2017-05-15

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean resources of 4.2 billion barrels of oil and 3.1 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas.

  11. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources of Upper Cretaceous Shales in the Songliao Basin of China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2018-05-03

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 3.3 billion barrels of oil and 887 billion cubic feet of gas in shale reservoirs of the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou and Nenjiang Formations in the Songliao Basin of northeastern China.

  12. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Volga-Ural Region Province, Russia and Kazakhstan, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 1.4 billion barrels of crude oil, 2.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 85 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Volga-Ural Region Province, using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  13. A Chinese resource curse? The human rights effects of oil export dependence on China versus the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, J.; Daxecker, U.

    2015-01-01

    Critiques of China’s ‘oil diplomacy’ center on its alleged disregard for transparency and human rights, yet such claims ignore that the problematic relationship between resource extraction and human rights precedes Chinese market entry. This article explores whether human rights implications are

  14. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Heath Formation, central Montana and western North Dakota, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Ronald M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2017-06-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 884 million barrels of oil and 106 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana and Williston Basin Provinces of central Montana and western North Dakota.

  15. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Cretaceous Nanushuk and Torok Formations, Alaska North Slope, and summary of resource potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, David W.; Lease, Richard O.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Rouse, William A.; Jarboe, Palma B.; Whidden, Katherine J.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Lewis, Kristen A.; Heller, Samuel; Craddock, William H.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Smith, Rebecca; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2017-12-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 8.7 billion barrels of oil and 25 trillion cubic feet of natural gas (associated and nonassociated) in conventional accumulations in the Cretaceous Nanushuk and Torok Formations in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, adjacent State and Native lands, and State waters. The estimated undiscovered oil resources in the Nanushuk and Torok Formations are significantly higher than previous estimates, owing primarily to recent, larger than anticipated oil discoveries.

  16. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System, Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System coincident Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit was recently assessed for undiscovered technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) World Energy Resources Project, World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 487 million barrels of oil, 9.8 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 408 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  17. Volume 5: An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in piercement salt dome reservoirs in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, H.; Rogers, M.; Becker, A.; Biglarbigi, K.; Brashear, J. [ICF Kaiser-ICF Information Technology, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE) has among its missions the facilitation of the development of required technologies to maximize the potential economic recovery of domestic oil and gas resources--both offshore and onshore, especially from Federal lands. In planning its activities, the DOE/FE relies on a number of comprehensive analytical systems in order to target and prioritize its research and development (R and D) activities and to estimate the benefits of its programs. DOE/FE`s analytical system, however, lacks the capability to assess the potential of future technology advances on the exploration, development, and production of crude oil resources in the Federal offshore of the Gulf of Mexico. The objective of the present effort is to develop an analytical system to characterize a portion of the Gulf offshore resources--the remaining unrecovered mobile oil resource associated with piercement salt dome reservoirs (hereafter referred to as salt dome reservoirs), and to evaluate additional recovery potential and related economic benefits that could result from the application of improved technologies. As part of the present effort a comprehensive analytical system has been developed for the characterization and evaluation of unrecovered mobile oil associated with the salt dome reservoirs in Federal offshore Gulf of Mexico. The system consists of a comprehensive database containing detailed rock and fluid properties, geologic information, and production and development history for 1,289 major fields and reservoirs representing an estimated 60% of the salt dome resources in the region. In addition, two separate methodologies and related economic and predictive models have been developed for the evaluation of applicable recovery processes. The system is intended for use as part of DOE`s Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS).

  18. Efficiency Assessment of Economic International Cooperation in Development of Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina V. Beresneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is focused on efficiency assessment of economic cooperation in development of Arctic offshore oil and gas resources. The author developed an economic model based on cost-benefit analysis (CBA. CBA is used in some countries (EU, USA, Australia as an analytic tool to make public policy decisions. CBA is based on the method of discounting cash flows associated with costs and benefits of public policy. It is assumed that all public goals are equally important inter alia, hence public bodies should opt for those initiatives that maximize public benefits for every dollar spent from the state budget. There are five stages of economic modeling: 1 the definition of public benefits and costs associated with the public initiative; 2 monetary valuation of costs and benefits; 3 the definition of discounting period and discounting rate; 4 the calculation of net present value of cash flows; 5 the comparison of initiatives' net present values. The model is built with a number of hypotheses assumed. It allows making evaluation of investments into the technology to decrease the cost of Arctic offshore oil and gas development. Moreover, the model has two scenarios describing a public policy to support technology development with international economic cooperation and without it. Under given hypotheses both scenarios return positive net present value of policies which proves that governmental initiative to support Arctic technology development is economically justified. Also the model sows that the scenario with international cooperation is more efficient from economic point of view. It is explained by two factors: the higher speed of technology transfer (due W international cooperation and the opportunity to use financial leverage (attracting the funds from foreign partners. The model allows closing the existing scientific gap between the theory of CBA method and its practical use in public decision making.

  19. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum generation in the North Cuba Basin is primarily the result of thrust loading of Jurassic and Cretaceous source rocks during formation of the North Cuba fold and thrust belt in the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene. The fold and thrust belt formed as Cuban arc-forearc rocks along the leading edge of the Caribbean plate translated northward during the opening of the Yucatan Basin and collided with the passive margin of southern North America in the Paleogene. Petroleum fluids generated during thrust loading migrated vertically into complex structures in the fold and thrust belt, into structures in the foreland basin, and possibly into carbonate reservoirs along the margins of the Yucatan and Bahama carbonate platforms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) and three assessment units (AU)-North Cuba Fold and Thrust Belt AU, North Cuba Foreland Basin AU, and the North Cuba Platform Margin Carbonate AU-within this TPS based mainly on structure and reservoir type (fig. 1). There is considerable geologic uncertainty as to the extent of petroleum migration that might have occurred within this TPS to form potential petroleum accumulations. Taking this geologic uncertainty into account, especially in the offshore area, the mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the composite TPS of the North Cuba Basin are estimated at (1) 4.6 billion barrels of oil (BBO), with means ranging from an F95 probability of 1 BBO to an F5 probability of 9 BBO; and (2) 8.6 trillion cubic feet of of gas (TCFG), of which 8.6 TCFG is associated with oil fields, and about 1.2 TCFG is in nonassociated gas fields in the North Cuba Foreland Basin AU.

  20. Petroleum system modeling capabilities for use in oil and gas resource assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra K.; Lewan, Michael; Roberts, Laura N.R.; Henry, Mitchell E.

    2006-01-01

    Summary: Petroleum resource assessments are among the most highly visible and frequently cited scientific products of the U.S. Geological Survey. The assessments integrate diverse and extensive information on the geologic, geochemical, and petroleum production histories of provinces and regions of the United States and the World. Petroleum systems modeling incorporates these geoscience data in ways that strengthen the assessment process and results are presented visually and numerically. The purpose of this report is to outline the requirements, advantages, and limitations of one-dimensional (1-D), two-dimensional (2-D), and three-dimensional (3-D) petroleum systems modeling that can be applied to the assessment of oil and gas resources. Primary focus is on the application of the Integrated Exploration Systems (IES) PetroMod? software because of familiarity with that program as well as the emphasis by the USGS Energy Program on standardizing to one modeling application. The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) is used to demonstrate the use of the PetroMod? software. Petroleum systems modeling quantitatively extends the 'total petroleum systems' (TPS) concept (Magoon and Dow, 1994; Magoon and Schmoker, 2000) that is employed in USGS resource assessments. Modeling allows integration of state-of-the-art analysis techniques, and provides the means to test and refine understanding of oil and gas generation, migration, and accumulation. Results of modeling are presented visually, numerically, and statistically, which enhances interpretation of the processes that affect TPSs through time. Modeling also provides a framework for the input and processing of many kinds of data essential in resource assessment, including (1) petroleum system elements such as reservoir, seal, and source rock intervals; (2) timing of depositional, hiatus, and erosional events and their influences on petroleum systems; (3) incorporation of vertical and lateral distribution and lithologies of

  1. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Northwest Laptev Sea Shelf Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2017-12-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Northwest Laptev Sea Shelf Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. The province is in the Russian Arctic, east of Severnaya Zemlya and the Taimyr fold-and-thrust belt. The province is separated from the rest of the Laptev Sea Shelf by the Severnyi transform fault. One assessment unit (AU) was defined for this study: the Northwest Laptev Sea Shelf AU. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered petroleum resources in the Northwest Laptev Sea Shelf Province are approximately 172 million barrels of crude oil, 4.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 119 million barrels of natural-gas liquids, north of the Arctic Circle.

  2. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peggy Robinson

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes activities that have taken place in the last 6 months (July 2004-December 2004) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields, New Mexico and Wyoming'' DE-FC26-02NT15445. This project examines the practices and results of cultural resource investigation and management in two different oil and gas producing areas of the US: southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The project evaluates how cultural resource investigations have been conducted in the past and considers how investigation and management could be pursued differently in the future. The study relies upon full database population for cultural resource inventories and resources and geomorphological studies. These are the basis for analysis of cultural resource occurrence, strategies for finding and evaluating cultural resources, and recommendations for future management practices. Activities can be summarized as occurring in either Wyoming or New Mexico.

  3. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peggy Robinson

    2005-07-01

    This report summarizes activities that have taken place in the last six (6) months (January 2005-June 2005) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields, New Mexico and Wyoming'' DE-FC26-02NT15445. This project examines the practices and results of cultural resource investigation and management in two different oil and gas producing areas of the United States: southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The project evaluates how cultural resource investigations have been conducted in the past and considers how investigation and management could be pursued differently in the future. The study relies upon full database population for cultural resource inventories and resources and geomorphological studies. These are the basis for analysis of cultural resource occurrence, strategies for finding and evaluating cultural resources, and recommendations for future management practices. Activities can be summarized as occurring in either Wyoming or New Mexico. Gnomon as project lead, worked in both areas.

  4. Impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development on recreation and tourism. Volume 3. Detailed methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-01

    The final report for the project is presented in five volumes. This volume, Detailed Methodology Review, presents a discussion of the methods considered and used to estimate the impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas development on coastal recreation in California. The purpose is to provide the Minerals Management Service with data and methods to improve their ability to analyze the socio-economic impacts of OCS development. Chapter II provides a review of previous attempts to evaluate the effects of OCS development and of oil spills on coastal recreation. The review also discusses the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches and presents the rationale for the methodology selection made. Chapter III presents a detailed discussion of the methods actually used in the study. The volume contains the bibliography for the entire study.

  5. Might generic OCs create contraceptive price war?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    Genora 1/35 and 1/50, the 1st generic oral contraceptives (OCs) in the world, are now being marketed in the US. Clinicians interviewed by "Contraceptive Technology Update" (CTU) offer differing opinions as to what this new OC may mean in the marketplace. Products of Rugby Laboratories, the pills are copy products of Ortho Pharmaceutical's ON 1/35 and ON 1/50 formulations. Most clinicians believe that Genora's success or failure in the OC market depends on its eventual retail price. The price difference of $3-$4 may be sufficiently substantial for retailers to charge less for the generic OCs. If that is the case, many doctors may prescribe a pill which will save their patients $4/month. Dr. Mildred Hanson, a Minneapolis gynecologist/obstetrician, feels any cost savings from Genora will have a significant impact on the OC market. She suggests that the less expensive OCs will catch the attention of health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and the business of women who participate in such health plans. Yet James Burns, director of family planning services for the Hartford City Health Department, thinks that even a full-scale retail price war won't have much effect from a clinic standpoint. He reports that clinics are able to obtain contraceptive supplies rather inexpensively through the contracting system. Hanson also expressed doubt over the potential popularity of Genora 1/50 as clinical concerns about the effects of combined OCs on serum lipid levels and carbohydrate metabolism have resulted in a nationwide push toward OCs containing less than 50 micrograms of estrogen. He indicated concern that declines in pharmaceutical house products from pricing competition with generic pills might have a negative impact on contraceptive research and development. Dick Haskitt, director of business planning for Syntex Laboratories, Inc., who will produce the OCs for Rugby, reports that their market research shows that people are very interested in having a generic OC available

  6. Ecological risks of shale oil and gas development to wildlife, aquatic resources and their habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittingham, Margaret C; Maloney, Kelly O; Farag, Aïda M; Harper, David D; Bowen, Zachary H

    2014-10-07

    Technological advances in hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have led to the exploration and exploitation of shale oil and gas both nationally and internationally. Extensive development of shale resources has occurred within the United States over the past decade, yet full build out is not expected to occur for years. Moreover, countries across the globe have large shale resources and are beginning to explore extraction of these resources. Extraction of shale resources is a multistep process that includes site identification, well pad and infrastructure development, well drilling, high-volume hydraulic fracturing and production; each with its own propensity to affect associated ecosystems. Some potential effects, for example from well pad, road and pipeline development, will likely be similar to other anthropogenic activities like conventional gas drilling, land clearing, exurban and agricultural development and surface mining (e.g., habitat fragmentation and sedimentation). Therefore, we can use the large body of literature available on the ecological effects of these activities to estimate potential effects from shale development on nearby ecosystems. However, other effects, such as accidental release of wastewaters, are novel to the shale gas extraction process making it harder to predict potential outcomes. Here, we review current knowledge of the effects of high-volume hydraulic fracturing coupled with horizontal drilling on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the contiguous United States, an area that includes 20 shale plays many of which have experienced extensive development over the past decade. We conclude that species and habitats most at risk are ones where there is an extensive overlap between a species range or habitat type and one of the shale plays (leading to high vulnerability) coupled with intrinsic characteristics such as limited range, small population size, specialized habitat requirements, and high sensitivity to disturbance

  7. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States: Appendix. Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    Volume ten contains the following appendices: overview of improved oil recovery methods which covers enhanced oil recovery methods and advanced secondary recovery methods; the benefits of improved oil recovery, selected data for the analyzed states; and list of TORIS fields and reservoirs.

  8. Development challenges of resource-rich countries: the case of oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses some of the challenges that confront oil-rich developing countries in their development quest. It stresses that one of the surest ways governments in oil-rich developing countries have at their disposal to avoid the so-called curse of oil is through the insulation of fiscal policy from the volatility associated ...

  9. 78 FR 27427 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Geological and Geophysical Exploration Activities in the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... timeframe. The activities considered within this PEIS are associated with GOM OCS oil and gas exploration... and NMFS as the PEIS is developed. Background: A variety of G&G techniques are used to characterize... surveys are conducted to: (1) Obtain data for hydrocarbon exploration and production; (2) aid in siting...

  10. Natural Resource Damage Assessment in highly impacted systems: A case study of the Anacostia River oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkney, A.E.; Frithsen, J.B.; Burton, W.H.; Scott, L.C.; Siciliano, J.

    1993-01-01

    An approach and case study are presented to assessing natural resource damages due to additional perturbations in highly disturbed systems. The approach involves: (1) defining chemical characteristics unique to the additional perturbation, (2) identifying specific natural resources that may be sensitive to the additional perturbation and the most appropriate sampling period for each, and (3) using existing data to characterize previous conditions. This approach was used to assess the residual effects of a January 1992 spill of 3,400 gallons of number-sign 4 fuel oil in the Anacostia River, Washington, DC. Water quality is poor due to continuing inputs from urban runoff; one upstream tributary (Hickey Run) has a fifty year history of chronic oil spills and stormwater runoff of oil and grease. The challenge was to isolate possible spill impacts from those due to chronic pollutant inputs. GC/FID fingerprinting analyses were used to characterize spill material and hydrocarbons found in the spill area and two adjacent reference areas. Fish larvae (ichthyoplankton) and benthic invertebrates were identified as biological resources most likely to demonstrate residual effects. Results indicated that there were insignificant amounts of the hydrocarbons from the spill in the water, sediments, and biota of the river, and no residual impacts on biological resources could be identified

  11. Using game theory approach to interpret stable policies for Iran's oil and gas common resources conflicts with Iraq and Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Maryam; Bahrini, Aram; Shayanrad, Sepideh

    2015-12-01

    Oil and gas as the non-renewable resources are considered very valuable for the countries with petroleum economics. These resources are not only diffused equally around the world, but also they are common in some places which their neighbors often come into conflicts. Consequently, it is vital for those countries to manage their resource utilization. Lately, game theory was applied in conflict resolution of common resources, such as water, which is a proof of its efficacy and capability. This paper models the conflicts between Iran and its neighbors namely Qatar and Iraq between their oil and gas common resources using game theory approach. In other words, the future of these countries will be introduced and analyzed by some well-known 2 × 2 games to achieve a better perspective of their conflicts. Because of information inadequacy of the players, in addition to Nash Stability, various solution concepts are used based on the foresight, disimprovements, and knowledge of preferences. The results of mathematical models show how the countries could take a reasonable strategy to exploit their common resources.

  12. Future strategies for oil shale development as a new indigenous energy resource in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaber, J.O.; Tarawneh, T.

    2011-01-01

    Indigenous oil shale deposits could satisfy Jordan's demand for liquid and gaseous fuels as well as electricity for many centuries. Markets also exist for raw and retorted oil shale, spent shale, and for sulfur recovered during the upgrading and refining of crude shale oil. Although the potential benefits of oil shale development are substantial, complex and expensive facilities would be required, and these have serious economic, environmental, and social implications for the Kingdom and its people. In January 2006, the United States Trade and Development Agency (USTDA) awarded a grant to the Jordanian Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation to support the analysis of current oil shale processing technologies and the application of international expertise to the development of a oil shale industry in Jordan. The goal of the technical assistance project was to help the Government of Jordan (GoJ) establish short and long-term strategies for oil shale development and to facilitate the commercial production of shale oil in the country. This paper discusses the results of the project. The Kingdom's current energy situation and its previous work on oil shale are summarized, and the incentives and restraints on oil shale commercialization are described. Impediments to development are identified, and possible governmental responses are assessed. (author)

  13. Evaluation of restoration alternatives for natural resources injured by oil spills, first edition, October 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book builds upon previous work in the field of oil spill impact assessment and habitat restoration to assess the technical feasibility and practicability of proactive restoration following oil spills and presents an approach for evaluating tradeoffs between natural recovery and active restoration. The scenarios developed to represent a broad spectrum of possible oil spills were based on selected case studies. The report concludes that in general, available restoration techniques are not very effective for enhancing natural recovery and may in certain cases cause more severe impacts than the oil spill alone

  14. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2018-01-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province lies in the offshore area between western Greenland and eastern Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Nares Strait west of, and including, part of Kane Basin. A series of major tectonic events led to the formation of several distinct structural domains that are the geologic basis for defining five assessment units (AU ) in the province, all of which are within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS). Potential petroleum source rocks within the TPS include strata of Ordovician, Lower and Upper Cretaceous, and Paleogene ages. The five AUs defined for this study—the Eurekan Structures AU, Northwest Greenland Rifted Margin AU, Northeast Canada Rifted Margin AU, Baffin Bay Basin AU, and the Greater Ungava Fault Zone AU— encompass the entire province and were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the West GreenlandEast Canada Province are 10.7 billion barrels of oil, 75 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 1.7 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. For the part of the province that is north of the Arctic Circle, the estimated mean volumes of these undiscovered resources are 7.3 billion barrels of oil, 52 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.1 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  15. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Central Burma Basin and the Irrawaddy-Andaman and Indo-Burman Geologic Provinces, Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2012-01-01

    The Irrawaddy-Andaman and Indo-Burman Geologic Provinces were recently assessed for undiscovered technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.3 billion barrels of oil, 79.6 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 2.1 billion barrels of natrual gas liquids.

  16. A methodology for handling exploration risk and constructing supply curves for oil and gas plays when resources are stacked

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallaire, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    The use of project economics to estimate full-cycle supply prices for undiscovered oil and gas resources is a straightforward exercise for those regions where oil and gas plays are not vertically superimposed on one another, ie. are not stacked. Exploration risk is incorporated into such an analysis by using a simple two-outcome decision tree model to include the costs of dry and abandoned wells. The decision tree model can be expanded to include multiple targets or discoveries, but this expansion requires additional drilling statistics and resource assessment data. A methodology is suggested to include exploration risk in the preparation of supply curves when stacked resources are expected and little or no information on uphole resources is available. In this method, all exploration costs for wells drilled to targets in the play being evaluated are assigned to that play, rather than prorated among the multiple targets or discoveries. Undiscovered pools are assumed to either bear all exploration costs (full cycle discoveries) or no exploration costs (half cycle discoveries). The weighted full- and half-cycle supply price is shown to be a more realistic estimate of the supply price of undiscovered pools in a play when stacked resources exist. The statistics required for this methodology are minimal, and resource estimates for prospects in other zones are not required. The equation relating the average pool finding cost to the discovery record is applicable to different scenarios regarding the presence of shallower and deeper resources. The equation derived for the two-outcome decision tree model is shown to be a special case of the general expression. 5 refs., 7 figs

  17. A tale of two countries : blessed with huge heavy oil resources, Canada and Venezuela pursue different paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, C.

    2005-01-01

    Both Canada and Venezuela are rich in heavy oil resources. This article presented an overview of current development activities in both countries. International interest in the oil sands region has been highlighted by the French oil company Total's acquisition of Deer Creek Energy Ltd in Alberta for $1.35 billion. The acquisition supports the company's strategy of expanding heavy oil operations in the Athabasca region. With 47 per cent participation in the Sincor project, Total is already a major player in Venezuela. Although the Sincor project is one of the world's largest developments, future investment is in jeopardy due to an unpredictable government and shifts in policy by the state-run oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA). The country's energy minister has recently announced that all existing agreements will be terminated as of December 31, 2005. The government has allowed 6 months for companies to enter into new agreements with new terms. Under revised rules, foreign companies will be required to pay income tax at a rate of 50 per cent. The rate will be applied retroactively to profits made over the last 5 years. Under the new law, agreements could be established under the terms of mixed companies, where Venezuela will have majority equity in the company that exploits the oil. In addition, the government has accused companies of not paying the required income tax levels on contracts, and some companies have been fined as much as $100 million. It was suggested that current difficulties are the result of an incoherent energy policy and an unstable regime. The international oil and gas community is watching developments, and it was anticipated that parties previously considering Venezuela as an investment opportunity will now reconsider. By contrast, Alberta has been praised by oil companies for its stable regulatory regime and its reasonable royalty structure. Thanks to a purge of 18,000 employees from PDVSA by Venezuelan president, Alberta is now

  18. Overseas oil-development policy of resource-poor countries: A case study from Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Masanari; Mogi, Gento; Albedaiwi, Waleed H.

    2008-01-01

    Japan, currently the world's third largest oil consumer, depends on imports for almost all of its oil needs. Owing to this high level of dependence, Japanese citizens as well as the economy have historically been vulnerable. In the past, certain incidents caused by the interruption of oil imports have resulted in fatal damages to the country. In order to reduce these risks, the Japanese government has supported overseas exploration and development activities of the domestic upstream oil industry, which has not proven as successful as expected. This paper presents the experiences, policies, and the structure of Japan's attempts to increase the share of domestic oil needs met by development activities. While conducting this study, both internal and external constraints were encountered. In addition to the lack of domestic oil reserves, factors including the institutional design of cooperation between government and private industries, the early history of the upstream industry, the target area of overseas development, and the changing environment have created impediments toward achieving the targets. In 2006, Japan again set a new target for doubling the ratio of self-developed oil in its total imports by 2030, and will face challenges in clearing the above-mentioned hurdles

  19. Biomarker chemistry and flux quantification methods for natural petroleum seeps and produced oils, offshore southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, T.D.; Leifer, Ira; Wong, Florence L.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Hostettler, Frances D.; Greinert, Jens; Finlayson, David P.; Bradley, Eliza S.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained, natural oil seepage from the seafloor is common off southern California, and is of great interest to resource managers, who are tasked with distinguishing natural from anthropogenic oil sources. The major purpose of this study was to build upon the work previously funded by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that has refined the oil-fingerprinting process to enable differentiation of the highly similar Monterey Formation oils from Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) production and adjacent natural seeps. In these initial studies, biomarker and stable carbon isotope ratios were used to infer the age, lithology, organic-matter input, and depositional environment of the source rocks for 388 samples of produced crude oil, seep oil, and tarballs mainly from coastal California. The analysis resulted in a predictive model of oil source families that could be applied to samples of unknown origin.

  20. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peggy Robinson

    2004-07-01

    This report contains a summary of activities of Gnomon, Inc. and five subcontractors that have taken place during the first six months of 2004 (January 1, 2004-June 30, 2004) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement: ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil & Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming'', DE-FC26-02NT15445. Although Gnomon and all five subcontractors completed tasks during these six months, most of the technical experimental work was conducted by the subcontractor, SRI Foundation (SRIF). SRIF created a sensitivity model for the Azotea Mesa area of southeastern New Mexico that rates areas as having a very good chance, a good chance, or a very poor chance of containing cultural resource sites. SRIF suggested that the results of the sensitivity model might influence possible changes in cultural resource management (CRM) practices in the Azote Mesa area of southeastern New Mexico.

  1. Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerle, William; Hall, Stephen

    2005-12-30

    In 2002, Gnomon, Inc., entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for a project entitled, Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming (DE-FC26-02NT15445). This project, funded through DOE’s Preferred Upstream Management Practices grant program, examined cultural resource management practices in two major oil- and gas-producing areas, southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming (Figure 1). The purpose of this project was to examine how cultural resources have been investigated and managed and to identify more effective management practices. The project also was designed to build information technology and modeling tools to meet both current and future management needs. The goals of the project were described in the original proposal as follows: Goal 1. Create seamless information systems for the project areas. Goal 2. Examine what we have learned from archaeological work in the southeastern New Mexico oil fields and whether there are better ways to gain additional knowledge more rapidly or at a lower cost. Goal 3. Provide useful sensitivity models for planning, management, and as guidelines for field investigations. Goal 4. Integrate management, investigation, and decision- making in a real-time electronic system. Gnomon, Inc., in partnership with the Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office (WYSHPO) and Western GeoArch Research, carried out the Wyoming portion of the project. SRI Foundation, in partnership with the New Mexico Historic Preservation Division (NMHPD), Statistical Research, Inc., and Red Rock Geological Enterprises, completed the New Mexico component of the project. Both the New Mexico and Wyoming summaries concluded with recommendations how cultural resource management (CRM) processes might be modified based on the findings of this research.

  2. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in Aptian carbonates, onshore northern Gulf of Mexico Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Karlsen, Alexander W.

    2014-01-01

    Carbonate lithofacies of the Lower Cretaceous Sligo Formation and James Limestone were regionally evaluated using established U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment methodology for undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources. The assessed area is within the Upper Jurassic–Cretaceous–Tertiary Composite total petroleum system, which was defined for the assessment. Hydrocarbons reservoired in carbonate platform Sligo-James oil and gas accumulations are interpreted to originate primarily from the Jurassic Smackover Formation. Emplacement of hydrocarbons occurred via vertical migration along fault systems; long-range lateral migration also may have occurred in some locations. Primary reservoir facies include porous patch reefs developed over paleostructural salt highs, carbonate shoals, and stacked linear reefs at the carbonate shelf margin. Hydrocarbon traps dominantly are combination structural-stratigraphic. Sealing lithologies include micrite, calcareous shale, and argillaceous lime mudstone. A geologic model, supported by discovery history analysis of petroleum geology data, was used to define a single regional assessment unit (AU) for conventional reservoirs in carbonate facies of the Sligo Formation and James Limestone. The AU is formally entitled Sligo-James Carbonate Platform Oil and Gas (50490121). A fully risked mean undiscovered technically recoverable resource in the AU of 50 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 791 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 26 million barrels of natural gas liquids was estimated. Substantial new development through horizontal drilling has occurred since the time of this assessment (2010), resulting in cumulative production of >200 BCFG and >1 MMBO.

  3. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Red Sea Basin Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 5 billion barrels of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and 112 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas in the Red Sea Basin Province using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  4. Small scale wind power harnessing in Colombian oil industry facilities: Wind resource and technology issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraldo, Mauricio; Nieto, Cesar; Escudero, Ana C.; Cobos, Juan C.; Delgado, Fernando

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Looking to improve its national and international standing, Colombia's national oil company, Ecopetrol, has set its goal on becoming involved on the production of energy from multiple sources, most importantly, on having an important percentage of its installed capacity from renewable sources. Part of this effort entices the evaluation of wind power potential on its facilities, including production, transportation and administrative, as well as identifying those technologies most suitable for the specific conditions of an equatorial country such as Colombia. Due to the lack of adequate site information, the first step consisted in superimposing national data to the facilities map of the company; this allowed for the selection of the first set of potential sites. From this set, the terminal at Covenas-Sucre was selected taking into account not only wind resource, but ease of access and power needs, as well as having a more or less representative wind potential in comparison to the rest of the country. A weather station was then installed to monitor wind variables. Measurements taken showed high variations in wind direction, and relatively low velocity profiles, making most commercially available wind turbines difficult to implement. In light of the above, a series of iterative steps were taken, first considering a range of individual Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT), given their capacity to adapt to changing wind directions. However, wind speed variations proved to be a challenge for individual VAWT's, i.e. Darriues turbines do not work well with low wind speeds, and Savonius turbines are not efficient of high wind speeds. As a result, a combined Darrieus- Savonius VAWT was selected given the capacity to adapt to both wind regimes, while at the same time modifying the size and shape of the blades in order to adapt to the lower average wind speeds present at the site. The resulting prototype is currently under construction and is scheduled to

  5. Impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development on recreation and tourism. Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-01

    The study was intended to provide the Mineral Management Service (MMS) with an analytical tool to evaluate possible economic impacts from Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development. In particular, the study was designed to provide MMS staff who work on lease sale Energy Impact Statements with an objective technique for estimating the impacts to coastal communities from events that might occur as a result of lease sales: oil spills, onshore construction, and construction of platforms offshore. The project had several specific objectives: (1) provide profiles of 1982 socio-economic conditions in coastal communities, including an analysis of the relative importance of the tourist industry in each coastal county; (2) develop a methodology for determining the effects of OCS development on coastal recreation; and recommend mitigation measure that may reduce the negative effect of OCS development on coastal recreation using gravity and economic effects models.

  6. U.S. Geological Survey 2011 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cook Inlet region, south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.; Pierce, Brenda S.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has completed an assessment of the volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in conventional and continuous accumulations in Cook Inlet. The assessment used a geology-based methodology and results from new scientific research by the USGS and the State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys and Division of Oil and Gas (DOG). In the Cook Inlet region, the USGS estimates mean undiscovered volumes of nearly 600 million barrels of oil, about 19 trillion cubic feet of gas, and about 46 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  7. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  8. Natural Resources Investment of Oil and Gas and Regional Development Impact on Community Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Nyak Baik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was done in Bekasi district, at West Java, Indonesia, with the aims to analyze the management of upstream activities (exploration and production of oil and gas industry and its impact on improving the quality of infrastructure, the equal benefits proportion for the corporation, local government and society, and CSR programs that would affect the community empowerment. The analysis would be calculated based on the per capita income, the number of medical personals, and the number of teachers. Based on that calculation, this study analyzed the impact of oil and gas activities to the regional development of the area under this study. Analysis of regional development was calculated through number of industry in the area, the economic growth, and local government revenue that affects community empowerment in Bekasi.Analyzed by structural equation modeling (SEM, the results showed that: (1 management of upstream oil and gas activities in this area have a positive influence, but no significant effect on community empowerment; (2 management of upstream oil and gas activities have a significant positive impact on regional development; (3 regional development has a significant positive impact on community empowerment; (4 management of upstream oil and gas activities have a greater positive influence towards community empowerment through regional development, because of the multiplier effect of the development of the region.

  9. Oil Federalism In Iraq: Resource Curse, Patronage Networks and Stability. Case Studies of Baghdad, Kurdistan and the Advent of ISIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Bilal A.

    Petroleum wealth is the lifeblood of Iraq, with the potential to promote prosperity, or become a curse that destabilizes the country and interrupts its economic and political development. The management and sharing of petroleum wealth has been at the center of economic, political and security developments in Iraq since the country's invasion in 2003. This study analyzes Iraq's experiment with petrofederalism, the influence of different actors (e.g. international oil companies and ISIS), and the emergence of Iraqi Kurdistan as a petroregion. Using case study method, it demonstrates how patronage politics exacerbated resource curse in Iraq and resulted in instability.

  10. Physical Basis for Creating Energy and Resource-Saving Rheo-Technology in Oil Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin A. Panakhov

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper we presented the results of our investigations on the application of externally imposed temperature fields for the improvement of the non-Newtonian properties of raw oil in the well and also on the possible use of electric and magnetic fields in the water flooding process of the oil layer. In this article, some additional results are presented with regards to the application of external pressure fields to the same purpose, with the goal of increasing the well output and improve the efficiency of gaslift wells and oil pipelines. The possibility of regulating the gas-liquid system saturation pressure is discussed as well, to expand the opportunity of varying the well operating regime.

  11. The environmental, social and ethical aspects of multinational corporations exploiting oil resources in Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newcombe, A.; Evangelio, A.; Revilla, P.

    2013-01-01

    Extraction of oil promises economic growth in many developing countries but almost inevitably brings environmental and social degradation with it. In this paper we explore the environmental, social and ethical aspects of multinational companies' (MNCs) oil exploration and production in Ecuador...... and we analyze several different protective regulatory management strategies that could help eliminate negative impacts. We use Drivers Pressures State Impacts Responses (DPSIR)-analysis to understand the interconnectivity of the current situation whereas we use stakeholder analysis to identify the most...... that MNCs disregard legal rules from their country of origin to profit from limited and ineffective environmental law in developing countries. A number of regulatory strategies exist that could resolve the situation including; the temporary banning of MNCs to extract oil, expansion of the Yasuní...

  12. Oil and gas resources of the Cheat Mountain Further Planning Area (RARE II), Randolph County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, E.G.

    1981-01-01

    The Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and related acts require the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines to survey certain areas on Federal lands to determine their mineral resource potential. Results must be made available to the public and be submitted to the President and the Congress. This map presents an analysis of the oil and gas resources of the Cheat Mountain Further Planning Area in the Monongahela National Forest, Randolph County, West Virginia. The area was classified as a further planning area during the Second Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II) by the U.S. Forest Service, January 1979.

  13. Assessment of shale-oil resources of the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2015-11-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 459 million barrels of shale oil, 275 billion cubic feet of associated gas, and 23 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia.

  14. Renewable resources in the chemical industry--breaking away from oil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhoff, Stefan; Höcker, Hans; Gebhardt, Henrike

    2007-12-01

    Rising prices for fossil-based raw materials suggest that sooner or later renewable raw materials will, in principle, become economically viable. This paper examines this widespread paradigm. Price linkages like those seen for decades particularly in connection with petrochemical raw materials are now increasingly affecting renewable raw materials. The main driving force is the competing utilisation as an energy source because both fossil-based and renewable raw materials are used primarily for heat, electrical power and mobility. As a result, prices are determined by energy utilisation. Simple observations show how prices for renewable carbon sources are becoming linked to the crude oil price. Whether the application calls for sugar, starch, virgin oils or lignocellulose, the price for the raw material rises with the oil price. Consequently, expectations regarding price trends for fossil-based energy sources can also be utilised for the valuation of alternative processes. However, this seriously calls into question the assumption that a rising crude oil price will favour the economic viability of alternative products and processes based on renewable raw materials. Conversely, it follows that these products and processes must demonstrate economic viability today. Especially in connection with new approaches in white biotechnology, it is evident that, under realistic assumptions, particularly in terms of achievable yields and the optimisation potential of the underlying processes, the route to utilisation is economically viable. This makes the paradigm mentioned at the outset at least very questionable.

  15. Pesticides; resource recovery; hazardous substances and oil spill responses; waste disposal; biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In the category of pesticides this volume features close to sixty standard test method, practices, and guides for evaluating the properties and efficacy of pesticides and antimicrobial agents. Also covered are standards for hazardous substances, oil spell responses, waste disposal, and biological effects of these materials

  16. The oil and gas resource potential of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 1002 area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1999-01-01

    In anticipation of the need for scientific support for policy decisions and in light of the decade-old perspective of a previous assessment, the USGS has completed a reassessment of the petroleum potential of the ANWR 1002 area. This was a comprehensive study by a team of USGS scientists in collaboration on technical issues (but not the assessment) with colleagues in other agencies and universities. The study incorporated all available public data and included new field and analytic work as well as the reevaluation of all previous work.Using a methodology similar to that used in previous USGS assessments in the ANWR and the NPRA, this study estimates that the total quantity of technically recoverable oil in the 1002 area is 7.7 BBO (mean value), which is distributed among 10 plays. Using a conservative estimate of 512 million barrels as a minimum commercially developable field size, then about 2.6 BBO of oil distributed in about three fields is expected to be economically recoverable in the undeformed part of the 1002 area. Using a similar estimated minimum field size, which may not be conservative considering the increased distance from infrastructure, the deformed area would be expected to have about 600 MMBO in one field.The amounts of in-place oil estimated for the 1002 area are larger than previous USGS estimates. The increase results in large part from improved resolution of reprocessed seismic data and geologic analogs provided by recent nearby oil discoveries.

  17. Study on Resources Assessment of Coal Seams covered by Long-Distance Oil & Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Fu, Qiang; Pan, Wei; Hou, Hanfang

    2018-01-01

    The assessment of mineral resources covered by construction projects plays an important role in reducing the overlaying of important mineral resources and ensuring the smooth implementation of construction projects. To take a planned long-distance gas pipeline as an example, the assessment method and principles for coal resources covered by linear projects are introduced. The areas covered by multiple coal seams are determined according to the linear projection method, and the resources covered by pipelines directly and indirectly are estimated by using area segmentation method on the basis of original blocks. The research results can provide references for route optimization of projects and compensation for mining right..

  18. A genomics resource for investigating regulation of essential oil production in Lavandula angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Alexander; Boecklemann, Astrid; Woronuk, Grant N; Sarker, Lukman; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2010-03-01

    We are developing Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) as a model system for investigating molecular regulation of essential oil (a mixture of mono- and sesquiterpenes) production in plants. As an initial step toward building the necessary 'genomics toolbox' for this species, we constructed two cDNA libraries from lavender leaves and flowers, and obtained sequence information for 14,213 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Based on homology to sequences present in GenBank, our EST collection contains orthologs for genes involved in the 1-deoxy-D: -xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) and the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathways of terpenoid biosynthesis, and for known terpene synthases and prenyl transferases. To gain insight into the regulation of terpene metabolism in lavender flowers, we evaluated the transcriptional activity of the genes encoding for 1-deoxy-D: -xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR), which represent regulatory steps of the DXP and MVA pathways, respectively, in glandular trichomes (oil glands) by real-time PCR. While HMGR transcripts were barely detectable, DXS was heavily expressed in this tissue, indicating that essential oil constituents are predominantly produced through the DXP pathway in lavender glandular trichomes. As anticipated, the linalool synthase (LinS)-the gene responsible for the production of linalool, a major constituent of lavender essential oil-was also strongly expressed in glands. Surprisingly, the most abundant transcript in floral glandular trichomes corresponded to a sesquiterpene synthase (cadinene synthase, CadS), although sesquiterpenes are minor constituents of lavender essential oils. This result, coupled to the weak activity of the MVA pathway (the main route for sesquiterpene production) in trichomes, indicates that precursor supply may represent a bottleneck in the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in lavender flowers.

  19. Implications of land and resource management planning for the oil and gas industry in B.C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.; Mitchell, W.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the land use planning work underway in British Columbia and its impact on the oil and gas industry was presented. The plans are to double the park and protected areas in the province. Historically, parks in the province were designated on the basis of advice from technical staff with a small amount of public consultation. Today, public debate about the establishment of new protected areas has made several significant several changes to the decision-making process in British Columbia. The result is a process that although complex, provides better understanding between industry, environmental interests and government. As an illustration of the effectiveness of this process, the issue of finding innovative solutions to resource development interests while respecting environmental values, such as the management objectives for the Muskwa Kechika Area in northeast British Columbia, and the opportunity for directional oil and gas drilling under selected new protected areas were discussed. Application of the process was also demonstrated in discussing the two sub-regional Land and Resource Management Plans (LRMP) in Fort Nelson and Fort St. John, which cover a remote wild area of almost fourteen and a half million hectares in the northeast corner of the province. The economy of the region is based on agriculture, natural gas exploration and development, forest products, and nature based tourism. The LRMP process allowed the government to consider and accept the concept of directional drilling under some new protected areas as long as there were no surface disturbances

  20. Finance and Oil. Is There a Resource Curse in Financial Development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that the finance and growth relationship is as important in resource-based economies as in other economies. This paper also documents less developed financial systems in resource-based economies and banks that are more liquid, better capitalized and more profitable, but give fewer

  1. Finance and Oil. Is there a Resource Curse in Financial Development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that the finance and growth relationship is as important in resource-based economies as in other economies. This paper also documents less developed financial systems in resource-based economies and banks that are more liquid, better capitalized and more profitable, but give fewer

  2. State information needs related to onshore and nearshore effects of OCS petroleum development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.C.; Stang, P.R.; Hyde, B.

    1977-01-01

    The United States currently has underway a program to develop tracts on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for their petroleum resources that can have significant impact on and near the shore. The potentially affected States bordering the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the Gulf of Mexico have expressed serious concerns about the availability and adequacy of the information they need to make planning and management decisions about onshore activities and impacts related to OCS petroleum development. This report discusses state policies, major concerns, organization, planning approaches and relation to other state planning efforts.

  3. An approach to managing cumulative effects to groundwater resources in the Alberta oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fennell, J.; Forrest, Francine; Klebek, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    In the Athabasca region of Northern Alberta, oil sands activity has raised many concerns over how mining and extracting processes might affect groundwater quality and quantity. The groundwater management framework was developed by Alberta Environment to address these concerns by identifying and managing the potential environmental effects of oil sands activity on groundwater in a science-based manner. This paper develops the framework using risk identification and performance monitoring. The decision-making approach was conducted using decision support tools such as modeling, monitoring and management. Results showed the complexity and variability of groundwater conditions in the Athabasca region and pointed out that knowledge in this area is still developing. This paper presented how the groundwater management framework was developed and pointed out that it will have to be updated as new information arrives.

  4. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  5. GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Kurevija, Tomislav; Kukulj, Nenad; Rajković, Damir

    2007-01-01

    Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned...

  6. Oil geopolitics and its implications to the production and technological strategies for the usage of brazilian oil resources; Geopolitica do petroleo e suas implicacoes sobre as estrategias produtivas e tecnologicas para o aproveitamento dos recursos petroliferos nacionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Giovani [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico. Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP, PRH-21

    2004-07-01

    This study evaluates the implications of different geopolitics scenarios over the productive and technological strategies for exploiting national oil resources. Initially, it discusses the international oil market fundamentals, focusing the dynamics of the light-heavy prices differential. Then, it analysis the effects three possible scenarios over such market fundamentals: Strong OPEC due to 'reinforcement of the price band mechanism discipline'; Weak OPEC due to 'market contestation' (productive empowerment of non-OPEC countries or quitting of OPEC member-countries interested in getting more productive autonomy - such as Algeria, Nigeria and, eventually, Iraq); and, Weak OPEC due to 'strategies to reduce geopolitics vulnerability' (minimization of supply disruption risks). Afterwards, it evaluates the impacts of those scenarios over the productive and technological strategies for exploiting national oil resources. Finally, it concludes that the scenarios of Strong OPEC and Weak OPEC due to 'strategies to reduce geopolitics vulnerability' are the most favorable for the exploitation of national oil resources, whilst the scenario Weak OPEC due to 'market contestation' would challenge the oil companies operating in the country to generate productive and technology strategies which strongly promotes E and P cost reduction in Brazil in order to maintain the competitiveness of the national oil. (author)

  7. Utilization of selected biorenewable resources: solubilization of lignocellulosics and conjugation of soybean oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshel, Reed E. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, concern has risen over the use of fossil fuels due to their contribution to global warming, and to our dependence on imports of petroleum from nations that could pose a threat to national security. As a result, it has become increasingly important to develop technologies to replace fossil fuel based products with biorenewable alternatives. In this thesis nearly quantitative solubilization of lignocellulosic materials using phosphite esters has been realized, and is presented as a potential pretreatment for production of fermentable sugars for use in manufacturing commodity chemicals, specifically ethanol. Water solubilization of lignocellulosics using phosphite esters will enhance digestibility by disrupting the lignocellulose structure, changing cellulose morphology, and cleaving some glycosidic bonds. In a second project, soybean oil, which contains un-conjugated polyunsaturated fatty acid esters, is isomerized into oil containing conjugated polyunsaturates. The process is carried out under photochemical conditions using iodine as a catalyst in a hexanes solution to achieve 99% conjugation. The resulting conjugated soybean oil is demonstrated to have enhanced drying properties for use in alkyd resins.

  8. GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned regarding production of synthetic diesel fuel, known as GTL (Gas To Liquid. Most of the future GTL plants are planned in oil exporting countries, such are Qatar and Nigeria, where natural gas as by-product of oil production is being flared, losing in that way precious energy and profit. In that way, otherwise flared natural gas, will be transformed into synthetic diesel fuel which can be directly used in all modern diesel engines. Furthermore, fossil fuel transportation and distribution technology grid can be used without any significant changes. According to lower emissions of harmful gasses during combustion than fossil diesel, this fuel could in the future play a significant part of EU efforts to reach 23% of alternative fuel share till 2020., which are now mostly relied on biodiesel, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas and CNG (compressed natural gas.

  9. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, Russia, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The Timan-Pechora Basin Province is a triangular area that represents the northeasternmost cratonic block of east European Russia. A 75-year history of petroleum exploration and production in the area there has led to the discovery of more than 16 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and 40 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG). Three geologic assessment units (AUs) were defined for assessing the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources in the province: (1) the Northwest Izhma Depression AU, which includes all potential structures and reservoirs that formed in the northwestern part of the Izhma-Pechora Depression, although this part of the basin contains only sparse source and reservoir rocks and so was not assessed quantitatively; (2) the Main Basin Platform AU, which includes all potential structures and reservoirs that formed in the central part of the basin, where the tectonic and petroleum system evolution was complex; and (3) the Foredeep Basins AU, which includes all potential structures and reservoirs that formed within the thick sedimentary section of the foredeep basins west of the Uralian fold and thrust belt during the Permian and Triassic Uralian orogeny.For the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, the estimated means of undiscovered resources are 3.3 BBO, 17 TCFG, and 0.3 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids (BBNGL). For the AU areas north of the Arctic Circle in the province, the estimated means of undiscovered resources are 1.7 BBO, 9.0 TCFG, and 0.2 BBNGL. These assessment results indicate that exploration in the Timan-Pechora Basin Province is at a mature level.

  10. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for access, airports, archaeological sites, artificial reefs, boat ramps, camping sites, Coast Guard stations,...

  11. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains socioeconomic resource data for the following types of locations in Central California: access, airport, aquaculture, beach, boat ramp, USCG...

  12. Economic impacts of natural resources on a regional economy: the case of the pre-salt oil discoveries in Espirito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Amaral Haddad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian government has recently confirmed the discovery of a huge oil and natural gas field in the pre-salt layer of the country’s southeastern coast. It has been said that the oil fields can boost Brazil’s oil production and turn the country into one of the largest oil producers in the world. The fields are spatially concentrated in the coastal areas of a few Brazilian states that may directly benefit from oil production. This paper uses an interregional computable general equilibrium model to assess the impacts of pre-salt on the economy of the State of Espírito Santo, a region already characterized by an economic base that is heavily reliant on natural resources. We focus our analysis on the structural economic impacts on the local economy

  13. Biogasoline Production from Palm Oil Via Catalytic Hydrocracking over Gamma-Alumina Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anondho Wijanarko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Bio gasoline conversion from palm oil is an alternative energy resources method which can be substituted fossil fuel base energy utilization. Previous research resulted that palm oil can be converted into hydrocarbon by catalytic cracking reaction with γ-alumina catalyst. In this research, catalytic cracking reaction of palm oil by γ-alumina catalyst is done in  a stirrer batch reactor with the oil/catalyst weight ratio variation of 100:1, 75:1, and 50:1; at suhue variation of 260 to 340oC and reaction time variation of 1 to 2 hour. Post cracking reaction, bio gasoline yield could be obtained after 2 steps batch distillation. Physical property test result such as density and viscosity of this cracking reaction product and commercial gasoline tended a closed similarity. According to result of the cracking product's density, viscosity and FTIR, it  can conclude that optimum yield of the palm oil catalytic cracking reaction could be occurred when oil/catalyst weight  ratio 100:1 at 340 oC in 1.5 hour and base on this bio gasoline's FTIR, GC and GC-MS identification results, its  hydrocarbons content was resembled to the commercial  gasoline. This palm oil catalytic cracking reaction shown 11.8% (v/v in yield and 28.0% (v/v in conversion concern to feed palm oil base and produced a 61.0 octane number's biogasoline.

  14. 77 FR 40081 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning Area (CPA), Oil and Gas Lease Sales for 2012-2017 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability...

  15. Auctions for coastal energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Robert M.

    It is becoming increasingly common to allocate public resources to the private sector for the purpose of developing these resources. One of the earliest uses of auctions in the U.S. for allocating rights to public resources was in the offshore oil and gas industry. The U.S. Federal government, through the Department of Interior (DOI), has used auctions to allocate development rights to offshore oil and gas resources to the private sector since the 1950's. Since then many things have changed. Oil and gas markets have gone through boom and bust cycles, giant technological advances in extraction and assessment have taken place, and alternative energy based in the coastal zone is now in demand in markets as well. There has been an enormous amount of research into the drivers of bidder behavior in auctions and optimal auction design in the last 60 years as well. Throughout all of this, the DOI has continued to use basically the same exact auction design to allocate oil and gas leases. The U.S. offshore oil and gas resources sold by the Department of Interior have accounted for more than $65 billion in revenue since the program started. These offshore resources are an important source of government revenue and national wealth. Additionally, the expansion of the energy sector offshore has enormous potential for electricity generation in the U.S., estimated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory as approaching 54 gigawatts by 2030 (U.S. Department of Energy, 2008). Taken together, the DOI controls access to a large part of the future of energy in the U.S. The research herein assesses the auction formats used to allocate both fossil fuels and renewable resources on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). The first manuscript looks at the current method used by the DOI to allocate oil and gas leases on the OCS, and is primarily interested in how bidders behave in this environment. Using latent class estimation techniques to separate distinct bidding behavior in a laboratory

  16. Integrated Synthesis of the Permian Basin: Data and Models for Recovering Existing and Undiscovered Oil Resources from the Largest Oil-Bearing Basin in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Jackson; Katherine Jackson

    2008-09-30

    Large volumes of oil and gas remain in the mature basins of North America. This is nowhere more true than in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico. A critical barrier to recovery of this vast remaining resource, however, is information. Access to accurate geological data and analyses of the controls of hydrocarbon distribution is the key to the knowledge base as well as the incentives needed by oil and gas companies. The goals of this project were to collect, analyze, synthesize, and deliver to industry and the public fundamental information and data on the geology of oil and gas systems in the Permian Basin. This was accomplished in two ways. First we gathered all available data, organized it, and placed it on the web for ready access. Data include core analysis data, lists of pertinent published reports, lists of available cores, type logs, and selected PowerPoint presentations. We also created interpretive data such as type logs, geological cross sections, and geological maps and placed them in a geospatially-registered framework in ARC/GIS. Second, we created new written syntheses of selected reservoir plays in the Permian basin. Although only 8 plays were targeted for detailed analysis in the project proposal to DOE, 14 were completed. These include Ellenburger, Simpson, Montoya, Fusselman, Wristen, Thirtyone, Mississippian, Morrow, Atoka, Strawn, Canyon/Cisco, Wolfcamp, Artesia Group, and Delaware Mountain Group. These fully illustrated reports include critical summaries of published literature integrated with new unpublished research conducted during the project. As such these reports provide the most up-to-date analysis of the geological controls on reservoir development available. All reports are available for download on the project website and are also included in this final report. As stated in our proposal, technology transfer is perhaps the most important component of the project. In addition to providing direct access to data and reports through

  17. Oil Well Bottom Hole Locations, This GIS data set was produced as a general reference for the Department of Natural Resources, the oil and gas industry, environmental and regulatory agencies, landowners, and the public., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University (LSU).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Oil Well Bottom Hole Locations dataset current as of 2007. This GIS data set was produced as a general reference for the Department of Natural Resources, the oil and...

  18. 30 CFR 250.220 - If I propose activities in the Alaska OCS Region, what planning information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Region, what planning information must accompany the EP? 250.220 Section 250.220 Mineral Resources... activities in the Alaska OCS Region, what planning information must accompany the EP? If you propose exploration activities in the Alaska OCS Region, the following planning information must accompany your EP: (a...

  19. China’s Aid and Oil-for-Infrastructure in Nigeria: Resource-Driven or Development Motive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gold Kafilah Lola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s ascent influences the Western aid dynamic significantly and changes the landscape in aid-donor and aid-recipient relationship for resource-endowed countries in Africa. Similarly, within China-Africa relations, Nigeria established diplomatic relations with China in 2006 for a concessional oil-for-infrastructure plan to fill the development aperture. However, Nigeria opted out as political uncertainty and elite interest in rent-seeking supersedes development and well-being motive. We conclude that two interrelated causal factors – accountability and transparency – overwhelmingly obstruct Nigeria from optimising China interest in infrastructure development. The study recommends the review of National Planning Commission (NPC 2007 ODA policy document on technical assistance, grants, and concessional loans to identify new problems and challenges associated with formulation and implementation of donor-assisted programmes.

  20. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources, onshore Claiborne Group, United Statespart of the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, P.C.; Ewing, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    The middle Eocene Claiborne Group was assessed for undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources using established U.S. Geological Survey assessment methodology. This work was conducted as part of a 2007 assessment of Paleogene-Neogene strata of the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin, including the United States onshore and state waters (Dubiel et al., 2007). The assessed area is within the Upper Jurassic-CretaceousTertiary composite total petroleum system, which was defined for the assessment. Source rocks for Claiborne oil accumulations are interpreted to be organic-rich, downdip, shaley facies of the Wilcox Group and the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group; gas accumulations may have originated from multiple sources, including the Jurassic Smackover Formation and the Haynesville and Bossier shales, the Cretaceous Eagle Ford and Pearsall (?) formations, and the Paleogene Wilcox Group and Sparta Sand. Hydrocarbon generation in the basin started prior to deposition of Claiborne sediments and is currently ongoing. Primary reservoir sandstones in the Claiborne Group include, from oldest to youngest, the Queen City Sand, Cook Mountain Formation, Sparta Sand, Yegua Formation, and the laterally equivalent Cockfield Formation. A geologic model, supported by spatial analysis of petroleum geology data, including discovered reservoir depths, thicknesses, temperatures, porosities, permeabilities, and pressures, was used to divide the Claiborne Group into seven assessment units (AUs) with three distinctive structural and depositional settings. The three structural and depositional settings are (1) stable shelf, (2) expanded fault zone, and (3) slope and basin floor; the seven AUs are (1) lower Claiborne stable-shelf gas and oil, (2) lower Claiborne expanded fault-zone gas, (3) lower Claiborne slope and basin-floor gas, (4) lower Claiborne Cane River, (5) upper Claiborne stable-shelf gas and oil, (6) upper Claiborne expanded fault-zone gas, and (7) upper Claiborne slope and basin

  1. Utilization of agro-resources by radiation treatment -production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Hashimoto, Shoji

    1993-01-01

    The production of animal feeds and mushrooms from oil palm cellulosic wastes by radiation and fermentation has been investigated in order to utilize the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EBF) by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 25 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus and P. sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased to 13% and the crude fiber content decreased to 20% after 30 days of incubation with C. cinereus at 30 o C in solid state fermentation. P. sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rice bran. (author)

  2. Utilization of agro-resources by radiation treatment -production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Hashimoto, Shoji; Awang, Mat Rasol; Hamdini, Hassan; Saitoh, Hideharu

    1993-10-01

    The production of animal feeds and mushrooms from oil palm cellulosic wasres by radiation and fermentation has been investigated in order to utilize the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EFB) by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 25 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus and P. sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased to 13 % and the crude fiber content decreased to 20% after 30 days of incubation with C. cinereus at 30°C in solid state fermentation. P. sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rice bran.

  3. Oil and natural gas energy plan for Canada, 1977--1985: Appendix D to Canada's resources and the national interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    Governments in Canada have made a number of changes in oil and gas policies and fiscal treatments recently. There remains a considerable question, however, whether Canada will have sufficient volumes of these two energy fuels available securely and economically in the years ahead. This report examines the position that oil and gas will occupy in Canada's energy future, and assesses the contribution that domestic supplies could provide. It was concluded that, under current and proposed royalty, taxation, and regulatory systems, the flow of investments into exploration and development will be insufficient to increase the domestic supply base to provide an acceptable level of future self-reliance. Additionally, because of jurisdictional factors, reinvestments from current production are not being directed to the areas of greatest resource potential in Canada. In order to illustrate the types and degrees of further policy and fiscal changes that are required, an investment program that could lead to a minimum acceptable level of production from Canadian sources was formulated. Recommendations for changes in fiscal regimes lead to a ''formula'' that directs 35 percent of net production revenue from current production to the exploration and development of new supplies; mobilizes new investment; and directs a greater portion of both these sources of funds to the development of potential supplies from remote and technologically difficult, high-risk areas. The implementation of this formula will require concessions by both the producing provinces and the Federal government together with commitments from producers.

  4. Oil and Water: Essays on the Economics of Natural Resource Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, Samuel

    As the developing world continues its pace of rapid growth and the threat of climate change intensifies, the economics of natural resource usage become increasingly important. From the perspective of both economic efficiency and distributional equity, effective policy design is correspondingly urgent. Market failures such as imperfect competition, externalities, and incomplete information plague resource markets everywhere; and both initial endowments and policy interventions often have regressive incidence. I shed light on some of these issues by studying the economics of natural resource usage in two separate empirical contexts. The first is the market for automotive fuel in Spain; I measure pass-through--the degree to which retail fuel stations "pass through" diesel taxes to final consumer prices--and use it assess the distributional impacts of energy policy. The second is the Ganga River Basin of India; I estimate the impacts of environmental regulation on river water quality and infant mortality. In both contexts, I utilize estimates of policy impacts to examine the underlying mechanisms by which affected consumers and suppliers of natural resources make decisions.

  5. Soil and Oil, Trees and Seas: Building Nations through Natural Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the activities of the tribal colleges and universities in building programs aimed at helping students and energy companies acquire the skills needed for employment in the natural resource industries around the Native nations. Students are learning many skills--welding, construction technology, and safety. Students are also…

  6. Water resources and shale gas/oil production in the Appalachian Basin: critical issues and evolving developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, William M.; Williams, John H.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional natural gas and oil resources in the United States are important components of a national energy program. While the Nation seeks greater energy independence and greener sources of energy, Federal agencies with environmental responsibilities, state and local regulators and water-resource agencies, and citizens throughout areas of unconventional shale gas development have concerns about the environmental effects of high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF), including those in the Appalachian Basin in the northeastern United States (fig. 1). Environmental concerns posing critical challenges include the availability and use of surface water and groundwater for hydraulic fracturing; the migration of stray gas and potential effects on overlying aquifers; the potential for flowback, formation fluids, and other wastes to contaminate surface water and groundwater; and the effects from drill pads, roads, and pipeline infrastructure on land disturbance in small watersheds and headwater streams (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2012). Federal, state, regional and local agencies, along with the gas industry, are striving to use the best science and technology to develop these unconventional resources in an environmentally safe manner. Some of these concerns were addressed in U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fact Sheet 2009–3032 (Soeder and Kappel, 2009) about potential critical effects on water resources associated with the development of gas extraction from the Marcellus Shale of the Hamilton Group (Ver Straeten and others, 1994). Since that time, (1) the extraction process has evolved, (2) environmental awareness related to high-volume hydraulic fracturing process has increased, (3) state regulations concerning gas well drilling have been modified, and (4) the practices used by industry to obtain, transport, recover, treat, recycle, and ultimately dispose of the spent fluids and solid waste materials have evolved. This report updates and expands on Fact Sheet 2009

  7. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Chukchi Borderland Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Kenneth J.; Houseknecht, David W.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2017-12-22

    The Chukchi Borderland is both a stand-alone petroleum province and assessment unit (AU) that lies north of the Chukchi Sea. It is a bathymetrically high-standing block of continental crust that was probably rifted from the Canadian continental margin. The sum of our knowledge of this province is based upon geophysical data (seismic, gravity, and magnetic) and a limited number of seafloor core and dredge samples. As expected from the limited data set, the basin’s petroleum potential is poorly known. A single assessment unit, the Chukchi Borderland AU, was defined and assigned an overall probability of about a 5 percent chance of at least one petroleum accumulation >50 million barrels of oil equivalent (MMBOE). No quantitative assessment of sizes and numbers of petroleum accumulations was conducted for this AU.

  8. Analysis of the permitting processes associated with exploration of Federal OCS leases. Final report. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    Under contract to the Office of Leasing Policy Development (LPDO), Jack Faucett Associates is currently undertaking the description and analysis of the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) regulatory process to determine the nature of time delays that affect OCS production of oil and gas. This report represents the results of the first phase of research under this contract, the description and analysis of regulatory activity associated with exploration activities on the Federal OCS. Volume 1 contains the following three sections: (1) study results; (2) Federal regulatory activities during exploration of Federal OCS leases which involved the US Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency, US Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers, and National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration; and (3) state regulatory activities during exploration of Federal OCS leases of Alaska, California, Louisiana, Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina and Texas. Volume II contains appendices of US Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency, Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers, the Coastal Zone Management Act, and Alaska. The major causes of delay in the regulatory process governing exploration was summarized in four broad categories: (1) the long and tedious process associated with the Environmental Protection Agency's implementation of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit; (2) thelack of mandated time periods for the completion of individual activities in the permitting process; (3) the lack of overall coordination of OCS exploratory regulation; and (4) the inexperience of states, the Federal government and industry relating to the appropriate level of regulation for first-time lease sale areas.

  9. Executive Summary -- assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the San Joaquin Basin Province of California, 2003: Chapter 1 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald L.; Scheirer, Allegra Hosford; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; French, Christopher D.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the oil and gas resource potential of the San Joaquin Basin Province of California (fig. 1.1). The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each Total Petroleum System defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock type and maturation and hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined five total petroleum systems and ten assessment units within these systems. Undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively estimated for the ten assessment units (table 1.1). In addition, the potential was estimated for further growth of reserves in existing oil fields of the San Joaquin Basin.

  10. On the differences between 1.5oC and 2oC of global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Paris Agreement of 2015 has resulted in a drive to limit global warming to 2oC with an aim for a lower 1.5oC target. It is therefore vital that we understand some of the differences we would expect between these two levels of global warming. My research uses coupled climate model projections to investigate where and for what variables we can differentiate between worlds of 1.5oC and 2oC global warming. I place a particular focus on climate extremes and population exposure to those extremes. I have found that there are perceptible benefits in limiting global warming to 1.5oC as opposed to 2oC through reduced frequency and intensity of heat extremes, both over land and in ocean areas where thermal stress on coral has resulted in bleaching. Differences in high and low precipitation extremes between the 1.5oC and 2oC global warming levels are projected for some regions. I have also examined how "scalable" changes from the 1.5oC to 2oC level are. In areas of the world such as Eastern China I find that changes in anthropogenic aerosol concentrations will influence the level of change projected at 1.5oC and 2oC, such that past warming is likely to be a poor indicator of future changes. Overall, my research finds clear benefits to limiting global warming to 1.5oC relative to higher levels.

  11. On the portents of peak oil (and other indicators of resource scarcity)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, James L.

    2012-01-01

    Economists have studied various indicators of resource scarcity but largely ignored the phenomenon of “peaking” due to its connection to non-economic (physical) theories of resource exhaustion. I consider peaking from the economic point of view, where economic forces determine the shape of the equilibrium extraction path. Within that framework, I ask whether the timing of peak production reveals anything useful about scarcity. I find peaking to be an ambiguous indicator. If someone announced the peak would arrive earlier than expected, and you believed them, you would not know whether the news was good or bad. However, I also show that the traditional economic indicators of resource scarcity (price, cost, and rent) fare no better, and argue that previous studies have misconstrued the connection between changes in underlying scarcity and movements in these traditional indicators. - Highlights: ► We ask whether “peak oil” provides a useful economic indicator of scarcity. ► Timing of the peak follows Hotelling's model of inter-temporal equilibrium. ► The peak provides an ambiguous signal. ► Unexpectedly early peaking could be good news or bad. ► The traditional indicators (cost, price, and rent) do not fare much better.

  12. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Domanik-type formations of the Volga-Ural Region Province, Russia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2018-02-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 2.8 billion barrels of oil and 34 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Domanik-type formations of the Volga-Ural Region Province, Russia.

  13. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-11

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional resources of 1.1 billion barrels of oil and 2.2 trillion cubic feet of gas in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China.

  14. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Uteland Butte Member of the Eocene Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-09-03

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered resources of 214 million barrels of oil, 329 billion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 14 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the informal Uteland Butte member of the Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah.

  15. "Green" composites from renewable resources: preparation of epoxidized soybean oil and flax fiber composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zengshe; Erhan, Sevim Z; Akin, Danny E; Barton, Franklin E

    2006-03-22

    In recent years there has been considerable interest in using natural plant fibers as reinforcements for plastics. The motivation includes cost, performance enhancement, weight reduction, and environment concerns. High performance flax fiber could potentially substitute for glass or carbon fibers as reinforcements for plastics. This study reports the "green" composites obtained from a mixture of epoxidized soybean oil and epoxy resin, 1,1,1-tris(p-hydroxyphenyl)ethane triglycidyl ether (THPE-GE), reinforced with flax fiber. The compression molding method is used for making the composites. Curing agents triethylenetetramine and diethylenetriamine provide better physical properties of the composites than Jeffamine agents D-230 and EDR-148. Both the flexural modulus and the tensile modulus of the composites increase as the amount of THPE-GE increases. The flexural modulus increased at a fiber content of fiber content until a maximum at 13.5 wt %, and then it decreases. The flax fiber length affected the mechanical properties of the composites: the longer the fiber length, the better are the mechanical properties observed.

  16. An investment-production-regulatory model for firms in the offshore oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Di.

    1991-01-01

    This tripartite study examines the economic consequences of proposed environmental regulations on firms in the OCS oil and gas industry. The background part reviews the major issues associated with OCS oil and gas development and relevant environmental regulatory proposals. In the theoretical part, models are developed using optimal control theory and the theory of nonrenewable resources to analyze the impact of rising compliance cost on firm's behavior in terms of the investment and production rates over time. Finally, in the simulation part, an integrated investment-production-regulatory model is developed to simulate OCS development with and without the proposed environmental regulations. Effects of regulations are measured in terms of an increase in compliance costs and the associated reduction in net profits from oil and gas production. The theoretical results indicate that an increase in compliance costs will alter exploration, development and production rates. The total investments in exploration and development, and oil production will decrease as a result of rising compliance costs for exploration, development and production over the entire planning period

  17. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2018-01-26

    The Jan Mayen Microcontinent encompasses a rectangular, mostly submarine fragment of continental crust that lies north of Iceland in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean. These continental rocks were rifted away from the eastern margin of Greenland as a consequence of a westward jump of spreading centers from the now-extinct Aegir Ridge to the currently active Kolbeinsey Ridge in the Oligocene and early Miocene. The microcontinent is composed of the high-standing Jan Mayen Ridge and a series of smaller ridges that diminish southward in elevation and includes several deep basins that are underlain by strongly attenuated continental crust. The geology of this area is known principally from a loose collection of seismic reflection and refraction lines and several deep-sea scientific drill cores.The Jan Mayen Microcontinent petroleum province encompasses the entire area of the microcontinent and was defined as a single assessment unit (AU). Although its geology is poorly known, the microcontinent is thought to consist of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rift basin stratigraphic sequences similar to those of the highly prospective Norwegian, North Sea, and Greenland continental margins. The prospectivity of the AU may be greatly diminished, however, by pervasive extensional deformation, basaltic magmatism, and exhumation that accompanied two periods of continental rifting and breakup in the Paleogene and early Neogene. The overall probability of at least one petroleum accumulation of >50 million barrels of oil equivalent was judged to be 5.6 percent. As a consequence of the low level of probability, a quantitative assessment of this AU was not conducted.

  18. Assessing economic impacts to coastal recreation and tourism from oil and gas development in the Oregon and Washington Outer Continental Shelf. Inventory and evaluation of Washington and Oregon coastal recreation resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, G.M.; Johnson, N.S.; Chapman, D.

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of the three-part study was to assist Materials Management Service (MMS) planners in evaluation of the anticipated social impact of proposed oil and gas development on the environment. The purpose of the report is primarily to analyze the econometric models of the Dornbusch study. The authors examine, in detail, key aspects of the gravity, consumer surplus, and economic effects (input-output) models. The purpose is two-fold. First, the authors evaluate the performance of the model in satisfying the objective for which it was developed: analyzing economic impacts of OCS oil and gas development in California. Second, the authors evaluate the applicability of the modeling approach employed in the Dornbusch study for analyzing potential OCS development impacts in Washington and Oregon. At the end of the report, the authors offer suggestions for any future study of economic impacts of OCS development in Washington and Oregon. The recommendations concern future data gathering procedures and alternative modeling approaches for measuring economic impacts.

  19. 7 CFR 43.105 - Operating characteristics (OC) curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operating characteristics (OC) curves. 43.105 Section 43.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... CONTAINER REGULATIONS STANDARDS FOR SAMPLING PLANS Sampling Plans § 43.105 Operating characteristics (OC...

  20. Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources that have the potential for additions to reserves in the San Juan Basin Province, New Mexico and Colorado. Paleozoic rocks were not appraised. The last oil and gas assessment for the province was in 1995. There are several important differences between the 1995 and 2002 assessments. The area assessed is smaller than that in the 1995 assessment. This assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the San Juan Basin Province also used a slightly different approach in the assessment, and hence a number of the plays defined in the 1995 assessment are addressed differently in this report. After 1995, the USGS has applied a total petroleum system (TPS) concept to oil and gas basin assessments. The TPS approach incorporates knowledge of the source rocks, reservoir rocks, migration pathways, and time of generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons; thus the assessments are geologically based. Each TPS is subdivided into one or more assessment units, usually defined by a unique set of reservoir rocks, but which have in common the same source rock. Four TPSs and 14 assessment units were geologically evaluated, and for 13 units, the undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  1. Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, Gideon E.; Cath, Danielle C.; van Oppen, Patricia; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H.; van Megen, Harold; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2010-01-01

    In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore, 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and…

  2. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Restoration Project final report: Monitoring for evaluation of recovery and restoration of injured nearshore resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Kloecker, Kim; Dean, Tom; Colettie, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, we completed three consecutive years of full field sampling in WPWS for EVOS Restoration Project 10100750. Nearshore monitoring was conducted in collaboration with the NPS SWAN I&M program and, beginning in 2012, as part of the EVOSTC GWA program. Data collection was done in accordance with standard operating procedures set forth to monitor marine water chemistry and quality, marine intertidal invertebrates, kelps and seagrasses, marine birds, black oystercatchers, and sea otters. Summer sampling in 2012 represented the fourth year of sampling in WPWS (an initial year of sampling was done in WPWS in 2007; EVOS Restoration Project 070750). Based on our monitoring of nearshore species in WPWS, and comparisons of data from WPWS and other areas within the Gulf of Alaska, we have no evidence of continued injury to biological resources at the spatial scales we are monitoring. A key finding is that recovery of the sea otter population is no longer constrained by exposure to lingering oil; this is consistent with related EVOSTC studies on harlequin ducks (Restoration Project 12120114-Q). We anticipate continued annual nearshore monitoring in WPWS and at KATM and KEFJ under GWA, with data summaries and analyses including all three areas to provide a larger spatial and temporal context to the understanding of processes and patterns in nearshore ecosystems of the GOA which were impacted by the EVOS of 1989.

  3. Unconventional oil and gas development and its stresses on water resources in the context of Water-Energy-Food Nexus: The case of Weld County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, P. D.; Waskom, R.; Boone, K.; Ryan, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    The development of unconventional oil and gas resources in Colorado started to rapidly increase since the early 2000's. The recent oil price plunge resulted in a decline of well starts' rate in the US, but in Weld County, Colorado, it is currently at the 2013-levels. The additional water demand, despite its insignificant percentage in overall state's demand (0.1% in 2012), it competes with traditional ones, since Colorado's water is almost fully appropriated. Presently, the state has 53,597 active producing oil and gas wells. More than 40% of these are located in Weld County, which happens also to be one of top food production U.S. counties. The competition for land and water resources between the energy and agricultural sectors in water stressed areas, like the western U.S., is further intensified if recycle and reuse practices are not preferred to water disposal by the energy industry. Satisfying the multiple objectives of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in order to achieve sustainable economic development requires balanced management of these resources. Identifying pressures on key areas that food and energy sectors are competing for water, is essential for prudent water management and developing appropriate policies. Weld County, as a water stressed and fossil fuel producing area, was selected for investigating current stresses on local water resources alongside with future climatic and water demand scenarios for exploring probable long-term effects.

  4. Jobs and the resource curse in the sun: The effects of oil production on female labor force participation in California counties from 1980-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Gabriel

    This study aims to evaluate the relationship between oil income and the female labor force participation rate in California for the years of 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010 using panel linear regression models. This study also aims to visualize the spatial patterns of both variables in California through Hot Spot analysis at the county level for the same years. The regression found no sign of a relationship between oil income and female labor force participation rate but did find evidence of a positive relationship between two income control variables and the female labor force participation rate. The hot spot analysis also found that female labor force participation cold spots are not spatially correlated with oil production hot spots. These findings contribute new methodologies at a finer scale to the very nuanced discussion of the resource curse in the United States.

  5. 77 FR 18260 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Alaska OCS Region, Cook Inlet Planning Area, Proposed Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ...), environmental, biological, archaeological, and socioeconomic conditions or potential conflicts, or other..., and development; --Identify potential environmental effects and potential use conflicts; --Develop the.... 6. Existing Information: An extensive environmental, social, and economic Studies Program has been...

  6. Leaching of Oil from Tuna Fish Liver by Using Solvent of Methyl-Ethyl Ketone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Rahmah Lubis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of oil leaching from Tuna Fish Liver has been carried out by extracting of tuna fish liver in soxhlet by using methyl-ethyl ketone as solvent. Liver of fresh tuna fish is blended, put into soxhlet, and extracted at temperatures of 60oC, 65oC, 70oC, 75oC, and 80oC. After obtaining the oil, separation between solvent and oil is carried out by distillation. Oil obtained is analyzed by testing the yield, acid number, Iodine value, viscosity, and its impurities content. Yield obtained is influenced by temperature and time of leaching. Both variables indicates that the higher the variables, the more fish liver oil obtained. Maximum yield obtained is 25.552% at operating condition of leaching temperature 80oC, and leaching duration of 5 hours.

  7. Expanding the biomass resource: sustainable oil production via fast pyrolysis of low input high diversity biomass and the potential integration of thermochemical and biological conversion routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corton, J; Donnison, I S; Patel, M; Bühle, L; Hodgson, E; Wachendorf, M; Bridgwater, A; Allison, G; Fraser, M D

    2016-09-01

    Waste biomass is generated during the conservation management of semi-natural habitats, and represents an unused resource and potential bioenergy feedstock that does not compete with food production. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to characterise a representative range of biomass generated during conservation management in Wales. Of the biomass types assessed, those dominated by rush ( Juncus effuses ) and bracken ( Pteridium aquilinum ) exhibited the highest and lowest volatile compositions respectively and were selected for bench scale conversion via fast pyrolysis. Each biomass type was ensiled and a sub-sample of silage was washed and pressed. Demineralization of conservation biomass through washing and pressing was associated with higher oil yields following fast pyrolysis. The oil yields were within the published range established for the dedicated energy crops miscanthus and willow. In order to examine the potential a multiple output energy system was developed with gross power production estimates following valorisation of the press fluid, char and oil. If used in multi fuel industrial burners the char and oil alone would displace 3.9 × 10 5  tonnes per year of No. 2 light oil using Welsh biomass from conservation management. Bioenergy and product development using these feedstocks could simultaneously support biodiversity management and displace fossil fuels, thereby reducing GHG emissions. Gross power generation predictions show good potential.

  8. The O.C.: Our Guide to ALA in Anaheim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardstark, Georgia

    2008-01-01

    For those who grew up in Orange County (O.C.), Disneyland is the metaphoric morsel of food that gets stuck between the teeth of someone one does not like. While D-land is a must-see for millions of visitors each year, there is much more to Anaheim. Although O.C. is portrayed on numerous reality TV shows as a mecca for rich white people with…

  9. Peppermint Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T U V W X Y Z Peppermint Oil Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... sheet provides basic information about peppermint and peppermint oil—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  10. Executive summary--2002 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 1 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources that have the potential for additions to reserves in the San Juan Basin Province (5022), New Mexico and Colorado (fig. 1). Paleozoic rocks were not appraised. The last oil and gas assessment for the province was in 1995 (Gautier and others, 1996). There are several important differences between the 1995 and 2002 assessments. The area assessed is smaller than that in the 1995 assessment. This assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the San Juan Basin Province also used a slightly different approach in the assessment, and hence a number of the plays defined in the 1995 assessment are addressed differently in this report. After 1995, the USGS has applied a total petroleum system (TPS) concept to oil and gas basin assessments. The TPS approach incorporates knowledge of the source rocks, reservoir rocks, migration pathways, and time of generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons; thus the assessments are geologically based. Each TPS is subdivided into one or more assessment units, usually defined by a unique set of reservoir rocks, but which have in common the same source rock. Four TPSs and 14 assessment units were geologically evaluated, and for 13 units, the undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  11. A natural resource: what happens when oil interests conflict with the needs of a northern caribou herd and the people who depend on it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, R. J.

    1999-09-30

    Although the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) established a wildlife refuge to protect the calving grounds of the Porcupine caribou, striking oil in Prudhoe Bay led to the construction of a pipeline, which even in decline delivers one million barrels of oil a day to the Port of Valdez. Given the money generated by the oil industry, it is not surprising that most Alaska legislators favour extraction of the nature reserve's petroleum resources. So far, legislation by the President, supported by a group of senators, managed to keep the drilling rigs out of the nursery of the Porcupine caribou. In Canada, too, aboriginal leaders and environmentalist groups have worked hard to ensure that the federal government continues to oppose the leasing of the coastal plain to developers. Development would negatively affect the Porcupine caribou herd, the traditional way of life of aboriginal communities, and the ecological integrity of Ivvavik National Park. Although the fate of the calving ground will ultimately be decided in Washington, the health of the Porcupine caribou herd is a true cross-border issue. So far, the two governments have managed to stave off development and to assert that such a relatively pristine and intact biosphere should remain intact. However, the pressure by the oil industry giants is relentless, and requires constant vigilance.

  12. A natural resource: what happens when oil interests conflict with the needs of a northern caribou herd and the people who depend on it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Although the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) established a wildlife refuge to protect the calving grounds of the Porcupine caribou, striking oil in Prudhoe Bay led to the construction of a pipeline, which even in decline delivers one million barrels of oil a day to the Port of Valdez. Given the money generated by the oil industry, it is not surprising that most Alaska legislators favour extraction of the nature reserve's petroleum resources. So far, legislation by the President, supported by a group of senators, managed to keep the drilling rigs out of the nursery of the Porcupine caribou. In Canada, too, aboriginal leaders and environmentalist groups have worked hard to ensure that the federal government continues to oppose the leasing of the coastal plain to developers. Development would negatively affect the Porcupine caribou herd, the traditional way of life of aboriginal communities, and the ecological integrity of Ivvavik National Park. Although the fate of the calving ground will ultimately be decided in Washington, the health of the Porcupine caribou herd is a true cross-border issue. So far, the two governments have managed to stave off development and to assert that such a relatively pristine and intact biosphere should remain intact. However, the pressure by the oil industry giants is relentless, and requires constant vigilance

  13. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Historical Oil and Gas Wells in Pennsylvania: Implications for New Shale Gas Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmore, Robert M; Sams, James I; Glosser, Deborah; Carter, Kristin M; Bain, Daniel J

    2015-10-20

    Recent large-scale development of oil and gas from low-permeability unconventional formations (e.g., shales, tight sands, and coal seams) has raised concern about potential environmental impacts. If left improperly sealed, legacy oil and gas wells colocated with that new development represent a potential pathway for unwanted migration of fluids (brine, drilling and stimulation fluids, oil, and gas). Uncertainty in the number, location, and abandonment state of legacy wells hinders environmental assessment of exploration and production activity. The objective of this study is to apply publicly available information on Pennsylvania oil and gas wells to better understand their potential to serve as pathways for unwanted fluid migration. This study presents a synthesis of historical reports and digital well records to provide insights into spatial and temporal trends in oil and gas development. Areas with a higher density of wells abandoned prior to the mid-20th century, when more modern well-sealing requirements took effect in Pennsylvania, and areas where conventional oil and gas production penetrated to or through intervals that may be affected by new Marcellus shale development are identified. This information may help to address questions of environmental risk related to new extraction activities.

  14. The deforestation problem in oil-importing developing countries: A capital theory approach to a renewable resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    This study attempts an analysis of the effects of a crude-oil price shock on the tropical rain-forest biomass of oil-importing developing countries. It establishes the logical plausibility of this relationship between price shocks and deforestation by developing a stylized capital-theoretic intertemporal model with a trade constraint. This formulation allows one to determine the correct price path at each moment in time, an efficiency consideration. A second theoretical model purports to show that justification for the building of high dams as a response to energy shocks was based on myopic expectations of crude oil supplier behavior. Once rational supplier response to natural capital stocks is taken into consideration, a different result emerges suggesting a much larger optical biomass stock. Noting that deforestation is an externality with global repercussions and appealing to the logic of the Folk Theorem of game theory, the last chapter proposes an international collaborative effort whereby concerned nations would supply crude oil to oil-importing developing countries that have witnessed the deterioration of their forest biomass as a direct or indirect consequence of oil price shocks

  15. Field-free molecular orientation of nonadiabatically aligned OCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Kotaro; Iwasaki, Atsushi; Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Hasegawa, Hirokazu

    2018-02-01

    We investigate an enhancement of the orientation of OCS molecules by irradiating them with a near IR (ω) ultrashort laser pulse for alignment followed by another ultrashort laser pulse for orientation, which is synthesized by a phase-locked coherent superposition of the near IR laser pulse and its second harmonic (2ω). On the basis of the asymmetry in the ejection direction of S3+ fragment ions generated by the Coulomb explosion of multiply charged OCS, we show that the extent of the orientation of OCS is significantly enhanced when the delay between the alignment pulse and the orientation pulse is a quarter or three quarters of the rotational period. The recorded enhanced orientation was interpreted well by a numerical simulation of the temporal evolution of a rotational wave packet prepared by the alignment and orientation pulses.

  16. The effects of ex-situ oil shale mining on groundwater resources in Siwaqa area, southern Jordan, using DRASTIC index and hydrochemical water assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsharifa Hind Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy resources in addition to water resources are the most limited resources in Jordan, being one of the fourth poorest countries in water resources, and limitation of surface water resources put huge pressure on groundwater which is the main resource there. High expenses and the increasing prices of oil over all worlds increase the feasibility to mining the oil shale that exists in southern Jordan area, Siwaqa. This study took place to clarify the possible effects of mining and energy production activities on the water resources in that area. Groundwater vulnerability mapping was done for many areas all over the country, including this part. The initiative of this work is to determine the vulnerability under the conditions of removing the bedrock of the oil shale which is described as a con ning layer. Results that are obtained by this work conclude that the oil shale area becomes highly vulnerable to the human activities because of the existing geological structures while it is small and medium vulnerable in the elds in which there are no geological structures. In addition to the structural features and adding the possibility of the oil shale mining from the outcropped areas which will decrease the depth to water table and hence will affect the vulnerability values.  Efectos en las fuentes de agua subterránea de la minería ex situ de esquistos bituminosos, en el área de Siwaqa, al sur de Jordania, a través del índice DRASTIC y la evaluación hidroquímica del agua  Resumen Las fuentes de energía y agua son las más limitadas en Jordania, uno de los cuatro países más pobres en recursos hídricos; además, las limitadas fuentes super ciales hacen de las aguas subterráneas las más importantes. Las ganancias y el precio del petróleo, por su parte, incrementan la viabilidad de la minería de esquistos bituminosos en el sur de Jordania, en la región de Siwaqa. Este estudio se realiza con el  n de establecer los

  17. 世界油气资源形势分析%The Analysis of World Oil and Gas Resources Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张所续

    2013-01-01

    World primary energy consumption grew by 1.8% in 2012,well below that of the past decade ,which was 2 .6%.And the proportion of oil ,natural gas was 33 .1%,23 .9%,respectively . There was a continuous decline in oil shares .World oil reserves increased slightly by 0.9%,while natural gas reserves declined by0 .3 %.The strong growth of unconventional oil and gas produc-tion,including shale gas and tight oil ,will have a significant impact on the global energy landscape . According to 2013 World Energy Reserves Statistical Yearbook released by BP , production and consumption of the world 's oil and natural gas,etc.were analyzed,and the situation was discussed .%2012年世界一次能源消费量增长1.8%,远低于过去十年2.6%的平均增速;其中石油、天然气所占比重分别为33.1%、239.%,石油份额连续下滑。世界石油储量微增0.9%,天然气储量减少0.3%,随着页岩气、致密油等非常规油气产量的强劲增长将对全球能源格局产生重大影响。根据BP发布的2013年世界能源统计年鉴,对世界石油和天然气的储量、产量、消费量等情况进行分析,并展开形势研判。

  18. 75 FR 71734 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Scientific Committee (SC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Environmental Studies Program (ESP) and environmental aspects of the offshore energy and marine minerals... oceanography, as well as studies of the social and economic impacts of OCS energy and marine minerals... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer...

  19. A cautionary tale of interpreting O-C diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarka, M.; Liska, J.; Dreveny, R.

    2018-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of Z CVn, an RR Lyrae star that shows long-term cyclic variations of its pulsation period. A possible explanation suggested from the shape of the O-C diagram is the light travel-time effect, which we thoroughly examine. We used original photometric and spectroscop...

  20. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of Papua-New Guinea, Eastern Indonesia, and East Timor, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 5.8 billion barrels of oil and 115 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in five geologic provinces in the areas of Papua New Guinea, eastern Indonesia, and East Timor.

  1. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Paradox Basin Province, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whidden, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 560 million barrels of undiscovered oil, 12,701 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, and 490 million barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona.

  2. Overview of a compre­hensive resource database for the assessment of recoverable hydrocarbons produced by carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolus, Marshall; Biglarbigi, Khosrow; Warwick, Peter D.; Attanasi, Emil D.; Freeman, Philip A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2017-10-24

    A database called the “Comprehensive Resource Database” (CRD) was prepared to support U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessments of technically recoverable hydrocarbons that might result from the injection of miscible or immiscible carbon dioxide (CO2) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The CRD was designed by INTEK Inc., a consulting company under contract to the USGS. The CRD contains data on the location, key petrophysical properties, production, and well counts (number of wells) for the major oil and gas reservoirs in onshore areas and State waters of the conterminous United States and Alaska. The CRD includes proprietary data on petrophysical properties of fields and reservoirs from the “Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States Database,” prepared by Nehring Associates in 2012, and proprietary production and drilling data from the “Petroleum Information Data Model Relational U.S. Well Data,” prepared by IHS Inc. in 2012. This report describes the CRD and the computer algorithms used to (1) estimate missing reservoir property values in the Nehring Associates (2012) database, and to (2) generate values of additional properties used to characterize reservoirs suitable for miscible or immiscible CO2 flooding for EOR. Because of the proprietary nature of the data and contractual obligations, the CRD and actual data from Nehring Associates (2012) and IHS Inc. (2012) cannot be presented in this report.

  3. A procedure to improve the information flow in the assessment of discoveries of oil and gas resources in the Brazilian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Henrique; Suslick, Saul B.; Sousa, Sergio H.G. de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. of Geosciences; Castro, Jonas Q. [ANP - Brazilian National Petroleum Agency, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper is focused on the elaboration of a standardization model for the existing flow of information between the Petroleum National Agency (ANP) and the concessionaire companies in the event of the discovery of any potentially commercial hydrocarbon resources inside their concession areas. The method proposed by Rosa (2003) included the analysis of a small sample of Oil and Gas Discovery Assessment Plans (PADs), elaborated by companies that operate in exploratory blocks in Brazil, under the regulatory context introduced by the Petroleum Law (Law 9478, August, 6th, 1997). The analysis of these documents made it possible to identify and target the problems originated from the lack of standardization. The results obtained facilitated the development of a model that helps the creation process of Oil and Gas Discovery Assessment Plans. It turns out that the standardization procedures suggested provide considerable advantages while speeding up several technical and regulatory steps. A software called 'ePADs' was developed to consolidate the automation of the several steps in the model for the standardization of the Oil and Gas Discovery Assessment Plans. A preliminary version has been tested with several different types of discoveries indicating a good performance by complying with all regulatory aspects and operational requirements. (author)

  4. Gas Chromatographic-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Essential Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyze the essential oil composition of the flower of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandifloroum L. (Jasminum grandiflorum) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Methods: The optimum GC-MS conditions used for the analysis were 250 oC inlet temperature, 150 oC MSD detector temperature, ...

  5. Geologic assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources--Middle Eocene Claiborne Group, United States part of the Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle Eocene Claiborne Group was assessed using established U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment methodology for undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources as part of the 2007 USGS assessment of Paleogene-Neogene strata of the United States part of the Gulf of Mexico Basin including onshore and State waters. The assessed area is within the Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite total petroleum system, which was defined as part of the assessment. Source rocks for Claiborne oil accumulations are interpreted to be organic-rich downdip shaley facies of the Wilcox Group and the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group; gas accumulations may have originated from multiple sources including the Jurassic Smackover and Haynesville Formations and Bossier Shale, the Cretaceous Eagle Ford and Pearsall(?) Formations, and the Paleogene Wilcox Group and Sparta Sand. Hydrocarbon generation in the basin started prior to deposition of Claiborne sediments and is ongoing at present. Emplacement of hydrocarbons into Claiborne reservoirs has occurred primarily via vertical migration along fault systems; long-range lateral migration also may have occurred in some locations. Primary reservoir sands in the Claiborne Group include, from oldest to youngest, the Queen City Sand, Cook Mountain Formation, Sparta Sand, Yegua Formation, and the laterally equivalent Cockfield Formation. Hydrocarbon traps dominantly are rollover anticlines associated with growth faults; salt structures and stratigraphic traps also are important. Sealing lithologies probably are shaley facies within the Claiborne and in the overlying Jackson Group. A geologic model, supported by spatial analysis of petroleum geology data including discovered reservoir depths, thicknesses, temperatures, porosities, permeabilities, and pressures, was used to divide the Claiborne Group into seven assessment units (AU) with distinctive structural and depositional settings. The AUs include (1) Lower Claiborne Stable Shelf

  6. USGS assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in Paleogene strata of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico coastal plain and state waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Coleman, James; Hackley, Paul C.; Hayba, Daniel O.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Kennan, Lorcan; Pindell, James; Rosen, Norman C.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents a review of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 2007 assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas resources in Paleogene strata underlying the U.S. Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain and state waters. Geochemical, geologic, geophysical, thermal maturation, burial history, and paleontologic studies have been combined with regional cross sections and data from previous USGS petroleum assessments have helped to define the major petroleum systems and assessment units. Accumulations of both conventional oil and gas and continuous coal-bed gas within these petroleum systems have been digitally mapped and evaluated, and undiscovered resources have been assessed following USGS methodology.The primary source intervals for oil and gas in Paleogene (and Cenozoic) reservoirs are coal and shale rich in organic matter within the Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene) and Sparta Formation of the Claiborne Group (Eocene); in addition, Cretaceous and Jurassic source rocks probably have contributed substantial petroleum to Paleogene (and Cenozoic) reservoirs.For the purposes of the assessment, Paleogene strata have divided into the following four stratigraphic study intervals: (1) Wilcox Group (including the Midway Group and the basal Carrizo Sand of the Claiborne Group; Paleocene-Eocene); (2) Claiborne Group (Eocene); (3) Jackson and Vicksburg Groups (Eocene-Oligocene); and (4) the Frio-Anahuac Formations (Oligocene). Recent discoveries of coal-bed gas in Paleocene strata confirm a new petroleum system that was not recognized in previous USGS assessments. In total, 26 conventional Paleogene assessment units are defined. In addition, four Cretaceous-Paleogene continuous (coal-bed gas) assessment units are included in this report. Initial results of the assessment will be released as USGS Fact Sheets (not available at the time of this writing).Comprehensive reports for each assessment unit are planned to be released via the internet and distributed on CD-ROMs within the next year.

  7. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.

    2010-09-15

    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  8. Anticancer Effects of Chenopodium ambrosiodes L. Essential Oil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the most effective compound of C. ambrosioides essential oil for the induction ... shrub, and its whole plant is rich in essential oils ... μl/well at 37 oC in a 5 % CO2 atmosphere for 20 ..... Olive-oil consumption and health:.

  9. The tug-of-war between resource depletion and technological change in the global oil industry 1981-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholt, Lars

    2013-01-15

    We perform an empirical analysis of the extent to which ongoing technological change through RandD activity has offset the effect of ongoing depletion on the cost of finding additional reserves of oil in eight global regions. We introduce a finding cost function that among other factors depends on the cumulative number of past RandD expenses and cumulative past production, measuring technological change and depletion, respectively. For all our regions we find significant effects of both depletion and technological change on oil finding costs from 1981 to 2009, barring cyclical variations in finding costs that could come from changes in factor prices. For almost all regions technology more than mitigated depletion until around the mid-nineties. However, we find that depletion outweighed technological progress over the last decade.(author)

  10. Determination of trace metals in non-conventional oilseeds and oil bearing resources by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwer, T.; Kazi, T.G.; Bhanger, M.I.; Iqbal, S.; Anwar, F.

    2003-01-01

    The presence of small amount of trace metals in oil and fats is well known to produce deleterious effect. Crude oils and fat of rice bran varieties (super, 86), mango kernel and muskmelon were evaluated for the determination of Ca, Mg, and Zn by using atomic absorption spectrometric technique. Both rice bran varieties (super, 86) were found to contain high calcium content 12.72, 12.11 micro g/g respectively. In case of Mg, highest content noted in mango kernel 9.91 micro g/g and lowest concentration was in rice bran (super) 2.23 micro g/g. The concentration of Zn was high in rice bran (86) 21.0 micro g/g followed by mango kernel 14.4 micro g/g, rice bran (super) 12.20 micro g/g and muskmelon 8.71 micro g/g. The information gained in present study provides baseline for the stability of these oils. (author)

  11. Geologic models and evaluation of undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources: Upper Cretaceous Austin Chalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Krystal

    2012-01-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Austin Chalk forms a low-permeability, onshore Gulf of Mexico reservoir that produces oil and gas from major fractures oriented parallel to the underlying Lower Cretaceous shelf edge. Horizontal drilling links these fracture systems to create an interconnected network that drains the reservoir. Field and well locations along the production trend are controlled by fracture networks. Highly fractured chalk is present along both regional and local fault zones. Fractures are also genetically linked to movement of the underlying Jurassic Louann Salt with tensile fractures forming downdip of salt-related structures creating the most effective reservoirs. Undiscovered accumulations should also be associated with structure-controlled fracture systems because much of the Austin that overlies the Lower Cretaceous shelf edge remains unexplored. The Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Shale is the primary source rock for Austin Chalk hydrocarbons. This transgressive marine shale varies in thickness and lithology across the study area and contains both oil- and gas-prone kerogen. The Eagle Ford began generating oil and gas in the early Miocene, and vertical migration through fractures was sufficient to charge the Austin reservoirs.

  12. Regional resource depletion and industry activity: The case of oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1986-01-01

    Stable and declining oil and gas prices have changed the industry's price expectations and, along with depletion of promising exploration prospects, has resulted in reduced exploration. Even with intensive additional exploration, production in most U.S. areas is expected to decline. What does this imply for the drilling and petroleum industry suppliers in particular regions? How should planners in government and the private sector project and incorporate the consequences of these changes in their strategies? This paper answers these questions for the industry operating in the offshore Gulf of Mexico. Future oil and gas production, as well as demand for offshore drilling and production facilities, are shown to depend on the size distribution of undiscovered fields, their associated production costs, and oil and gas prices. Declining well productivity is a consequence of development of progressively smaller fields so that long-run drilling demand should not decline in proportion to the expected production decline. Calculations show a substantial payoff to the drilling industry, in terms of potential demand increases, if it can develop and implement cost reducing technologies. Implications of these results for other offshore producing areas such as the North Sea are also discussed. ?? 1986.

  13. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data (e.g., abandoned vessels, access points, airports, aquaculture sites, archaeological sites, artificial reefs, beaches,...

  14. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for abandoned vessels, access points, airports, aquaculture sites, beaches, boat ramps, coast guard stations, ferries,...

  15. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for access points, aquaculture sites, airports, artificial reefs, boat ramps, coast guard stations, heliports,...

  16. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for abandoned vessels, access points, airports, archaeological sites, artifical reefs, beaches, boat ramps,...

  17. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for marinas, boat ramps, locks and dams, water intake sites, archaeological sites, U.S. Coast Guard stations,...

  18. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: New Hampshire: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for airports, aquaculture sites, archaeological and historic sites, the U.S. Coast Guard station location, groundwater...

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the following human-use resource data for Northern California: access areas, airports, aquaculture sites, beaches, boat ramps, Coast Guard...

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector points and lines representing human-use resource data for airports, marinas, and mining sites in Northwest Arctic, Alaska....

  1. Competitive bidding for OCS leases and environmental risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englin, J.E.; Klan, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    In the last few years, the role of environment has become increasingly contentious in the process of competitive bidding for exploration and development rights of offshore petroleum leases in the outer continental shelf (OCS). Although an extensive literature exists on OCS leasing per se, relatively little work focuses on the role of environmental factors. This paper examines the effect on environmental risk on the number of firms (or joint ventures) entering bids for a given tract, which relates to the effective competition for the tracts. The next section outlines a theoretical model of bidding behavior under environmental risk. The third section presents the data used to estimate the model. The fourth section gives empirical results of an analysis of Sale No. 42, conducted in 1979 for Georges Bank in the North Atlantic. The last section provides concluding remarks

  2. Geology and Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the East Barents Basins Province and the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered petroleum resources of the East Barents Basins Province and the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province as part of its Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. These two provinces are situated northeast of Scandinavia and the northwestern Russian Federation, on the Barents Sea Shelf between Novaya Zemlya to the east and the Barents Platform to the west. Three assessment units (AUs) were defined in the East Barents Basins Province for this study: the Kolguyev Terrace AU, the South Barents and Ludlov Saddle AU, and the North Barents Basin AU. A fourth AU, defined as the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch AU, coincides with the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province. These four AUs, all lying north of the Arctic Circle, were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources, resulting in total estimated mean volumes of ~7.4 billion barrels of crude oil, 318 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of natural gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  3. Geology and sequence stratigraphy of undiscovered oil and gas resources in conventional and continuous petroleum systems in the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Group and related strata, U.S. Gulf Coast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, Russell F.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pearson, Krystal M.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the technically recoverable undiscovered oil and gas onshore and in State waters of the Gulf Coast region of the United States. The USGS defined three assessment units (AUs) with potential undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources in Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Turonian) strata of the Eagle Ford Group and correlative rocks. The assessment is based on geologic elements of a total petroleum system, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and traps (formation, timing, and seals). Conventional oil and gas undiscovered resources are in updip sandstone reservoirs in the Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa and Woodbine Formations (or Groups) in Louisiana and Texas, respectively, whereas continuous oil and continuous gas undiscovered resources reside in the middip and downdip Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Shale in Texas and the Tuscaloosa marine shale in Louisiana. Conventional resources in the Tuscaloosa and Woodbine are included in the Eagle Ford Updip Sandstone Oil and Gas AU, in an area where the Eagle Ford Shale and Tuscaloosa marine shale display vitrinite reflectance (Ro) values less than 0.6%. The continuous Eagle Ford Shale Oil AU lies generally south of the conventional AU, is primarily updip of the Lower Cretaceous shelf edge, and is defined by thermal maturity values within shales of the Eagle Ford and Tuscaloosa that range from 0.6 to 1.2% Ro. Similarly, the Eagle Ford Shale Gas AU is defined downdip of the shelf edge where source rocks have Ro values greater than 1.2%. For undiscovered oil and gas resources, the USGS assessed means of: 1) 141 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 502 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 4 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL) in the Eagle Ford Updip Sandstone Oil and Gas AU; 2) 853 MMBO, 1707 BCFG, and 34 MMBNGL in the

  4. IR photodissociation spectroscopy of (OCS){sub n}{sup +} and (OCS){sub n}{sup −} cluster ions: Similarity and dissimilarity in the structure of CO{sub 2}, OCS, and CS{sub 2} cluster ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inokuchi, Yoshiya, E-mail: y-inokuchi@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Ebata, Takayuki [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2015-06-07

    Infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectra of (OCS){sub n}{sup +} and (OCS){sub n}{sup −} (n = 2–6) cluster ions are measured in the 1000–2300 cm{sup −1} region; these clusters show strong CO stretching vibrations in this region. For (OCS){sub 2}{sup +} and (OCS){sub 2}{sup −}, we utilize the messenger technique by attaching an Ar atom to measure their IR spectra. The IRPD spectrum of (OCS){sub 2}{sup +}Ar shows two bands at 2095 and 2120 cm{sup −1}. On the basis of quantum chemical calculations, these bands are assigned to a C{sub 2} isomer of (OCS){sub 2}{sup +}, in which an intermolecular semi-covalent bond is formed between the sulfur ends of the two OCS components by the charge resonance interaction, and the positive charge is delocalized over the dimer. The (OCS){sub n}{sup +} (n = 3–6) cluster ions show a few bands assignable to “solvent” OCS molecules in the 2000–2080 cm{sup −1} region, in addition to the bands due to the (OCS){sub 2}{sup +} ion core at ∼2090 and ∼2120 cm{sup −1}, suggesting that the dimer ion core is kept in (OCS){sub 3–6}{sup +}. For the (OCS){sub n}{sup −} cluster anions, the IRPD spectra indicate the coexistence of a few isomers with an OCS{sup −} or (OCS){sub 2}{sup −} anion core over the cluster range of n = 2–6. The (OCS){sub 2}{sup −}Ar anion displays two strong bands at 1674 and 1994 cm{sup −1}. These bands can be assigned to a C{sub s} isomer with an OCS{sup −} anion core. For the n = 2–4 anions, this OCS{sup −} anion core form is dominant. In addition to the bands of the OCS{sup −} core isomer, we found another band at ∼1740 cm{sup −1}, which can be assigned to isomers having an (OCS){sub 2}{sup −} ion core; this dimer core has C{sub 2} symmetry and {sup 2}A electronic state. The IRPD spectra of the n = 3–6 anions show two IR bands at ∼1660 and ∼2020 cm{sup −1}. The intensity of the latter component relative to that of the former one becomes stronger and stronger with

  5. The identification and priority assessment of environmental resources in relation to acute oil spills along the coasts of Norway and Svalbard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anker-Nilssen, T.

    1994-10-01

    This report is intended to be a basis for a more profound discussion of which conditions ought to be fulfilled in order to ensure that adequate environmental provisions are made in the contingency plans for oil spills. It opens with a brief and general evaluation of the suitability of the existing intermunicipal contingency plans, with respect to the environmental priorities to be assigned in the event of acute marine oil spills in Norwegian authority areas. The evaluation serves as an argument for the presentation of a model (named MOB) for making such priority decisions. The model is intended for use at a preparatory level in order to incorporate environmental considerations into the contingency plans in a more standardised way. The principles recommended when presenting the model results are illustrated by an example covering parts of the contingency area on the coast of Soer-Troendelag county. It is concluded that, in this context, a standardised assessment of priorities among environmental resources is only one of several important measures. 20 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs

  6. Introduction to the 2002 geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks: Chapter 2 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) periodically conducts assessments of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the United States. The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The last major USGS assessment of oil and gas of the most important oil and gas provinces in the United States was in 1995 (Gautier and others, 1996). Since then a number of individual assessment provinces have been reappraised using new methodology. This was done particularly for those provinces where new information has become available, where new methodology was expected to reveal more insight to provide a better estimate, where additional geologic investigation was needed, or where continuous accumulations were deemed important. The San Juan Basin was reevaluated because of industry exploitation of new hydrocarbon accumulations that were not previously assessed and because of a change in application of assessment methodology to potential undiscovered hydrocarbon accumulations. Several changes have been made in this study. The methodology is different from that used in 1995 (Schmoker, 2003; Schmoker and Klett, 2003). In this study the total petroleum system (TPS) approach (Magoon and Dow, 1994) is used rather than the play approach. The Chama Basin is not included. The team of scientists studying the basin is different. The 1995 study focused on conventional accumulations, whereas in this 2002 assessment, it was a priority to assess continuous-type accumulations, including coal-bed gas. Consequently we are presenting here an entirely new study and results for the San Juan Basin Province. The results of this 2002 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province (5022) are presented in this report within the geologic context of individual TPSs and their assessment units (AU) (table 1). Results

  7. Oil palm: domestication achieved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsma, W.; Wessel, M.

    1997-01-01

    The natural habitat of the oil palm comprises very wet and relatively dry niches in the lowland rain forest in West and Central Africa. The domestication of the oil palm started with the extraction of fruits from wild forest resources. When forests were cleared for shifting cultivation, oil palms

  8. 30 CFR 250.251 - If I propose activities in the Alaska OCS Region, what planning information must accompany the DPP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Region, what planning information must accompany the DPP? 250.251 Section 250.251 Mineral Resources... Region, what planning information must accompany the DPP? If you propose development and production activities in the Alaska OCS Region, the following planning information must accompany your DPP: (a...

  9. Recycling of used oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vipulanandan, C.; Ghurye, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on used oil which is a valuable resource that should be recycled. Recycling used oil saves energy and natural resources. Used oil can be reprocessed and used as fuel in industrial burners and boilers. Unfortunately, more than 400 million gallons/year of used oil is lost through widespread dumping, partly due to lack of effective recycling procedures. Although used oil is not currently a federally listed hazardous waste, the U.S. EPA has proposed to list it as a hazardous waste, which will make recycling of used oil even more attractive. Laboratory samples, representing used oil, were used for detailed parametric studies and to determine the limitation of extending some of the current physical separation techniques such as sedimentation and centrifuging developed for oil-water and solid-liquid separation

  10. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  11. La estrategia del océano azul para emprendedores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tula Mendoza Farro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Los emprendedores deben tener presente que no siempre la planeación garantiza el logro de los objetivos, sin embargo sin planes es difícil alcanzar metas (1. Alfred Chandler J. define que “la estrategia es la determinación de los objetivos y planes a largo plazo de la empresa, las acciones a emprender y la asignación de recursos necesarios para lograr esto...” (2. Michael Porter sostiene que “la empresa sin estrategia está dispuesta a intentar cualquier cosa” (3. C.K. Prahalad dice que “si queremos escapar de la atracción gravitacional del pasado tenemos que ser capaces de replantear nuestras propias ortodoxias. Debemos volver a generar nuestras estrategias esenciales y replantear nuestras creencias fundamentales sobre cómo vamos a competir” (4. Peter Drucker, en tanto, considera que “la estrategia de la organización es la respuesta a dos preguntas: ¿qué es nuestro negocio? y ¿qué debería ser?” (5. Las concepciones de estrategia en la empresa son diversas, pero todas coinciden en la enorme trascendencia que tiene para la gestión empresarial. Los modelos de estrategia, del mismo modo esencial para la gestión, también son distintos, pero suelen variar en función de la búsqueda de mejores resultados. Un emergente y expectante modelo es hoy la estrategia del océano azul, que alienta la innovación en la apertura de mercados y deja de lado la competencia como modelo estratégico. La estrategia del océano azul, formulada por W. Chan Kim y Renée Mauborgne en su gran best seller del mismo nombre (6, sostiene que las empresas si quieren ser exitosas pueden hacerlo explorando nuevos mercados, nuevas oportunidades y a través de la innovación en valor (innovación con utilidad, precio y costo, sin preocuparse en la competencia. Es un modelo de “no competencia”, de búsqueda de nuevas oportunidades, de intactos escenarios, de aguas tranquilas e inexploradas que simbolizan el océano azul, y que precisamente es una

  12. Histopathologic lesions associated with crude oil exposure in sea otters. Marine mammal study 6-10. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resources damage assessment final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Moeller, R.B.; Pletcher, J.M.; Haebler, R.J.

    1996-06-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) that appeared oiled, were in danger of becoming oiled, or were behaving abnormally were captured and taken to rehabilitation centers. Oil exposure was assessed by visual examination on arrival at the centers. Tissues from 51 oiled sea otters and from 6 unoiled sea otters that died in rehabilitation centers were examined histologically. Histologic examinations were performed on tissues from 5 sea otters found dead with external oil present shortly after the spill. Necropsies were performed on 214 sea otters that had been collected and frozen in the period following the oil spill. Tissues from 6 apparently normal sea otters collected from an area not affected by the oil spill were examined histologically, and none of these lesions were found. We conclude that pulmonary interstitial emphysema, gastric erosion and hemorrhage, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and hepatic and renal lipidosis were associated with exposure to crude oil in sea otters.

  13. Proposals for the application of the resources of geoprocessing in the determination and monitoring of the deep areas of exploration of the oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rodrigo Ferreira dos [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio de Janeiro (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Since middle of the decade of 80, the resources of Geoprocessing come wide being applied in the most diverse branches of the study where the localization of a region is factor of the biggest significance for a good performance of some task. In the economic aspect, the processing of the data of the Earth one reveals sufficiently significant in the determination of the region of an industry of wide ambient impact where the characteristic of the ground layers, characteristics of draining of wind, characteristics of the water resources and vertical and horizontal profile of water sheets, can mean the impossibility of concession of exploration, or, if not perceived the economic and ambient time, damages many irreversible times. The apparent possibilities of a region, deserve a more careful analysis of specialists of the studies of the Earth, that through the images of low orbit satellites (for differentiated soundings of some regions of the planet or imaging of bigger space resolution), high orbit satellites (for soundings of wide fixed parcels of the Earth and imaging of bigger secular resolution), allies to the soundings of land instruments and adoption of the normal characteristics of the region, will be able to give its to seem on the yield of the exploration. Numerical modeling as the RAMSIN, MM5, ENSEMBLE, GLOBAL, ETA, MBAR, NCEP and CALMET associates the systems of interpretation of data as the SPRING, SAGA, SURFER, ARCHVIEW, GRADS, DIGITAL, FETERRA, SOLIDWORKS, and instruments of CAD, allow bonanza analyses, powerful and varied forms of understanding of one same phenomenon, and an ample quarrel on as, from now, the lines of direction of the research in Geoprocessing will contribute for the improvement of the operations in deepenings in the industry of the oil. The present workmanship has intention to bring new proposals, or new ways to understand, to create and to apply computational resources for data processing of great value for the exploration of the oil

  14. The Impact of Oil and Gas Resources In the Arctic on the Development of the Transport System in the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy I. Salygin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems of the Russian economy today is the development of the Arctic region. Given the key role of the energy sector in the economic balance of the country, as well as the problem of exhaustion of hydrocarbon resources, the Arctic is of particular interest from an economic and geopolitical point of view, ensuring the energy security of Russia. Active development of the region leads to the development of transport infrastructure, which is one of the priorities of Russia's energy policy. The issue of transportation plays a leading role in the context of the development of Arctic resources and involves a number of tasks. The first step is to ensure the safety of navigation in the Arctic ice. Also existing infrastructure needs substantial upgrading, as well as construction of new facilities (including ports, railways, roads, etc.. Of particular note is a unique transcontinental route - the Northern Sea Route. There is a need to modernize the Arctic Fleet, including the construction of modern icebreakers of the Arctic class. The current state of the port system, which does not fully meet the latest international standards, is of crucial importance as well. In addition, along the route the development of railway infrastructure is required. In addition, there is the problem of underdevelopment of the road network, which leads to a re-run and lack of access of some are as to the road network of Russia. Thus, the development of hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic region contributes to the development of infrastructure of the transport system in the region and, consequently, its economic development that contributes to the economic well-being of the country as a whole.

  15. Vacuolating encephalitis in mice infected by human coronavirus OC43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomy, Helene; Talbot, Pierre J.

    2003-01-01

    Involvement of viruses in human neurodegenerative diseases and the underlying pathologic mechanisms remain generally unclear. Human respiratory coronaviruses (HCoV) can infect neural cells, persist in human brain, and activate myelin-reactive T cells. As a means of understanding the human infection, we characterized in vivo the neurotropic and neuroinvasive properties of HCoV-OC43 through the development of an experimental animal model. Virus inoculation of 21-day postnatal C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice led to a generalized infection of the whole CNS, demonstrating HCoV-OC43 neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence. This acute infection targeted neurons, which underwent vacuolation and degeneration while infected regions presented strong microglial reactivity and inflammatory reactions. Damage to the CNS was not immunologically mediated and microglial reactivity was instead a consequence of direct virus-mediated neuronal injury. Although this acute encephalitis appears generally similar to that induced by murine coronaviruses, an important difference rests in the prominent spongiform-like degeneration that could trigger neuropathology in surviving animals

  16. Integration of inorganic and isotopic geochemistry with endocrine disruption activity assays to assess risks to water resources near unconventional oil and gas development in Garfield County, CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, J.; Kassotis, C.; Cornelius, J.; Nagel, S.; Vengosh, A.

    2016-12-01

    The rise of hydraulic fracturing in the United States has sparked a debate about the impact of oil and gas development on the quality of water resources. Wastewater associated with hydraulic fracturing includes injection fluid that is a mixture of sand, freshwater and synthetic organic chemicals, flowback water that is a mixture of injection fluid and formation brine, and produced water that is primarily brine. The fluids range in salinity and chemical composition that can have different environmental impacts. We analyzed the inorganic and isotope geochemistry of 58 surface and groundwater samples near and away from unconventional oil and gas operations (UOG), along with hormonal profiles via bioassays. Cl (0.12 to 198 mg/L), Na (1.2 to 518 mg/L) and Sr (1.4 to 2410 ug/L) were higher in both groundwater and surface water near UOG wells. Four surface waters and one groundwater had Br/Cl indicative of brine contamination (>1.5x10-3). Three of the SW samples also had 87Sr/86Sr ratios similar to values found in produced or flowback water (0.7118 and 0.7158, respectively) from the Williams-Fork formation and elevated compared to background ratios (0.71062 to 0.7115). Increased progestogenic activity was observed in groundwater near UOG operations and inncreased estrogenic, androgenic, progestogenic, anti-androgenic, anti-progestogenic, and anti-glucocorticoid activities in surface water near UOG operations. The association of increased EDCs with inorganic and isotopic indicators of UOG wastewater provides evidence for possible environmental and health impacts from drilling activity.

  17. A GIS-based vulnerability assessment of brine contamination to aquatic resources from oil and gas development in eastern Sheridan County, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Todd M; Chesley-Preston, Tara L; Thamke, Joanna N

    2014-02-15

    Water (brine) co-produced with oil in the Williston Basin is some of the most saline in the nation. The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR), characterized by glacial sediments and numerous wetlands, covers the northern and eastern portion of the Williston Basin. Sheridan County, Montana, lies within the PPR and has a documented history of brine contamination. Surface water and shallow groundwater in the PPR are saline and sulfate dominated while the deeper brines are much more saline and chloride dominated. A Contamination Index (CI), defined as the ratio of chloride concentration to specific conductance in a water sample, was developed by the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology to delineate the magnitude of brine contamination in Sheridan County. Values >0.035 indicate contamination. Recently, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a county level geographic information system (GIS)-based vulnerability assessment of brine contamination to aquatic resources in the PPR of the Williston Basin based on the age and density of oil wells, number of wetlands, and stream length per county. To validate and better define this assessment, a similar approach was applied in eastern Sheridan County at a greater level of detail (the 2.59 km(2) Public Land Survey System section grid) and included surficial geology. Vulnerability assessment scores were calculated for the 780 modeled sections and these scores were divided into ten equal interval bins representing similar probabilities of contamination. Two surface water and two groundwater samples were collected from the section with the greatest acreage of Federal land in each bin. Nineteen of the forty water samples, and at least one water sample from seven of the ten selected sections, had CI values indicating contamination. Additionally, CI values generally increased with increasing vulnerability assessment score, with a stronger correlation for groundwater samples (R(2)=0.78) than surface water samples (R(2)=0.53). Copyright © 2013

  18. Micro -algae biomass as an alternative resource for fishmeal and fish oil in the production of fish feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed

    evident that the continued exploitation of industrial fish as a resource fish feed will ultimately become both environmentally and economically unsustainable. Microalgae are at the base of the entire aquatic food chain and play a major role in the diet of aquatic animals such as fish. Microalgae’s main...... application for aquaculture are related to nutrition, being used as a sole fresh feed or an additive, e.g. source of pigment. Algae produce almost all nutritious compounds which are required for fish. The diverse biochemical composition of microalgae represents them as a promising candidate...... for the formulation of fish feed. The nutritional composition of microalgae depends on the species, environmental conditions and growth medium composition. Microalgae for use in aquaculture should be non-toxic and possess the essential nutritive constituents, in a reasonable price. Photosynthetic production of algae...

  19. Conserving archaeological sites as biological and historical resources in the Gulf of Mexico: the effects of crude oil and dispersant on the biodiversity and corrosion potential of shipwreck bacterial biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, J. L.; Little, B.; Lee, J.; Ray, R.; Hamdan, L. J.

    2016-02-01

    There are more than 2,000 documented shipwrecks in the Gulf of Mexico. Historic shipwrecks are invaluable cultural resources, but also serve as artificial reefs, enhancing biodiversity in the deep sea. Oil and gas-related activities have the potential to impact shipwreck sites. An estimated 30% of the oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill was deposited in the deep-sea, in areas that contain shipwrecks. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to determine if crude oil, dispersed oil, and/or dispersant affect the community composition, metabolic function, and/or corrosion potential of microorganisms inhabiting shipwrecks. Platforms containing carbon steel coupons (CSC) (n = 34 per platform) were placed at impacted and non-impacted shipwrecks or into four experimental microcosm tanks. After a 2-week acclimation period, tanks were treated with crude oil and/or dispersant or received no treatment. CSC and seawater (SW) samples for bacterial genetic analysis were collected bi-weekly (at 16 wks for field samples). Proteobacteria dominated field and lab CSC bacterial communities (77-97% of sequences). Field CSC bacterial communities differed at each wreck site (P = 0.001), with oil-impacted sites differing from control sites. Lab CSC bacterial communities differed between all treatment groups (P = 0.005) and changed over the course of the experiment (P = 0.001). CSC bacterial species richness, diversity, and dominance increased with time across all treatments indicating the recruitment and establishment of microbial biofilms on CSCs. SW bacterial communities differed between treatment groups (P = 0.001), with the dispersant treatment being most dissimilar from all other treatments (P < 0.01), and changed over time (P = 0.001). Oil- and oil/dispersant-treated CSCs exhibited higher corrosion compared to dispersant and control treatments. These findings indicate that exposure to oil and/or dispersant may alter bacterial community composition and corrosion potential.

  20. 30 CFR 202.100 - Royalty on oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty on oil. 202.100 Section 202.100 Mineral... Federal and Indian Oil § 202.100 Royalty on oil. (a) Royalties due on oil production from leases subject...) All oil (except oil unavoidably lost or used on, or for the benefit of, the lease, including that oil...

  1. Electricity/oil substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, J.G.

    1980-09-01

    The extent to which electricity could substitute for imported oil in Canada is assessed and it is concluded that the bulk of projected oil imports could be displaced. This substitution of electricity for oil could be largely completed within two decades, with existing technology, using Canadian resources. The substitution of electricity for imported oil would result in relatively low energy costs and would stimulate economic growth. Energy self-sufficiency through the substitution of electricity for oil is uniquely a Canadian option; it is not open to other industrial countries. The option exists because of Canada's resources of oil sands for essential liquid fuels, hydraulic and nuclear electrical potential, and natural gas as an interim source of energy. While other countries face an energy crisis due to declining supplies of oil, Canada faces opportunities. The policies of Federal and Provincial governments, as perceived by individual decision makers, will have a major influence on Canada's ability to realize opportunities. (auth)

  2. Design and Implementation of O/C relay using Microprocessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Abdul-Sattar H. Jasim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design and implementation of a versatile digital overcurrent (O/C relay using a single microprocessor. The relay is implemented by a combination of a look-up table and a counter. The software development and hardware testing are done using a microcomputer module based on a 8-bit microprocessor. The digital processing of measured currents enables a separate setting of operating values selection of all types of inverse or constant time characteristics overcurrent protection. This protection provides reasonably fast tripping, even at terminal close to the power source were the most serve faults can occur excluding the transient condition. So this method has an excellent compromise between accuracy hardware and speed

  3. Immunoscintigraphy of ovarian carcinoma using OC 125 monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Yoon

    1990-03-01

    Immunoscintigraphy (ISG) with I-131 labeled OC 125 F (ab')2 fragments was studied in 7 patients for primary diagnosis and follow up of ovarian cancer. Total body planar photoscans with a scintillation camera were performed three to seven days after antibody application and results were compared with operation and/or computed tomography (CT) examination. By the region of interest technique, the tumor to background ratio was calaulated in vivo. Results are as follows. 1) The sensitivity of ISG and CT for detection of 14 tumor sites which were confirmed with histopathology were 100 % and 57.1 % and the sensitivity for the detection of omental metastasis were 100 % and 20 % respectively. 2) There were no correlation between the serum CA 125 levels and tumor to background antibody uptake ratio. 3) Tumor to background antibody uptake ratio were progressively increased from day 3 to day 7. (author)

  4. JSpOC Mission System Application Development Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, R.; Reele, P.; Sabol, C.; Zetocha, P.; Echeverry, J.; Kim, R.; Golf, B.

    2012-09-01

    The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) is the program of record tasked with replacing the legacy Space Defense Operations Center (SPADOC) and Astrodynamics Support Workstation (ASW) capabilities by the end of FY2015 as well as providing additional Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and Command and Control (C2) capabilities post-FY2015. To meet the legacy replacement goal, the JMS program is maturing a government Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) infrastructure that supports the integration of mission applications while acquiring mature industry and government mission applications. Future capabilities required by the JSpOC after 2015 will require development of new applications and procedures as well as the exploitation of new SSA data sources. To support the post FY2015 efforts, the JMS program is partnering with the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to build a JMS application development environment. The purpose of this environment is to: 1) empower the research & development community, through access to relevant tools and data, to accelerate technology development, 2) allow the JMS program to communicate user capability priorities and requirements to the developer community, 3) provide the JMS program with access to state-of-the-art research, development, and computing capabilities, and 4) support market research efforts by identifying outstanding performers that are available to shepherd into the formal transition process. The application development environment will consist of both unclassified and classified environments that can be accessed over common networks (including the Internet) to provide software developers, scientists, and engineers everything they need (e.g., building block JMS services, modeling and simulation tools, relevant test scenarios, documentation, data sources, user priorities/requirements, and SOA integration tools) to develop and test mission applications. The developed applications will be exercised in these

  5. Getting Over the Barrel- Achieving Independence from Foreign Oil in 2018

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haigh, Christopher S

    2009-01-01

    The United States can achieve independence from foreign oil in 2018. Increasing production from current oil fields, developing untapped oil resources, converting coal to oil and oil shale extraction can produce an additional...

  6. Oil extraction in extreme remoteness. The organization of work and long-distance commuting in Russia's northern resource peripheries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spies, M.

    2009-07-01

    The post-Soviet Russian North is characterised by very heterogeneous developments. In some northern peripheries, while the prominent resource industries create a substantial share of their revenues and generate local growth stimuli, other areas face post-Soviet decay. This thesis examines employee mobility in the form of long-distance commuting as an option for dealing with this challenge for regional and local development and analyses its offerings to stakeholders in the region under consideration of its historical legacies and present contingencies. The chosen approach to the research issue places individual employees at the centre of analysis and deals with stances and perceptions of labour. The applied relational understanding of social structures sees any economic processes as necessarily embedded in context and evolving due to past developments. Therefore, a concept of organisations and the management of work is developed that is sensitive to the particularities of long-distance commuting as used in northern Russia and the perceptions and preferences of the individuals involved. The data used in the analyses was acquired from a case study of a Russian oil company and a questionnaire survey. The respondents' views do not reveal any general rejection of long-distance commuting as an alternative employment pattern. Furthermore, its acceptance can be enhanced by listening to the voices of those directly involved. Long-distance commuting is therefore available as a tool for dealing with the limiting geographical characteristics of the Russian North, its Soviet legacies and for efficiently capitalising on its economic potentials. (orig.)

  7. Mineral resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that to prevent the concentration of control over federal oil and gas resources in a few companies or individuals, Congress has limited the number of acres of oil and gas leases that one party may control in a single state. An exception to this limitation involves lease acreage within the boundaries of development contracts. These contracts permit oil and gas lease operators and pipeline companies to contract with enough lessees to economically justify large-scale drilling operations for the production and transportation of oil and gas, subject to approval by the Secretary of the Interior, who must find that such contracts are in the public interest. Since 1986 Interior has entered into or approved 10 contracts with 12 lease operators for exploration of largely unleased federal lands-ranging from about 180,000 to 3.5 million acres in four western states-and has designated them as developmental contracts. GAO believes that the 10 contracts do not satisfy the legal requirements for development contracts because they are for oil and gas exploration on largely unleased federal lands, rather than for developing existing leases. By designating the 10 contracts as development contracts, Interior has enabled nine of the 12 contract parties to accumulate lease acreage that vastly exceeds the statutory acreage limitation. All nine of the contract parties were major or large independent oil companies. As a result, other parties who wish to participate in developing federal oil and gas resources within the four states may be adversely affected because the parties to Interior's contracts have been able to compete for and obtain lease acreage beyond the statutory acreage limitation. Although Interior believes that the Secretary has the discretion under law to use development contracts in the current manner, in April 1989 it ceased issuing these contracts pending completion of GAO's review

  8. Proceedings of the 2002 Petroleum Society of CIM/SPE/CHOA International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, International Conference on Horizontal Well Technology, and Canadian Heavy Oil Association Business Conference : Resources 2 Reserves 2 Results. CD ROM ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This three day conference combined the Petroleum Society's International Horizontal Well and Technology Conference, the Society of Petroleum Engineer's (SPE) International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, and the Canadian Heavy Oil Association's (CHOA) Annual Business Meeting. The 87 presentations covered all aspects of heavy oil, thermal, and horizontal well technology from geosciences and drilling to economics and environment. The themes included financing, turning projects into results, eliminating the downstream barriers to oil sand development in North America and the world, and emerging technologies for horizontal or heavy oil applications. The conference included the following 20 sessions: (1) thermal operations/engineering, (2) well testing/productivity of horizontal wells, (3) heavy oil operations, (4) environmental aspects of heavy oil projects, (5) upgrading/pipelines, (6) economics and project appraisal, (7) simulation studies of thermal projects, (8) multilaterals, (9) horizontal wells in conventional reservoirs, (10) cold production of heavy oil, (11) horizontal drilling in thermal projects, (12) simulation studies of horizontal wells, (13) horizontal drilling technology, (14) thermal field studies and horizontal wells in heavy oil, (15) completion/production technology of horizontal and thermal wells, (16) physics and PVT of heavy oil recovery processes, (17) reservoir characterization/geosciences, (18) horizontal injectors/produced water technology, (19) emerging technologies, and (20) reservoir geomechanics/fracturing. Tutorials were also organized to provide opportunity to review areas that have undergone major changes. A total of 73 papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the database. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. Summary of regional geology, petroleum potential, resource assessment and environmental considerations for oil and gas lease sale area No. 56

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, William P.; Klitgord, Kim D.; Paull, Charles K.; Grow, John A.; Ball, Mahlon M.; Dolton, Gordon L.; Powers, Richard B.; Khan, Abdul S.; Popenoe, Peter; Robb, James M.; Dillon, William P.

    1980-01-01

    This report summarizes our general knowledge of the petroleum potential, as well as problems and hazards associated with development of petroleum resources in the area proposed for nominations for lease sale number 56. This area includes the U.S. eastern continental margin from the North Carolina-Virginia border south to approximately Cape Canaveral, Florida and from three miles from shore, seaward to include the upper Continental Slope and inner Blake Plateau. The area for possible sales is shown in figure 1; major physiographic features of the region are shown in figure 2.No wells have been drilled for petroleum within this proposed lease area and no significant commercial production has been obtained onshore in the Southeast Georgia Embayment. The COST GE-1 stratigraphic test well, drilled on the Continental Shelf off Jacksonville, Fla. (fig- 1), reached basement at 3,300 m. The bottom third of the section consists of dominantly continental rocks that are typically poor sources of petroleum (Scholle, 1979) and the rocks that contain organic carbon adequate for generation of petroleum at the well are seen in seismic profiles always at shallow subbottom depths, so they probably have not reached thermal maturity. However, seismic profiles indicate that the sedimentary deposits thicken markedly in a seaward direction where more of the section was deposited under marine conditions; therefore, commercial accumulations of petroleum offshore are more likely.Several potential sources of environmental hazard exist. Among the most important are hurricanes, the Gulf Stream, and earthquakes. The potential danger from high wind, waves, storm surges, and storm-driven currents associated with hurricanes is obvious. Evidence for significant bottom scour by the Gulf Stream is abundant; such scour is a threat to the stability of bottom-mounted structures. The fast-flowing water also will hamper floating drill rigs and control of drill strings. A major earthquake of about magnitude

  10. effect of cold storage on the composition of the essential oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydrodistilled volatile oil of fresh leaves and leaves of Eugenia uniflora L. stored for 24hr at 4oC were compared. The GC, LSC and GC-MS analyses of the oils revealed major quantitative differences in their chemical composition. The predominantly sesquitepene rich oils differed mainly in the percentage of their ...

  11. Menstrual cyclicity post OC withdrawal in PCOS: Use of non-hormonal options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Arora, Arpita; Pahuja, Isha; Sharma, Neera; Pant, Shubhi

    2016-08-01

    There is no data on menstrual cyclicity post oral contraceptive (OC) withdrawal with nonhormonal options in PCOS patients. OC could affect obesity, insulin and gonadotropins factors integral to pathogenesis of PCOS, thereby adversely affecting the HPG axis. Menstrual cycles of PCOS patients were retrospectively studied post OCP. Patients developing regular versus irregular cycles post OC were compared. Forty-eight PCOS patients were followed for an average of 1.9 years post OC. Thirty-six (75%) achieved regular cycles over a period of one year with other nonhormonal options like spironolactone and metformin. Seven patients required no treatment. Patients who continued to have irregular cycles had a longer pre OC cycle length (p PCOS may not require any treatment post OC.

  12. Thermal-Conductivity Studies of Macro-porous Polymer-Derived SiOC Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L.; Li, Y. M.; Zheng, X. H.; Zhu, J.; Tang, D. W.; Wu, J. Q.; Xu, C. H.

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional reticular macro-porous SiOC ceramics structure, made of spherical agglomerates, has been thermally characterized using a freestanding sensor-based method. The effective thermal conductivity of the macro-porous SiOC ceramics, including the effects of voids, is found to be to at room temperature, comparable with that of alumina aerogel or carbon aerogel. These results suggest that SiOC ceramics hold great promise as a thermal insulation material for use at high temperatures. The measured results further reveal that the effective thermal conductivity is limited by the low solid-phase volume fraction for the SiOC series processed at the same conditions. For SiOC ceramics processed under different pyrolysis temperatures, the contact condition between neighboring particles in the SiOC networks is another key factor influencing the effective thermal conductivity.

  13. Safety and Offshore Oil: Background Papers of the Committee on Assessment of Safety of OCS Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    as property (fire, windstorm , etc.), general liability, workers’ compensation, boiler machinery, and surety to commercial enterprises. ’The ocean...operations. This seems to indicate that some substantial back injury has actually occurred. Robert C. Phillips is Assistant Director of the Commercial Lines ...degradation, there was a rapid reduction of the more readily degraded straight -chain and a slightly slower rate of degradation of the branched paraff ins

  14. Legal regulation of the reuse of water resources in the oil, natural gas and biofuels industry; A regulamentacao juridica do reuso dos recursos hidricos na Industria do petroleo, gas natural e biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Flaviana Marques de; Guimaraes, Patricia Borba Vilar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The Constitution of 1988 is a guide for protect natural resources in the country, it was from her that the right to an ecologically balanced environment was elevated to the category of fundamental human right of all was changed understanding regarding the use water resources, irrigation water is characterized as a resource with economic value. In this scenario emerging legal standards for protecting the environment and water resources, which must necessarily be committed to the development of economic activities that use natural resources, and still worry about their conservation and preservation for the use of present and future generations, in line with the desires dictated by sustainable development. Therefore, this work has the scope to verify the legal regulation of reuse of water resources in the context of activities developed by the oil industry, natural gas and biofuels, to promote optimum use of water resources in the country, and this can lead to benefits social, economic and environmental. The importance of the study emerges precisely in the industrial sector, and specifically in the oil industry, natural gas and biofuels, in order that through these activities is increased the negative potential of natural resources, consequently increasing the ability to cause negative externalities either by adopting systematic contrary to sustainable development, as the high standards of environmental degradation caused by the activities of this kind. The methodology for conducting this study is theoretical and descriptive, developing through the analysis and interpretation of data obtained from the verification of magazines, books and monographs, concerning the subject of water resources and, by examining done about the current environmentalist doctrine and appreciation of constitutional and legislative documents infra constitutional above existing on the subject. (author)

  15. Fossile fuel and uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorkum, A.A. van.

    1975-01-01

    The world's resources of coal, lignite, oil, natural gas, shale oil and uranium are reviewed. These quantities depend on the prices which make new resources exploitable. Uranium resources are given exclusively for the USSR, Eastern Europe and China. Their value in terms of energy depends heavily on the reactor type used. All figures given are estimated to be conservative

  16. Geologic assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the Lower Paleogene Midway and Wilcox Groups, and the Carrizo Sand of the Claiborne Group, of the Northern Gulf coast region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.

    2017-09-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently conducted an assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas potential of Tertiary strata underlying the onshore areas and State waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico coastal region. The assessment was based on a number of geologic elements including an evaluation of hydrocarbon source rocks, suitable reservoir rocks, and hydrocarbon traps in an Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System defined for the region by the USGS. Five conventional assessment units (AUs) were defined for the Midway (Paleocene) and Wilcox (Paleocene-Eocene) Groups, and the Carrizo Sand of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) interval including: (1) the Wilcox Stable Shelf Oil and Gas AU; (2) the Wilcox Expanded Fault Zone Gas and Oil AU; (3) the Wilcox-Lobo Slide Block Gas AU; (4) the Wilcox Slope and Basin Floor Gas AU; and (5) the Wilcox Mississippi Embayment AU (not quantitatively assessed).The USGS assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources for the Midway-Wilcox-Carrizo interval resulted in estimated mean values of 110 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 36.9 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG), and 639 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL) in the four assessed units. The undiscovered oil resources are almost evenly divided between fluvial-deltaic sandstone reservoirs within the Wilcox Stable Shelf (54 MMBO) AU and deltaic sandstone reservoirs of the Wilcox Expanded Fault Zone (52 MMBO) AU. Greater than 70 percent of the undiscovered gas and 66 percent of the natural gas liquids (NGL) are estimated to be in deep (13,000 to 30,000 feet), untested distal deltaic and slope sandstone reservoirs within the Wilcox Slope and Basin Floor Gas AU.

  17. The possibility of palm oil mill effluent for biogas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDWI MAHAJOENO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Indonesia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil (Elaeis guiinensis Jacq.. The aims of the research were to (i characterize palm oil mill effluent which will be used as source of biogas production, (ii know the biotic and abiotic factors which effect POME substrate for biogas production by anaerobic digestion in bulk system. The results show that POME sludge generated from PT Pinago Utama mill is viscous, brown or grey and has an average total solid (TS content of, 26.5-45.4, BOD is 23.5-29.3, COD is 49.0-63.6 and SS is 17.1-35.9 g/L, respectively. This substrate is a potential source of environmental pollutants. The biotic factors were kind and concentration of the inoculums, i.e. seed sludge of anaerobic lagoon II and 20% (w/v respectively. Both physical and chemical factors such as pre-treated POME pH, pH neutralizer matter Ca (OH2, temperature ≥40oC, agitation effect to increase biogas production, but in both coagulant concentration, FeCl2 were not.

  18. Project scheduling with resources constraints: application in the equipment production for the oil industry; Scheduling de projetos com restricao de recursos: aplicacao na producao de equipamentos para a industria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Carolina A.O.; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio J.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    One of the essential steps in the main scope Project Management is the Time Management made by the planning and control of the project schedule. In this work is presented the resource constrained scheduling problem beyond its mathematical formulation and a review of papers about this issue. In sequence is presented a practical example of this model considering a simplified model of an engineering project schedule of oil production equipment. The results obtained with the model application are shown and the conclusions about the work with resource constrained scheduling problems. (author)

  19. Gulf of Alaska/Yakutat Planning Area oil and gas lease sale 158: Draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) addresses a proposed Federal action that will offer for lease areas in the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). These areas may contain economically recoverable oil and gas resources. At this time, gas is not considered economically recoverable. Lease Sale 158, proposed for 1997, is comprised of lease blocks in the Gulf of Alaska Planning Area. Up to 977 blocks will be available for lease under the proposed action; only a small percentage is expected to be actually leased. Of the blocks that will be leased, only a portion will be drilled and could possibly result in production. The analytical methods used in this EIS have been formulated over a period of years. The first step of the analysis is the identification of significant environmental and socioeconomic resources through the scoping process outlined in Section I.D. The MMS then derives a range of energy-resource estimates from geologic and economic assumptions and establishes alternatives to the proposed action. The MMS assumes estimated levels of exploration and development activity for analyzing the proposed action. The MMS then analyzes the potential effects expected from the interaction between significant environmental and socioeconomic resources and OCS-related activities

  20. Socioeconomic impacts of outer continental shelf oil and gas development; a bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Malka L.

    1977-01-01

    The bibliography lists reports which are concerned primarily with the socioeconomic impacts of OCS oil and gas development or which, although not primarily concerned with such impacts, include sections that contain significant discussion of them. Several of the cited reports do not address socioeconomic issues directly, but have been included because of their value in providing a broad picture of OCS oil and gas development and the associated terminology and/or techical aspects. (Sinha - OEIS)

  1. Cytoarchitecture of the human lateral occipital cortex: mapping of two extrastriate areas hOc4la and hOc4lp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malikovic, Aleksandar; Amunts, Katrin; Schleicher, Axel; Mohlberg, Hartmut; Kujovic, Milenko; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Eickhoff, Simon B; Zilles, Karl

    2016-05-01

    The microstructural correlates of the functional segregation of the human lateral occipital cortex are largely unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the cytoarchitecture of this region in ten human post-mortem brains using an observer-independent and statistically testable parcellation method to define the position and extent of areas in the lateral occipital cortex. Two new cytoarchitectonic areas were found: an anterior area hOc4la and a posterior area hOc4lp. hOc4la was located behind the anterior occipital sulcus in rostral and ventral portions of this region where it occupies the anterior third of the middle and inferior lateral occipital gyri. hOc4lp was found in caudal and dorsal portions of this region where it extends along the superior and middle lateral occipital gyri. The cytoarchitectonic areas were registered to 3D reconstructions of the corresponding brains, which were subsequently spatially normalized to the Montreal Neurological Institute reference space. Continuous probabilistic maps of both areas based on the analysis of ten brains were generated to characterize their inter-subject variability in location and size. The maps of hOc4la and hOc4lp were then used as seeds for meta-analytic connectivity modeling and quantitative functional decoding to identify their co-activation patterns and assignment to functional domains. Convergent evidence from their location, topography, size, functional domains and connectivity indicates that hOc4la and hOc4lp are the potential anatomical correlates of the functionally defined lateral occipital areas LO-1 and LO-2.

  2. The cellulose resource matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, E.R.P.; Yilmaz, G.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where

  3. Evening Primrose Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U V W X Y Z Evening Primrose Oil Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... fact sheet provides basic information about evening primrose oil—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  4. Flaxseed and Flaxseed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... V W X Y Z Flaxseed and Flaxseed Oil Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... sheet provides basic information about flaxseed and flaxseed oil—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  5. Pathological studies of sea otters. Marine mammal study 6-11. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Rebar, A.H.; Ballachey, B.E.; Haebler, R.J.

    1996-06-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, sea otters were captured and taken to rehabilitaion centers. Oil exposure was assessed by visual examination on arrival at the centers. Records of 21 oiled otters that died within 10 days of arrival at the centers were reviewed to define the laboratory abnormalities and clinical syndromes associated with these deaths. Tissues from 51 oiled and 6 unoiled sea otters that died in the centers were examined histologically. Histologic examinations were performed on tissues from 5 oiled otters found dead shortly after the spill. Nucropsies were performed on 214 sea otters that were collected and frozen following the oil spill. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema and gastric erosion and hemorrhage were common in oiled animals, and were less frequent in unoiled animals. Tissues from 6 sea otters collected from a nonoiled area were examined, and none of these lesions were found. We conclude that pulmonary interstitial emphysema, gastric erosion and hemorrhage, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and hepatic and renal lipidosis were associated with exposure to crude oil in sea otters.

  6. Too Much Coal, Too Little Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick van der Ploeg; Cees Withagen

    2011-01-01

    Optimal climate policy is studied. Coal, the abundant resource, contributes more CO2 per unit of energy than the exhaustible resource, oil. We characterize the optimal sequencing oil and coal and departures from the Herfindahl rule. "Preference reversal" can take place. If coal is very dirty compared to oil, there is no simultaneous use. Else, the optimal outcome starts with oil, before using oil and coal together, and finally coal on its own, The "laissez-faire" outcome uses coal forever or ...

  7. The oil barrel price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondy, J.; Papon, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an overview and a prospective glance on the oil barrel price. It indicates the relevant indicators: Brent quotation, euro/dollar parity, economic activity indicators, world oil consumption distribution, crude oil production, refining capacity. It briefly presents the involved stake holders: crude oil producers, oil refiners, refined product dealers, and the OPEC. It discusses the major retrospective trends: evolution in relationship with geopolitical events and energy policies, strong correlation between oil demand and economic growth, prevalence of OPEC, growing importance of national oil companies. An emerging trend is noticed: growing role of emerging countries on the crude market. Some prospective issues are discussed: duration and intensity of economic recession, separation between economic growth and energy consumption, pace and ambition level of policies of struggle against climate change, exploitable resources, and geopolitical hazards. Four evolution hypotheses are discussed

  8. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  9. Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS measured remotely by FTIR solar absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Toon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric OCS abundances have been retrieved from infrared spectra measured by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL MkIV Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR spectrometer during 24 balloon flights and during nearly 1100 days of ground-based observations since 1985. Our spectral fitting approach uses broad windows to enhance the precision and robustness of the retrievals. Since OCS has a vertical profile similar in shape to that of N2O, and since tropospheric N2O is very stable, we reference the OCS observations to those of N2O, measured simultaneously in the same air mass, to remove the effects of stratospheric transport, allowing a clearer assessment of secular changes in OCS. Balloon measurements reveal less than 5 % change in stratospheric OCS amounts over the past 25 years. Ground-based measurements reveal a springtime peak of tropospheric OCS, followed by a rapid early-summer decrease, similar to the behavior of CO2. This results in a peak-to-peak seasonal cycle of 5–6 % of the total OCS column at northern mid-latitudes. In the long-term tropospheric OCS record, a 5 % decrease is seen from 1990 to 2002, followed by a 5 % increase from 2003 to 2012.

  10. 78 FR 36571 - North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Provisional Official...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management [MMAA104000] North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Provisional Official Protraction Diagram (OPDs) AGENCY... OPDs. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that effective with this publication two NAD 83-based OCS...

  11. The Effect of the Operating Conditions on the Apparent Viscosity of Crude Palm Oil During Oil Clarification

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman Al-Zuhair, Mirghani I. Ahmed and Yousif A. Abakr

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil, using rotary viscometer, under different boundary conditions. It was experimentally shown that the apparent viscosity of palm oil drops with increasing of the shear rate and the temperature.  However, the effect of temperature on the viscosity tends to fade at temperatures beyond 80 oC.  A correlation between the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil and the operating conditions was developed. This correlation can be used...

  12. Geology and assessment of unconventional resources of Phitsanulok Basin, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) quantitatively assessed the potential for unconventional oil and gas resources within the Phitsanulok Basin of Thailand. Unconventional resources for the USGS include shale gas, shale oil, tight gas, tight oil, and coalbed gas. In the Phitsanulok Basin, only potential shale-oil and shale-gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  13. Exploitation Contradictions Concerning Multi-Energy Resources among Coal, Gas, Oil, and Uranium: A Case Study in the Ordos Basin (Western North China Craton and Southern Side of Yinshan Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Feng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The particular “rich coal, meager oil, and deficient gas” energy structure of China determines its high degree of dependence on coal resources. After over 100 years of high-intensity mining activities in Northeast China, East Region, and the Southern Region, coal mining in these areas is facing a series of serious problems, which force China’s energy exploitation map to be rewritten. New energy bases will move to the western and northern regions in the next few years. However, overlapping phenomena of multiple resources are frequently encountered. Previous exploitation mainly focused on coal mining, which destroys many mutualistic and accompanying resources, such as uranium, gas, and oil. Aiming at solving this unscientific development mode, this research presents a case study in the Ordos Basin, where uranium, coal, and gas/oil show a three-dimensional overlapping phenomenon along the vertical downward direction. The upper uranium and lower coal situation in this basin is remarkable; specifically, coal mining disturbs the overlaying aquifer, thus requiring the uranium to be leached first. The technical approach must be sufficiently reliable to avoid the leakage of radioactive elements in subsequent coal mining procedures. Hence, the unbalanced injection and extraction of uranium mining is used to completely eradicate the discharged emissions to the environment. The gas and oil are typically not extracted because of their deep occurrence strata and their overlapping phenomenon with coal seams. Use of the integrated coal and gas production method is recommended, and relevant fracturing methods to increase the gas migrating degree in the strata are also introduced. The results and recommendations in this study are applicable in some other areas with similarities.

  14. Long term prediction of unconventional oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, S.H.; Evans, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although considerable discussion surrounds unconventional oil's ability to mitigate the effects of peaking conventional oil production, very few models of unconventional oil production exist. The aim of this article was to project unconventional oil production to determine how significant its production may be. Two models were developed to predict the unconventional oil production, one model for in situ production and the other for mining the resources. Unconventional oil production is anticipated to reach between 18 and 32 Gb/y (49-88 Mb/d) in 2076-2084, before declining. If conventional oil production is at peak production then projected unconventional oil production cannot mitigate peaking of conventional oil alone.

  15. 75 FR 17156 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf, Western Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 215 (2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... environmental assessment (EA) for proposed Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas Lease Sale... Environmental Impact Statement; Volumes I and II (Multisale EIS, OCS EIS/EA MMS 2007-018) and in the Gulf of...; Western Planning Area Sales 210, 215, and 218--Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement...

  16. Challenge of the oil market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaidah, A M

    1981-11-01

    The oil market is experiencing a different environment in 1981 as demand for OPEC oil fades while customers run down their inventories. The oil-producing countries face a new challenge, but the need of consuming countries for secure oil supplies and the need of producing countries to broaden their economies and reduce dependence on a depleting resource continue. Two episodes 1973 to 1975 and late 1978 to the present, illustrate the current market situation. The impact of these episodes is the basis for recommended long-run goals that go beyond market management to the real challenge of converting oil resources into the real assets of economic development. (DCK)

  17. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in conventional and continuous petroleum systems in the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Group, U.S. Gulf Coast region, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, Russell F.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Pearson, Krystal; Kinney, Scott A.; Lewan, Michael D.; Burke, Lauri; Biewick, Laura; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed means of (1) 141 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 502 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 16 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL) in the conventional Eagle Ford Updip Sandstone Oil and Gas Assessment Unit (AU); (2) 853 MMBO, 1,707 BCFG, and 34 MMBNGL in the continuous Eagle Ford Shale Oil AU; and (3) 50,219 BCFG and 2,009 MMBNGL in the continuous Eagle Ford Shale Gas AU in onshore lands and State waters of the Gulf Coast.

  18. Extraction of heavy oil by supercritical carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Spirov, Pavel; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with the extraction of heavy oil by supercritical carbon dioxide at the pressure values changing from 16 to 56 MPa at the fixed value of temperature: 60oC. The amount of the recovered liquid phase of oil was calculated as a percentage of the extracted amount to the initial...... 40 gm of oil. The noticeable breackover point in the graph of the oil recovery versus pressure was observed at 27 MPa, which was in concordance with the conclusions from chromatographic analysis of the extracted oil samples. But the recovery rate of 14 % at this pressure value was not high enough...

  19. Malaysia: oil, gas, petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Petronas or Petroliam Nasional Berhad was established on 17 August 1974 as the national petroleum corporation of Malaysia. The Petroleum Development Act, passed by the Malaysian Parliament in October of that same year, vested in Petronas the entire ownership of all oil and natural gas resources in the country. These resources are considerable and Malaysia is poised to become one of the major petrochemical producers in the region. This report outlines the extent of oil, gas and petrochemicals production in Malaysia, lists companies holding licences and contracts from Petronas and provides a directory of the Malaysian oil industry. (Author)

  20. Oil shale commercialization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

  1. Examining the Effect of Company’s Size and Resources on the Relationship between Stakeholders’ Pressure and Environmental Strategies in the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Rafi Yaacob; Mohd Nor Hakimin Yusoff

    2011-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important commodity exports for Malaysia. This industry contributes billions of ringgit to the country. In terms on number of employment half a million people involved in the industry. Due to its contribution, oil palm is known as a golden crop of Malaysia. Over the last four decades more and more plantation areas have been developed in the country. But nevertheless, the disproportionate expansion of this monoculture crops contributes to environmental degradations ...

  2. Oil Trade and Climate Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Malik Curuk; Suphi Sen

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that a depletable resource owner might optimally increase near-term supply in response to environmental policies promoting the development of alternative resources, which might render climate policy ineffective or even counterproductive. This paper empirically confirms this prediction using data on crude oil exports from OPEC to OECD countries between 2001-2010 in a gravity framework. It documents that oil exporters decrease prices and increase quantity of oil exports in re...

  3. Oxidative stability of krill oil (Euphausia superba)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Bruheim, I.

    Krill oil has been reported in many studies to have high oxidative stability when evaluated by peroxide value (PV) and anisidine value (AV). However, recent studies have shown that other compounds than primary and secondary oxidation products are formed when krill oil is exposed to oxidative...... conditions. These compounds include Strecker degradation compounds and pyrroles. Some of these compounds may have antioxidative effect. Commercial scale processing of krill prior to extraction may affect the oxidative stability of krill oil. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to compare lipid...... oxidation in krill oil produced in a commercial process and krill oil carefully extracted from frozen krill in the laboratory. Krill oil was incubated at different temperatures (20, 30 and 40 oC) for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks, under conditions of constant stirring while being exposed to air. The oxidative...

  4. Oil shale activities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, D.; Jialin, Q.

    1991-01-01

    China has abundant oil shale resources, of the Early Silurian to Neogene age, the most important being the Tertiary period. The proved oil shale reserves in Fushun amount to 3.6 billion t, in Maoming 4.1 billion t. In Fushun, oil shale is produced by open-pit mining as a byproduct of coal, in Maoming it is also mined in open pits, but without coal. In China, scale oil has been produced from oil shale for 60 years. Annual production of crude shale oil amounts to about 200 000 t. The production costs of shale oil are lower than the price of crude petroleum on the world market. China has accumulated the experience and technologies of oil shale retorting. The Fushun type retort has been elaborated, in which the latent and sensible heat of shale coke is well utilized. But the capacity of such retort is relatively small, therefore it is suitable for use in small or medium oil plants. China has a policy of steadily developing shale oil industry. China is conducting oil shale research and developing oil shale processing technology. Much attention is being pay ed to the comprehensive utilization of oil shale, shale oil, and to environmental problems. In China, oil shale is mostly used for producing shale by retorting, attention will also be paid to direct combustion for power generation. Great achievements in oil shale research have been made in the eighties, and there will be a further development in the nineties. (author), 12 refs., 3 tabs

  5. Theory vs. experiment for molecular clusters: Spectra of OCS trimers and tetramers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelisti, Luca [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, McCormick Road, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Dipartimento di Chimica “G. Ciamician,” University of Bologna, Via Selmi 2, Bologna 40126 (Italy); Perez, Cristobal; Seifert, Nathan A.; Pate, Brooks H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, McCormick Road, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Dehghany, M.; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive North West, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); McKellar, A. R. W. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2015-03-14

    All singly substituted {sup 13}C, {sup 18}O, and {sup 34}S isotopomers of the previously known OCS trimer are observed in natural abundance in a broad-band spectrum measured with a chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. The complete substitution structure thus obtained critically tests (and confirms) the common assumption that monomers tend to retain their free structure in a weakly bound cluster. A new OCS trimer isomer is also observed, and its structure is determined to be barrel-shaped but with the monomers all approximately aligned, in contrast to the original trimer which is barrel-shaped with two monomers aligned and one anti-aligned. An OCS tetramer spectrum is assigned for the first time, and the tetramer structure resembles an original trimer with an OCS monomer added at the end with two sulfur atoms. Infrared spectra observed in the region of the OCS ν{sub 1} fundamental (≈2060 cm{sup −1}) are assigned to the same OCS tetramer, and another infrared band is tentatively assigned to a different tetramer isomer. The experimental results are compared and contrasted with theoretical predictions from the literature and from new cluster calculations which use an accurate OCS pair potential and assume pairwise additivity.

  6. Tunneling Characteristics Depending on Schottky Barriers and Diffusion Current in SiOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Teresa; Kim, Chy Hyung

    2016-02-01

    To obtain a diffusion current in SiOC, the aluminum doped zinc oxide films were deposited on SiOC/Si wafer by a RF magnetron sputtering. All the X-ray patterns of the SiOC films showed amorphous phases. The level of binding energy of Si atoms will lead to an additional potential modulation by long range Coulombic and covalent interactions with oxygen ions. The growth of the AZO film was affected by the characteristics of SiOC, resulting in similar trends in XPS spectra and a shift to higher AZO lattice d values than the original AZO d values in XRD analyses. The charges trapped by the defects at the interlayer between AZO and SiOC films induced the decreased mobility of carriers. In the absence of trap charges, AZO grown on SiOC film such as the sample prepared at O2 = 25 or 30 sccm, which has low charge carrier concentration and high mobility, showed high mobility in an ambipolar characteristic of oxide semiconductor due to the tunneling effect and diffusion current. The structural matching of an interface between AZO and amorphous SiOC enhanced the height of Schottky Barrier (SB), and then the mobility was increased by the tunneling effect from band to band through the high SB.

  7. Building an early career network through outreach projects: The "mon océan & moi" example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieux, M.; Scheurle, C.; Ardyna, M.; Harmel, T.; Ferraris, M.; Jessin, T.; Lacour, L.; Mayot, N.; Organelli, E.; Pasqueron De Fommervault, O.; Penkerc'h, C.; Poteau, A.; Uitz, J.; Ramondec, S.; Sauzède, R.; Velluci, V.; Claustre, H.

    2016-02-01

    The ocean plays an important role in the global processes of our planet, from climate change to sea level rise, uptake of carbon dioxide to fisheries stocks. In addition, its scientific importance, extraordinary beauty and public fascination provide perfect ingredients for both education and public outreach. Four years ago, after the launch of the "mon océan & moi" outreach project, an early career network (Ph.D. students and postdocs) has been formed to "promote collaborations/exchanges between the scientific and educational worlds in order to co-elaborate a teaching method for raising the awareness of school children on marine environments". Scientists are pursuing new research yielding improved knowledge and new documentation resources. However, they lack the communication skills to make the subject accessible to the general public. On the other hand, teachers must be informed of recent discoveries and of new resources for educational purposes. To fill this gap, the early career scientists developed, in collaboration with a school authority and an experienced science communicators team, both a trail education program tested directly in middle and high schools and innovative supporting material (i.e., animations, educative video clips and experiments, interactive maps and quizzes). Here we outline a set of guidelines as to how to improve science outreach across a variety of disciplines (e.g., science, technology, engineering) and how this may impact the experience of early career scientists. These tips will be useful for other early career scientists and science outreach projects, large or small, regional, national or international. Such novel outreach initiatives will help educate current and next generations about the importance of ocean environments and the relevance of ocean sciences for the society, and may serve as an example of teamwork for other young scientists.

  8. Analysis of selected energy security issues related to US crude oil and natural gas exploration, development, production, transportation and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    In July 1989, President Bush directed the Secretary of Energy to initiate the development of a comprehensive National Energy Strategy (NES) built upon a national consensus. The overall principle for the NES, as defined by the President and articulated by the Economic Policy Council (EPC), is the continuation of the successful policy of market reliance, consistent with the following goals: Balancing of energy, economic, and environmental concerns; and reduced dependence by the US and its friends and allies on potentially unreliable energy suppliers. The analyses presented in this report draw upon a large body of work previously conducted for DOE/Office of Fossil Energy, the US Department of Interior/Minerals Management Service (DOI/MMS), and the Gas Research Institute (GRI), referenced throughout the text of this report. This work includes assessments in the following areas: the potential of advanced oil and gas extraction technologies as improved through R ampersand D, along with the successful transfer of these technologies to the domestic petroleum industry; the economic and energy impacts of environmental regulations on domestic oil and gas exploration, production, and transportation; the potential of tax incentives to stimulate domestic oil and gas development and production; the potential environmental costs associated with various options for leasing for US oil and gas resources in the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS); and the economic impacts of environmental regulations affecting domestic crude oil refining

  9. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  10. Assessment of non-economic impacts to coastal recreation and tourism from oil and gas development: A review of selected literature and example-methodology. Inventory and evaluation of Washington and Oregon coastal recreation resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, L.E.; Johnson, D.R.; Lee, R.G.

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of the study three-part was to assist Minerals Management Service (MMS) planners in evaluation of the anticipated social impact of proposed oil and gas development on the environment. The Pacific Northwest coastal areas of Washington and Oregon, widely known for their natural beauty, provide a variety of recreational opportunities for both local residents and visitors. In fact, tourism is one of the leading industries in the two states and is an important source of revenue for the economies of many coastal communities. Thus, the Department of Interior, Minerals Management Service (MMS), in anticipation of the proposed Lease Sale 132, funded the research project with the aim of adding to the existing knowledge of Oregon and Washington coastal recreation resources that might be affected by proposed oil and gas development activities.

  11. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  12. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  13. Mechanisms of TL for production of the 230 {sup o}C peak in natural sodalite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, Nilo F., E-mail: nilocano@dfn.if.usp.b [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Professional School of Physics, University of San Agustin of Arequipa, Av. Independencia S/N, Arequipa (Peru); Blak, Ana R. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ayala-Arenas, Jorge S. [Professional School of Physics, University of San Agustin of Arequipa, Av. Independencia S/N, Arequipa (Peru); Watanabe, Shigueo [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    The thermoluminescence (TL) peak in natural sodalite near 230 {sup o}C, which appears only after submitted to thermal treatments and to gamma irradiation, has been studied in parallel with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum appearing under the same procedure. This study revealed a full correlation between the 230 {sup o}C TL peak and the eleven hyperfine lines from EPR spectrum. In both case, the centers disappear at the same temperature and are restored after gamma irradiation. A complete model for the 230 {sup o}C TL peak is presented and discussed. In addition to the correlation and TL model, specific characteristics of the TL peaks are described.

  14. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouros, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The world annually transports 1.7 billion tons of oil by sea, and oil spills, often highly concentrated discharges, are increasing from a variety of sources. The author discusses sources of oils spills: natural; marine transportation; offshore oil production; atmospheric sources; municipal industrial wastes and runoff. Other topics include: the fate of the spilled oil; the effects of the oil; the response to oil spills; and prevention of oil spills. 30 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  15. Human resource practices and affective organisational commitment: A sectoral comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Renier Steyn; Magda L. Bezuidenhout; Anton Grobler

    2017-01-01

    Orientation: Organisational commitment (OC) is often depicted as a desirable employee attitude and relates to organisational performance. Little research has been carried out on the (Human Resource) HR practices–OC relationship within the South African context, and specifically with regard to this relationship across various sectors. Research purpose: The purpose of this contribution is to specify the HR practices–OC relationship, within South Africa, and specifically across various secto...

  16. Fuel resources in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The total resources of fossil fuel in the country are estimated (rounded off into billion m/sup 3/ of oil equivalent) as 30--oil 22, natural gas 4 and coal 4. The explored reserves are 2.39--oil 1.68, natural gas 0.25 and coal 0.46. The main type of fuel in the fuel and energy balance of the country is oil. Coal is used in limited quantity in cement, ceramic and other sectors of industry. Outlook for development of the coal industry is discussed in relation to the planned use of coal at the TES.

  17. The Design and Manufacturing of Essential oil Distillation Plant for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Design and Manufacturing of Essential oil Distillation Plant for rural poverty ... The adaptation of oil distillation technology for essential oil production is ... based on local resources and the first prototype has been manufactured and tested.

  18. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  19. Geologic framework for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in sandstone reservoirs of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group, U.S. Gulf of Mexico region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eoff, Jennifer D.; Dubiel, Russell F.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is assessing the undiscovered oil and gas resources in sandstone reservoirs of the Upper Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group in onshore areas and State waters of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico region. The assessment is based on geologic elements of a total petroleum system. Four assessment units (AUs) are defined based on characterization of hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks, seals, traps, and the geohistory of the hydrocarbon products. Strata in each AU share similar stratigraphic, structural, and hydrocarbon-charge histories.

  20. Assessment of water resources and the potential effects from oil and gas development in the Bureau of Land Management Tri-County planning area, Sierra, Doña Ana, and Otero Counties, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Johanna M.; Miltenberger, Keely; Stewart, Anne M.; Ritchie, Andre; Montoya, Jennifer; Durr, Corey; McHugh, Amy; Charles, Emmanuel

    2018-02-07

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, conducted a study to assess the water resources and potential effects on the water resources from oil and gas development in the Tri-County planning area, Sierra, Doña Ana, and Otero Counties, New Mexico. Publicly available data were used to assess these resources and effects and to identify data gaps in the Tri-County planning area.The Tri-County planning area includes approximately 9.3 million acres and is within the eastern extent of the Basin and Range Province, which consists of mountain ranges and low elevation basins. Three specific areas of interest within the Tri-County planning area are the Jornada del Muerto, Tularosa Basin, and Otero Mesa, which is adjacent to the Salt Basin. Surface-water resources are limited in the Tri-County planning area, with the Rio Grande as the main perennial river flowing from north to south through Sierra and Doña Ana Counties. The Tularosa Creek is an important surface-water resource in the Tularosa Basin. The Sacramento River, which flows southeast out of the Sacramento Mountains, is an important source of recharge to aquifers in the Salt Basin. Groundwater resources vary in aquifer type, depth to water, and water quality. For example, the Jornada del Muerto, Tularosa Basin, and Salt Basin each have shallow and deep aquifer systems, and water can range from freshwater, with less than 1,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L) of total dissolved solids, to brine, with greater than 35,000 mg/L of total dissolved solids. Water quality in the Tri-County planning area is affected by the dissolution of salt deposits and evaporation which are common in arid regions such as southern New Mexico. The potential for oil and gas development exists in several areas within the Tri-County area. As many as 81 new conventional wells and 25 coalbed natural gas wells could be developed by 2035. Conventional oil and gas well construction in the Tri-County planning

  1. The oil price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, P.

    2000-01-01

    Statistical analysis cannot, alone, provide an oil price forecast. So, one needs to understand the fundamental phenomena which control the past trends since the end of world war II After a first period during which oil, thanks to its abundance, was able to increase its market share at the expense of other energies, the first oil shock reflects the rarefaction of oil resource with the tilting of the US production curve from growth to decline. Since then, the new situation is that of a ''cohabitation'' between oil and the other energies with the oil price, extremely volatile, reflecting the trial and error adjustment of the market share left to the other energies. Such a context may explain the recent oil price surge but the analogy between the US oil situation at the time of the first shock and that existing today for the world outside Middle East suggest another possibility, that of a structural change with higher future oil prices. The authors examine these two possibilities, think that the oil price will reflect both as long as one or the other will not become proven, and conclude with a series of political recommendations. (authors)

  2. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1A3OC-2ZLWD [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1A3OC-2ZLWD 1A3O 2ZLW C D -VLSPADKTNVKAAWGKVGAHAGEYGAEALERMFLSFPT...R VQLSGEEKAAVLALWDKVN--EEEVGGEALGRLLVVYPWTQRFFDSFGDLSNPGAVMGNPKVKAHGKKVLHSFGEGVHHLDNLKGTFAALSEL.../index> 2ZLW D 2ZLWD

  3. 77 FR 47877 - Potential Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Maine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Maine; Request for Interest... Request for a Commercial OCS Wind Lease, Request for Interest, and Request for Public Comment SUMMARY: The... (Statoil NA) to acquire an OCS wind lease; (2) solicit public input regarding the proposal, its potential...

  4. Monitoring `Renewable resources`. Vegetable oils and other fuels from plants. Third status report; Monitoring `Nachwachsende Rohstoffe`. Pflanzliche Oele und andere Kraftstoffe aus Pflanzen. Dritter Sachstandsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, C.

    1997-11-01

    The present status report `vegetable oils and other fuels from plants` deals with important developments on the utilization of biofuels in spark ignition engines and diesel engines since presentation of the report `growing raw materials` of the Enquete comission `Technikfolgenabschaetzung und -bewertung`. The report deals mainly with rapeseed oil and rape seed oil fatty acid methyl ester produced from this (mentioned short of biodiesel) as well as with bioethanol made from sugar beet and grain. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Sachstandsbericht `Pflanzliche Oele und andere Kraftstoffe aus Pflanzen` beschaeftigt sich mit den wichtigsten Entwicklungen beim Einsatz von Biokraftstoffen in Otto- und Dieselmotoren seit Vorlage des Berichts `Nachwachsende Rohstoffe` der Enquete-Kommission `Technikfolgenabschaetzung und -bewertung`. Der Bericht befasst sich schwerpunktmaessig mit Rapsoel und daraus hergestelltem Rapsoelfettsaeuremethylester (kurz Biodiesel genannt) sowie mit aus Zuckerrueben und Getreide erzeugtem Bioethanol. (orig./SR)

  5. Soil water content plays an important role in soil-atmosphere exchange of carbonyl sulfide (OCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhigang; Behrendt, Thomas; Bunk, Rüdiger; Wu, Dianming; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is a quite stable gas in the troposphere and is transported up to the stratosphere, where it contributes to the sulfate aerosol layer (Crutzen 1976). The tropospheric concentration seems to be quite constant, indicating a balance between sinks and sources. Recent work by Sandoval-Soto et al. (2005) demonstrated the enormous strength of the vegetation sink and the urgent needs to understand the sinks and sources. The role of soils is a matter of discussion (Kesselmeier et al., 1999; Van Diest and Kesselmeier, 2008; Maseyk et al., 2014; Whelan et al., 2015). To better understand the influence of soil water content and OCS mixing ratio on OCS fluxes, we used an OCS analyzer (LGR COS/CO Analyzer 907-0028, Los Gatos, CA, USA) coupled with automated soil chamber system (Behrendt et al., 2014) to measure the OCS fluxes with a slow drying of four different types of soil (arable wheat soil in Mainz, blueberry soil in Waldstein, spruce soil in Waldstein and needle forest soil in Finland). Results showed that OCS fluxes as well as the optimum soil water content for OCS uptake varied significantly for different soils. The net production rates changed significantly with the soil drying out from 100% to about 5% water holding capacity (WHC), implying that soil water content play an important role in the uptake processes. The production and uptake processes were distinguished by the regression of OCS fluxes under different OCS mixing ratios. OCS compensation points (CP) were found to differ significantly for different soil types and water content, with the lowest CP at about 20% WHC, implying that when estimating the global budgets of OCS, especially for soils fluxes, soil water content should be taken into serious consideration. References Crutzen, P. J. 1976, Geophys. Res. Lett., 3, 73-76. Sandoval-Soto, L. et al., 2005, Biogeosciences, 2, 125-132. Kesselmeier, J. et al., 1999, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 11577-11584. Van Diest, H. and Kesselmeier, J. 2008

  6. Poole-Frenkel behavior in amorphous oxide thin-film transistors prepared on SiOC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The electron behavior in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) depends on the polar characteristics of SiOC, which is used as a gate dielectric. The properties of the interface between the semiconductor and SiOC were defined by using a Schottky contact with a low potential barrier and Poole-Frenkel contacts with a high potential barrier. The leakage current of SiOC, which was used as a gate insulator, decreased at the Poole-Frenkel contacts because of the high potential barrier. The ambipolar properties in the field effect transistor were observed to depend on the various characteristics of SiOC, which ranged from its behaving as an ideal insulator or as a material with a high dielectric constant. The resistance of the a-IGZO channel changed from positive to negative at SiOC, which had the lowest polarity. As to the conduction due to the diffusion current, the mobility increased with increasing carrier concentrations. However, the drift carrier conduction was related to the reduced mobility at higher carrier concentrations. The performance of the transistors was enhanced by the tunneling and the diffusion currents Rather than by the drift current caused by trapping. The Schottky contact and the Poole-Frenkel (PF) contacts at an interface between the IGZO channel and the SiOC were defined according to the heights of potential barriers caused by the depletion layer. The leakage current was very low about 10 -12 A at SiOC with PF contacts because of the height of potential barrier was double that with a Schottky contact because the tunneling conductance due to the diffusion current originated from the PF contacts of non-polar SiOC.

  7. Poole-Frenkel behavior in amorphous oxide thin-film transistors prepared on SiOC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Teresa [Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The electron behavior in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) depends on the polar characteristics of SiOC, which is used as a gate dielectric. The properties of the interface between the semiconductor and SiOC were defined by using a Schottky contact with a low potential barrier and Poole-Frenkel contacts with a high potential barrier. The leakage current of SiOC, which was used as a gate insulator, decreased at the Poole-Frenkel contacts because of the high potential barrier. The ambipolar properties in the field effect transistor were observed to depend on the various characteristics of SiOC, which ranged from its behaving as an ideal insulator or as a material with a high dielectric constant. The resistance of the a-IGZO channel changed from positive to negative at SiOC, which had the lowest polarity. As to the conduction due to the diffusion current, the mobility increased with increasing carrier concentrations. However, the drift carrier conduction was related to the reduced mobility at higher carrier concentrations. The performance of the transistors was enhanced by the tunneling and the diffusion currents Rather than by the drift current caused by trapping. The Schottky contact and the Poole-Frenkel (PF) contacts at an interface between the IGZO channel and the SiOC were defined according to the heights of potential barriers caused by the depletion layer. The leakage current was very low about 10{sup -12} A at SiOC with PF contacts because of the height of potential barrier was double that with a Schottky contact because the tunneling conductance due to the diffusion current originated from the PF contacts of non-polar SiOC.

  8. Exchange of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) between soils and atmosphere under various CO2 concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunk, Rüdiger; Behrendt, Thomas; Yi, Zhigang; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    A new continuous integrated cavity output spectroscopy analyzer and an automated soil chamber system were used to investigate the exchange processes of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) between soils and the atmosphere under laboratory conditions. The exchange patterns of OCS between soils and the atmosphere were found to be highly dependent on soil moisture and ambient CO2 concentration. With increasing soil moisture, OCS exchange ranged from emission under dry conditions to an uptake within an optimum moisture range, followed again by emission at high soil moisture. Elevated CO2 was found to have a significant impact on the exchange rate and direction as tested with several soils. There is a clear tendency toward a release of OCS at higher CO2 levels (up to 7600 ppm), which are typical for the upper few centimeters within soils. At high soil moisture, the release of OCS increased sharply. Measurements after chloroform vapor application show that there is a biotic component to the observed OCS exchange. Furthermore, soil treatment with the fungi inhibitor nystatin showed that fungi might be the dominant OCS consumers in the soils we examined. We discuss the influence of soil moisture and elevated CO2 on the OCS exchange as a change in the activity of microbial communities. Physical factors such as diffusivity that are governed by soil moisture also play a role. Comparing KM values of the enzymes to projected soil water CO2 concentrations showed that competitive inhibition is unlikely for carbonic anhydrase and PEPCO but might occur for RubisCO at higher CO2 concentrations.

  9. Energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew L

    1975-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  10. Transparency, consultation and conflict: Assessing the micro-level risks surrounding the drive to develop Peru's Amazonian oil and gas resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur

    2011-01-01

    . In the case of Peru, this is especially relevant to the vast areas of ecologically sensitive and previously under-developed Amazonia that are now under concession to oil and gas companies. Low levels of industry transparency combined with a lack of uniform free, prior and informed consent are exacerbating...

  11. Genetic resources of the functional food, teramnus labialis (L.f.) spreng for improving seed number, flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramnus labialis is used as food in India and has potential to be used as a functional food vegetable in the U.S.A. Photoperiod-sensitive T. labialis accessions were grown in the greenhouse from 2010 to 2011 and evaluated for flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions. Significant variati...

  12. Appalachian basin oil and natural gas: stratigraphic framework, total petroleum systems, and estimated ultimate recovery: Chapter C.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Milici, Robert C.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The most recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Appalachian basin was completed in 2002 (Milici and others, 2003). This assessment was based on the total petroleum system (TPS), a concept introduced by Magoon and Dow (1994) and developed during subsequent studies such as those by the U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team (2000) and by Biteau and others (2003a,b). Each TPS is based on specific geologic elements that include source rocks, traps and seals, reservoir rocks, and the generation and migration of hydrocarbons. This chapter identifies the TPSs defined in the 2002 Appalachian basin oil and gas assessment and places them in the context of the stratigraphic framework associated with regional geologic cross sections D–D′ (Ryder and others, 2009, which was re-released in this volume, chap. E.4.1) and E–E′ (Ryder and others, 2008, which was re-released in this volume, chap. E.4.2). Furthermore, the chapter presents a recent estimate of the ultimate recoverable oil and natural gas in the basin.

  13. Aframomum stipulatum (Gagnep) K. Schum and Aframomum giganteum (Oliv. & Hanb) K. Schum as Aroma Tincto Oleo Crops resources: essential oil, fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols, and tocotrienols composition of different fruit parts of Congo varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngakegni-Limbili, Adolphe Christian; Zebib, Bachar; Cerny, Muriel; Tsiba, Gouolally; Elouma Ndinga, Arnold Murphy; Mouloungui, Zéphirin; Fourastier, Isabelle; Ouamba, Jean-Maurille

    2013-01-15

    Today, few known plant species provide both an essential oil (EO) and a vegetable oil (VO). Seed and husk of two Aframomum species were investigated and compared in terms of EO, fatty acids, tocopherols, and tocotrienols. EO yield reaches 15.3 g kg(-1) in the seeds and 3.2 g kg(-1) in the husks, while VO yield is 180.0 g kg(-1) in the seeds and 25.0 g kg(-1) in the husks. β-Pinene, 1,8-cineol, α-selinene, terpine-4-ol, linalool, myrtenal and β-caryophyllene are the major compounds of seed and husk EO. Fatty acid analysis of two Aframomum species shows that oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acids were the major compounds of VO. Total sterol contents reached 4.3 g kg(-1) in seed VO and 8.5 g kg(-1) in husk VO. An appreciable amount of tocopherols (0.52 g kg(-1) ) was found in seed VO. The seed and husk oil of A. stipulatum and A. giganteum fruits are rich sources of many bioactive constituents such as fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols. These tropical wild fruits can be considered as new Aroma Tincto Oleo Crops (ATOC) resources that contain both EOs and VOs. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Oil Politics and National Security in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Oil Transparency in the Niger Delta: Improving Public Sector Oil Derived Resource Flows and Utilization in Abia State, Nigeria,” Economies of...against the nine states officially recognized i.e. they exclude Ondo, Abia , and Imo states from being part of the Delta region (figure 1). 125 BBC...Peterside Sofiri Dr, “Oil Transparency in the Niger Delta: Improving Public Sector Oil Derived Resource Flows and Utilization in Abia State, Nigeria

  15. Health care resource use and costs associated with possible side effects of high oral corticosteroid use in asthma: a claims-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luskin, Allan T; Antonova, Evgeniya N; Broder, Michael S; Chang, Eunice Y; Omachi, Theodore A; Ledford, Dennis K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of possible oral corticosteroid (OCS)-related side effects and health care resource use and costs in patients with asthma. This was a cross-sectional, matched-cohort, retrospective study using a commercial claims database. Adults with asthma diagnosis codes and evidence of asthma medication use were studied. Patients with high OCS use (≥30 days of OCS annually) were divided into those who did versus those who did not experience OCS-related possible side effects. Their health care resource use and costs were compared using linear regression or negative binomial regression models, adjusting for age, sex, geographic region, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease status. After adjustment, high OCS users with possible side effects were more likely to have office visits (23.0 vs 19.6; P possible side effects. Emergency department visits were similar between the groups. High OCS users with possible side effects had higher adjusted total annual mean health care costs ($25,168) than those without such side effects ($21,882; P =0.009). Among high OCS users, patients with possible OCS-related side effects are more likely to use health care services than those without such side effects. Although OCS may help control asthma and manage exacerbations, OCS side effects may result in additional health care resource use and costs, highlighting the need for OCS-sparing asthma therapies.

  16. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acid Sthrough Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Nadeem; Muhammad Ajmal; Fazal Rahman; Muhammad Ayaz

    2015-01-01

    Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% (T1, T2, T3 and T4), butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2oC) for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g).Co...

  17. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by miscible CO{sub 2} and water flooding of asphaltenic and non-asphaltenic oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chukwudeme, E. A.; Hamouda, A. A. [Department of Petroleum Engineering, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger (Norway)

    2009-07-01

    An EOR study has been performed applying miscible CO{sub 2} flooding and compared with that for water flooding. Three different oils are used, reference oil (n-decane), model oil (n-C10, SA, toluene and 0.35 wt % asphaltene) and crude oil (10 wt % asphaltene) obtained from the Middle East. Stearic acid (SA) is added representing a natural surfactant in oil. For the non-asphaltenic oil, miscible CO{sub 2} flooding is shown to be more favourable than that by water. However, it is interesting to see that for first years after the start of the injection (< 3 years) it is shown that there is almost no difference between the recovered oils by water and CO{sub 2}, after which (> 3 years) oil recovery by gas injection showed a significant increase. This may be due to the enhanced performance at the increased reservoir pressure during the first period. Maximum oil recovery is shown by miscible CO{sub 2} flooding of asphaltenic oil at combined temperatures and pressures of 50 {sup o}C/90 bar and 70 {sup o}C/120 bar (no significant difference between the two cases, about 1%) compared to 80 {sup o}C/140 bar. This may support the positive influence of the high combined temperatures and pressures for the miscible CO{sub 2} flooding; however beyond a certain limit the oil recovery declined due to increased asphaltene deposition. Another interesting finding in this work is that for single phase oil, an almost linear relationship is observed between the pressure drop and the asphaltene deposition regardless of the flowing fluid pressure. (author)

  18. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  19. Size Effect Studies of the Creep Behaviour of 20MnMoNi55 at Temperatures from 700 {sup o}C to 900 {sup o}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krompholz, K.; Groth, E.; Kalkhof, D

    2000-11-01

    One of the objectives of the REVISA project (REactor Vessel Integrity in Severe Accidents) is to assess size and scale effects in plastic flow and failure. This includes an experimental programme devoted to characterising the influence of specimen size, strain rate, and strain gradients at various temperatures. One of the materials selected was the forged reactor pressure vessel material 20 MnMoNi 55, material number 1.6310 (heat number 69906). Among others, a size effect study of the creep response of this material was performed, using geometrically similar smooth specimens with 5 mm and 20 mm diameter. The tests were done under constant load in an inert atmosphere at 700 {sup o}C, 800 {sup o}C, and 900 {sup o}C, close to and within the phase transformation regime. The mechanical stresses varied from 10 MPa to 30 MPa, depending on temperature. Prior to creep testing the temperature and time dependence of scale oxidation as well as the temperature regime of the phase transformation was determined. The creep tests were supplemented by metallographical investigations.The test results are presented in form of creep curves strain versus time from which characteristic creep data were determined as a function of the stress level at given temperatures. The characteristic data are the times to 5% and 15% strain and to rupture, the secondary (minimum) creep rate, the elongation at fracture within the gauge length, the type of fracture and the area reduction after fracture. From metallographical investigations the austenitic phase contents at different temperatures could be estimated. From these data also the parameters of the regression calculation (e.g. Norton's creep law) were obtained. The evaluation revealed that the creep curves and characteristic data are size dependent of varying degree, depending on the stress and temperature level, but the size influence cannot be related to corrosion or orientation effects or to macroscopic heterogeneity (position effect) of

  20. Oil and entrepreneurship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majbouri, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Economic theory predicts that rents produced from natural resources, especially oil and gas, can increase opportunities for entrepreneurship, but they may also reduce engagement in entrepreneurial activities as they change incentives towards rent-seeking. Using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) annual surveys, this study provides empirical evidence that more per capita profit from oil and gas reduces entrepreneurship only in corrupt environments. The more the corruption is, the larger is the impact. The results have important implications for policy makers, especially in resource rich developing countries. - Highlights: •Profits from oil and gas have positive and negative impacts on entrepreneurship. •This study explains these impacts and provides empirical evidence on them. •It uses Global Entrepreneurship Monitor and WB Subsoil and Forest rents datasets. •It employs a dynamic panel data estimation with country fixed effects. •It shows that the negative impact dominates as corruption and oil and gas rents increase.

  1. Oil troubles waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo, E.

    1998-01-01

    The sea provides a vast array of natural resources for thousands of local communities in the tropics. But the presence of the oil industry has significant social and environmental impacts, both from accidents and from routine activities like seismic exploration, drilling and the generation of polluting wastes. When accidents occur, sessile life (species attached to surface such as rocks or the seabed) is the first to be affected; its mortality increases as oil accumulates, although certain organisms, like gastropods, tolerate it better

  2. Oil is killing Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, H.

    2007-09-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa, with its mining and petroleum resources, is still the object of covetous desires from developed countries. The Gulf of Guinea is a promising area and probably the future battlefield of the 21. century. The fighters of this war are the African people and the big powers, the USA and China at the head, who call upon mercenaries to get their share of this fabulous treasure. Oil was a chance for Africa, but now oil is killing it

  3. Birches against mineral oils. Lignin - a renewable resource for the alternative production of phenols; Birke contra Erdoel. Lignin - ein nachwachsender Rohstoff zur alternativen Gewinnung von Phenolen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnpfund, C.; Bormann, J.; Wehrkamp zu Hoene, F. [Gymnasium Bersenbrueck (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    We wanted to offer an alternative for the `After-mineral oil time` with our work when we attempted to isolate phenols, which are won up to now from mineral oil, of a growing raw material. Phenols are economic important substances for production of epoxies, herbicides, artificial resins, dyes and drugs (e.g. aspirin or Paracetamol). We managed to isolate phenols with normal conditions of lignin, a component of wood. (orig.) [Deutsch] Wir wollten mit unserer Arbeit eine Alternative fuer die `Nach-Erdoel-Zeit` bieten, indem wir versuchten, Phenole, die bisher aus Erdoel gewonnen werden, aus einem nachwachsenden Rohstoff zu isolieren. Phenole sind volkswirtschaftlich bedeutsame Substanzen zur Herstellung von Kunststoffen, Herbiziden, Kunstharzen, Farbstoffen und Arzneimitteln (z.B. Aspirin oder Paracetamol). Es gelang uns, Phenole unter Normalbedingungen aus Lignin, einem Bestandteil des Holzes, zu isolieren. (orig.)

  4. Alternatives to OPEC oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper starts from the assumption that, for various reasons, the supply of OPEC oil required to meet a rising world energy demand will continue to be limited. Its purpose is to present a synoptic look at the various sources of energy which are alternatives to OPEC oil, with an economic commentary on the prospects for each source. A wide variety of projects are going forward for the development of non-OPEC oil, gas, coal, and nuclear power, as well as renewable energy resources. Special attention is devoted to questions of energy pricing, investment costs, and sources of finance. (author)

  5. Tenth oil recovery conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleeper, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Tertiary Oil Recovery Project is sponsored by the State of Kansas to introduce Kansas producers to the economic potential of enhanced recovery methods for Kansas fields. Specific objectives include estimation of the state-wide tertiary oil resource, identification and evaluation of the most applicable processes, dissemination of technical information to producers, occasional collaboration on recovery projects, laboratory studies on Kansas applicable processes, and training of students and operators in tertiary oil recovery methods. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  6. Variations in the OM/OC ratio of urban organic aerosol next to a major roadway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven G; Lee, Taehyoung; Roberts, Paul T; Collett, Jeffrey L

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the organic matter/organic carbon (OM/OC) ratio in ambient particulate matter (PM) is critical to achieve mass closure in routine PM measurements, to assess the sources of and the degree of chemical processing organic aerosol particles have undergone, and to relate ambient pollutant concentrations to health effects. Of particular interest is how the OM/OC ratio varies in the urban environment, where strong spatial and temporal gradients in source emissions are common. We provide results of near-roadway high-time-resolution PM1 OM concentration and OM/OC ratio observations during January 2008 at Fyfe Elementary School in Las Vegas, NV, 18 m from the U.S. 95 freeway soundwall, measured with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS). The average OM/OC ratio was 1.54 (+/- 0.20 standard deviation), typical of environments with a low amount of secondary aerosol formation. The 2-min average OM/OC ratios varied between 1.17 and 2.67, and daily average OM/OC ratios varied between 1.44 and 1.73. The ratios were highest during periods of low OM concentrations and generally low during periods of high OM concentrations. OM/OC ratios were low (1.52 +/- 0.14, on average) during the morning rush hour (average OM = 2.4 microg/m3), when vehicular emissions dominate this near-road measurement site. The ratios were slightly lower (1.46 +/- 0.10) in the evening (average OM = 6.3 microg/m3), when a combination of vehicular and fresh residential biomass burning emissions was typically present during times with temperature inversions. The hourly averaged OM/OC ratio peaked at 1.66 at midday. OM concentrations were similar regardless of whether the monitoring site was downwind or upwind of the adjacent freeway throughout the day, though they were higher during stagnant conditions (wind speed < 0.5 m/sec). The OM/OC ratio generally varied more with time of day than with wind direction and speed.

  7. Insecticidal efficacy of Lambdacyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, orange peel oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mortality effects of lambdacyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, orange peel oil and Platostoma sp. leaves extracts on adult Anopheles mosquitoes were compared in the laboratory at room temperature of 30± 2oC. Thirty adult Anopheles mosquitoes of age 2-4 days were exposed to the four formulations at concentrations ranging from ...

  8. Evaluation of Ocimum suave essential oil against anthropophilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of plant extracts as repellents against malaria vectors have been advocated in different studies. The objective of ... essential oil of Oc mum suave against Anopheles gamb ae s.s. The feeding inhibition of old and freshly prepared. O. suave extracts in ... against insects of medical and veterinary im- portance (Pålsson ...

  9. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  10. Oil supply and oil politics: Deja Vu all over again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, Cutler J.; Kaufmann, Robert K.

    2003-01-01

    President Bush has identified US dependence on imported oil as an urgent energy, economic, and national security concern. The President's energy plan promotes the development of domestic resources, based on the assumption that economic incentives and the opening of frontier areas for exploration will increase domestic production. If realized, this will reduce dependence on imported oil and reduce OPEC's ability to affect aggregate oil supply and price. The evidence suggests, however, that this policy will not increase significantly US production of crude oil, will not reduce significantly OPEC's influence, and it will distort the US macroeconomy. Even if allowed, production from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge will have a negligible impact on the world oil markets. Further subsidies to the oil industry will divert resources from other more productive investments. Conservation and energy efficiency merit greater emphasis in US energy policy given their ability to reduce the use of cost-effective and environmentally beneficial ways

  11. Oil supply and oil politics: Deja Vu all over again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, C.J.; Kaufmann, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    President Bush has identified US dependence on imported oil as an urgent energy, economic, and national security concern. The President's energy plan promotes the development of domestic resources, based on the assumption that economic incentives and the opening of frontier areas for exploration will increase domestic production. If realized, this will reduce dependence on imported oil and reduce OPEC's ability to affect aggregate oil supply and price. The evidence suggests, however, that this policy will not increase significantly US production of crude oil, will not reduce significantly OPEC's influence, and it will distort the US macroeconomy. Even if allowed, production from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge will have a negligible impact on the world oil markets. Further subsidies to the oil industry will divert resources from other more productive investments. Conservation and energy efficiency merit greater emphasis in US energy policy given their ability to reduce the use of cost-effective and environmentally beneficial ways. (author)

  12. The Hydraulic Project Włocławek: Design, Studies, Construction and Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Majewski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Hydraulic Project Włocławek was commissioned in 1970 as the first barrage of the Lower Vistula Cascade (LVC. The purpose of the LVC was to create an important source of hydro-energy and inland navigation route connecting central Poland with the port city of Gdańsk. Along the Lower Vistula (LV important cities and industrial centres are located. The Włocławek project still remains the only barrage on the LV thus creating a number of problems. The paper presents the basic hydrological and hydraulic data for the Vistula river, and describes the Włocławek project, hydraulic model investigations conducted in the design phase, the construction of the project and the main problems, attendant on its use, including the winter flood of 1982 in the upper part of the Włocławek reservoir. The paper ends with conclusions on project construction and exploitation. The next barrage downstream from Włocławek is proposed.

  13. Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas: Impacts from the Hydraulic Fracturing Water Cycle on Drinking Water Resources in the United States (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final report provides a review and synthesis of available scientific information concerning the relationship between hydraulic fracturing activities and drinking water resources in the United States. The report is organized around activities in the hydraulic...

  14. Natural Resources and FDI in GCC Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Mahjoub Elheddad

    2016-01-01

    Natural resources are a blessing for some countries to attract FDI but cursed for others. Existing literature argues the suggestion that resource-rich countries attract less FDI because of resource (oil) price volatility. This study examines that natural resources discourage FDI in GCC countries (the FDI-Natural resources curse hypothesis), using panel data analysis for six oil dependent countries during 1980-2013 and applying several econometrics techniques. The main findings of this paper i...

  15. 78 FR 52239 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ...] Electronic-based emergency shutdown systems (ESDs); [cir] Valve closure timing; [cir] Valve leakage rates... assembly of valves, gauges, and chokes mounted on a well casinghead used to control the production and flow of oil or gas. Dry tree completions are the standard for OCS shallow water platforms, with the tree...

  16. [Imperial Oil's Cold Lake oil sands operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingle, H. B.

    1999-01-01

    Imperial Oil Limited's Cold Lake oil sands resources, production and operations in Alberta are discussed. Cold Lake is the company's largest single asset and its largest source of crude oil production. In 1998, Cold Lake accounted for just under half of Imperial's total liquid production, averaging more than 135,000 barrels of bitumen a day. Despite the very difficult operating conditions experienced by the oil sands industry in 1998, Imperial Oil's Cold Lake operations generated a positive cash flow and earnings. Just as important, the near and long-term potential of Cold Lake property continues to be strong, even with the tough market conditions today and the foreseeable future. Proved reserves at the end of 1997 were 1.3 billions barrels, equal to about 24 years of current production, but even more important is Imperial's resource base in the Athabasca region, which represents 150 years of production at current rates. Although production forecasts for the near future are are revised downward because of production shut-in due to low prices, the company is confident of its long-term prospects mainly because of existing infrastructure, superior reservoir quality, 30 years worth of operating improvements and established bitumen-blend markets. Details of the company's future Cold Lake development plans are discussed. The need to continue technology development, which has been at the core of the industry's growth in the past and will continue to be the key to the future, are emphasized

  17. USGS assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources for the Oligocene Frio and Anahuac formations, U.S. Gulf of Mexico coastal plain and state waters: Review of assessment units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Warwick, Peter D.; Kennan, Lorcan; Pindell, James; Rosen, Norman C.

    2007-01-01

    The Oligocene Frio and Anahuac formations were examined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of an assessment of technically recoverable undiscovered conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon resources in Paleogene and Neogene strata underlying the U.S. Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain and state waters. Work included the identification of structural, stratigraphic, and tectonic relations between petroleum source rocks and migration pathways to Frio and Anahuac reservoirs; preliminary evaluation of the potential for shallow (less than 3,000 ft) biogenic gas accumulations; and evaluation of the potential for deep, undiscovered gas and oil accumulations in slope and basin floor areas. All assessments were conducted using USGS methodology (http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/oilgas/noga/methodology.html). Final products from the USGS assessment of the Paleogene and Neogene were reported in USGS fact sheets (Dubiel et al., 2007; Warwick et al., 2007).Five assessment units for the Frio Formation were defined, and three of these were based on the character of the reservoirs in relation to growth faults and other related factors: (1) the Frio stable shelf oil and gas assessment unit, which contains thin (average thickness of 34 ft) and shallow reservoirs (average depth of 4,834 ft); (2) the Frio expanded fault zone oil and gas assessment unit, which contains thick (average thickness of 56 ft) and deep reservoirs (average depth of 9,050 ft) in over-pressured intervals; and (3) the Frio slope and basin floor gas assessment unit, which has potential for deep gas (greater than 15,000 ft) and extends from the downdip boundary of the expanded fault zone to the offshore State/Federal water boundary. The fourth Frio assessment unit is the Hackberry oil and gas assessment unit. The Hackberry embayment of southeast Texas and southwest Louisiana consists of a slope facies in the middle part of the Frio Formation. The fifth unit, the Frio basin margin assessment unit, extends from the

  18. Geologic and operational summary, COST No. 1 well, Georges Bank area, North Atlantic OCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Roger V.; Bebout, John W.

    1980-01-01

    The first Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test (COST) well on the U.S. North Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) was drilled by Ocean Production Company between April 6 and July 26, 1976, and designated the COST No. G-l. Geological and engineering data obtained from this deep well in the Georges Bank Basin were used by the 31 participating companies and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for evaluating the petroleum potential and possible drilling problems in the U.S. North Atlantic OCS area in preparation for Lease Sale 42 held on December 18, 1979.

  19. Geological Sulfur Isotopes Indicate Elevated OCS in the Archean Atmosphere, Solving the Faint Young Sun Paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ueno, Yuichiro; Johnson, Matthew Stanley; Danielache, Sebastian Oscar

    2009-01-01

    Distributions of sulfur isotopes in geological samples would provide a record of atmospheric composition if the mechanism producing the isotope effects could be described quantitatively. We determined the UV absorption spectra of 32SO2, 33SO2, and 34SO2 and use them to interpret the geological re......-rich, reducing Archean atmosphere. The radiative forcing, due to this level of OCS, is able to resolve the faint young sun paradox. Further, the decline of atmospheric OCS may have caused the late Archean glaciation....

  20. Waste cooking oil as an alternate feedstock for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhetri, A. B.; Rafiqul Islam, M. [Civil and Resources Engineering Dalhousie University, Room D510, 1360 Barrington St., Box 1000, Halifax, N.S. B3J 2X4 (Canada); Watts, K. Ch. [Process Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Box 1000, Halifax, N.S. B3J 2X4 (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    As crude oil price reach a new high, the need for developing alternate fuels has become acute. Alternate fuels should be economically attractive in order to compete with currently used fossil fuels. In this work, biodiesel (ethyl ester) was prepared from waste cooking oil collected from a local restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ethyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of the final biodiesel esters was determined by gas chromatography. The biodiesel was characterized by its physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, acid value, flash point, cloud point, pour point, cetane index, water and sediment content, total and free glycerin content, diglycerides and monoglycerides, phosphorus content and sulfur content according to ASTM standards. The viscosity of the biodiesel ethyl ester was found to be 5.03 mm{sup 2}/sec at 40 {sup o}C. The viscosity of waste cooking oil measured in room temperature (at 21 {sup o}C) was 72 mm{sup 2}/sec. From the tests, the flash point was found to be 164 {sup o}C, the phosphorous content was 2 ppm, those of calcium and magnesium were 1 ppm combined, water and sediment was 0 %, sulfur content was 2 ppm, total acid number was 0.29 mg KOH/g, cetane index was 61, cloud point was -1 {sup o}C and pour point was -16 {sup o}C. Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oils for diesel substitute is particularly important because of the decreasing trend of economical oil reserves, environmental problems caused due to fossil fuel use and the high price of petroleum products in the international market. (author)

  1. Spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis of oil from an oil shale flash pyrolysis unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khraisha, V.H.; Irqsousi, N.A. [University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Shabib, I.M. [Applied Science Univ., Amman (Jordan). Dept. of Chemistry

    2003-01-01

    In this investigation, spectroscopic (FT-IR, UV-Vis, {sup 1}H NMR) and chromatographic (GC) techniques were used to analyze two Jordanian shale oils, Sultani and El-Lajjun. The oils were extracted at different pyrolysis temperatures (400-500{sup o}C) using a fluidized bed reactor. The spectroscopic and chromatographic analyses show that the variation of pyrolysis temperature has no significant effect on the composition of the produced oil. The {sup 1}H NMR results indicate that the protons of methyl and methelyene represent the bulk of the hydrogen ({approx}90%) in most shale oil samples. GC analysis reveals that the oil samples contain n-alkanes with a predominant proportion of n-C{sub 25}. (Author)

  2. Transesterified milkweed (Asclepias) seed oil as a biodiesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Alan Holser; Rogers Harry-O' Kurua [United States Department of Agriculture, Peoria, IL (United States). Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Utilization Research

    2006-10-15

    The methyl and ethyl esters of milkweed (Asclepias) seed oil were prepared and compared to soybean esters in laboratory tests to determine biodiesel fuel performance properties. The pour points of the methyl and ethyl milkweed esters measured -6{sup o}C and -10{sup o}C, respectively, which is consistent with the high levels of unsaturation characteristic of milkweed seed oil. The oxidative stabilities measured by OSI at 100{sup o}C were between 0.8 and 4.1 h for all samples tested. The kinematic viscosities determined at 40{sup o}C by ASTM D 445 averaged 4.9 mm{sup 2}/s for milkweed methyl esters and 4.2 mm{sup 2}/s for soybean methyl esters. Lubricity values determined by ASTM D 6079 at 60{sup o}C were comparable to the corresponding soybean esters with average ball wear scar values of 118 {mu}m for milkweed methyl esters and 200 {mu}m for milkweed ethyl esters.

  3. Chapter 2. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources--Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley group, Jurassic Smackover interior salt basins total petroleum system, in the East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Condon, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Jurassic Smackover Interior Salt Basins Total Petroleum System is defined for this assessment to include (1) Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation carbonates and calcareous shales and (2) Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group organic-rich shales. The Jurassic Smackover Interior Salt Basins Total Petroleum System includes four conventional Cotton Valley assessment units: Cotton Valley Blanket Sandstone Gas (AU 50490201), Cotton Valley Massive Sandstone Gas (AU 50490202), Cotton Valley Updip Oil and Gas (AU 50490203), and Cotton Valley Hypothetical Updip Oil (AU 50490204). Together, these four assessment units are estimated to contain a mean undiscovered conventional resource of 29.81 million barrels of oil, 605.03 billion cubic feet of gas, and 19.00 million barrels of natural gas liquids. The Cotton Valley Group represents the first major influx of clastic sediment into the ancestral Gulf of Mexico. Major depocenters were located in south-central Mississippi, along the Louisiana-Mississippi border, and in northeast Texas. Reservoir properties and production characteristics were used to identify two Cotton Valley Group sandstone trends across northern Louisiana and east Texas: a high-permeability blanket-sandstone trend and a downdip, low-permeability massive-sandstone trend. Pressure gradients throughout most of both trends are normal, which is characteristic of conventional rather than continuous basin-center gas accumulations. Indications that accumulations in this trend are conventional rather than continuous include (1) gas-water contacts in at least seven fields across the blanket-sandstone trend, (2) relatively high reservoir permeabilities, and (3) high gas-production rates without fracture stimulation. Permeability is sufficiently low in the massive-sandstone trend that gas-water transition zones are vertically extensive and gas-water contacts are poorly defined. The interpreted presence of gas-water contacts within the Cotton Valley

  4. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System, which lies within the central and southern Appalachian basin, consists of the following five assessment units (AUs): (1) the Pocahontas Basin AU in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia; (2) the Central Appalachian Shelf AU in Tennessee, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia; (3) the East Dunkard (Folded) AU in western Pennsylvania and northern West Virginia; (4) the West Dunkard (Unfolded) AU in Ohio and adjacent parts of Pennsylvania and West Virginia; and (5) the Appalachian Anthracite and Semi-Anthracite AU in Pennsylvania and Virginia. Only two of these assessment units were assessed quantitatively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the National Oil and Gas Assessment in 2002. The USGS estimated the Pocahontas Basin AU and the East Dunkard (Folded) AU to contain a mean of about 3.6 and 4.8 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas, respectively.

  5. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.10 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (TPS) in the Appalachian Basin Province is named for the Upper Ordovician Utica Shale, which is the source rock, and for multiple lower Paleozoic sandstone and carbonate units that are the important reservoirs. The total organic carbon (TOC) values for the Utica Shale are usually greater than 1 weight percent. TOC values ranging from 2 to 3 weight percent outline a broad, northeast-trending area that extends across western and southern Pennsylvania, eastern Ohio, northern West Virginia, and southeastern New York. The Utica Shale is characterized by type II kerogen, which is a variety of kerogen that is typically prone to oil generation. Conondont color-alteration index (CAI) isograds, which are based on samples from the Upper Ordovician Trenton Limestone (or Group), indicate that a pod of mature Utica Shale source rocks occupies most of the TPS.

  6. Oregon OCS seafloor mapping: Selected lease blocks relevant to renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Hemery, Lenaïg G.; Henkel, Sarah K.

    2017-05-23

    In 2014 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) entered into Intra-agency agreement M13PG00037 to map an area of the Oregon Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) off of Coos Bay, Oregon, under consideration for development of a floating wind energy farm. The BOEM requires seafloor mapping and site characterization studies in order to evaluate the impact of seafloor and sub-seafloor conditions on the installation, operation, and structural integrity of proposed renewable energy projects, as well as to assess the potential effects of construction and operations on archaeological resources. The mission of the USGS is to provide geologic, topographic, and hydrologic information that contributes to the wise management of the Nation's natural resources and that promotes the health, safety, and well being of the people. This information consists of maps, databases, and descriptions and analyses of the water, energy, and mineral resources, land surface, underlying geologic structure, and dynamic processes of the earth.For the Oregon OCS study, the USGS acquired multibeam echo sounder and seafloor video data surrounding the proposed development site, which is 95 km2 in area and 15 miles offshore from Coos Bay. The development site had been surveyed by Solmar Hydro Inc. in 2013 under a contract with WindFloat Pacific. The USGS subsequently produced a bathymetry digital elevation model and a backscatter intensity grid that were merged with existing data collected by the contractor. The merged grids were published along with visual observations of benthic geo-habitat from the video data in an associated USGS data release (Cochrane and others, 2015).This report includes the results of analysis of the video data conducted by Oregon State University and the geo-habitat interpretation of the multibeam echo sounder (MBES) data conducted by the USGS. MBES data was published in Cochrane and others (2015). Interpretive data associated with this

  7. Corporate Social Responsibility in the Angolan Oil Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Arne Wiig

    2005-01-01

    What are the responsibility of oil companies in resource rich countries? Do they take these responsibilities? Based on a utilitarian perspective and theories of the resource curse, we discuss the oil companies' corporate social responsibility (CSR) when a resource rich country such as Angola lacks accountable public institutions. We also analyse the type of responsibility oil companies take and factors driving corporate social responsibility. From undertaking a survey among oil service firms ...

  8. Unconventional Energy Resources: 2015 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Energy Minerals Division

    2015-12-15

    This paper includes 10 summaries for energy resource commodities including coal and unconventional resources, and an analysis of energy economics and technology prepared by committees of the Energy Minerals Division of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Unconventional energy resources, as used in this report, are those energy resources that do not occur in discrete oil or gas reservoirs held in structural or stratigraphic traps in sedimentary basins. Such resources include coalbed methane, oil shale, U and Th deposits and associated rare earth elements of industrial interest, geothermal, gas shale and liquids, tight gas sands, gas hydrates, and bitumen and heavy oil. Current U.S. and global research and development activities are summarized for each unconventional energy resource commodity in the topical sections of this report, followed by analysis of unconventional energy economics and technology.

  9. [Characteristics and sources apportionment of OC and EC in PM1.1 from Nanjing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen-juan; Guo, Zhao-bing; Liu, Feng-ling; Rui, Mao-ling; Shi, Lei; Zeng, Gang; Guo, Zi-yan

    2015-03-01

    The concentrations of OC and EC in PM1.1 collected from Nanshi (NS) and Nanhua (NH) in 2011 were analyzed using DRI Model 2001A Thermal Optical Carbon Analyzer. In addition, source apportionment was simultaneously evaluated. The results showed that the annual average concentrations of OC and EC in PM1.1 were 10. 10 μg x m(-3) and 2.52 μg x m(-3) in NS area, and 11.22 μg x m(-3) and 3.12 μg x m(-3) in NH area, respectively. This result indicated that OC and EC pollution in NH was more serious than that in NS area. Meanwhile, the concentrations of OC and EC in winter and spring were obviously higher compared to those in summer in these two sampling sites, which was mainly ascribed to the increased coal combustion and the unfavorable emission condition of air pollutants in summer and spring. We noted that the SOC/TOC value was the highest in summer and the lowest in winter. In addition, the SOC concentration was observed to show a positive correlation with ozone concentrations, which indicated that the photochemical reaction was a main way of SOC formation in autumn.

  10. 77 FR 24734 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Renewable Energy Program Leasing for Marine Hydrokinetic Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management [Docket No. BOEM-2012-0011] Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Renewable Energy Program Leasing for Marine Hydrokinetic Technology Testing Offshore Florida AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of the Availability of an...

  11. Updated O-C Diagrams for Several Bright HW Vir Binaries Observed with the Evryscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Kyle A.; Barlow, Brad; Corbett, Hank; Fors, Octavi; Howard, Ward S.; Law, Nicholas; Ratzloff, Jeff

    2018-01-01

    HW Vir systems are eclipsing, post-common-envelope binaries consisting of a hot subdwarf star and a cooler M dwarf or brown dwarf companion. They show a strong reflection effect and have characteristically short orbital periods of only a few hours, allowing observers to detect multiple eclipses per night. Observed minus calculated (O-C) studies allow one to measure miniscule variations in the orbital periods of these systems by comparing observed eclipse timings to a calculated ephemeris. This technique is useful for detecting period changes due to secular evolution of the binary, gravitational wave emission, or reflex motion from an orbiting circumbinary object. Numerous eclipse timings obtained over several years are vital to the proper interpretation and analysis of O-C diagrams. The Evryscope – an array of twenty-four individual telescopes built by UNC and deployed on Cerro Tololo – images the entire Southern sky once every two minutes, producing an insurmountable amount of data for objects brighter than 16th magnitude. The cadence with which Evryscope exposes makes it an unparalleled tool for O-C analyses of HW Vir binaries; it will catalogue thousands of eclipses over the next several years. Here we present updated O-C diagrams for several HW Vir binaries using recent measurements from the Evryscope. We also use observations of AA Dor, an incredibly stable astrophysical clock, to characterize the accuracy of the Evryscope’s timestamps.

  12. Infrared Spectroscopy of Two Isomers of the OCS-CS_{2} Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliaee, J. N.; Dehghany, M.; Afshari, Mahin; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.; McKellar, A. R. W.

    2009-06-01

    A second isomer of OCS-CS_{2} complex, with a nonplanar cross-shaped structure, has been studied for the first time by analysing an infrared band in the region of the OCS stretching vibration (2062 cm^{-1}). This isomer has C_{s} symmetry and the observed band consists of purely c-type rotational transitions. The ground state rotational parameters are found to be A=0.07306 cm^{-1}, B=0.03325 cm^{-1} and C=0.02879 cm^{-1}, in good agreement with a previous semi-empirical calculation. In addition, a hybrid band with a- and b-type rotational transitions has been assigned to be due to the known planar form of OCS-CS_{2}, as previously studied by microwave spectroscopy. The spectra were recorded using a rapid-scan tunable diode laser spectrometer to probe a pulsed supersonic jet expansion. Calculations indicate that the planar isomer of OCS-CS_{2} is the lowest in energy, in contrast to CO_{2}-CS_{2} where the crossed form is believed to be the lowest. J. J. Newby, M. M. Serafin, R. A. Peebles and S. A. Peebles, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 7, 487 (2005). C. C. Dutton, D. A. Dows, R. Eikey, S. Evans and R. A. Beaudet, J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 6904 (1998).

  13. Development and evaluation of oral Cancer quality-of-life questionnaire (QOL-OC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Min; Liu, Chang; Pan, Yi-Chen; Jiang, Chen-Xi; Li, Bao-Ru; Yu, Xi-Jie; Wu, Xin-Yu; Zheng, Shu-Ning

    2018-05-03

    In this study scales and items for the Oral Cancer Quality-of-life Questionnaire (QOL-OC) were designed and the instrument was evaluated. The QOL-OC was developed and modified using the international definition of quality of life (QOL) promulgated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and analysis of the precedent measuring instruments. The contents of each item were determined in the context of the specific characteristics of oral cancer. Two hundred thirteen oral cancer patients were asked to complete both the EORTC core quality of life questionnaire (EORTC QLC-C30) and the QOL-OC. Data collected was used to conduct factor analysis, test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity. Questionnaire compliance was relatively high. Fourteen of the 213 subjects accepted the same tests after 24 to 48 h demonstrating a high test-retest reliability for all five scales. Overall internal consistency surpasses 0.8. The outcome of the factor analysis coincides substantially with our theoretical conception. Each item shows a higher correlation coefficient within its own scale than the others which indicates high construct validity. QOL-OC demonstrates fairly good statistical reliability, validity, and feasibility. However, further tests and modification are needed to ensure its applicability to the quality-of-life assessment of Chinese oral cancer patients.

  14. Laser-induced field-free alignment of the OCS molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loriot, V; Tzallas, P; Benis, E P; Hertz, E; Lavorel, B; Charalambidis, D; Faucher, O

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical alignment of jet-cooled OCS molecules induced by a short laser pulse. The alignment is measured through the orientational contribution of the optical Kerr effect using a second weak laser pulse as a probe. Maximum alignment is observed at conditions close to saturation of ionization. The results are analysed with a quantum mechanical model solving for the rotational dynamics

  15. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of SiOC-Carbon Nanotube Composite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandavat, Romil; Cologna, Marco; Raj, Rishi; Singh, Gurpreet

    2012-02-01

    Rechargeable battery anodes made from crystalline Si-based nanostructures have been shown to possess high experimental first cycle capacities (3000 mAh/g), but face challenges in sustaining these capacities beyond initial cycles mainly due to large volume expansion (400 percent) and chemical degradation (pulverization). Polymer-derived ceramic SiOC due to its high thermodynamic stability and nano domain structure could present a viable alternative. Additionally, functionalization of SiOC with carbon nanotubes could result in increased electronic and ionic conductivities in the ceramic. Here, we demonstrate synthesis and electrochemical characterization of SiOC-CNT composite coatings for use in Li-ion battery anode. Materials characterization performed using electron microscopy, Infrared (FT-IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests non-covalent functionalization of CNT with oxygen moieties in SiOC. Sustained battery capacities of over 700 mAh/g and first cycle columbic efficiencies of about 75 percent were achieved. Future work will involve determination of lithium ion intercalation sites characterized by electron microscopy whereas cyclic voltammetry analysis will access the sequential change in anode chemistry.

  16. 76 FR 20367 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off Delaware...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... No. BOEM-2011-0008] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off... determination that no competitive interest exists in acquiring a commercial wind lease in the area offshore... a Request for Interest (RFI) in the Federal Register on April 26, 2010 (75 FR 21653). Bluewater Wind...

  17. 76 FR 14681 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Massachusetts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... No. BOEM-2010-0063] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore..., Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE), Interior. ACTION: Request for Interest (RFI) in Commercial Wind Energy... (BOEMRE) is reopening the comment period on the RFI in Commercial Wind Energy Leasing Offshore...

  18. Photodissociation of OCS: Deviations between theory and experiment, and the importance of higher order correlation effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johan Albrecht; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard

    2014-01-01

    The photodissociation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) was investigated theoretically in a series of studies by Schmidt and co-workers. Initial studies [J. A. Schmidt, M. S. Johnson, G. C. McBane, and R. Schinke, J. Chem. Phys.136, 131101 (2012);J. A. Schmidt, M. S. Johnson, G. C. McBane, and R. Schinke...

  19. Multi-state analysis of the OCS ultraviolet absorption including vibrational structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johan Albrecht; Johnson, Matthew Stanley; McBane, G.C.

    2012-01-01

    The first absorption band of OCS (carbonyl sulfide) is analyzed using potential energy surfaces and transition dipole moment functions of the lowest four singlet and the lowest four triplet states. Excitation of the 2 (1)A' state is predominant except at very low photon energies. It is shown that...

  20. Management of natural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielo, Olivier; Loubens, Audrey

    2016-08-01

    As a sustainable exploitation of fossil natural resources has become an ecological opportunity, this publication proposes a set of articles focused on the cases of gas, oils (conventional or not) and coal. A first article outlines the unavoidable environmental issue associated with the exploitation of fossil energies. The second one comments the meaning of fossil fuel availability, and more particularly the distinction between resources and reserves, and the transformation of resources into reserves for saving purposes. This last issue of transformation of resources into reserves is addressed by next articles which respectively focus on conventional gases and oils, on non conventional gases and oils, and on coal. Two articles then comment perspectives by 2040 by discussing the high tension between fossil resources and geopolitical situation, and by discussing whether a world energy transition is possible. The three last articles notice that the abundance of fossil energies is hiding the potential of renewable energies, discuss whether chemical industry could do without oil, and comment the fact that Russia strengthens its claims on Arctic territories

  1. PEMBUATAN LEMAK KAKAO RENDAH KALORI DENGAN MINYAK KELAPA (COCONUT OIL MELALUI REAKSI INTERESTERIFIKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelya Hilda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cacao fat has long chain fatty acids was high mainly palmitic and stearic can be improved their character by adding of palm oil to obtain cocoa fat was low calories. The addition of coconut oil can be done only up to 20%, which is the ratio (90:10 and (80:20 cocoa fat and coconut oil with solid fat content of 5:53 and 4:58 with a melting point 33.6 ° C and 32.8oC (32oC-35oC melting point cacao fat. The process was be done by interesterification reaction produces cocoa fat that free of trans fatty acids . Keywords: long chain fatty acaid, low calory, solid fat content, melting point

  2. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  3. The effect of organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from Moringa oleifera seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Q.; Yasin, N. H. M.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of three different organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from M.oleifera seeds were studied to evaluate the effectiveness in obtaining the high oil yield based on the percentage of oil production. The modified version of Soxhlet extraction method was carried out to extract the oil from M.oleifera seeds by using hexane, heptane and ethanol as the organic solvent. Among the three solvents, it is found that heptane yield higher oil from M.oleifera seeds with maximum oil yield of 36.37% was obtained followed by hexane and ethanol with 33.89% and 18.46%, respectively. By using heptane as a solvent, the temperature (60oC, 70oC, 80oC) and mixing time (6 h, 7 h, and 8 h) were investigated to ensure the high oil yield over the experimental ranges employed and high oil yield was obtained at 600C for 6 h with percentage oil yield of 36.37%. The fatty acid compositions of M.oleifera seeds oil were analyzed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The main components of fatty acid contained in the oil extracted from M.oleifera seeds was oleic acid, followed by palmitic acid and arachidic acid, and small amount of behenic acid and margaric acid.

  4. Spatial and Temporal Variations of EC and OC Aerosol Combustion Sources in a Polluted Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouteva, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Fahrni, S.; Santos, G.; Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of carbonaceous aerosols are a major component of fine air particulate matter (PM2.5) in polluted metropolitan areas and in the global atmosphere. Elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols influence Earth's energy balance by means of direct and indirect pathways and EC has been suggested as a better indicator of public health impacts from combustion-related sources than PM mass. Quantifying the contribution of fossil fuel and biomass combustion to the EC and OC emissions and their temporal and spatial variations is critical for developing efficient legislative air pollution control measures and successful climate mitigation strategies. In this study, we used radiocarbon (14C) to separate and quantify fossil and biomass contributions to a time series of EC and OC collected at 3 locations in Salt Lake City (SLC). Aerosol samples were collected on quartz fiber filters and a modified OC/EC analyzer was used with the Swiss_4S protocol to isolate and trap the EC fraction. Together with the total carbon (TC) content of the samples, the EC was analyzed for its 14C content with accelerator mass spectrometry. The 14C of OC was derived as a mass balance difference between TC and EC. EC had an annual average fraction modern of 0.13±0.06 and did not vary significantly across seasons. OC had an annual average FM of 0.49±0.13, with the winter mean (0.43±0.11) lower than the summer mean (0.64±0.13) at the 5% significance level. While the 3 stations were chosen to represent a variety of environmental conditions within SLC, no major differences in this source partitioning were observed between stations. During winter, the major sources of air pollutants in SLC are motor vehicles and wood stove combustion and determining their relative contributions has been the subject of debate. Our results indicated that fossil fuels were the dominant source of carbonaceous aerosols during winter, contributing 87% or more of the total EC mass and 40-75% of the OC

  5. Quantification of amine functional groups and their influence on OM/OC in the IMPROVE network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamruzzaman, Mohammed; Takahama, Satoshi; Dillner, Ann M.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, we developed a method using FT-IR spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares (PLS) regression to measure the four most abundant organic functional groups, aliphatic C-H, alcohol OH, carboxylic acid OH and carbonyl C=O, in atmospheric particulate matter. These functional groups are summed to estimate organic matter (OM) while the carbon from the functional groups is summed to estimate organic carbon (OC). With this method, OM and OM/OC can be estimated for each sample rather than relying on one assumed value to convert OC measurements to OM. This study continues the development of the FT-IR and PLS method for estimating OM and OM/OC by including the amine functional group. Amines are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and come from motor vehicle exhaust, animal husbandry, biomass burning, and vegetation among other sources. In this study, calibration standards for amines are produced by aerosolizing individual amine compounds and collecting them on PTFE filters using an IMPROVE sampler, thereby mimicking the filter media and collection geometry of ambient standards. The moles of amine functional group on each standard and a narrow range of amine-specific wavenumbers in the FT-IR spectra (wavenumber range 1 550-1 500 cm-1) are used to develop a PLS calibration model. The PLS model is validated using three methods: prediction of a set of laboratory standards not included in the model, a peak height analysis and a PLS model with a broader wavenumber range. The model is then applied to the ambient samples collected throughout 2013 from 16 IMPROVE sites in the USA. Urban sites have higher amine concentrations than most rural sites, but amine functional groups account for a lower fraction of OM at urban sites. Amine concentrations, contributions to OM and seasonality vary by site and sample. Amine has a small impact on the annual average OM/OC for urban sites, but for some rural sites including amine in the OM/OC calculations increased OM/OC by 0.1 or more.

  6. Peak oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, W. H.; Campbell, C. J.; Zagar, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Oil and gas were formed under exceptional conditions in the geological past, meaning that they are subject to natural depletion, such that the past growth in production must give way to decline. Although depletion is a simple concept to grasp, public data on the resource base are extremely unreliable due to ambiguous definitions and lax reporting. The oil industry is reluctant to admit to an onset of decline carrying obvious adverse financial consequences. There are several different categories of oil and gas, from tar sands to deep water fields, each with specific characteristics that need to be evaluated. It is important to build a global model on a country by country basis in order that anomalous statistics may be identified and evaluated. Such a study suggests that the world faces the onset of decline, with far-reaching consequences given the central role of oil-based energy. It is accordingly an important subject deserving detailed consideration by policy makers. (author)

  7. Variation in the OC locus of Acinetobacter baumannii genomes predicts extensive structural diversity in the lipooligosaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna J Kenyon

    Full Text Available Lipooligosaccharide (LOS is a complex surface structure that is linked to many pathogenic properties of Acinetobacter baumannii. In A. baumannii, the genes responsible for the synthesis of the outer core (OC component of the LOS are located between ilvE and aspS. The content of the OC locus is usually variable within a species, and examination of 6 complete and 227 draft A. baumannii genome sequences available in GenBank non-redundant and Whole Genome Shotgun databases revealed nine distinct new types, OCL4-OCL12, in addition to the three known ones. The twelve gene clusters fell into two distinct groups, designated Group A and Group B, based on similarities in the genes present. OCL6 (Group B was unique in that it included genes for the synthesis of L-Rhamnosep. Genetic exchange of the different configurations between strains has occurred as some OC forms were found in several different sequence types (STs. OCL1 (Group A was the most widely distributed being present in 18 STs, and OCL6 was found in 16 STs. Variation within clones was also observed, with more than one OC locus type found in the two globally disseminated clones, GC1 and GC2, that include the majority of multiply antibiotic resistant isolates. OCL1 was the most abundant gene cluster in both GC1 and GC2 genomes but GC1 isolates also carried OCL2, OCL3 or OCL5, and OCL3 was also present in GC2. As replacement of the OC locus in the major global clones indicates the presence of sub-lineages, a PCR typing scheme was developed to rapidly distinguish Group A and Group B types, and to distinguish the specific forms found in GC1 and GC2 isolates.

  8. Empirical studies on changes in oil governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemal, Mohammad

    Regulation of the oil and gas sector is consequential to the economies of oil-producing countries. In the literature, there are two types of regulation: indirect regulation through taxes and tariffs or direct regulation through the creation of a National Oil Company (NOC). In the 1970s, many oil-producing countries nationalized their oil and gas sectors by creating and giving ownership rights of oil and gas resources to NOCs. In light of the success of Norway in regulating its oil and gas resources, over the past two decades several countries have changed their oil governance by changing the rights given to NOC from ownership right to mere access rights like other oil companies. However, empirical literature on these changes in oil governance is quite thin. Thus, this dissertation will explore three research questions to investigate empirically these changes in oil governance. First, I investigate empirically the impact of the changes in oil governance on aggregate domestic income. By employing a difference-in-difference method, I will show that a country which changed its oil governance increases its GDP per-capita by 10%. However, the impact is different for different types of political institution. Second, by observing the changes in oil governance in Indonesia , I explore the impact of the changes on learning-by-doing and learning spillover effect in offshore exploration drilling. By employing an econometric model which includes interaction terms between various experience variables and changes in an oil governance dummy, I will show that the change in oil governance in Indonesia enhances learning-by-doing by the rigs and learning spillover in a basin. Lastly, the impact of the changes in oil governance on expropriation risk and extraction path will be explored. By employing a difference-in-difference method, this essay will show that the changes in oil governance reduce expropriation and the impact of it is different for different sizes of resource stock.

  9. Pressures on the Northern Lights Health Region arising from the development of Alberta's oil sands : a statement before the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board regarding Imperial Oil Resources Ventures Ltd. Kearl Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, H. [Walker Economics Inc., Kingston, ON (Canada)]|[Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2006-10-10

    This paper evaluated the ability of the Northern Lights Health Region (NLHR) to provide adequate health services in the face of rapid population growth attributed to oil sands developments in the region. The study examined the capacity of the Alberta Health and Wellness funding formula to ensure the sufficient provision of funds, and estimated population growth in the region in the near future. The health status of the NLHR region was reviewed, and the ability of the NLHR to both recruit and retain qualified personnel was evaluated. Results of the evaluation showed that the NLHR is currently under-funded, and funding deficiencies are expected to become more severe due to anticipated population growth. An alternative funding model was recommended. Special financial arrangements are needed to account for difficulties that the NLHR are experiencing. Funding in advance is needed to develop facilities and recruit staff. Fees and wages must also be adjusted in order to facilitate the recruitment of physicians, nurses, and other staff. It was concluded that the financial and program circumstances of the NLHR require urgent consideration from Alberta Health and Wellness. 25 tabs., 12 figs.

  10. Oil sands and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, R. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Calgary Research Centre

    2004-07-01

    Oil sands are a significant resource for Alberta and Canada with continuing growth opportunity. There is a need to ensure sustainable development of the oil sands resources from a social, economic and environmental perspective. The industry has succeeded in terms of proven reserves, technology advancements, reduced operating costs, reliability and market accessibility. Some of the major challenges facing the industry include high capital cost, infrastructure, social services and keeping pace with growth. This presentation outlined the proactive measures that the oil sands industry has taken to manage environmental issues such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions, greenhouse gases, water management and land reclamation. tabs., figs.

  11. Alberta oil sands royalty regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgarpour, S.

    2004-01-01

    The long term objective of the Oil Sands Business Unit of Alberta Energy is to pave the way for Alberta's bitumen production to reach 3 million barrels per day by 2020. This presentation described the national government's role in resource development. It was emphasized that since the Crown is the owner of the oil sands resource, it would benefit by providing strategic leadership and by generating a larger royalty base. The oil sands fiscal regime was described with reference to generic royalty, risk sharing, investment, and project economics. Business rule principles were also outlined along with criteria for project expansions. Both upstream and downstream challenges and opportunities were listed. 4 figs

  12. OPEC's optimal crude oil price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, Manfred

    2004-01-01

    OPEC decided to stabilise oil prices within a range of 22-28 US Dollar/barrel of crude oil. Such an oil-price-level is far beyond the short and long run marginal costs of oil production, beyond even that in regions with particularly high costs. Nevertheless, OPEC may achieve its goal if world demand for oil increases substantially in the future and oil resources outside the OPEC are not big enough to accordingly increase production. In this case OPEC, which controls about 78% of world oil reserves, has to supply a large share of that demand increase. If we assume OPEC will behave as a partial monopolist on the oil market, which takes into consideration the reaction of the other producers to its own sales strategy, it can reach its price target. Lower prices before 2020 are probable only if the OPEC cartel breaks up. Higher prices are possible if production outside OPEC is inelastic as assumed by some geologists, but they would probably stimulate the production of unconventional oil based on oil sand or coal. Crude oil prices above 30 US Dollar/barrel are therefore probably not sustainable for a long period. (Author)

  13. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  14. The future of oil supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard G; Sorrell, Steven R

    2014-01-13

    Abundant supplies of oil form the foundation of modern industrial economies, but the capacity to maintain and grow global supply is attracting increasing concern. Some commentators forecast a peak in the near future and a subsequent terminal decline in global oil production, while others highlight the recent growth in 'tight oil' production and the scope for developing unconventional resources. There are disagreements over the size, cost and recoverability of different resources, the technical and economic potential of different technologies, the contribution of different factors to market trends and the economic implications of reduced supply. Few debates are more important, more contentious, more wide-ranging or more confused. This paper summarizes the main concepts, terms, issues and evidence that are necessary to understand the 'peak oil' debate. These include: the origin, nature and classification of oil resources; the trends in oil production and discoveries; the typical production profiles of oil fields, basins and producing regions; the mechanisms underlying those profiles; the extent of depletion of conventional oil; the risk of an approaching peak in global production; and the potential of various mitigation options. The aim is to introduce the subject to non-specialist readers and provide a basis for the subsequent papers in this Theme Issue.

  15. Biodiesel's Characteristics Preparation from Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilani Hamid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Using vegetable oils directly as an alternative diesel fuel has presented engine problems. The problems have been attributed to high viscosity of vegetable oil that causes the poor atomization of fuel in the injector system and pruduces uncomplete combustion. Therefore, it is necessary to convert the vegetable oil into ester (metil ester by tranesterification process to decrease its viscosity. In this research has made biodiesel by reaction of palm oil and methanol using lye (NaOH as catalyst with operation conditions: constant temperature at 60 oC in atmosferic pressure, palm oil : methanol volume ratio = 5 : 1, amount of NaOH used as catalyst = 3.5 gr, 4.5 gr, 5 gr and 5.5 gr and it takes about one hour time reaction. The ester (metil ester produced are separated from glycerin and washed until it takes normal pH (6-7 where more amount of catalyst used will decrease the ester (biodiesel produced. The results show that biodiesels' properties made by using 3.5 (M3.5 gr, 4.5 gr (M4.5 and 5 (M5.0 gr catalyst close to industrial diesel oil and the other (M5.5 closes to automotive diesel oil, while blending diesel oil with 20 % biodiesel (B20 is able to improve the diesel engine performances.

  16. Substituting oil by electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenberg, H.

    1981-01-01

    Parting from the development of primary energy use the author refers to the latest investigations and results presented on the 1980 World Energy Conference and with special regard to oil points out the threatening exhaustion of fossil energy resources. Maintaining the economic structure of the Federal Republic of Germany implies an orientation away from oil. Due to its flexible application technology and quasi-inexhaustible energy resources electric power may substantially contribute to oil substitution which as a matter of fact is of particular interest in connection with the heat market. Coal alone cannot substitute both oil and nuclear energy. Thus, the above postulates the use of the latter. Leaving nuclear energy inactive today will effect an increase in the demand for oil the negative consequences of which would weight heavily upon the anyhow unbalanced import/export ratio of the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  17. 76 FR 4716 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off Delaware, Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... No. BOEM-2010-0075] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off... commercial wind development on the OCS off Delaware and requests submission of indications of competitive... received two nominations of proposed lease areas: One from Bluewater Wind Delaware LLC (Bluewater) and...

  18. 75 FR 68824 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Maryland-Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... No. BOEM-2010-0038] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore..., Interior. ACTION: RFI in Commercial Wind Energy Leasing Offshore Maryland, and Invitation for Comments from... construction of a wind energy project(s) on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) offshore Maryland. The BOEMRE...

  19. Modeling Peak Oil and the Geological Constraints on Oil Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynes, F.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show

  20. Modeling peak oil and the geological constraints on oil production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynès, F.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show

  1. Lavender oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender oil is an oil made from the flowers of lavender plants. Lavender poisoning can occur when ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  2. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  3. Oil sands tax expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchum, K; Lavigne, R.; Plummer, R.

    2001-01-01

    The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  4. Quantum cascade laser spectroscopy of OCS isotopologues in 4He nanodroplets: A test of adiabatic following for a heavy rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Ty; Miller, Isaac; Raston, Paul L.

    2018-01-01

    We report high-resolution infrared spectra of OCS isotopologues embedded in helium nanodroplets that were recorded with a newly built spectrometer. For the normal isotopologue, we observed the relatively weak third bending overtone band, in addition to new high J transitions in the C-O stretching fundamental, which has previously been investigated by diode laser spectroscopy [S. Grebenev et al., J. Chem. Phys. 112, 4485 (2000)]. Similar to the gas phase, the overtone band is (only) 45 cm-1 higher in energy than the fundamental, and this leads to additional broadening due to rapid vibrational relaxation that is accompanied by the creation of real/virtual phonon excitations. We also observed spectra in the C-O stretching fundamental for several minor isotopologues of OCS, including 18OCS, O13CS, and OC33S, in addition to some new peaks for OC34S. A rovibrational analysis allowed for determination of the moment of inertia of helium (ΔIHe) that couples to the rotation of OCS for each isotopologue. In the context of the adiabatic following approximation, the helium density structure that follows the rotation of OCS should essentially remain unchanged between the isotopologues, i.e., there should be no dependence of ΔIHe on the gas phase moment of inertia of OCS (IG). While this behavior was expected for the "heavy" OCS rotor investigated here, we instead found an approximately linear 1:1 relation between ΔIHe and IG, which suggests partial breakdown of the adiabatic following approximation, making OCS the heaviest molecule for which evidence for this effect has been obtained.

  5. Oil and the political economy of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matutinovic, Igor [GfK-Center for Market Research, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-11-15

    The key issues concerning oil exploitation are still open for discussion: there is no agreement about where we presently stand in the world oil extraction curve, what is its exact shape, and how far can oil price grow before it changes irreversibly the world economy and consumer behavior. The paper proposes an alternative scenario to the Hubbert's bell-shaped model of oil exploitation, based on more realistic assumptions regarding political agendas in oil-exporting countries and consumer behavior dynamics in oil-importing countries. Under this scenario, the joint impact of markets and public policy in oil importing countries together with 'resource pragmatism' policy in oil-exporting countries allows for a less steep oil supply curve with a much fatter tail compared to the Hubbert's model. (author)

  6. Oil and the political economy of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matutinovic, Igor

    2009-01-01

    The key issues concerning oil exploitation are still open for discussion: there is no agreement about where we presently stand in the world oil extraction curve, what is its exact shape, and how far can oil price grow before it changes irreversibly the world economy and consumer behavior. The paper proposes an alternative scenario to the Hubbert's bell-shaped model of oil exploitation, based on more realistic assumptions regarding political agendas in oil-exporting countries and consumer behavior dynamics in oil-importing countries. Under this scenario, the joint impact of markets and public policy in oil importing countries together with 'resource pragmatism' policy in oil-exporting countries allows for a less steep oil supply curve with a much fatter tail compared to the Hubbert's model.

  7. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  8. Moving the boundary between wavelength resources in optical packet and circuit integrated ring network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Hideaki; Miyazawa, Takaya; Wada, Naoya; Harai, Hiroaki

    2014-01-13

    Optical packet and circuit integrated (OPCI) networks provide both optical packet switching (OPS) and optical circuit switching (OCS) links on the same physical infrastructure using a wavelength multiplexing technique in order to deal with best-effort services and quality-guaranteed services. To immediately respond to changes in user demand for OPS and OCS links, OPCI networks should dynamically adjust the amount of wavelength resources for each link. We propose a resource-adjustable hybrid optical packet/circuit switch and transponder. We also verify that distributed control of resource adjustments can be applied to the OPCI ring network testbed we developed. In cooperation with the resource adjustment mechanism and the hybrid switch and transponder, we demonstrate that automatically allocating a shared resource and moving the wavelength resource boundary between OPS and OCS links can be successfully executed, depending on the number of optical paths in use.

  9. Fate and effects of nearshore discharges of OCS produced waters. Volume 2. Technical report (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabalais, N.N.; McKee, B.A.; Reed, D.J.; Means, J.C.

    1991-06-01

    While the number of facilities that discharge OCS produced waters into coastal environments of Louisiana are few in number, they account for large volumes, individually and collectively. Of the 15 facilities which discharge OCS-generated produced water into coastal environments of Louisiana (as of February 1990), 10 discharges in seven areas were studied. The discharge volumes of the study areas range from 3,000 to 106,000/bbl.d. The receiving environments for these effluents are varied, but include the shallow, nearshore continental shelf; high energy, freshwater distributaries of the Mississippi River delta; and brackish and saline coastal environments with moderately to poorly flushed waters. All study areas are within the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain. The study expanded on the initial assessment of Boesch and Rabalais (1989a) with increased temporal and spatial studies of three areas, additional study sites including an abandoned discharge, and additional analytical and field observations

  10. Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Tilapia zillii from Lake El-Manzala, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Greisy, Zeinab Abdalbagi; Abdallah, A. Mohamed Ali

    2005-01-01

    A fresh water fish species, (Tilapia zillii) from Lake El-Manzala was analyzed for concentrations of several Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorine piphenyl's (PCBs) in liver, gonads, mesenteric fat, flesh and the digestive tract in mature fish during the breeding season. Polychlorinated piphenyls (PCBs) and Organochloripe pesticides (OCs) were calculated in (ng/g) dry weight (dw) in homogenized samples. The obtained results revealed differences in lipid content between these different organs. The females showed higher lipid content than males. There was significant positive correlation the lipid content and organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The results come concomitant with the lipophilicity of studied compounds. However, the recoded concentration of these studied pollutants still does not exceed international hazardous levels. (author)

  11. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Devonian gas shales of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.9 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of the technically recoverable undiscovered natural gas resources in Devonian shale in the Appalachian Basin Petroleum Province of the eastern United States. These results are part of the USGS assessment in 2002 of the technically recoverable undiscovered oil and gas resources of the province. This report does not use the results of a 2011 USGS assessment of the Devonian Marcellus Shale because the area considered in the 2011 assessment is much greater than the area of the Marcellus Shale described in this report. The USGS assessment in 2002 was based on the identification of six total petroleum systems, which include strata that range in age from Cambrian to Pennsylvanian. The Devonian gas shales described in this report are within the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System, which extends generally from New York to Tennessee. This total petroleum system is divided into ten assessment units (plays), four of which are classified as conventional and six as continuous. The Devonian shales described in this report make up four of these continuous assessment units. The assessment results are reported as fully risked fractiles (F95, F50, F5, and the mean); the fractiles indicate the probability of recovery of the assessment amount. The products reported are oil, gas, and natural gas liquids. The mean estimates for technically recoverable undiscovered hydrocarbons in the four gas shale assessment units are 12,195.53 billion cubic feet (12.20 trillion cubic feet) of gas and 158.91 million barrels of natural gas liquids

  12. Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Online Resources. Journal of Genetics. Online Resources. Volume 97. 2018 | Online resources. Volume 96. 2017 | Online resources. Volume 95. 2016 | Online resources. Volume 94. 2015 | Online resources. Volume 93. 2014 | Online resources. Volume 92. 2013 | Online resources ...

  13. Fracture response of SiOC based composites on dynamic loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halasová, Martina; Černý, Martin; Strachota, Adam; Chlup, Zdeněk; Dlouhý, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 11 (2015), s. 1547-1554 ISSN 0021-9983 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP107/12/2445 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:61389013 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : SiOC glass * basalt reinforcement * woven fabric * impact strength * energy consumption * fracture surface Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics; JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass (USMH-B); CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 1.242, year: 2015

  14. Drug kinetics release from Eudragit – Tenofovir@SiOC tablets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamayo, A., E-mail: aitanath@icv.csic.es [Ceramics and Glass Institute, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Mazo, M.A. [Ceramics and Glass Institute, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Veiga, M.D.; Ruiz-Caro, R.; Notario-Pérez, F. [Dpt. Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Rubio, J. [Ceramics and Glass Institute, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-06-01

    A novel drug release system has been obtained in form of tablets from Eudragit® RS and tenofovir loaded on porous silicon oxycarbide glasses (SiOC). Active carbon (AC) and mesoporous silica (MCM-41) have also been used for comparative purposes. The porous silicon oxycarbide presents a bimodal mesopore size distribution that is maintained after functionalization with amino groups. We have studied the adsorption kinetics and adsorption equilibrium when the materials are loaded with tenofovir and, in all cases, pseudo-second order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm have been revealed as the most representative models describing the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. Besides, the tenofovir adsorption on these materials turns out to be a favorable process. In vitro release of tenofovir has been studied in simulated vaginal medium by applying different release models. Continuous tenofovir release for > 20 days has been obtained for the SiOC material functionalized with amine groups. We concluded that the drug release occurs in two steps that involve a drug diffusion step through the material pores and diffusion through the swollen polymer. The interactions between the tenofovir drug and de amine groups of the functionalized silicon oxycarbide also play an important role in the release process. - Highlights: • Kinetic and thermodinamic parameters of the adsorption of tenofovir on porous substrates have been obtained. • Sustained release of TFV for > 20 days in SVF when it is supported on SiOC and manufactured as Eudragit®RS-containing tablets. • Release described by a two-step process involving diffusion through SiOC matrix and subsequent diffusion through the polymer.

  15. International Active Surveillance Study of Women Taking Oral Contraceptives (INAS-OC Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Dinger, Juergen C; Bardenheuer, Kristina; Assmann, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background A 24-day regimen of contraceptive doses of drospirenone and ethinylestradiol (DRSP/EE 24d) was recently launched. This regimen has properties which may be beneficial for certain user populations (e.g., women suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder or acne). However, it is unknown whether this extended regimen has an impact on the cardiovascular risk associated with the use of oral contraceptives (OCs). The INternational Active Surveillance study of women taking Oral...

  16. Total hemispherical emissivity of pre-oxidized and un-oxidized Zr-2.5Nb pressure-tube materials at 600 {sup o}C to 1000 {sup o}C under vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, R.W.L.; Paine, M.; Nitheanandan, T., E-mail: randy.fong@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    The emissivity of pre-oxidized and un-oxidized pressure-tube specimens has been measured at high temperatures under vacuum. The emissivity values of un-oxidized tube specimens decreased only slightly from 0.34 at 600 {sup o}C to 0.30 at 800 {sup o}C and changed gradually to 0.25 at 1000 {sup o}C. In comparison, the emissivity of pre-oxidized pressure-tube specimens decreased drastically from 0.70 at 600 {sup o}C to 0.35 at 800 {sup o}C, and gradually decreased to 0.25 at 1000 {sup o}C. The oxide layer of the pre-oxidized tube specimens dissolved into the metal matrix when heated to 700 {sup o}C and higher. Using these results, 2 linear correlations were obtained for emissivity with the oxide thickness measured by scanning electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis. (author)

  17. Marine oil spill response organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, C.

    1997-01-01

    The obligations under the law relative to the prevention of marine oil spills and the type of emergency plans needed to mitigate any adverse effects caused by a marine oil spill were discussed. The organizational structure, spill response resources and operational management capabilities of Canada's newly created Response Organizations (ROs) were described. The overall range of oil spill response services that the RO provides to the domestic oil handling, oil transportation and the international shipping industries were reviewed. Amendments to the Canada Shipping Act which require that certain ships and oil handling facilities take oil spill preparedness and response measures, including having an arrangement with an RO certified by the Canadian Coast Guard, were outlined. Canadians now benefit from five ROs established to provide coast-to-coast oil spill response coverage. These include the Western Canada Marine Response Corporation, the Canadian Marine Response Management Corporation, the Great Lakes Response Corporation, the Eastern Canada Response Corporation and the Atlantic Emergency Response Team Ltd. ROs have the expertise necessary to organize and manage marine oil spill response services. They can provide equipment, personnel and operational management for the containment, recovery and cleanup of oil spilled on water

  18. Middle East oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This study is intended to shed light on structural changes occurring in six Middle East countries (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) that can be expected to have a significant impact on their oil and gas industry. These six countries provide 42% of the world's traded crude oil, on which Member countries of the International Energy Agency (IEA) are increasingly dependent. They also contain about 65% and 30% of the world's proven oil and natural gas reserves, respectively, and command a strategic location between Europe and Asia. The Middle East has been one of the most volatile parts of the world where war, revolution and embargoes have caused major upheavals that have led to oil supply disruptions. The oil resources of all six countries were initially developed by international oil companies and all are members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). In 1994, their crude oil production capacity was about 23 million barrels per day (mbd) and is planned to expand to about 28 mbd by the year 2000. Revenue from the sale of oil accounts for more than 80% of each nation's total exports and about 75% of each government's income. The objectives of this study are: to detail their announced oil and gas development plans, to describe the major trends occurring in these countries, to outline the government responses to the trends, and to analyse the impact of government policies on oil and gas development. (J.S.). 121 refs., 136 figs., 212 tabs

  19. Operating Cooperatively (OC sensor for highly specific recognition of nucleic acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan M Cornett

    Full Text Available Molecular Beacon (MB probes have been extensively used for nucleic acid analysis because of their ability to produce fluorescent signal in solution instantly after hybridization. The indirect binding of MB probe to a target analyte offers several advantages, including: improved genotyping accuracy and the possibility to analyse folded nucleic acids. Here we report on a new design for MB-based sensor, called 'Operating Cooperatively' (OC, which takes advantage of indirect binding of MB probe to a target analyte. The sensor consists of two unmodified DNA strands, which hybridize to a universal MB probe and a nucleic acid analyte to form a fluorescent complex. OC sensors were designed to analyze two human SNPs and E. coli 16S rRNA. High specificity of the approach was demonstrated by the detection of true analyte in over 100 times excess amount of single base substituted analytes. Taking into account the flexibility in the design and the simplicity in optimization, we conclude that OC sensors may become versatile and efficient tools for instant DNA and RNA analysis in homogeneous solution.

  20. Uncertainty Analysis of OC5-DeepCwind Floating Semisubmersible Offshore Wind Test Campaign: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Amy N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-26

    This paper examines how to assess the uncertainty levels for test measurements of the Offshore Code Comparison, Continued, with Correlation (OC5)-DeepCwind floating offshore wind system, examined within the OC5 project. The goal of the OC5 project was to validate the accuracy of ultimate and fatigue load estimates from a numerical model of the floating semisubmersible using data measured during scaled tank testing of the system under wind and wave loading. The examination of uncertainty was done after the test, and it was found that the limited amount of data available did not allow for an acceptable uncertainty assessment. Therefore, this paper instead qualitatively examines the sources of uncertainty associated with this test to start a discussion of how to assess uncertainty for these types of experiments and to summarize what should be done during future testing to acquire the information needed for a proper uncertainty assessment. Foremost, future validation campaigns should initiate numerical modeling before testing to guide the test campaign, which should include a rigorous assessment of uncertainty, and perform validation during testing to ensure that the tests address all of the validation needs.

  1. Effect of biosurfactants on crude oil desorption and mobilization in a soil system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuyukina, M.S.; Ivshina, I.B. [Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm (Russian Federation). Institute of Ecology and Genetics of Microorganisms; Makarov, S.O.; Litvinenko, L.V. [Perm State University, Perm (Russian Federation); Cunningham, C.J. [University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Contaminated Land Assessment and Remediation Research Centre; Philp, J.C. [Napier University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). School of Life Sciences

    2005-02-01

    Microbially produced biosurfactants were studied to enhance crude oil desorption and mobilization in model soil column systems. The ability of biosurfactants from Rhodococcus ruber to remove the oil from the soil core was 1.4-2.3 times greater than that of a synthetic surfactant of suitable properties, Tween 60. Biosurfactant-enhanced oil mobilization was temperature-related, and it was slower at 15{sup o}C than at 22-28{sup o}C. Mathematical modelling using a one-dimensional filtration model was applied to simulate the process of oil penetration through a soil column in the presence of (bio)surfactants. A strong positive correlation (R{sup 2} = 0.99) was found between surfactant penetration through oil-contaminated soil and oil removal activity. Biosurfactant was less adsorbed to soil components than synthetic surfactant, thus rapidly penetrating through the soil column and effectively removing 65-82% of crude oil. Chemical analysis showed that crude oil removed by biosurfactant contained a lower proportion of high-molecular-weight paraffins and asphaltenes, the most nonbiodegradable compounds, compared to initial oil composition. This result suggests that oil mobilized by biosurfactants could be easily biodegraded by soil bacteria. Rhodococcus biosurfactants can be used for in situ remediation of oil-contaminated soils. (author)

  2. 75 FR 25291 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Mid-Atlantic Proposed Oil and Gas Lease Sale 220

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... 27 at Elizabeth City State University Fine Arts Complex in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. These..., 1201 Elmwood Park Boulevard, New Orleans, LA 70123-2394, telephone (504) 736-3233. SUPPLEMENTARY... period and made announcements in a press release and other media. On January 7, 2009, MMS published a...

  3. 75 FR 16833 - Preliminary Revised 5-Year Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2007-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... sensitivity analysis is expanded, it is important to remember that the Secretary's decisions are not based on... study will summarize what information is available, where knowledge gaps exist, and what research is... commenters to focus on the expanded relative environmental sensitivity analysis and the Secretary's revisions...

  4. 78 FR 65705 - Request for Comments on the Annual Progress Report on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... comments submitted by mail or through its Internet submission system. Please submit your comments using... not be considered. BOEM will not consider anonymous comments. BOEM will make available for inspection... Confidential Information.'' Internet: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . Under the tab...

  5. 76 FR 22139 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... EIS and the 2009-2012 SEIS and to consider the Deepwater Horizon event. This Draft SEIS provides... activities and accidental events, including a possible large-scale event, associated with the proposed WPA...

  6. 77 FR 41448 - Notice of Availability of the Proposed Final Five Year Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... President and Congress. After a period of at least 60 days from the date it was submitted to the President... (3 areas off Alaska and 3 areas in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM)). Maps A and B show the areas proposed... not under congressional moratorium pursuant to the Gulf of Mexico Energy Security Act of 2006 (GOMESA...

  7. 78 FR 45557 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) Oil and Gas Lease Sale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (WPA 233/ CPA 231 Supplemental EIS). WPA Lease Sale 233, scheduled... EIS evaluated the environmental and socioeconomic impacts for WPA Lease Sale 233. SUPPLEMENTARY... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management [MMAA104000] Gulf of Mexico, Outer...

  8. 78 FR 9731 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Central Planning Area (CPA) Oil and Gas Lease Sale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (Multisale FEIS). Authority: This NOA is published pursuant to the regulations... the NEPA process. The Multisale FEIS evaluated the environmental and socioeconomic impacts for CPA... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental...

  9. 77 FR 68147 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA), Oil and Gas Lease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (Multisale FEIS). Authority: This NOA is published pursuant to the regulations... NEPA process. The Multisale FEIS evaluated the environmental and socioeconomic impacts for WPA Lease... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental...

  10. 78 FR 9420 - Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 227

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... less than 400 meters. $100.00 per acre or fraction thereof for blocks in water depths of 400 meters or... less than 400 meters, and $100.00 per acre or fraction thereof for blocks in water depths of 400 meters... leases in 0 to less than 400 meters of water depth completed to a drilling depth of 20,000 feet TVD SS or...

  11. 78 FR 45558 - Western Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (WPA) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... meters Initial period 0 to $25.00 per acre or fraction thereof for blocks in water depths less than 400 meters $100.00 per acre or fraction thereof for blocks in water depths of 400 meters or deeper BOEM will... specified minimum bid of $25.00 per acre or fraction thereof for blocks in water depths less than 400 meters...

  12. 77 FR 65408 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Western Planning Area (WPA) Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and Gas Lease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... leases in depths less than 400 meters with an initial period longer than 5 years, royalty rates, minimum... $25.00 per acre or fraction thereof for blocks in water depths of less than 400 meters. $100.00 per acre or fraction thereof for blocks in water depths of 400 meters or deeper. Rental Rates Annual rental...

  13. 76 FR 70473 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Western Planning Area (WPA) Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and Gas Lease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... period of the lease term for blocks in water depths of 400 meters to less than 1,600 meters, (2) the minimum bonus bid has increased for blocks in water depths of 400 meters or deeper, (3) no deepwater... meters and (2) 400 meters or more. Successful Bidders: The BOEM requires each company that has been...

  14. 75 FR 6874 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Central Planning Area (CPA) Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and Gas Lease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-12

    ... for blocks in water depths of 400 meters to less than 1,600 meters. Blocks in 400 to less than 800... resulting from this lease sale. Leases in water depths of 400 meters to less than 800 meters will be offered... still may require the full 10-year term. In both the 400-800 and 800-1,600 meter cases, the lease...

  15. Waste Cooking Oil as an Alternate Feedstock for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafiqul Islam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As crude oil price reach a new high, the need for developing alternate fuels has become acute. Alternate fuels should be economically attractive in order to compete with currently used fossil fuels. In this work, biodiesel (ethyl ester was prepared from waste cooking oil collected from a local restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ethyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of the final biodiesel esters was determined by gas chromatography. The biodiesel was characterized by its physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, acid value, flash point, cloud point, pour point, cetane index, water and sediment content, total and free glycerin content, diglycerides and monoglycerides, phosphorus content and sulfur content according to ASTM standards. The viscosity of the biodiesel ethyl ester was found to be 5.03 mm2/sec at 40oC. The viscosity of waste cooking oil measured in room temperature (at 21° C was 72 mm2/sec. From the tests, the flash point was found to be 164oC, the phosphorous content was 2 ppm, those of calcium and magnesium were 1 ppm combined, water and sediment was 0 %, sulfur content was 2 ppm, total acid number was 0.29 mgKOH/g, cetane index was 61, cloud point was -1oC and pour point was -16oC. Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oils for diesel substitute is particularly important because of the decreasing trend of economical oil reserves, environmental problems caused due to fossil fuel use and the high price of petroleum products in the international market.

  16. Chemical Composition of Oil Fraction Kaffir Lime (Citrus hystrix DC as Antibacterial Activity of E.coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatika Ayu Habsari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the composition of oil fraction kaffir lime which is consists as antibacterial activity of E. coli. This research was applied a branch kaffir lime to produce oil using fractional distillation (PiloDist 104-VTU number the stages 120 and reflux ratio 20/10 with 5 mbar pressure. Oil kaffir lime composition was analyzed using GC-MS (type Shimadzu QP 2010S by helium as a carrier gas with flow rate of 3mL/min. Antibacterial activity assay was employed agar well diffusion which conducted at three concentrations (500, 300, and 100 µL/mL. The result of oil fraction kaffir lime was afforded five fraction oil based on boiling point interval, such as A fraction oil (63.00 – 70.010 oC, B fraction (71.30 – 70.800 oC, C fraction (74.50 – 74.200 oC, D fraction (74.20 – 74.000 oC and E fraction (72.90 – 91.100 oC. All fractions contained oxygenated monoterpene (MO, except A oil fraction which comprises hydrocarbon monoterpene composition (MH with a yield of 12.1%. The main components of a fraction which MO compound they are citronella, linalool and isopulegol, while in MH compound they are sabine, β-pinene, β-micrene and limonene. The result of antibacterial activity assay obtained at the highest concentration (500 µL/mL. Antibacterial activity assay also depends on the fraction composition with higher composition of MO. The highest MO component of oil fraction was found on C oil fraction which has MO component such as citronella 74.94%; linalool 20.13%; and isopulegol 3.08%.

  17. Low-temperature glycerolysis of avocado oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satriana, Arpi, Normalina; Supardan, Muhammad Dani; Gustina, Rizka Try; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan

    2018-04-01

    Glycerolysis can be a useful technique for production of mono- and diacylglycerols from triacylglycerols present in avocado oil. In the present work, the effect of catalyst and co-solvent concentration on low-temperature glycerolysis of avocado oil was investigated at 40oC of reaction temperature. A hydrodynamic cavitation system was used to enhance the miscibility of the oil and glycerol phases. NaOH and acetone were used as catalyst and co-solvent, respectively. The experimental results showed that the catalyst and co-solvent concentration affected the glycerolysis reaction rate. The catalyst concentration of 1.5% and co-solvent concentration of 300% were the optimised conditions. A suitable amount of NaOH and acetone must be added to achieve an optimum of triacylglycerol conversion.

  18. MANAGING AFRICA'S NATURAL RESOURCE ENDOWMENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    explained by the fact that many of the oil-producing countries or petro- states are ... Specifically for Africa, it has been argued that the resource curse paradigm .... sector.18 In Mozambique, after an audit of investments between 2002 and 2008, the ..... resources reserves in Africa, in most cases, the heart of usage – especially.

  19. Present evaluation of the use of rape oil/RME compared to diesel fuel. Appendix 1: Resources and emission balances: rape oil and RME compared to diesel fuel. Appendix 2: Economic evaluation of the use of rape oil and RME compared to diesel fuel; Aktuelle Bewertung des Einsatzes von Rapsoel/RME im Vergleich zu Dieselkraftstoff. Anhang 1: Ressourcen- und Emissionsbilanzen: Rapsoel und RME im Vergleich zu Dieselkraftstoff. Anhang 2: Oekonomische Bewertung des Einsatzes von Rapsoel und RME gegenueber Dieselkraftstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, K.; Niklas, G.; Tappe, M.; Reinhardt, G.A. [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany); Folkers, C. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Finanzwissenschaft

    1999-12-01

    New recognitions in the sectors of research, development in the processing industry, motor vehicle technology, ecological balance methodics, the high interest in environmental policy and some other points of criticism have motivated the Umweltbundesamt to update the corresponding parts of the '1993 eco-balance rape oil'. Balancing of the particularly critically discussed sectors of resource consumption and airborne environmental impacts over the entire life cycle of rape oil based fuels as compared to diesel fuel was taken care of by the ifeu Institute. That balances were only made up for these two sectors is due to the fact that it is here where the particular environmental advantages of vegetable fuel oils are supposedly brought to bear. Moreover, on the basis of the report 'renewable energy sources - fundamentals, methods, ecological balancing' published recently and sponsored by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt, topical essential factors such as the redefinition of the reference system (short-rotation cultivation instead of permanent fallowness) could be taken into account by the expertise. A particular benefit attributed to rape oil and RME is the conservation of fossil energy sources and associated abatement of the greenhouse effect (especially carbon dioxide). Cutting down greenhouse gas emissions is one of the predominant aims of national and international environmental policy with a view to preventing a dangerous man-made disturbance of climate. (orig.) [German] Neue Erkenntnisse im Bereich der Forschung, der Entwicklungen der verarbeitenden Industrie, der Fahrzeugtechnik, der Oekobilanzmethodik, das hohe umweltpolitische Interesse sowie die zuvor genannten Kritikpunkte haben das Umweltbundesamt veranlasst, die entsprechenden Teile der 'Oekobilanz Rapsoel' von 1993 auf den neuesten Stand zu bringen. Das ifeu-Institut hat die besonders kritisch diskutierten Bereiche des Ressourcenverbrauchs und der luftgetragenen

  20. Continuous In-situ Measurements of Carbonyl Sulfide (OCS) and Carbon Dioxide Isotopes to Constrain Ecosystem Carbon and Water Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, B.; Still, C. J.; Noone, D. C.; Berkelhammer, M. B.; Whelan, M.; Lai, C. T.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Gupta, M.; Leen, J. B.; Huang, Y. W.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the processes that control the terrestrial exchange of carbon and water are critical for examining the role of forested ecosystems in changing climates. A small but increasing number of studies have identified Carbonyl Sulfide (OCS) as a potential tracer for photosynthesis. OCS is hydrolyzed by an irreversible reaction in leaf mesophyll cells that is catalyzed by the enzyme, carbonic anhydrase. Leaf- level field and greenhouse studies indicate that OCS uptake is controlled by stomatal activity and that the ratio of OCS and CO2 uptake is reasonably constant. Existing studies on ecosystem OCS exchange have been based on laboratory measurements or short field campaigns and therefore little information on OCS exchange in a natural ecosystem over longer timescales is available. The objective of this study is to further assess the stability of OCS as a tracer for canopy photosynthesis in an active forested ecosystem and also to assess its utility for constraining transpiration, since both fluxes are mediated by canopy stomatal conductance. An off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy analyzer (Los Gatos Research Inc.) was deployed at the Wind River Experimental Forest in Washington (45.8205°N, 121.9519°W). Canopy air was sampled from four heights as well as the soil to measure vertical gradients of OCS within the canopy, and OCS exchange between the forest and the atmosphere for the growing season. Here we take advantage of simultaneous measurements of the stable isotopologues of H2O and CO2 at corresponding heights as well as NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) from eddy covariance measurements to compare GPP (Gross Primary Production) and transpiration estimates from a variety of independent techniques. Our findings also seek to allow assessment of the environmental and ecophysicological controls on evapotranspiration rates, which are projected to change in coming decades, and are otherwise poorly constrained.