WorldWideScience

Sample records for resources infrastructure refinements

  1. Physical resources and infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Hoorweg, J.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Obudho, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This chapter describes the main physical characteristics as well as the main physical and social infrastructure features of Kenya's coastal region. Physical resources include relief, soils, rainfall, agro-ecological zones and natural resources. Aspects of the physical infrastructure discussed are

  2. Determinants of Critical Infrastructure Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrowska Teresa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the issue of how resources are interpreted in the form of technology reactors that, as a result of unexpected circumstances, turn into pyramidal or avalanche threat dynamics. Counteracting such catastrophic, terrorist, or war situations cannot begin in the face of mass casualties or significant material losses that will require reconstruction and the work of many generations. The decisive factor is the correct long-term operation and management of the economy. The starting point of this article is the concept of resource and structural-functional relationships of resources and all their possible interpretations consistent with the functionalities they play in the human environment, human aggregates, and whole nations. The aim is to draw the reader's attention to the importance (semiotics of qualitative specifications and dynamically changing determinants contained in the material and structural-functional properties of the resources and their channel (information communication.

  3. Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project: water-resources activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Stanley G.; Heiny, Janet S.

    1998-01-01

    Infrastructure, such as roads, buildings, airports, and dams, is built and maintained by use of large quantities of natural resources such as aggregate (sand and gravel), energy, and water. As urban area expand, local sources of these resource are becoming inaccessible (gravel cannot be mined from under a subdivision, for example), or the cost of recovery of the resource becomes prohibitive (oil and gas drilling in urban areas is costly), or the resources may become unfit for some use (pollution of ground water may preclude its use as a water supply). Governmental land-use decision and environmental mandates can further preclude development of natural resources. If infrastructure resources are to remain economically available. current resource information must be available for use in well-reasoned decisions bout future land use. Ground water is an infrastructure resource that is present in shallow aquifers and deeper bedrock aquifers that underlie much of the 2,450-square-mile demonstration area of the Colorado Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project. In 1996, mapping of the area's ground-water resources was undertaken as a U.S. Geological Survey project in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, and the Colorado Water Conservation Board.

  4. Application of Resource Portfolio Concept in Nuclear Regulatory Infrastructure Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. E.; Ha, J. T.; Chang, H. S.; Kam, S. C.; Ryu, Y. H.

    2010-01-01

    As the new entrants in the global nuclear construction market are increasing and the establishment of an effective and sustainable regulatory infrastructure becomes more important, they have requested international assistance from the international nuclear communities with mature nuclear regulatory programmes. It needs to optimize the use of limited resources from regulatory organization providing support to regulatory infrastructure of new comers. This paper suggests the resource portfolio concept like a GE/Mckinsey Matrix used in business management and tries to apply it to the current needs considered in the regulatory support program in Korea as the case study

  5. Environmental and natural resource implications of sustainable urban infrastructure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergesen, Joseph D.; Suh, Sangwon; Baynes, Timothy M.; Kaviti Musango, Josephine

    2017-12-01

    As cities grow, their environmental and natural resource footprints also tend to grow to keep up with the increasing demand on essential urban services such as passenger transportation, commercial space, and thermal comfort. The urban infrastructure systems, or socio-technical systems providing these services are the major conduits through which natural resources are consumed and environmental impacts are generated. This paper aims to gauge the potential reductions in environmental and resources footprints through urban transformation, including the deployment of resource-efficient socio-technical systems and strategic densification. Using hybrid life cycle assessment approach combined with scenarios, we analyzed the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water use, metal consumption and land use of selected socio-technical systems in 84 cities from the present to 2050. The socio-technical systems analyzed are: (1) bus rapid transit with electric buses, (2) green commercial buildings, and (3) district energy. We developed a baseline model for each city considering gross domestic product, population density, and climate conditions. Then, we overlaid three scenarios on top of the baseline model: (1) decarbonization of electricity, (2) aggressive deployment of resource-efficient socio-technical systems, and (3) strategic urban densification scenarios to each city and quantified their potentials in reducing the environmental and resource impacts of cities by 2050. The results show that, under the baseline scenario, the environmental and natural resource footprints of all 84 cities combined would increase 58%-116% by 2050. The resource-efficient scenario along with strategic densification, however, has the potential to curve down GHG emissions to 17% below the 2010 level in 2050. Such transformation can also limit the increase in all resource footprints to less than 23% relative to 2010. This analysis suggests that resource-efficient urban infrastructure and decarbonization of

  6. The Microbial Resource Research Infrastructure MIRRI: Strength through Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erko Stackebrandt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial resources have been recognized as essential raw materials for the advancement of health and later for biotechnology, agriculture, food technology and for research in the life sciences, as their enormous abundance and diversity offer an unparalleled source of unexplored solutions. Microbial domain biological resource centres (mBRC provide live cultures and associated data to foster and support the development of basic and applied science in countries worldwide and especially in Europe, where the density of highly advanced mBRCs is high. The not-for-profit and distributed project MIRRI (Microbial Resource Research Infrastructure aims to coordinate access to hitherto individually managed resources by developing a pan-European platform which takes the interoperability and accessibility of resources and data to a higher level. Providing a wealth of additional information and linking to datasets such as literature, environmental data, sequences and chemistry will enable researchers to select organisms suitable for their research and enable innovative solutions to be developed. The current independent policies and managed processes will be adapted by partner mBRCs to harmonize holdings, services, training, and accession policy and to share expertise. The infrastructure will improve access to enhanced quality microorganisms in an appropriate legal framework and to resource-associated data in a more interoperable way.

  7. Infrastructure resources for clinical research in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Alexander V; Gubitz, Amelie K; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Bedlack, Richard; Berry, James; Conwit, Robin; Harris, Brent T; Horton, D Kevin; Kaufmann, Petra; Leitner, Melanie L; Miller, Robert; Shefner, Jeremy; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    Clinical trial networks, shared clinical databases, and human biospecimen repositories are examples of infrastructure resources aimed at enhancing and expediting clinical and/or patient oriented research to uncover the etiology and pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease that leads to the paralysis of voluntary muscles. The current status of such infrastructure resources, as well as opportunities and impediments, were discussed at the second Tarrytown ALS meeting held in September 2011. The discussion focused on resources developed and maintained by ALS clinics and centers in North America and Europe, various clinical trial networks, U.S. government federal agencies including the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and several voluntary disease organizations that support ALS research activities. Key recommendations included 1) the establishment of shared databases among individual ALS clinics to enhance the coordination of resources and data analyses; 2) the expansion of quality-controlled human biospecimen banks; and 3) the adoption of uniform data standards, such as the recently developed Common Data Elements (CDEs) for ALS clinical research. The value of clinical trial networks such as the Northeast ALS (NEALS) Consortium and the Western ALS (WALS) Consortium was recognized, and strategies to further enhance and complement these networks and their research resources were discussed.

  8. Managing water resources infrastructure in the face of different values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Erik

    Water resources infrastructure (WRI) plays a key role in water management. It can serve or negatively affect some seven to ten different and sometimes conflicting values. WRI management is therefore not a purely technical issue. Economic analyses can help to some extent, but only for values related to current human use. Multi-criteria analysis can cover all values, but in the end WRI management is not an analytical issue, but a governance issue. Different governance paradigms exist: markets, hierarchies and “third alternatives”, such as common pool resources management and network management. This article presents social learning as the most promising paradigm. Positive experiences with social learning have been described and guidance on putting social learning into practice exists. Nonetheless, there are no magic solutions for managing WRI in the face of different values.

  9. Defense Industrial Base: Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources Sector-Specific Plan as Input to the National Infrastructure Protection Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    This Defense Industrial Base (DIB) Sector-Specific Plan (SSP), developed in collaboration with industry and government security partners, provides sector-level critical infrastructure and key resources (CI/KR...

  10. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    With all the technical services running, the attention has moved toward the next shutdown that will be spent to perform those modifications needed to enhance the reliability of CMS Infrastructures. Just to give an example for the cooling circuit, a set of re-circulating bypasses will be installed into the TS/CV area to limit the pressure surge when a circuit is partially shut-off. This problem has affected especially the Endcap Muon cooling circuit in the past. Also the ventilation of the UXC55 has to be revisited, allowing the automatic switching to full extraction in case of magnet quench. (Normally 90% of the cavern air is re-circulated by the ventilation system.) Minor modifications will concern the gas distribution, while the DSS action-matrix has to be refined according to the experience gained with operating the detector for a while. On the powering side, some LV power lines have been doubled and the final schematics of the UPS coverage for the counting rooms have been released. The most relevant inte...

  11. Electricity Networks: Infrastructure and Operations. Too complex for a resource?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, Dennis

    2013-07-01

    Electricity security remains a priority of energy policy and continuous electrification will further enhance the importance in the years to come. Market liberalisation has brought substantial benefits to societies, including competition, innovation, more client-oriented services and the reduced needs for public expenditure. Further, the path of decarbonisation is a must but experiences with many new technologies and policies show their many implications on power systems. Electricity networks form the backbone of reliable and affordable power systems and also significantly support the inception of renewable generation. The importance of distribution and transmission networks has to be well understood by policy makers and regulators to maintain the sensitive balance within the policy triangle of reliability, affordability and sustainability as power systems rapidly change. Failures in choosing the right institutions and regulatory frameworks to operate and build networks will put the sensitive balance within the policy triangle at risk. ''Too complex for a resource?'' identifies the key challenges the electricity distribution and transmission networks face today and in the future. It further provides for best practice examples on institutional design choices and regulatory frameworks for sound network service provision but also highlights the importance of additional responses required. More market-based and dynamic frameworks for various system services, the growing need for active service participation of renewable generators and highly independent and transparent central operators seem to be at the heart of these responses. ''Too complex for a resource?'' finds that the answer to the challenges ahead is not always more infrastructure and that networks and the services they provide have to be regarded as equal part of the total power system. Thus, accurate and dynamic cost allocation can significantly support to transform

  12. NEW ATTRACTION MECHANISM OF INVESTMENT RESOURCES FOR FINANCING INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Popkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes revenue-yielding bonds as an efficient tool of governmental and municipal management. Conditions required for issue of  security papers have considered in the paper. The paper describes main  stages of the infrastructure bonded loan implementation. The global experience in financing construction and upgrading of infrastructure facilities through the bond issue has been investigated in the paper. The contains an analysis of risks while executing infrastructure projects and proposes methods for their minimization.

  13. The stock-flow model of spatial data infrastructure development refined by fuzzy logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolmajidi, Ehsan; Harrie, Lars; Mansourian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The system dynamics technique has been demonstrated to be a proper method by which to model and simulate the development of spatial data infrastructures (SDI). An SDI is a collaborative effort to manage and share spatial data at different political and administrative levels. It is comprised of various dynamically interacting quantitative and qualitative (linguistic) variables. To incorporate linguistic variables and their joint effects in an SDI-development model more effectively, we suggest employing fuzzy logic. Not all fuzzy models are able to model the dynamic behavior of SDIs properly. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate different fuzzy models and their suitability for modeling SDIs. To that end, two inference and two defuzzification methods were used for the fuzzification of the joint effect of two variables in an existing SDI model. The results show that the Average-Average inference and Center of Area defuzzification can better model the dynamics of SDI development.

  14. Models of Financing and Available Financial Resources for Transport Infrastructure Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pokorná

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A typical feature of transport infrastructure projects is that they are expensive and take a long time to construct. Transport infrastructure financing has traditionally lain in the public domain. A tightening of many countries' budgets in recent times has led to an exploration of alternative resources for financing transport infrastructures. A variety of models and methods can be used in transport infrastructure project financing. The selection of the appropriate model should be done taking into account not only financial resources but also the distribution of construction and operating risks and the contractual relations between the stakeholders.

  15. Situational Management Of Critical Infrastructure Resources Under Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa Tadeusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a synthesis of knowledge about safety management procedures for critical infrastructure in the context of risk management theory and the provisions of the Polish law on emergency management launched on of April 26, 2007. In this paper, the inadequacy of the accepted procedures at present is highlighted, as well as their continuous improvement and adaptation to prevailing political, legal, social, and economic conditions. This paper proposes using the concept of situational management and knowledge management to develop a new method of predicting, preventing, and responding to emerging crises within critical infrastructure. The considerations presented in this paper lead to a proposed concept system supporting critical infrastructure safety management through the implementation of knowledge management methods.

  16. Case studies of scenario analysis for adaptive management of natural resource and infrastructure systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, M.C.; Thekdi, S.A.; Jenicek, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    Management of natural resources and infrastructure systems for sustainability is complicated by uncertainties in the human and natural environment. Moreover, decisions are further complicated by contradictory views, values, and concerns that are rarely made explicit. Scenario analysis can play...... of emergent conditions and help to avoid regret and belated action. The purpose of this paper is to present several case studies in natural resources and infrastructure systems management where scenario analysis has been used to aide decision making under uncertainty. The case studies include several resource...... and infrastructure systems: (1) water resources (2) land-use corridors (3) energy infrastructure, and (4) coastal climate change adaptation. The case studies emphasize a participatory approach, where scenario analysis becomes a means of incorporating diverse stakeholder concerns and experience. This approach...

  17. Learning Method, Facilities And Infrastructure, And Learning Resources In Basic Networking For Vocational School

    OpenAIRE

    Pamungkas, Bian Dwi

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the contribution of learning methods on learning output, the contribution of facilities and infrastructure on output learning, the contribution of learning resources on learning output, and the contribution of learning methods, the facilities and infrastructure, and learning resources on learning output. The research design is descriptive causative, using a goal-oriented assessment approach in which the assessment focuses on assessing the achievement of a goal. The ...

  18. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Document Server

    A.Gaddi

    2011-01-01

    Between the end of March to June 2011, there has been no detector downtime during proton fills due to CMS Infrastructures failures. This exceptional performance is a clear sign of the high quality work done by the CMS Infrastructures unit and its supporting teams. Powering infrastructure At the end of March, the EN/EL group observed a problem with the CMS 48 V system. The problem was a lack of isolation between the negative (return) terminal and earth. Although at that moment we were not seeing any loss of functionality, in the long term it would have led to severe disruption to the CMS power system. The 48 V system is critical to the operation of CMS: in addition to feeding the anti-panic lights, essential for the safety of the underground areas, it powers all the PLCs (Twidos) that control AC power to the racks and front-end electronics of CMS. A failure of the 48 V system would bring down the whole detector and lead to evacuation of the cavern. EN/EL technicians have made an accurate search of the fault, ...

  19. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2011-01-01

    Most of the work relating to Infrastructure has been concentrated in the new CSC and RPC manufactory at building 904, on the Prevessin site. Brand new gas distribution, powering and HVAC infrastructures are being deployed and the production of the first CSC chambers has started. Other activities at the CMS site concern the installation of a new small crane bridge in the Cooling technical room in USC55, in order to facilitate the intervention of the maintenance team in case of major failures of the chilled water pumping units. The laser barrack in USC55 has been also the object of a study, requested by the ECAL community, for the new laser system that shall be delivered in few months. In addition, ordinary maintenance works have been performed during the short machine stops on all the main infrastructures at Point 5 and in preparation to the Year-End Technical Stop (YETS), when most of the systems will be carefully inspected in order to ensure a smooth running through the crucial year 2012. After the incide...

  20. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Infrastructures teams are preparing for the LS1 activities. A long list of maintenance, consolidation and upgrade projects for CMS Infrastructures is on the table and is being discussed among Technical Coordination and sub-detector representatives. Apart from the activities concerning the cooling infrastructures (see below), two main projects have started: the refurbishment of the SX5 building, from storage area to RP storage and Muon stations laboratory; and the procurement of a new dry-gas (nitrogen and dry air) plant for inner detector flushing. We briefly present here the work done on the first item, leaving the second one for the next CMS Bulletin issue. The SX5 building is entering its third era, from main assembly building for CMS from 2000 to 2007, to storage building from 2008 to 2012, to RP storage and Muon laboratory during LS1 and beyond. A wall of concrete blocks has been erected to limit the RP zone, while the rest of the surface has been split between the ME1/1 and the CSC/DT laborat...

  1. Sustainable mobile information infrastructures in low resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braa, Kristin; Purkayastha, Saptarshi

    2010-01-01

    Developing countries represent the fastest growing mobile markets in the world. For people with no computing access, a mobile will be their first computing device. Mobile technologies offer a significant potential to strengthen health systems in developing countries with respect to community based monitoring, reporting, feedback to service providers, and strengthening communication and coordination between different health functionaries, medical officers and the community. However, there are various challenges in realizing this potential including technological such as lack of power, social, institutional and use issues. In this paper a case study from India on mobile health implementation and use will be reported. An underlying principle guiding this paper is to see mobile technology not as a "stand alone device" but potentially an integral component of an integrated mobile supported health information infrastructure.

  2. Governance of urban transitions: towards sustainable resource efficient urban infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swilling, Mark; Hajer, Maarten

    2017-12-01

    The transition to sustainable resource efficient cities calls for new governance arrangements. The awareness that the doubling of the global urban population will result in unsustainable levels of demand for natural resources requires changes in the existing socio-technical systems. Domestic material consumption could go up from 40 billion tons in 2010, to 89 billion tons by 2050. While there are a number of socio-technical alternatives that could result in significant improvements in the resource efficiency of urban systems in developed and developing countries (specifically bus-rapid transit, district energy systems and green buildings), we need to rethink the urban governance arrangements to get to this alternative pathway. We note modes of urban governance have changed over the past century as economic and urban development paradigms have shifted at the national and global levels. This time round we identify cities as leading actors in the transition to more sustainable modes of production and consumption as articulated in the Sustainable Development Goals. This has resulted in a surge of urban experimentation across all world regions, both North and South. Building on this empirically observable trend we suggest this can also be seen as a building block of a new urban governance paradigm. An ‘entrepreneurial urban governance’ is proposed that envisages an active and goal-setting role for the state, but in ways that allows broader coalitions of urban ‘agents of change’ to emerge. This entrepreneurial urban governance fosters and promotes experimentation rather than suppressing the myriad of such initiatives across the globe, and connects to global city networks for systemic learning between cities. Experimentation needs to result in a contextually appropriate balance between economic, social, technological and sustainable development. A full and detailed elaboration of the arguments and sources for this article can be found in chapter 6 of Swilling M et

  3. CLIMB (the Cloud Infrastructure for Microbial Bioinformatics): an online resource for the medical microbiology community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Thomas R; Loman, Nicholas J; Thompson, Simon; Smith, Andy; Southgate, Joel; Poplawski, Radoslaw; Bull, Matthew J; Richardson, Emily; Ismail, Matthew; Thompson, Simon Elwood-; Kitchen, Christine; Guest, Martyn; Bakke, Marius; Sheppard, Samuel K; Pallen, Mark J

    2016-09-01

    The increasing availability and decreasing cost of high-throughput sequencing has transformed academic medical microbiology, delivering an explosion in available genomes while also driving advances in bioinformatics. However, many microbiologists are unable to exploit the resulting large genomics datasets because they do not have access to relevant computational resources and to an appropriate bioinformatics infrastructure. Here, we present the Cloud Infrastructure for Microbial Bioinformatics (CLIMB) facility, a shared computing infrastructure that has been designed from the ground up to provide an environment where microbiologists can share and reuse methods and data.

  4. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Infrastructures teams are constantly ensuring the smooth operation of the different services during this critical period when the detector is taking data at full speed. A single failure would spoil hours of high luminosity beam and everything is put in place to avoid such an eventuality. In the meantime however, the fast approaching LS1 requires that we take a look at the various activities to take place from the end of the year onwards. The list of infrastructures consolidation and upgrade tasks is already long and will touch all the services (cooling, gas, inertion, powering, etc.). The definitive list will be available just before the LS1 start. One activity performed by the CMS cooling team that is worth mentioning is the maintenance of the cooling circuits at the CMS Electronics Integration Centre (EIC) at building 904. The old chiller has been replaced by a three-units cooling plant that also serves the HVAC system for the new CSC and RPC factories. The commissioning of this new plant has tak...

  5. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    2010-01-01

    In addition to the intense campaign of replacement of the leaky bushing on the Endcap circuits, other important activities have also been completed, with the aim of enhancing the overall reliability of the cooling infrastructures at CMS. Remaining with the Endcap circuit, the regulating valve that supplies cold water to the primary side of the circuit heat-exchanger, is not well adapted in flow capability and a new part has been ordered, to be installed during a stop of LHC. The instrumentation monitoring of the refilling rate of the circuits has been enhanced and we can now detect leaks as small as 0.5 cc/sec, on circuits that have nominal flow rates of some 20 litres/sec. Another activity starting now that the technical stop is over is the collection of spare parts that are difficult to find on the market. These will be stored at P5 with the aim of reducing down-time in case of component failure. Concerning the ventilation infrastructures, it has been noticed that in winter time the relative humidity leve...

  6. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2013-01-01

      Most of the CMS infrastructures at P5 will go through a heavy consolidation-work period during LS1. All systems, from the cryogenic plant of the superconducting magnet to the rack powering in the USC55 counting rooms, from the cooling circuits to the gas distribution, will undergo consolidation work. As announced in the last issue of the CMS Bulletin, we present here one of the consolidation projects of LS1: the installation of a new dry-gas plant for inner detectors inertion. So far the oxygen and humidity suppression inside the CMS Tracker and Pixel volumes were assured by flushing dry nitrogen gas evaporated from a large liquid nitrogen tank. For technical reasons, the maximum flow is limited to less than 100 m3/h and the cost of refilling the tank every two weeks with liquid nitrogen is quite substantial. The new dry-gas plant will supply up to 400 m3/h of dry nitrogen (or the same flow of dry air, during shut-downs) with a comparatively minimal operation cost. It has been evaluated that the...

  7. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Document Server

    Andrea Gaddi

    2010-01-01

    During the last six months, the main activity on the cooling circuit has essentially been preventive maintenance. At each short machine technical stop, a water sample is extracted out of every cooling circuit to measure the induced radioactivity. Soon after, a visual check of the whole detector cooling network is done, looking for water leaks in sensitive locations. Depending on sub-system availability, the main water filters are replaced; the old ones are inspected and sent to the CERN metallurgical lab in case of suspicious sediments. For the coming winter technical stop, a number of corrective maintenance activities and infrastructure consolidation work-packages are foreseen. A few faulty valves, found on the muon system cooling circuit, will be replaced; the cooling gauges for TOTEM and CASTOR, in the CMS Forward region, will be either changed or shielded against the magnetic stray field. The demineralizer cartridges will be replaced as well. New instrumentation will also be installed in the SCX5 PC farm ...

  8. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi.

    The various water-cooling circuits ran smoothly over the summer. The overall performance of the cooling system is satisfactory, even if some improvements are possible, concerning the endcap water-cooling and the C6F14 circuits. In particular for the endcap cooling circuit, we aim to lower the water temperature, to provide more margin for RPC detectors. An expert-on-call piquet has been established during the summer global run, assuring the continuous supervision of the installations. An effort has been made to collect and harmonize the existing documentation on the cooling infrastructures at P5. The last six months have seen minor modifications to the electrical power network at P5. Among these, the racks in USC55 for the Tracker and Sniffer systems, which are backed up by the diesel generator in case of power outage, have been equipped with new control boxes to allow a remote restart. Other interventions have concerned the supply of assured power to those installations that are essential for CMS to run eff...

  9. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    The long winter shut-down allows for modifications that will improve the reliability of the detector infrastructures at P5. The annual maintenance of detector services is taking place as well. This means a full stop of water-cooling circuits from November 24th with a gradual restart from mid January 09. The annual maintenance service includes the cleaning of the two SF5 cooling towers, service of the chiller plants on the surface, and the cryogenic plant serving the CMS Magnet. In addition, the overall site power is reduced from 8MW to 2MW, compatible with the switchover to the Swiss power network in winter. Full power will be available again from end of January. Among the modification works planned, the Low Voltage cabinets are being refurbished; doubling the cable sections and replacing the 40A circuit breakers with 60A types. This will reduce the overheating that has been experienced. Moreover, two new LV transformers will be bought and pre-cabled in order to assure a quick swap in case of failure of any...

  10. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Document Server

    A. Gaddi

    2011-01-01

    During the last winter technical stop, a number of corrective maintenance activities and infrastructure consolidation work-packages were completed. On the surface, the site cooling facility has passed the annual maintenance process that includes the cleaning of the two evaporative cooling towers, the maintenance of the chiller units and the safety checks on the software controls. In parallel, CMS teams, reinforced by PH-DT group personnel, have worked to shield the cooling gauges for TOTEM and CASTOR against the magnetic stray field in the CMS Forward region, to add labels to almost all the valves underground and to clean all the filters in UXC55, USC55 and SCX5. Following the insertion of TOTEM T1 detector, the cooling circuit has been branched off and commissioned. The demineraliser cartridges have been replaced as well, as they were shown to be almost saturated. New instrumentation has been installed in the SCX5 PC farm cooling and ventilation network, in order to monitor the performance of the HVAC system...

  11. A Schedulability Analysis Framework for Real-time Infrastructure Systems Managing Heterogeneous Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jinhyun; Kang, Sungwon

    2012-01-01

    REACTION 2012. 1st International workshop on Real-time and distributed computing in emerging applications. December 4th, 2012, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Electricity generating systems, such as smart grid systems, and water management systems are infrastructure systems that manage resources critical to human life. In the systems, resources are produced and managed to supply them to various consumers, such as building, car, factory, and household, according to their needs and pri...

  12. Late-life depression in Rural China: do village infrastructure and availability of community resources matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lydia W; Liu, Jinyu; Zhang, Zhenmei; Xu, Hongwei

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to examine whether physical infrastructure and availability of three types of community resources (old-age income support, healthcare facilities, and elder activity centers) in rural villages are associated with depressive symptoms among older adults in rural China. Data were from the 2011 baseline survey of the Chinese Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). The sample included 3824 older adults aged 60 years or older residing in 301 rural villages across China. A score of 12 on the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was used as the cutoff for depressed versus not depressed. Village infrastructure was indicated by an index summing deficiency in six areas: drinking water, fuel, road, sewage, waste management, and toilet facilities. Three dichotomous variables indicated whether income support, healthcare facility, and elder activity center were available in the village. Respondents' demographic characteristics (age, gender, marital status, and living arrangements), health status (chronic conditions and physical disability), and socioeconomic status (education, support from children, health insurance, household luxury items, and housing quality) were covariates. Multilevel logistic regression was conducted. Controlling for individuals' socioeconomic status, health status, and demographic characteristics, village infrastructure deficiency was positively associated with the odds of being depressed among rural older Chinese, whereas the provision of income support and healthcare facilities in rural villages was associated with lower odds. Village infrastructure and availability of community resources matter for depressive symptoms in rural older adults. Improving infrastructure, providing old-age income support, and establishing healthcare facilities in villages could be effective strategies to prevent late-life depression in rural China. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Adaptive Resource Utilization Prediction System for Infrastructure as a Service Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qazi Zia Ullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS cloud provides resources as a service from a pool of compute, network, and storage resources. Cloud providers can manage their resource usage by knowing future usage demand from the current and past usage patterns of resources. Resource usage prediction is of great importance for dynamic scaling of cloud resources to achieve efficiency in terms of cost and energy consumption while keeping quality of service. The purpose of this paper is to present a real-time resource usage prediction system. The system takes real-time utilization of resources and feeds utilization values into several buffers based on the type of resources and time span size. Buffers are read by R language based statistical system. These buffers’ data are checked to determine whether their data follows Gaussian distribution or not. In case of following Gaussian distribution, Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA is applied; otherwise Autoregressive Neural Network (AR-NN is applied. In ARIMA process, a model is selected based on minimum Akaike Information Criterion (AIC values. Similarly, in AR-NN process, a network with the lowest Network Information Criterion (NIC value is selected. We have evaluated our system with real traces of CPU utilization of an IaaS cloud of one hundred and twenty servers.

  14. GIS-and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Minnick, Matthew [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Geza, Mengistu [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Murray, Kyle [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Mattson, Earl [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-09-30

    The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) was awarded a grant by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a research project en- titled GIS- and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development in October of 2008. The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a water resource geo-spatial infrastructure that serves as “baseline data” for creating solutions on water resource management and for supporting decisions making on oil shale resource development. The project came to the end on September 30, 2012. This final project report will report the key findings from the project activity, major accomplishments, and expected impacts of the research. At meantime, the gamma version (also known as Version 4.0) of the geodatabase as well as other various deliverables stored on digital storage media will be send to the program manager at NETL, DOE via express mail. The key findings from the project activity include the quantitative spatial and temporal distribution of the water resource throughout the Piceance Basin, water consumption with respect to oil shale production, and data gaps identified. Major accomplishments of this project include the creation of a relational geodatabase, automated data processing scripts (Matlab) for database link with surface water and geological model, ArcGIS Model for hydrogeologic data processing for groundwater model input, a 3D geological model, surface water/groundwater models, energy resource development systems model, as well as a web-based geo-spatial infrastructure for data exploration, visualization and dissemination. This research will have broad impacts of the devel- opment of the oil shale resources in the US. The geodatabase provides a “baseline” data for fur- ther study of the oil shale development and identification of further data collection needs. The 3D geological model provides better understanding through data interpolation and

  15. Combining Interactive Infrastructure Modeling and Evolutionary Algorithm Optimization for Sustainable Water Resources Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Zagona, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Population growth and climate change, combined with difficulties in building new infrastructure, motivate portfolio-based solutions to ensuring sufficient water supply. Powerful simulation models with graphical user interfaces (GUI) are often used to evaluate infrastructure portfolios; these GUI based models require manual modification of the system parameters, such as reservoir operation rules, water transfer schemes, or system capacities. Multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) based optimization can be employed to balance multiple objectives and automatically suggest designs for infrastructure systems, but MOEA based decision support typically uses a fixed problem formulation (i.e., a single set of objectives, decisions, and constraints). This presentation suggests a dynamic framework for linking GUI-based infrastructure models with MOEA search. The framework begins with an initial formulation which is solved using a MOEA. Then, stakeholders can interact with candidate solutions, viewing their properties in the GUI model. This is followed by changes in the formulation which represent users' evolving understanding of exigent system properties. Our case study is built using RiverWare, an object-oriented, data-centered model that facilitates the representation of a diverse array of water resources systems. Results suggest that assumptions within the initial MOEA search are violated after investigating tradeoffs and reveal how formulations should be modified to better capture stakeholders' preferences.

  16. ReSS: Resource Selection Service for National and Campus Grid Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhashilkar, Parag; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Levshina, Tanya; Timm, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) offers access to around hundred Compute elements (CE) and storage elements (SE) via standard Grid interfaces. The Resource Selection Service (ReSS) is a push-based workload management system that is integrated with the OSG information systems and resources. ReSS integrates standard Grid tools such as Condor, as a brokering service and the gLite CEMon, for gathering and publishing resource information in GLUE Schema format. ReSS is used in OSG by Virtual Organizations (VO) such as Dark Energy Survey (DES), DZero and Engagement VO. ReSS is also used as a Resource Selection Service for Campus Grids, such as FermiGrid. VOs use ReSS to automate the resource selection in their workload management system to run jobs over the grid. In the past year, the system has been enhanced to enable publication and selection of storage resources and of any special software or software libraries (like MPI libraries) installed at computing resources. In this paper, we discuss the Resource Selection Service, its typical usage on the two scales of a National Cyber Infrastructure Grid, such as OSG, and of a campus Grid, such as FermiGrid.

  17. ReSS: Resource Selection Service for National and Campus Grid Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhashilkar, Parag; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Levshina, Tanya; Timm, Steve, E-mail: parag@fnal.go, E-mail: garzogli@fnal.go, E-mail: tlevshin@fnal.go, E-mail: timm@fnal.go [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P O Box 500, Batavia, IL - 60510 (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) offers access to around hundred Compute elements (CE) and storage elements (SE) via standard Grid interfaces. The Resource Selection Service (ReSS) is a push-based workload management system that is integrated with the OSG information systems and resources. ReSS integrates standard Grid tools such as Condor, as a brokering service and the gLite CEMon, for gathering and publishing resource information in GLUE Schema format. ReSS is used in OSG by Virtual Organizations (VO) such as Dark Energy Survey (DES), DZero and Engagement VO. ReSS is also used as a Resource Selection Service for Campus Grids, such as FermiGrid. VOs use ReSS to automate the resource selection in their workload management system to run jobs over the grid. In the past year, the system has been enhanced to enable publication and selection of storage resources and of any special software or software libraries (like MPI libraries) installed at computing resources. In this paper, we discuss the Resource Selection Service, its typical usage on the two scales of a National Cyber Infrastructure Grid, such as OSG, and of a campus Grid, such as FermiGrid.

  18. ReSS: Resource Selection Service for National and Campus Grid Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhashilkar, Parag; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Levshina, Tanya; Timm, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) offers access to around hundred Compute elements (CE) and storage elements (SE) via standard Grid interfaces. The Resource Selection Service (ReSS) is a push-based workload management system that is integrated with the OSG information systems and resources. ReSS integrates standard Grid tools such as Condor, as a brokering service and the gLite CEMon, for gathering and publishing resource information in GLUE Schema format. ReSS is used in OSG by Virtual Organizations (VO) such as Dark Energy Survey (DES), DZero and Engagement VO. ReSS is also used as a Resource Selection Service for Campus Grids, such as FermiGrid. VOs use ReSS to automate the resource selection in their workload management system to run jobs over the grid. In the past year, the system has been enhanced to enable publication and selection of storage resources and of any special software or software libraries (like MPI libraries) installed at computing resources. In this paper, we discuss the Resource Selection Service, its typical usage on the two scales of a National Cyber Infrastructure Grid, such as OSG, and of a campus Grid, such as FermiGrid.

  19. Effective public resource allocation to escape lock-in: the case of infrastructure-dependent vehicle technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vooren, A. van der; Alkemade, F.; Hekkert, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    A multi-stage technological substitution model of infrastructure-dependent vehicle technologies is developed. This is used to examine how the allocation of public, financial resources to RD&D support and infrastructure development affects the replacement of a locked-in vehicle technology by more

  20. Development of Resource Sharing System Components for AliEn Grid Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Harutyunyan, Artem

    2010-01-01

    The problem of the resource provision, sharing, accounting and use represents a principal issue in the contemporary scientific cyberinfrastructures. For example, collaborations in physics, astrophysics, Earth science, biology and medicine need to store huge amounts of data (of the order of several petabytes) as well as to conduct highly intensive computations. The appropriate computing and storage capacities cannot be ensured by one (even very large) research center. The modern approach to the solution of this problem suggests exploitation of computational and data storage facilities of the centers participating in collaborations. The most advanced implementation of this approach is based on Grid technologies, which enable effective work of the members of collaborations regardless of their geographical location. Currently there are several tens of Grid infrastructures deployed all over the world. The Grid infrastructures of CERN Large Hadron Collider experiments - ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb which are exploi...

  1. The Resource Hazards Model for the Critical Infrastructure of the State Emergency Management Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrowska Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of the relevant factors related to the construction of a resource model which is designed to be useful in the management processes of the operation of critical infrastructure (CI for state emergencies. The genesis of the research lay in the perceived need for effective protection of multidimensional CI methodologies, and it was influenced by the nature of the physical characteristics of the available resources. It was necessary to establish a clear structure and well defined objectives and to assess the functional and structural resources required, as well as the potential relational susceptibilities deriving from a number of possible threats and the possible seriousness of a specific range of incidents and their possible consequences. The interdependence of CI stocks is shown by the use of tables of resource classes. The dynamics of the interaction of CI resources are modeled by examining how using clusters of potential risks can at any given time create a class of compounds related to susceptibilities and threats to the resources. As a result, the model can be used to conduct multi-dimensional risk calculations for crisis management CI resource configurations.

  2. Effective Utilization of Resources and Infrastructure for a Spaceport Network Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Tracy; Larson, Wiley; Mueller, Robert; Roberson, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Providing routine, affordable access to a variety of orbital and deep space destinations requires an intricate network of ground, planetary surface, and space-based spaceports like those on Earth (land and sea), in various Earth orbits, and on other extraterrestrial surfaces. Advancements in technology and international collaboration are critical to establish a spaceport network that satisfies the requirements for private and government research, exploration, and commercial objectives. Technologies, interfaces, assembly techniques, and protocols must be adapted to enable mission critical capabilities and interoperability throughout the spaceport network. The conceptual space mission architecture must address the full range of required spaceport services, from managing propellants for a variety of spacecraft to governance structure. In order to accomplish affordability and sustainability goals, the network architecture must consider deriving propellants from in situ planetary resources to the maximum extent possible. Water on the Moon and Mars, Mars' atmospheric CO2, and O2 extracted from lunar regolith are examples of in situ resources that could be used to generate propellants for various spacecraft, orbital stages and trajectories, and the commodities to support habitation and human operations at these destinations. The ability to use in-space fuel depots containing in situ derived propellants would drastically reduce the mass required to launch long-duration or deep space missions from Earth's gravity well. Advances in transformative technologies and common capabilities, interfaces, umbilicals, commodities, protocols, and agreements will facilitate a cost-effective, safe, reliable infrastructure for a versatile network of Earth- and extraterrestrial spaceports. Defining a common infrastructure on Earth, planetary surfaces, and in space, as well as deriving propellants from in situ planetary resources to construct in-space propellant depots to serve the spaceport

  3. Efficiency Sustainability Resource Visual Simulator for Clustered Desktop Virtualization Based on Cloud Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hyuk Park

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Following IT innovations, manual operations have been automated, improving the overall quality of life. This has been possible because an organic topology has been formed among many diverse smart devices grafted onto real life. To provide services to these smart devices, enterprises or users use the cloud. Cloud services are divided into infrastructure as a service (IaaS, platform as a service (PaaS and software as a service (SaaS. SaaS is operated on PaaS, and PaaS is operated on IaaS. Since IaaS is the foundation of all services, algorithms for the efficient operation of virtualized resources are required. Among these algorithms, desktop resource virtualization is used for high resource availability when existing desktop PCs are unavailable. For this high resource availability, clustering for hierarchical structures is important. In addition, since many clustering algorithms show different percentages of the main resources depending on the desktop PC distribution rates and environments, selecting appropriate algorithms is very important. If diverse attempts are made to find algorithms suitable for the operating environments’ desktop resource virtualization, huge costs are incurred for the related power, time and labor. Therefore, in the present paper, a desktop resource virtualization clustering simulator (DRV-CS, a clustering simulator for selecting clusters of desktop virtualization clusters to be maintained sustainably, is proposed. The DRV-CS provides simulations, so that clustering algorithms can be selected and elements can be properly applied in different desktop PC environments through the DRV-CS.

  4. Cost Optimization of Water Resources in Pernambuco, Brazil: Valuing Future Infrastructure and Climate Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ipsita; Josset, Laureline; Lall, Upmanu; Cavalcanti e Silva, Erik; Cordeiro Possas, José Marcelo; Cauás Asfora, Marcelo

    2017-04-01

    Optimal management of water resources is paramount in semi-arid regions to limit strains on the society and economy due to limited water availability. This problem is likely to become even more recurrent as droughts are projected to intensify in the coming years, causing increasing stresses to the water supply in the concerned areas. The state of Pernambuco, in the Northeast Brazil is one such case, where one of the largest reservoir, Jucazinho, has been at approximately 1% capacity throughout 2016, making infrastructural challenges in the region very real. To ease some of the infrastructural stresses and reduce vulnerabilities of the water system, a new source of water from Rio São Francisco is currently under development. Till its development, water trucks have been regularly mandated to cover water deficits, but at a much higher cost, thus endangering the financial sustainability of the region. In this paper, we propose to evaluate the sustainability of the considered water system by formulating an optimization problem and determine the optimal operations to be conducted. We start with a comparative study of the current and future infrastructures capabilities to face various climate. We show that while the Rio Sao Francisco project mitigates the problems, both implementations do not prevent failure and require the reliance on water trucks during prolonged droughts. We also study the cost associated with the provision of water to the municipalities for several streamflow forecasts. In particular, we investigate the value of climate predictions to adapt operational decisions by comparing the results with a fixed policy derived from historical data. We show that the use of climate information permits the reduction of the water deficit and reduces overall operational costs. We conclude with a discussion on the potential of the approach to evaluate future infrastructure developments. This study is funded by the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB), and in

  5. Refining teacher design capacity: mathematics teachers' interactions with digital curriculum resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepin, B.; Gueudet, G.; Trouche, L.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this conceptual paper is to develop enhanced understandings of mathematics teacher design and design capacity when interacting with digital curriculum resources. We argue that digital resources in particular offer incentives and increasing opportunities for mathematics teachers’ design,

  6. Planning for a soft landing : non-renewable resource development and community infrastructure in the Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    This paper provided a high-level overview of research related to the boom and bust cycle of resource-based economic development and community infrastructure in the north, particularly in the Northwest Territories. The paper focused on what is known and on knowledge gaps that needed to be filled in each of 3 theme areas for an experts workshop on northern communities. The themes that were discussed at the workshop and in this paper were: the connections between non-renewable resources development and community infrastructure in the north; planning for resource development; and strategies for moving ahead and putting ideas into practice. The paper discussed the objectives of the research and discussed findings under each of the 3 themes. Topics discussed included: changes in the infrastructure mix; infrastructure and climate change; infrastructure financing; uncertainty; knowledge; planning tools; stakeholder participation; and measuring and monitoring planning implementation. Data availability was also discussed along with funding mechanisms, technological innovations and community capacity building. It was concluded that strategies for dealing with the boom-induced infrastructure challenges facing communities in the Northwest Territories should focus on making more creative use of available funding; promoting technical innovation; and improving maintenance capacity at the community level. 62 refs

  7. Assessment of the human resources infrastructure for nuclear energy program in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaushevski, A.; Spasevska, H.; Nikolova-Poceva, S.; Popov, P.

    2015-01-01

    Macedonia is a country with no nuclear power and research reactors. The nuclear application is currently only in the medical industry, agriculture and food industry, accompanied by radiation measuring and protection activities in these sectors. On the other side the energy needs have been increasing in the last ten years, which resulted in electrical energy import of about 20–30% (around 3000 GWh). Nuclear power is one of the options for satisfying energy needs in the next 50 years. One of the crucial problems in nuclear energy implementation are human resources needs and educational infrastructure development in this field. No matter what will be the future energy scenario in the Republic of Macedonia, the nuclear educational program is the first step to have HR in the field of nuclear energy. This paper presents the proposed direction for having HR in nuclear energy program in a small country such as the Republic of Macedonia. Taking into account the existing national education program related to nuclear topics and in particular to nuclear power, and following the guidance and recommendations from the international nuclear educational programs at the IAEA, EHRO and others, the planning of the educational nuclear programs and human resources development in the Republic of Macedonia has been carried out. This includes the enhancing the capabilities of the national regulatory body in the Republic of Macedonia. (authors) Keywords: NEP (Nuclear Energy Program), HR (Human Resources), NEPIO (Nuclear Energy Program Implementation Organization), NRB (Nuclear Regulatory Body), NPP

  8. Radiotherapy infrastructure and human resources in Switzerland : Present status and projected computations for 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Niloy Ranjan; Khan, Shaka; Marder, Dietmar; Zwahlen, Daniel; Bodis, Stephan

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the present status of radiotherapy infrastructure and human resources in Switzerland and compute projections for 2020. The European Society of Therapeutic Radiation Oncology "Quantification of Radiation Therapy Infrastructure and Staffing" guidelines (ESTRO-QUARTS) and those of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were applied to estimate the requirements for teleradiotherapy (TRT) units, radiation oncologists (RO), medical physicists (MP) and radiotherapy technologists (RTT). The databases used for computation of the present gap and additional requirements are (a) Global Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence (GLOBOCAN) for cancer incidence (b) the Directory of Radiotherapy Centres (DIRAC) of the IAEA for existing TRT units (c) human resources from the recent ESTRO "Health Economics in Radiation Oncology" (HERO) survey and (d) radiotherapy utilization (RTU) rates for each tumour site, published by the Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research (IIAMR). In 2015, 30,999 of 45,903 cancer patients would have required radiotherapy. By 2020, this will have increased to 34,041 of 50,427 cancer patients. Switzerland presently has an adequate number of TRTs, but a deficit of 57 ROs, 14 MPs and 36 RTTs. By 2020, an additional 7 TRTs, 72 ROs, 22 MPs and 66 RTTs will be required. In addition, a realistic dynamic model for calculation of staff requirements due to anticipated changes in future radiotherapy practices has been proposed. This model could be tailor-made and individualized for any radiotherapy centre. A 9.8 % increase in radiotherapy requirements is expected for cancer patients over the next 5 years. The present study should assist the stakeholders and health planners in designing an appropriate strategy for meeting future radiotherapy needs for Switzerland.

  9. Radiotherapy infrastructure and human resources in Switzerland. Present status and projected computations for 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Niloy Ranjan; Khan, Shaka; Marder, Dietmar; Zwahlen, Daniel; Bodis, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the present status of radiotherapy infrastructure and human resources in Switzerland and compute projections for 2020. The European Society of Therapeutic Radiation Oncology ''Quantification of Radiation Therapy Infrastructure and Staffing'' guidelines (ESTRO-QUARTS) and those of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were applied to estimate the requirements for teleradiotherapy (TRT) units, radiation oncologists (RO), medical physicists (MP) and radiotherapy technologists (RTT). The databases used for computation of the present gap and additional requirements are (a) Global Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence (GLOBOCAN) for cancer incidence (b) the Directory of Radiotherapy Centres (DIRAC) of the IAEA for existing TRT units (c) human resources from the recent ESTRO ''Health Economics in Radiation Oncology'' (HERO) survey and (d) radiotherapy utilization (RTU) rates for each tumour site, published by the Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research (IIAMR). In 2015, 30,999 of 45,903 cancer patients would have required radiotherapy. By 2020, this will have increased to 34,041 of 50,427 cancer patients. Switzerland presently has an adequate number of TRTs, but a deficit of 57 ROs, 14 MPs and 36 RTTs. By 2020, an additional 7 TRTs, 72 ROs, 22 MPs and 66 RTTs will be required. In addition, a realistic dynamic model for calculation of staff requirements due to anticipated changes in future radiotherapy practices has been proposed. This model could be tailor-made and individualized for any radiotherapy centre. A 9.8 % increase in radiotherapy requirements is expected for cancer patients over the next 5 years. The present study should assist the stakeholders and health planners in designing an appropriate strategy for meeting future radiotherapy needs for Switzerland. (orig.) [de

  10. Mental health research in Brazil: policies, infrastructure, financing and human resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Jair de Jesus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this descriptive study was to map mental health research in Brazil, providing an overview of infrastructure, financing and policies mental health research. As part of the Atlas-Research Project, a WHO initiative to map mental health research in selected low and middle-income countries, this study was carried out between 1998 and 2002. Data collection strategies included evaluation of governmental documents and sites and questionnaires sent to key professionals for providing information about the Brazilian mental health research infrastructure. In the year 2002, the total budget for Health Research was US$101 million, of which US$3.4 million (3.4 was available for Mental Health Research. The main funding sources for mental health research were found to be the São Paulo State Funding Agency (Fapesp, 53.2% and the Ministry of Education (CAPES, 30.2%. The rate of doctors is 1.7 per 1,000 inhabitants, and the rate of psychiatrists is 2.7 per 100,000 inhabitants estimated 2000 census. In 2002, there were 53 postgraduate courses directed to mental health training in Brazil (43 in psychology, six in psychiatry, three in psychobiology and one in psychiatric nursing, with 1,775 students being trained in Brazil and 67 overseas. There were nine programs including psychiatry, neuropsychiatry, psychobiology and mental health, seven of them implemented in Southern states. During the five-year period, 186 students got a doctoral degree (37 per year and 637 articles were published in Institute for Scientic Information (ISI-indexed journals. The investment channeled towards postgraduate and human resource education programs, by means of grants and other forms of research support, has secured the country a modest but continuous insertion in the international knowledge production in the mental health area.

  11. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-comparative effectiveness research infrastructure investments: emerging data resources, tools and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Courtney; Holve, Erin

    2014-11-01

    The Recovery Act provided a substantial, one-time investment in data infrastructure for comparative effectiveness research (CER). A review of the publications, data, and tools developed as a result of this support has informed understanding of the level of effort undertaken by these projects. Structured search queries, as well as outreach efforts, were conducted to identify and review resources from American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 CER projects building electronic clinical data infrastructure. The findings from this study provide a spectrum of productivity across a range of topics and settings. A total of 451 manuscripts published in 192 journals, and 141 data resources and tools were identified and address gaps in evidence on priority populations, conditions, and the infrastructure needed to support CER.

  12. Los Alamos nuclear enterprise resource and infrastructure model (LA-NERIM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ning; Dale, Crystal; Kern, Kristen; Scott, Sara

    2009-01-01

    In this nascent global 'Nuclear Renaissance', potential shortages of human resources and supply chains have become the top concerns for the policymakers and industry leaders. A number of industry studies have examined the potential supply shortages in qualified labors for specific deployment scenarios, the general shortage in nuclear engineers, and ways to ramp up educational and training pipelines. A Los Alamos National Laboratory team has been developing a nuclear enterprise resource and infrastructure model (LA-NERIM) to provide a dynamic and versatile tool for the systematic study of resource needs and flows. LA-NERIM is built around a stock-and-flow model of the nuclear fuel cycle model using the iThinkTM software, with modules and connections describing all the front-end, reactor operation and back-end processes. It is driven by nuclear power demand growth. We are using LA-NERIM to study the human resource development (HRD) needs for a number of scenarios for US and Russia. The US study includes a comparison of three scenarios of maintaining current capacity, expansion at 500 MWe/yr and maintaining current market share. We are also examining the impact of the sharply peaked demographics of the ageing US nuclear workforce on future growth. LA-NERIM can be modularized with more detailed labor categories and customer defined boundary conditions to provide high fidelity projection of dynamic staffing needs for nuclear vendors, owner/operators and suppliers. With different kinds of inputs, LA-NERIM can be used to project needs of other resources, such as concrete, steels, capital outlays and manufacturing capacities. Coupled with data from NFCSim, another Los Alamos code that calculates the quantities and isotopic compositions in the flows of nuclear materials throughout the fuel cycles, LA-NERIM has the potential to become a powerful and versatile system tool for policymakers and industry leaders to examine and compare the feasibilities and impacts of various

  13. Resource modelling for control: how hydrogeological modelling can support a water quality monitoring infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scozzari, Andrea; Doveri, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The knowledge of the physical/chemical processes implied with the exploitation of water bodies for human consumption is an essential tool for the optimisation of the monitoring infrastructure. Due to their increasing importance in the context of human consumption (at least in the EU), this work focuses on groundwater resources. In the framework of drinkable water networks, the physical and data-driven modelling of transport phenomena in groundwater can help optimising the sensor network and validating the acquired data. This work proposes the combined usage of physical and data-driven modelling as a support to the design and maximisation of results from a network of distributed sensors. In particular, the validation of physico-chemical measurements and the detection of eventual anomalies by a set of continuous measurements take benefit from the knowledge of the domain from which water is abstracted, and its expected characteristics. Change-detection techniques based on non-specific sensors (presented by quite a large literature during the last two decades) have to deal with the classical issues of maximising correct detections and minimising false alarms, the latter of the two being the most typical problem to be faced, in the view of designing truly applicable monitoring systems. In this context, the definition of "anomaly" in terms of distance from an expected value or feature characterising the quality of water implies the definition of a suitable metric and the knowledge of the physical and chemical peculiarities of the natural domain from which water is exploited, with its implications in terms of characteristics of the water resource.

  14. Beijing Lunar Declaration 2010: B) Technology and Resources; Infrastructures and Human Aspects; Moon, Space and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R.; Foing, B. H.; Plescial, J.; Cohen, B.; Blamont, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the Beijing Lunar Declaration endorsed by the delegates of the Global Lunar Conference/11th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, held at Beijing on 30 May- 3 June 2010. Specifically we focus on Part B:Technologies and resources; Infrastructures and human aspects; Moon, Space, Society and Young Explorers. We recommend continued and enhanced development and implementation of sessions about lunar exploration, manned and robotic, at key scientific and engineering meetings. A number of robotic missions to the Moon are now undertaken independently by various nations, with a degree of exchange of information and coordination. That should increase towards real cooperation, still allowing areas of competition for keeping the process active, cost-effective and faster. - Lunar landers, pressurized lunar rover projects as presented from Europe, Asia and America are important steps that can create opportunities for international collaboration, within a coordinated village of robotic precursors and assistants to crew missions. - We have to think about development, modernization of existing navigation capabilities, and provision of lunar positioning, navigation and data relay assets to support future robotic and human exploration. New concepts and new methods for transportation have attracted much attention and are of great potential.

  15. The inventions technology on water resources to support environmental engineering based infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunjoto, S.

    2017-03-01

    Since the Stockholm Declaration, declared on the United Nation Conference on the Human Environment in Sweden on 5-16 June 1972 and attended the 113 country delegations, all the infrastructure construction should comply the sustainable development. As a consequence, almost research and studies were directing to the environmental aspect of construction including on water resources engineering. This paper will present the inventions which are very useful for the design of infrastructure, especially on the Groundwater engineering. This field has been rapidly developed since the publication of the well known law of flow through porous materials by Henri Darcy in 1856 on his book "Les fontaine publiques de la ville de Dijon". This law states that the discharge through porous media is proportional to the product of the hydraulic gradient, the cross-sectional area normal to the flow and the coefficient of permeability of the material. Forchheimer in 1930 developed a breakthrough formula by simplifying solution in a steady state flow condition especially in the case of radial flow to compute the permeability coefficient of casing hole or tube test with zero inflow discharge. The outflow discharge on the holes is equal to shape factor of tip of casing (F) multiplied by coefficient of permeability of soils (K) and multiplied by hydraulic head (H). In 1988, Sunjoto derived an equation in unsteady state flow condition based on this formula. In 2002, Sunjoto developed several formulas of shape factor as the parameters of the equation. In the beginning this formula is implemented to compute for the dimension of recharge well as the best method of water conservation for the urban area. After a long research this formula can be implemented to compute the drawdown on pumping or coefficient of permeability of soil by pumping test. This method can substitute the former methods like Theis (1935), Cooper-Jacob (1946), Chow (1952), Glover (1966), Papadopulos-Cooper (1967), Todd (1980

  16. Central Region Green Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This Green Infrastructure data is comprised of 3 similar ecological corridor data layers ? Metro Conservation Corridors, green infrastructure analysis in counties...

  17. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steward, Darlene [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Webster, Karen W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The petroleum-based transportation fuel system is complex and highly developed, in contrast to the nascent low-petroleum, low-carbon alternative fuel system. This report examines how expansion of the low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure could contribute to deep reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions across the U.S. transportation sector. Three low-carbon scenarios, each using a different combination of low-carbon fuels, were developed to explore infrastructure expansion trends consistent with a study goal of reducing transportation sector GHG emissions to 80% less than 2005 levels by 2050.These scenarios were compared to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and were evaluated with respect to four criteria: fuel cost estimates, resource availability, fuel production capacity expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion.

  18. Radiotherapy infrastructure and human resources in Switzerland. Present status and projected computations for 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Niloy Ranjan; Khan, Shaka; Marder, Dietmar [KSA-KSB, Kantonsspital Aarau, RadioOnkologieZentrum, Aarau (Switzerland); Zwahlen, Daniel [Kantonsspital Graubuenden, Department of Radiotherapy, Chur (Switzerland); Bodis, Stephan [KSA-KSB, Kantonsspital Aarau, RadioOnkologieZentrum, Aarau (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the present status of radiotherapy infrastructure and human resources in Switzerland and compute projections for 2020. The European Society of Therapeutic Radiation Oncology ''Quantification of Radiation Therapy Infrastructure and Staffing'' guidelines (ESTRO-QUARTS) and those of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were applied to estimate the requirements for teleradiotherapy (TRT) units, radiation oncologists (RO), medical physicists (MP) and radiotherapy technologists (RTT). The databases used for computation of the present gap and additional requirements are (a) Global Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence (GLOBOCAN) for cancer incidence (b) the Directory of Radiotherapy Centres (DIRAC) of the IAEA for existing TRT units (c) human resources from the recent ESTRO ''Health Economics in Radiation Oncology'' (HERO) survey and (d) radiotherapy utilization (RTU) rates for each tumour site, published by the Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research (IIAMR). In 2015, 30,999 of 45,903 cancer patients would have required radiotherapy. By 2020, this will have increased to 34,041 of 50,427 cancer patients. Switzerland presently has an adequate number of TRTs, but a deficit of 57 ROs, 14 MPs and 36 RTTs. By 2020, an additional 7 TRTs, 72 ROs, 22 MPs and 66 RTTs will be required. In addition, a realistic dynamic model for calculation of staff requirements due to anticipated changes in future radiotherapy practices has been proposed. This model could be tailor-made and individualized for any radiotherapy centre. A 9.8 % increase in radiotherapy requirements is expected for cancer patients over the next 5 years. The present study should assist the stakeholders and health planners in designing an appropriate strategy for meeting future radiotherapy needs for Switzerland. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Studie war es, den aktuellen Stand der Infrastruktur und Personalausstattung der

  19. Green Infrastructure Research Promotes Students' Deeper Interest in Core Courses of a Water Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerk, W.; Montalto, F. A.; Foti, R.

    2015-12-01

    As one of most innovative among low impact development technologies, Green Infrastructure (GI) is a new technology that presents a range of potential research opportunities. Inherently linked to sustainability, urban quality of life, resilience, and other such topics, GI also represents a unique opportunity to highlight the social relevance of practical STEM research to undergraduate students. The nature of research on urban GI, in fact, as well as the accessibility of the GI sites, allows students to combine hands-on experience with theoretical work. Furthermore, the range of scales of the projects is such that they can be managed within a single term, but does not preclude longer engagement. The Sustainable Water Resource Engineering lab at Drexel University is engaged in two types of GI research outside the classroom. One type is a research co-op research internship. The second is a selective university-wide faculty-mentored summer scholarship STAR (Students Tackling Advanced Research) specifically designed for freshmen. The research projects we developed for those curricula can be accomplished by undergraduate students, but also address a larger research need in this emerging field. The research tasks have included identifying and calibrating affordable instruments, designing and building experimental setups, and monitoring and evaluating performance of GI sites. The work also promoted deeper understanding of the hydrological processes and initiated learning beyond the students' current curricula. The practice of the Lab's research being embedded into the educational process receives positive feedback from the students and achieves meaningful and long-lasting learning objectives. The experience helps students to students acquire hands-on experience, improves their metacognition and evidence-based inquiring into real-world problems, and further advances decision-making and communication skills.

  20. Long-term infrastructure forecasting in the Gulf of Mexico: a decision- and resource-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.J.; Mesyanzhinov, D.V.; Pulsipher, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    A long-term infrastructure forecast in the Gulf of Mexico is developed in a disaggregated decision- and resource-based environment. Models for the installation and removal rates of structures are performed across five water depth categories for the Western and Central Gulf of Mexico planning areas for structures grouped according to a major and nonmajor classification. Master hydrocarbon production schedules are constructed per water depth and planning area using a two-parameter decision model, where 'bundled' resources are recoverable at a given time and at a specific rate. The infrastructure requirements to support the expected production is determined by extrapolating historical data. The analytic forecasting framework allows for subjective judgement, technological change, analogy, and historical trends to be employed in a user-defined manner. Special attention to the aggregation procedures employed and the general methodological framework are highlighted, including a candid discussion of the limitations of analysis and suggestions for further research

  1. Institutional Infrastructure Component of Innovative University as a Resource for Strategic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belokrylova Olga, S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the mission of the organization innovative infrastructure on the selection of production routines and selecting those that provide it a competitive advantage, since the introduction of innovations is a total change of abilities, skills, competencies demanded in the economic process and requires a fundamentally new organizational structure and the types of innovative infrastructure to ensure that the new working environment, and support the reproduction of innovation. We show the dominance in the domestic trials of hard state-centric models of construction and development of innovation infrastructure, including the academic world, although international experience demonstrates a shift in emphasis towards "soft" institutionalization of public infrastructure policy. We tested production of innovative active agents of the general standards activity, optimal behaviors that reduce transaction costs and ensure the development and dissemination of innovative organizational competencies in the external environment.

  2. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  3. Incorporating green infrastructure into water resources management plans to address water quality impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managers of urban watersheds with excessive nutrient loads are more frequently turning to green infrastructure (GI) to manage their water quality impairments. The effectiveness of GI is dependent on a number of factors, including (1) the type and placement of GI within the waters...

  4. 77 FR 37060 - Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) Asset Protection Technical Assistance Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    .../IP/IICD, 245 Murray Lane SW., Mailstop 0602, Arlington, VA 20598-0602. Email requests should go to...), National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP... the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . Email: Include the...

  5. China’s Aid and Oil-for-Infrastructure in Nigeria: Resource-Driven or Development Motive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gold Kafilah Lola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s ascent influences the Western aid dynamic significantly and changes the landscape in aid-donor and aid-recipient relationship for resource-endowed countries in Africa. Similarly, within China-Africa relations, Nigeria established diplomatic relations with China in 2006 for a concessional oil-for-infrastructure plan to fill the development aperture. However, Nigeria opted out as political uncertainty and elite interest in rent-seeking supersedes development and well-being motive. We conclude that two interrelated causal factors – accountability and transparency – overwhelmingly obstruct Nigeria from optimising China interest in infrastructure development. The study recommends the review of National Planning Commission (NPC 2007 ODA policy document on technical assistance, grants, and concessional loans to identify new problems and challenges associated with formulation and implementation of donor-assisted programmes.

  6. Concerning problems of petroleum refining facilities. ; Promote international lateral work sharing, and strengthening of infrastructures in petroleum industry. Sekiyu seisei setsubi mondai ni tsuite. ; Kokusei suihei bungyo no suishin to sekiyu sangyo no kiban kyoka wo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-05

    This paper discusses how to promote international lateral work sharing and how to strengthen infrastructures in the petroleum industry, as a problem prevailing over the petroleum refining facilities in Japan. Excess distillation facilities have been applied with the disposition policy. However, in view of the supply and demand situation in petroleum products for medium to long term span in the world with the pan-Pacific region as the main concern, that applicable to Japan, and that experienced during the Persian Gulf crisis, the excess facility disposition policy was revised, particularly on white kerosene, of which supply and demand tightness is concerned about, so that production capacities may be increased as required. Japan, a large presence in the international economics, is required to work more positively on petroleum refining facilities located in the oil producing countries and intermediate locations to promote the international lateral work sharing. On the one hand, in order to strengthen the infrastructures in the Japanese petroleum industry, it is necessary to promote rationalization and use at higher efficiency of the oil supply system, and convergence of the the petroleum industry, including joint investments for projects exceeding capabilities of individual enterprises. 3 tabs.

  7. On Resource Description Capabilities of On-Board Tools for Resource Management in Cloud Networking and NFV Infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Tutschku, Kurt; Ahmadi Mehri, Vida; Carlsson, Anders; Chivukula, Krishna Varaynya; Johan, Christenson

    2016-01-01

    The rapid adoption of networks that are based on "cloudification" and Network Function Virtualisation (NFV) comes from the anticipated high cost savings of up to 70% in their build and operation. The high savings are founded in the use of general standard servers, instead of single-purpose hardware, and by efficiency resource sharing through virtualisation concepts. In this paper, we discuss the capabilities of resource description of "on-board" tools, i.e. using standard Linux commands, to e...

  8. Exploring the Potential of a German Living Lab Research Infrastructure for the Development of Low Resource Products and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus von Geibler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Living Labs for Sustainable Development aim to integrate users and actors for the successful generation of low-resource innovations in production-consumption systems. This paper investigates potentials of and measures towards the realization of a German Living Lab infrastructure to support actor-integrated sustainability research and innovations in Germany. Information was primarily derived from extensive dialog with experts from the fields of innovation, sustainable development and the Living Lab community (operators, users, etc., which was facilitated through interviews and workshops. A status quo analysis revealed that, generally, the sustainability and Living Lab communities are hardly intertwined. Twelve Living Labs that explicitly consider sustainability aspects were identified. The application fields “Living and Working”, “Town, Region and Mobility”, and “Retail and Gastronomy” were identified as particularly suitable for investigation in Living Labs and highly relevant in terms of resource efficiency. Based on the analyses of drivers and barriers and SWOT, keystones for the development of a research infrastructure for user integrated development of sustainable products and services were formulated. Suggested strategies and measures include targeted funding programs for actor-integrated, socio-technical research based on a Living Lab network, a communication campaign, and programs to foster networking and the inclusion of SMEs.

  9. 72201 - Temporary reduction of resources for technical infrastructure (TI) operation (ex TCR)

    CERN Multimedia

    Peter Sollander

    2005-01-01

    For a period of two years starting on 1 April 2005, the technical infrastructure will be supervised by a single TI operator rather than two. Initially, this operator will not be able to leave the control room for on-site interventions. Only stand-by staff will be available for breakdown repairs and, as a result, intervention times outside normal working hours are liable to increase. Response times on the 72201 phone number may similarly increase. All requests for breakdown repairs may be sent to the new e-mail address: service-ti@cern.ch; the old address - tcr@cern.ch - will stay in operation. Thank you for your understanding. Peter Sollander AB/OP/TI

  10. 72201 - Temporary reduction of resources for the technical infrastructure service - TI (ex TCR)

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    For a period of two years starting on 1 April 2005, the technical infrastructure will be supervised by a single TI operator rather than two. Initially, this operator will not be able to leave the control room for on-site interventions. Only stand-by staff will be available for breakdown repairs and, as a result, intervention times outside normal working hours are liable to increase. Response times on the 72201 phone number may similarly increase. All requests for breakdown repairs may be sent to the new e-mail address: service-ti@cern.ch; the old address - tcr@cern.ch - will stay in operation. Thank you for your understanding. Peter Sollander AB/OP/TI

  11. Integrated water resources management and infrastructure planning for water security in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapani, Benjamin; Magole, Lapologang; Makurira, Hodson; Meck, Maideyi; Mkandawire, Theresa; Mul, Marloes; Ngongondo, Cosmo

    2017-08-01

    This volume has brought together papers that are peer reviewed emanating from the WaterNet/WARFSA/GWP-SA 16th Symposium. The papers cover the following themes: Hydrology, Water and Environment, Water and Land, Water and Society, Water Supply and Sanitation and Water Resources Management.

  12. Incorporating Green Infrastructure into Water Resources Management Plans to Address Water Quality Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscopo, A. N.; Detenbeck, N. E.

    2017-12-01

    Managers of urban watersheds with excessive nutrient loads are more frequently turning to green infrastructure (GI) to manage their water quality impairments. The effectiveness of GI is dependent on a number of factors, including (1) the type and placement of GI within the watershed, (2) the specific nutrients to be treated, and (3) the uncertainty in future climates. Although many studies have investigated the effectiveness of individual GI units for different types of nutrients, relatively few have considered the effectiveness of GI on a watershed scale, the scale most relevant to management plans. At the watershed scale, endless combinations of GI type and location are possible, each with different effectiveness in reducing nutrient loads, minimizing costs, and maximizing co-benefits such as reducing runoff. To efficiently generate management plan options that balance the tradeoffs between these objectives, we simulate candidate options using EPA's Stormwater Management Model for multiple future climates and determine the Pareto optimal set of solution options using a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. Our approach is demonstrated for an urban watershed in Rockville, Maryland.

  13. A Reliable TTP-Based Infrastructure with Low Sensor Resource Consumption for the Smart Home Multi-Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jungho; Kim, Mansik; Park, Jong Hyuk

    2016-07-05

    With the ICT technology making great progress in the smart home environment, the ubiquitous environment is rapidly emerging all over the world, but problems are also increasing proportionally to the rapid growth of the smart home market such as multiplatform heterogeneity and new security threats. In addition, the smart home sensors have so low computing resources that they cannot process complicated computation tasks, which is required to create a proper security environment. A service provider also faces overhead in processing data from a rapidly increasing number of sensors. This paper aimed to propose a scheme to build infrastructure in which communication entities can securely authenticate and design security channel with physically unclonable PUFs and the TTP that smart home communication entities can rely on. In addition, we analyze and evaluate the proposed scheme for security and performance and prove that it can build secure channels with low resources. Finally, we expect that the proposed scheme can be helpful for secure communication with low resources in future smart home multiplatforms.

  14. A Reliable TTP-Based Infrastructure with Low Sensor Resource Consumption for the Smart Home Multi-Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Kang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the ICT technology making great progress in the smart home environment, the ubiquitous environment is rapidly emerging all over the world, but problems are also increasing proportionally to the rapid growth of the smart home market such as multiplatform heterogeneity and new security threats. In addition, the smart home sensors have so low computing resources that they cannot process complicated computation tasks, which is required to create a proper security environment. A service provider also faces overhead in processing data from a rapidly increasing number of sensors. This paper aimed to propose a scheme to build infrastructure in which communication entities can securely authenticate and design security channel with physically unclonable PUFs and the TTP that smart home communication entities can rely on. In addition, we analyze and evaluate the proposed scheme for security and performance and prove that it can build secure channels with low resources. Finally, we expect that the proposed scheme can be helpful for secure communication with low resources in future smart home multiplatforms.

  15. Water Resources Sustainability in Northwest Mexico: Analysis of Regional Infrastructure Plans under Historical and Climate Change Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, D.; Robles-Morua, A.; Mayer, A. S.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    The arid state of Sonora, Mexico, has embarked on a large water infrastructure project to provide additional water supply and improved sanitation to the growing capital of Hermosillo. The main component of the Sonora SI project involves an interbasin transfer from rural to urban water users that has generated conflicts over water among different social sectors. Through interactions with regional stakeholders from agricultural and water management agencies, we ascertained the need for a long-term assessment of the water resources of one of the system components, the Sonora River Basin (SRB). A semi-distributed, daily watershed model that includes current and proposed reservoir infrastructure was applied to the SRB. This simulation framework allowed us to explore alternative scenarios of water supply from the SRB to Hermosillo under historical (1980-2010) and future (2031-2040) periods that include the impact of climate change. We compared three precipitation forcing scenarios for the historical period: (1) a network of ground observations from Mexican water agencies; (2) gridded fields from the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) at 12 km resolution; and (3) gridded fields from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at 10 km resolution. These were compared to daily historical observations at two stream gauging stations and two reservoirs to generate confidence in the simulation tools. We then tested the impact of climate change through the use of the A2 emissions scenario and HadCM3 boundary forcing on the WRF simulations of a future period. Our analysis is focused on the combined impact of existing and proposed reservoir infrastructure at two new sites on the water supply management in the SRB under historical and future climate conditions. We also explore the impact of climate variability and change on the bimodal precipitation pattern from winter frontal storms and the summertime North American monsoon and its consequences on water

  16. Sustainable Water Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources for state and local environmental and public health officials, and water, infrastructure and utility professionals to learn about sustainable water infrastructure, sustainable water and energy practices, and their role.

  17. A practical guide to alcohol-based hand hygiene infrastructure in a resource-poor pediatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniza, Miguela A; Dueñas, Lourdes; Lopez, Blanca; Rodriguez, Alicia; Maron, Gabriela; Hayden, Randall; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2009-12-01

    Resource-poor hospitals have many barriers to proper hand hygiene (HH). Alcohol-based HH can compensate for inadequate infrastructure and supplies. We describe the implementation of alcohol-based HH in five high-risk wards of a pediatric hospital in El Salvador. In 5 high-risk wards for nosocomial infections, we evaluated the accessibility, supplies, and cleanliness of the hand-washing sinks at 132 time points. We then installed gel dispensers, identified a local gel supplier, and trained nursing staff to maintain the dispensers. We evaluated user acceptance, costs, and the practice and technique of HH before and after installation. Access and cleanliness were adequate at 18.9% and 11.3% of observation points, and towels and soap were available at 61.3% and 93.18% of points. Placement of 35 gel dispensers increased the ratio of HH stations to beds from 1:6.2 to 1:1.8. Alcohol gel was better tolerated than hand washing among 60 surveyed staff. Installation cost $2558 (US) and the monthly gel supply, $731 (US). HH practice increased from 33.8% to 40.5%; use of correct technique increased from 73.8% to 95.2%. Alcohol gel can address some of the barriers to effective HH at resource-poor institutions, and its cost may be offset by reduction of nosocomial infection.

  18. Latvian health care competitiveness in relation to its infrastructure and available resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokarevica A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resources are one of the essential indicators for the functioning of the health care system. Better health care provision is an essential prerequisite for the export of services. Traditionally a competitive health care system is linked to a number of factors (price, quality, reliability, products and services largely determined by the new technologies, innovations and implementation the new methods. The authors of this article analyzed and collected data from the European Commission Eurostat and OECD data. Current situation in health care in Latvia is characterized by populations’ restricted access to health care services, high out-of-pocket payments and poor health outcomes of the population. More than 10% of Latvian population can’t afford medical care. The ratio of public funding for healthcare in Latvia is among the lowest in EU countries. Latvia spends 5.3% (USD PPP 1217 of GDP on health, lower than the OCED country average of 8.9% (USD PPP 3453. Latvia is facing a dramatic gap between the availability of hospital beds and long term care beds and the lowest prevalence of general medical practitioners among all Baltic States 321.6 per 100 000. These mentioned factors may hinder the development of health care in Latvia and reduce the ability to participate in international health service market.

  19. Refining revolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesharaki, F.; Isaak, D.

    1984-01-01

    A review of changes in the oil refining industry since 1973 examines the drop in capacity use and its effect on profits of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries compared to world refining. OPEC countries used their new oil revenues to expand Gulf refineries, which put additional pressure on OECD refiners. OPEC involvement in global marketing, however, could help to secure supplies. Scrapping some older OECD refineries could improve the percentage of capacity in use if new construction is kept to a minimum. Other issues facing refiners are the changes in oil demand patterns and government responses to the market. 2 tables.

  20. 细化项目竣工验收流程,提升基建财务管理水平%Refining Project Completion Acceptance Process,Enhancing the Level of Infrastructure Financial Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, aiming at the possible risks for the enterprise acceptance phase of the technological transformation project, combined with requirements of five principles of internal control, reasonable suggestions are proposed, focusing on the management portion of the financial internal control involved in two phases of completion settlement and final accounts of completion, so as to refine project completion and acceptance process, conduct the final accounts of completion in time, and enhance the infrastructure financial management performance.%本文主要针对企业技改项目验收阶段中可能遇到的风险,结合内部控制五原则的要求,着重从竣工结算、竣工决算两个阶段中涉及财务内控管理部分,提出几点合理化建议,细化项目竣工验收工作流程,及时办理竣工决算,提升基建财务管理效能.

  1. Addressing water resources risk in England and Wales: Long term infrastructure planning in a private, regulated industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sean

    2015-04-01

    Water resources planning is a complex and challenging discipline in which decision makers must deal with conflicting objectives, contested socio-economic values and vast uncertainties, including long term hydrological variability. The task is arguably more demanding in England and Wales, where private water companies must adhere to a rigid set of regulatory planning guidelines in order to justify new infrastructural investments. These guidelines prescribe a "capacity expansion" approach to planning: ensure that a deterministic measure of supply, known as "Deployable Output," meets projected demand over a 25-year planning horizon. Deployable Output is derived using a method akin to yield analysis and is commensurate with the maximum rate of supply that a water resources system can sustain without incurring failure under a simulation of historical recorded hydrological conditions. This study examines whether Deployable Output analysis is fit to serve an industry in which: water companies are seeking to invest in cross-company water transfer schemes to deal with loss of water availability brought about by European environmental legislation and an increase in demand driven by population growth; water companies are expected address potential climate change impacts through their planning activities; and regulators wish to benchmark water resource system performance across the separate companies. Of particular interest, then, is the adequacy of Deployable Output analysis as a means to measuring current and future water shortage risk and comparing across supply systems. Data from the UK National River Flow Archive are used to develop a series of hypothetical reservoir systems in two hydrologically contrasting regions -- northwest England/north Wales and Southeast England. The systems are varied by adjusting the draft ratio (ratio of target annual demand to mean annual inflow), the inflow diversity (covariance of streamflow sequences supplying the system), the strength of

  2. Linearly Refined Session Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Baltazar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Session types capture precise protocol structure in concurrent programming, but do not specify properties of the exchanged values beyond their basic type. Refinement types are a form of dependent types that can address this limitation, combining types with logical formulae that may refer to program values and can constrain types using arbitrary predicates. We present a pi calculus with assume and assert operations, typed using a session discipline that incorporates refinement formulae written in a fragment of Multiplicative Linear Logic. Our original combination of session and refinement types, together with the well established benefits of linearity, allows very fine-grained specifications of communication protocols in which refinement formulae are treated as logical resources rather than persistent truths.

  3. Enhancing Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) Level-0 Physical Process Security Using Field Device Distinct Native Attribute Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Juan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liefer, Nathan C. [Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH (United States); Busho, Colin R. [Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH (United States); Temple, Michael A. [Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH (United States)

    2017-12-04

    Here, the need for improved Critical Infrastructure and Key Resource (CIKR) security is unquestioned and there has been minimal emphasis on Level-0 (PHY Process) improvements. Wired Signal Distinct Native Attribute (WS-DNA) Fingerprinting is investigated here as a non-intrusive PHY-based security augmentation to support an envisioned layered security strategy. Results are based on experimental response collections from Highway Addressable Remote Transducer (HART) Differential Pressure Transmitter (DPT) devices from three manufacturers (Yokogawa, Honeywell, Endress+Hauer) installed in an automated process control system. Device discrimination is assessed using Time Domain (TD) and Slope-Based FSK (SB-FSK) fingerprints input to Multiple Discriminant Analysis, Maximum Likelihood (MDA/ML) and Random Forest (RndF) classifiers. For 12 different classes (two devices per manufacturer at two distinct set points), both classifiers performed reliably and achieved an arbitrary performance benchmark of average cross-class percent correct of %C > 90%. The least challenging cross-manufacturer results included near-perfect %C ≈ 100%, while the more challenging like-model (serial number) discrimination results included 90%< %C < 100%, with TD Fingerprinting marginally outperforming SB-FSK Fingerprinting; SB-FSK benefits from having less stringent response alignment and registration requirements. The RndF classifier was most beneficial and enabled reliable selection of dimensionally reduced fingerprint subsets that minimize data storage and computational requirements. The RndF selected feature sets contained 15% of the full-dimensional feature sets and only suffered a worst case %CΔ = 3% to 4% performance degradation.

  4. Refinement of motion correction strategies for lower-cost CT for under-resourced regions of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jered R.; Segars, W. Paul; Kigongo, Christopher J. N.; Dobbins, James T., III

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes a recently developed post-acquisition motion correction strategy for application to lower-cost computed tomography (LCCT) for under-resourced regions of the world. Increased awareness regarding global health and its challenges has encouraged the development of more affordable healthcare options for underserved people worldwide. In regions such as sub-Saharan Africa, intermediate level medical facilities may serve millions with inadequate or antiquated equipment due to financial limitations. In response, the authors have proposed a LCCT design which utilizes a standard chest x-ray examination room with a digital flat panel detector (FPD). The patient rotates on a motorized stage between the fixed cone-beam source and FPD, and images are reconstructed using a Feldkamp algorithm for cone-beam scanning. One of the most important proofs-of-concept in determining the feasibility of this system is the successful correction of undesirable motion. A 3D motion correction algorithm was developed in order to correct for potential patient motion, stage instabilities and detector misalignments which can all lead to motion artifacts in reconstructed images. Motion will be monitored by the radiographic position of fiducial markers to correct for rigid body motion in three dimensions. Based on simulation studies, projection images corrupted by motion were re-registered with average errors of 0.080 mm, 0.32 mm and 0.050 mm in the horizontal, vertical and depth dimensions, respectively. The overall absence of motion artifacts in motion-corrected reconstructions indicates that reasonable amounts of motion may be corrected using this novel technique without significant loss of image quality.

  5. Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorrieri, R.; Rensink, Arend; Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.; Smolka, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter, we give a comprehensive overview of the research results in the field of action refinement during the past 12 years. The different approaches that have been followed are outlined in detail and contrasted to each other in a uniform framework. We use two running examples to discuss

  6. Spanish Refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lores, F.R.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of petroleum refining in Spain is presented (by Repsol YPF) and some views on future trends are discussed. Spain depends heavily on imports. Sub-headings in the article cover: sources of crude imports, investments and logistics and marketing, -detailed data for each are shown diagrammatically. Tables show: (1) economic indicators (e.g. total GDP, vehicle numbers and inflation) for 1998-200; (2) crude oil imports for 1995-2000; (3) oil products balance for 1995-2000; (4) commodities demand, by product; (5) refining in Spain in terms of capacity per region; (6) outlets in Spain and other European countries in 2002 and (7) sales distribution channel by product

  7. Resource-poor settings: infrastructure and capacity building: care of the critically ill and injured during pandemics and disasters: CHEST consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiling, James; Burkle, Frederick M; Amundson, Dennis; Dominguez-Cherit, Guillermo; Gomersall, Charles D; Lim, Matthew L; Luyckx, Valerie; Sarani, Babak; Uyeki, Timothy M; West, T Eoin; Christian, Michael D; Devereaux, Asha V; Dichter, Jeffrey R; Kissoon, Niranjan

    2014-10-01

    Planning for mass critical care (MCC) in resource-poor or constrained settings has been largely ignored, despite their large populations that are prone to suffer disproportionately from natural disasters. Addressing MCC in these settings has the potential to help vast numbers of people and also to inform planning for better-resourced areas. The Resource-Poor Settings panel developed five key question domains; defining the term resource poor and using the traditional phases of disaster (mitigation/preparedness/response/recovery), literature searches were conducted to identify evidence on which to answer the key questions in these areas. Given a lack of data upon which to develop evidence-based recommendations, expert-opinion suggestions were developed, and consensus was achieved using a modified Delphi process. The five key questions were then separated as follows: definition, infrastructure and capacity building, resources, response, and reconstitution/recovery of host nation critical care capabilities and research. Addressing these questions led the panel to offer 33 suggestions. Because of the large number of suggestions, the results have been separated into two sections: part 1, Infrastructure/Capacity in this article, and part 2, Response/Recovery/Research in the accompanying article. Lack of, or presence of, rudimentary ICU resources and limited capacity to enhance services further challenge resource-poor and constrained settings. Hence, capacity building entails preventative strategies and strengthening of primary health services. Assistance from other countries and organizations is needed to mount a surge response. Moreover, planning should include when to disengage and how the host nation can provide capacity beyond the mass casualty care event.

  8. Smart grid communication infrastructure comparison-for distributed control of distributed energy resources using internet of things devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo Søborg; Bindner, Henrik W.; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2018-01-01

    Communication between distributed energy resources and aggregators is necessary to improve the efficiency of power use and solve stability issues. For the communication, the probability of delivery for measurements and control commands, determines the possible power system services. The probabili...

  9. Greening infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The development and maintenance of infrastructure is crucial to improving economic growth and quality of life (WEF 2013). Urban infrastructure typically includes bulk services such as water, sanitation and energy (typically electricity and gas...

  10. Sustainable and Resilient Design of Interdependent Water and Energy Systems: A Conceptual Modeling Framework for Tackling Complexities at the Infrastructure-Human-Resource Nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Mo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A modeling framework was conceptualized for capturing the complexities in resilience and sustainability associated with integration of centralized and decentralized water and energy systems under future demographic, climate, and technology scenarios. This framework integrates survey instruments for characterizing individual preferences (utility functions related to decentralization of water and energy infrastructure systems. It also includes a spatial agent-based model to develop spatially explicit adoption trajectories and patterns in accordance with utility functions and characteristics of the major metropolitan case study locations as well as a system dynamics model that considers interactions among infrastructure systems, characterizes measures of resilience and sustainability, and feeds these back to the agent-based model. A cross-scale spatial optimization model for understanding and characterizing the possible best case outcomes and for informing the design of policies and incentive/disincentive programs is also included. This framework is able to provide a robust capacity for considering the ways in which future development of energy and water resources can be assessed.

  11. Bike Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Victor; Harder, Henrik; Jensen, Ole B.

    Bike Infrastructures aims to identify bicycle infrastructure typologies and design elements that can help promote cycling significantly. It is structured as a case study based research where three cycling infrastructures with distinct typologies were analyzed and compared. The three cases......, the findings of this research project can also support bike friendly design and planning, and cyclist advocacy....

  12. Internationalization of infrastructure companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Araujo Turolla

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The decision of infrastructure firms to go international is not a simple one. Differently from firms from most of the sectors, investment requires large amounts of capital, there are significant transaction costs and also involves issues that are specific to the destiny country. In spite of the risks, several infrastructure groups have been investing abroad and have widened the foreign part in the share of the receipts. The study herein proposed is a refinement of the established theory of international business, with support from the industrial organization theory, namely on infrastructure economics. The methodology is theoretical empirical since it starts from two existing theories. Hypotheses relate the degree of internationalization (GI to a set of determinants of internationalization. As of conclusions, with the exception of the economies of density and scale, which did not show as relevant, all other variables behaved as expected.

  13. Radiation Therapy Infrastructure and Human Resources in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Present Status and Projections for 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Niloy R., E-mail: niloyranjan.datta@ksa.ch [Centre for Radiation Oncology, Kantonsspital Aarau - Kantonsspital Baden, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau (Switzerland); Samiei, Massoud [Consultancy Practice, Vienna (Austria); Bodis, Stephan [Centre for Radiation Oncology, Kantonsspital Aarau - Kantonsspital Baden, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland, and Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy, a key component of cancer management, is required in more than half of new cancer patients, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The projected rise in cancer incidence over the next decades in LMICs will result in an increasing demand for radiation therapy services. Considering the present cancer incidence and that projected for 2020 (as listed in GLOBOCAN), we evaluated the current and anticipated needs for radiation therapy infrastructure and staffing by 2020 for each of the LMICs. Methods and Materials: Based on World Bank classification, 139 countries fall in the category of LMICs. Details of teletherapy, radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapy technologists were available for 84 LMICs from the International Atomic Energy Agency–Directory of Radiotherapy Centres (IAEA-DIRAC) database. Present requirements and those for 2020 were estimated according to recommendations from the IAEA and European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO-QUARTS). Results: Only 4 of the 139 LMICs have the requisite number of teletherapy units, and 55 (39.5%) have no radiation therapy facilities at present. Patient access to radiation therapy in the remaining 80 LMICs ranges from 2.3% to 98.8% (median: 36.7%). By 2020, these 84 LMICs would additionally need 9169 teletherapy units, 12,149 radiation oncologists, 9915 medical physicists, and 29,140 radiation therapy technologists. Moreover, de novo radiation therapy facilities would have to be considered for those with no services. Conclusions: Twelve pragmatic steps are proposed for consideration at national and international levels to narrow the gap in radiation therapy access. Multipronged and coordinated action from all national and international stakeholders is required to develop realistic strategies to curb this impending global crisis.

  14. Radiation Therapy Infrastructure and Human Resources in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Present Status and Projections for 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Niloy R.; Samiei, Massoud; Bodis, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy, a key component of cancer management, is required in more than half of new cancer patients, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The projected rise in cancer incidence over the next decades in LMICs will result in an increasing demand for radiation therapy services. Considering the present cancer incidence and that projected for 2020 (as listed in GLOBOCAN), we evaluated the current and anticipated needs for radiation therapy infrastructure and staffing by 2020 for each of the LMICs. Methods and Materials: Based on World Bank classification, 139 countries fall in the category of LMICs. Details of teletherapy, radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapy technologists were available for 84 LMICs from the International Atomic Energy Agency–Directory of Radiotherapy Centres (IAEA-DIRAC) database. Present requirements and those for 2020 were estimated according to recommendations from the IAEA and European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO-QUARTS). Results: Only 4 of the 139 LMICs have the requisite number of teletherapy units, and 55 (39.5%) have no radiation therapy facilities at present. Patient access to radiation therapy in the remaining 80 LMICs ranges from 2.3% to 98.8% (median: 36.7%). By 2020, these 84 LMICs would additionally need 9169 teletherapy units, 12,149 radiation oncologists, 9915 medical physicists, and 29,140 radiation therapy technologists. Moreover, de novo radiation therapy facilities would have to be considered for those with no services. Conclusions: Twelve pragmatic steps are proposed for consideration at national and international levels to narrow the gap in radiation therapy access. Multipronged and coordinated action from all national and international stakeholders is required to develop realistic strategies to curb this impending global crisis

  15. Web Resources and Tools for Slovenian with a Focus on the Slovenian-English Language Infrastructure: Dictionaries in the Digital Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Šorli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with a presentation of a selection of electronic monolingual and bi/multilingual lexicographic resources and corpora available today to contemporary users of Slovene. The focus is on works combined with English and designed for translation purposes which provide information on the meaning of words and wider lexical units, i.e., e-dictionaries, lexical databases, web translation tools and various corpora. In a separate sub-section the most common translation technologies are presented, together with an evaluation of their role in the modern translation process. Sections 2 and 3 provide a brief outline of the changes that have affected classical dictionary planning, compilation and use in the new digital environment, as well as of the relationship between dictionaries and related resources, such as lexical databases. Some stereotypes regarding dictionary use are identified and, in conclusion, the existing corpus-based databases for the Slovenian-English pair are presented, with a view to determining priorities for the future interlingual infrastructure action plans in Slovenia.

  16. Providing all global energy with wind, water, and solar power, Part I: Technologies, energy resources, quantities and areas of infrastructure, and materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Mark Z., E-mail: jacobson@stanford.ed [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4020 (United States); Delucchi, Mark A., E-mail: madelucchi@ucdavis.ed [Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Climate change, pollution, and energy insecurity are among the greatest problems of our time. Addressing them requires major changes in our energy infrastructure. Here, we analyze the feasibility of providing worldwide energy for all purposes (electric power, transportation, heating/cooling, etc.) from wind, water, and sunlight (WWS). In Part I, we discuss WWS energy system characteristics, current and future energy demand, availability of WWS resources, numbers of WWS devices, and area and material requirements. In Part II, we address variability, economics, and policy of WWS energy. We estimate that {approx}3,800,000 5 MW wind turbines, {approx}49,000 300 MW concentrated solar plants, {approx}40,000 300 MW solar PV power plants, {approx}1.7 billion 3 kW rooftop PV systems, {approx}5350 100 MW geothermal power plants, {approx}270 new 1300 MW hydroelectric power plants, {approx}720,000 0.75 MW wave devices, and {approx}490,000 1 MW tidal turbines can power a 2030 WWS world that uses electricity and electrolytic hydrogen for all purposes. Such a WWS infrastructure reduces world power demand by 30% and requires only {approx}0.41% and {approx}0.59% more of the world's land for footprint and spacing, respectively. We suggest producing all new energy with WWS by 2030 and replacing the pre-existing energy by 2050. Barriers to the plan are primarily social and political, not technological or economic. The energy cost in a WWS world should be similar to that today. - Research highlights: {yields} Replacing world energy with wind, water, and sun (WWS) reduces world power demand 30%. {yields} WWS for world requires only 0.41% and 0.51% more world land for footprint and spacing, respectively. {yields} Practical to provide 100% new energy with WWS by 2030 and replace existing energy by 2050.

  17. Should upgrading and refining be enhanced in Alberta?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgarpour, S.

    2006-01-01

    Although world oil prices are rising, the price of bitumen remains stable. It was noted that surplus refinery capacity is disappearing and that skilled labour, infrastructure, transportation systems, environmental management and technology development are among some of the challenges facing heavy hydrocarbon development. Pie charts indicating global reserves of crude oil and heavy crude oil showed that although the Middle East leads in world proven oil reserves, nearly half of the heavy crude oil and natural bitumen deposits are in Canada. As a global energy leader, Alberta is using its' world class expertise to develop the vast energy resources of the province and to market these resources and abilities to the world. This presentation summarized processing activities in Alberta and outlined the markets for petrochemicals. A graph representing North American petroleum supply and demand from 2001 to 2019 was also presented along with a review of Alberta's upgrading and refining capacity and infrastructure opportunities for crude oil, natural gas, petrochemicals and electricity. Alberta's crude oil markets by 2020 are likely to be the Far East, California, Heredity's, Wyoming, Chicago, Cushing, United States Gulf Coast, and the East Coast. The benefits of upgrading in Alberta include inexpensive feedstock, existing upgrader and petrochemical sites and low transportation costs. In addition, more refining capacity in the province would provide market diversification for bitumen products; higher investment and value-added in Alberta; opportunity to provide feedstock to petrochemicals; production of synthetic diluent in the province; and, smaller environmental footprint and greater energy efficiency. The cumulative impact of oil sands development on government revenues was discussed along with the challenge of addressing the issue of a skilled labour shortage, infrastructure needs, and developing a business case for a carbon dioxide pipeline. tabs., figs

  18. Green Infrastructure Models and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this project is to modify and refine existing models and develop new tools to support decision making for the complete green infrastructure (GI) project lifecycle, including the planning and implementation of stormwater control in urban and agricultural settings,...

  19. Office of Aviation Safety Infrastructure -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Office of Aviation Safety Infrastructure (AVS INF) provides authentication and access control to AVS network resources for users. This is done via a distributed...

  20. Indonesian infrastructure development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djojohadikusumo, H.S.

    1991-01-01

    It is with the achievement of a competitive advantage as a motivating factor that the Indonesian coal industry is engaged in infrastructure development including both small regionally trade-based terminals and high capacity capesize bulk terminals to support large scale coal exports. The unique characteristics of Indonesian coal quality, low production costs and the optimization of transport economics in accordance with vessel size provides great incentives for the European and U.S. market. This paper reports on the infrastructure development, Indonesian coal resources, and coal exports

  1. Representing nature : Late twentieth century green infrastructures in Paris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velde, J.R.T.; De Wit, S.I.

    2015-01-01

    The appreciation of green infrastructures as ‘nature’ by urban communities presents a critical challenge for the green infrastructure concept. While many green infrastructures focus on functional considerations, their refinement as places where concepts of nature are represented and where nature can

  2. On the refinement calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Vickers, Trevor

    1992-01-01

    On the Refinement Calculus gives one view of the development of the refinement calculus and its attempt to bring together - among other things - Z specifications and Dijkstra's programming language. It is an excellent source of reference material for all those seeking the background and mathematical underpinnings of the refinement calculus.

  3. Railway infrastructure security

    CERN Document Server

    Sforza, Antonio; Vittorini, Valeria; Pragliola, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive monograph addresses crucial issues in the protection of railway systems, with the objective of enhancing the understanding of railway infrastructure security. Based on analyses by academics, technology providers, and railway operators, it explains how to assess terrorist and criminal threats, design countermeasures, and implement effective security strategies. In so doing, it draws upon a range of experiences from different countries in Europe and beyond. The book is the first to be devoted entirely to this subject. It will serve as a timely reminder of the attractiveness of the railway infrastructure system as a target for criminals and terrorists and, more importantly, as a valuable resource for stakeholders and professionals in the railway security field aiming to develop effective security based on a mix of methodological, technological, and organizational tools. Besides researchers and decision makers in the field, the book will appeal to students interested in critical infrastructur...

  4. New infrastructures, new landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Nifosì

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available New infrastructures, new landscapes AbstractThe paper will discuss one recent Italian project that share a common background: the relevance of the existing maritime landscape as a non negotiable value. The studies will be discussed in details a feasibility study for the new port in Monfalcone. National infrastructural policies emphasize competitiveness and connection as a central issue incultural, economic and political development of communities . Based on networks and system development along passageways that make up the European infrastructural armor; the two are considered at the meantime as cause and effect of "territorialisation”. These two views are obviously mutually dependent. It's hard to think about a strong attractiveness out of the network, and to be part of the latter encourages competitiveness. Nonetheless this has proved to be conflictual when landscape values and the related attractiveness are considered.The presented case study project, is pursuing the ambition to promote a new approach in realizing large infrastructures; its double role is to improve connectivity and to generate lasting and positive impact on the local regions. It deal with issues of inter-modality and the construction of nodes and lines which connects Europe, and its markets.Reverting the usual approach which consider landscape project as as a way to mitigate or to compensate for the infrastructure, the goal is to succeed in realizing large infrastructural works by conceiving them as an occasion to reinterpret a region or, as extraordinary opportunities, to build new landscapes.The strategy proposed consists in achieving structural images based on the reinforcement of the environmental and historical-landscape systems. Starting from the reinterpretation of local maritime context and resources it is possible not just to preserve the attractiveness of a specific landscape but also to conceive infrastructure in a more efficient way. 

  5. Integrating data infrastructure to facilitate holistic approach to the investigations of anthropogenic hazards evoked by exploration and exploitation of geo-resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlecka-Sikora, Beata; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Olszewska, Dorota; Lasocki, Stanisław; Gasparini, Paolo; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Nevalainen, Jouni; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Grasso, Jean Robert; Schaming, Marc; Biggare, Pascal; Saccarotti, Gilberto; Garcia, Alexander; Cassidy, Nigel; Toon, Sam; Mutke, Grzegorz; Sterzel, Mariusz; Szepieniec, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    The EPOS integration plan assumes a significant contribution to the research on anthropogenic hazards (AH) associated with the exploration and exploitation of geo-resources. These problems will be dealt in Thematic Core Service "Anthropogenic Hazards" (TCS AH). TCS AH is based on the prototype built in the framework of the IS-EPOS platform project (https://tcs.ah-epos.eu/), financed from Polish structural funds (POIG.02.03.00-14-090/13-00), with will be further developed within EPOS IP project (H2020-INFRADEV-1-2015-1, INFRADEV-3-2015). TCS AH aims to have a measurable impact on innovative research and development as well as on society by providing comprehensive, wide-scale and high quality AH research infrastructure. One of the main deliverables are numerous comprehensive induced seismicity datasets called "episodes". The episode is a comprehensive data description of a geophysical process, induced or triggered by technological activity, which under certain circumstances can become hazardous for people, infrastructure and the environment. In addition to the six episodes already implemented during the mentioned IS-EPOS project, at least 20 new episodes related to conventional hydrocarbon extraction, reservoir treatment, underground mining and geothermal energy production are being integrated into the e-environment of the TCS AH. The heterogeneous multi-disciplinary data are transformed to unified structures developed within IS-EPOS project, to form integrated and validated datasets. Dedicated visualization tools for multidisciplinary data comprising episodes are also implemented. These tools are capable to aggregate and combine different data types and facilitating specific visualization possibilities (e.g. combining seismic and technological information). The implementation process, tailored for each episode, consists of four steps: (i) Data revision, determination of its accuracy and limitations; (ii) Data preparation and homogenization to follow the TCS AH

  6. Infrastructural Fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Jensen, Casper

    2007-01-01

    . Instead, I outline a fractal approach to the study of space, society, and infrastructure. A fractal orientation requires a number of related conceptual reorientations. It has implications for thinking about scale and perspective, and (sociotechnical) relations, and for considering the role of the social...... and a fractal social theory....

  7. Russian refining - an industry in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, E [CentreInvest, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-02-01

    In the old Soviet Union (now called the CIS), the refining industry is undergoing much modernisation, although the process is far from complete. Eventually, the CIS is expected to have a market-responsive competitive refining business. The expected transformation is discussed according to a five-stage plan. The stages are (i) the change from horizontally integrated entity to vertically integrated global concerns, (ii) the change from over-manned dinosaurs to modern efficient businesses, (iii) the move towards smaller, more advanced market-orientated processes, (iv) improving the transport and storage infrastructures and (v) improving accountability and profitability. The predictions for 2005 onwards are for sustained profitability. (UK)

  8. The Creation and Development of Innovative Infrastructure in the Danube Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Rosca-Sadurschi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship development is supported by a developed infrastructure or innovative infrastructure. The purpose of the business infrastructure is to create favorable conditions for its development by providing support in various areas, complete and targeted to businesses. Training system infrastructure provides creation and development of innovation infrastructure objects. Thus, this article will conduct a comparative analysis of the elements of innovation infrastructure and how their development in different countries. Innovation infrastructure elements analyzed are: information infrastructure refers to access to information; Financial infrastructure refers to financial resources; infrastructure, staff training (qualified staff; material and technical infrastructure; infrastructure consulting (expert consultation; marketing infrastructure.

  9. TCIA Secure Cyber Critical Infrastructure Modernization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keliiaa, Curtis M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia Labs) tribal cyber infrastructure assurance initiative was developed in response to growing national cybersecurity concerns in the the sixteen Department of Homeland Security (DHS) defined critical infrastructure sectors1. Technical assistance is provided for the secure modernization of critical infrastructure and key resources from a cyber-ecosystem perspective with an emphasis on enhanced security, resilience, and protection. Our purpose is to address national critical infrastructure challenges as a shared responsibility.

  10. Creating value in refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on recent developments in the US refining industry and presents a model for improving the performance of refineries based on the analysis of the refining industry by Cap Gemini Ernst and Young. The identification of refineries in risk of failing, the construction of pipelines for refinery products from Gulf State refineries, mergers and acquisitions, and poor financial performance are discussed. Current challenges concerning the stagnant demand for refinery products, environmental regulations, and shareholder value are highlighted. The structure of the industry, the creation of value in refining, and the search for business models are examined. The top 25 US companies and US refining business groups are listed

  11. Standards life cycle and a methodolgy and infrastructure for standards development and implementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available -practice methodology and infrastructure for selecting, developing, implementing and refining standards across Stats SA. The life cycle for standards in an organisation is also described...

  12. Relational Demonic Fuzzy Refinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairouz Tchier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use relational algebra to define a refinement fuzzy order called demonic fuzzy refinement and also the associated fuzzy operators which are fuzzy demonic join (⊔fuz, fuzzy demonic meet (⊓fuz, and fuzzy demonic composition (□fuz. Our definitions and properties are illustrated by some examples using mathematica software (fuzzy logic.

  13. Infrastructure Commons in Economic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischmann, Brett M.

    This chapter briefly summarizes a theory (developed in substantial detail elsewhere)1 that explains why there are strong economic arguments for managing and sustaining infrastructure resources in an openly accessible manner. This theory facilitates a better understanding of two related issues: how society benefits from infrastructure resources and how decisions about how to manage or govern infrastructure resources affect a wide variety of public and private interests. The key insights from this analysis are that infrastructure resources generate value as inputs into a wide range of productive processes and that the outputs from these processes are often public goods and nonmarket goods that generate positive externalities that benefit society as a whole. Managing such resources in an openly accessible manner may be socially desirable from an economic perspective because doing so facilitates these downstream productive activities. For example, managing the Internet infrastructure in an openly accessible manner facilitates active citizen involvement in the production and sharing of many different public and nonmarket goods. Over the last decade, this has led to increased opportunities for a wide range of citizens to engage in entrepreneurship, political discourse, social network formation, and community building, among many other activities. The chapter applies these insights to the network neutrality debate and suggests how the debate might be reframed to better account for the wide range of private and public interests at stake.

  14. Evaluative Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin; Pflueger, Dane; Mouritsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Platform organizations such as Uber, eBay and Airbnb represent a growing disruptive phenomenon in contemporary capitalism, transforming economic organization, the nature of work, and the distribution of wealth. This paper investigates the accounting practices that underpin this new form...... of organizing, and in doing so confronts a significant challenge within the accounting literature: the need to escape what Hopwood (1996) describes as its “hierarchical consciousness”. In order to do so, this paper develops the concept of evaluative infrastructure which describes accounting practices...

  15. Ritual Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjørslev, Inger

    2017-01-01

    within urban life. There is a certain parallel between these different locations and the difference in ritual roads to certainty in the two religions. The article draws out connections between different levels of infrastructure – material, spatial and ritual. The comparison between the two religions......This article compares the ways in which two different religions in Brazil generate roads to certainty through objectification, one through gods, the other through banknotes. The Afro-Brazilian religion Candomblé provides a road to certainty based on cosmological ideas about gods whose presence...

  16. Problems and Measures for Integrated Optimization of Water Resource in Refining and Chemical Enterprises%炼化企业水资源集成优化的问题和途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙杰

    2011-01-01

    China is short of water resource,so as on of the five most water-consuming industries,it is necessary and urgent for petrochemical industry to conduct integrated optimization of water resource. Based on review of water management and situation of water saving and emission reduction in petroleum refining enterprises,this paper pointed out the main problems,and proposed specific measures for water saving and emission reduction such as adopting clean production process,enhancing water nmnagement,making water balance ,using water pinch technology,optimizing circulating water and changing waster water into resource,and analyzed the results of some measures.%我国水资源短缺,石油化工行业作为五大耗水行业,急需开展水资源的集成优化。文章概述了目前炼化企业的用水管理、节水减排现状,指出了节水减排存在的主要问题,提出了采用清洁生产技术、加强用水管理、做好水平衡、利用水夹点技术、循环水优化、废水资源化等节水减排的具体方法,并对其中的某些方法的节水减排效果进行了分析。

  17. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Lõhmus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens’ quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion.

  18. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens' quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion.

  19. Refining margins and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudouin, C.; Favennec, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Refining margins throughout the world have remained low in 1996. In Europe, in spite of an improvement, particularly during the last few weeks, they are still not high enough to finance new investments. Although the demand for petroleum products is increasing, experts are still sceptical about any rapid recovery due to prevailing overcapacity and to continuing capacity growth. After a historical review of margins and an analysis of margins by regions, we analyse refining over-capacities in Europe and the unbalances between production and demand. Then we discuss the current situation concerning barriers to the rationalization, agreements between oil companies, and the consequences on the future of refining capacities and margins. (author)

  20. North American refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osten, James; Haltmaier, Susan

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the current status of the North American refining industry, and considers the North American economy and the growth in demand in the petroleum industry, petroleum product demand and quality, crude oil upgrading to meet product standards, and changes in crude oil feedstocks such as the use of heavier crudes and bitumens. Refining expansion, the declining profits in refining, and changes due to environmental standards are discussed. The Gross Domestic Product and oil demand for the USA, Canada, Mexico, and Venezuela for the years 1995-2020 are tabulated

  1. Articulating the Effects of Infrastructure Resourcing on Air Force Missions: Competing Approaches to Inform the Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    documents work originally shared with the U.S. Air Force on July 15, 2014. The draft report, issued on October 22, 2015, was reviewed by formal peer...maintained infrastructure, particularly facilities associated with morale , welfare, and recreation, can reduce troop morale , health, and fitness...balanced scorecard” approach espoused by Kaplan and Norton. See their 1992 Harvard Business Review article (Kaplan and Norton, 1992) or their

  2. Chinese refining capacity for Canadian heavy oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, G.W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discussed China's refining capacity in relation to exports of Canadian heavy oil. Demand for oil is increasing throughout the world, and China is expected to consume 25 per cent of the projected yearly oil supplies. Alberta currently has an estimated 174 billion barrels of recoverable bitumen, and produces 1.06 million barrels per day. Production is expected to increase to 4.5 million barrels per day by the year 2020. Currently bitumen blends are refined and diluted with naphtha and sweet synthetic crude oil. Bitumen is a challenging feedstock for refineries, and requires thermal production methods or gasification processes. Primary conversion into sour synthetic crude is typically followed by hydrocracking and further refining into finished petroleum products. There are currently 50 refineries in China with a 7.4 million barrel per day capacity. Coastal refineries using imported crude oil have a 4 million barrel per day capacity. New facilities are being constructed and existing plants are being upgraded in order to process heavier and more sour crude oils. However, current refining capabilities in Chinese refineries have a limited ability for resid conversion. It was concluded that while China has a refining infrastructure, only refineries on the coast will use oil sands-derived feedstocks. However, there are currently opportunities to design refineries to match future feedstocks. tabs., figs

  3. Refinement by interface instantiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Hoang, Thai Son

    2012-01-01

    be easily refined. Our first contribution hence is a proposal for a new construct called interface that encapsulates the external variables, along with a mechanism for interface instantiation. Using the new construct and mechanism, external variables can be refined consistently. Our second contribution...... is an approach for verifying the correctness of Event-B extensions using the supporting Rodin tool. We illustrate our approach by proving the correctness of interface instantiation....

  4. Relational Demonic Fuzzy Refinement

    OpenAIRE

    Tchier, Fairouz

    2014-01-01

    We use relational algebra to define a refinement fuzzy order called demonic fuzzy refinement and also the associated fuzzy operators which are fuzzy demonic join $({\\bigsqcup }_{\\mathrm{\\text{f}}\\mathrm{\\text{u}}\\mathrm{\\text{z}}})$ , fuzzy demonic meet $({\\sqcap }_{\\mathrm{\\text{f}}\\mathrm{\\text{u}}\\mathrm{\\text{z}}})$ , and fuzzy demonic composition $({\\square }_{\\mathrm{\\text{f}}\\mathrm{\\text{u}}\\mathrm{\\text{z}}})$ . Our definitions and properties are illustrated by some examples using ma...

  5. Optimization of HEP Analysis Activities Using a Tier2 Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arezzini, S; Bagliesi, G; Boccali, T; Ciampa, A; Mazzoni, E; Coscetti, S; Sarkar, S; Taneja, S

    2012-01-01

    While the model for a Tier2 is well understood and implemented within the HEP Community, a refined design for Analysis specific sites has not been agreed upon as clearly. We aim to describe the solutions adopted at the INFN Pisa, the biggest Tier2 in the Italian HEP Community. A Standard Tier2 infrastructure is optimized for Grid CPU and Storage access, while a more interactive oriented use of the resources is beneficial to the final data analysis step. In this step, POSIX file storage access is easier for the average physicist, and has to be provided in a real or emulated way. Modern analysis techniques use advanced statistical tools (like RooFit and RooStat), which can make use of multi core systems. The infrastructure has to provide or create on demand computing nodes with many cores available, above the existing and less elastic Tier2 flat CPU infrastructure. At last, the users do not want to have to deal with data placement policies at the various sites, and hence a transparent WAN file access, again with a POSIX layer, must be provided, making use of the soon-to-be-installed 10 Gbit/s regional lines. Even if standalone systems with such features are possible and exist, the implementation of an Analysis site as a virtual layer over an existing Tier2 requires novel solutions; the ones used in Pisa are described here.

  6. Agile infrastructure monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, P; Ascenso, J; Fedorko, I; Fiorini, B; Paladin, M; Pigueiras, L; Santos, M

    2014-01-01

    At the present time, data centres are facing a massive rise in virtualisation and cloud computing. The Agile Infrastructure (AI) project is working to deliver new solutions to ease the management of CERN data centres. Part of the solution consists in a new 'shared monitoring architecture' which collects and manages monitoring data from all data centre resources. In this article, we present the building blocks of this new monitoring architecture, the different open source technologies selected for each architecture layer, and how we are building a community around this common effort.

  7. Infrastructural politics on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas

    If Twitter started as a device for reporting one’s everyday comings and goings, it has in recent years come to be seen also as a resource for understanding and problematizing things like revolutions, disasters and politics (Rogers 2013). In this paper, I raise the question of whether a similar...... broadening of the avenues of possible inquiry could be timely in relation to Facebook. What can we learn from Facebook as a venue for organizing in emergencies or around public issues? In order start answering this question I examine a recent controversy over plans to build a new road-pricing infrastructure...

  8. E-Infrastructure Concertation Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The 8th e-Infrastructure Concertation Meeting was held in the Globe from 4 to 5 November to discuss the development of Europe’s distributed computing and storage resources.   Project leaders attend the E-Concertation Meeting at the Globe on 5 November 2010. © Corentin Chevalier E-Infrastructures have become an indispensable tool for scientific research, linking researchers to virtually unlimited e-resources like the grid. The recent e-Infrastructure Concertation Meeting brought together e-Science project leaders to discuss the development of this tool in the European context. The meeting was part of an ongoing initiative to develop a world-class e-infrastructure resource that would establish European leadership in e-Science. The e-Infrastructure Concertation Meeting was organised by the Commission Services (EC) with the support of e-ScienceTalk. “The Concertation meeting at CERN has been a great opportunity for e-ScienceTalk to meet many of the 38 new proje...

  9. Critical infrastructure protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, F. [Canadian Electricity Association, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2003-04-01

    The need to protect critical electrical infrastructure from terrorist attacks, or other physical damage, including weather related events, or the potential impact of computer viruses and other attacks on IT resources are discussed. Activities of the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) are highlighted which seek to safeguard the North American bulk electric power system principally through the Information Sharing and Analysis Sector (ES-ISAC). ES-ISAC serves the electricity sector by facilitating communication between electric sector participants, federal government and other critical infrastructure industries by disseminating threat indications, analyses and warnings, together with interpretations, to assist the industry in taking infrastructure protection actions. Attention is drawn to the numerous cyber incidents in recent years, which although resulted in no loss of service to electricity customers so far, in at least one instance (the January 25th SOL-Slammer worm incident) resulted in degradation of service in a number of sectors, including financial, transportation and telecommunication services. The increasing frequency of cyber-based attacks, coupled with the industry's growing dependence on e-commerce and electronic controls, are good reasons to believe that critical infrastructure protection (CIP) poses a serious challenge to the industry's risk management practices. The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) is an active participant in ES-ISAC and works cooperatively with a range of partners, such as the Edison Electric Institute and the American Public Power Association to ensure coordination and effective protection program delivery for the electric power sector. The Early Warning System (EWS) developed by the CIP Working Group is one of the results of this cooperation. EWS uses the Internet, e-mail, web-enabled cell phones and Blackberry hand-held devices to deliver real-time threat information to members on a 24/7 basis. EWS

  10. The Czech National Grid Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudoba, J.; Křenková, I.; Mulač, M.; Ruda, M.; Sitera, J.

    2017-10-01

    The Czech National Grid Infrastructure is operated by MetaCentrum, a CESNET department responsible for coordinating and managing activities related to distributed computing. CESNET as the Czech National Research and Education Network (NREN) provides many e-infrastructure services, which are used by 94% of the scientific and research community in the Czech Republic. Computing and storage resources owned by different organizations are connected by fast enough network to provide transparent access to all resources. We describe in more detail the computing infrastructure, which is based on several different technologies and covers grid, cloud and map-reduce environment. While the largest part of CPUs is still accessible via distributed torque servers, providing environment for long batch jobs, part of infrastructure is available via standard EGI tools in EGI, subset of NGI resources is provided into EGI FedCloud environment with cloud interface and there is also Hadoop cluster provided by the same e-infrastructure.A broad spectrum of computing servers is offered; users can choose from standard 2 CPU servers to large SMP machines with up to 6 TB of RAM or servers with GPU cards. Different groups have different priorities on various resources, resource owners can even have an exclusive access. The software is distributed via AFS. Storage servers offering up to tens of terabytes of disk space to individual users are connected via NFS4 on top of GPFS and access to long term HSM storage with peta-byte capacity is also provided. Overview of available resources and recent statistics of usage will be given.

  11. Refining margins: recent trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudoin, C.; Favennec, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a business environment that was globally mediocre due primarily to the Asian crisis and to a mild winter in the northern hemisphere, the signs of improvement noted in the refining activity in 1996 were borne out in 1997. But the situation is not yet satisfactory in this sector: the low return on invested capital and the financing of environmental protection expenditure are giving cause for concern. In 1998, the drop in crude oil prices and the concomitant fall in petroleum product prices was ultimately rather favorable to margins. Two elements tended to put a damper on this relative optimism. First of all, margins continue to be extremely volatile and, secondly, the worsening of the economic and financial crisis observed during the summer made for a sharp decline in margins in all geographic regions, especially Asia. Since the beginning of 1999, refining margins are weak and utilization rates of refining capacities have decreased. (authors)

  12. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constancio, Silva

    2006-07-01

    In 2004, refining margins showed a clear improvement that persisted throughout the first three quarters of 2005. This enabled oil companies to post significantly higher earnings for their refining activity in 2004 compared to 2003, with the results of the first half of 2005 confirming this trend. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady rise in the naphtha price, higher cash margins enabled a turnaround in 2004 as well as a clear improvement in oil company financial performance that should continue in 2005, judging by the net income figures reported for the first half-year. Despite this favorable business environment, capital expenditure in refining and petrochemicals remained at a low level, especially investment in new capacity, but a number of projects are being planned for the next five years. (author)

  13. Refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constancio, Silva

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, refining margins showed a clear improvement that persisted throughout the first three quarters of 2005. This enabled oil companies to post significantly higher earnings for their refining activity in 2004 compared to 2003, with the results of the first half of 2005 confirming this trend. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady rise in the naphtha price, higher cash margins enabled a turnaround in 2004 as well as a clear improvement in oil company financial performance that should continue in 2005, judging by the net income figures reported for the first half-year. Despite this favorable business environment, capital expenditure in refining and petrochemicals remained at a low level, especially investment in new capacity, but a number of projects are being planned for the next five years. (author)

  14. Indian refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, I.J.

    2002-01-01

    The author discusses the history of the Indian refining industry and ongoing developments under the headings: the present state; refinery configuration; Indian capabilities for refinery projects; and reforms in the refining industry. Tables lists India's petroleum refineries giving location and capacity; new refinery projects together with location and capacity; and expansion projects of Indian petroleum refineries. The Indian refinery industry has undergone substantial expansion as well as technological changes over the past years. There has been progressive technology upgrading, energy efficiency, better environmental control and improved capacity utilisation. Major reform processes have been set in motion by the government of India: converting the refining industry from a centrally controlled public sector dominated industry to a delicensed regime in a competitive market economy with the introduction of a liberal exploration policy; dismantling the administered price mechanism; and a 25 year hydrocarbon vision. (UK)

  15. Refining - Panorama 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Investment rallied in 2007, and many distillation and conversion projects likely to reach the industrial stage were announced. With economic growth sustained in 2006 and still pronounced in 2007, oil demand remained strong - especially in emerging countries - and refining margins stayed high. Despite these favorable business conditions, tensions persisted in the refining sector, which has fallen far behind in terms of investing in refinery capacity. It will take renewed efforts over a long period to catch up. Looking at recent events that have affected the economy in many countries (e.g. the sub-prime crisis), prudence remains advisable

  16. Dynamic Collaboration Infrastructure for Hydrologic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Idaszak, R.; Castillo, C.; Yi, H.; Jiang, F.; Jones, N.; Goodall, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Data and modeling infrastructure is becoming increasingly accessible to water scientists. HydroShare is a collaborative environment that currently offers water scientists the ability to access modeling and data infrastructure in support of data intensive modeling and analysis. It supports the sharing of and collaboration around "resources" which are social objects defined to include both data and models in a structured standardized format. Users collaborate around these objects via comments, ratings, and groups. HydroShare also supports web services and cloud based computation for the execution of hydrologic models and analysis and visualization of hydrologic data. However, the quantity and variety of data and modeling infrastructure available that can be accessed from environments like HydroShare is increasing. Storage infrastructure can range from one's local PC to campus or organizational storage to storage in the cloud. Modeling or computing infrastructure can range from one's desktop to departmental clusters to national HPC resources to grid and cloud computing resources. How does one orchestrate this vast number of data and computing infrastructure without needing to correspondingly learn each new system? A common limitation across these systems is the lack of efficient integration between data transport mechanisms and the corresponding high-level services to support large distributed data and compute operations. A scientist running a hydrology model from their desktop may require processing a large collection of files across the aforementioned storage and compute resources and various national databases. To address these community challenges a proof-of-concept prototype was created integrating HydroShare with RADII (Resource Aware Data-centric collaboration Infrastructure) to provide software infrastructure to enable the comprehensive and rapid dynamic deployment of what we refer to as "collaborative infrastructure." In this presentation we discuss the

  17. Oil refining expansion criteria for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, M.E.E.; Szklo, A.S.; Machado, G.V.; Schaeffer, R.; Mariano, J.B.; Sala, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses different strategies for the expansion of Brazil's oil refining segment, using criteria that range from energy security (reducing imports and vulnerability for key products) through to maximizing the profitability of this sector (boosting the output of higher value oil products) and adding value to Brazil's oil production (reducing exports of heavy acid oil). The development prospects are analyzed for conventional fuel production technology routes, sketching out three possible refining schemes for Brazilian oil and a GTL plant for producing gasoil from natural gas. Market scenario simulations indicate that investments will be required in Brazil's oil refining segment over and above those allocated to planned modifications in its current facilities, reducing the nation's vulnerability in terms of gasoil and petrochemical naphtha imports. Although not economically attractive, oil refining is a key activity that is crucial to oil company strategies. The decision to invest in this segment depends on local infrastructure conditions, environmental constraints and fuel specifications, in addition to oil company strategies, steady growth in demand and the definition of a government policy that eases institutional risks. (author)

  18. Oil refining expansion criteria for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Marina Elisabete Espinho; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Machado, Giovani Vitoria; Schaeffer, Roberto; Mariano, Jacqueline Barboza; Sala, Janaina Francisco

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses different strategies for the expansion of Brazil's oil refining segment, using criteria that range from energy security (reducing imports and vulnerability for key products) through to maximizing the profitability of this sector (boosting the output of higher value oil products) and adding value to Brazil's oil production (reducing exports of heavy acid oil). The development prospects are analyzed for conventional fuel production technology routes, sketching out three possible refining schemes for Brazilian oil and a GTL plant for producing gasoil from natural gas. Market scenario simulations indicate that investments will be required in Brazil's oil refining segment over and above those allocated to planned modifications in its current facilities, reducing the nation's vulnerability in terms of gasoil and petrochemical naphtha imports. Although not economically attractive, oil refining is a key activity that is crucial to oil company strategies. The decision to invest in this segment depends on local infrastructure conditions, environmental constraints and fuel specifications, in addition to oil company strategies, steady growth in demand and the definition of a government policy that eases institutional risks

  19. Smart Cyber Infrastructure for Big Data processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makkes, M.X.; Cushing, R.; Oprescu, A.M.; Koning, R.; Grosso, P.; Meijer, R.J.; Laat, C. de

    2014-01-01

    The landscape of research cyber infrastructure is rapidly changing. There is a move towards virtualized and programmable infrastructure. The cloud paradigm enables the use of computing resources in different places and allows for optimizing workflows in either bringing computing to the data or the

  20. Armenia - Irrigation Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This study evaluates irrigation infrastructure rehabilitation in Armenia. The study separately examines the impacts of tertiary canals and other large infrastructure...

  1. Panorama 2012 - Refining 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, Pierre; Saint-Antonin, Valerie

    2011-11-01

    The major uncertainty characterizing the global energy landscape impacts particularly on transport, which remains the virtually-exclusive bastion of the oil industry. The industry must therefore respond to increasing demand for mobility against a background marked by the emergence of alternatives to oil-based fuels and the need to reduce emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG). It is in this context that the 'Refining 2030' study conducted by IFP Energies Nouvelles (IFPEN) forecasts what the global supply and demand balance for oil products could be, and highlights the type and geographical location of the refinery investment required. Our study shows that the bulk of the refining investment will be concentrated in the emerging countries (mainly those in Asia), whilst the areas historically strong in refining (Europe and North America) face reductions in capacity. In this context, the drastic reduction in the sulphur specification of bunker oil emerges as a structural issue for European refining, in the same way as increasingly restrictive regulation of refinery CO 2 emissions (quotas/taxation) and the persistent imbalance between gasoline and diesel fuels. (authors)

  2. Understanding the infrastructure of European Research Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Maria Duclos; Kropp, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    European Research Infrastructure Consortia (ERIC) are a new form of legal and financial framework for the establishment and operation of research infrastructures in Europe. Despite their scope, ambition, and novelty, the topic has received limited scholarly attention. This article analyses one ER....... It is also a promising theoretical framework for addressing the relationship between the ERIC construct and the large diversity of European Research Infrastructures.......European Research Infrastructure Consortia (ERIC) are a new form of legal and financial framework for the establishment and operation of research infrastructures in Europe. Despite their scope, ambition, and novelty, the topic has received limited scholarly attention. This article analyses one ERIC...... became an ERIC using the Bowker and Star’s sociology of infrastructures. We conclude that focusing on ERICs as a European standard for organising and funding research collaboration gives new insights into the problems of membership, durability, and standardisation faced by research infrastructures...

  3. The 2014 Academic College of Emergency Experts in India's Education Development Committee (EDC) White Paper on establishing an academic department of Emergency Medicine in India - Guidelines for Staffing, Infrastructure, Resources, Curriculum and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Praveen; Galwankar, Sagar; Kalra, Om Prakash; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Sundarakumar, Sundarajan

    2014-07-01

    Emergency medicine services and training in Emergency Medicine (EM) has developed to a large extent in developed countries but its establishment is far from optimal in developing countries. In India, Medical Council of India (MCI) has taken great steps by notifying EM as a separate specialty and so far 20 medical colleges have already initiated 3-year training program in EM. However, there has been shortage of trained faculty, and ambiguity regarding curriculum, rotation policy, infrastructure, teachers' eligibility qualifications and scheme of examination. Academic College of Emergency Experts in India (ACEE-India) has been a powerful advocate for developing Academic EM in India. The ACEE's Education Development Committee (EDC) was created to chalk out guidelines for staffing, infrastructure, resources, curriculum, and training which may be of help to the MCI and the National Board of Examinations (NBE) to set standards for starting 3-year training program in EM and develop the departments of EM as centers of quality education, research, and treatment across India. This paper has made an attempt to give recommendations so as to provide a uniform framework to the institutions, thus guiding them towards establishing an academic Department of EM for starting the 3-year training program in the specialty of EM.

  4. The 2014 Academic College of Emergency Experts in India′s Education Development Committee (EDC White Paper on establishing an academic department of Emergency Medicine in India - Guidelines for Staffing, Infrastructure, Resources, Curriculum and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Aggarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergency medicine services and training in Emergency Medicine (EM has developed to a large extent in developed countries but its establishment is far from optimal in developing countries. In India, Medical Council of India (MCI has taken great steps by notifying EM as a separate specialty and so far 20 medical colleges have already initiated 3-year training program in EM. However, there has been shortage of trained faculty, and ambiguity regarding curriculum, rotation policy, infrastructure, teachers′ eligibility qualifications and scheme of examination. Academic College of Emergency Experts in India (ACEE-India has been a powerful advocate for developing Academic EM in India. The ACEE′s Education Development Committee (EDC was created to chalk out guidelines for staffing, infrastructure, resources, curriculum, and training which may be of help to the MCI and the National Board of Examinations (NBE to set standards for starting 3-year training program in EM and develop the departments of EM as centers of quality education, research, and treatment across India. This paper has made an attempt to give recommendations so as to provide a uniform framework to the institutions, thus guiding them towards establishing an academic Department of EM for starting the 3-year training program in the specialty of EM.

  5. Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center serves as a resource to communities to improve their wastewater, drinking water and stormwater systems, particularly through innovative financing and increased resiliency to climate change.

  6. Adaptive mesh refinement for storm surge

    KAUST Repository

    Mandli, Kyle T.; Dawson, Clint N.

    2014-01-01

    An approach to utilizing adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for storm surge modeling is proposed. Currently numerical models exist that can resolve the details of coastal regions but are often too costly to be run in an ensemble forecasting framework without significant computing resources. The application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms substantially lowers the computational cost of a storm surge model run while retaining much of the desired coastal resolution. The approach presented is implemented in the GeoClaw framework and compared to ADCIRC for Hurricane Ike along with observed tide gauge data and the computational cost of each model run. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Adaptive mesh refinement for storm surge

    KAUST Repository

    Mandli, Kyle T.

    2014-03-01

    An approach to utilizing adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for storm surge modeling is proposed. Currently numerical models exist that can resolve the details of coastal regions but are often too costly to be run in an ensemble forecasting framework without significant computing resources. The application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms substantially lowers the computational cost of a storm surge model run while retaining much of the desired coastal resolution. The approach presented is implemented in the GeoClaw framework and compared to ADCIRC for Hurricane Ike along with observed tide gauge data and the computational cost of each model run. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. US refining reviewed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    1998-01-01

    The paper reviews the history, present position and future prospects of the petroleum industry in the USA. The main focus is on supply and demand, the high quality of the products, refinery capacity and product trade balances. Diagrams show historical trends in output, product demand, demand for transport fuels and oil, refinery capacity, refinery closures, and imports and exports. Some particularly salient points brought out were (i) production of US crude shows a marked downward trend but imports of crude will continue to increase, (ii) product demand will continue to grow even though the levels are already high, (iii) the demand is dominated by those products that typically yield the highest income for the refiner, (i.e. high quality transport fuels for environmental compliance), (iv) refinery capacity has decreased since 1980 and (v) refining will continue to have financial problems but will still be profitable. (UK)

  9. Outlook for Canadian refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boje, G.

    1998-01-01

    The petroleum supply and demand balance was discussed and a comparison between Canadian and U.S. refineries was provided. The impact of changing product specifications on the petroleum industry was also discussed. The major changes include sulphur reductions in gasoline, benzene and MMT additives. These changes have been made in an effort to satisfy environmental needs. Geographic margin variations in refineries between east and west were reviewed. An overview of findings from the Solomon Refining Study of Canadian and American refineries, which has been very complimentary of the Canadian refining industry, was provided. From this writer's point of view refinery utilization has improved but there is a threat from increasing efficiency of US competitors. Environmental issues will continue to impact upon the industry and while the chances for making economic returns on investment are good for the years ahead, it will be a challenge to maintain profitability

  10. Future of French refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, B.

    1993-01-01

    Over recent years, the refining industry has had to grapple with a growing burden of environmental and safety regulations concerning not only its plants and other facilities, but also its end products. At the same time, it has had to bear the effects of the reduction of the special status that used to apply to petroleum, and the consequences of economic freedom, to which we should add, as specifically concerns the French market, the impact of energy policy and the pro-nuclear option. The result is a drop in heavy fuel oil from 36 million tonnes per year in 1973 to 6.3 million in 1992, and in home-heating fuel from 37 to 18 million per year. This fast-moving market is highly competitive. The French market in particular is wide open to imports, but the refining companies are still heavy exporters for those products with high added-value, like lubricants, jet fuel, and lead-free gasolines. The competition has led the refining companies to commit themselves to quality, and to publicize their efforts in this direction. This is why the long-term perspectives for petroleum fuels are still wide open. This is supported by the probable expectation that the goal of economic efficiency is likely to soften the effects of the energy policy, which penalizes petroleum products, in that they have now become competitive again. In the European context, with the challenge of environmental protection and the decline in heavy fuel outlets, French refining has to keep on improving the quality of its products and plants, which means major investments. The industry absolutely must return to a more normal level of profitability, in order to sustain this financial effort, and generate the prosperity of its high-performance plants and equipment. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  11. Process for refining hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risenfeld, E H

    1924-11-26

    A process is disclosed for the refining of hydrocarbons or other mixtures through treatment in vapor form with metal catalysts, characterized by such metals being used as catalysts, which are obtained by reduction of the oxide of minerals containing the iron group, and by the vapors of the hydrocarbons, in the presence of the water vapor, being led over these catalysts at temperatures from 200 to 300/sup 0/C.

  12. Panorama 2009 - refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    For oil companies to invest in new refining and conversion capacity, favorable conditions over time are required. In other words, refining margins must remain high and demand sustained over a long period. That was the situation prevailing before the onset of the financial crisis in the second half of 2008. The economic conjuncture has taken a substantial turn for the worse since then and the forecasts for 2009 do not look bright. Oil demand is expected to decrease in the OECD countries and to grow much more slowly in the emerging countries. It is anticipated that refining margins will fall in 2009 - in 2008, they slipped significantly in the United States - as a result of increasingly sluggish demand, especially for light products. The next few months will probably be unfavorable to investment. In addition to a gloomy business outlook, there may also be a problem of access to sources of financing. As for investment projects, a mainstream trend has emerged in the last few years: a shift away from the regions that have historically been most active (the OECD countries) towards certain emerging countries, mostly in Asia or the Middle East. The new conjuncture will probably not change this trend

  13. Refining discordant gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Pawel; Eulenstein, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary studies are complicated by discordance between gene trees and the species tree in which they evolved. Dealing with discordant trees often relies on comparison costs between gene and species trees, including the well-established Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs. While these costs have provided credible results for binary rooted gene trees, corresponding cost definitions for non-binary unrooted gene trees, which are frequently occurring in practice, are challenged by biological realism. We propose a natural extension of the well-established costs for comparing unrooted and non-binary gene trees with rooted binary species trees using a binary refinement model. For the duplication cost we describe an efficient algorithm that is based on a linear time reduction and also computes an optimal rooted binary refinement of the given gene tree. Finally, we show that similar reductions lead to solutions for computing the deep coalescence and the Robinson-Foulds costs. Our binary refinement of Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs for unrooted and non-binary gene trees together with the linear time reductions provided here for computing these costs significantly extends the range of trees that can be incorporated into approaches dealing with discordance.

  14. Towards automated crystallographic structure refinement with phenix.refine

    OpenAIRE

    Afonine, Pavel V.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Headd, Jeffrey J.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Mustyakimov, Marat; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Zwart, Peter H.; Adams, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    phenix.refine is a program within the PHENIX package that supports crystallographic structure refinement against experimental data with a wide range of upper resolution limits using a large repertoire of model parameterizations. It has several automation features and is also highly flexible. Several hundred parameters enable extensive customizations for complex use cases. Multiple user-defined refinement strategies can be applied to specific parts of the model in a single refinement run. An i...

  15. A multi VO Grid infrastructure at DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellrich, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    As a centre for research with particle accelerators and synchrotron light, DESY operates a Grid infrastructure in the context of the EU-project EGEE and the national Grid initiative D-GRID. All computing and storage resources are located in one Grid infrastructure which supports a number of Virtual Organizations of different disciplines, including non-HEP groups such as the Photon Science community. Resource distribution is based on fair share methods without dedicating hardware to user groups. Production quality of the infrastructure is guaranteed by embedding it into the DESY computer centre.

  16. Towards automated crystallographic structure refinement with phenix.refine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonine, Pavel V., E-mail: pafonine@lbl.gov; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Headd, Jeffrey J.; Moriarty, Nigel W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mustyakimov, Marat; Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Urzhumtsev, Alexandre [CNRS–INSERM–UdS, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch (France); Université Henri Poincaré, Nancy 1, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Zwart, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-04-01

    phenix.refine is a program within the PHENIX package that supports crystallographic structure refinement against experimental data with a wide range of upper resolution limits using a large repertoire of model parameterizations. This paper presents an overview of the major phenix.refine features, with extensive literature references for readers interested in more detailed discussions of the methods. phenix.refine is a program within the PHENIX package that supports crystallographic structure refinement against experimental data with a wide range of upper resolution limits using a large repertoire of model parameterizations. It has several automation features and is also highly flexible. Several hundred parameters enable extensive customizations for complex use cases. Multiple user-defined refinement strategies can be applied to specific parts of the model in a single refinement run. An intuitive graphical user interface is available to guide novice users and to assist advanced users in managing refinement projects. X-ray or neutron diffraction data can be used separately or jointly in refinement. phenix.refine is tightly integrated into the PHENIX suite, where it serves as a critical component in automated model building, final structure refinement, structure validation and deposition to the wwPDB. This paper presents an overview of the major phenix.refine features, with extensive literature references for readers interested in more detailed discussions of the methods.

  17. Wastewater infrastructure for small cities in an urbanizing world: integrating protection of human health and the environment with resource recovery and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Oakley, Stewart M; Mihelcic, James R

    2013-04-16

    The majority of population growth in developing countries will occur in small cities closely linked to agricultural zones, with poor access to water and sanitation. Wastewater management priorities in these regions will be different from those in larger cities and developed countries. Two wastewater treatment systems in Bolivia, one with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and polishing ponds, the other with three stabilization ponds, are assessed to determine their resource recovery potential. The UASB reactor produces biogas with 500-650 MJ per day. In six months, both systems discharge wastewater with the same mass of nutrients as fertilizers used to produce crops containing 10-75 days' worth of the recommended food energy intake for each person using the system. Both systems also discharge detectable levels of helminth eggs, Giardia cysts, and Cryptosporidium oocysts, but the UASB reactor system discharges higher concentrations, implying limited reuse potential. From a regional management standpoint, small cities should not expend resources to treat wastewater to levels suitable for discharge into surface waters. Rather, they should focus on removing pathogens to reclaim water and nutrients. Biogas recovery may be a priority that should be subservient to water and nutrient recovery in these settings.

  18. Pakistan stepping up expansion of refining, transportation sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Pakistan is taking steps to speed expansion of its refining and oil transportation infrastructure. While the country has made significant progress toward energy self-efficiency by boosting oil and gas production it still must modernize and expand an aging, inadequate refining sector to meet rapidly growing demand for refined products. Pakistan's government has disclosed plans to build two refineries in the country, one at Rawalpindi near a string of recent oil discoveries, the other somewhere in the southern part of the country, likely Karachi. At the same time, efforts are proceeding to upgrade Pakistan's refineries. In addition, Pakistani state companies continue to press joint ventures in refining and marketing with foreign companies and expand downstream ties with neighbors that are key oil and gas exporters

  19. Development of a lunar infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J. D.

    If humans are to reside continuously and productively on the Moon, they must be surrounded and supported there by an infrastructure having some attributes of the support systems that have made advanced civilization possible on Earth. Building this lunar infrastructure will, in a sense, be an investment. Creating it will require large resources from Earth, but once it exists it can do much to limit the further demands of a lunar base for Earthside support. What is needed for a viable lunar infrastructure? This question can be approached from two directions. The first is to examine history, which is essentially a record of growing information structures among humans on Earth (tribes, agriculture, specialization of work, education, ethics, arts and sciences, cities and states, technology). The second approach is much less secure but may provide useful insights: it is to examine the minimal needs of a small human community - not just for physical survival but for a stable existence with a net product output. This paper presents a summary, based on present knowledge of the Moon and of the likely functions of a human community there, of some of these infrastructure requirements, and also discusses possible ways to proceed toward meeting early infrastructure needs.

  20. Hirshfeld atom refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Silvia C; Bürgi, Hans-Beat; Dittrich, Birger; Grabowsky, Simon; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2014-09-01

    Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) is a method which determines structural parameters from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data by using an aspherical atom partitioning of tailor-made ab initio quantum mechanical molecular electron densities without any further approximation. Here the original HAR method is extended by implementing an iterative procedure of successive cycles of electron density calculations, Hirshfeld atom scattering factor calculations and structural least-squares refinements, repeated until convergence. The importance of this iterative procedure is illustrated via the example of crystalline ammonia. The new HAR method is then applied to X-ray diffraction data of the dipeptide Gly-l-Ala measured at 12, 50, 100, 150, 220 and 295 K, using Hartree-Fock and BLYP density functional theory electron densities and three different basis sets. All positions and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs) are freely refined without constraints or restraints - even those for hydrogen atoms. The results are systematically compared with those from neutron diffraction experiments at the temperatures 12, 50, 150 and 295 K. Although non-hydrogen-atom ADPs differ by up to three combined standard uncertainties (csu's), all other structural parameters agree within less than 2 csu's. Using our best calculations (BLYP/cc-pVTZ, recommended for organic molecules), the accuracy of determining bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms from HAR is better than 0.009 Å for temperatures of 150 K or below; for hydrogen-atom ADPs it is better than 0.006 Å(2) as judged from the mean absolute X-ray minus neutron differences. These results are among the best ever obtained. Remarkably, the precision of determining bond lengths and ADPs for the hydrogen atoms from the HAR procedure is comparable with that from the neutron measurements - an outcome which is obtained with a routinely achievable resolution of the X-ray data of 0.65 Å.

  1. Refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benazzi, E.

    2003-01-01

    Down sharply in 2002, refining margins showed a clear improvement in the first half-year of 2003. As a result, the earnings reported by oil companies for financial year 2002 were significantly lower than in 2001, but the prospects are brighter for 2003. In the petrochemicals sector, slow demand and higher feedstock prices eroded margins in 2002, especially in Europe and the United States. The financial results for the first part of 2003 seem to indicate that sector profitability will not improve before 2004. (author)

  2. Refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benazzi, E.; Alario, F.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, refining margins showed a clear improvement that continued throughout the first three quarters of 2004. Oil companies posted significantly higher earnings in 2003 compared to 2002, with the results of first quarter 2004 confirming this trend. Due to higher feedstock prices, the implementation of new capacity and more intense competition, the petrochemicals industry was not able to boost margins in 2003. In such difficult business conditions, aggravated by soaring crude prices, the petrochemicals industry is not likely to see any improvement in profitability before the second half of 2004. (author)

  3. Refining mineral oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1946-07-05

    A process is described refining raw oils such as mineral oils, shale oils, tar, their fractions and derivatives, by extraction with a selected solvent or a mixture of solvents containing water, forming a solvent more favorable for the hydrocarbons poor in hydrogen than for hydrocarbons rich in hydrogen, this process is characterized by the addition of an aiding solvent for the water which can be mixed or dissolved in the water and the solvent or in the dissolving mixture and increasing in this way the solubility of the water in the solvent or the dissolving mixture.

  4. Prioritizing Infrastructure Investments in Panama : Pilot Application of the World Bank Infrastructure Prioritization Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo, Darwin; Mandri-Perrott, Cledan; House, Schuyler

    2016-01-01

    Infrastructure services are significant determinants of economic development, social welfare, trade, and public health. As such, they typically feature strongly in national development plans. While governments may receive many infrastructure project proposals, however, resources are often insufficient to finance the full set of proposals in the short term. Leading up to 2020, an estimated US$836 ...

  5. Atlantic Basin refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the profitability margins of oil refining in the Atlantic Basin was presented. Petroleum refiners face the continuous challenge of balancing supply with demand. It would appear that the profitability margins in the Atlantic Basin will increase significantly in the near future because of shrinking supply surpluses. Refinery capacity utilization has reached higher levels than ever before. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in August 1997, U.S. refineries used 99 per cent of their capacity for several weeks in a row. U.S. gasoline inventories have also declined as the industry has focused on reducing capital costs. This is further evidence that supply and demand are tightly balanced. Some of the reasons for tightening supplies were reviewed. It was predicted that U.S. gasoline demand will continue to grow in the near future. Gasoline demand has not declined as expected because new vehicles are not any more fuel efficient today than they were a decade ago. Although federally-mandated fuel efficiency standards were designed to lower gasoline consumption, they may actually have prevented consumption from falling. Atlantic margins were predicted to continue moving up because of the supply and demand evidence: high capacity utilization rates, low operating inventories, limited capacity addition resulting from lower capital spending, continued U.S. gasoline demand growth, and steady total oil demand growth. 11 figs

  6. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Sheng, Victor S.; Xian, Xuefeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming

    2017-01-01

    Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality i...

  7. Petroleum refining industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, W.D.

    2010-01-01

    The oil refining industry in China has faced rapid growth in oil imports of increasingly sour grades of crude with which to satisfy growing domestic demand for a slate of lighter and cleaner finished products sold at subsidized prices. At the same time, the world petroleum refining industry has been moving from one that serves primarily local and regional markets to one that serves global markets for finished products, as world refining capacity utilization has increased. Globally, refined product markets are likely to experience continued globalization until refining investments significantly expand capacity in key demand regions. We survey the oil refining industry in China in the context of the world market for heterogeneous crude oils and growing world trade in refined petroleum products. (author)

  8. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available the generation of electricity from renewable sources such as wind, water and solar. Grey infrastructure – In the context of storm water management, grey infrastructure can be thought of as the hard, engineered systems to capture and convey runoff..., pumps, and treatment plants.  Green infrastructure reduces energy demand by reducing the need to collect and transport storm water to a suitable discharge location. In addition, green infrastructure such as green roofs, street trees and increased...

  9. Urban Green Infrastructure: German Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Olegovna Dushkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of urban green infrastructure and analyzes the features of its implementation in the urban development programmes of German cities. We analyzed the most shared articles devoted to the urban green infrastructure to see different approaches to definition of this term. It is based on materials of field research in the cities of Berlin and Leipzig in 2014-2015, international and national scientific publications. During the process of preparing the paper, consultations have been held with experts from scientific institutions and Administrations of Berlin and Leipzig as well as local experts from environmental organizations of both cities. Using the German cities of Berlin and Leipzig as examples, this paper identifies how the concept can be implemented in the program of urban development. It presents the main elements of green city model, which include mitigation of negative anthropogenic impact on the environment under the framework of urban sustainable development. Essential part of it is a complex ecological policy as a major necessary tool for the implementation of the green urban infrastructure concept. This ecological policy should embody not only some ecological measurements, but also a greening of all urban infrastructure elements as well as implementation of sustainable living with a greater awareness of the resources, which are used in everyday life, and development of environmental thinking among urban citizens. Urban green infrastructure is a unity of four main components: green building, green transportation, eco-friendly waste management, green transport routes and ecological corridors. Experience in the development of urban green infrastructure in Germany can be useful to improve the environmental situation in Russian cities.

  10. Energy Transmission and Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathison, Jane

    2012-12-31

    The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers

  11. Site Support Program Plan Infrastructure Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Fiscal Year 1996 Infrastructure Program Site Support Program Plan addresses the mission objectives, workscope, work breakdown structures (WBS), management approach, and resource requirements for the Infrastructure Program. Attached to the plan are appendices that provide more detailed information associated with scope definition. The Hanford Site's infrastructure has served the Site for nearly 50 years during defense materials production. Now with the challenges of the new environmental cleanup mission, Hanford's infrastructure must meet current and future mission needs in a constrained budget environment, while complying with more stringent environmental, safety, and health regulations. The infrastructure requires upgrading, streamlining, and enhancement in order to successfully support the site mission of cleaning up the Site, research and development, and economic transition

  12. Site Support Program Plan Infrastructure Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    The Fiscal Year 1996 Infrastructure Program Site Support Program Plan addresses the mission objectives, workscope, work breakdown structures (WBS), management approach, and resource requirements for the Infrastructure Program. Attached to the plan are appendices that provide more detailed information associated with scope definition. The Hanford Site`s infrastructure has served the Site for nearly 50 years during defense materials production. Now with the challenges of the new environmental cleanup mission, Hanford`s infrastructure must meet current and future mission needs in a constrained budget environment, while complying with more stringent environmental, safety, and health regulations. The infrastructure requires upgrading, streamlining, and enhancement in order to successfully support the site mission of cleaning up the Site, research and development, and economic transition.

  13. 30 CFR 208.4 - Royalty oil sales to eligible refiners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty oil sales to eligible refiners. 208.4... MANAGEMENT SALE OF FEDERAL ROYALTY OIL General Provisions § 208.4 Royalty oil sales to eligible refiners. (a... and defense. The Secretary will review these items and will determine whether eligible refiners have...

  14. 78 FR 20176 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ..., Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and... renewable electricity production, refined coal production, and Indian coal production under section 45... resources, and to 2013 sales of refined coal and Indian coal produced in the United States or a possession...

  15. The Information Infrastructures Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Rapti, Charikleia; Jensen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for characterising the design space of Information Infrastructures (IIs). Existing research has generally sought to unravel the convergent characteristics and mechanisms uniting IIs across a wide range of manifestations. In this research, we explore this divergence...... within the II design space. We do so by reviewing the II literature, focusing on the two domains of design situation and design resolution. Design situation refers to the relevant dimensions of the context in which an II is employed. Design resolution covers the dimensions along which the socio......-technical constituents can be assembled to form an effective solution. The resulting framework allows for the comparing and contrasting of II initiatives, and contributes towards a cumulative knowledge process aimed at a more refined understanding of how an II can be configured to address the specific problem at hand....

  16. INNOVATIVE INFRASTRUCTURE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mykytyuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Practical realization of sustainable development general conception is passing to the organic production, that allows to satisfy society problems, not putting health and future generations' existence under a threat. At this entrepreneurs, which work in the consumer products' field, must displace accents from economic oriented to social oriented entrepreneurship. The article is dedicated to research negative and positive factors that influence on social oriented Ukrainian enterprises in the sphere of organic goods production. The special attention is attended to the analysis of foodstuffs producers' activity, the results of which have considerable direct influence on consumers' health. The value of informative influences on consumers and producers is analyzed. State support directions of organic goods production, creation of internal market ecologically safe products infrastructure are defined. Recommendations are given according to research results in relation to stimulation social responsibility of businessmen and model forming, which combines interests of consumers and producers, environmental preservation, population health refinement and ecological situation improvement.

  17. Comparing Refinements for Failure and Bisimulation Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, H.; Fokkinga, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Refinement in bisimulation semantics is defined differently from refinement in failure semantics: in bisimulation semantics refinement is based on simulations between labelled transition systems, whereas in failure semantics refinement is based on inclusions between failure systems. There exist

  18. Smart and multifunctional concrete toward sustainable infrastructures

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Baoguo; Ou, Jinping

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the latest research advances and findings in the field of smart/multifunctional concretes, focusing on the principles, design and fabrication, test and characterization, performance and mechanism, and their applications in infrastructures. It also discusses future challenges in the development and application of smart/multifunctional concretes, providing useful theory, ideas and principles, as well as insights and practical guidance for developing sustainable infrastructures. It is a valuable resource for researchers, scientists and engineers in the field of civil-engineering materials and infrastructures.

  19. Collaborative Access Control For Critical Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baina, Amine; El Kalam, Anas Abou; Deswarte, Yves; Kaaniche, Mohamed

    A critical infrastructure (CI) can fail with various degrees of severity due to physical and logical vulnerabilities. Since many interdependencies exist between CIs, failures can have dramatic consequences on the entire infrastructure. This paper focuses on threats that affect information and communication systems that constitute the critical information infrastructure (CII). A new collaborative access control framework called PolyOrBAC is proposed to address security problems that are specific to CIIs. The framework offers each organization participating in a CII the ability to collaborate with other organizations while maintaining control of its resources and internal security policy. The approach is demonstrated on a practical scenario involving the electrical power grid.

  20. Commercial refining in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, P.

    1999-01-01

    About 9% of the world's oil refining capacity is on the Mediterranean: some of the world's biggest and most advanced refineries are on Sicily and Sardinia. The Mediterranean refineries are important suppliers to southern Europe and N. Africa. The article discusses commercial refining in the Mediterranean under the headings of (i) historic development, (ii) product demand, (iii) refinery configurations, (iv) refined product trade, (v) financial performance and (vi) future outlook. Although some difficulties are foreseen, refining in the Mediterranean is likely to continue to be important well into the 21st century. (UK)

  1. On Modal Refinement and Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyman, Ulrik; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Almost 20 years after the original conception, we revisit several fundamental question about modal transition systems. First, we demonstrate the incompleteness of the standard modal refinement using a counterexample due to Hüttel. Deciding any refinement, complete with respect to the standard...

  2. What's My Lane? Identifying the State Government Role in Critical Infrastructure Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, Timothy S.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited What constitutes an effective Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) protection program for Massachusetts This study evaluates existing literature regarding CIKR to extrapolate an infrastructure protection role for Massachusetts. By reviewing historical events and government strategies regarding infrastructure protection, Chapters I and II will provide scope and context for issues surrounding critical infrastructure. Chapter ...

  3. Crystal structure refinement with SHELXL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldrick, George M., E-mail: gsheldr@shelx.uni-ac.gwdg.de [Department of Structural Chemistry, Georg-August Universität Göttingen, Tammannstraße 4, Göttingen 37077 (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    New features added to the refinement program SHELXL since 2008 are described and explained. The improvements in the crystal structure refinement program SHELXL have been closely coupled with the development and increasing importance of the CIF (Crystallographic Information Framework) format for validating and archiving crystal structures. An important simplification is that now only one file in CIF format (for convenience, referred to simply as ‘a CIF’) containing embedded reflection data and SHELXL instructions is needed for a complete structure archive; the program SHREDCIF can be used to extract the .hkl and .ins files required for further refinement with SHELXL. Recent developments in SHELXL facilitate refinement against neutron diffraction data, the treatment of H atoms, the determination of absolute structure, the input of partial structure factors and the refinement of twinned and disordered structures. SHELXL is available free to academics for the Windows, Linux and Mac OS X operating systems, and is particularly suitable for multiple-core processors.

  4. Structures and infrastructures series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    "Research, developments, and applications...on the most advanced techonologies for analyzing, predicting, and optimizing the performance of structures and infrastructures such as buildings, bridges, dams...

  5. Building an evaluation infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandrup, Morten; Østergaard, Kija Lin

    Infrastructuring does not happen by itself; it must be supported. In this paper, we present a feedback mechanism implemented as a smartphone-based application, inspired by the concept of infrastructure probes, which supports the in situ elicitation of feedback. This is incorporated within an eval...

  6. Transport Infrastructure Slot Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolstra, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, transport infrastructure slot allocation has been studied, focusing on selection slot allocation, i.e. on longer-term slot allocation decisions determining the traffic patterns served by infrastructure bottlenecks, rather than timetable-related slot allocation problems. The

  7. Telecom infrastructure leasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, R.

    1995-01-01

    Slides to accompany a discussion about leasing telecommunications infrastructure, including radio/microwave tower space, radio control buildings, paging systems and communications circuits, were presented. The structure of Alberta Power Limited was described within the ATCO group of companies. Corporate goals and management practices and priorities were summarized. Lessons and experiences in the infrastructure leasing business were reviewed

  8. Infrastructures for healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff, Tue Odd; Amstrup, Mikkel Hvid; Mørck, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The Danish General Practitioners Database has over more than a decade developed into a large-scale successful information infrastructure supporting medical research in Denmark. Danish general practitioners produce the data, by coding all patient consultations according to a certain set of classif...... synergy into account, if not to risk breaking down the fragile nature of otherwise successful information infrastructures supporting research on healthcare....

  9. South Korea - oil refining overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    1999-01-01

    Following the economic problems of the 1990s, the petroleum refining industry of South Korea underwent much involuntary restructuring in 1999 with respect to takeovers and mergers and these are discussed. The demand for petroleum has now pretty well recovered. The reasons for fluctuating prices in the 1990s, how the new structure should be cushioned against changes in the future, and the potential for South Korea to export refined petroleum, are all discussed

  10. Adaptive Mesh Refinement in CTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, David

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports progress on implementing a new capability of adaptive mesh refinement into the Eulerian multimaterial shock- physics code CTH. The adaptivity is block-based with refinement and unrefinement occurring in an isotropic 2:1 manner. The code is designed to run on serial, multiprocessor and massive parallel platforms. An approximate factor of three in memory and performance improvements over comparable resolution non-adaptive calculations has-been demonstrated for a number of problems

  11. Steel refining possibilities in LF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, M. G.; Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.; Ciobanu, F.; Pollifroni, M.

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the main possibilities for steel refining in Ladle Furnace (LF). These, are presented: steelmaking stages, steel refining through argon bottom stirring, online control of the bottom stirring, bottom stirring diagram during LF treatment of a heat, porous plug influence over the argon stirring, bottom stirring porous plug, analysis of porous plugs disposal on ladle bottom surface, bottom stirring simulation with ANSYS, bottom stirring simulation with Autodesk CFD.

  12. Security infrastructure for dynamically provisioned cloud infrastructure services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; Ngo, C.; de Laat, C.; Lopez, D.R.; Morales, A.; García-Espín, J.A.; Pearson, S.; Yee, G.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses conceptual issues, basic requirements and practical suggestions for designing dynamically configured security infrastructure provisioned on demand as part of the cloud-based infrastructure. This chapter describes general use cases for provisioning cloud infrastructure services

  13. COOPEUS - connecting research infrastructures in environmental sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop-Jakobsen, Ketil; Waldmann, Christoph; Huber, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The COOPEUS project was initiated in 2012 bringing together 10 research infrastructures (RIs) in environmental sciences from the EU and US in order to improve the discovery, access, and use of environmental information and data across scientific disciplines and across geographical borders. The COOPEUS mission is to facilitate readily accessible research infrastructure data to advance our understanding of Earth systems through an international community-driven effort, by: Bringing together both user communities and top-down directives to address evolving societal and scientific needs; Removing technical, scientific, cultural and geopolitical barriers for data use; and Coordinating the flow, integrity and preservation of information. A survey of data availability was conducted among the COOPEUS research infrastructures for the purpose of discovering impediments for open international and cross-disciplinary sharing of environmental data. The survey showed that the majority of data offered by the COOPEUS research infrastructures is available via the internet (>90%), but the accessibility to these data differ significantly among research infrastructures; only 45% offer open access on their data, whereas the remaining infrastructures offer restricted access e.g. do not release raw data or sensible data, demand user registration or require permission prior to release of data. These rules and regulations are often installed as a form of standard practice, whereas formal data policies are lacking in 40% of the infrastructures, primarily in the EU. In order to improve this situation COOPEUS has installed a common data-sharing policy, which is agreed upon by all the COOPEUS research infrastructures. To investigate the existing opportunities for improving interoperability among environmental research infrastructures, COOPEUS explored the opportunities with the GEOSS common infrastructure (GCI) by holding a hands-on workshop. Through exercises directly registering resources

  14. Infrastructure for Detector Research and Development towards the International Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, J.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Kulis, Sz.; Przyborowski, D.; Swientek, K.; Bamberger, A.; Kohli, M.; Lupberger, M.; Renz, U.; Schumacher, M.; Zwerger, Andreas; Calderone, A.; Cussans, D.G.; Heath, H.F.; Mandry, S.; Page, R.F.; Velthuis, J.J.; Attie, D.; Calvet, D.; Colas, P.; Coppolani, X.; Degerli, Y.; Delagnes, E.; Gelin, M.; Giomataris, I.; Lutz, P.; Orsini, F.; Rialot, M.; Senee, F.; Wang, W.; Alozy, J.; Apostolakis, J.; Aspell, P.; Bergsma, F.; Campbell, M.; Formenti, F.; Santos, H.Franca; Garcia, E.Garcia; de Gaspari, M.; Giudice, P.A.; Grefe, Ch.; Grichine, V.; Hauschild, M.; Ivantchenko, V.; Kehrli, A.; Kloukinas, K.; Linssen, L.; Cudie, X.Llopart; Marchioro, A.; Musa, L.; Ribon, A.; Trampitsch, G.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Anduze, M.; Beyer, E.; Bonnemaison, A.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.C.; Cauchois, A.; Clerc, C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Jauffret, C.; Jeans, D.; Karar, A.; Mathieu, A.; de Freitas, P.Mora; Musat, G.; Rouge, A.; Ruan, M.; Vanel, J.C.; Videau, H.; Besson, A.; de Masi, G.Claus.R.; Doziere, G.; Dulinski, W.; Goffe, M.; Himmi, A.; Hu-Guo, Ch.; Morel, F.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Bonis, J.; Callier, S.; Cornebise, P.; Dulucq, F.; Giannelli, M.Faucci; Fleury, J.; Guilhem, G.; Martin-Chassard, G.; de la Taille, Ch.; Poschl, R.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Wicek, F.; Benyamna, M.; Bonnard, J.; Carloganu, C.; Fehr, F.; Gay, P.; Mannen, S.; Royer, L.; Charpy, A.; Da Silva, W.; David, J.; Dhellot, M.; Imbault, D.; Ghislain, P.; Kapusta, F.; Pham, T.Hung; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Sefri, R.; Dzahini, D.; Giraud, J.; Grondin, D.; Hostachy, J.Y.; Morin, L.; Bassignana, D.; Pellegrini, G.; Lozano, M.; Quirion, D.; Fernandez, M.; Jaramillo, R.; Munoz, F.J.; Vila, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Drasal, Z.; Kodys, P.; Kvasnicka, P.; Aplin, S.; Bachynska, O.; Behnke, T.; Behr, J.; Dehmelt, K.; Engels, J.; Gadow, K.; Gaede, F.; Garutti, E.; Gottlicher, P.; Gregor, I.M.; Haas, T.; Henschel, H.; Koetz, U.; Lange, W.; Libov, V.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mnich, J.; Muhl, C.; Ohlerich, M.; Potylitsina-Kube, N.; Prahl, V.; Reinecke, M.; Roloff, P.; Rosemann, Ch.; Rubinski, Igor; Schade, P.; Schuwalov, S.; Sefkow, F.; Terwort, M.; Volkenborn, R.; Kalliopuska, J.; Mehtaelae, P.; Orava, R.; van Remortel, N.; Cvach, J.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Friedl, M.; Haensel, S.; Irmler, C.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Krammer, M.; Valentan, M.; Piemontese, L.; Cotta-Ramusino, A.; Bulgheroni, A.; Jastrzab, M.; Caccia, M.; Re, V.; Ratti, L.; Traversi, G.; Dewulf, J.P.; Janssen, X.; De Lentdecker, G.; Yang, Y.; Bryngemark, L.; Christiansen, P.; Gross, P.; Jonsson, L.; Ljunggren, M.; Lundberg, B.; Mjornmark, U.; Oskarsson, A.; Richert, T.; Stenlund, E.; Osterman, L.; Rummel, S.; Richter, R.; Andricek, L.; Ninkovich, J.; Koffmane, Ch.; Moser, H.G.; Boisvert, V.; Green, B.; Green, M.G.; Misiejuk, A.; Wu, T.; Bilevych, Y.; Carballo, V.M.Blanco; Chefdeville, M.; de Nooij, L.; Fransen, M.; Hartjes, F.; van der Graaf, H.; Timmermans, J.; Abramowicz, H.; Ben-Hamu, Y.; Jikhleb, I.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Levy, I.; Sadeh, I.; Schwartz, R.; Stern, A.; Goodrick, M.J.; Hommels, L.B.A.; Ward, R.Shaw.D.R.; Daniluk, W.; Kielar, E.; Kotula, J.; Moszczynski, A.; Oliwa, K.; Pawlik, B.; Wierba, W.; Zawiejski, L.; Bailey, D.S.; Kelly, M.; Eigen, G.; Brezina, Ch.; Desch, K.; Furletova, J.; Kaminski, J.; Killenberg, M.; Kockner, F.; Krautscheid, T.; Kruger, H.; Reuen, L.; Wienemann, P.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Bartsch, V.; Postranecky, M.; Warren, M.; Wing, M.; Corrin, E.; Haas, D.; Pohl, M.; Diener, R.; Fischer, P.; Peric, I.; Kaukher, A.; Schafer, O.; Schroder, H.; Wurth, R.; Zarnecki, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    The EUDET-project was launched to create an infrastructure for developing and testing new and advanced detector technologies to be used at a future linear collider. The aim was to make possible experimentation and analysis of data for institutes, which otherwise could not be realized due to lack of resources. The infrastructure comprised an analysis and software network, and instrumentation infrastructures for tracking detectors as well as for calorimetry.

  15. Information infrastructure(s) boundaries, ecologies, multiplicity

    CERN Document Server

    Mongili, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This book marks an important contribution to the fascinating debate on the role that information infrastructures and boundary objects play in contemporary life, bringing to the fore the concern of how cooperation across different groups is enabled, but also constrained, by the material and immaterial objects connecting them. As such, the book itself is situated at the crossroads of various paths and genealogies, all focusing on the problem of the intersection between different levels of scale...

  16. Chef infrastructure automation cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Marschall, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Chef Infrastructure Automation Cookbook contains practical recipes on everything you will need to automate your infrastructure using Chef. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to automate your server and cloud infrastructure.The book first shows you the simplest way to achieve a certain task. Then it explains every step in detail, so that you can build your knowledge about how things work. Eventually, the book shows you additional things to consider for each approach. That way, you can learn step-by-step and build profound knowledge on how to go about your configuration management

  17. Distribution of green infrastructure along walkable roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-income and minority neighborhoods frequently lack healthful resources to which wealthier communities have access. Though important, the addition of facilities such as recreation centers can be costly and take time to implement. Urban green infrastructure, such as street trees...

  18. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  19. PRACE - The European HPC Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmeyer, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The mission of PRACE (Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe) is to enable high impact scientific discovery and engineering research and development across all disciplines to enhance European competitiveness for the benefit of society. PRACE seeks to realize this mission by offering world class computing and data management resources and services through a peer review process. This talk gives a general overview about PRACE and the PRACE research infrastructure (RI). PRACE is established as an international not-for-profit association and the PRACE RI is a pan-European supercomputing infrastructure which offers access to computing and data management resources at partner sites distributed throughout Europe. Besides a short summary about the organization, history, and activities of PRACE, it is explained how scientists and researchers from academia and industry from around the world can access PRACE systems and which education and training activities are offered by PRACE. The overview also contains a selection of PRACE contributions to societal challenges and ongoing activities. Examples of the latter are beside others petascaling, application benchmark suite, best practice guides for efficient use of key architectures, application enabling / scaling, new programming models, and industrial applications. The Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) is an international non-profit association with its seat in Brussels. The PRACE Research Infrastructure provides a persistent world-class high performance computing service for scientists and researchers from academia and industry in Europe. The computer systems and their operations accessible through PRACE are provided by 4 PRACE members (BSC representing Spain, CINECA representing Italy, GCS representing Germany and GENCI representing France). The Implementation Phase of PRACE receives funding from the EU's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreements RI-261557, RI-283493 and RI

  20. Refinement of Parallel and Reactive Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Back, R. J. R.

    1992-01-01

    We show how to apply the refinement calculus to stepwise refinement of parallel and reactive programs. We use action systems as our basic program model. Action systems are sequential programs which can be implemented in a parallel fashion. Hence refinement calculus methods, originally developed for sequential programs, carry over to the derivation of parallel programs. Refinement of reactive programs is handled by data refinement techniques originally developed for the sequential refinement c...

  1. A grid-enabled web service for low-resolution crystal structure refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Daniel J; Stokes-Rees, Ian; Nam, Yunsun; Blacklow, Stephen C; Schröder, Gunnar F; Brunger, Axel T; Sliz, Piotr

    2012-03-01

    Deformable elastic network (DEN) restraints have proved to be a powerful tool for refining structures from low-resolution X-ray crystallographic data sets. Unfortunately, optimal refinement using DEN restraints requires extensive calculations and is often hindered by a lack of access to sufficient computational resources. The DEN web service presented here intends to provide structural biologists with access to resources for running computationally intensive DEN refinements in parallel on the Open Science Grid, the US cyberinfrastructure. Access to the grid is provided through a simple and intuitive web interface integrated into the SBGrid Science Portal. Using this portal, refinements combined with full parameter optimization that would take many thousands of hours on standard computational resources can now be completed in several hours. An example of the successful application of DEN restraints to the human Notch1 transcriptional complex using the grid resource, and summaries of all submitted refinements, are presented as justification.

  2. Infrastructure Area Simplification Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Field, L.

    2011-01-01

    The infrastructure area simplification plan was presented at the 3rd EMI All Hands Meeting in Padova. This plan only affects the information and accounting systems as the other areas are new in EMI and hence do not require simplification.

  3. IPHE Infrastructure Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-02-01

    This proceedings contains information from the IPHE Infrastructure Workshop, a two-day interactive workshop held on February 25-26, 2010, to explore the market implementation needs for hydrogen fueling station development.

  4. EV Charging Infrastructure Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karner, Donald [Electric Transportation Inc., Rogers, AR (United States); Garetson, Thomas [Electric Transportation Inc., Rogers, AR (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    As highlighted in the U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge, vehicle technology is advancing toward an objective to “… produce plug-in electric vehicles that are as affordable and convenient for the average American family as today’s gasoline-powered vehicles …” [1] by developing more efficient drivetrains, greater battery energy storage per dollar, and lighter-weight vehicle components and construction. With this technology advancement and improved vehicle performance, the objective for charging infrastructure is to promote vehicle adoption and maximize the number of electric miles driven. The EV Everywhere Charging Infrastructure Roadmap (hereafter referred to as Roadmap) looks forward and assumes that the technical challenges and vehicle performance improvements set forth in the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge will be met. The Roadmap identifies and prioritizes deployment of charging infrastructure in support of this charging infrastructure objective for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge

  5. Pennsylvania Reaches Infrastructure Milestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    With a series of “aye” votes, the Pennsylvania agency that turns EPA funding and state financing into water infrastructure projects crossed a key threshold recently – $8 billion in investment over nearly three decades

  6. EV Charging Infrastructure Roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karner, Donald; Garetson, Thomas; Francfort, Jim

    2016-01-01

    As highlighted in the U.S. Department of Energy's EV Everywhere Grand Challenge, vehicle technology is advancing toward an objective to ''... produce plug-in electric vehicles that are as affordable and convenient for the average American family as today's gasoline-powered vehicles ...'' [1] by developing more efficient drivetrains, greater battery energy storage per dollar, and lighter-weight vehicle components and construction. With this technology advancement and improved vehicle performance, the objective for charging infrastructure is to promote vehicle adoption and maximize the number of electric miles driven. The EV Everywhere Charging Infrastructure Roadmap (hereafter referred to as Roadmap) looks forward and assumes that the technical challenges and vehicle performance improvements set forth in the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge will be met. The Roadmap identifies and prioritizes deployment of charging infrastructure in support of this charging infrastructure objective for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge

  7. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  8. Mixing Metaphors: Building Infrastructure for Large Scale School Turnaround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurach, Donald J.; Neumerski, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to increase understanding of the possibilities and challenges of building educational infrastructure--the basic, foundational structures, systems, and resources--to support large-scale school turnaround. Building educational infrastructure often exceeds the capacity of schools, districts, and state education…

  9. Clarkesville Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report outlines the 2012 technical assistance for Clarkesville, GA to develop a Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy, which provides the basic building blocks for a green infrastructure plan:

  10. Optimally Reorganizing Navy Shore Infrastructure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerman, Mitchell

    1997-01-01

    ...), but infrastructure reductions continue to lag force structure reductions. The United States Navy's recent initiatives to reduce its shore infrastructure costs include "regionalization", "outsourcing," and "homebasing...

  11. Infrastructure Engineering and Deployment Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Volpe's Infrastructure Engineering and Deployment Division advances transportation innovation by being leaders in infrastructure technology, including vehicles and...

  12. MFC Communications Infrastructure Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Cannon; Terry Barney; Gary Cook; George Danklefsen, Jr.; Paul Fairbourn; Susan Gihring; Lisa Stearns

    2012-01-01

    Unprecedented growth of required telecommunications services and telecommunications applications change the way the INL does business today. High speed connectivity compiled with a high demand for telephony and network services requires a robust communications infrastructure.   The current state of the MFC communication infrastructure limits growth opportunities of current and future communication infrastructure services. This limitation is largely due to equipment capacity issues, aging cabling infrastructure (external/internal fiber and copper cable) and inadequate space for telecommunication equipment. While some communication infrastructure improvements have been implemented over time projects, it has been completed without a clear overall plan and technology standard.   This document identifies critical deficiencies with the current state of the communication infrastructure in operation at the MFC facilities and provides an analysis to identify needs and deficiencies to be addressed in order to achieve target architectural standards as defined in STD-170. The intent of STD-170 is to provide a robust, flexible, long-term solution to make communications capabilities align with the INL mission and fit the various programmatic growth and expansion needs.

  13. Building safeguards infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, Rebecca S.; McClelland-Kerr, John

    2009-01-01

    Much has been written in recent years about the nuclear renaissance - the rebirth of nuclear power as a clean and safe source of electricity around the world. Those who question the nuclear renaissance often cite the risk of proliferation, accidents or an attack on a facility as concerns, all of which merit serious consideration. The integration of these three areas - sometimes referred to as 3S, for safety, security and safeguards - is essential to supporting the growth of nuclear power, and the infrastructure that supports them should be strengthened. The focus of this paper will be on the role safeguards plays in the 3S concept and how to support the development of the infrastructure necessary to support safeguards. The objective of this paper has been to provide a working definition of safeguards infrastructure, and to discuss xamples of how building safeguards infrastructure is presented in several models. The guidelines outlined in the milestones document provide a clear path for establishing both the safeguards and the related infrastructures needed to support the development of nuclear power. The model employed by the INSEP program of engaging with partner states on safeguards-related topics that are of current interest to the level of nuclear development in that state provides another way of approaching the concept of building safeguards infrastructure. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative is yet another approach that underscored five principal areas for growth, and the United States commitment to working with partners to promote this growth both at home and abroad.

  14. Romanian refining industry assesses restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanasescu, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Romanian crude oil refining industry, as all the other economic sectors, faces the problems accompanying the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. At present, all refineries have registered as joint-stock companies and all are coordinated and assisted by Rafirom S.A., from both a legal and a production point of view. Rafirom S.A. is a joint-stock company that holds shares in refineries and other stock companies with activities related to oil refining. Such activities include technological research, development, design, transportation, storage, and domestic and foreign marketing. This article outlines the market forces that are expected to: drive rationalization and restructuring of refining operations and define the targets toward which the reconfigured refineries should strive

  15. Data refinement for true concurrency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Dongol

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of modern systems exhibit sophisticated concurrent behaviour, where several system components modify and observe the system state with fine-grained atomicity. Many systems (e.g., multi-core processors, real-time controllers also exhibit truly concurrent behaviour, where multiple events can occur simultaneously. This paper presents data refinement defined in terms of an interval-based framework, which includes high-level operators that capture non-deterministic expression evaluation. By modifying the type of an interval, our theory may be specialised to cover data refinement of both discrete and continuous systems. We present an interval-based encoding of forward simulation, then prove that our forward simulation rule is sound with respect to our data refinement definition. A number of rules for decomposing forward simulation proofs over both sequential and parallel composition are developed.

  16. Bauxite Mining and Alumina Refining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Neale; Olney, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe bauxite mining and alumina refining processes and to outline the relevant physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial health risks. Methods: Review article. Results: The most important risks relate to noise, ergonomics, trauma, and caustic soda splashes of the skin/eyes. Other risks of note relate to fatigue, heat, and solar ultraviolet and for some operations tropical diseases, venomous/dangerous animals, and remote locations. Exposures to bauxite dust, alumina dust, and caustic mist in contemporary best-practice bauxite mining and alumina refining operations have not been demonstrated to be associated with clinically significant decrements in lung function. Exposures to bauxite dust and alumina dust at such operations are also not associated with the incidence of cancer. Conclusions: A range of occupational health risks in bauxite mining and alumina refining require the maintenance of effective control measures. PMID:24806720

  17. Bridge resource program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The mission of Rutgers Universitys Center for Advanced Infrastructure and Transportation (CAIT) Bridge Resource Program (BRP) is to provide bridge engineering support to the New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT)s Bridge Engineering an...

  18. Northeast Asia regional energy infrastructure proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippel, David von; Gulidov, Ruslan; Kalashnikov, Victor; Hayes, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Economic growth in the countries of Northeast Asia has spurred a massive increase in the need for energy, especially oil, gas, coal, and electricity. Although the region, taken as a whole, possesses financial, technical, labor, and natural resources sufficient to address much of the region's needs now and into the future, no one country has all of those attributes. As a result, over the past two decades, there has been significant interest in regional proposals that would allow sharing of resources, including infrastructure to develop and transport energy resources from the Russian Far East to South Korea, China, and Japan, and cooperation on energy-efficiency, renewable energy, and the nuclear fuel cycle as well. In this article we review some of these proposals, identify some of the factors that could contribute to the success or failure of infrastructure proposals, and explore some of the implications and ramifications of energy cooperation activities for energy security in the region.

  19. Structured Cloud Federation for Carrier and ISP Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Xhagjika, Vamis; Vlassov, Vladimir; Molin, Magnus; Toma, Simona

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Computing in recent years has seen enhanced growth and extensive support by the research community and industry. The advent of cloud computing realized the concept of commodity computing, in which infrastructure (resources) can be allocated on demand giving the illusion of infinite resource availability. The state-of-art Carrier and ISP infrastructure technology is composed of tightly coupled software services with the underlying customized hardware architecture. The fast growth of clou...

  20. Assessing Vulnerabilities, Risks, and Consequences of Damage to Critical Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suski, N.; Wuest, C.

    2011-01-01

    Since the publication of 'Critical Foundations: Protecting America's Infrastructure,' there has been a keen understanding of the complexity, interdependencies, and shared responsibility required to protect the nation's most critical assets that are essential to our way of life. The original 5 sectors defined in 1997 have grown to 18 Critical Infrastructures and Key Resources (CIKR), which are discussed in the 2009 National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) and its supporting sector-specific plans. The NIPP provides the structure for a national program dedicated to enhanced protection and resiliency of the nation's infrastructure. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides in-depth, multi-disciplinary assessments of threat, vulnerability, and consequence across all 18 sectors at scales ranging from specific facilities to infrastructures spanning multi-state regions, such as the Oil and Natural Gas (ONG) sector. Like many of the CIKR sectors, the ONG sector is comprised of production, processing, distribution, and storage of highly valuable and potentially dangerous commodities. Furthermore, there are significant interdependencies with other sectors, including transportation, communication, finance, and government. Understanding the potentially devastating consequences and collateral damage resulting from a terrorist attack or natural event is an important element of LLNL's infrastructure security programs. Our work began in the energy sector in the late 1990s and quickly expanded other critical infrastructure sectors. We have performed over 600 physical assessments with a particular emphasis on those sectors that utilize, store, or ship potentially hazardous materials and for whom cyber security is important. The success of our approach is based on building awareness of vulnerabilities and risks and working directly with industry partners to collectively advance infrastructure protection. This approach consists of three phases: The Pre

  1. Pacific Basin Heavy Oil Refining Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hackett

    2013-02-01

    additional refineries, both of which are not expected, given the volume of lighter and more valuable crude from the Middle East finding its way to Pacific Basin markets. Consequently, any new refinery capacity is not likely to be dedicated to Canadian crude shipments. This places increasing importance on the need to enter into long-term contracts to supply Pacific Basin refineries, backed up by evidence of adequate transportation capacity. Canadians will have to show first, and quickly, that we are committed to building pipelines that will bring sufficient volumes of oil to the Pacific coast necessary to give the refiners the certainty they need to invest in infrastructure for refining Canadian oil. Access to this crucial market will depend critically on the outcome of the pipeline approval process, and also the cost to ship from Canada. If Canada does not approve of the Pacific coast pipeline expansions, or takes too long in doing so, it could find its crude unable to effectively penetrate the world’s most promising oil export market.

  2. Bitumen to refined products and petrochemicals : a preliminary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, G.

    2004-01-01

    Purvin and Gertz is an energy consulting firm that provides advise to the energy sector. A review of western Canadian crude oil supply suggests that oil sands production will surpass declining conventional production. Oil sands supply includes synthetic crude oil (SCO), bitumen and diluent. It is expected that oil sands will increase from 42 per cent of western supply in 2002 to 78 per cent in 2015. This presentation reviewed the potential of Alberta's oil sands and presented a recent study of refined products and petrochemicals from bitumen. Upgrading, refining and petrochemical case studies were presented. In particular, the author examined if a Canadian oil sands upgrading project with high capital costs can be competitive with competing projects in the United States and internationally. In addition to supply and demand issues, the presentation examined infrastructure capability and market potential in the United States. The economic potential and risks of preferred business cases compared to upgrading to SCO were also evaluated. tabs., figs

  3. China expands refining sector to handle booming oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    China's refining sector is in the midst of a major expansion and reorganization in response to booming domestic demand for petroleum products. Plans call for hiking crude processing capacity to 3.9 million b/d in 1995 from the current 3.085 million b/d. Much of that 26% increase will come where the products demand growth is the strongest: China's coastal provinces, notably those in the southeast. Despite the demand surge, China's refineries operated at only 74% of capacity in 1991, and projections for 1992 weren't much better. Domestic crude supply is limited because of Beijing's insistence on maintaining crude export levels, a major source of hard currency foreign exchange. The paper discusses the superheated demand; exports and imports; the refining infrastructure; the Shenzhen refinery; Hong Kong demand; southeast coast demand; 1993 plans; and foreign investment

  4. Development Model for Research Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wächter, Joachim; Hammitzsch, Martin; Kerschke, Dorit; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    Research infrastructures (RIs) are platforms integrating facilities, resources and services used by the research communities to conduct research and foster innovation. RIs include scientific equipment, e.g., sensor platforms, satellites or other instruments, but also scientific data, sample repositories or archives. E-infrastructures on the other hand provide the technological substratum and middleware to interlink distributed RI components with computing systems and communication networks. The resulting platforms provide the foundation for the design and implementation of RIs and play an increasing role in the advancement and exploitation of knowledge and technology. RIs are regarded as essential to achieve and maintain excellence in research and innovation crucial for the European Research Area (ERA). The implementation of RIs has to be considered as a long-term, complex development process often over a period of 10 or more years. The ongoing construction of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) provides a good example for the general complexity of infrastructure development processes especially in system-of-systems environments. A set of directives issued by the European Commission provided a framework of guidelines for the implementation processes addressing the relevant content and the encoding of data as well as the standards for service interfaces and the integration of these services into networks. Additionally, a time schedule for the overall construction process has been specified. As a result this process advances with a strong participation of member states and responsible organisations. Today, SDIs provide the operational basis for new digital business processes in both national and local authorities. Currently, the development of integrated RIs in Earth and Environmental Sciences is characterised by the following properties: • A high number of parallel activities on European and national levels with numerous institutes and organisations participating

  5. Refining Nodes and Edges of State Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Snook, Colin

    2011-01-01

    State machines are hierarchical automata that are widely used to structure complex behavioural specifications. We develop two notions of refinement of state machines, node refinement and edge refinement. We compare the two notions by means of examples and argue that, by adopting simple conventions...... refinement theory and UML-B state machine refinement influences the style of node refinement. Hence we propose a method with direct proof of state machine refinement avoiding the detour via Event-B that is needed by UML-B....

  6. Process for refining shale bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plauson, H

    1920-09-19

    A process is disclosed for refining shale bitumen for use as heavy mineral oil, characterized by mixtures of blown hard shale pitch and heavy mineral oil being blown with hot air at temperatures of 120 to 150/sup 0/ with 1 to 3 percent sulfur, and if necessary with 0.5 to 3 percent of an aldehyde.

  7. Panorama 2007: Refining and Petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.

    2007-01-01

    The year 2005 saw a new improvement in refining margins that continued during the first three quarters of 2006. The restoration of margins in the last three years has allowed the refining sector to regain its profitability. In this context, the oil companies reported earnings for fiscal year 2005 that were up significantly compared to 2004, and the figures for the first half-year 2006 confirm this trend. Despite this favorable business environment, investments only saw a minimal increase in 2005 and the improvement expected for 2006 should remain fairly limited. Looking to 2010-2015, it would appear that the planned investment projects with the highest probability of reaching completion will be barely adequate to cover the increase in demand. Refining sector should continue to find itself under pressure. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady up-trend in the naphtha price, the restoration of margins consolidated a comeback that started in 2005. All in all, capital expenditure remained fairly low in both the refining and petrochemicals sectors, but many projects are planned for the next ten years. (author)

  8. Multigrid for refined triangle meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapira, Yair

    1997-02-01

    A two-level preconditioning method for the solution of (locally) refined finite element schemes using triangle meshes is introduced. In the isotropic SPD case, it is shown that the condition number of the preconditioned stiffness matrix is bounded uniformly for all sufficiently regular triangulations. This is also verified numerically for an isotropic diffusion problem with highly discontinuous coefficients.

  9. THE STUDY OF THE FORECASTING PROCESS INFRASTRUCTURAL SUPPORT BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sibirskaia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. When forecasting the necessary infrastructural support entrepreneurship predict rational distribution of the potential and expected results based on capacity development component of infrastructural maintenance, efficient use of resources, expertise and development of regional economies, the rationalization of administrative decisions, etc. According to the authors, the process of predicting business infrastructure software includes the following steps: analysis of the existing infrastructure support business to the top of the forecast period, the structure of resources, identifying disparities, their causes, identifying positive trends in the analysis and the results of research; research component of infrastructural support entrepreneurship, assesses complex system of social relations, institutions, structures and objects made findings and conclusions of the study; identification of areas of strategic change and the possibility of eliminating weaknesses and imbalances, identifying prospects for the development of entrepreneurship; identifying a set of factors and conditions affecting each component of infrastructure software, calculated the degree of influence of each of them and the total effect of all factors; adjustment indicators infrastructure forecasts. Research of views of category says a method of strategic planning and forecasting that methods of strategic planning are considered separately from forecasting methods. In a combination methods of strategic planning and forecasting, in relation to infrastructure ensuring business activity aren't given in literature. Nevertheless, authors consider that this category should be defined for the characteristic of the intrinsic and substantial nature of strategic planning and forecasting of infrastructure ensuring business activity.processing.

  10. A sociotechnical framework for understanding infrastructure breakdown and repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, Benjamin H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at how and why infrastructure is repaired. With a new era of infrastructure spending underway, policymakers need to understand and anticipate the particular technical and political challenges posed by infrastructure repair. In particular, as infrastructure problems are increasingly in the public eye with current economic stimulus efforts, the question has increasingly been asked: why has it been so difficult for the United Statesto devote sustained resources to maintaining and upgrading its national infrastructure? This paper provides a sociotechnical framework for understanding the challenges of infrastructure repair, and demonstrates this framework using a case study of seismic retrofit of freeway bridges in California. The design of infrastructure is quite different from other types of design work even when new infrastructure is being designed. Infrastructure projects are almost always situated within, and must work with, existing infrastructure networks. As a result, compared to design of more discrete technological artifacts, the design of infrastructure systems requires a great deal of attention to interfaces as well as adaptation of design to the constraints imposed by existing systems. Also, because of their scale, infrastructural technologies engage with social life at a level where explicit political agendas may playa central role in the design process. The design and building of infrastructure is therefore often an enormously complex feat of sociotechnical engineering, in which technical and political agendas are negotiated together until an outcome is reached that allows the project to move forward. These sociotechnical settlements often result in a complex balancing of powerful interests around infrastructural artifacts; at the same time, less powerful interests have historically often been excluded or marginalized from such settlements.

  11. Building safeguards infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland-Kerr, J.; Stevens, J.

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written in recent years about the nuclear renaissance - the rebirth of nuclear power as a clean and safe source of electricity around the world. Those who question the nuclear renaissance often cite the risk of proliferation, accidents or an attack on a facility as concerns, all of which merit serious consideration. The integration of three areas - sometimes referred to as 3S, for safety, security and safeguards - is essential to supporting the clean and safe growth of nuclear power, and the infrastructure that supports these three areas should be robust. The focus of this paper will be on the development of the infrastructure necessary to support safeguards, and the integration of safeguards infrastructure with other elements critical to ensuring nuclear energy security

  12. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute (GNEII) Four Years On

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, Robert J.; Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Solodov, Alexander; Beeley, Philip A.; Boyle, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: What is GNEII? • Regionally based Institution → human resource capability → Future decision makers → managers & regulators. • Education & Development → Nuclear energy infrastructure → Integrated safeguards, safety, and security (3S) → Nuclear power fundamentals. • Strategic effort → Coordinated partnership → Responsible national nuclear energy program → Regional context. Why GNEII? • Build indigenous human resources → Education, Research, Technical capacity → Integrated 3S Systems Approach - coupled with - Nuclear Energy Infrastructure. • GNEII Addresses a Need → Increased nuclear power demand → Regional Nuclear Infrastructure → GNEII is a sustainable mechanism for developing a responsible nuclear energy program

  13. Economics in Criticality and Restoration of Energy Infrastructures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Gale A.; Flaim, Silvio J.; Folga, Stephen M.; Gotham, Douglas J.; McLamore, Michael R.; Novak, Mary H.; Roop, Joe M.; Rossmann, Charles G.; Shamsuddin, Shabbir A.; Zeichner, Lee M.; Stamber, Kevin L.

    2005-03-01

    Economists, systems analysts, engineers, regulatory specialists, and other experts were assembled from academia, the national laboratories, and the energy industry to discuss present restoration practices (many have already been defined to the level of operational protocols) in the sectors of the energy infrastructure as well as other infrastructures, to identify whether economics, a discipline concerned with the allocation of scarce resources, is explicitly or implicitly a part of restoration strategies, and if there are novel economic techniques and solution methods that could be used help encourage the restoration of energy services more quickly than present practices or to restore service more efficiently from an economic perspective. AcknowledgementsDevelopment of this work into a coherent product with a useful message has occurred thanks to the thoughtful support of several individuals:Kenneth Friedman, Department of Energy, Office of Energy Assurance, provided the impetus for the work, as well as several suggestions and reminders of direction along the way. Funding from DOE/OEA was critical to the completion of this effort.Arnold Baker, Chief Economist, Sandia National Laboratories, and James Peerenboom, Director, Infrastructure Assurance Center, Argonne National Laboratory, provided valuable contacts that helped to populate the authoring team with the proper mix of economists, engineers, and systems and regulatory specialists to meet the objectives of the work.Several individuals provided valuable review of the document at various stages of completion, and provided suggestions that were valuable to the editing process. This list of reviewers includes Jeffrey Roark, Economist, Tennessee Valley Authority; James R. Dalrymple, Manager of Transmission System Services and Transmission/Power Supply, Tennessee Valley Authority; William Mampre, Vice President, EN Engineering; Kevin Degenstein, EN Engineering; and Patrick Wilgang, Department of Energy, Office of

  14. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II.

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10 degrees to 20 degrees API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state's total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation's energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska's 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources

  15. The ATLAS Simulation Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Amorim, A.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Bach, A.M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baker, S; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bates, R.L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Becerici, N.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G.P.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Boser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodet, E.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A.G.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Buscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urban, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Calvet, D.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M.D.M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G.D.; Carron Montero, S.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M.P.; Cascella, M.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N.F.; Cataldi, G.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J.R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S.A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapman, J.D.; Chapman, J.W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D.G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Tcherniatine, V.; Chesneanu, D.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S.L.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J.T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I.A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M.L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M.D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P.J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J.C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Colijn, A.P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N.J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muino, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B.D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Cooper-Smith, N.J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Cote, D.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B.E.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crepe-Renaudin, S.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C.J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallison, S.J.; Daly, C.H.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G.L.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, M.; Davison, A.R.; Dawson, I.; Daya, R.K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Castro Faria Salgado, P.E.; De Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De Mora, L.; De Oliveira Branco, M.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J.B.; De Zorzi, G.; Dean, S.; Dedovich, D.V.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P.A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Deng, W.; Denisov, S.P.; Derkaoui, J.E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Luise, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M.A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E.B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T.A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M.A.B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T.K.O.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Dohmae, T.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M.T.; Doxiadis, A.; Doyle, A.T.; Drasal, Z.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Duhrssen, M.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M-A.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Dushkin, A.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Duren, M.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Ebke, J.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C.A.; Egorov, K.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ermoline, I.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A.I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Facius, K.; Fakhrutdinov, R.M.; Falciano, S.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrington, S.M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Fayard, L.; Fayette, F.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O.L.; Fedorko, W.; Feligioni, L.; Felzmann, C.U.; Feng, C.; Feng, E.J.; Fenyuk, A.B.; Ferencei, J.; Ferland, J.; Fernandes, B.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrara, V.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipcic, A.; Filippas, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiolhais, M.C.N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fisher, M.J.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Flick, T.; Flores Castillo, L.R.; Flowerdew, M.J.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Fournier, D.; Fowler, A.J.; Fowler, K.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; Freestone, J.; French, S.T.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J.A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gadfort, T.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Gallas, E.J.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B.J.; Gallus, P.; Galyaev, E.; Gan, K.K.; Gao, Y.S.; Gaponenko, A.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Garcia, C.; Garcia Navarro, J.E.; Gardner, R.W.; Garelli, N.; Garitaonandia, H.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gautard, V.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I.L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E.N.; Ge, P.; Gee, C.N.P.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M.H.; Gentile, S.; Georgatos, F.; George, S.; Gershon, A.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, A.; Gibson, S.M.; Gilbert, L.M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gilewsky, V.; Gingrich, D.M.; Ginzburg, J.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M.P.; Giordano, R.; Giorgi, F.M.; Giovannini, P.; Giraud, P.F.; Girtler, P.; Giugni, D.; Giusti, P.; Gjelsten, B.K.; Gladilin, L.K.; Glasman, C.; Glazov, A.; Glitza, K.W.; Glonti, G.L.; Godfrey, J.; Godlewski, J.; Goebel, M.; Gopfert, T.; Goeringer, C.; Gossling, C.; Gottfert, T.; Goggi, V.; Goldfarb, S.; Goldin, D.; Golling, T.; Gomes, A.; Gomez Fajardo, L.S.; Goncalo, R.; Gonella, L.; Gong, C.; Gonzalez de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Silva, M.L.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodson, J.J.; Goossens, L.; Gordon, H.A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorisek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Gosdzik, B.; Gosselink, M.; Gostkin, M.I.; Gough Eschrich, I.; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M.P.; Goussiou, A.G.; Goy, C.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grafstrom, P.; Grahn, K-J.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Grau, N.; Gray, H.M.; Gray, J.A.; Graziani, E.; Green, B.; Greenshaw, T.; Greenwood, Z.D.; Gregor, I.M.; Grenier, P.; Griesmayer, E.; Griffiths, J.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grillo, A.A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Grishkevich, Y.V.; Groh, M.; Groll, M.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Groth-Jensen, J.; Grybel, K.; Guicheney, C.; Guida, A.; Guillemin, T.; Guler, H.; Gunther, J.; Guo, B.; Gupta, A.; Gusakov, Y.; Gutierrez, A.; Gutierrez, P.; Guttman, N.; Gutzwiller, O.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C.B.; Haas, A.; Haas, S.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H.K.; Hadley, D.R.; Haefner, P.; Hartel, R.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haller, J.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, A.; Hamilton, S.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hance, M.; Handel, C.; Hanke, P.; Hansen, J.R.; Hansen, J.B.; Hansen, J.D.; Hansen, P.H.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Hansson, P.; Hara, K.; Hare, G.A.; Harenberg, T.; Harrington, R.D.; Harris, O.M.; Harrison, K; Hartert, J.; Hartjes, F.; Harvey, A.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hashemi, K.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.J.; Hayakawa, T.; Hayward, H.S.; Haywood, S.J.; Head, S.J.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; 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Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B.H.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H.G.; Sanders, M.P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandhu, P.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sanny, B.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sasaki, O.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Savard, P.; Savine, A.Y.; Savinov, V.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D.H.; Says, L.P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scannicchio, D.A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schafer, U.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A.C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schamov, A.G.; Schegelsky, V.A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M.I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitz, M.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schreiner, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schroers, M.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schumacher, J.W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B.A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W.G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S.C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J.M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D.M.; Sellden, B.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M.E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L.Y.; Shank, J.T.; Shao, Q.T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P.B.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M.J.; Shupe, M.A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S.B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N.B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.; Sjoelin, J.; Sjursen, T.B.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Sluka, T.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S.Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L.N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B.C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K.M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A.A.; Snow, S.W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C.A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A.A.; Solovyanov, O.V.; Soluk, R.; Sondericker, J.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Spencer, E.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R.D.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S.N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R.W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E.A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stastny, J.; Stavina, P.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H.J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G.A.; Stockton, M.C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Strohmer, R.; Strom, D.M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Soh, D.A.; Su, D.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V.V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.H.; Sundermann, J.E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M.R.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szymocha, T.; Sanchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M.C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F.E.; Taylor, G.N.; Taylor, R.P.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P.K.; Tennenbaum-Katan, Y.D.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R.J.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Thompson, E.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, R.J.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, E.; Thun, R.P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Tikhonov, Y.A.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F.J.; Tisserant, S.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokar, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N.D.; Torrence, E.; Torro Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D.R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T.N.; Tripiana, M.F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocme, B.; Troncon, C.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J.C-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P.V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E.G.; Tsukerman, I.I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuggle, J.M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P.M.; Twomey, M.S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J.A.; Van Berg, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E.G.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Weber, M.D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S.R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilkens, H.G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Wynne, B.M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zivkovic, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    The simulation software for the ATLAS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is being used for large-scale production of events on the LHC Computing Grid. This simulation requires many components, from the generators that simulate particle collisions, through packages simulating the response of the various detectors and triggers. All of these components come together under the ATLAS simulation infrastructure. In this paper, that infrastructure is discussed, including that supporting the detector description, interfacing the event generation, and combining the GEANT4 simulation of the response of the individual detectors. Also described are the tools allowing the software validation, performance testing, and the validation of the simulated output against known physics processes.

  16. Making Energy Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schick, Lea; Winthereik, Brit Ross

    2016-01-01

    in a pragmatic present and in an unprecedented future; between being tied to the specific site of the competition and belonging to no place in particular; and not least between being predominantly an art project and primarily an infrastructure project. Remarkable differences between cosmopolitics and smooth...... politics appear here, especially compared to the literature analysing the roles played by art and design when imagining new ways of living with energy. Oscillation between smooth politics and cosmopolitics may provide a generative way forward for actors wishing to engage in the infrastructuring...

  17. Transformation of technical infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    , the evolution of large technological systems and theories about organisational and technological transformationprocesses. The empirical work consist of three analysis at three different levels: socio-technical descriptions of each sector, an envestigation of one municipality and envestigations of one workshop......The scope of the project is to investigate the possibillities of - and the barriers for a transformation of technical infrastructure conserning energy, water and waste. It focus on urban ecology as a transformation strategy. The theoretical background of the project is theories about infrastructure...

  18. VADMC: The Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Sidaner Pierre

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC; http://www.vamdc.eu is a European-Union-funded collaboration between several groups involved in the generation, evaluation, and use of atomic and molecular data. VAMDC aims at building a secure, documented, flexible and interoperable e-Science environment-based interface to existing atomic and molecular databases. The global infrastructure of this project uses technologies derived from the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA. The infrastructure, as well as the first database prototypes will be described.

  19. Bandwidth Analysis of Smart Meter Network Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balachandran, Kardi; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is a net-work infrastructure in Smart Grid, which links the electricity customers to the utility company. This network enables smart services by making it possible for the utility company to get an overview of their customers power consumption and also control...... devices in their costumers household e.g. heat pumps. With these smart services, utility companies can do load balancing on the grid by shifting load using resources the customers have. The problem investigated in this paper is what bandwidth require-ments can be expected when implementing such network...... to utilize smart meters and which existing broadband network technologies can facilitate this smart meter service. Initially, scenarios for smart meter infrastructure are identified. The paper defines abstraction models which cover the AMI scenarios. When the scenario has been identified a general overview...

  20. Engineering economics and finance for transportation infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Prassas, Elena S

    2013-01-01

    Transportation infrastructure is often referred to as society’s bloodstream.  It allows for the movement of people and goods to provide the ability to optimize the production and distribution of goods in an effective and efficient manner, and to provide personal opportunities for employment, recreation, education, health care, and other vital activities.   At the same time, the costs to provide, maintain, and operate this complex infrastructure are enormous.  Because so much of the economic resources to be invested come from public funds, it is critical that expenditures are made in a manner that provides society with the best possible return on the investment.  Further, it is important that sufficient investment is made available, and the costs of the investment are equitably borne by taxpayers.   This textbook provides a fundamental overview of the application of engineering economic principles to transportation infrastructure investments.  Basic theory is presented and illustrated with examples spe...

  1. Systematic risk assessment methodology for critical infrastructure elements - Oil and Gas subsectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiu, A.-D.; Ozunu, A.

    2012-04-01

    The concern for the protection of critical infrastructure has been rapidly growing in the last few years in Europe. The level of knowledge and preparedness in this field is beginning to develop in a lawfully organized manner, for the identification and designation of critical infrastructure elements of national and European interest. Oil and gas production, refining, treatment, storage and transmission by pipelines facilities, are considered European critical infrastructure sectors, as per Annex I of the Council Directive 2008/114/EC of 8 December 2008 on the identification and designation of European critical infrastructures and the assessment of the need to improve their protection. Besides identifying European and national critical infrastructure elements, member states also need to perform a risk analysis for these infrastructure items, as stated in Annex II of the above mentioned Directive. In the field of risk assessment, there are a series of acknowledged and successfully used methods in the world, but not all hazard identification and assessment methods and techniques are suitable for a given site, situation, or type of hazard. As Theoharidou, M. et al. noted (Theoharidou, M., P. Kotzanikolaou, and D. Gritzalis 2009. Risk-Based Criticality Analysis. In Critical Infrastructure Protection III. Proceedings. Third Annual IFIP WG 11.10 International Conference on Critical Infrastructure Protection. Hanover, New Hampshire, USA, March 23-25, 2009: revised selected papers, edited by C. Palmer and S. Shenoi, 35-49. Berlin: Springer.), despite the wealth of knowledge already created, there is a need for simple, feasible, and standardized criticality analyses. The proposed systematic risk assessment methodology includes three basic steps: the first step (preliminary analysis) includes the identification of hazards (including possible natural hazards) for each installation/section within a given site, followed by a criterial analysis and then a detailed analysis step

  2. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality improvement for a knowledge base. To address this problem, we first introduce a concept of semantic constraints that can be used to detect potential errors and do inference among candidate facts. Then, based on semantic constraints, we propose rank-based and graph-based algorithms for crowdsourced knowledge refining, which judiciously select the most beneficial candidate facts to conduct crowdsourcing and prune unnecessary questions. Our experiments show that our method improves the quality of knowledge bases significantly and outperforms state-of-the-art automatic methods under a reasonable crowdsourcing cost.

  3. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Sheng, Victor S; Xian, Xuefeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming

    2017-01-01

    Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality improvement for a knowledge base. To address this problem, we first introduce a concept of semantic constraints that can be used to detect potential errors and do inference among candidate facts. Then, based on semantic constraints, we propose rank-based and graph-based algorithms for crowdsourced knowledge refining, which judiciously select the most beneficial candidate facts to conduct crowdsourcing and prune unnecessary questions. Our experiments show that our method improves the quality of knowledge bases significantly and outperforms state-of-the-art automatic methods under a reasonable crowdsourcing cost.

  4. Aluminium in Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium alloys are used in infrastructures such as pedestrian bridges or parts of it such as handrail. This paper demonstrates that aluminium alloys are in principle also suited for heavy loaded structures, such as decks of traffic bridges and helicopter landing platforms. Recent developments in

  5. CERN printing infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, R; Sucik, J

    2008-01-01

    For many years CERN had a very sophisticated print server infrastructure [13] which supported several different protocols (AppleTalk, IPX and TCP/IP) and many different printing standards. Today's situation differs a lot: we have a much more homogenous network infrastructure, where TCP/IP is used everywhere and we have less printer models, which almost all work using current standards (i.e. they all provide PostScript drivers). This change gave us the possibility to review the printing architecture aiming at simplifying the infrastructure in order to achieve full automation of the service. The new infrastructure offers both: LPD service exposing print queues to Linux and Mac OS X computers and native printing for Windows based clients. The printer driver distribution is automatic and native on Windows and automated by custom mechanisms on Linux, where the appropriate Foomatic drivers are configured. Also the process of printer registration and queue creation is completely automated following the printer registration in the network database. At the end of 2006 we have moved all (∼1200) CERN printers and all users' connections at CERN to the new service. This paper will describe the new architecture and summarize the process of migration

  6. CERN printing infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, R; Sucik, J [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)], E-mail: Rafal.Otto@cern.ch, E-mail: Juraj.Sucik@cern.ch

    2008-07-15

    For many years CERN had a very sophisticated print server infrastructure [13] which supported several different protocols (AppleTalk, IPX and TCP/IP) and many different printing standards. Today's situation differs a lot: we have a much more homogenous network infrastructure, where TCP/IP is used everywhere and we have less printer models, which almost all work using current standards (i.e. they all provide PostScript drivers). This change gave us the possibility to review the printing architecture aiming at simplifying the infrastructure in order to achieve full automation of the service. The new infrastructure offers both: LPD service exposing print queues to Linux and Mac OS X computers and native printing for Windows based clients. The printer driver distribution is automatic and native on Windows and automated by custom mechanisms on Linux, where the appropriate Foomatic drivers are configured. Also the process of printer registration and queue creation is completely automated following the printer registration in the network database. At the end of 2006 we have moved all ({approx}1200) CERN printers and all users' connections at CERN to the new service. This paper will describe the new architecture and summarize the process of migration.

  7. Language Convergence Infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Zaytsev (Vadim); J.M. Fernandes; R. Lämmel (Ralf); J.M.W. Visser (Joost); J. Saraiva

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThe process of grammar convergence involves grammar extraction and transformation for structural equivalence and contains a range of technical challenges. These need to be addressed in order for the method to deliver useful results. The paper describes a DSL and the infrastructure behind

  8. Documentation of Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Workspace

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the software infrastructure developed within the WorkSPACE  project, both from a software architectural point of view and from a user point of  view. We first give an overview of the system architecture, then go on to present the  more prominent features of the 3D graphical...

  9. Serial private infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, V.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates private supply of two congestible infrastructures that are serial, where the consumer has to use both in order to consume. Four market structures are analysed: a monopoly and 3 duopolies that differ in how firms interact. It is well known that private supply leads too high

  10. Building National Healthcare Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Blegind; Thorseng, Anne

    2017-01-01

    This case chapter is about the evolution of the Danish national e-health portal, sundhed.dk, which provides patient-oriented digital services. We present how the organization behind sundhed.dk succeeded in establishing a national healthcare infrastructure by (1) collating and assembling existing...

  11. European refining: evolution or revolution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuthbert, N.

    1999-01-01

    A recent detailed analysis of the refining business in Europe (by Purvin and Gurtz) was used to highlight some key issues facing the industry. The article was written under five sub-sections: (i) economic environment (assessment of the economic prospects for Europe), (ii) energy efficiency and global warming (lists the four points of the EU car makers' voluntary agreement), (iii) fuel quality and refinery investment (iv) refinery capacity and utilisation and (v) industry structure and development. Diagrams show GDP per capita for East and West, European road fuel demand to 2015 and European net trade and European refinery ownership by crude capacity. It was concluded that the future of refining in Europe is 'exciting and challenging' and there are likely to be more large joint venture refineries. (UK)

  12. Uranium refining by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraikaew, J.

    1996-01-01

    The yellow cake refining was studied in both laboratory and semi-pilot scales. The process units mainly consist of dissolution and filtration, solvent extraction, and precipitation and filtration. Effect of flow ratio (organic flow rate/ aqueous flow rate) on working efficiencies of solvent extraction process was studied. Detailed studies were carried out on extraction, scrubbing and stripping processes. Purity of yellow cake product obtained is high as 90.32% U 3 O 8

  13. Process for refining naphthalene, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroff, G

    1922-05-13

    A process is described for the refining of naphthalene, its distillates, and mineral oils by the use of dilute sulfuric acid, characterized in that the oils are oxidized with oxygen of the air and thereafter are treated with 65 to 75 percent sulfuric acid to separate the unsaturated hydrocarbons in the form of polymerized products whereby, if necessary, heating and application of usual or higher pressure can take place.

  14. Preparation of refined oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-02-03

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of refined sulfur-containing oils from sulfur-containing crude oils obtained by distillation of bituminous limestone, characterized by this crude oil being first subjected to a purification by distillation with steam in the known way, then treated with lime and chloride of lime and distilled preferably in the presence of zinc powder, whereby in this purification a rectification can be added for the purpose of recovering definite fractions.

  15. Bauxite Mining and Alumina Refining

    OpenAIRE

    Donoghue, A. Michael; Frisch, Neale; Olney, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe bauxite mining and alumina refining processes and to outline the relevant physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial health risks. Methods: Review article. Results: The most important risks relate to noise, ergonomics, trauma, and caustic soda splashes of the skin/eyes. Other risks of note relate to fatigue, heat, and solar ultraviolet and for some operations tropical diseases, venomous/dangerous animals, and remote locations. Exposures to bauxite dust,...

  16. The Charfuel coal refining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    The patented Charfuel coal refining process employs fluidized hydrocracking to produce char and liquid products from virtually all types of volatile-containing coals, including low rank coal and lignite. It is not gasification or liquefaction which require the addition of expensive oxygen or hydrogen or the use of extreme heat or pressure. It is not the German pyrolysis process that merely 'cooks' the coal, producing coke and tar-like liquids. Rather, the Charfuel coal refining process involves thermal hydrocracking which results in the rearrangement of hydrogen within the coal molecule to produce a slate of co-products. In the Charfuel process, pulverized coal is rapidly heated in a reducing atmosphere in the presence of internally generated process hydrogen. This hydrogen rearrangement allows refinement of various ranks of coals to produce a pipeline transportable, slurry-type, environmentally clean boiler fuel and a slate of value-added traditional fuel and chemical feedstock co-products. Using coal and oxygen as the only feedstocks, the Charfuel hydrocracking technology economically removes much of the fuel nitrogen, sulfur, and potential air toxics (such as chlorine, mercury, beryllium, etc.) from the coal, resulting in a high heating value, clean burning fuel which can increase power plant efficiency while reducing operating costs. The paper describes the process, its thermal efficiency, its use in power plants, its pipeline transport, co-products, environmental and energy benefits, and economics

  17. A Macdonald refined topological vertex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Omar; Wu, Jian-Feng

    2017-07-01

    We consider the refined topological vertex of Iqbal et al (2009 J. High Energy Phys. JHEP10(2009)069), as a function of two parameters ≤ft\\lgroup x, y \\right\\rgroup , and deform it by introducing the Macdonald parameters ≤ft\\lgroup q, t \\right\\rgroup , as in the work of Vuletić on plane partitions (Vuletić M 2009 Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 361 2789-804), to obtain ‘a Macdonald refined topological vertex’. In the limit q → t , we recover the refined topological vertex of Iqbal et al and in the limit x → y , we obtain a qt-deformation of the original topological vertex of Aganagic et al (2005 Commun. Math. Phys. 25 425-78). Copies of the vertex can be glued to obtain qt-deformed 5D instanton partition functions that have well-defined 4D limits and, for generic values of ≤ft\\lgroup q, t\\right\\rgroup , contain infinite-towers of poles for every pole present in the limit q → t .

  18. Refining's-clean new jingle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that at a time when profit margins are slim and gasoline demand is down, the U.S. petroleum-refining industry is facing one of its greatest challenges; How to meet new federal and state laws for reformulated gasoline, oxygenated fuels, low-sulfur diesel and other measures to improve the environment. The American Petroleum Institute (API) estimates that industry will spend between $15 and $23 billion by the end of the decade to meet the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, and other legislation. ENSR Consulting and Engineering's capital-spending figure runs to between $70 and 100 billion this decade, including $24 billion to produce reformulated fuels and $10-12 billion to reduce refinery emissions. M.W. Kellogg Co. estimates that refiners may have to spend up to $30 billion this decade to meet the demand for reformulated gasoline. The estimates are wide-ranging because refiners are still studying their options and delaying final decisions as long as they can, to try to ensure they are the best and least-costly decisions. Oxygenated fuels will be required next winter, but federal regulations for reformulated gasoline won't go into effect until 1995, while California's tougher reformulated-fuels law will kick in the following year

  19. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D. [FACTS, Inc., Honolulu, Hawaii (United States)

    1999-09-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade.

  20. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade

  1. Dynamic Hazards In Critical Infrastructure Of State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrowska Teresa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors are interested in some aspects of a development project entitled “The methodology of risk assessment for the purposes of crisis management system RP (ID 193751”. The project funded by the National Research and Development Centre under the Competition 3/2012 (security and defense. As part of the project the following items were reviewed and analyzed: materials related to the Government Security Centre, already completed and available products of the project ID 193751, and literature relating to, among other things, crisis management, critical infrastructure, business continuity, security, and threats. The basic emphasis of the article is focused on the resource-critical infrastructure interpretation of the state, whereby the state is perceived as a complex administrative structure in which, on the basis of external and internal interactions of resources, the risk of threats measurement is done.

  2. Security infrastructure for on-demand provisioned Cloud infrastructure services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; Ngo, C.; de Laat, C.; Wlodarczyk, T.W.; Rong, C.; Ziegler, W.

    2011-01-01

    Providing consistent security services in on-demand provisioned Cloud infrastructure services is of primary importance due to multi-tenant and potentially multi-provider nature of Clouds Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) environment. Cloud security infrastructure should address two aspects of the

  3. Infrastructuring for Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Danholt, Peter; Ubbesen, Morten Bonde

    2015-01-01

    Reimbursement and budgeting constitutes a central infrastructural element in most secondary healthcare sectors. In Denmark, Diagnose-Related Groups (DRG) function as the core element for budgeting and encouraging increase in activity and effectivity. However, DRG is known to potentially have...... indicators for quality in treatment to guide and govern their performance, in order to investigate whether this may generate a new performance measurement infrastructure that will improve quality of healthcare. The project is entitled: “New governance in the patient’s perspective”....... adverse effects by encouraging hospitals to maximize reimbursement at the expense of patients. To counter this, one Danish region has initiated an experiment involving nine hospital departments whose normal budgeting and reimbursement based on DRG is put on hold. Instead, they have been asked to develop...

  4. Flowscapes : Designing infrastructure as landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.T.; Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2015-01-01

    Social, cultural and technological developments of our society are demanding a fundamental review of the planning and design of its landscapes and infrastructures, in particular in relation to environmental issues and sustainability. Transportation, green and water infrastructures are important

  5. The Green Experiment: Cities, Green Stormwater Infrastructure, and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Chini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Green infrastructure is a unique combination of economic, social, and environmental goals and benefits that requires an adaptable framework for planning, implementing, and evaluating. In this study, we propose an experimental framework for policy, implementation, and subsequent evaluation of green stormwater infrastructure within the context of sociotechnical systems and urban experimentation. Sociotechnical systems describe the interaction of complex systems with quantitative and qualitative impacts. Urban experimentation—traditionally referencing climate change programs and their impacts—is a process of evaluating city programs as if in a laboratory setting with hypotheses and evaluated results. We combine these two concepts into a singular framework creating a policy feedback cycle (PFC for green infrastructure to evaluate municipal green infrastructure plans as an experimental process within the context of a sociotechnical system. After proposing and discussing the PFC, we utilize the tool to research and evaluate the green infrastructure programs of 27 municipalities across the United States. Results indicate that green infrastructure plans should incorporate community involvement and communication, evaluation based on project motivation, and an iterative process for knowledge production. We suggest knowledge brokers as a key resource in connecting the evaluation stage of the feedback cycle to the policy phase. We identify three important needs for green infrastructure experimentation: (i a fluid definition of green infrastructure in policy; (ii maintenance and evaluation components of a green infrastructure plan; and (iii communication of the plan to the community.

  6. Sustainable Bridge Infrastructure Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safi, Mohammed; Du, Guangli; Simonsson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The lack of a flexible but systematic approach for integrating lifecycle aspects into bridge investment decisions is a major obstacle hindering the procurement of sustainable bridge infrastructures. This paper addresses this obstacle by introducing a holistic approach that agencies could use...... to procure the most “sustainable” (lifecycle-efficient) bridge through a fair design-build (D-B) tendering process, considering all the main aspects: life-cycle cost (LCC), service life-span, aesthetic demands and environmental impacts (LCA)....

  7. Cloud Infrastructure Security

    OpenAIRE

    Velev , Dimiter; Zlateva , Plamena

    2010-01-01

    Part 4: Security for Clouds; International audience; Cloud computing can help companies accomplish more by eliminating the physical bonds between an IT infrastructure and its users. Users can purchase services from a cloud environment that could allow them to save money and focus on their core business. At the same time certain concerns have emerged as potential barriers to rapid adoption of cloud services such as security, privacy and reliability. Usually the information security professiona...

  8. Chef infrastructure automation cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Marschall, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This book is for system engineers and administrators who have a fundamental understanding of information management systems and infrastructure. It helps if you've already played around with Chef; however, this book covers all the important topics you will need to know. If you don't want to dig through a whole book before you can get started, this book is for you, as it features a set of independent recipes you can try out immediately.

  9. Durability of critical infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Pascu; Ramiro Sofronie

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with those infrastructures by which world society, under the pressure ofdemographic explosion, self-survives. The main threatening comes not from terrorist attacks, but fromthe great natural catastrophes and global climate change. It’s not for the first time in history when suchmeasures of self-protection are built up. First objective of this paper is to present the background fordurability analysis. Then, with the aid of these mathematical tools the absolute durability of thr...

  10. IP Infrastructure Geolocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    by non-commercial enti- ties. HostiP is a community-driven geolocation service. It provides an Application Pro- gramming Interface ( API ) for...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS IP INFRASTRUCTURE GEOLOCATION Thesis Advisor: Second Reader: by Guan Yan Cai March...FUNDING NUMBERS IP INFRASTRUCfURE GEOLOCATION N66001-2250-59231 6. AUTHOR(S) Guan Yan Cai 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND AOORESS(ES) 9

  11. Latin American oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Obadia, C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the oil markets and refining in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela, and examines the production of crude oil in these countries. Details are given of Latin American refiners highlighting trends in crude distillation unit capacity, cracking to distillation ratios, and refining in the different countries. Latin American oil trade is discussed, and charts are presented illustrating crude production, oil consumption, crude refining capacity, cracking to distillation ratios, and oil imports and exports

  12. Grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2001-01-01

    Grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys by the binary Al-Ti and Ternary Al-Ti-B master alloys is reviewed and discussed. The importance of grain refining to the cast industry and the parameters affecting it are presented and discussed. These include parameters related to the cast, parameters related to the grain refining alloy and parameters related to the process. The different mechanisms, suggested in the literature for the process of grain refining are presented and discussed, from which it is found that although the mechanism of refining by the binary Al-Ti is well established the mechanism of grain refining by the ternary Al-Ti-B is still a controversial matter and some research work is still needed in this area. The effect of the addition of other alloying elements in the presence of the grain refiner on the grain refining efficiency is also reviewed and discussed. It is found that some elements e.g. V, Mo, C improves the grain refining efficiency, whereas other elements e.g. Cr, Zr, Ta poisons the grain refinement. Based on the parameters affecting the grain refinement and its mechanism, a criterion for selection of the optimum grain refiner is forwarded and discussed. (author)

  13. Neutron Powder Diffraction and Constrained Refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawley, G. S.; Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Dietrich, O. W.

    1977-01-01

    The first use of a new program, EDINP, is reported. This program allows the constrained refinement of molecules in a crystal structure with neutron diffraction powder data. The structures of p-C6F4Br2 and p-C6F4I2 are determined by packing considerations and then refined with EDINP. Refinement is...

  14. Converged Optical Network and Data Center Virtual Infrastructure Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakilas, Konstantinos; Tzanakaki, Anna; Anastasopoulos, Markos

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed study of planning virtual infrastructures (VIs) over a physical infrastructure comprising integrated optical network and data center resources with the aim of enabling sharing of physical resources among several virtual operators and services. Through the planning...... process, the VI topology and virtual resources are identified and mapped to the physical resources. Our study assumes a practical VI demand model without any in advance global knowledge of the VI requests that are handled sequentially. Through detailed integer linear program modeling, two objective...... functions—one that minimizes the overall power consumption of the infrastructure and one that minimizes the wavelength utilization—are compared. Both are evaluated for the virtual wavelength path and wavelength path optical network architectures. The first objective results in power consumption savings...

  15. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling

  16. A comprehensive typology for mainstreaming urban green infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert; Zanders, Julie; Lieberknecht, Katherine; Fassman-Beck, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    During a National Science Foundation (US) funded "International Greening of Cities Workshop" in Auckland, New Zealand, participants agreed an effective urban green infrastructure (GI) typology should identify cities' present stage of GI development and map next steps to mainstream GI as a component of urban infrastructure. Our review reveals current GI typologies do not systematically identify such opportunities. We address this knowledge gap by developing a new typology incorporating political, economic, and ecological forces shaping GI implementation. Applying this information allows symmetrical, place-based exploration of the social and ecological elements driving a city's GI systems. We use this information to distinguish current levels of GI development and clarify intervention opportunities to advance GI into the mainstream of metropolitan infrastructure. We employ three case studies (San Antonio, Texas; Auckland, New Zealand; and New York, New York) to test and refine our typology.

  17. Regulatory authority infrastructure for Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shangula, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Republic of Namibia is participating in the International Atomic Energy Agency's Model Project for the Improvement of National Regulatory Authority Infrastructures in Member States. The paper illustrates our experience in solving problems and difficulties confronted in establishing an effective regulatory authority operating within the existing national infrastructure that should be supported by the Government. An effective regulatory authority is seen as part of the wider administrative scope of our Government through ministerial mandates given by the State from time to time, guaranteeing its independence when implementing legal provisions under statutes. Sections of the report illustrate our experience in the following areas: 1. National radiation protection policy 2. Structure of our national regulatory authority 3. Laws and regulations 4. Provisions for notification, authorization and registration 5. In-depth security measures for radiation sources and radioactive material 6. Systems for the inspection of radiation sources, radioactive materials, enforcement of legal provisions 7. Extent of the applications of radiation sources and radioactive materials in the country. The paper provides information regarding existing Government policy on radiation protection; structure and legal aspects of the national regulatory, including statutes and regulations; the extent of application and uses of radiation sources and security of radioactive materials; human resources: strengths and constraints; management practices and financing of regulatory authority; and plans for emergency recovery of orphan sources. National plans for management of disused sources, recovery of orphan sources, abnormal emergencies, communication of information to affected persons on exposure effects, and the safety training of persons using these applications are discussed. the paper provides a summary and some suggestions of the way forward for Namibia. (author)

  18. A Guanxi Shibboleth based security infrastructure for e-social science

    OpenAIRE

    Jie, Wei; Young, Alistair; Arshad, Junaid; Finch, June; Procter, Rob; Turner, Andy

    2008-01-01

    An e-Social Science infrastructure generally has security requirements to protect their restricted resources or services. As a widely accepted authentication and authorization technology, Shibboleth supports the sharing of resources on interinstitutional federation. Guanxi is an open source implementation of the Shibboleth protocol and architecture. In this paper, we propose a security infrastructure for e-social science based on the Guanxi Shibboleth. This security infrastructure presents tw...

  19. Implementation of green infrastructure concept in Citarum Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryati, Sri; Humaira, An Nisaa'Siti

    2017-03-01

    Green infrastructure has several benefits compared to grey infrastructure in term of environmental services and sustainability, such as reducing energy consumption, improving air quality, providing carbon sequestration, and increasing property values. Nevertheless in practice, the implementation of the concept in Indonesia is still limited. Implementation of the certain concept has to be guided in planning document. In this paper, green infrastructure concept in the current spatial plan and other planning documents is assessed. The purpose of this research is to figure out how far the green infrastructure concept is integrated into planning system, based on the analysis of planning documents in Citarum Watershed and expert interviews with local stakeholders. Content analysis method is used to analyze the documents and result of interview. The result shows that green infrastructure concept has not been accommodated in spatial plan or other planning documents widely. There are some challenges in implementing the concept including reward and punishment system (incentive and disincentive), coordination, and lack of human resources.

  20. NIMBY headlock on infrastructure development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, B.

    2006-01-01

    Pipelines are a critical component in accessing Canada's abundant natural gas resources. As one of the world's leading petroleum producers, Canada plays an increasingly important role in meeting global energy demand. Open markets and enforceable trade rules have made Canada internationally competitive, and have attracted significant capital from investors. However, Canada does not have enough pipeline capacity to move the energy resources to market. Transmission constraints must be addressed in a timely manner in order to continue to meet energy needs. This presentation identified the benefits of achieving Canada's true energy potential as well as the costs that Canadians will pay if the true energy potential is not reached. The members of the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA) operate $20 billion worth of pipeline infrastructure to move more than 95 per cent of Canada's natural gas and oil to markets across North America. The value of the combined assets is expected to double to $40 billion in the next 15 years as CEPA continues to build a pipeline network that is reliable, cost-effective, safe and secure. CEPA claims that Canada's true energy potential can be accomplished by improved efficiency of regulatory processes that protect the public interest but which also provide project proponents with certainty that decisions will be made in a timely manner; ensuring competitive financial regimes; and, building capacity in communities that are not familiar with energy development and which have questions about local impacts and benefits. In order for CEPA members to expand their pipeline systems, they must attract investment capital and compete against energy projects from around the world. In order to create the favourable circumstances that are needed to attract the required level of investment, roadblocks that stand in the way of efficient and timely energy resource development must be removed. The demand for labour and materials must also be satisfied and

  1. Infrastructure: concept, types and value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Lantsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches of influence of infrastructure on the economic growth and development of the countries gained currency. However the majority of authors drop the problem of definition of accurate concept of studied object and its criteria out. In the given article various approaches in the definition of «infrastructure» concept, criterion and the characteristics of infrastructure distinguishing it from other capital assets are presented. Such types of infrastructure, as personal, institutional, material, production, social, etc. are considered. Author’s definition of infrastructure is given.

  2. Infrastructure needs for waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.

    2001-01-01

    National infrastructures are needed to safely and economically manage radioactive wastes. Considerable experience has been accumulated in industrialized countries for predisposal management of radioactive wastes, and legal, regulatory and technical infrastructures are in place. Drawing on this experience, international organizations can assist in transferring this knowledge to developing countries to build their waste management infrastructures. Infrastructure needs for disposal of long lived radioactive waste are more complex, due to the long time scale that must be considered. Challenges and infrastructure needs, particularly for countries developing geologic repositories for disposal of high level wastes, are discussed in this paper. (author)

  3. Niobium-base grain refiner for aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Pontes, P. da; Robert, M.H.; Cupini, N.L.

    1980-01-01

    A new chemical grain refiner for aluminium has been developed, using inoculation of a niobium-base compound. When a bath of molten aluminium is inoculated whith this refiner, an intermetallic aluminium-niobium compound is formed which acts as a powerful nucleant, producing extremely fine structure comparable to those obtained by means of the traditional grain refiner based on titanium and boron. It was found that the refinement of the structure depends upon the weight percentage of the new refiner inoculated as well as the time of holding the bath after inoculation and before pouring, but mainly on the inoculating temperature. (Author) [pt

  4. Transferring lean management infrastructure for increasing productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph.D.Daniel Georgescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available These years, manufacturing function have been transferred rapidly and globally from matured countries to emerging countries. In this paper is about the critical elements for successful transfer of lean management among sites and countries. Based on this general descriptive analysis, current global transfer activity of Lean as well as its future direction is also described. According to the gradual progress of lean management transfer, necessity of its refinement/reinforcement is recognized and some research subjects are proposed for contributing further encouragement of its global activities. In this paper, based on this understanding, requisites for transfer of lean management are discussed through investigating global activity of Lean and specification of infrastructure enabling its smooth transfer is examined

  5. Regulation of gas infrastructure expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Joode, J.

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this dissertation is the regulation of gas infrastructure expansion in the European Union (EU). While the gas market has been liberalised, the gas infrastructure has largely remained in the regulated domain. However, not necessarily all gas infrastructure facilities - such as gas storage facilities, LNG import terminals and certain gas transmission pipelines - need to be regulated, as there may be scope for competition. In practice, the choice of regulation of gas infrastructure expansion varies among different types of gas infrastructure facilities and across EU Member States. Based on a review of economic literature and on a series of in-depth case studies, this study explains these differences in choices of regulation from differences in policy objectives, differences in local circumstances and differences in the intrinsic characteristics of the infrastructure projects. An important conclusion is that there is potential for a larger role for competition in gas infrastructure expansion.

  6. Growing the Blockchain information infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbar, Karim; Bjørn, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present ethnographic data that unpacks the everyday work of some of the many infrastructuring agents who contribute to creating, sustaining and growing the Blockchain information infrastructure. We argue that this infrastructuring work takes the form of entrepreneurial actions......, which are self-initiated and primarily directed at sustaining or increasing the initiator’s stake in the emerging information infrastructure. These entrepreneurial actions wrestle against the affordances of the installed base of the Blockchain infrastructure, and take the shape of engaging...... or circumventing activities. These activities purposefully aim at either influencing or working around the enablers and constraints afforded by the Blockchain information infrastructure, as its installed base is gaining inertia. This study contributes to our understanding of the purpose of infrastructuring, seen...

  7. The EPOS e-Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Keith; Bailo, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    involved, persons involved, related publications, facilities, equipment and others, and utilises CERIF (Common European Research Information Format) standard (see www.eurocris.org); (3) detailed metadata which is specific to a domain or to a particular object and includes the schema describing the object to processing software. The other dimension of the metadata concerns the objects described. These are classified into users, services (including software), data and resources (computing, data storage, instruments and scientific equipment). An alternative architecture has been considered: using brokering. This technique has been used especially in North America geoscience projects to interoperate datasets. The technique involves writing software to interconvert between any two node datasets. Given n nodes this implies writing n*(n-1) convertors. EPOS Working Group 7 (e-infrastructures and virtual community) which deals with the design and implementation of a prototype of the EPOS services, chose to use an approach which endows the system with an extreme flexibility and sustainability. It is called the Metadata Catalogue approach. With the use of the catalogue the EPOS system can: 1. interoperate with software, services, users, organisations, facilities, equipment etc. as well as datasets; 2. avoid to write n*(n-1) software convertors and generate as much as possible, through the information contained in the catalogue only n convertors. This is a huge saving - especially in maintenance as the datasets (or other node resources) evolve. We are working on (semi-) automation of convertor generation by metadata mapping - this is leading-edge computer science research; 3. make large use of contextual metadata which enable a user or a machine to: (i) improve discovery of resources at nodes; (ii) improve precision and recall in search; (iii) drive the systems for identification, authentication, authorisation, security and privacy recording the relevant attributes of the node

  8. Infrastructure development to support the hydrocarbon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, T.

    1993-01-01

    Tengiz and Jubail represent areas in which the exploitation of oil and gas resources have, and are, providing enormous opportunities for regional development. Each has required a vision of the future and an understanding that infrastructure input is very broadly defined. Tengiz and Jubail are extreme examples. There are probably no cases in the Americas that will exactly mirror these. But opportunities for oil and gas development here may share some of these projects characteristics - extraction from remote areas, challenging transportatoin needs, and perhaps most importantly, opportunities for related industrial and economic development. Just as Jubail's master plan was part of a larger Saudi vision, oil and gas infrastructure planning can support Latin and North American countries individual visions of their nation's future. Where regional economic integration and interaction is increasing, there are even greater opportunities for good infrastructure planning. In some cases, such economic integration will provide the key which will unlock oil and gas development. Once these keys are provided - be it through the intangible innovations of creative project finance or tangible links through roadways, pipeline and rail - the opening will provide real chances to develop the infrastructure of the entire region

  9. Managing municipal infrastructure assets

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available into the legislative, regulatory, institutional, financial, technological, human resources and other changes that are no doubt required. Part of this national strategy must be a skills plan to ensure the long-term supply of technically trained human resources....

  10. A Cyber Infrastructure for the SKA Telescope Manager

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Domingos; Barracaa, Joao Paulo; Carvalho, Bruno; Maia, Dalmiro; Gupta, Yashwant; Natarajan, Swaminathan; Roux, Gerhard Le; Swart, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The Square Kilometre Array Telescope Manager (SKA TM) will be responsible for assisting the SKA Operations and Observation Management, carrying out System diagnosis and collecting Monitoring & Control data from the SKA sub-systems and components. To provide adequate compute resources, scalability, operation continuity and high availability, as well as strict Quality of Service, the TM cyber-infrastructure (embodied in the Local Infrastructure - LINFRA) consists of COTS hardware and infrastruc...

  11. Thumbnail Images:Uncertainties, Infrastructures and Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Thylstrup, Nanna; Teilmann, Stina

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that thumbnail images are infrastructural images that raise issues of uncertainty in two distinct, but interrelated, areas: a legal question of how to define, understand and govern visual information infrastructures, in particular image search systems in epistemological and strategic terms; and a cultural question of how human-computer interaction design works with navigational uncertainty, both as an experience to be managed and a resource to be exploited. This paper cons...

  12. Network and computing infrastructure for scientific applications in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvatadze, R.; Modebadze, Z.

    2016-09-01

    Status of network and computing infrastructure and available services for research and education community of Georgia are presented. Research and Educational Networking Association - GRENA provides the following network services: Internet connectivity, network services, cyber security, technical support, etc. Computing resources used by the research teams are located at GRENA and at major state universities. GE-01-GRENA site is included in European Grid infrastructure. Paper also contains information about programs of Learning Center and research and development projects in which GRENA is participating.

  13. Subsea Infrastructure Inspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Christian; Pedersen, Simon; Hansen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing energy demands, the offshore energy business has boomed in recent decades. Sub-sea pipeline and power transmission cable installations are commonly applied worldwide. Any potential breakages can cause equipment damage and also damage the environment. The majority...... (S-AUVs) can significantly change the inspections of infrastructure, as these vehicles could be much cheaper to deploy. S-AUVs can potentially conduct faster data collection and provide higher inspection data quality. However, there are still some technical challenges related to: underwater wireless...

  14. CERN Infrastructure Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Computer Centre is reviewing strategies for optimizing the use of the existing infrastructure in the future, and in the likely scenario that any extension will be remote from CERN, and in the light of the way other large facilities are today being operated. Over the past six months, CERN has been investigating modern and widely-used tools and procedures used for virtualisation, clouds and fabric management in order to reduce operational effort, increase agility and support unattended remote computer centres. This presentation will give the details on the project’s motivations, current status and areas for future investigation.

  15. Fractal actors and infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom

    2011-01-01

    -network-theory (ANT) into surveillance studies (Ball 2002, Adey 2004, Gad & Lauritsen 2009). In this paper, I further explore the potential of this connection by experimenting with Marilyn Strathern’s concept of the fractal (1991), which has been discussed in newer ANT literature (Law 2002; Law 2004; Jensen 2007). I...... under surveillance. Based on fieldwork conducted in 2008 and 2011 in relation to my Master’s thesis and PhD respectively, I illustrate fractal concepts by describing the acts, actors and infrastructure that make up the ‘DNA surveillance’ conducted by the Danish police....

  16. Interoperation of World-Wide Production e-Science Infrastructures

    CERN Document Server

    Riedel, M; Soddemann, T; Field, L; Navarro, JP; Casey, J; Litmaath, M; Baud, J; Koblitz, B; Catlett, C; Skow, D; Wang, S; Saeki, Y; Sato, H; Matsuoka, S; Geddes, N

    Many production Grid and e-Science infrastructures have begun to offer services to end-users during the past several years with an increasing number of scientific applications that require access to a wide variety of resources and services in multiple Grids. Therefore, the Grid Interoperation Now—Community Group of the Open Grid Forum—organizes and manages interoperation efforts among those production Grid infrastructures to reach the goal of a world-wide Grid vision on a technical level in the near future. This contribution highlights fundamental approaches of the group and discusses open standards in the context of production e-Science infrastructures.

  17. Comprehensive Evaluation of Large Infrastructure Project Plan with ANP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Chuan-feng; CHEN Jian-ye

    2005-01-01

    Analytic Network Process(ANP) was used in comprehensive evaluation of large infrastructure project plan. A model including social economy, ecological environment, and resources was established with ANP method. The evaluation pattern of hierarchy structure and comprehensive evaluation method for quantity and quality of large infrastructure project were put forward, which provides an effective way to evaluate the large infrastructure project plan. Quantitative analysis indicated that the internal dependence relation of hierarchy structure has influence on ranking results of plan. It is suggested that considering the internal relation can helps managers make effective decisions.

  18. Research on the Mechanism of Science and Technology Infrastructure Resource Sharing Service Based on PPP (Public-Private Partnership) Mode Selection: Taking Chongqing as an Example%基于PPP(公私合作)视角的科技资源共享服务机制研究——以重庆为例的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾琼; 张小波

    2017-01-01

    The study found that the root cause of the problems of the existing sharing service management lies in the failure to properly deal with the contradiction between the dual value attributes of public goods and private goodsof science and technology resource.Accordingly,based on the dual value attributesof science and technology infrastructure resource and national policies to encourage social capital to involve in public services,taking Chongqing as a case study,the thesisputs forward the suggestions includingconstructing the management model of sharing service of science and technology infrastructure resourcebased on PPP (public-private partnership) perspective,and setting up the cost-benefit distribution mechanism,coordination management mechanism,resource integration mechanism,reward mechanism,incentive and constraint mechanism and corresponding system to ensure the successful operation of this model.%研究发现,现有科技资源共享服务管理出现问题的根源在于未正确处理好科技资源“公共品”和“私人品”的双重价值属性矛盾.基于此,以重庆为例,充分考虑科技基础资源双重价值属性,结合国家鼓励社会资本参与科研基础设施社会化服务的政策要求,从PPP(公私合作)的视角,构建科技资源共享服务管理模式,建立保证该模式成功运行的成本收益分配机制、协调管理机制、资源整合机制、回报机制、激励与约束机制和相应制度.

  19. Materials refining on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2007-05-01

    Oxygen, metals, silicon, and glass are raw materials that will be required for long-term habitation and production of structural materials and solar arrays on the Moon. A process sequence is proposed for refining these materials from lunar regolith, consisting of separating the required materials from lunar rock with fluorine. The fluorine is brought to the Moon in the form of potassium fluoride, and is liberated from the salt by electrolysis in a eutectic salt melt. Tetrafluorosilane produced by this process is reduced to silicon by a plasma reduction stage; the fluorine salts are reduced to metals by reaction with metallic potassium. Fluorine is recovered from residual MgF and CaF2 by reaction with K2O.

  20. Adaptive mesh refinement in titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colella, Phillip; Wen, Tong

    2005-01-21

    In this paper, we evaluate Titanium's usability as a high-level parallel programming language through a case study, where we implement a subset of Chombo's functionality in Titanium. Chombo is a software package applying the Adaptive Mesh Refinement methodology to numerical Partial Differential Equations at the production level. In Chombo, the library approach is used to parallel programming (C++ and Fortran, with MPI), whereas Titanium is a Java dialect designed for high-performance scientific computing. The performance of our implementation is studied and compared with that of Chombo in solving Poisson's equation based on two grid configurations from a real application. Also provided are the counts of lines of code from both sides.

  1. Refining shale-oil distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altpeter, J

    1952-03-17

    A process is described for refining distillates from shale oil, brown coal, tar, and other tar products by extraction with selective solvents, such as lower alcohols, halogen-hydrins, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, and so forth, as well as treating with alkali solution, characterized in that the distillate is first treated with completely or almost completely recovered phenol or cresotate solution, the oil is separated from the phenolate with solvent, for example concentrated or adjusted to a determined water content of lower alcohol, furfural, halogen-hydrin, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, or the like, extracted, and the raffinate separated from the extract layer, if necessary after distillation or washing out of solvent, and freeing with alkali solution from residual phenol or creosol.

  2. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  3. Building an Information Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Patricia Senn

    1992-01-01

    College governing boards can promote good campus information management by understanding available services, monitoring changes and their relationship to priorities, supporting policies enhancing access to information, encouraging resource allocation for networking, promoting regional economic development through information use, and supporting…

  4. TELECOMMUNICATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE AND GDP /JIPP CURVE/

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Kaneva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between telecommunications infrastructure and economic activity is under discussion in many scientific papers. Most of the authors use for research and analysis the Jipp curve. A lot of doubts about the correctness of the Jipp curve appear in terms of applying econometric models. The aim of this study is a review of the Jipp curve, refining the possibility of its application in modern conditions. The methodology used in the study is based on dynamic econometric models, including tests for nonstationarity and tests for causality. The focus of this study is directed to methodological problems in measuring the local density types of telecommunication networks. This study offers a specific methodology for assessing the Jipp law, through VAR-approach and Granger causality tests. It is proved that mechanical substitution of momentary aggregated variables (such as the number of subscribers of a telecommunication network at the end of the year and periodically aggregated variables (such as GDP per capita in the Jipp�s curve is methodologically wrong. Researchers have to reconsider the relationship set in the Jipp�s curve by including additional variables that characterize the Telecommunications sector and the economic activity in a particular country within a specified time period. GDP per capita should not be regarded as a single factor for the local density of telecommunications infrastructure. New econometric models studying the relationship between the investments in telecommunications infrastructure and economic development may be not only linear regression models, but also other econometric models. New econometric models should be proposed after testing and validating with sound economic theory and econometric methodology.

  5. Michigan E85 Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Matthew M.

    2012-03-30

    This is the final report for a grant-funded project to financially assist and otherwise provide support to projects that increase E85 infrastructure in Michigan at retail fueling locations. Over the two-year project timeframe, nine E85 and/or flex-fuel pumps were installed around the State of Michigan at locations currently lacking E85 infrastructure. A total of five stations installed the nine pumps, all providing cost share toward the project. By using cost sharing by station partners, the $200,000 provided by the Department of Energy facilitated a total project worth $746,332.85. This project was completed over a two-year timetable (eight quarters). The first quarter of the project focused on project outreach to station owners about the incentive on the installation and/or conversion of E85 compatible fueling equipment including fueling pumps, tanks, and all necessary electrical and plumbing connections. Utilizing Clean Energy Coalition (CEC) extensive knowledge of gasoline/ethanol infrastructure throughout Michigan, CEC strategically placed these pumps in locations to strengthen the broad availability of E85 in Michigan. During the first and second quarters, CEC staff approved projects for funding and secured contracts with station owners; the second through eighth quarters were spent working with fueling station owners to complete projects; the third through eighth quarters included time spent promoting projects; and beginning in the second quarter and running for the duration of the project was spent performing project reporting and evaluation to the US DOE. A total of 9 pumps were installed (four in Elkton, two in Sebewaing, one in East Lansing, one in Howell, and one in Whitmore Lake). At these combined station locations, a total of 192,445 gallons of E85, 10,786 gallons of E50, and 19,159 gallons of E30 were sold in all reporting quarters for 2011. Overall, the project has successfully displaced 162,611 gallons (2,663 barrels) of petroleum, and reduced

  6. The future of infrastructure security :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Pablo; Turnley, Jessica Glicken; Parrott, Lori K.

    2013-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop on the future of infrastructure security on February 27-28, 2013, in Albuquerque, NM. The 17 participants came from backgrounds as diverse as federal policy, the insurance industry, infrastructure management, and technology development. The purpose of the workshop was to surface key issues, identify directions forward, and lay groundwork for cross-sectoral and cross-disciplinary collaborations. The workshop addressed issues such as the problem space (what is included in infrastructure problems?), the general types of threats to infrastructure (such as acute or chronic, system-inherent or exogenously imposed) and definitions of secure and resilient infrastructures. The workshop concluded with a consideration of stakeholders and players in the infrastructure world, and identification of specific activities that could be undertaken by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other players.

  7. Environmental control technology for mining, milling, and refining thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weakley, S.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate, in terms of cost and effectiveness, the various environmental control technologies that would be used to control the radioactive wastes generated in the mining, milling, and refining of thorium from domestic resources. The technologies, in order to be considered for study, had to reduce the radioactivity in the waste streams to meet Atomic Energy Commission (10 CFR 20) standards for natural thorium's maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in air and water. Further regulatory standards or licensing requirements, either federal, state, or local, were not examined. The availability and cost of producing thorium from domestic resources is addressed in a companion volume. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the major waste streams generated during the mining, milling, and refining of reactor-grade thorium oxide from domestic resources; and (2) to determine the cost and levels of control of existing and advanced environmental control technologies for these waste streams. Six potential domestic deposits of thorium oxide, in addition to stockpiled thorium sludges, are discussed in this report. A summary of the location and characteristics of the potential domestic thorium resources and the mining, milling, and refining processes that will be needed to produce reactor-grade thorium oxide is presented in Section 2. The wastes from existing and potential domestic thorium oxide mines, mills, and refineries are identified in Section 3. Section 3 also presents the state-of-the-art technology and the costs associated with controlling the wastes from the mines, mills, and refineries. In Section 4, the available environmental control technologies for mines, mills, and refineries are assessed. Section 5 presents the cost and effectiveness estimates for the various environmental control technologies applicable to the mine, mill, and refinery for each domestic resource

  8. Healthcare information technology infrastructures in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogac, A; Yuksel, M; Ertürkmen, G L; Kabak, Y; Namli, T; Yıldız, M H; Ay, Y; Ceyhan, B; Hülür, U; Oztürk, H; Atbakan, E

    2014-05-22

    The objective of this paper is to describe some of the major healthcare information technology (IT) infrastructures in Turkey, namely, Sağlık-Net (Turkish for "Health-Net"), the Centralized Hospital Appointment System, the Basic Health Statistics Module, the Core Resources Management System, and the e-prescription system of the Social Security Institution. International collaboration projects that are integrated with Sağlık-Net are also briefly summarized. The authors provide a survey of the some of the major healthcare IT infrastructures in Turkey. Sağlık-Net has two main components: the National Health Information System (NHIS) and the Family Medicine Information System (FMIS). The NHIS is a nation-wide infrastructure for sharing patients' Electronic Health Records (EHRs). So far, EHRs of 78.9 million people have been created in the NHIS. Similarly, family medicine is operational in the whole country via FMIS. Centralized Hospital Appointment System enables the citizens to easily make appointments in healthcare providers. Basic Health Statistics Module is used for collecting information about the health status, risks and indicators across the country. Core Resources Management System speeds up the flow of information between the headquarters and Provincial Health Directorates. The e-prescription system is linked with Sağlık-Net and seamlessly integrated with the healthcare provider information systems. Finally, Turkey is involved in several international projects for experience sharing and disseminating national developments. With the introduction of the "Health Transformation Program" in 2003, a number of successful healthcare IT infrastructures have been developed in Turkey. Currently, work is going on to enhance and further improve their functionality.

  9. Flowscapes: Designing infrastructure as landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.T.; Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2015-01-01

    Social, cultural and technological developments of our society are demanding a fundamental review of the planning and design of its landscapes and infrastructures, in particular in relation to environmental issues and sustainability. Transportation, green and water infrastructures are important agents that facilitate processes that shape the built environment and its contemporary landscapes. With movement and flows at the core, these landscape infrastructures facilitate aesthetic, functional,...

  10. Hanford Site Infrastructure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Infrastructure Plan (HIP) has been prepared as an overview of the facilities, utilities, systems, and services that support all activities on the Hanford Site. Its purpose is three-fold: to examine in detail the existing condition of the Hanford Site's aging utility systems, transportation systems, Site services and general-purpose facilities; to evaluate the ability of these systems to meet present and forecasted Site missions; to identify maintenance and upgrade projects necessary to ensure continued safe and cost-effective support to Hanford Site programs well into the twenty-first century. The HIP is intended to be a dynamic document that will be updated accordingly as Site activities, conditions, and requirements change. 35 figs., 25 tabs

  11. The infrastructure of telecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2018-01-01

    . The analysis demonstrates and proposes that, in telecare, greater accountability, discretion and responsibility are imposed on the nurse, but that they also have less access to the means of clinical decision-making, i.e. doctors. The article explores how relational infrastructures ascribe the professions......Telecare can offer a unique experience of trust in patient-nurse relationships, embracing new standards for professional discretion among nurses, but also reflects an increasingly complicated relationship between nurses and doctors. The study uses ethnographic methodology in relation to a large 5...... million euro project at four hospitals caring for 120 patients with COPD. Twenty screen-mediated conferences were observed and two workshops, centring on nurses’ photo elucidation of the practice of telecare, were conducted with a focus on shifting tasks, professional discretion, responsibility...

  12. FPGA Congestion-Driven Placement Refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente de, J.

    2005-07-01

    The routing congestion usually limits the complete proficiency of the FPGA logic resources. A key question can be formulated regarding the benefits of estimating the congestion at placement stage. In the last years, it is gaining acceptance the idea of a detailed placement taking into account congestion. In this paper, we resort to the Thermodynamic Simulated Annealing (TSA) algorithm to perform a congestion-driven placement refinement on the top of the common Bounding-Box pre optimized solution. The adaptive properties of TSA allow the search to preserve the solution quality of the pre optimized solution while improving other fine-grain objectives. Regarding the cost function two approaches have been considered. In the first one Expected Occupation (EO), a detailed probabilistic model to account for channel congestion is evaluated. We show that in spite of the minute detail of EO, the inherent uncertainty of this probabilistic model impedes to relieve congestion beyond the sole application of the Bounding-Box cost function. In the second approach we resort to the fast Rectilinear Steiner Regions algorithm to perform not an estimation but a measurement of the global routing congestion. This second strategy allows us to successfully reduce the requested channel width for a set of benchmark circuits with respect to the widespread Versatile Place and Route (VPR) tool. (Author) 31 refs.

  13. Refined geometric transition and qq-characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Taro; Mori, Hironori; Sugimoto, Yuji

    2018-01-01

    We show the refinement of the prescription for the geometric transition in the refined topological string theory and, as its application, discuss a possibility to describe qq-characters from the string theory point of view. Though the suggested way to operate the refined geometric transition has passed through several checks, it is additionally found in this paper that the presence of the preferred direction brings a nontrivial effect. We provide the modified formula involving this point. We then apply our prescription of the refined geometric transition to proposing the stringy description of doubly quantized Seiberg-Witten curves called qq-characters in certain cases.

  14. Data Center Consolidation: A Step towards Infrastructure Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Markus

    Application service providers face enormous challenges and rising costs in managing and operating a growing number of heterogeneous system and computing landscapes. Limitations of traditional computing environments force IT decision-makers to reorganize computing resources within the data center, as continuous growth leads to an inefficient utilization of the underlying hardware infrastructure. This paper discusses a way for infrastructure providers to improve data center operations based on the findings of a case study on resource utilization of very large business applications and presents an outlook beyond server consolidation endeavors, transforming corporate data centers into compute clouds.

  15. HCP, grid and data infrastructures for astrophysics: an integrated view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasian, F.

    2009-01-01

    Also in the case of astrophysics, the capability of performing Big Science requires the availability of large Hcp facilities. But computational resources alone are far from being enough for the community: as a matter of fact, the whole set of e-infrastructures (network, computing nodes, data repositories, applications) need to work in an inter operable way. This implies the development of common (or at least compatible) user interfaces to computing resources, transparent access to observations and numerical simulations through the Virtual Observatory, integrated data processing pipelines, data mining and semantic web applications. Achieving this inter operability goal is a must to build a real Knowledge Infrastructure in the astrophysical domain.

  16. Automated knowledge-base refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Raymond J.

    1994-01-01

    Over the last several years, we have developed several systems for automatically refining incomplete and incorrect knowledge bases. These systems are given an imperfect rule base and a set of training examples and minimally modify the knowledge base to make it consistent with the examples. One of our most recent systems, FORTE, revises first-order Horn-clause knowledge bases. This system can be viewed as automatically debugging Prolog programs based on examples of correct and incorrect I/O pairs. In fact, we have already used the system to debug simple Prolog programs written by students in a programming language course. FORTE has also been used to automatically induce and revise qualitative models of several continuous dynamic devices from qualitative behavior traces. For example, it has been used to induce and revise a qualitative model of a portion of the Reaction Control System (RCS) of the NASA Space Shuttle. By fitting a correct model of this portion of the RCS to simulated qualitative data from a faulty system, FORTE was also able to correctly diagnose simple faults in this system.

  17. A method for refining oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruskin, Yu.A.; Gorokhov, V.V.; Kotler, L.D.; Kovalenko, N.F.; Spasskiy, Yu.B.; Titov, A.M.; Vlasenko, V.Ye.; Vytnov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    In the method for refining oil through its distillation with the isolation of directly distilled gases and a benzine fraction (BS) with the use of a benzine fraction pyrolysis, in order to increase the output of the lower olefines and to reduce the energy expenditures, the distillation is conducted with the isolation of 10 to 40 percent of the benzine fraction from its potential content along with the directly distilled gases. The obtained mixture of the remaining part of the benzine fraction is absorbed at a pressure of 1.5 to 6 atmospheres with the feeding of the obtained saturated absorbent to pyrolysis and subsequent mixing of the obtained pyrolysis gas with the unabsorbed product and their joint gas division. As compared to the known method, the proposed method makes it possible to reduce the energy expenditures which is achieved through a reduction in the volume of irrigation in the tower, and to increase the output of the olefines through processing of the steam and gas mixture of the benzine and the directly distilled gases.

  18. Potential for sharing nuclear power infrastructure between countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    The introduction or expansion of a nuclear power programme in a country and its successful execution is largely dependent on the network of national infrastructure, covering a wide range of activities and capabilities. The infrastructure areas include legal framework, safety and environmental regulatory bodies, international agreements, physical facilities, finance, education, training, human resources and public information and acceptance. The wide extent of infrastructure needs require an investment that can be too large or onerous for the national economy. The burden of infrastructure can be reduced significantly if a country forms a sharing partnership with other countries. The sharing can be at regional or at multinational level. It can include physical facilities, common programmes and knowledge, which will reflect in economic benefits. The sharing can also contribute in a significant manner to harmonization of codes and standards in general and regulatory framework in particular. The opportunities and potential of sharing nuclear power infrastructure is determined by the objectives, strategy and scenario of the national nuclear power programme. A review of individual infrastructure items shows that there are several opportunities for sharing of nuclear power infrastructure between countries if they cooperate with each other. International cooperation and sharing of nuclear power infrastructure are not new. This publication provides criteria and guidance for analyzing and identifying the potential for sharing of nuclear power infrastructure during the stages of nuclear power project life cycle. The target users are decision makers, advisers and senior managers in utilities, industrial organizations, regulatory bodies and governmental organizations in countries adopting or extending nuclear power programmes. This publication was produced within the IAEA programme directed to increase the capability of Member States to plan and implement nuclear power

  19. Nuclear Power Infrastructure Development Program: Korean Education Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Yeol; Hwang, Il Soon; Kim, Si Hwan

    2009-01-01

    Many countries have decided nuclear power for next energy resources as one of the long-term energy supply options. IAEA projected nuclear power expansion up to 2030 reaching between 447 GWe and 691 GWe compared to 370 GWe and 2660 TWh at the end of 2006. Both low and high projection is accompanied with new nuclear power plant constructions respectively 178 and 357, about 11 units per year, and most new construction is in North America, the Far East, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia. During the last forty years, thirty three countries have established commercial nuclear power programs but only some of them have developed comprehensive and large scale peaceful nuclear power infrastructure. Although various cooperation and guidance program of nuclear power infrastructure, developing appropriate environment and infrastructure of nuclear power plant is still challenging problems for developing countries launching nuclear power program. With increasing the demand of safety and safeguard from international society, creating appropriate infrastructure becomes essential requirements in national nuclear power program. In the viewpoint of developing countries, without sufficient explanation and proper guidance, infrastructure could be seen only as another barrier in its nuclear power program. The importance of infrastructure development would be obscured by ostensible business and infrastructure program can result in increasing entering barriers to peaceful nuclear power application field without benefits to developing countries and international community. To avoid this situation by providing enough explanation and realistic case example and cooperate with the countries wanting to establish comprehensive nuclear power infrastructure in the peaceful applications, we are creating the education program of infrastructure development with basic guidelines of the IAEA infrastructure series and Korean experiences from least developed country to advanced country

  20. Modelling distributed energy resources in energy service networks

    CERN Document Server

    Acha, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Focuses on modelling two key infrastructures (natural gas and electrical) in urban energy systems with embedded technologies (cogeneration and electric vehicles) to optimise the operation of natural gas and electrical infrastructures under the presence of distributed energy resources

  1. Black-Box Optimization for Buildings and Its Enhancement by Advanced Communication Infrastructure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macek, Karel; Rojíček, J.; Kontes, G.; Rovas, D. V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 5 (2013), s. 53-64 ISSN 2255-2863 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Evolutionary algorithms * Black box modeling * Simplification * Refining * HVAC * Load shedding * Communication infrastructure Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/AS/macek-0423196.pdf

  2. The Landscape Evolution Observatory: a large-scale controllable infrastructure to study coupled Earth-surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangle, Luke A.; DeLong, Stephen B.; Abramson, Nate; Adams, John; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Breshears, David D.; Brooks, Paul D.; Chorover, Jon; Dietrich, William E.; Dontsova, Katerina; Durcik, Matej; Espeleta, Javier; Ferré, T.P.A.; Ferriere, Regis; Henderson, Whitney; Hunt, Edward A.; Huxman, Travis E.; Millar, David; Murphy, Brendan; Niu, Guo-Yue; Pavao-Zuckerman, Mitch; Pelletier, Jon D.; Rasmussen, Craig; Ruiz, Joaquin; Saleska, Scott; Schaap, Marcel; Sibayan, Michael; Troch, Peter A.; Tuller, Markus; van Haren, Joost; Zeng, Xubin

    2015-01-01

    Zero-order drainage basins, and their constituent hillslopes, are the fundamental geomorphic unit comprising much of Earth's uplands. The convergent topography of these landscapes generates spatially variable substrate and moisture content, facilitating biological diversity and influencing how the landscape filters precipitation and sequesters atmospheric carbon dioxide. In light of these significant ecosystem services, refining our understanding of how these functions are affected by landscape evolution, weather variability, and long-term climate change is imperative. In this paper we introduce the Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO): a large-scale controllable infrastructure consisting of three replicated artificial landscapes (each 330 m2 surface area) within the climate-controlled Biosphere 2 facility in Arizona, USA. At LEO, experimental manipulation of rainfall, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed are possible at unprecedented scale. The Landscape Evolution Observatory was designed as a community resource to advance understanding of how topography, physical and chemical properties of soil, and biological communities coevolve, and how this coevolution affects water, carbon, and energy cycles at multiple spatial scales. With well-defined boundary conditions and an extensive network of sensors and samplers, LEO enables an iterative scientific approach that includes numerical model development and virtual experimentation, physical experimentation, data analysis, and model refinement. We plan to engage the broader scientific community through public dissemination of data from LEO, collaborative experimental design, and community-based model development.

  3. Cyberwarfare on the Electricity Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murarka, N.; Ramesh, V.C.

    2000-03-20

    The report analyzes the possibility of cyberwarfare on the electricity infrastructure. The ongoing deregulation of the electricity industry makes the power grid all the more vulnerable to cyber attacks. The report models the power system information system components, models potential threats and protective measures. It therefore offers a framework for infrastructure protection.

  4. Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Michael S.; Hix, W. Raphael; Bardayan, Daniel W.; Blackmon, Jeffery C.; Lingerfelt, Eric J.; Scott, Jason P.; Nesaraja, Caroline D.; Chae, Kyungyuk; Guidry, Michael W.; Koura, Hiroyuki; Meyer, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    A Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics has been developed to streamline the inclusion of the latest nuclear physics data in astrophysics simulations. The infrastructure consists of a platform-independent suite of computer codes that is freely available online at nucastrodata.org. Features of, and future plans for, this software suite are given

  5. Private investments in new infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarsma, B.; Poort, J.P.; Teulings, C.N.; de Nooij, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Lisbon Strategy demands large investments in transport projects, broadband networks and energy infrastructure. Despite the widely-acknowledged need for investments in new infrastructures, European and national public funds are scarce in the current economic climate. Moreover, both policy-makers

  6. Cyber and physical infrastructure interdependencies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Kelic, Andjelka; Warren, Drake E.

    2008-09-01

    The goal of the work discussed in this document is to understand the risk to the nation of cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. The large body of research results on cyber attacks against physical infrastructure vulnerabilities has not resulted in clear understanding of the cascading effects a cyber-caused disruption can have on critical national infrastructures and the ability of these affected infrastructures to deliver services. This document discusses current research and methodologies aimed at assessing the translation of a cyber-based effect into a physical disruption of infrastructure and thence into quantification of the economic consequences of the resultant disruption and damage. The document discusses the deficiencies of the existing methods in correlating cyber attacks with physical consequences. The document then outlines a research plan to correct those deficiencies. When completed, the research plan will result in a fully supported methodology to quantify the economic consequences of events that begin with cyber effects, cascade into other physical infrastructure impacts, and result in degradation of the critical infrastructure's ability to deliver services and products. This methodology enables quantification of the risks to national critical infrastructure of cyber threats. The work addresses the electric power sector as an example of how the methodology can be applied.

  7. Life cycle analysis of urban infrastructures; Toshi infrastructure seibi no lifecycle bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagashira, N.; Uchiyama, Y. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-01

    Power supply services, city gas supply services, water supply and drainage services, roads, and buildings were treated as urban infrastructures so as to grasp the resources and CO2 emission consumed in their life cycle. Moreover, the consumption of resources for supporting one person and the emission of CO2 were analyzed to clarify an important point for resource saving and environmental load reduction. The resources used and CO2 emitted for each urban infrastructure were calculated with Kanto districts as a target. For the annual material weight a person, buildings are about 1,200 kg, roads are about 560 kg, and city gas is about 170 kg. Water supply and drainage is about 68 kg, and electric power is about 57 kg. For the annual CO2 emission a person, buildings are about 120 kg-C, roads are about 13 kg-C, and electric power is about 6.6 kg-C. City gas is about 5.3 kg-C, and water supply and drainage is about 4.4 kg-C. In the material weight for each resource, gravel, crushed stone, concrete, and asphalt concrete have a high consumption rate. In CO2 emission, iron, concrete, and gas oil form a high rate. 21 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. CU-ICAR Hydrogen Infrastructure Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Leitner; David Bodde; Dennis Wiese; John Skardon; Bethany Carter

    2011-09-28

    The goal of this project was to establish an innovation center to accelerate the transition to a 'hydrogen economy' an infrastructure of vehicles, fuel resources, and maintenance capabilities based on hydrogen as the primary energy carrier. The specific objectives of the proposed project were to: (a) define the essential attributes of the innovation center; (b) validate the concept with potential partners; (c) create an implementation plan; and (d) establish a pilot center and demonstrate its benefits via a series of small scale projects.

  9. LLVM Infrastructure and Tools Project Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Patrick Sean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-06

    This project works with the open source LLVM Compiler Infrastructure (http://llvm.org) to provide tools and capabilities that address needs and challenges faced by ECP community (applications, libraries, and other components of the software stack). Our focus is on providing a more productive development environment that enables (i) improved compilation times and code generation for parallelism, (ii) additional features/capabilities within the design and implementations of LLVM components for improved platform/performance portability and (iii) improved aspects related to composition of the underlying implementation details of the programming environment, capturing resource utilization, overheads, etc. -- including runtime systems that are often not easily addressed by application and library developers.

  10. Transactional Infrastructure of the Economy: the Evolution of Concepts and Synthesis of Definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruschak Irina Valeryevna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The overview of evolution of market infrastructure concepts is provided, the first concepts of institutional infrastructure are revealed in the paper. Evolutionarily developed narrowing of essence of infrastructure in connection with the priority analysis of its physical (material and technological components is proved. It ignores the fact that transactional resources, being drivers (driving forces of economic systems evolution, in turn evolve, becoming harder and harder, combining increase in efficiency of the elements and strengthening of heterogeneity and discrepancy of their structure. Transactional evolution of economy in general and evolution of separate transactional resources of production are the perspective directions of the special analysis. Transactional infrastructure is considered as the integrated complex of institutional, organizational (relational and information infrastructures. The problems of the first concepts of transactional infrastructure connected with difficulties of differentiation of its subsystems always operating jointly are revealed. Prospect of transition from the isolated analysis of separate resources of transactional type (institutes, organizations, information, social capital, trust, etc. to studying corresponding specific software infrastructures and to the system analysis of integrated transactional infrastructure of economy are argued. The transactional sector (as set of the specialized industries and the appropriate collective and individual subjects providing with resources market transaction is offered to be considered as transactional structure of economy. Transactional infrastructure is treated as critically significant factor of economic evolution which in the conditions of post-industrial type of economy gradually purchases transactional nature.

  11. Public Tourism Infrastructure: Challenges in the Development and Maintenance Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Shardy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the tourism sector is a major contributor to the nation’s development and is spearheaded by the government’s efforts in investing heavily towards providing sufficient and well-functioning public tourism infrastructure. This infrastructure should be ideally developed with a clear and systematic maintenance plan in hand. The challenge herein is not merely providing the necessary infrastructure to sustain tourism activities but rather a pro-active approach towards establishing and subsequently maintaining this infrastructure at its optimal level. The aim of this paper therefore is to identify critical aspects that need to be in place to further enhance the Malaysian tourism industry. The paper discusses the issues and challenges that need to be addressed as a precursor towards an effectively developed and maintained tourism infrastructure system. Development issues that have been identified revolve around the dimensions of quality, quantity and ability of the public agencies involved, particularly issues of inadequate infrastructure, quality of infrastructure and the capability of the agencies in undertaking efficient maintenance activities. These issues were found to lead towards challenges of working with resource constraints, lack of an effective maintenance culture and system as well as the need for clear and effective policies and strategies.

  12. Development tools for risk implementation of entrepreneurship infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustam Ilkamovich Malikov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, we consider the organizational, economic and institutional aspects of the implementation of infrastructure projects in the Russian Federation. The main objective of the work is to try to organize the parameters of the national economy on the criteria of quality and availability of infrastructure for domestic business. According to the authors, an effective solution to the problem of modernization of infrastructure businesses in the regions may be the result of interaction between the state, the public and businesses to achieve the consolidation of their joint efforts. However, inadequate institutional and legal framework for the interaction of the institutions of government and business can be a significant barrier to the implementation of infrastructure projects to ensure economic activities of businesses. For this reason it is necessary to increase the loyalty and mutual benefit relationship of relevant government agencies and commercial organizations to develop the infrastructure of the complex in the context of meeting the mutual expectations of the parties at all stages of interaction. With the use of fuzzy set theory researchers presented a risk assessment model for infrastructure projects. The use of the model will allow for the participation of the rationale business structure in the formation of infrastructure resources to meet emerging potential benefits in the prevailing levels of risk.

  13. Refinement Checking on Parametric Modal Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benes, Nikola; Kretínsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2015-01-01

    Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects in the refin...

  14. Comparing Syntactic and Semantics Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goltz, Ursula; Gorrieri, Roberto; Rensink, Arend

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled configuration structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution, which can be used as another notion of action refinement in a process algebraic setting. The comparison is done by studying a process algebra equipped with

  15. On Syntactic and Semantic Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagiya, M.; Goltz, U.; Mitchell, J.C.; Gorrieri, R.; Rensink, Arend

    1994-01-01

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled event structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution, which can be used as another notion of action refinement in a process algebraic setting. This is done by studying a process algebra equipped with the ACP sequential

  16. Anomalies in the refinement of isoleucine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntsen, Karen R. M.; Vriend, Gert, E-mail: gerrit.vriend@radboudumc.nl [Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein 26-28, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2014-04-01

    The side-chain torsion angles of isoleucines in X-ray protein structures are a function of resolution, secondary structure and refinement software. Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve protein structure refinement. A study of isoleucines in protein structures solved using X-ray crystallography revealed a series of systematic trends for the two side-chain torsion angles χ{sub 1} and χ{sub 2} dependent on the resolution, secondary structure and refinement software used. The average torsion angles for the nine rotamers were similar in high-resolution structures solved using either the REFMAC, CNS or PHENIX software. However, at low resolution these programs often refine towards somewhat different χ{sub 1} and χ{sub 2} values. Small systematic differences can be observed between refinement software that uses molecular dynamics-type energy terms (for example CNS) and software that does not use these terms (for example REFMAC). Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve the refinement of protein structures. The target values in the molecular dynamics-type energy functions can also be improved.

  17. Refined large N duality for knots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kameyama, Masaya; Nawata, Satoshi

    We formulate large N duality of U(N) refined Chern-Simons theory with a torus knot/link in S³. By studying refined BPS states in M-theory, we provide the explicit form of low-energy effective actions of Type IIA string theory with D4-branes on the Ω-background. This form enables us to relate...

  18. Anomalies in the refinement of isoleucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntsen, Karen R. M.; Vriend, Gert

    2014-01-01

    The side-chain torsion angles of isoleucines in X-ray protein structures are a function of resolution, secondary structure and refinement software. Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve protein structure refinement. A study of isoleucines in protein structures solved using X-ray crystallography revealed a series of systematic trends for the two side-chain torsion angles χ 1 and χ 2 dependent on the resolution, secondary structure and refinement software used. The average torsion angles for the nine rotamers were similar in high-resolution structures solved using either the REFMAC, CNS or PHENIX software. However, at low resolution these programs often refine towards somewhat different χ 1 and χ 2 values. Small systematic differences can be observed between refinement software that uses molecular dynamics-type energy terms (for example CNS) and software that does not use these terms (for example REFMAC). Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve the refinement of protein structures. The target values in the molecular dynamics-type energy functions can also be improved

  19. Grain refinement of zinc-aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2006-01-01

    It is now well-established that the structure of the zinc-aluminum die casting alloys can be modified by the binary Al-Ti or the ternary Al-Ti-B master alloys. in this paper, grain refinement of zinc-aluminum alloys by rare earth materials is reviewed and discussed. The importance of grain refining of these alloys and parameters affecting it are presented and discussed. These include parameters related to the Zn-Al alloys cast, parameters related to the grain refining elements or alloys and parameters related to the process. The effect of addition of other alloying elements e.g. Zr either alone or in the presence of the main grain refiners Ti or Ti + B on the grain refining efficiency is also reviewed and discussed. Furthermore, based on the grain refinement and the parameters affecting it, a criterion for selection of the optimum grain refiner is suggested. Finally, the recent research work on the effect of grain refiners on the mechanical behaviour, impact strength, wear resistance, and fatigue life of these alloys are presented and discussed. (author)

  20. Refined Phenotyping of Modic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Juhani H.; Karppinen, Jaro; Paananen, Markus; Bow, Cora; Luk, Keith D.K.; Cheung, Kenneth M.C.; Samartzis, Dino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Low back pain (LBP) is the world's most disabling condition. Modic changes (MC) are vertebral bone marrow changes adjacent to the endplates as noted on magnetic resonance imaging. The associations of specific MC types and patterns with prolonged, severe LBP and disability remain speculative. This study assessed the relationship of prolonged, severe LBP and back-related disability, with the presence and morphology of lumbar MC in a large cross-sectional population-based study of Southern Chinese. We addressed the topographical and morphological dimensions of MC along with other magnetic resonance imaging phenotypes (eg, disc degeneration and displacement) on the basis of axial T1 and sagittal T2-weighted imaging of L1-S1. Prolonged severe LBP was defined as LBP lasting ≥30 days during the past year, and a visual analog scale severest pain intensity of at least 6/10. An Oswestry Disability Index score of 15% was regarded as significant disability. We also assessed subject demographics, occupation, and lifestyle factors. In total, 1142 subjects (63% females, mean age 53 years) were assessed. Of these, 282 (24.7%) had MC (7.1% type I, 17.6% type II). MC subjects were older (P = 0.003), had more frequent disc displacements (P disability. The strength of the associations increased with the number of MC. This large-scale study is the first to definitively note MC types and specific morphologies to be independently associated with prolonged severe LBP and back-related disability. This proposed refined MC phenotype may have direct implications in clinical decision-making as to the development and management of LBP. Understanding of these imaging biomarkers can lead to new preventative and personalized therapeutics related to LBP. PMID:27258491

  1. Refinement of boards' role required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbdenstock, R J

    1987-01-01

    The governing board's role in health care is not changing, but new competitive forces necessitate a refinement of the board's approach to fulfilling its role. In a free-standing, community, not-for-profit hospital, the board functions as though it were the "owner." Although it does not truly own the facility in the legal sense, the board does have legal, fiduciary, and financial responsibilities conferred on it by the state. In a religious-sponsored facility, the board fulfills these same obligations on behalf of the sponsoring institute, subject to the institute's reserved powers. In multi-institutional systems, the hospital board's power and authority depend on the role granted it by the system. Boards in all types of facilities are currently faced with the following challenges: Fulfilling their basic responsibilities, such as legal requirements, financial duties, and obligations for the quality of care. Encouraging management and the board itself to "think strategically" in attacking new competitive market forces while protecting the organization's traditional mission and values. Assessing recommended strategies in light of consequences if constituencies think the organization is abandoning its commitments. Boards can take several steps to match their mode of operation with the challenges of the new environment. Boards must rededicate themselves to the hospital's mission. Trustees must expand their understanding of health care trends and issues and their effect on the organization. Boards must evaluate and help strengthen management's performance, rather than acting as a "watchdog" in an adversarial position. Boards must think strategically, rather than focusing solely on operational details. Boards must evaluate the methods they use for conducting business.

  2. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  3. Uranium refining by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraikaew, J.; Srinuttrakul, W.

    2014-01-01

    The solvent extraction process to produce higher purity uranium from yellowcake was studied in laboratory scale. Yellowcake, which the uranium purity is around 70% and the main impurity is thorium, was obtained from monazite processing pilot plant of Rare Earth Research and Development Center in Thailand. For uranium re-extraction process, the extractant chosen was Tributylphosphate (TBP) in kerosene. It was found that the optimum concentration of TBP was 10% in kerosene and the optimum nitric acid concentration in uranyl nitrate feed solution was 4 N. An increase in concentrations of uranium and thorium in feed solution resulted in a decrease in the distribution of both components in the extractant. However, the distribution of uranium into the extractant was found to be more than that of thorium. The equilibration study of the extraction system, UO_2(NO_3)/4N HNO_3 – 10%TBP/Kerosene, was also investigated. Two extraction stages were calculated graphically from 100,000 ppm uranium concentration in feed solution input with 90% extraction efficiency and the flow ratio of aqueous phase to organic phase was adjusted to 1.0. For thorium impurity scrubbing process, 10% TBP in kerosene was loaded with uranium and minor thorium from uranyl nitrate solution prepared from yellowcake and was scrubbed with different low concentration nitric acid. The results showed that at nitric acid normality was lower than 1 N, uranium distributed well to aqueous phase. As conclusion, optimum nitric acid concentration for scrubbing process should not less than 1 N and diluted nitric acid or de-ionized water should be applied to strip uranium from organic phase in the final refining process. (author)

  4. An integrated infrastructure in support of software development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonelli, S; Bencivenni, M; De Girolamo, D; Giacomini, F; Longo, S; Manzali, M; Veraldi, R; Zani, S

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the current state of implementation of an infrastructure made available to software developers within the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN) to support and facilitate their daily activity. The infrastructure integrates several tools, each providing a well-identified function: project management, version control system, continuous integration, dynamic provisioning of virtual machines, efficiency improvement, knowledge base. When applicable, access to the services is based on the INFN-wide Authentication and Authorization Infrastructure. The system is being installed and progressively made available to INFN users belonging to tens of sites and laboratories and will represent a solid foundation for the software development efforts of the many experiments and projects that see the involvement of the Institute. The infrastructure will be beneficial especially for small- and medium-size collaborations, which often cannot afford the resources, in particular in terms of know-how, needed to set up such services.

  5. Intelligent monitoring, control, and security of critical infrastructure systems

    CERN Document Server

    Polycarpou, Marios

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the challenges that critical infrastructure systems face, and presents state of the art solutions to address them. How can we design intelligent systems or intelligent agents that can make appropriate real-time decisions in the management of such large-scale, complex systems? What are the primary challenges for critical infrastructure systems? The book also provides readers with the relevant information to recognize how important infrastructures are, and their role in connection with a society’s economy, security and prosperity. It goes on to describe state-of-the-art solutions to address these points, including new methodologies and instrumentation tools (e.g. embedded software and intelligent algorithms) for transforming and optimizing target infrastructures. The book is the most comprehensive resource to date for professionals in both the private and public sectors, while also offering an essential guide for students and researchers in the areas of modeling and analysis of critical in...

  6. China national space remote sensing infrastructure and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming

    2016-07-01

    Space Infrastructure is a space system that provides communication, navigation and remote sensing service for broad users. China National Space Remote Sensing Infrastructure includes remote sensing satellites, ground system and related systems. According to the principle of multiple-function on one satellite, multiple satellites in one constellation and collaboration between constellations, series of land observation, ocean observation and atmosphere observation satellites have been suggested to have high, middle and low resolution and fly on different orbits and with different means of payloads to achieve a high ability for global synthetically observation. With such an infrastructure, we can carry out the research on climate change, geophysics global surveying and mapping, water resources management, safety and emergency management, and so on. I This paper gives a detailed introduction about the planning of this infrastructure and its application in different area, especially the international cooperation potential in the so called One Belt and One Road space information corridor.

  7. Grids in Europe - a computing infrastructure for science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranzlmueller, D.

    2008-01-01

    Grids provide sheer unlimited computing power and access to a variety of resources to todays scientists. Moving from a research topic of computer science to a commodity tool for science and research in general, grid infrastructures are built all around the world. This talk provides an overview of the developments of grids in Europe, the status of the so-called national grid initiatives as well as the efforts towards an integrated European grid infrastructure. The latter, summarized under the title of the European Grid Initiative (EGI), promises a permanent and reliable grid infrastructure and its services in a way similar to research networks today. The talk describes the status of these efforts, the plans for the setup of this pan-European e-Infrastructure, and the benefits for the application communities. (author)

  8. Concepts and procedures for mapping food and health research infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Kerry A.; Timotijević, Lada; Geurts, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    be achieved in the area of food and health has, to date, been unclear. Scope and approach This commentary paper presents examples of the types of food and health research facilities, resources and services available in Europe. Insights are provided on the challenge of identifying and classifying research...... infrastructure. In addition, suggestions are made for the future direction of food and health research infrastructure in Europe. These views are informed by the EuroDISH project, which mapped research infrastructure in four areas of food and health research: Determinants of dietary behaviour; Intake of foods....../nutrients; Status and functional markers of nutritional health; Health and disease risk of foods/nutrients. Key findings and conclusion There is no objective measure to identify or classify research infrastructure. It is therefore, difficult to operationalise this term. EuroDISH demonstrated specific challenges...

  9. Global information infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, D A

    1994-01-01

    The High Performance Computing and Communications Program (HPCC) is a multiagency federal initiative under the leadership of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, established by the High Performance Computing Act of 1991. It has been assigned a critical role in supporting the international collaboration essential to science and to health care. Goals of the HPCC are to extend USA leadership in high performance computing and networking technologies; to improve technology transfer for economic competitiveness, education, and national security; and to provide a key part of the foundation for the National Information Infrastructure. The first component of the National Institutes of Health to participate in the HPCC, the National Library of Medicine (NLM), recently issued a solicitation for proposals to address a range of issues, from privacy to 'testbed' networks, 'virtual reality,' and more. These efforts will build upon the NLM's extensive outreach program and other initiatives, including the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), MEDLARS, and Grateful Med. New Internet search tools are emerging, such as Gopher and 'Knowbots'. Medicine will succeed in developing future intelligent agents to assist in utilizing computer networks. Our ability to serve patients is so often restricted by lack of information and knowledge at the time and place of medical decision-making. The new technologies, properly employed, will also greatly enhance our ability to serve the patient.

  10. MAGNET/INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Document Server

    A. Gaddi

    Most of the infrastructure at Pt5 has been completed and is now passing their commissioning phase. The power distribution is almost completed. During autumn the powering of UXC55 racks from USC55 cabinets has been achieved. The full control/safety chain has been tested by injecting smoke into the sensitive rack volume in YE+ racks and is being extended to all the other racks as soon as cabling is done. The USC55 cooling station has all the water circuits commissioned and running. The annual maintenance of the surface cooling towers has been done during weeks 45 and 46 and a special plan has been set up, in close coordination with the CERN technical department. All the USC55 racks have passed a campaign of cleaning of the water filters and quality checks. A new partition of the USC55 area, for the function of the AUG (General Emergency Stop) buttons, is being done. This has an impact on the design of the underground UPS (Uninterruptible Power System) that secure the Magnet system and the electronics racks ...

  11. MOEMS industrial infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heeren, Henne; Paschalidou, Lia

    2004-08-01

    Forecasters and analysts predict the market size for microsystems and microtechnologies to be in the order of 68 billion by the year 2005 (NEXUS Market Study 2002). In essence, the market potential is likely to double in size from its 38 billion status in 2002. According to InStat/MDR the market for MOEMS (Micro Optical Electro Mechanical Systems) in optical communication will be over $1.8 billion in 2006 and WTC states that the market for non telecom MOEMS will be even larger. Underpinning this staggering growth will be an infrastructure of design houses, foundries, package/assembly providers and equipment suppliers to cater for the demand in design, prototyping, and (mass-) production. This infrastructure is needed to provide an efficient route to commercialisation. Foundries, which provide the infrastructure to prototype, fabricate and mass-produce the designs emanating from the design houses and other companies. The reason for the customers to rely on foundries can be diverse: ranging from pure economical reasons (investments, cost-price) to technical (availability of required technology). The desire to have a second source of supply can also be a reason for outsourcing. Foundries aim to achieve economies of scale by combining several customer orders into volume production. Volumes are necessary, not only to achieve the required competitive cost prices, but also to attain the necessary technical competence level. Some products that serve very large markets can reach such high production volumes that they are able to sustain dedicated factories. In such cases, captive supply is possible, although outsourcing is still an option, as can be seen in the magnetic head markets, where captive and non-captive suppliers operate alongside each other. The most striking examples are: inkjet heads (>435 million heads per year) and magnetic heads (>1.5 billion heads per year). Also pressure sensor and accelerometer producers can afford their own facilities to produce the

  12. Success in Asian refining -- Strategies for a growth industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    Asia offers some of the best growth opportunities to the global refining industry. Many of its nations are in the process of industrializing, with a rapid rise in living standards and associated energy use. Growth trends are firmly established, with petroleum use in particular increasing rapidly as modern transport infrastructures develop. Of perhaps greater importance is Asia's potential for continued growth based on population and GDP trends. While the expected growth offers a wide range of opportunities, succeeding in the unique Asian marketplace will be a challenge mastered by only a few new entrants. This paper will examine some of the critical issues that will drive success and shape the refining business in Asia. Industry fundamentals will be reviewed, with a focus on growth and profit drivers. With the fundamental framework established, the unique challenges posed by the Asian environment, including cultural issues, investment requirements, regulatory trends and issues in market development will be discussed. The ability to succeed in Asia by identifying factors that create local advantage within a very diverse region will be discussed. The need to merge corporate capabilities and objectives with regional opportunities is the key requirement to succeed in entering or expanding in the region

  13. Fiscal 1998 intellectual infrastructure project utilizing civil sector functions. Development of systems for marine organism resources classification and utilization (Achievement report); 1998 nendo kaiyo seibutsu nado shigen no bunrui riyo system no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Genetic resources and databases involving microbes and the like were conserved and amplified for the reinforcement of biotechnology industries. In the maintenance of marine microalga culture collection, 16S rDNA sequences were determined for 120 strains of Cyanophyceae isolated by Marine Biotechnology Institute Co., Ltd., and databases were prepared containing the results of molecule classification, history of each strain, and pictures obtained using optical microscopes. In the maintenance of marine bacterium culture collection, methods for identifying by molecule classification bacteria separated from the sea were simplified and unified, and genera were identified for 776 strains. In the development of systems for classifying and conserving subtropical microbial resources, base sequences were analyzed for 14 strains of six kinds of microbes such as Aspergillus awamori conserved at Institute of Applied Microbiology of University of Tokyo. Other efforts included the enrichment of marine microalga collections, construction of an embryo bank system, advanced classification of microbes, and development of a DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) analyzing system. (NEDO)

  14. Identification of critical locations across multiple infrastructures for terrorist actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, S.A.; Apostolakis, G.E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a possible approach to ranking geographic regions that can influence multiple infrastructures. Once ranked, decision makers can determine whether these regions are critical locations based on their susceptibility to terrorist acts. We identify these locations by calculating a value for a geographic region that represents the combined values to the decision makers of all the infrastructures crossing through that region. These values, as well as the size of the geographic region, are conditional on an assumed destructive threat of a given size. In our case study, the threat is assumed to be minor, e.g., a bomb that can affect objects within 7 m of it. This approach first requires an assessment of the users of the system. During this assessment, each user is assigned a performance index (PI) based on the disutility of the loss of each infrastructure's resource via multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT). A Monte Carlo network analysis is then performed to develop importance measures (IM) for the elements of each infrastructure for their ability to service each user. We combine the IMs with the user PIs to a value that we call valued worth (VW) for each infrastructure's elements independently. Then we use spatial analysis techniques within a geographic information system (GIS) to combine the VWs of each infrastructure's elements in a geographic area, conditional on the threat, into a total value we call geographic valued worth (GVW). The GVW is displayed graphically in the GIS system in a color scheme that shows the numerical ranking of these geographic areas. The map and rankings are then submitted to the decision makers to better allocate anti-terrorism resources. A case study of this methodology is performed on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) campus. The results of the study show how the methodology can bring attention to areas that are important when several infrastructures are considered, but may be ignored when infrastructures

  15. 6. The Global Infrastructure Development Sector

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Studies of global infrastructure development often omit a perspective on the infrastructure development industry itself. Infrastructure development is the industry that turns infrastructure ideas into physical reality — contractors, engineering firms, hardware suppliers, and so on. Consequently, market penetration, cost functions, scale and scope economies, and other competitive variables that characterize infrastructure development have a direct effect on its economics. Vibrant competition a...

  16. Development and Operation of the D-Grid Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieseler, Thomas; Gűrich, Wolfgang

    D-Grid is the German national grid initiative, granted by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. In this paper we present the Core D-Grid which acts as a condensation nucleus to build a production grid and the latest developments of the infrastructure. The main difference compared to other international grid initiatives is the support of three middleware systems, namely LCG/gLite, Globus, and UNICORE for compute resources. Storage resources are connected via SRM/dCache and OGSA-DAI. In contrast to homogeneous communities, the partners in Core D-Grid have different missions and backgrounds (computing centres, universities, research centres), providing heterogeneous hardware from single processors to high performance supercomputing systems with different operating systems. We present methods to integrate these resources and services for the DGrid infrastructure like a point of information, centralized user and virtual organization management, resource registration, software provision, and policies for the implementation (firewalls, certificates, user mapping).

  17. Carbon emissions of infrastructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Daniel B; Liu, Gang; Løvik, Amund N; Modaresi, Roja; Pauliuk, Stefan; Steinhoff, Franciska S; Brattebø, Helge

    2013-10-15

    Identifying strategies for reconciling human development and climate change mitigation requires an adequate understanding of how infrastructures contribute to well-being and greenhouse gas emissions. While direct emissions from infrastructure use are well-known, information about indirect emissions from their construction is highly fragmented. Here, we estimated the carbon footprint of the existing global infrastructure stock in 2008, assuming current technologies, to be 122 (-20/+15) Gt CO2. The average per-capita carbon footprint of infrastructures in industrialized countries (53 (± 6) t CO2) was approximately 5 times larger that that of developing countries (10 (± 1) t CO2). A globalization of Western infrastructure stocks using current technologies would cause approximately 350 Gt CO2 from materials production, which corresponds to about 35-60% of the remaining carbon budget available until 2050 if the average temperature increase is to be limited to 2 °C, and could thus compromise the 2 °C target. A promising but poorly explored mitigation option is to build new settlements using less emissions-intensive materials, for example by urban design; however, this strategy is constrained by a lack of bottom-up data on material stocks in infrastructures. Infrastructure development must be considered in post-Kyoto climate change agreements if developing countries are to participate on a fair basis.

  18. Nuclear safety infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffitt, R.L.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of nuclear power in any country requires the early establishment of a long term nuclear safety infrastructure. This is necessary to ensure that the siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation and dismantling of the nuclear power plant and any other related installations, as well as the long term management of radioactive waste and spent fuel, are conducted in a safe and secure manner. The decision to undertake a nuclear power program is a major commitment requiring strict attention to nuclear safety. This commitment is a responsibility to not only the citizens of the country developing such a program, but also a responsibility to the international community. Nobody can take on this responsibility or make the critical decisions except the host country. It is important to make sure that the decision making process and the development activities are done in as open a manner as possible allowing interested stakeholders the opportunity to review and comment on the actions and plans. It cannot be overemphasized that everyone involved in a program to develop nuclear power carries a responsibility for ensuring safety. While it is clear that the key decisions and activities are the responsibility of the host country, it is also very important to recognize that help is available. The IAEA, OECD-NEA, WANO and other international organizations along with countries with established nuclear power programs are available to provide information and assistance. In particular, the IAEA and OECD-NEA have published several documents regarding the development of a nuclear power program and they have been and continue to support many meetings and seminars regarding the development of nuclear power programs

  19. Flowscapes : Infrastructure as landscape, landscape as infrastructure. Graduation Lab Landscape Architecture 2012/2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.; De Vries, C.

    2012-01-01

    Flowscapes explores infrastructure as a type of landscape and landscape as a type of infrastructure, and is focused on landscape architectonic design of transportation-, green- and water infrastructures. These landscape infrastructures are considered armatures for urban and rural development. With

  20. A virtual laboratory for micro-grid information and communication infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Weimer, James; Xu, Yuzhe; Fischione, Carlo; Johansson, Karl Henrik; Ljungberg, Per; Donovan, Craig; Sutor, Ariane; Fahlén, Lennart E.

    2012-01-01

    Testing smart grid information and communication (ICT) infrastructures is imperative to ensure that they meet industry requirements and standards and do not compromise the grid reliability. Within the micro-grid, this requires identifying and testing ICT infrastructures for communication between distributed energy resources, building, substations, etc. To evaluate various ICT infrastructures for micro-grid deployment, this work introduces the Virtual Micro-Grid Laboratory (VMGL) and provides ...

  1. Transactional Infrastructure of the Economy: the Evolution of Concepts and Synthesis of Definitions

    OpenAIRE

    Maruschak Irina Valeryevna

    2017-01-01

    The overview of evolution of market infrastructure concepts is provided, the first concepts of institutional infrastructure are revealed in the paper. Evolutionarily developed narrowing of essence of infrastructure in connection with the priority analysis of its physical (material and technological) components is proved. It ignores the fact that transactional resources, being drivers (driving forces) of economic systems evolution, in turn evolve, becoming harder and harder, combining increase...

  2. Towards Shibboleth-based security in the e-infrastructure for social sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Jie, Wei; Daw, Michael; Procter, Rob; Voss, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The e-Infrastructure for e-Social Sciences project leverages Grid computing technology to provide an integrated platform which enables social science researchers to securely access a variety of e-Science resources. Security underpins the e-Infrastructure and a security framework with authentication and authorization functionality is a core component of the e-Infrastructure for social sciences. To build the security framework, we adopt Shibboleth as the basic authentication and authorization i...

  3. Middleware for the next generation Grid infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Laure, E; Prelz, F; Beco, S; Fisher, S; Livny, M; Guy, L; Barroso, M; Buncic, P; Kunszt, Peter Z; Di Meglio, A; Aimar, A; Edlund, A; Groep, D; Pacini, F; Sgaravatto, M; Mulmo, O

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the EGEE (Enabling Grids for E-Science in Europe) project is to create a reliable and dependable European Grid infrastructure for e-Science. The objective of the EGEE Middleware Re-engineering and Integration Research Activity is to provide robust middleware components, deployable on several platforms and operating systems, corresponding to the core Grid services for resource access, data management, information collection, authentication & authorization, resource matchmaking and brokering, and monitoring and accounting. For achieving this objective, we developed an architecture and design of the next generation Grid middleware leveraging experiences and existing components essentially from AliEn, EDG, and VDT. The architecture follows the service breakdown developed by the LCG ARDA group. Our strategy is to do as little original development as possible but rather re-engineer and harden existing Grid services. The evolution of these middleware components towards a Service Oriented Architecture ...

  4. The Fermilab data storage infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jon A Bakken et al.

    2003-01-01

    Fermilab, in collaboration with the DESY laboratory in Hamburg, Germany, has created a petabyte scale data storage infrastructure to meet the requirements of experiments to store and access large data sets. The Fermilab data storage infrastructure consists of the following major storage and data transfer components: Enstore mass storage system, DCache distributed data cache, ftp and Grid ftp for primarily external data transfers. This infrastructure provides a data throughput sufficient for transferring data from experiments' data acquisition systems. It also allows access to data in the Grid framework

  5. Security framework for virtualised infrastructure services provisioned on-demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, C.; Membrey, P.; Demchenko, Y.; de Laat, C.

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing is developing as a new wave of ICT technologies, offering a common approach to on-demand provisioning computation, storage and network resources which are generally referred to as infrastructure services. Most of currently available commercial Cloud services are built and organized

  6. Prioritising transport infrastructure projects: Towards a multi-criterion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review ... systematic framework for the appraisal of transport infrastructure projects of the type 'budget cycle projects with local ... Cost/benefit analysis, when applied in a classic sense, is not suitable for this purpose, given its ... (optimal allocation of resources), equity (impact distribution aspects),

  7. Enabling affordable access to fibre infrastructure for West and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in improving access to primary and secondary education in West and Central Africa. At the same time, tertiary education is experiencing increased enrollment and declining investment in infrastructure and human resource development. Consequently, African institutions ...

  8. Autonomic Management of Application Workflows on Hybrid Computing Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjoo Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a programming and runtime framework that enables the autonomic management of complex application workflows on hybrid computing infrastructures. The framework is designed to address system and application heterogeneity and dynamics to ensure that application objectives and constraints are satisfied. The need for such autonomic system and application management is becoming critical as computing infrastructures become increasingly heterogeneous, integrating different classes of resources from high-end HPC systems to commodity clusters and clouds. For example, the framework presented in this paper can be used to provision the appropriate mix of resources based on application requirements and constraints. The framework also monitors the system/application state and adapts the application and/or resources to respond to changing requirements or environment. To demonstrate the operation of the framework and to evaluate its ability, we employ a workflow used to characterize an oil reservoir executing on a hybrid infrastructure composed of TeraGrid nodes and Amazon EC2 instances of various types. Specifically, we show how different applications objectives such as acceleration, conservation and resilience can be effectively achieved while satisfying deadline and budget constraints, using an appropriate mix of dynamically provisioned resources. Our evaluations also demonstrate that public clouds can be used to complement and reinforce the scheduling and usage of traditional high performance computing infrastructure.

  9. Assessing the development of Kenya National Spatial Data Infrastructure (KNSDI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okuku, J.; Bregt, A.K.; Grus, L.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial data plays a vital role in developmental activities, whether natural resource management or socio-economic development. Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) facilitate access, sharing and dissemination of spatial data necessary for complex decision-making processes of the future. Thus,

  10. Carbon Footprint Linked to transport infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo Garcia, L.; Jimenez Arroyo, F.

    2013-01-01

    Quantification of emissions of greenhouse effect gases associated to transport infrastructures has been addressed in different ways. The first tools for this purpose appeared with the application of ISO 14040 standards (Life cycle analysis) that, applied to the particular case of energetic resources, led to a new concept known as carbon footprint. There is a specific standard for this quantification (ISO 14064) according to which, for the case of infrastructures, emissions and environmental effects linked to the whole life cycle are assessed taking into account all the stages: building, exploitation, maintenance and dismantling. the key point to perform this analysis is the accurate definition of a calculation methodology to be applied to the inventory of activities covered, in order to avoid information lacks, overlaps or redundancies. Quantification tools for emissions are effectively a reality, but social and political will, supported by strong economical reasons recognizing energy as a vital resource, is necessary for these tools to be developed, enhanced and used in a systematic way as a key decision element to choice among different transport alternatives. (Author) 23 refs.

  11. Optimizing refiner operation with statistical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, G [Noranda Research Centre, Pointe Claire, PQ (Canada)

    1997-02-01

    The impact of refining conditions on the energy efficiency of the process and on the handsheet quality of a chemi-mechanical pulp was studied as part of a series of pilot scale refining trials. Statistical models of refiner performance were constructed from these results and non-linear optimization of process conditions were conducted. Optimization results indicated that increasing the ratio of specific energy applied in the first stage led to a reduction of some 15 per cent in the total energy requirement. The strategy can also be used to obtain significant increases in pulp quality for a given energy input. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  12. Refinement Types for TypeScript

    OpenAIRE

    Vekris, Panagiotis; Cosman, Benjamin; Jhala, Ranjit

    2016-01-01

    We present Refined TypeScript (RSC), a lightweight refinement type system for TypeScript, that enables static verification of higher-order, imperative programs. We develop a formal core of RSC that delineates the interaction between refinement types and mutability. Next, we extend the core to account for the imperative and dynamic features of TypeScript. Finally, we evaluate RSC on a set of real world benchmarks, including parts of the Octane benchmarks, D3, Transducers, and the TypeScript co...

  13. Price implications for Russia's oil refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, Eugene M.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past several years, Russia's oil industry has undergone its radical transformation from a wholly state-run and generously subsidized oil distribution system toward a substantially privatized, cash-strapped, and quasi-market ''petropreneurship''. This fully applies to the industry's downstream sector. Still unlike more dynamic E and C operations, the country's refining has turned out better fenced off competitive market forces and is less capable to respond to market imperatives. Consequently, jammed between depressed product prices and persistent feedstock costs, Russian refiners were badly hit by the world oil glut - which has made a radical modernization of the obsolete refining sector clearly a must. (author)

  14. Developing an infrastructure index : phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Over the past decade the American Society of Civil Engineers has used the Infrastructure Report : Card to raise awareness of infrastructure issues. Aging and deteriorating infrastructure has : recently been highlighted in the popular media. However, ...

  15. World petroleum refining capacity: Present and forecasted situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabarelli, D.

    1991-01-01

    World petroleum demand is expected to increase from about 15 million barrels to 80 million after the year 2000. The resulting necessity to increase the currently over-extended global refining capacity will put a significant burden on financial resources within the industry. This article examines the developments, after a decade of restructuring, which have led to the present situation of the petroleum industry described as having greatly improved operational conditions but beset by worrisome problems with regard not only to capacity, but also to the costly constraints being imposed by new air pollution regulations, especially those relevant to desulfurization in refinery processes

  16. Panorama 2011: Water in fuel production Oil production and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabzar, L.

    2011-01-01

    Water plays a vital role in the production of fuels. Against a background of extremely high pressure to do with the need to protect the environment, better manage energy use and operate in a socially responsible manner - as well as the need to protect water as a resource and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, water management has become a major issue for the oil industry. These issues have all more or less been factored into the integrated water management programmes which have been introduced both in oil production and oil refining. These programmes have been designed to keep waste and emissions to a minimum, and to reduce the quantities of water required. (author)

  17. Measuring and improving infrastructure performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Measuring and Improving Infrastructure Performance, National Research Council

    .... Developing a framework for guiding attempts at measuring the performance of infrastructure systems and grappling with the concept of defining good performance are the major themes of this book...

  18. Housing – nationally significant infrastructure?

    OpenAIRE

    Hickman, H.; While, A.

    2015-01-01

    Research report commissioned by law firm Bond Dickinson and Quod Planning to explore the potential role of the consenting regime for National Infrastructure Planning to deliver large scale housing schemes.

  19. Electricity Infrastructure Operations Center (EIOC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electricity Infrastructure Operations Center (EIOC) at PNNL brings together industry-leading software, real-time grid data, and advanced computation into a fully...

  20. Enterprise integration. Upgrading the infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupito, M C

    1998-02-01

    As organizations increase the number of applications and users, they increase demands on their networks. There is no one one-size-fits-all infrastructure, no minimum requirements...except maybe speed.

  1. Infrastructure of Electronic Information Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Twitchell, Gregory D; Frame, Michael T

    2004-01-01

    The information technology infrastructure of an organization, whether it is a private, non-profit, federal, or academic institution, is key to delivering timely and high-quality products and services...

  2. Russian refining shows signs of revival, needs investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnikov, V.S.; Avgerinos, G.F.; Dvorets, N.L.; Tyukov, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Russian refining industry appears ready for a comeback but needs investment from abroad. After 7 years of annual decline, output of petroleum products in the former Soviet Union (FSU), most of it from Russian refineries, is estimated to have dropped marginally last year. And an increase is possible this year. In 1994, Russia's refineries, which account for two thirds of total FSU distillation capacity, yielded 176.2 million metric tons of oil products, compared with 214.1 million tons in 1993. Despite the precipitous decline in refinery production, net FSU exports oil refined products were down only 5% in 1994 at about 51.3 million tons. This occurred despite the decline in refinery production because of sizable contraction in oil consumption in Russian and the other republics. Russia, like the rest of the FSU, needs more than loans to produce oil or restore wells. According to the Ministries of Economics and Fuels and Energy, 90% of Russian enterprises need foreign capital. Investments to rebuild refining, gas processing, and petrochemicals are necessary, as are funds for modern technologies and equipment. Capital also is needed for extraction of resources that are remotely located or difficult to produce. In addition to providing a legal structure that provides a solid basis for investment, Russian must promote competition, change its tax system to raise revenue but allow companies to retain profits, and remove disincentives to investment for domestic and foreign enterprises

  3. Urban Green Infrastructure: German Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Olegovna Dushkova; Sergey Nikolaevich Kirillov

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a concept of urban green infrastructure and analyzes the features of its implementation in the urban development programmes of German cities. We analyzed the most shared articles devoted to the urban green infrastructure to see different approaches to definition of this term. It is based on materials of field research in the cities of Berlin and Leipzig in 2014-2015, international and national scientific publications. During the process of preparing the paper, consultations...

  4. Long Term Financing of Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Sidharth

    2014-01-01

    Infrastructure projects, given their long life, require long term financing. The main sources of long term financings are insurance and pension funds who seek long term investments with low credit risk. However, in India household financial savings are mainly invested in bank deposits. Insurance and pension funds account for only a small percentage of household financial savings. In addition most infrastructure projects do not qualify for investment by insurance and pension funds because of t...

  5. Transport infrastructure development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouraima Mouhamed Bayane

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the historical configuration process of transportation systems in China and examines the relationship between economic development and transport system at three different levels. The current status of transport infrastructure system development in China is summarized at national and regional level. The investment trends for transport infrastructure in China are also depicted. The keys issues relating to government initiatives are presented.

  6. Integrating grey and green infrastructure to improve the health and well-being of urban populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika S. Svendsen; Mary E. Northridge; Sara S. Metcalf

    2012-01-01

    One of the enduring lessons of cities is the essential relationship between grey infrastructure (e.g., streets and buildings) and green infrastructure (e.g., parks and open spaces). The design and management of natural resources to enhance human health and well-being may be traced back thousands of years to the earliest urban civilizations. From the irrigation projects...

  7. Social infrastructure to integrate science and practice: the experience of the Long Tom Watershed Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca L. Flitcroft; Dana C. Dedrick; Courtland L. Smith; Cynthia A. Thieman; John P. Bolte

    2009-01-01

    Ecological problem solving requires a flexible social infrastructure that can incorporate scientific insights and adapt to changing conditions. As applied to watershed management, social infrastructure includes mechanisms to design, carry out, evaluate, and modify plans for resource protection or restoration. Efforts to apply the best science will not bring anticipated...

  8. Refinement for Transition Systems with Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Carbone

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the response pattern for property specifications and applications within flexible workflow management systems, we report upon an initial study of modal and mixed transition systems in which the must transitions are interpreted as must eventually, and in which implementations can contain may behaviors that are resolved at run-time. We propose Transition Systems with Responses (TSRs as a suitable model for this study. We prove that TSRs correspond to a restricted class of mixed transition systems, which we refer to as the action-deterministic mixed transition systems. We show that TSRs allow for a natural definition of deadlocked and accepting states. We then transfer the standard definition of refinement for mixed transition systems to TSRs and prove that refinement does not preserve deadlock freedom. This leads to the proposal of safe refinements, which are those that preserve deadlock freedom. We exemplify the use of TSRs and (safe refinements on a small medication workflow.

  9. Taiwan: refined need for consuming population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, David.

    1995-01-01

    A brief discussion is given of the oil and gas industry in Taiwan. Topics covered include the possibility of privatization, refineries and refining contracts overseas, plans for a new petrochemical complex and an offshore submarine transmission pipeline. (UK)

  10. 1991 worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This book ia an authority for immediate information on the industry. You can use it to find new business, analyze market trends, and to stay in touch with existing contacts while making new ones. The possibilities for business applications are numerous. Arranged by country, all listings in the directory include address, phone, fax and telex numbers, a description of the company's activities, names of key personnel and their titles, corporate headquarters, branch offices and plant sites. This newly revised edition lists more than 2000 companies and nearly 3000 branch offices and plant locations. This east-to-use reference also includes several of the most vital and informative surveys of the industry, including the U.S. Refining Survey, the Worldwide Construction Survey in Refining, Sulfur, Gas Processing and Related Fuels, the Worldwide Refining and Gas Processing Survey, the Worldwide Catalyst Report, and the U.S. and Canadian Lube and Wax Capacities Report from the National Petroleum Refiner's Association

  11. Development of a Refined Staff Group Trainer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quensel, Susan

    1999-01-01

    .... As a follow-on effort to the previous SGT project, the goal was to refine a brigade-level staff training program to more effectively and efficiently coordinate the activities within and between the...

  12. Semantic distributed resource discovery for multiple resource providers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittaras, C.; Ghijsen, M.; Wibisono, A.; Grosso, P.; van der Ham, J.; de Laat, C.

    2012-01-01

    An emerging modus operandi among providers of cloud infrastructures is the one where they share and combine their heterogenous resources to offer end user services tailored to specific scientific and business needs. A challenge to overcome is the discovery of suitable resources among these multiple

  13. Enabling European Archaeological Research: The ARIADNE E-Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Aloia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Research e-infrastructures, digital archives and data services have become important pillars of scientific enterprise that in recent decades has become ever more collaborative, distributed and data-intensive. The archaeological research community has been an early adopter of digital tools for data acquisition, organisation, analysis and presentation of research results of individual projects. However, the provision of e-infrastructure and services for data sharing, discovery, access and re-use has lagged behind. This situation is being addressed by ARIADNE: the Advanced Research Infrastructure for Archaeological Dataset Networking in Europe. This EU-funded network has developed an e-infrastructure that enables data providers to register and provide access to their resources (datasets, collections through the ARIADNE data portal, facilitating discovery, access and other services across the integrated resources. This article describes the current landscape of data repositories and services for archaeologists in Europe, and the issues that make interoperability between them difficult to realise. The results of the ARIADNE surveys on users' expectations and requirements are also presented. The main section of the article describes the architecture of the e-infrastructure, core services (data registration, discovery and access and various other extant or experimental services. The on-going evaluation of the data integration and services is also discussed. Finally, the article summarises lessons learned, and outlines the prospects for the wider engagement of the archaeological research community in sharing data through ARIADNE.

  14. Oil refining in South Asia and Australasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of the oil markets of Southeast Asia and Australasia is presented focussing on oil refining. Key statistics of both areas are tabulated, and figures providing information on GDP/capita, crude production, comparison of demand barrels, and product demand are provided. Crude oil production and supply, oil product demand, and the refining industries are examined with details given of evolution of capacity and cracking to distillation ratios

  15. The present state of refining in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The european refining industry suffers from a production over-capacity and closures are inevitable; the situation is even worse in France due to the imbalance between gas oil and gasoline prices and the weak margin for distributors. The French refining industry is however an important and essential link for its strategic fuel and petroleum product supply, and represent 17000 jobs. Several measures are introduced by the French Industry department towards restructuring, capacity reduction and fuel price harmonization

  16. SPRUCE experiment data infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassovski, M.; Hanson, P. J.; Boden, T.; Riggs, J.; Nettles, W. R.; Hook, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), USA has provided scientific data management support for the US Department of Energy and international climate change science since 1982. Among the many data activities CDIAC performs are design and implementation of the data systems. One current example is the data system and network for SPRUCE experiment. The SPRUCE experiment (http://mnspruce.ornl.gov) is the primary component of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Scientific Focus Area of ORNL's Climate Change Program, focused on terrestrial ecosystems and the mechanisms that underlie their responses to climatic change. The experimental work is to be conducted in a bog forest in northern Minnesota, 40 km north of Grand Rapids, in the USDA Forest Service Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The site is located at the southern margin of the boreal peatland forest. Experimental work in the 8.1-ha S1 bog will be a climate change manipulation focusing on the combined responses to multiple levels of warming at ambient or elevated CO2 (eCO2) levels. The experiment provides a platform for testing mechanisms controlling the vulnerability of organisms, biogeochemical processes and ecosystems to climatic change (e.g., thresholds for organism decline or mortality, limitations to regeneration, biogeochemical limitations to productivity, the cycling and release of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere). The manipulation will evaluate the response of the existing biological communities to a range of warming levels from ambient to +9°C, provided via large, modified open-top chambers. The ambient and +9°C warming treatments will also be conducted at eCO2 (in the range of 800 to 900 ppm). Both direct and indirect effects of these experimental perturbations will be analyzed to develop and refine models needed for full Earth system analyses. SPRUCE provides wide range continuous and discrete measurements. To successfully manage SPRUCE data flow

  17. Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Database Description and User’s Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidrich, Brenden [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    In 2014, the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Science and Technology Innovation initiated the Nuclear Energy (NE)–Infrastructure Management Project by tasking the Nuclear Science User Facilities, formerly the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility, to create a searchable and interactive database of all pertinent NE-supported and -related infrastructure. This database, known as the Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Database (NEID), is used for analyses to establish needs, redundancies, efficiencies, distributions, etc., to best understand the utility of NE’s infrastructure and inform the content of infrastructure calls. The Nuclear Science User Facilities developed the database by utilizing data and policy direction from a variety of reports from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Research Council, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and various other federal and civilian resources. The NEID currently contains data on 802 research and development instruments housed in 377 facilities at 84 institutions in the United States and abroad. The effort to maintain and expand the database is ongoing. Detailed information on many facilities must be gathered from associated institutions and added to complete the database. The data must be validated and kept current to capture facility and instrumentation status as well as to cover new acquisitions and retirements. This document provides a short tutorial on the navigation of the NEID web portal at NSUF-Infrastructure.INL.gov.

  18. Building for Biology: A Gene Therapy Trial Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Taylor-Alexander

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we examine the construction of the infrastructure for a Phase II gene therapy trial for Cystic Fibrosis (CF. Tracing the development of the material technologies and physical spaces used in the trial, we show how the trial infrastructure took form at the uncertain intersection of scientific norms, built environments, regulatory negotiations, patienthood, and the biologies of both disease and therapy. We define infrastructures as material and immaterial (including symbols and affect composites that serve a selective distributive purpose and facilitate projects of making and doing. There is a politics to this distributive action, which is itself twofold, because whilst infrastructures enable and delimit the movement of matter, they also mediate the very activity for which they provide the grounds. An infrastructural focus allows us to show how purposeful connections are made in a context of epistemic and regulatory uncertainty. The gene therapy researchers were working in a context of multiple uncertainties, regarding not only how to do gene therapy, but also how to anticipate and enact ambiguous regulatory requirements in a context of limited resources (technical, spatial, and financial. At the same time, the trial infrastructure had to accommodate Cystic Fibrosis biology by bridging the gap between pathology and therapy. The consortium’s approach to treating CF required that they address concerns about contamination and safety while finding a way of getting a modified gene product into the lungs of the trial participants.

  19. A cyber infrastructure for the SKA Telescope Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Domingos; Barraca, João. P.; Carvalho, Bruno; Maia, Dalmiro; Gupta, Yashwant; Natarajan, Swaminathan; Le Roux, Gerhard; Swart, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The Square Kilometre Array Telescope Manager (SKA TM) will be responsible for assisting the SKA Operations and Observation Management, carrying out System diagnosis and collecting Monitoring and Control data from the SKA subsystems and components. To provide adequate compute resources, scalability, operation continuity and high availability, as well as strict Quality of Service, the TM cyber-infrastructure (embodied in the Local Infrastructure - LINFRA) consists of COTS hardware and infrastructural software (for example: server monitoring software, host operating system, virtualization software, device firmware), providing a specially tailored Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and Platform as a Service (PaaS) solution. The TM infrastructure provides services in the form of computational power, software defined networking, power, storage abstractions, and high level, state of the art IaaS and PaaS management interfaces. This cyber platform will be tailored to each of the two SKA Phase 1 telescopes (SKA_MID in South Africa and SKA_LOW in Australia) instances, each presenting different computational and storage infrastructures and conditioned by location. This cyber platform will provide a compute model enabling TM to manage the deployment and execution of its multiple components (observation scheduler, proposal submission tools, MandC components, Forensic tools and several Databases, etc). In this sense, the TM LINFRA is primarily focused towards the provision of isolated instances, mostly resorting to virtualization technologies, while defaulting to bare hardware if specifically required due to performance, security, availability, or other requirement.

  20. Design of Grain Refiners for Aluminium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronche, A.; Greer, A. L.

    The efficiency of a grain refiner can be quantified as the number of grains per nucleant particle in the solidified product. Even for effective refiners in aluminium, such as Al-5Ti-1B, it is known from experiments that efficiencies are very low, at best 10-3 to 102. It is of interest to explore the reasons for such low values, and to assess the prospects for increased efficiency though design of refiners. Recently it has been shown [1] that a simple recalescence-based model can make quantitative predictions of grain size as a function of refiner addition level, cooling rate and solute content. In the model, the initiation of grains is limited by the free growth from nucleant particles, the size distribution of which is very important. The present work uses this model as the basis for discussing the effect of particle size distribution on grain refiner performance. Larger particles (of TiB2 in the case of present interest) promote greater efficiency, as do narrower size distributions. It is shown that even if the size distribution could be exactly specified, compromises would have to be made to balance efficiency (defined as above) with other desirable characteristics of a refiner.

  1. Catalysts in petroleum refining and petrochemical industries 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Absi-Halabi, M.; Beshara, J.; Qabazard, H.; Stanislaus, A. [eds.] [Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Materials Division, Kuwait Institute of Scientific Research, Kuwait (Kuwait)

    1996-07-01

    Catalysis plays an increasingly critical role in modern petroleum refining and basic petrochemical industries. The market demands for and specifications of petroleum and petrochemical products are continuously changing. They have impacted the industry significantly over the past twenty years. Numerous new refining processes have been developed and significant improvements were made on existing technologies. Catalysts have been instrumental in enabling the industry to meet the continuous challenges posed by the market. As we enter the 21st century, new challenges for catalysis science and technology are anticipated in almost every field. Particularly, better utilization of petroleum resources and demands for cleaner transportation fuels are major items on the agenda. It is against this background that the 2nd International Conference on Catalysts in Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Industries was organized. The papers from the conference were carefully selected from around 100 submissions. They were a mix of reviews providing an overview of selected areas, original fundamental research results, and industrial experiences. The papers in the proceedings were grouped in the following sections for quick reference: Plenary Papers; Hydroprocessing of Petroleum Residues and Distillates; Fluid Catalytic Cracking; Oxidation Catalysis; Aromatization and Polymerization Catalysis; Catalyst Characterization and Performance. The plenary papers were mostly reviews covering important topics related to the objectives of the conference. The remaining sections cover various topics of major impact on modern petroleum refining and petrochemical industries. A large number of papers dealt with hydroprocessing of petroleum distillates and residues which reflects the concern over meeting future sulfur-level specifications for diesel and fuel oils

  2. Urban Planning Dealing with Change and Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Deppisch

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with urban planning and change processes potentially impacting local infrastructure. The overarching theoretical frame is social-ecological resilience thinking and its potential application to as well as implications for urban land-use development. The paper draws its main attention on if this concept can be of use for urban planners dealing with change and urban infrastructure and if a readiness towards its application can be identified. This endeavor is informed by two explorative studies in Germany. One study gains its material from a scenario process with planning practitioners and further urban stakeholders of a medium-sized city. Main topic was how to deal with the challenges of climate change impacts in urban planning and development. The second explorative study reflects research results on the readiness to apply the resilience concept to urban planning dealing with change and local infrastructure in a small community. The scenario process showed that applying social-ecological resilience thinking to urban planning helps to critically reflect so far taken paths in local built infrastructure, to take on an integrated perspective and to develop new and innovative strategies for further land-use development. Nevertheless, such a process requires additional financial as well as human resources and translation exercises. Also, the given path dependency as well as financial constrains are hindering to perceive any leeway in infrastructure development at the political level, so that any real implementation at the moment seems to be out of sight, which is also caused by multi-level dependencies.  Normal 0 21 false false false DE X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normale Tabelle"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm

  3. Development of Bioinformatics Infrastructure for Genomics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Nicola J; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Adebiyi, Marion; Adeyemi, Seun; Ahmed, Azza; Ahmed, Rehab; Akanle, Bola; Alibi, Mohamed; Armstrong, Don L; Aron, Shaun; Ashano, Efejiro; Baichoo, Shakuntala; Benkahla, Alia; Brown, David K; Chimusa, Emile R; Fadlelmola, Faisal M; Falola, Dare; Fatumo, Segun; Ghedira, Kais; Ghouila, Amel; Hazelhurst, Scott; Isewon, Itunuoluwa; Jung, Segun; Kassim, Samar Kamal; Kayondo, Jonathan K; Mbiyavanga, Mamana; Meintjes, Ayton; Mohammed, Somia; Mosaku, Abayomi; Moussa, Ahmed; Muhammd, Mustafa; Mungloo-Dilmohamud, Zahra; Nashiru, Oyekanmi; Odia, Trust; Okafor, Adaobi; Oladipo, Olaleye; Osamor, Victor; Oyelade, Jellili; Sadki, Khalid; Salifu, Samson Pandam; Soyemi, Jumoke; Panji, Sumir; Radouani, Fouzia; Souiai, Oussama; Tastan Bishop, Özlem

    2017-06-01

    Although pockets of bioinformatics excellence have developed in Africa, generally, large-scale genomic data analysis has been limited by the availability of expertise and infrastructure. H3ABioNet, a pan-African bioinformatics network, was established to build capacity specifically to enable H3Africa (Human Heredity and Health in Africa) researchers to analyze their data in Africa. Since the inception of the H3Africa initiative, H3ABioNet's role has evolved in response to changing needs from the consortium and the African bioinformatics community. H3ABioNet set out to develop core bioinformatics infrastructure and capacity for genomics research in various aspects of data collection, transfer, storage, and analysis. Various resources have been developed to address genomic data management and analysis needs of H3Africa researchers and other scientific communities on the continent. NetMap was developed and used to build an accurate picture of network performance within Africa and between Africa and the rest of the world, and Globus Online has been rolled out to facilitate data transfer. A participant recruitment database was developed to monitor participant enrollment, and data is being harmonized through the use of ontologies and controlled vocabularies. The standardized metadata will be integrated to provide a search facility for H3Africa data and biospecimens. Because H3Africa projects are generating large-scale genomic data, facilities for analysis and interpretation are critical. H3ABioNet is implementing several data analysis platforms that provide a large range of bioinformatics tools or workflows, such as Galaxy, the Job Management System, and eBiokits. A set of reproducible, portable, and cloud-scalable pipelines to support the multiple H3Africa data types are also being developed and dockerized to enable execution on multiple computing infrastructures. In addition, new tools have been developed for analysis of the uniquely divergent African data and for

  4. U.S. infrastructure : funding trends and opportunities to improve investment decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    Given the profound economic and social importance of the public infrastructure, it is crucial that federal, state, and local governments make prudent decisions on how to invest limited available resources. In making these decisions, governments will ...

  5. Integrated design as an opportunity to develop green infrastructures within complex spatial questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelse, G.; Kost, S.

    2012-01-01

    Landscape is a complex system of competitive spatial functions. This competition is especially readable in high dense urban areas between housing, industry, leisure facilities, transport and infrastructure, energy supply, flood protection, natural resources. Nevertheless, those conflicts are seldom

  6. Needs of National Infrastructure for Nuclear Energy Program in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaushevski, A.; Poceva, S.N.; Spasevska, H.; Popov, N.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of a nuclear energy program is a major undertaking with significant implications for many aspects of national infrastructure, ranging from capacity of the power grid, access roads and production facilities, to the involvement of stakeholders and the development of human resources. For new comers countries without nuclear power, even for those who wish to realize substantial expansion of existing nuclear capacity, it can take up to 10-15 years to develop the necessary infrastructure. One of the crucial problems in nuclear energy implementation are human resources needs and educational infrastructure development in this field. No matter what will be the future energy scenario in the Republic of Macedonia, the nuclear educational program is the first step to have HR in the field of nuclear energy. This paper presents the proposed direction for having HR for establishing national infrastructure in nuclear energy program in Macedonia. This includes establishing and developing of MONEP (Macedonian NEPIO), and the enhancing the capabilities of the national regulatory body in the Republic of Macedonia. Keywords: NEP (Nuclear Energy Program), HR (Human Resources), NEPIO (Nuclear Energy Program Implementation Organization), MONEP Macedonian Organization for Nuclear Energy Program (Macedonian NEPIO), NRB (Nuclear Regulatory Body)

  7. CERIF-CRIS for the European e-Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jeffery

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The European e-infrastructure is the ICT support for research although the infrastructure will be extended for commercial/business use. It supports the research process across funding agencies to research institutions to innovation. It supports experimental facilities, modelling and simulation, communication between researchers, and workflow of research processes and research management. We propose the core should be CERIF: an EU recommendation to member states for exchanging research information and for homogeneous access to heterogeneous information. CERIF can also integrate associated systems (such as finance, human resource, project management, and library services and provides interoperation among research institutions, research funders, and innovators.

  8. Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bradley, Donald J.

    2008-10-01

    Sea, in spite of the fact that these areas do not have highest potential for future hydrocarbon reserves. Opportunities for improving the mapping and assessment of Arctic hydrocarbon resources include: 1) Refining hydrocarbon potential on a basin-by-basin basis, 2) Developing more realistic and detailed distribution of gas hydrate, and 3) Assessing the likely future scenarios for development of infrastructure and their interaction with hydrocarbon potential. It would also be useful to develop a more sophisticated approach to merging conventional and gas hydrate resource potential that considers the technical uncertainty associated with exploitation of gas hydrate resources. Taken together, additional work in these areas could significantly improve our understanding of the exploitation of Arctic hydrocarbons as ice-free areas increase in the future.

  9. Site development and demands on infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieke, K.F.

    1976-01-01

    All sub-fields are examined which form the infrastructure, the infrastructure being indispensable for the site development of a nuclear power plant. The main emphasis is put on the technical infrastructure, but the social infrastructure is dealt with, too. The most important sub-fields are: traffic connections, energy supply, external communications, foundation, building mearures. (UA) [de

  10. The evolution of oil refining in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, A. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    Back in 1963 when CONCAWE was founded, the world looked very different from what it is today, and so did the global and European refining industry. Oil product markets were expanding fast and new refineries were being built at a steady rate. The oil crisis of the 1970s brought an abrupt end to this, heralding a long era of consolidation and stepwise adaptation. At the same time the nature of the global oil business shifted from fully integrated companies producing, transporting and refining their own oil to a much more diversified situation where oil production ('upstream') and refining/distribution ('downstream') gradually became two essentially separate businesses. From being purely a 'cost centre' in an integrated chain, refining has become a separate activity in its own right, operating as a 'profit centre' between two global markets - crude oil and products - which, although not entirely independent, have their own dynamics and influences. In addition demand gradually shifted towards lighter products while the quality requirements on all products were considerably tightened. This article explores the new challenges that these changes have imposed on EU refiners, and describes CONCAWE's contributions to understanding their impact on refinery production and investments.

  11. Grain refinement mechanism in A3003 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hoon; Shin, Je-Sik; Lee, Byoung-Soo; Jo, Hyung-Ho

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, in order to find out an grain refinement mechanism, 0.1wt.% Al-10wt.%Ti master alloy was added into A3003 alloy melt contained in graphite crucible and in alumina crucible, and then the melt holding time at 750 deg. C was systematically changed from 1 min up to 120 min. It is interesting to note that the grain refinement and fading phenomena remarkably depend on the crucible material. The fading effect in the specimens using alumina crucible can be explained as the result of TiAl 3 phase dissolution into molten aluminium matrix. In the specimens using graphite crucible, the grain refinement was occurred gradually with increasing holding time. It was suggest that the continuous grain refinement is due to transition of refinement mechanism from TiAl 3 phase to TiC phase. It can be mentioned that the TiC formed from titanium and carbon solute in the aluminium melt, which came from the Al-10Ti alloy and the graphite crucible.

  12. Rise of the build infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eulisse, Giulio; Muzaffar, Shahzad; Abdurachmanov, David; Mendez, David

    2014-01-01

    CMS Offline Software, CMSSW, is an extremely large software project, with roughly 3 millions lines of code, two hundreds of active developers and two to three active development branches. Given the scale of the problem, both from a technical and a human point of view, being able to keep on track such a large project, bug free, and to deliver builds for different architectures is a challenge in itself. Moreover the challenges posed by the future migration of CMSSW to multithreading also require adapting and improving our QA tools. We present the work done in the last two years in our build and integration infrastructure, particularly in the form of improvements to our build tools, in the simplification and extensibility of our build infrastructure and the new features added to our QA and profiling tools. Finally we present our plans for the future directions for code management and how this reflects on our workflows and the underlying software infrastructure.

  13. LCG/AA build infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgkins, Alex Liam; Diez, Victor; Hegner, Benedikt

    2012-01-01

    The Software Process and Infrastructure (SPI) project provides a build infrastructure for regular integration testing and release of the LCG Applications Area software stack. In the past, regular builds have been provided using a system which has been constantly growing to include more features like server-client communication, long-term build history and a summary web interface using present-day web technologies. However, the ad-hoc style of software development resulted in a setup that is hard to monitor, inflexible and difficult to expand. The new version of the infrastructure is based on the Django Python framework, which allows for a structured and modular design, facilitating later additions. Transparency in the workflows and ease of monitoring has been one of the priorities in the design. Formerly missing functionality like on-demand builds or release triggering will support the transition to a more agile development process.

  14. Technology Trends in Cloud Infrastructure

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Cloud computing is growing at an exponential pace with an increasing number of workloads being hosted in mega-scale public clouds such as Microsoft Azure. Designing and operating such large infrastructures requires not only a significant capital spend for provisioning datacenters, servers, networking and operating systems, but also R&D investments to capitalize on disruptive technology trends and emerging workloads such as AI/ML. This talk will cover the various infrastructure innovations being implemented in large scale public clouds and opportunities/challenges ahead to deliver the next generation of scale computing. About the speaker Kushagra Vaid is the general manager and distinguished engineer for Hardware Infrastructure in the Microsoft Azure division. He is accountable for the architecture and design of compute and storage platforms, which are the foundation for Microsoft’s global cloud-scale services. He and his team have successfully delivered four generations of hyperscale cloud hardwar...

  15. Infrastructure for the Geospatial Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Ron; Farley, Jim

    Geospatial data and geoprocessing techniques are now directly linked to business processes in many areas. Commerce, transportation and logistics, planning, defense, emergency response, health care, asset management and many other domains leverage geospatial information and the ability to model these data to achieve increased efficiencies and to develop better, more comprehensive decisions. However, the ability to deliver geospatial data and the capacity to process geospatial information effectively in these domains are dependent on infrastructure technology that facilitates basic operations such as locating data, publishing data, keeping data current and notifying subscribers and others whose applications and decisions are dependent on this information when changes are made. This chapter introduces the notion of infrastructure technology for the Geospatial Web. Specifically, the Geography Markup Language (GML) and registry technology developed using the ebRIM specification delivered from the OASIS consortium are presented as atomic infrastructure components in a working Geospatial Web.

  16. Permafrost Hazards and Linear Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanilovskaya, Julia; Sergeev, Dmitry

    2014-05-01

    The international experience of linear infrastructure planning, construction and exploitation in permafrost zone is being directly tied to the permafrost hazard assessment. That procedure should also consider the factors of climate impact and infrastructure protection. The current global climate change hotspots are currently polar and mountain areas. Temperature rise, precipitation and land ice conditions change, early springs occur more often. The big linear infrastructure objects cross the territories with different permafrost conditions which are sensitive to the changes in air temperature, hydrology, and snow accumulation which are connected to climatic dynamics. One of the most extensive linear structures built on permafrost worldwide are Trans Alaskan Pipeline (USA), Alaska Highway (Canada), Qinghai-Xizang Railway (China) and Eastern Siberia - Pacific Ocean Oil Pipeline (Russia). Those are currently being influenced by the regional climate change and permafrost impact which may act differently from place to place. Thermokarst is deemed to be the most dangerous process for linear engineering structures. Its formation and development depend on the linear structure type: road or pipeline, elevated or buried one. Zonal climate and geocryological conditions are also of the determining importance here. All the projects are of the different age and some of them were implemented under different climatic conditions. The effects of permafrost thawing have been recorded every year since then. The exploration and transportation companies from different countries maintain the linear infrastructure from permafrost degradation in different ways. The highways in Alaska are in a good condition due to governmental expenses on annual reconstructions. The Chara-China Railroad in Russia is under non-standard condition due to intensive permafrost response. Standards for engineering and construction should be reviewed and updated to account for permafrost hazards caused by the

  17. Narrating national geo information infrastructures : Balancing infrastructures and innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerten, H.; Veenswijk, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines narratives relating to the development of National Geo Information Infrastructures (NGII) in eth-nographic research on a Dutch NGII project which was monitored throughout its course. We used an approach which focuses on narratives concerning the environment, groups and practice

  18. Improved Prioritization Criteria for Road Infrastructure Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionescu Heroiu Marcel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This report’s main aim is to propose a methodology for assessing state-budget-funded projects based on a rigorous selection model, including clear and effective prioritization criteria. This report first argues that project prioritization and selection should be optimized against four dimensions: absorption, impact, legitimacy, and capacity. Second, it provides a diagnostic of the National Program for Local Development (PNDL, managed by the Ministry of Regional Development and Public Administration (MRDPA, as the most significant source of state-budget funding for local infrastructure projects. The PNDL’s current design and implementation leaves room for improvement, as reflected by the lack of strategic direction in allocating funds and the continued rise in the number of projects that get started without a feasible timeline for their completion. Further, this report makes recommendations for improvement of project evaluation and selection procedures for local infrastructure development projects, with a special focus on prioritization criteria and viable funding sources for each type of investment. The practical purpose is to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of proposed investments, maximizing impact in the context of inherently limited available financial resources. A complementary focus is on opportunities for harmonizing and better coordinating investments across various sources of funding, in the context of nearly EUR 40 billion available to Romania from the EU for the 2014-2020 programming period.

  19. Mastering Microsoft Azure infrastructure services

    CERN Document Server

    Savill, John

    2015-01-01

    Understand, create, deploy, and maintain a public cloud using Microsoft Azure Mastering Microsoft Azure Infrastructure Services guides you through the process of creating and managing a public cloud and virtual network using Microsoft Azure. With step-by-step instruction and clear explanation, this book equips you with the skills required to provide services both on-premises and off-premises through full virtualization, providing a deeper understanding of Azure's capabilities as an infrastructure service. Each chapter includes online videos that visualize and enhance the concepts presented i

  20. Development of a lunar infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of building an infrastructure on the moon is discussed, assuming that earth-to-moon and moon-to-earth transport will be available. The sequence of events which would occur in the process of building an infrastructure is examined. The human needs which must be met on a lunar base are discussed, including minimal life support, quality of life, and growth stages. The technology available to meet these needs is reviewed and further research in fields related to a lunar base, such as the study of the moon's polar regions and the limits of lunar agriculture, is recommended.

  1. Sustainability as the key to prioritize investments in public infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo-Bosch, Francesc; Aguado, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Infrastructure construction, one of the biggest driving forces of the economy nowadays, requires a huge analysis and clear transparency to decide what projects have to be executed with the few resources available. With the aim to provide the public administrations a tool with which they can make their decisions easier, the Sustainability Index of Infrastructure Projects (SIIP) has been defined, with a multi-criteria decision system called MIVES, in order to classify non-uniform investments. This index evaluates, in two inseparable stages, the contribution to the sustainable development of each infrastructure project, analyzing its social, environmental and economic impact. The result of the SIIP allows to decide the order with which projects will be prioritized. The case of study developed proves the adaptability and utility of this tool for the ordinary budget management.

  2. Sustainability as the key to prioritize investments in public infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo-Bosch, Francesc, E-mail: francesc.pardo@upc.edu [Departament d' Enginyeria Civil i Ambiental, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya - Barcelona Tech. (Spain); Political Science Department, University of California - Berkeley (United States); Aguado, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.aguado@upc.edu [Departament d' Enginyeria Civil i Ambiental, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya - Barcelona Tech. (Spain)

    2016-09-15

    Infrastructure construction, one of the biggest driving forces of the economy nowadays, requires a huge analysis and clear transparency to decide what projects have to be executed with the few resources available. With the aim to provide the public administrations a tool with which they can make their decisions easier, the Sustainability Index of Infrastructure Projects (SIIP) has been defined, with a multi-criteria decision system called MIVES, in order to classify non-uniform investments. This index evaluates, in two inseparable stages, the contribution to the sustainable development of each infrastructure project, analyzing its social, environmental and economic impact. The result of the SIIP allows to decide the order with which projects will be prioritized. The case of study developed proves the adaptability and utility of this tool for the ordinary budget management.

  3. The Design of a Renewable Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure for London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parissis, O.; Bauen, A.

    2006-01-01

    The development of a least cost hydrogen infrastructure is key to the introduction of hydrogen fuel in road transport. This paper presents a generic framework for modelling the development of a renewable hydrogen infrastructure that can be applied to different cases and geographical regions. The model was designed by means of mixed integer linear programming and developed in MATLAB. It was applied to the case of London aiming to examine the possibilities of developing a renewable hydrogen infrastructure within a 50 years time horizon. The results presented here are preliminary results from a study looking at the least cost solutions to supplying hydrogen produced exclusively from renewable energy resources to large urban centres. (authors)

  4. A game theory analysis of green infrastructure stormwater management policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, Reshmina; Garg, Jugal; Stillwell, Ashlynn S.

    2017-09-01

    Green stormwater infrastructure has been demonstrated as an innovative water resources management approach that addresses multiple challenges facing urban environments. However, there is little consensus on what policy strategies can be used to best incentivize green infrastructure adoption by private landowners. Game theory, an analysis framework that has historically been under-utilized within the context of stormwater management, is uniquely suited to address this policy question. We used a cooperative game theory framework to investigate the potential impacts of different policy strategies used to incentivize green infrastructure installation. The results indicate that municipal regulation leads to the greatest reduction in pollutant loading. However, the choice of the "best" regulatory approach will depend on a variety of different factors including politics and financial considerations. Large, downstream agents have a disproportionate share of bargaining power. Results also reveal that policy impacts are highly dependent on agents' spatial position within the stormwater network, leading to important questions of social equity and environmental justice.

  5. India's refining prospects linked to economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, E.

    1996-01-01

    International investors assess refining ventures in India the same way they do comparable projects elsewhere in the world: according to their expectations about investment returns. By that standard, India's appeal is mixed, although its need for some measure of additional refining capacity seems certain. The success of future refinery investments will depend heavily on the government's commitment to policies allowing the economy to grow faster than the population. Unless accompanied by economic growth, expected increases in the population will not automatically raise demand for petroleum products. Decisions about investments in India's refining sector, therefore, must carefully weigh market fundamentals, the business environment, and likely investment performance. This paper reviews the market for the various products and predicts new economic trends

  6. Refining processes of selected copper alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rzadkosz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the refining effectiveness of the liquid copper and selected copper alloys by various micro additions and special refiningsubstances – was performed. Examinations of an influence of purifying, modifying and deoxidation operations performed in a metal bath on the properties of certain selected alloys based on copper matrix - were made. Refining substances, protecting-purifying slag, deoxidation and modifying substances containing micro additions of such elements as: zirconium, boron, phosphor, sodium, lithium, or their compounds introduced in order to change micro structures and properties of alloys, were applied in examinations. A special attention was directed to macro and micro structures of alloys, their tensile and elongation strength and hot-cracks sensitivity. Refining effects were estimated by comparing the effectiveness of micro structure changes with property changes of copper and its selected alloys from the group of tin bronzes.

  7. Methodologies and applications for critical infrastructure protection: State-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusta, Jose M.; Correa, Gabriel J.; Lacal-Arantegui, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    This work provides an update of the state-of-the-art on energy security relating to critical infrastructure protection. For this purpose, this survey is based upon the conceptual view of OECD countries, and specifically in accordance with EU Directive 114/08/EC on the identification and designation of European critical infrastructures, and on the 2009 US National Infrastructure Protection Plan. The review discusses the different definitions of energy security, critical infrastructure and key resources, and shows some of the experie'nces in countries considered as international reference on the subject, including some information-sharing issues. In addition, the paper carries out a complete review of current methodologies, software applications and modelling techniques around critical infrastructure protection in accordance with their functionality in a risk management framework. The study of threats and vulnerabilities in critical infrastructure systems shows two important trends in methodologies and modelling. A first trend relates to the identification of methods, techniques, tools and diagrams to describe the current state of infrastructure. The other trend accomplishes a dynamic behaviour of the infrastructure systems by means of simulation techniques including systems dynamics, Monte Carlo simulation, multi-agent systems, etc. - Highlights: → We examine critical infrastructure protection experiences, systems and applications. → Some international experiences are reviewed, including EU EPCIP Plan and the US NIPP programme. → We discuss current methodologies and applications on critical infrastructure protection, with emphasis in electric networks.

  8. Sustainability considerations for health research and analytic data infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Adam; Randhawa, Gurvaneet; Embi, Peter; Cao, Hui; Kuperman, Gilad J

    2014-01-01

    The United States has made recent large investments in creating data infrastructures to support the important goals of patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) and comparative effectiveness research (CER), with still more investment planned. These initial investments, while critical to the creation of the infrastructures, are not expected to sustain them much beyond the initial development. To provide the maximum benefit, the infrastructures need to be sustained through innovative financing models while providing value to PCOR and CER researchers. Based on our experience with creating flexible sustainability strategies (i.e., strategies that are adaptive to the different characteristics and opportunities of a resource or infrastructure), we define specific factors that are important considerations in developing a sustainability strategy. These factors include assets, expansion, complexity, and stakeholders. Each factor is described, with examples of how it is applied. These factors are dimensions of variation in different resources, to which a sustainability strategy should adapt. We also identify specific important considerations for maintaining an infrastructure, so that the long-term intended benefits can be realized. These observations are presented as lessons learned, to be applied to other sustainability efforts. We define the lessons learned, relating them to the defined sustainability factors as interactions between factors. Using perspectives and experiences from a diverse group of experts, we define broad characteristics of sustainability strategies and important observations, which can vary for different projects. Other descriptions of adaptive, flexible, and successful models of collaboration between stakeholders and data infrastructures can expand this framework by identifying other factors for sustainability, and give more concrete directions on how sustainability can be best achieved.

  9. Zone refining high-purity germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, G.S.; Haller, E.E.; Hansen, W.L.

    1977-10-01

    The effects of various parameters on germanium purification by zone refining have been examined. These parameters include the germanium container and container coatings, ambient gas and other operating conditions. Four methods of refining are presented which reproducibly yield 3.5 kg germanium ingots from which high purity (vertical barN/sub A/ - N/sub D/vertical bar less than or equal to2 x 10 10 cm -3 ) single crystals can be grown. A qualitative model involving binary and ternary complexes of Si, O, B, and Al is shown to account for the behavior of impurities at these low concentrations

  10. Refining - Panorama 2008; Raffinage - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Investment rallied in 2007, and many distillation and conversion projects likely to reach the industrial stage were announced. With economic growth sustained in 2006 and still pronounced in 2007, oil demand remained strong - especially in emerging countries - and refining margins stayed high. Despite these favorable business conditions, tensions persisted in the refining sector, which has fallen far behind in terms of investing in refinery capacity. It will take renewed efforts over a long period to catch up. Looking at recent events that have affected the economy in many countries (e.g. the sub-prime crisis), prudence remains advisable.

  11. India beckons participants in burgeoning refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that India has opened its refining sector to full private investment for the first time in more than 2 decades. The government again gave a green light to construction of three 120,000 b/d grassroots refineries in East, West, and Central India. The projects had won various governmental approvals in the past few years, but never moved off high center for a variety of economic and regulatory reasons. The difference this time is that the government is offering interests in the projects to private foreign and domestic investors. It's part of India's push to boost overall refining capacity by more than 80% this century

  12. Contextual Distance Refining for Image Retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Almasri

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a number of methods have been proposed to improve image retrieval accuracy by capturing context information. These methods try to compensate for the fact that a visually less similar image might be more relevant because it depicts the same object. We propose a new quick method for refining any pairwise distance metric, it works by iteratively discovering the object in the image from the most similar images, and then refine the distance metric accordingly. Test show that our technique improves over the state of art in terms of accuracy over the MPEG7 dataset.

  13. Contextual Distance Refining for Image Retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Almasri

    2014-09-16

    Recently, a number of methods have been proposed to improve image retrieval accuracy by capturing context information. These methods try to compensate for the fact that a visually less similar image might be more relevant because it depicts the same object. We propose a new quick method for refining any pairwise distance metric, it works by iteratively discovering the object in the image from the most similar images, and then refine the distance metric accordingly. Test show that our technique improves over the state of art in terms of accuracy over the MPEG7 dataset.

  14. SITRUS: Semantic Infrastructure for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalil A. Bispo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are made up of nodes with limited resources, such as processing, bandwidth, memory and, most importantly, energy. For this reason, it is essential that WSNs always work to reduce the power consumption as much as possible in order to maximize its lifetime. In this context, this paper presents SITRUS (semantic infrastructure for wireless sensor networks, which aims to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes using ontologies. SITRUS consists of two major parts: a message-oriented middleware responsible for both an oriented message communication service and a reconfiguration service; and a semantic information processing module whose purpose is to generate a semantic database that provides the basis to decide whether a WSN node needs to be reconfigurated or not. In order to evaluate the proposed solution, we carried out an experimental evaluation to assess the power consumption and memory usage of WSN applications built atop SITRUS.

  15. Management of virtualized infrastructure for physics databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topurov, Anton; Gallerani, Luigi; Chatal, Francois; Piorkowski, Mariusz

    2012-01-01

    Demands for information storage of physics metadata are rapidly increasing together with the requirements for its high availability. Most of the HEP laboratories are struggling to squeeze more from their computer centers, thus focus on virtualizing available resources. CERN started investigating database virtualization in early 2006, first by testing database performance and stability on native Xen. Since then we have been closely evaluating the constantly evolving functionality of virtualisation solutions for database and middle tier together with the associated management applications – Oracle's Enterprise Manager and VM Manager. This session will detail our long experience in dealing with virtualized environments, focusing on newest Oracle OVM 3.0 for x86 and Oracle Enterprise Manager functionality for efficiently managing your virtualized database infrastructure.

  16. Commissioning the CERN IT Agile Infrastructure with experiment workloads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llamas, Ramón Medrano; Megino, Fernando Harald Barreiro; Cinquilli, Mattia; Kucharczyk, Katarzyna; Denis, Marek Kamil

    2014-01-01

    In order to ease the management of their infrastructure, most of the WLCG sites are adopting cloud based strategies. In the case of CERN, the Tier 0 of the WLCG, is completely restructuring the resource and configuration management of their computing center under the codename Agile Infrastructure. Its goal is to manage 15,000 Virtual Machines by means of an OpenStack middleware in order to unify all the resources in CERN's two datacenters: the one placed in Meyrin and the new on in Wigner, Hungary. During the commissioning of this infrastructure, CERN IT is offering an attractive amount of computing resources to the experiments (800 cores for ATLAS and CMS) through a private cloud interface. ATLAS and CMS have joined forces to exploit them by running stress tests and simulation workloads since November 2012. This work will describe the experience of the first deployments of the current experiment workloads on the CERN private cloud testbed. The paper is organized as follows: the first section will explain the integration of the experiment workload management systems (WMS) with the cloud resources. The second section will revisit the performance and stress testing performed with HammerCloud in order to evaluate and compare the suitability for the experiment workloads. The third section will go deeper into the dynamic provisioning techniques, such as the use of the cloud APIs directly by the WMS. The paper finishes with a review of the conclusions and the challenges ahead.

  17. Commissioning the CERN IT Agile Infrastructure with experiment workloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano Llamas, Ramón; Harald Barreiro Megino, Fernando; Kucharczyk, Katarzyna; Kamil Denis, Marek; Cinquilli, Mattia

    2014-06-01

    In order to ease the management of their infrastructure, most of the WLCG sites are adopting cloud based strategies. In the case of CERN, the Tier 0 of the WLCG, is completely restructuring the resource and configuration management of their computing center under the codename Agile Infrastructure. Its goal is to manage 15,000 Virtual Machines by means of an OpenStack middleware in order to unify all the resources in CERN's two datacenters: the one placed in Meyrin and the new on in Wigner, Hungary. During the commissioning of this infrastructure, CERN IT is offering an attractive amount of computing resources to the experiments (800 cores for ATLAS and CMS) through a private cloud interface. ATLAS and CMS have joined forces to exploit them by running stress tests and simulation workloads since November 2012. This work will describe the experience of the first deployments of the current experiment workloads on the CERN private cloud testbed. The paper is organized as follows: the first section will explain the integration of the experiment workload management systems (WMS) with the cloud resources. The second section will revisit the performance and stress testing performed with HammerCloud in order to evaluate and compare the suitability for the experiment workloads. The third section will go deeper into the dynamic provisioning techniques, such as the use of the cloud APIs directly by the WMS. The paper finishes with a review of the conclusions and the challenges ahead.

  18. Pathways to a more sustainable transport infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dravitzki, V., Email: Vince.Dravitzki@Opus.co.nz; Lester, T.; Cenek, P. [Opus International Consultants, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2010-07-01

    The two phenomena of Peak Oil and Human-induced Climate Change both together and individually create an imperative for early action, with the need to address Climate Change limiting the range of options that can be used to address peak oil. Peak oil is often portrayed as a market phenomenon, as a period when demand will exceed supply. The imperative to respond to the issues resulting from Peak Oil and Climate Change requires that New Zealand must move from its current high energy use, high resource use, high cost, petroleum dependent, transport infrastructure, to a sustainable one. Because a country's energy profile will increasingly define its economic success, New Zealand needs also to move to a lower energy society to remain competitive with other countries. What will be New Zealand's successful transport energy of the future and how it may be best used are key considerations of our future sustainable transport system. Low energy, low material use and consequently low cost, will be the main criteria. This paper first identifies our current transport energy usage, and some of the risks of being slow to respond to change. The paper then questions the central tenants of the current New Zealand Land Transport Strategy (2008) that we move to bio-fuels and electric cars because this is not a low energy, low cost pathway. We advocate that instead of just coping with change, New Zealand uses the necessity to change as an opportunity to recast our transport infrastructure to greatly improve the economic success and liveability of our settlements to New Zealand's benefit. The second part of the paper outlines a transport infrastructure based around electricity, with a heavy emphasis on public transport use, but also with freight much more dependent on electrified rail. This second part discusses: the advantages that NZ has that will facilitate this transition, such as favourable urban forms; the energy needs and energy availability; the benefits and

  19. Working towards a European Geological Data Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Krogt, Rob; Hughes, Richard; Pedersen, Mikael; Serrano, Jean-Jacques; Lee, Kathryn A.; Tulstrup, Jørgen; Robida, François

    2013-04-01

    The increasing importance of geological information for policy, regulation and business needs at European and international level has been recognized by the European Parliament and the European Commission, who have called for the development of a common European geological knowledge base. The societal relevance of geoscience data/information is clear from many current issues such as shale gas exploration (including environmental impacts), the availability of critical mineral resources in a global economy, management and security with regard to geohazards (seismic, droughts, floods, ground stability), quality of (ground-)water and soil and societal responses to the impacts of climate change. The EGDI-Scope project responds to this, aiming to prepare an implementation plan for a pan-European Geological Data Infrastructure (EGDI), under the umbrella of the FP7 e- Infrastructures program. It is envisaged that the EGDI will build on geological datasets and models currently held by the European Geological Surveys at national and regional levels, and will also provide a platform for datasets generated by the large number of relevant past, ongoing and future European projects which have geological components. With European policy makers and decision makers from (international) industry as the main target groups (followed by research communities and the general public) stakeholder involvement is imperative to the successful realization and continuity of the EGDI. With these ambitions in mind, the presentation will focus on the following issues, also based on the first results and experiences of the EGDI-Scope project that started mid-2012: • The organization of stakeholder input and commitment connected to relevant 'use cases' within different thematic domains; a number of stakeholder representatives is currently involved, but the project is open to more extensive participation; • A large number of European projects relevant for data delivery to EGDI has been reviewed

  20. The economics of fast charging infrastructure for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, Andreas; Traber, Thure

    2012-01-01

    By 2011 little is known about the economic rationale of public fast chargers for electric vehicles (EV). This paper aims at providing an insight into the business case of this technology in a case study for Germany. The estimated Return on Investment (ROI) of a public fast charging station constitutes the main contribution. Potential users and organization structures are investigated as well as different tariff types. According to the estimations, the current market outlook seems too uncertain for triggering a large-scale roll-out of fast charging infrastructure. Approximations suggest that investment is hardly profitable at low EV adoption rates, unless investment cost can be severely lowered. Besides competition with alternative charging solutions, the general EV adoption rate is detected as being a main risk factor for investment in public charging infrastructure. Highlights: ► Private investment into public fast charging infrastructure appears to be driven by other than pure project prospects at current EV penetration rates. ► High cost markups are needed to refinance investment, unless grid tariffs are exempted or constant high demand is assured. ► Investment into public fast charging remains risky and incentives can be contained by the spreading of alternative home-charging devices and alternative propulsion technologies.

  1. Geospatial Technology Applications and Infrastructure in the Biological Resources Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Forestry/forest ecology Geography Geology GIS/mapping technologies GPS technology HTML/World Wide Web Information management/transfer JAVA Land...tech- nologies are being used to understand diet selection, habitat use, hibernation behavior, and social interactions of desert tortoises

  2. Medieval Studies in Austria: Research Infrastructure and Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Ertl, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Questo testo intende fornire una veloce panoramica delle istituzioni e delle associazioni austriache che promuovono ricerche di storia medievale e una guida alle opportunità offerte dal mondo della ricerca scientifica e accademica austriaco.

  3. Resources and infrastructure for the delivery of antiretroviral therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, this could have been partially compensated for by task shifting towards community health workers and the appointment of additional support staff. Staff were largely positive about the programme. Drug supplies, availability of equipment and laboratory systems, although good at the baseline, improved further over ...

  4. Global Land Transport Infrastructure Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Over the next four decades, global passenger and freight travel is expected to double over 2010 levels. In order to accommodate this growth, it is expected that the world will need to add nearly 25 million paved road lane-kilometres and 335 000 rail track kilometres. In addition, it is expected that between 45 000 square kilometres and 77 000 square kilometres of new parking spaces will be added to accommodate vehicle stock growth. These land transport infrastructure additions, when combined with operations, maintenance and repairs, are expected to cost as much as USD 45 trillion by 2050. This publication reports on the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) analysis of infrastructure requirements to support projected road and rail travel through 2050, using the IEA Mobility Model. It considers land transport infrastructure additions to support travel growth to 2050. It also considers potential savings if countries pursue “avoid and shift” policies: in this scenario, cumulative global land transport infrastructure spending could decrease as much as USD 20 trillion by 2050 over baseline projections.

  5. Automated Verification of Virtualized Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleikertz, Sören; Gross, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Virtualized infrastructures and clouds present new challenges for security analysis and formal verification: they are complex environments that continuously change their shape, and that give rise to non-trivial security goals such as isolation and failure resilience requirements. We present a pla...

  6. Governing Asset Management Data Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brous, P.A.; Herder, P.M.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.

    2016-01-01

    Organizations are increasingly looking to trusted data to drive their decision making process. Trusted data has a clear, defined and consistent quality which meets the expectations of the user. Data infrastructures which produce trusted data and provide organizations with the capability to make the

  7. Graduates' Perceptions towards UKM's Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ramli; Khoon, Koh Aik; Hamzah, Mohd Fauzi; Ahmadan, Siti Rohayu

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the surveys which were conducted between 2006 and 2008 on graduates' perceptions towards the infrastructure at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). It covered three major aspects pertaining to learning, living and leisure on campus. Eight out of 14 components received overwhelming approval from our graduates. (Contains 1…

  8. Strengthening the sports data infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Jos de Haan; with contributions from Remco van den Dool

    2012-01-01

    Original title: Versterking data-infrastructuur sport Sports research in the Netherlands has developed rapidly over the last ten years; strengthening the data infrastructure will facilitate its further growth in the future. Currently, however, there is no clear overall picture of the available

  9. Scenario Based Network Infrastructure Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a method for IT infrastructure planning that take into account very long term developments in usages. The method creates a scenario for a final, time independent stage in the planning process. The method abstracts relevant modelling factors from available information...

  10. Nuclear power infrastructure and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    There are several stages in the process of introducing nuclear power in a country. These include feasibility studies; technology evaluation; request for proposals and proposal evaluation; project and contracts development and financing; supply, construction, and commissioning; and finally operation. The IAEA is developing guidance directed to provide criteria for assessing the minimum infrastructure necessary for: a) a host country to consider when engaging in the implementation of nuclear power, or b) a supplier country to consider when assessing that the recipient country would be in an acceptable condition to begin the implementation of nuclear power. There are Member States that may be denied the benefits of nuclear energy if the infrastructure requirements are too large or onerous for the national economy. However if co-operation could be achieved, the infrastructure burden could be shared and economic benefits gained by several countries acting jointly. The IAEA is developing guidance on the potential for sharing of nuclear power infrastructure among countries adopting or extending nuclear power programme

  11. Participatory Infrastructuring of Community Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capaccioli, Andrea; Poderi, Giacomo; Bettega, Mela

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to renewable energies the decentralized energy system model is becoming more relevant in the production and distribution of energy. The scenario is important in order to achieve a successful energy transition. This paper presents a reflection on the ongoing experience of infrastructuring a...

  12. Communications and information infrastructure security

    CERN Document Server

    Voeller, John G

    2014-01-01

    Communication and Information Systems Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering strategies for protecting the telecommunications sector, wireless security, advanced web based technology for emergency situations. Science and technology for critical infrastructure consequence mitigation are also discussed.

  13. Fostering Climate Resilient Electricity Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollinger, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    Heat waves, hurricanes, floods and windstorms - recent years have seen dramatic failures in electricity infrastructures sparked by short-term departures of environmental conditions from their norms. Driven by a changing climate, such deviations are anticipated to increase in severity and/or

  14. 2009 Infrastructure Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass program‘s Infrastructure platform review meeting, held on February 19, 2009, at the Marriott Residence Inn, National Harbor, Maryland.

  15. Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil | Mensah | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil. ... Abstract. A laboratory process for refining soybean has been scaled up to a 145 tonne per annum pilot plant to refine crude soybean oil. ... The quality of the refined oil was found to be within national and codex standard specifications for edible oil from vegetable sources.

  16. Matching of Energy Provisions in Multihop Wireless Infra-Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Teng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently there have been large advances in energy technologies for battery-operated systems, including green energy resources and high capacity batteries. The effective use of battery energy resources in wireless infrastructure networks to improve the versatility and reliability of wireless communications is an important issue. Emerging applications of smart cities, Internet of Things (IoT, and emergency responses highly rely on the basic communication network infrastructures that enable ubiquitous network connections. However, energy consumption by nodes in a wireless infrastructure network depends on the transmissions of other nodes in the network. Considering this inter-dependence is necessary to achieve efficient provision of energy in wireless networks. This paper studies the issue of energy provision for wireless relay nodes in Wireless Multihop Infrastructures (WMI assuming constraints on the total energy provision. We introduce a scheme of Energy Provision Matching (Matching-EP for WMI which optimizes energy provision based on matching of energy provision with estimates of differentiated position-dependent energy consumption by wireless nodes distributed in the network. The evaluation results show that Matching-EP with 4%–34% improvement in energy matching degree enables 10%–40% improvement of the network lifetime, and 5%–40% improvement of packet delivery compared with conventional WMI networks.

  17. Refining the Eye: Dermatology and Visual Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Corinne; Huang, Jennifer T.; Buzney, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 the Museum of Fine Arts Boston and Harvard Medical School began a partnership focused on building visual literacy skills for dermatology residents in the Harvard Combined Dermatology Residency Program. "Refining the Eye: Art and Dermatology", a four session workshop, took place in the museum's galleries and utilized the Visual…

  18. Structural refinement and coarsening in deformed metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Xing, Q.

    2005-01-01

    The microstructural refinement by plastic deformation is analysed in terms of key parameters, the spacing between and the misorientation angle across the boundaries subdividing the structure. Coarsening of such structures by annealing is also characterised. For both deformed and annealed structur...

  19. Structure refinement of polycrystalline orthorhombic yttrium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The perovskite ceramic phases with composition Ca1−YTiO3+ (where = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3; hereafter CYT-10, CYT-20 and CYT-30) have been synthesized by solid state reaction at 1050°C. The structure refinement using general structure analysis system (GSAS) software converges to satisfactory profile indicators ...

  20. On Syntactic and Semantic Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goltz, Ursula; Gorrieri, Roberto; Rensink, Arend

    1992-01-01

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled event structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution,which can be used as another notion of action refiment in a process algebraic setting. This is done by studying a process algebra equipped with the ACP sequential

  1. Uranium refining process using ion exchange membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira

    1977-01-01

    As for the method of refining uranium ore being carried out in Europe and America at present, uranium ore is roughly refined at the mine sites to yellow cake, then this is transported to refineries and refined by dry method. This method has the following faults, namely the number of processes is large, it requires expensive corrosion-resistant materials because of high temperature treatment, and the impurities in uranium tend to increase. On the other hand, in case of EXCER method, treatment is carried out at low temperature, and high purity uranium can be obtained, but the efficiency of electrolytic reduction process is extremely low, and economically infeasible. In the wet refining method called PNC process, uranium tetrafluoride is produced from uranium ore without making yellow cake, therefore the process is rationalized largely, and highly economical. The electrolytic reduction process in this method was developed by Asahi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. by constructing the pilot plant in Ningyotoge Mine. The ion exchange membrane, the electrodes, and the problems concerning the process and the engineering for commercial plants were investigated. The electrolytic reduction process, the pilot plant, the development of the elements of electrolytic cells, the establishment of analytical process, the measurement of the electrolytic characteristics, the demonstration operation, and the life time of the electrolytic diaphragm are reported. (Kako, I.)

  2. Anomalies in the refinement of isoleucine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berntsen, K.R.M.; Vriend, G.

    2014-01-01

    A study of isoleucines in protein structures solved using X-ray crystallography revealed a series of systematic trends for the two side-chain torsion angles chi1 and chi2 dependent on the resolution, secondary structure and refinement software used. The average torsion angles for the nine rotamers

  3. Refining crude oils and gasolines, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-23

    A process of refining crude oils and gasolines distilled from shale and the like is described, consisting of submitting them to a prewash with soda, an oxidation preferably with hypochlorite solution, a hydrogenation with nascent hydrogen, and finally rectification and neutralization.

  4. Refinement from a control problem to program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenke, Michael; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    The distinguishing feature of the presented refinement approach is that it links formalisms from a top level requirements notation down to programs together in a mathematically coherent development trajectory. The approach uses Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic, to specifyrequirements...

  5. Robust Refinement as Implemented in TOPAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, K.; Stephens, P

    2010-01-01

    A robust refinement procedure is implemented in the program TOPAS through an iterative reweighting of the data. Examples are given of the procedure as applied to fitting partially overlapped peaks by full and partial models and also of the structures of ibuprofen and acetaminophen in the presence of unmodeled impurity contributions

  6. Refinement of the concept of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrod, J

    2001-04-01

    To analyse the conceptual maturity of uncertainty; to develop an expanded theoretical definition of uncertainty; to advance the concept using methods of concept refinement; and to analyse congruency with the conceptualization of uncertainty presented in the theory of hope, enduring, and suffering. Uncertainty is of concern in nursing as people experience complex life events surrounding health. In an earlier nursing study that linked the concepts of hope, enduring, and suffering into a single theoretical scheme, a state best described as 'uncertainty' arose. This study was undertaken to explore how this conceptualization fit with the scientific literature on uncertainty and to refine the concept. Initially, a concept analysis using advanced methods described by Morse, Hupcey, Mitcham and colleagues was completed. The concept was determined to be partially mature. A theoretical definition was derived and techniques of concept refinement using the literature as data were applied. The refined concept was found to be congruent with the concept of uncertainty that had emerged in the model of hope, enduring and suffering. Further investigation is needed to explore the extent of probabilistic reasoning and the effects of confidence and control on feelings of uncertainty and certainty.

  7. Quantum Geometry of Refined Topological Strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aganagic, M.; Cheng, M.C.N.; Dijkgraaf, R.; Kreft, D.; Vafa, C.

    2012-01-01

    We consider branes in refined topological strings. We argue that their wavefunctions satisfy a Schrödinger equation depending on multiple times and prove this in the case where the topological string has a dual matrix model description. Furthermore, in the limit where one of the equivariant

  8. Red refinements of simplices into congruent subsimplices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korotov, S.; Křížek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 12 (2014), s. 2199-2204 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : sommerville tetrahedron * red refinement * higher-dimensional simplex Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.697, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0898122114000662

  9. Science, technology and environmental demands: innovations in oil refining process; Ciencia, tecnologia e demandas ambientais: inovacoes nos processos de refino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Adalberto Mantovani Martiniano de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Programa de Pos-graduacao do Departamento de Politica Cientifica e Tecnologica

    2003-07-01

    This paper consists in a survey about changes in oil refining technologies caused by an increase of external environmental restrictions, that create demands for innovations related to the reduction of environmental impacts in refining processes and products. The environmental restrictions considered in this paper include state regulation, like the control over solid and gas wastes and the control over levels of air pollutants on refined products. Another group of restrictions include market restrictions, mainly the restrictions for obtaining 'green' quality labels, like ISO 14000. The paper will show the main environmental restrictions for the Paulinia Refinery (REPLAN), and its reaction in introducing innovations in refining processes. Some aspects of the innovations observed will be described, like the kind of innovation (process or product), the institutions that created innovations and their resources, the knowledge fields applied, and another characteristics for the evaluation of environmental influence over the development on oil refining innovations. (author)

  10. Resource sharing in wireless networks: The SAPHYRE approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorswieck, E.A.; Badia, L.; Fahldieck, T.; Gesbert, D.; Gustafsson, S.; Haardt, M.; Ho, K.-M.; Karipidis, E.; Kortke, A.; Larsson, E.G.; Mark, H.; Nawrocki, M.; Piesiewicz, R.; Römer, F.; Schubert, M.; Sykora, J.; Trommelen, P.H.; Ende, B.D. van; Zorzi, M.

    2010-01-01

    Physical resource sharing between wireless operators and service providers is necessary in order to support efficient, competitive, and innovative wireless communication markets. By sharing resources, such as spectrum or infrastructure, which are usually exclusively allocated interference is created

  11. A refined index of model performance: a rejoinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legates, David R.; McCabe, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Willmott et al. [Willmott CJ, Robeson SM, Matsuura K. 2012. A refined index of model performance. International Journal of Climatology, forthcoming. DOI:10.1002/joc.2419.] recently suggest a refined index of model performance (dr) that they purport to be superior to other methods. Their refined index ranges from − 1.0 to 1.0 to resemble a correlation coefficient, but it is merely a linear rescaling of our modified coefficient of efficiency (E1) over the positive portion of the domain of dr. We disagree with Willmott et al. (2012) that dr provides a better interpretation; rather, E1 is more easily interpreted such that a value of E1 = 1.0 indicates a perfect model (no errors) while E1 = 0.0 indicates a model that is no better than the baseline comparison (usually the observed mean). Negative values of E1 (and, for that matter, dr McCabe [Legates DR, McCabe GJ. 1999. Evaluating the use of “goodness-of-fit” measures in hydrologic and hydroclimatic model validation. Water Resources Research 35(1): 233-241.] and Schaefli and Gupta [Schaefli B, Gupta HV. 2007. Do Nash values have value? Hydrological Processes 21: 2075-2080. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.6825.]. This important discussion focuses on the appropriate baseline comparison to use, and why the observed mean often may be an inadequate choice for model evaluation and development. 

  12. Network science, nonlinear science and infrastructure systems

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Network Science, Nonlinear Science and Infrastructure Systems has been written by leading scholars in these areas. Its express purpose is to develop common theoretical underpinnings to better solve modern infrastructural problems. It is felt by many who work in these fields that many modern communication problems, ranging from transportation networks to telecommunications, Internet, supply chains, etc., are fundamentally infrastructure problems. Moreover, these infrastructure problems would benefit greatly from a confluence of theoretical and methodological work done with the areas of Network Science, Dynamical Systems and Nonlinear Science. This book is dedicated to the formulation of infrastructural tools that will better solve these types of infrastructural problems. .

  13. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute's 4. annual oil sands supply and infrastructure conference : maximizing opportunity and mitigating risks in a rapidly growing market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This conference addressed the challenges facing oil sands development, with particular reference to supply and infrastructure issues. Updates on oil sands markets and opportunities were presented along with strategies for mitigating risks in a rapidly growing market. The best practices for supplying a demanding market through supply shortages and high prices were identified along with policies that should be implemented to help overcome labour shortages. Some presentations expressed how commodities pricing and trends can impact business. Others showed how markets in China and the United States are prepared for oilsands products. The views of other international companies on oil sands was also discussed along with proposed plans to eliminate the infrastructure congestion and risks caused by expanding oil sands development. The challenges and benefits of investing in Alberta's oil sands were reviewed along with strategies to enhance upgrading and refining capacity in the province. Economic drivers and the creation of new markets were examined, and various export opportunities were reviewed along with industry management challenges concerning human resources, labour supply, training and education. The conference featured 10 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  14. Security threats and their mitigation in infrastructure as a service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bineet Kumar Joshi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a hot technology in the market. It permits user to use all IT resources as computing services on the basis of pay per use manner and access the applications remotely. Infrastructure as a service (IaaS is the basic requirement for all delivery models. Infrastructure as a service delivers all possible it resources (Network Components, Operating System, etc. as a service to users. From both users and providers point of view: integrity, privacy and other security issues in IaaS are the important concern. In this paper we studied in detail about the different types of security related issues in IaaS layer and methods to resolve them to maximize the performance and to maintain the highest level of security in IaaS.

  15. Distributed Tuning of Boundary Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eaton, Ben; Elaluf-Calderwood, Silvia; Sørensen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    in the context of a paradoxical tension between the logic of generative and democratic innovations and the logic of infrastructural control. Boundary resources play a critical role in managing the tension as a firm that owns the infrastructure can secure its control over the service system while independent...... firms can participate in the service system. In this study, we explore the evolution of boundary resources. Drawing on Pickering’s (1993) and Barrett et al.’s (2012) conceptualizations of tuning, the paper seeks to forward our understanding of how heterogeneous actors engage in the tuning of boundary...

  16. The relationship between viscosity and refinement efficiency of pure aluminum by Al-Ti-B refiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Lina [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Xiangfa [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China)]. E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn

    2006-11-30

    The relationship between viscosity and refinement efficiency of pure aluminum with the addition of Al-Ti-B master alloy was studied in this paper. The experimental results show that when the grain size of solidified sample is finer the viscosity of the melt is higher after the addition of different Al-Ti-B master alloys. This indicates that viscosity can be used to approximately estimate the refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-B refiners in production to a certain extent. The main reason was also discussed in this paper by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiment.

  17. Information infrastructure development in NRU «MPEI»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Gridina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the work on support and development of information infrastructure NRU «MPEI». Information infrastructure have different approaches to the defi nition. The authors defi ne the information infrastructure as a set of basic information services, computing, storage and data transmission systems that provide user access to information resources. New conditions dictate new approaches to building the education system in general and the educational process in each educational institution. NRU «MPEI» working to create a modern information infrastructure, including automated control systems, information resources and services, modular systems disciplines. This article describes the requirements for a modern information infrastructure of the NRU «MPEI», that provides students and teachers with the necessary services. Information infrastructure includes a set of software and hardware to ensure interaction between the participants of the educational process. All services and NRU «MPEI» system included in the unifi ed information educational environment (UIEE. Architecture UIEE NRU «MPEI» is displayed in the article. UIEE NRU «MPEI» is deployed on the basis of information network NRU «MPEI» and enables a comprehensive optimization of university management in various areas. Information and Computing Center supporting information and computer network NRU «MPEI», bought more than 4800 licenses in 43 different license versions of the software manufacturers. The server segment information network NRU «MPEI» contains a complex infrastructure and application servers for processing and storing information.The segment there are 20 high-performance server and storage system capacity of over 30 TB. In the server segment deployed complex systems to meet the needs in the various fi elds of activity NRU «MPEI», and the educational system to support the economic , scientifi c and human complex. Currently, ICC also pays great

  18. Construction and Application of a Refined Hospital Management Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lihua; Hao, Aimin; Hu, Minmin; Huang, Pei; Yuan, Huikang; Xing, Ming

    2015-05-01

    Gaining large scale success was quite common in the later period of industrialization for hospitals in China. Today, Chinese hospital management face such problems as service inefficiency, high human resources cost, and low rate of capital use. This study analyzes the refined management chain of the Wuxi No. 2 People's Hospital. This consists of six gears namely "organizational structure, clinical practice, outpatient service, medical technology, and nursing care and logistics" used to achieve maximum scale and benefits. The gears are based on "flat management system targets, chief of medical staff, centralized outpatient service, intensified medical examinations, vertical nursing management and socialized logistics". The hospital took innovative measures. The "one doctor-one patient-one clinic" was well accepted; "one dispensary" shorten the waiting time by 20 min. The 168 rear service hot line "made patients' lives easier; and a red wrist ribbon" for seriously ill patient was implemented to prioritize medical treatment. The core concepts of refined hospital management are optimizing flow process, reducing waste, improving efficiency, saving costs, and taking good care of patients as most important.

  19. Fragility: The Next Wave in Critical Infrastructure Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Allan McDougall

    2009-01-01

    In North America today, we are about to embark on a significant effort to repair, or even upgrade, many aspects of our infrastructure. Many of these efforts are linked to economic recovery packages. Others are based on sheer need. The challenge for decision makers and planners involves ensuring that scarce economic resources are put to their best use. Understanding the concept of fragility plays a pivotal part in reaching that understanding.Fragility, like many other systems—particularly Info...

  20. Performance of Oil Infrastructure during Hurricane Harvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, C.; Kameshwar, S.; Padgett, J.

    2017-12-01

    Three major refining centers - Corpus Christi, Houston, and Beaumont/Port Arthur - were affected during Hurricane Harvey. Damage to oil infrastructure, especially aboveground storage tanks (ASTs), caused the release of more than a million gallons of hazardous chemicals in the environment. The objective of this presentation is to identify and gain a better understanding of the different damage mechanisms that occurred during Harvey in order to avoid similar failures during future hurricane events. First, a qualitative description of the damage suffered by ASTs during Hurricane Harvey is presented. Analysis of aerial imagery and incident reports indicate that almost all spills were caused by rainfall and the associated flooding. The largest spill was caused by two large ASTs that floated due to flooding in the Houston Ship Channel releasing 500,000 gallons of gasoline. The vulnerability of ASTs subjected to flooding was already well known and documented from previous storm events. In addition to flooding, Harvey also exposed the vulnerability of ASTs with external floating roof to extreme rainfall; more than 15 floating roofs sank or tilted due to rain water accumulation on them, releasing pollutants in the atmosphere. Secondly, recent fragility models developed by the authors are presented which allow structural vulnerability assessment of floating roofs during rainfall events and ASTs during flood events. The fragility models are then coupled with Harvey rainfall and flood empirical data to identify the conditions (i.e.: internal liquid height or density, drainage system design and efficiency, etc.) that could have led to the observed failures during Hurricane Harvey. Finally, the conditions causing tank failures are studied to propose mitigation measures to prevent future AST failures during severe storm, flood, or rainfall events.

  1. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2012-01-01

      During the Year-End Technical Stop all the systems have been carefully inspected in order to assure a smooth running through the crucial year 2012. Regarding the electrical distribution, the annual General Emergency Stop test (AUG, in CERN language) has shown a discrepancy in the action matrix, as some racks were not cut off by the AUG action as they should have been. The subsequent investigation quickly indicated that a missing connection at the main UPS switchboard was the source of the problem. The problem has been addressed to the EN/EL group responsible for the equipment and a new test is planned in the beginning of March. Some consolidation work has been carried out as well, namely the doubling of the line powering the rack that houses the DCS servers in USC55. During the last months of the technical stop, the cooling systems of CMS have undergone the usual preventive maintenance, a few corrective interventions and a huge programme of performance tests. The preventive maintenance programm...

  2. INFRASTRUCTURES

    CERN Document Server

    Andrea Gaddi

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important tasks for LS1 was achieved this autumn when all the electronics racks in the USC55 counting rooms were switched from the standard powering network to the CMS low-voltage UPS. This long-sought move will prevent fastidious power cuts of the CMS electronics in case of short power glitches on the main powering network, as already assured to the detector front-end electronics in UXC55. In the same time, a study to update the dedicated UPS units for some crucial detector sub-systems, as the Magnet Control System (MCS), the Detector Safety System (DSS) and the IT Network Star-points, has been lunched. A new architecture, with fully redundant UPS units, able to assure power supply in case of long network outage (up to a maximum of five hours, in the case of the Magnet) has been recently presented by the EN-EL group and is currently under evaluation. The dry-gas plant recently commissioned in SH5 has passed a first test in order to understand the time needed to switch from dry-air to dry-n...

  3. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Document Server

    P. Tropea and A. Gaddi

    2013-01-01

    One of the first activities of LS1 has been the refurbishment of the rack ventilation units in the USC55 counting rooms. These rack-mounted turbines have been in service since 2007 and they have largely passed the expected lifetime. Some 450 motor-fans units have been procured in Germany, via the CERN store, and shipped to CMS where a team of technicians has dismounted the old turbines, keeping only the bare chassis, and inserted the new fans. A metallic mesh has also been added to better protect personnel from possible injuries by spinning blades. A full test of several hours has validated the new units, prior to their installation inside the racks. The work, started soon after the beginning of LS1, has been successfully concluded last week. Figure 1: Drawing of the fan units recently refurbished in the USC55 counting room racks Image 1: New filter on the main rack water-cooling distribution line The cooling systems of CMS are gently coming out of their maintenance programme. All water circuits have...

  4. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    The various water-cooling circuits have been running smoothly since the last maintenance stop. The temperature set-points are being tuned to the actual requests from sub-detectors. As the RPC chambers seem to be rather sensitive to temperature fluctuations, the set-point on the Barrel and Endcap Muon circuits has been lowered by one degree Celsius, reaching the minimum temperature possible with the current hardware. A further decrease in temperature will only be possible with a substantial modification of the heat exchanger and related control valve on the primary circuit. A study has been launched to investigate possible solutions and related costs. The two cooling skids for Totem and Castor have been installed on top of the HF platform. They will supply demineralized water to the two forward sub-detectors, transferring the heat to the main rack circuit via an on-board heat exchanger. A preliminary analysis of the cooling requirements of the SCX5 computer farm has been done. As a first result, two precision...

  5. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    The annual maintenance of detector services took place from mid November to mid January as planned. This involved a full stoppage of water-cooling circuits on November 24th with a gradual restarting from mid-January 09. The annual maintenance service included the cleaning of the two SF5 cooling towers and the service of the chiller plants on surface. The cryogenic plant serving the CMS Magnet was shut-down as well to perform the annual maintenance. In addition to that, the overall site power has been reduced from 8 to 2 MW, in order to cope with the switching to the Swiss power network in winter. Full power was reinstated at the end of January. The cooling network has seen the installation of a bypass for the endcap circuit, in order to limit pressure surges when one endcap is shut-off. In addition, filters have been added on most of the cooling loops in UXC55 to better protect the muon chambers. At the same time a global cleaning campaign of all the filters (more than 500 pieces) has been completed. As expe...

  6. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    2010-01-01

    During the May 31st to June 2nd LHC Technical Stop, a major step was made towards upgrading the endcap cooling circuit. The chilled-water regulation valve on the primary side of the heat-exchanger was changed. This now allows reduction of the set-value of the water temperature cooling the RPCs and CSCs of the CMS endcaps. At the same time, the bypass re-circulating valve on the secondary circuit of the heat-exchanger was also changed to allow better regulation of this set-value. A project has been launched with the objective of improving the distribution of the chilled water to the different users. This was triggered by evidence that the Tracker compressors in USC55 receive insufficient flow. The chilled water is shared with the HVAC system and experts are now looking at how to better balance the flow between these two main users. The cooling loop filters located in UXC55 have been inspected and cleaned. Samples were sent to CERN Radioprotection Service to check for activation and to the Material Analysis...

  7. Modernizing the ATLAS simulation infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00213431; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Simulation infrastructure has been used to produce upwards of 50 billion proton-proton collision events for analyses ranging from detailed Standard Model measurements to searches for exotic new phenomena. In the last several years, the infrastructure has been heavily revised to allow intuitive multithreading and significantly improved maintainability. Such a massive update of a legacy code base requires careful choices about what pieces of code to completely rewrite and what to wrap or revise. The initialization of the complex geometry was generalized to allow new tools and geometry description languages, popular in some detector groups. The addition of multithreading requires Geant4-MT and GaudiHive, two frameworks with fundamentally different approaches to multithreading, to work together. It also required enforcing thread safety throughout a large code base, which required the redesign of several aspects of the simulation, including truth, the record of particle interactions with the detector dur...

  8. Modernizing the ATLAS Simulation Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Di Simone, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Simulation infrastructure has been used to produce upwards of 50 billion proton-proton collision events for analyses ranging from detailed Standard Model measurements to searches for exotic new phenomena. In the last several years, the infrastructure has been heavily revised to allow intuitive multithreading and significantly improved maintainability. Such a massive update of a legacy code base requires careful choices about what pieces of code to completely rewrite and what to wrap or revise. The initialization of the complex geometry was generalized to allow new tools and geometry description languages, popular in some detector groups. The addition of multithreading requires Geant4 MT and GaudiHive, two frameworks with fundamentally different approaches to multithreading, to work together. It also required enforcing thread safety throughout a large code base, which required the redesign of several aspects of the simulation, including “truth,” the record of particle interactions with the detect...

  9. Road infrastructure and demand induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder; Lahrmann, Harry

    2006-01-01

    a long screenline is used to measure the development in aggregate demand in selected corridors. The paper analyses demand induction by establishing time series of aggregate demand that is compared with the national traffic index. Significant trend breaks in the association between aggregate demand...... in the corridors and the national index, following the opening of motorways or bridges, indicates demand induction by infrastructure expansion in a number of instances. Lack of significant trend breaks following opening year is found in peripheral areas where major population centres are missing. This indicates...... the necessity of some latent demand within suitable travel range for new infrastructure elements to produce significant amounts of induced demand. Estimates of demand induction as a percentage of the realised demand five years after opening are between 10% and 67% for new motorway sections depending...

  10. Infrastructures of progress and dispossession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    2016-01-01

    and organizational infrastructural arrangements, it is argued, can open up for understanding how local and beyond-local processes tangle in complex ways and are productive of new subjectivities; how relations are reconfi gured in neoliberal landscapes of progress and dispossession. Such an approach makes evident how...... to reposition small and medium-scale farmers as backward. Th is article analyzes how farmers struggle to fi nd their place within a neoliberal urban ecology where diff erent conceptions of what constitutes progress in contemporary Peru infl uence the landscape. Using an analytical lens that takes material...... and organizational infrastructures and practices into account, and situates these in specifi c historical processes, the article argues that farmers within the urban landscape of Arequipa struggle to reclaim land and water, and reassert a status that they experience to be losing. Such a historical focus on material...

  11. Cyberspace and Critical Information Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan COLESNIUC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Every economy of an advanced nation relies on information systems and interconnected networks, thus in order to ensure the prosperity of a nation, making cyberspace a secure place becomes as crucial as securing society. Cyber security means ensuring the safety of this cyberspace from threats which can take different forms, such as stealing secret information from national companies and government institutions, attacking infrastructure vital for the functioning of the nation or attacking the privacy of the single citizen. The critical information infrastructure (CII represents the indispensable "nervous system", that allow modern societies to work and live. Besides, without it, there would be no distribution of energy, no services like banking or finance, no air traffic control and so on. But at the same time, in the development process of CII, security was never considered a top priority and for this reason they are subject to a high risk in relation to the organized crime.

  12. Building the energy infrastructure in Atlantic Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, T. [Atlantica Centre for Energy, Saint John, New Brunswick (Canada)]. E-mail: tim.curry@atlanticaenergy.org

    2007-07-01

    This paper discusses the energy infrastructure in Atlantic Canada. The energy development is poised to help transform the economy of New Brunswick. Planning for energy projects and supporting infrastructure are under way and regional opportunities are emerging.

  13. Building the energy infrastructure in Atlantic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the energy infrastructure in Atlantic Canada. The energy development is poised to help transform the economy of New Brunswick. Planning for energy projects and supporting infrastructure are under way and regional opportunities are emerging

  14. Progress with the national infrastructure maintenance strategy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available infrastructure investment and maintenance that will result from this strategy will not only improve infrastructure performance and underpin services sustainability, but will also contribute significantly towards national and local economic growth and will add...

  15. Measuring Systemic Impacts of Bike Infrastructure Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    This paper qualitatively identifies the impacts of bicycle infrastructure on all roadway users, including safety, operations, and travel route choice. Bicycle infrastructure includes shared lanes, conventional bike lanes, and separated bike lanes. Th...

  16. Infrastructural urbanism that learns from place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    . Conventionally, energy ‘infrastructure’ denotes a physical system of pipes, cables, generators, plants, transformers, sockets, and pylons, however recent architectural research emerging within the loosely defined movement of Infrastructural Urbanism has reframed infrastructure as a symbiotic system of flows...

  17. Welcome to NNIN | National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network Serving Nanoscale Science, Engineering & Technology Search form Search Search Home facilities feature over 1100 modern nanotechnology instruments such as these Reactive Ion Etch systems at the

  18. School infrastructure performance indicator system (SIPIS)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the School Infrastructure Performance Indicator System (SIPIS) project which explores how an indicator system could be developed for school infrastructure in South Africa. It outlines the key challenges faced by the system...

  19. Passive, wireless corrosion sensors for transportation infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Many industrial segments including utilities, manufacturing, government and infrastructure have an urgent need for a means to detect corrosion before significant damage occurs. Transportation infrastructure, such as bridges and roads, rely on reinfor...

  20. Commissioning the CERN IT Agile Infrastructure with experiment workloads

    CERN Document Server

    Medrano Llamas, Ramón; Kucharczyk, Katarzyna; Denis, Marek Kamil; Cinquilli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    In order to ease the management of their infrastructure, most of the WLCG sites are adopting cloud based strategies. In the case of CERN, the Tier 0 of the WLCG, is completely restructuring the resource and configuration management of their computing center under the codename Agile Infrastructure. Its goal is to manage 15,000 Virtual Machines by means of an OpenStack middleware in order to unify all the resources in CERN's two datacenters: the one placed in Meyrin and the new on in Wigner, Hungary. During the commissioning of this infrastructure, CERN IT is offering an attractive amount of computing resources to the experiments (800 cores for ATLAS and CMS) through a private cloud interface. ATLAS and CMS have joined forces to exploit them by running stress tests and simulation workloads since November 2012. This work will describe the experience of the first deployments of the current experiment workloads on the CERN private cloud testbed. The paper is organized as follows: the first section will explain th...