WorldWideScience

Sample records for resources consumption opportunity

  1. RCA : resource consumptions accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Valeska Rodriguez Lucas de Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Devido à grande concorrência do mercado o controle de custos passa a ser peça fundamental no auxílio à tomada de decisão quanto à redução dos custos, visando uma lucratividade maior por parte das empresas. Essa dissertação trata sobre um novo modelo de custos, o RCA – Resource Consumption Accounting, que ainda não foi adotado por nenhuma empresa. Esse novo método de custeio foi aplicado como modelo piloto em uma empresa Americana onde os resultados foram favoráveis a ele em relação aos modelo...

  2. Arctic resources : a mechatronics opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKean, M.; Baiden, G. [Penguin Automated Systems Inc., Naughton, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed the telerobotic mechatronics opportunities that exist to access mineral resources in the Arctic. The Mining Automation Project (MAP) determined that telerobotics could contribute to productivity gains while providing increased worker safety. The socio-economic benefits of advanced mechatronics for Arctic resource development are particularly attractive due to reduced infrastructure needs; operating costs; and environmental impacts. A preliminary analysis of mining transportation options by the authors revealed that there is a case for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) for oil and gas processing to address resource development. The ISRU options build on concepts developed to support space exploration and were proposed to reduce or modify transportation loads to allow more sustainable and efficient Arctic resource development. Many benefits in terms of efficiency could be achieved by combining demonstrated mechatronics with ISRU because of the constrained transportation infrastructure in the Arctic. In the context of harsh environment operations, mechatronics may provide an opportunity for undersea resource facilities. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Resource consumption, sustainability, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareva, Irina; Morin, Benjamin; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    Preserving a system's viability in the presence of diversity erosion is critical if the goal is to sustainably support biodiversity. Reduction in population heterogeneity, whether inter- or intraspecies, may increase population fragility, either decreasing its ability to adapt effectively to environmental changes or facilitating the survival and success of ordinarily rare phenotypes. The latter may result in over-representation of individuals who may participate in resource utilization patterns that can lead to over-exploitation, exhaustion, and, ultimately, collapse of both the resource and the population that depends on it. Here, we aim to identify regimes that can signal whether a consumer-resource system is capable of supporting viable degrees of heterogeneity. The framework used here is an expansion of a previously introduced consumer-resource type system of a population of individuals classified by their resource consumption. Application of the Reduction Theorem to the system enables us to evaluate the health of the system through tracking both the mean value of the parameter of resource (over)consumption, and the population variance, as both change over time. The article concludes with a discussion that highlights applicability of the proposed system to investigation of systems that are affected by particularly devastating overly adapted populations, namely cancerous cells. Potential intervention approaches for system management are discussed in the context of cancer therapies.

  4. Neuroepigenomics: Resources, Obstacles, and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlee, John S; Beckel-Mitchener, Andrea; Little, Roger; Procaccini, Dena; Rutter, Joni L; Lossie, Amy C

    2015-01-01

    Long-lived post-mitotic cells, such as the majority of human neurons, must respond effectively to ongoing changes in neuronal stimulation or microenvironmental cues through transcriptional and epigenomic regulation of gene expression. The role of epigenomic regulation in neuronal function is of fundamental interest to the neuroscience community, as these types of studies have transformed our understanding of gene regulation in post-mitotic cells. This perspective article highlights many of the resources available to researchers interested in neuroepigenomic investigations and discusses some of the current obstacles and opportunities in neuroepigenomics.

  5. Neuroepigenomics: resources, obstacles, and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Satterlee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-lived postmitotic cells, such as most human neurons, must respond effectively to ongoing changes in neuronal stimulation or microenvironmental cues through transcriptional and epigenomic regulation of gene expression. The role of epigenomic regulation in neuronal function is of fundamental interest to the neuroscience community, as these types of studies have transformed our understanding of gene regulation in postmitotic cells. This perspective article highlights many of the resources available to researchers interested in neuroepigenomic investigations and discusses some of the current obstacles and opportunities in neuroepigenomics.

  6. Pittsburgh 2013 Energy Baseline: Consumption, Trends & Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarka, Thomas J. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); James III, Robert E. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Withum, Jeffrey A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Plowman, Brian [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Shih, Chung Yan [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) are working in conjunction with the City of Pittsburgh (City) to transform how energy is produced, transported, and consumed in the City. This transformation will rely on 21st Century Energy Infrastructure designs, which leverage advanced technology and design techniques to modernize energy infrastructure, create new business models and markets, and expand technology research and development opportunities. Achieving this vision will require developing solutions that are unique to the City: its climate, topography, energy needs, resources, and existing infrastructure.a In this way, the City will demonstrate what the American “City of the Future” looks like, with all its attendant environmental, economic, and job-creation benefits. It will also serve as a template for other cities seeking to reinvent their energy systems.

  7. Waste as resource: Unlocking opportunities for Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available -use, recycling and recovery of materials. This chapter focuses on understanding the economic and social opportunities in waste that could potentially be unlocked in Africa, and how these opportunities can be used as lever to overcome the challenges in solid waste...

  8. Technical Resources for Fish and Shellfish Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on ways to develop local fish advisories, access national state and local fish advisories, obtain information on fish tissue contamination and fish tissue studies, and access information on fish consumption and human health.

  9. Pollution prevention opportunity assessments, a training and resource guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VALERO, O.J.

    1998-11-03

    The intention of the ''Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment Training and Resource Guide'' is to help Hanford waste generators identify ways to reduce waste through the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (P20A) process. This document presents pollution prevention tools and provides a step-by-step approach for conducting assessments.

  10. Dynamic Pricing for Resource Consumption in Cloud Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Cao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies dynamic pricing for cloud service where different resources are consumed by different users. The traditional cloud resource pricing models can be divided into two categories: on-demand service and reserved service. The former only takes the using time into account and is unfair for the users with long using time and little concurrency. The latter charges the same price to all the users and does not consider the resource consumption of users. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a flexible dynamic pricing model for cloud resources, which not only takes into account the occupying time and resource consumption of different users but also considers the maximal concurrency of resource consumption. As a result, on the one hand, this dynamic pricing model can help users save the cost of cloud resources. On the other hand, the profits of service providers are guaranteed. The key of the pricing model is how to efficiently calculate the maximal concurrency of resource consumption since the cost of providers is dynamically varied based on the maximal concurrency. To support this function in real time, we propose a data structure based on the classical B+ tree and the implementation for its corresponding basic operations like insertion, deletion, split, and query. Finally, the experiment results show that we can complete the dynamic pricing query on 10 million cloud resource usage records within 0.2 seconds on average.

  11. Power of Doubling: Population Growth and Resource Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Sarika Bahadure

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability starts with conserving resources for future generations. Since human’s existence on this earth, he has been consuming natural resources. The resource consumption pace in the past was very slow, but industrialization in 18th century brought a change in the human lifestyle. New inventions and discoveries upgraded the human workforce to machines. The mass manufacture of goods provided easy access to products. In the last few decades, the globalization and change in technologies br...

  12. OPPORTUNITIES TO PROMOTE THE CONSUMPTION OF ROMANIAN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SPERDEA NATALIȚA MARIA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Romania and Greece are similar countries in terms of culture, religion, consumer habits. Romania's trade with Greece is not very developed compared with other EU countries, for which it is necessary a better promote Romanian food and consumption of these products on the Greek market. To promote consumption of Romanian foods on Greek market it must be known the preferences of Greeks, must be understood their consumption habits and alimentation. The study is based on an analysis of statistical data regarding trade between the two countries and based on an questionnaire analysis of Greek's consumer preferences for Romanian food. A better promotion of the consumption of these products can be made through fairs and exhibitions, opening of restaurants with Romanian specific, or by organizing Romanian specific events in various occasions.

  13. Human Resource Development in Mauritius: Context, Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavan, Thomas N.; Neeliah, Harris; Auckloo, Raj; Ragaven, Raj

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore human resource development (HRD) in Mauritius and the challenges and opportunities faced by organisations in different sectors in adopting HRD practices. Findings: This special issue presents four papers that explore dimensions of HRD in public sector, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and…

  14. Investing exhaustible resource rents and the path of consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, K.; Hartwick, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This study presented a brief analysis of the concept of maintaining capital intact in an economy with 2 capital goods: one produced, and one an exhaustible oil stock. Oil stock supplies a vital input flow to the economy every day. The authors characterized dollar-valued national wealth and income. The magnitude of net investment has become pivotal in measuring the sustainability of an economy. This study linked the investment of exhaustible resource rents to growth in a model with energy consumption varying through time, as in a model of optimal savings. Dollar-valued net national product was set out for the economy with the essential, but wasting oil stock. The study applied the principle of maintaining capital intact and locally unchanging consumption. The percentage change in net investment or genuine savings, relative to the market rate of interest, determines whether current consumption is rising, constant, or declining. In the case of utility discount rates, it was observed that at a point of locally unchanging consumption, the net investment equals the prevailing market rate of interest, and the level of net investment is negative. The consumption increases when the percentage change in net investment is lower than the market rate of interest, and the reverse is true when consumption decreases. The connection between zero net investment and constant consumption was clarified. The sign of current net investment was found to be a good indicator of the direction of national wealth and income. 15 refs

  15. Eight Tons of Material Footprint—Suggestion for a Resource Cap for Household Consumption in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lettenmeier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper suggests a sustainable material footprint of eight tons, per person, in a year as a resource cap target for household consumption in Finland. This means an 80% (factor 5 reduction from the present Finnish average. The material footprint is used as a synonym to the Total Material Requirement (TMR calculated for products and activities. The paper suggests how to allocate the sustainable material footprint to different consumption components on the basis of earlier household studies, as well as other studies, on the material intensity of products, services, and infrastructures. It analyzes requirements, opportunities, and challenges for future developments in technology and lifestyle, also taking into account that future lifestyles are supposed to show a high degree of diversity. The targets and approaches are discussed for the consumption components of nutrition, housing, household goods, mobility, leisure activities, and other purposes. The paper states that a sustainable level of natural resource use by households is achievable and it can be roughly allocated to different consumption components in order to illustrate the need for a change in lifestyles. While the absolute material footprint of all the consumption components will have to decrease, the relative share of nutrition, the most basic human need, in the total material footprint is expected to rise, whereas much smaller shares than at present are proposed for housing and especially mobility. For reducing material resource use to the sustainable level suggested, both social innovations, and technological developments are required.

  16. Optimization of the HLT Resource Consumption in the LHCb Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, M; Gaspar, C; Herwijnen, E v.; Jost, B; Neufeld, N; Schwemmer, R

    2012-01-01

    Today's computing elements for software based high level trigger processing (HLT) are based on nodes with multiple cores. Using process based parallelization to filter particle collisions from the LHCb experiment on such nodes leads to expensive consumption of memory and hence significant cost increase. In the following an approach is presented to both minimize the resource consumption of the filter applications and to reduce the startup time. Described is the duplication of threads and the handling of files open in read-write mode when duplicating filter processes and the possibility to bootstrap the event filter applications directly from preconfigured checkpoint files. This led to a reduced memory consumption of roughly 60% in the nodes of the LHCb HLT farm and an improved startup time of a factor 10.

  17. Explaining resource consumption among non-normal neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Rachel M.; Michelman, Thomas; Pezzullo, John; Phibbs, Ciaran S.

    1991-01-01

    The adoption by Medicare in 1983 of prospective payment using diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) has stimulated research to develop case-mix grouping schemes that more accurately predict resource consumption by patients. In this article, the authors explore a new method designed to improve case-mix classification for newborns through the use of birth weight in combination with DRGs to adjust the unexplained case-mix severity. Although the findings are developmental in nature, they reveal that the model significantly improves our ability to explain resource use. PMID:10122360

  18. RESOURCES CONSUMPTION MANAGEMENT AT THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Naddafi, J. Nouri, R. Nabizadeh, N. Shahbod

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the various resources (water, energy, paper as well as other wastes consumption management at the National Library of Iran in Tehran. After setting the targets and specifying the correct management framework of resources consumption through the green management schedule, the resources analysis in consumption pattern in National Library of Iran was set up. Some attempt plans were performed to find out management solutions to the related issues. For the achievement of this aim, the first step was considered the study of general conditions of the Library through several visits, completing the checklists and questionnaires and then gathering the necessary information and analyzing them. The results of the fuel consumption in transportations related to the National Library showed that the major pollutants produced by the transportation were CO2, CO, NOx, and hydrocarbons. The rate of CO2 had a maximum level of 904 Kg and CO was 6 Kg, NOx was 2 Kg and hydrocarbons were 0.58 Kg. Among the equipments, which use energy in the Library, refrigerators produce the levels of CO2, SO2 and NOx .The total level of CO2, SO2 and NOx produced by all the equipments were 1140.32 Kg, 3.9072 kg and 2.886 Kg respectively. The results of water investigations showed that the total water consumption was 45459 L/year and the greater part of it was related to irrigation of the garden in the courtyard which was equal to 32471 L/year. Regarding to the wastes, the results of 30 times sampling showed the highest level to be related to aluminum and paper and a computer analysis revealed these results in the rates of 19745 Kg/year of CO2, 77.54 Kg/year, SO2 57.4Kg/year NOx and particulate matter was 2.92 Kg/year. Following the investigations carried out in management, executive solutions were suggested which led to the conclusion that the Green Management System should be established at this organization which should result in optimum consumption of resources

  19. Improving Stewardship of Marine Resources: Linking Strategy to Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciska von Heland

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The need for improved stewardship of coastal and marine resources is evident worldwide. However, complex ecosystem dynamics, institutional inertia, and budgetary constraints impede such action. This study explores how networks of change-oriented individuals or “institutional entrepreneurs” can introduce new types of human-environment interaction. The focus is on investigating the interplay between the strategies of institutional entrepreneurs and broader system dynamics that shape the context in which they are working, and possible impacts of institutional entrepreneurship on marine governance. We explore these issues in the context of Wakatobi National Park in eastern Indonesia. We suggest that creating links between different social spheres, such as between marine resource management and spirituality or between marine resource management and education, may accelerate the development of a new ecosystem stewardship. We further suggest that the use of media has significant power to show alternative futures, but that media may also serve to objectify certain resource users and increase the complexity of marine resource management. In general, institutional entrepreneurs play an important role in capturing and managing opportunity to open up space for experimentation and novel ideas, for example by linking their ideas to broader political priorities. Yet, such strategies bear the risk of institutional capture. Finally, institutional entrepreneurs sometimes have vested interests in certain solutions that may forsake experimentation toward a sustainable future.

  20. Effects of household dynamics on resource consumption and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianguo; Daily, Gretchen C; Ehrlich, Paul R; Luck, Gary W

    2003-01-30

    Human population size and growth rate are often considered important drivers of biodiversity loss, whereas household dynamics are usually neglected. Aggregate demographic statistics may mask substantial changes in the size and number of households, and their effects on biodiversity. Household dynamics influence per capita consumption and thus biodiversity through, for example, consumption of wood for fuel, habitat alteration for home building and associated activities, and greenhouse gas emissions. Here we report that growth in household numbers globally, and particularly in countries with biodiversity hotspots (areas rich in endemic species and threatened by human activities), was more rapid than aggregate population growth between 1985 and 2000. Even when population size declined, the number of households increased substantially. Had the average household size (that is, the number of occupants) remained static, there would have been 155 million fewer households in hotspot countries in 2000. Reduction in average household size alone will add a projected 233 million additional households to hotspot countries during the period 2000-15. Rapid increase in household numbers, often manifested as urban sprawl, and resultant higher per capita resource consumption in smaller households pose serious challenges to biodiversity conservation.

  1. Biomass resources assessment: Measuring family fuelwood consumption in Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brian MacGarry, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Two surveys are reported: one to test possible economic benefits to low-income urban households of using a charcoal stove for cooking, and the other covering both fuelwood collected and consumed over twelve months, in order to compare fuelwood consumption of households using a 'fuel-saving' mudstove with that of those using the more usual open hearth. The charcoal stove and charcoal as a fuel, although having desirable characteristics, do not offer an appreciable saving to current users of paraffin or most urban wood users. Consumption of paraffin was found to be 0.5 ± 0.21/household/day; of wood 7 ± 2kg/household/day and of charcoal 1.0 ± 0.4kg/household/day. Enquiries on woodfuel cost revealed that prices are influenced more by supply-side than demand-side factors, and that preferred fuel species constitute most (more than 61-91% depending on location) of the wood on sale in the streets of the suburbs surveyed. Rural users of both the mudstove and the open hearth consume about 7.5kg/household/day, although the mudstoves in question were five years old, and near the end of their useful life. Evidence of pressure on fuelwood resources and motivation towards using fuel-saving stoves appeared: only 61% of samples recorded were of preferred fuelwood species, and both collection and use patterns showed adaptations to less easily obtainable supplies. Measurements in both the rural and urban cases showed consumption per household is a more reliable basis for comparison than consumption per head. Simpler tests on recently built mud stoves are recommended and are currently being carried out. (author)

  2. OPPORTUNITIES FOR HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT BY PROFESSIONAL INTEGRATION / REINTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA ELISABETA POPP

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents some opportunities for the development of human resources by means of professional insertion / reinsertion. It is about an intervention project, more precisely the establishment of a Centre for Career Counselling and Professional Requalification (CORP within the University “Eftimie Murgu” of Reşita. The objective was the promotion of an inclusive society able to facilitate the access and integration on the labour market of the young unemployed. By its activities, the project forwards an inclusive model of social inclusion of the professionally inactive young people through individualised programmes of qualification - requalification, support and professional counselling. By its results the project contributed to the stimulation of the participation of young unemployed persons to the social, economic and educational life, the consideration of the importance of the role played by education and professional training among the youth.

  3. Household MIPS. Natural resource consumption of Finnish households and its reduction; KotiMIPS. Kotitalouksien luonnonvarojen kulutus ja sen pienentaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotakorpi, E.; Laehteenoja, S.; Lettenmeier, M.

    2008-10-15

    consumption is the same in terms of air consumption, which is correlated with CO2 emissions, but housing consumes around twice as much air as tourism and mobility. Home heating accounts for the highest proportion of air consumption by housing. After the consumption monitoring the households participated in focus group interviews in which the opportunities available for reducing natural resource consumption were debated. The conclusion to the report is based on the consumption monitoring results and focus group interviews. In it the authors enquire what subsectors of consumption might offer consumers potential for reducing their natural resource consumption and what the barriers are to modifying consumption practices. It is the opinion of the households that in relation to housing the easiest way to reduce natural resource consumption is to change over to eco-electricity and in the case of foodstuffs to cut down on the amount of meat and cheese consumed. Incentives and guidelines are necessary for increasing consumers' willingness and opportunities to change their habits in their daily mobility and particularly in tourism. In addition to changes in consumer choices and practices, and for the support of such changes, novel technical solutions, e.g. low-energy dwellings, are required for conserving natural resources. The business sector and the authorities have a significant role to play in increasing the demand for solutions of this kind and in offering them to the public. (orig.)

  4. Microbial Resources and Enological Significance: Opportunities and Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Petruzzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the innovative trends in the wine sector, the continuous exploration of enological properties associated with wine microbial resources represents a cornerstone driver of quality improvement. Since the advent of starter cultures technology, the attention has been focused on intraspecific biodiversity within the primary species responsible for alcoholic fermentation (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and, subsequently, for the so-called ‘malolactic fermentation’ (Oenococcus oeni. However, in the last decade, a relevant number of studies proposed the enological exploitation of an increasing number of species (e.g., non-Saccharomyces yeasts associated with spontaneous fermentation in wine. These new species/strains may provide technological solutions to specific problems and/or improve sensory characteristics, such as complexity, mouth-feel and flavors. This review offers an overview of the available information on the enological/protechnological significance of microbial resources associated with winemaking, summarizing the opportunities and the benefits associated with the enological exploitation of this microbial potential. We discuss proposed solutions to improve quality and safety of wines (e.g., alternative starter cultures, multistrains starter cultures and future perspectives.

  5. Microbial Resources and Enological Significance: Opportunities and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzi, Leonardo; Capozzi, Vittorio; Berbegal, Carmen; Corbo, Maria R.; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Spano, Giuseppe; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2017-01-01

    Among the innovative trends in the wine sector, the continuous exploration of enological properties associated with wine microbial resources represents a cornerstone driver of quality improvement. Since the advent of starter cultures technology, the attention has been focused on intraspecific biodiversity within the primary species responsible for alcoholic fermentation (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and, subsequently, for the so-called ‘malolactic fermentation’ (Oenococcus oeni). However, in the last decade, a relevant number of studies proposed the enological exploitation of an increasing number of species (e.g., non-Saccharomyces yeasts) associated with spontaneous fermentation in wine. These new species/strains may provide technological solutions to specific problems and/or improve sensory characteristics, such as complexity, mouth-feel and flavors. This review offers an overview of the available information on the enological/protechnological significance of microbial resources associated with winemaking, summarizing the opportunities and the benefits associated with the enological exploitation of this microbial potential. We discuss proposed solutions to improve quality and safety of wines (e.g., alternative starter cultures, multistrains starter cultures) and future perspectives. PMID:28642742

  6. Opportunities and insights for reducing fossil fuel consumption by households and organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Paul C.; Janda, Kathryn B.; Brown, Marilyn A.; Steg, Linda; Vine, Edward L.; Lutzenhiser, Loren

    2016-05-01

    Realizing the ambitious commitments of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference (COP21) will require new ways of meeting human needs previously met by burning fossil fuels. Technological developments will be critical, but so will accelerated adoption of promising low-emission technologies and practices. National commitments will be more achievable if interventions take into account key psychological, social, cultural and organizational factors that influence energy choices, along with factors of an infrastructural, technical and economic nature. Broader engagement of social and behavioural science is needed to identify promising opportunities for reducing fossil fuel consumption. Here we discuss opportunities for change in households and organizations, primarily at short and intermediate timescales, and identify opportunities that have been underused in much of energy policy. Based on this survey, we suggest design principles for interventions by governments and other organizations, and identify areas of emphasis for future social science and interdisciplinary research.

  7. Improving health care costing with resource consumption accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyapici, Hasan; Tanis, Veyis Naci

    2016-07-11

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the differences between a traditional costing system (TCS) and resource consumption accounting (RCA) based on a case study carried out in a hospital. Design/methodology/approach - A descriptive case study was first carried out to identify the current costing system of the case hospital. An exploratory case study was then conducted to reveal how implementing RCA within the case hospital assigns costs differently to gallbladder surgeries than the current costing system (i.e. a TCS). Findings - The study showed that, in contrast to a TCS, RCA considers the unused capacity, which is the difference between the work that can be performed based on current resources and the work that is actually being performed. Therefore, it assigns lower total costs to open and laparoscopic gallbladder surgeries. The study also showed that by separating costs into fixed and variable RCA allows managers to benefit from a pricing strategy based on the difference between the service's selling price and variable costs incurred in providing that service. Research limitations/implications - The limitation of this study is that, because of time constraints, the implementation was performed in the general surgery department only. However, since RCA is an advanced system that has the same application procedures for any department inside in a hospital, managers need only time gaps to implement this system to all parts of the hospital. Practical implications - This study concluded that RCA is better than a TCS for use in health care settings that have high overhead costs because it accurately assigns overhead costs to services by considering unused capacities incurred by a hospital. Consequently, this study provides insight into both measuring and managing unused capacities within the health care sector. This study also concluded that RCA helps health care administrators increase their competitive advantage by allowing them to determine the lowest

  8. The new context for industrializing around natural resources: an opportunity for Latin America (and other resource rich countries)?

    OpenAIRE

    Carlota Perez

    2015-01-01

    This chapter argues that development is a moving target, and that windows of opportunity to both ‘catch up’ and ‘leap ahead’ present themselves at certain times and in specific regions due to technological revolutions and paradigm shifts. Having examined the historical precedents, it observes that the exploitation and processing of natural resources (NR), once seen as a ‘curse’ for developing nations, present such an opportunity for Latin America and other resource-rich countries at this stag...

  9. Assessing and Managing Natural Resource Damages: Continuing Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnthouse, Lawrence W.; Stahl, Ralph G.

    2017-05-01

    In a 2002 paper, we discussed the technical challenges associated with quantifying natural resource injuries, service losses and damages, and suggested some actions that might help to overcome them. An important suggestion was to consider using some of the approaches in ecological risk assessment to help evaluate potential natural resource injuries, and ultimately in some cases to help translate those injuries into natural resource service loss. This was based on the observation that ecological risk assessment and natural resource damage assessments use much of the same types of data, but at that time the experience base with ecological risk assessment was greater than for natural resource damage assessments. We also discussed some of the issues in applying the then current Department of Interior natural resource damage assessments regulations. Since our 2002 publication the scientific literature, relevant regulations, the global context and more have changed. In the current paper we focus on the technical and regulatory changes in natural resource damage assessments practice since 2002, and use recent reports and publications to illustrate those changes and identify new directions in natural resource damage assessments.

  10. Resource Exploitation and Consumption in the Frame of Education for Sustainable Development in German Geography Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowasch, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the representation of resource exploitation and consumption in German geography textbooks. The aim of the paper is to contribute to a critical and reflective understanding of the representation of resource-related issues in textbooks by analyzing two scientific debates (resource curse and actor analysis). The paper shows that…

  11. A Multi-mode RCPSP with Stochastic Nonrenewable Resource Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Laurent Flindt

    Many processes within production scheduling and project management involve the scheduling of a number of activities, each activity having a certain duration and requiring a certain amount of limited resources. The duration and resource requirements of activities are com- monly the result...

  12. Renewable energy resources: Opportunities and constraints 1990-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This study examined the prospects for new renewable energy resources, from a global perspective, over the next three decades and beyond. The study is intended to support the work of the World Energy Council (WEC) Commission on Energy for Tomorrow's World. The new renewable resources investigated were: Solar; wind; geothermal; modern biomass; ocean; small hydro. Each of these areas was thoroughly researched and was the subject of a separate section of the report. Recent information on large-scale hydroelectric and traditional biomass is included for added perspective on total use of renewable energy, but both fall outside the definition of new renewable energy used in this report

  13. Market Opportunities for Cellulose Products From Combined Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihare, Lauma; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates available resources that has not been used or is used with low added value, such as woody crops, forest residues and invasive species possibilities in case of cellulosic products. Main aspect is this study is market outlook, to see if the products can have positive market sales if produced. Resource have been selected by availability and current usage and properties they contain. Products have been chosen the most basic, to see is there possibility to enter an existing cellulose product markets. GE/McKinsey matrix have been used for clear visual decision making. The results show that only two out of seven products has a potential in international market.

  14. Barriers and opportunities to access international resources for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    But tobacco control does not appear to be a health and development priority for the national government and development stakeholders in Bolivia. The Ministry of Health and civil organizations have experience difficulties in accessing international resources for tobacco control. At the same time, there is neither clear ...

  15. Based on the Hardware Resources Configurable Shanke PLC Building Energy Consumption Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Guanghe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the actual situation of the comprehensive office building and the functional requirements of the building energy consumption monitoring and management system, the office building energy consumption monitoring and management system is designed by using the hardware resource configurable Shanke PLC(SKPLC as the data collector. The system uses data bus technology and field data acquisition technology to achieve the building energy consumption data acquisition and management. Practice has proved that energy-saving effect is good.

  16. (Re)Sources of opportunities – The Role of Spatial Context for Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine; Korsgaard, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the types of spatially afforded resources that entrepreneurs extract from their spatial context; how they combine these resources to create opportunities, and how they connect these opportunities to different markets. Through an in-depth analysis of 28 entrepreneurial ventures...... contexts and results in four entrepreneurial types called Attractors, Valorisers, Artisans, and Entrepreneurs in the rural. The typology highlights the diversity of rural entrepreneurs and surfaces the distinguishing characteristics of rural ventures. This brings about the opportunity to identify...... manifestations of the empirical phenomenon in its context. The study shows that spatial context is of considerable significance to the resource affordances that enable entrepreneurial opportunity creation. The paper contributes to a micro-level understanding of place-specific entrepreneurial resource practices...

  17. Social and financial resources and high-risk alcohol consumption among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H; Brennan, Penny L; Schutte, Kathleen K; Moos, Bernice S

    2010-04-01

    This study examined long-term mutual predictive associations between social and financial resources and high-risk alcohol consumption in later life. A sample of 55- to 65-year-old older adults (n = 719) was surveyed at baseline and 10 years and 20 years later. At each contact point, participants completed an inventory that assessed social and financial resources and alcohol consumption. Over the 20-year interval, there was evidence of both social causation and social selection processes in relation to high-risk alcohol consumption. In support of a social causation perspective, higher levels of some social resources, such as participation in social activities, friends' approval of drinking, quality of relationship with spouse, and financial resources, were associated with a subsequent increased likelihood of high-risk alcohol consumption. Conversely, indicating the presence of social selection, high-risk alcohol consumption was associated with subsequent higher levels of friends' approval of drinking and quality of the spousal relationship, but lower quality of relationships with extended family members. These findings reflect mutual influence processes in which older adults' social resources and high-risk alcohol consumption can alter each other. Older adults may benefit from information about how social factors can affect their drinking habits; accordingly, information about social causation effects could be used to guide effective prevention and intervention efforts aimed at reducing the risk that late-life social factors may amplify their excessive alcohol consumption.

  18. Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the dairy processing sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This guide identifies and promotes opportunities for conserving energy and water, as well as reducing waste, in the dairy processing sector. The guide begins with an introduction and a profile of Ontario`s dairy processing sector, outlining the context for resource conservation and cost savings opportunities. It then outlines the rationale and the generic processes selected for careful examination of resource conservation and cost savings opportunities. Subsequent chapters describe the energy, water, and material resources commonly used in relation to the generic processes; the air, water, and solid waste residuals commonly derived from those processes; and new technologies with potential application in dairy processing. The generic processes covered in the guide are for fluid milk, cheese, ice cream and frozen products, cultured products such as yogurt, butter, and dried or evaporated products. The report ends with additional useful information for dairy processors.

  19. Analysis of asymmetries in air pollution with water resources, and energy consumption in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashouri, Mohammad Javad; Rafei, Meysam

    2018-04-17

    Iran should pay special attention to its excessive consumption of energy and air pollution due to the limited availability of water resources. This study explores the effects of the consumption of energy and water resources on air pollution in Iran from 1971 to 2014. It utilizes the non-linear autoregressive distributed lag approach to establish a robust relationship between the variables which show that both long- and short-run coefficients are asymmetrical. The positive and negative aspects of the long-run coefficients of energy consumption and water resources were found to be 0.19, - 1.63, 0.18, and 2.36, respectively, while only the negative ones were significant for energy consumption. Based on the cumulative effects, it can be established that there are important and significant differences in the responses of air pollution to positive and negative changes in water productivity and energy consumption. In particular, CO 2 gas emissions are affected by negative changes in H 2 O productivity both in terms of the total and the GDP per unit of energy use in Iran. In regard to short-run results, considerable asymmetric effects occur on all the variables for CO 2 emissions. Based on the results obtained, some recommendations are presented, which policymakers can adopt in efforts to address the issues of pollution and consumption.

  20. Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the soap, detergents and related products sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The soaps, detergents and related products sector is an important component of the chemical industry within Ontario, as these products are used for cleaning purposes in industrial, institutional and domestic consumer applications. This guide was prepared to assist the sector with cost savings and resource conservation. The guide highlights opportunities for resource conservation through energy and water efficiency improvements, more efficient utilisation of raw materials, and reduction of environmental releases at source. 54 figs.

  1. Matching opportunities with resources: a framework for analysing (migrant) entrepreneurship from a mixed embeddedness perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, an innovative analytical framework for the analysis of (migrant) entrepreneurship is presented. The approach combines the microlevel of the individual entrepreneur (with his or her resources), with the meso-level of the local opportunity structure and links the latter, in more loose

  2. Innovation in natural resources : New opportunities and new challenges. The case of the Argentinean seed industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, A.; Stubrin, L.I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, using the case of seeds, we explore the existence of both new opportunities and new challenges for innovation in Natural Resource Based Industries (NRBIs) in developing countries. Conventional views construe NRBIs as low tech, with low technological dynamism, little innovation, and

  3. Changing Food Consumption Patterns and Impact on Water Resources in the Fragile Grassland of Northern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, B.; Zhen, L.; Groot, de R.S.; Long, X.; Cao, X.; Wu, R.; Sun, C.; Wang, C.

    2015-01-01

    A burgeoning population, pressing development needs and increasing household consumption are rapidly accelerating water use in direct and indirect ways. Increasingly, regions around the world face growing pressure on sustainable use of their water resources especially in arid and semi-arid regions,

  4. Resource consumption analysis of online activity recognition on mobile phones and smartwatches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shoaib, M.; Durmaz, O.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Scholten, J.

    2017-01-01

    Most of the studies on human activity recognition using smartphones and smartwatches are performed in an offline manner. In such studies, collected data is analyzed in machine learning tools with less focus on the resource consumption of these devices for running an activity recognition system. In

  5. Global modeling of withdrawal, allocation and consumptive use of surface water and groundwater resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Wisser, D.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2013-01-01

    To sustain growing food demand and increasing standard of living, global water withdrawal and consumptive water use have been increasing rapidly. To analyze the human perturbation on water resources consistently over a large scale, a number of macro-scale hydrological models (MHMs) have been

  6. Global modeling of withdrawal, allocation and consumptive use of surface water and groundwater resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Wisser, D.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2014-01-01

    To sustain growing food demand and increasing standard of living, global water withdrawal and consumptive water use have been increasing rapidly. To analyze the human perturbation on water resources consistently over large scales, a number of macro-scale hydrological models (MHMs) have been

  7. State Bioenergy Primer: Information and Resources for States on Issues, Opportunities, and Options for Advancing Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrnett, D. S.; Mulholland, D.; Zinsmeister, E.; Doris, E.; Milbrandt, A.; Robichaud. R.; Stanley, R.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2009-09-01

    One renewable energy option that states frequently consider to meet their clean energy goals is the use of biomass resources to develop bioenergy. Bioenergy includes bioheat, biopower, biofuels, and bioproducts. This document provides an overview of biomass feedstocks, basic information about biomass conversion technologies, and a discussion of benefits and challenges of bioenergy options. The Primer includes a step-wise framework, resources, and tools for determining the availability of feedstocks, assessing potential markets for biomass, and identifying opportunities for action at the state level. Each chapter contains a list of selected resources and tools that states can use to explore topics in further detail.

  8. Limited Resources, Limited Opportunities, and the Accumulation of Disadvantage: Evidence from the Global Survey of Physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2012-03-01

    Using the results of the Global Survey of Physicists, which we conducted in collaboration with the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics Working Group on Women, we document the effect of limited resources and opportunities on women physicists' careers. We find that women respondents are less likely than men to report access to a variety of resources and opportunities that would be helpful in advancing a scientific career. These include access to funding, travel money, lab and office space, equipment, clerical support, and availability of employees or students to help with research. When asked about specific opportunities, women report fewer invited talks and overseas research opportunities. Women who responded are less likely to have been journal editors, acted as bosses or managers, advised graduate students, served on thesis or dissertation committees, and served on committees for grant agencies. We also show the disproportionate effects of children on women physicists' careers. Women who responded are more likely than men to have changed their work situations upon becoming parents. Mothers are more likely than men and women without children to report that their careers have progressed more slowly than colleagues who finished their degrees at the same time. Furthermore, women are more likely than men to report that their careers affected the decisions they made about marriage and children. The results of this survey draw attention to the need to focus on factors other than representation when discussing the situation of women in physics. 15,000 physicists in 130 countries answered this survey, and across all these countries, women have fewer resources and opportunities and are more affected by cultural expectations concerning child care. Cultural expectations about home and family are difficult to change. However, for women to have successful outcomes and advance in physics, they must have equal access to resources and opportunities.

  9. Opportunities and Resources for Scientist Participation in Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; CoBabe-Ammann, E.; Shipp, S.; Hsu, B.

    2012-10-01

    Active engagement of scientists in Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities results in benefits for both the audience and scientists. Most scientists are trained in research but have little formal training in education. The Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forum helps the Science Mission Directorate support scientists currently involved in E/PO and to help scientists who are interested in becoming involved in E/PO efforts find ways to do so through a variety of avenues. We will present current and future opportunities and resources for scientists to become engaged in education and public outreach. These include upcoming NASA SMD E/PO funding opportunities, professional development resources for writing NASA SMD E/PO proposals (webinars and other online tools), toolkits for scientists interested in best practices in E/PO (online guides for K-12 education and public outreach), EarthSpace (a community web space where instructors can find and share about teaching space and earth sciences in the undergraduate classroom, including class materials news and funding opportunities, and the latest education research), thematic resources for teaching about the solar system (archived resources from Year of the Solar System), and an online database of scientists interested in connecting with education programs. Learn more about the Forum and find resources at http://smdepo.org/.

  10. Local governance responses to social inclusion for older rural Victorians: building resources, opportunities and capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterton, Rachel; Clune, Samantha; Warburton, Jeni; Martin, John

    2014-09-01

    To explore how local governance enables access to resources, creates opportunities and increases capability for older people in rural communities to experience social inclusion. Twenty-six semi-structured interviews were undertaken with community stakeholders across two rural communities in north-east Victoria. Stakeholders were drawn from local government, and a range of community groups and organisations, as identified in a scoping study. Through the provision of community resources (e.g. physical and human infrastructure, organisational partnerships), local services and supports offer social and productive environments for participation. They also build individual resources (e.g. health, skills, finances, networks) to enable older people to participate within these environments, and provide assistance to allow older people to use individual and community resources. Community resources are integral in facilitating the development of older people's individual resources, and opportunities and capabilities for participation. These enable greater choice in participation, and contribute to the sustainability of community resources serving ageing populations. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2013 ACOTA.

  11. Weed Control in Maize-Cowpea Intercropping System Related to Environmental Resources Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah ESKANDARI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out in Ramhormoz, Iran during the 2008-2009 growing season to investigate the effects of different planting pattern of intercropping on environmental resource consumption and weed biomass. A randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications was employed to compare the treatments. Treatments included maize sole crop (M, cow pea sole crop (C, within row intercropping (I1, row intercropping (I2 and mix cropping (I3. The density of intercropping was according to replacement design (one maize replaced by three cow pea plants. The results showed that environmental resource consumption was significantly (P?0.05 affected by cropping system, where PAR interception, moisture and nutrients uptake were higher in intercropping systems compared to sole crop systems. Regarding to weed control, intercrops were more effective than sole crops and it was related to lower availability of environmental resources for weeds in intercropping systems.

  12. The water footprint of cotton consumption: An assessment of the impact of worldwide consumption of cotton products on the water resources in the cotton producing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.; Gautam, R.

    2006-01-01

    The consumption of a cotton product is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resources in the countries where cotton is grown and processed. The aim of this paper is to assess the ‘water footprint’ of worldwide cotton consumption, identifying both the location and the character of the

  13. An Opportunity on Exploiting of Geology and Mineral Resource Data for Regional Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus-Hendratno

    2004-01-01

    Indonesia archipelago have the very complex geo diversity. The complexity of geo diversity gives a lot of opportunity on exploiting of earth resources for society prosperity. In other side, the complexity of geology also gives a lot of resistance and various limitation at one particular region to expand. Hence, various data of geology as well as data of result of mapping of minerals resources (mapping at macro scale and also have detail scale) require to be managed and exploited maximally. Effort the exploiting also require various infrastructure which is concerning regulatory, technological, human resources being, market-drive of an economic geo material, social environment and culture which grow around geology data, and also availability and readiness of geology and mineral resources data. This study is expected can give a few description of how the geology and minerals resources data can be as reference in regional development planning. This paper was writed by assessment of description qualitative and comparative inter-region case study in various regency area, where writer have been involved to conduct the activity of geological mapping and mineral resources data and also involved by a discussion with a few officers of local government in so many opportunity. Some of the case study region for example : in Kampar Regency (Riau), Tanjung Jabung Timur Regency (Jambi), Biak Numfor Regency (Papua), Gunung Kidul Regency (Yogyakarta), Pacitan Regency (East Java), and also Klaten Regency (Central Java). (author)

  14. Finding value in waste: Identifying opportunities for growth in a secondary resources economy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available manufacturing economy (strengthening the local economy) o Create new jobs in an emerging secondary resources economy o Create job opportunities for low skilled, unemployed citizens o Through low barriers to entry, establish new enterprises, including co... in waste • Waste provides not only economic but also social opportunities • The 2015 Q1 unemployment rate for South Africa was 26.4% (12 year high) (StatsSA, 2015) • With an expanded unemployment rate (1) of 36.1% • ~60% of the unemployed have less...

  15. Analysis of the structural changes in domestic consumption of FUEL and energetic resources of Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Moiseykina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study. The fuel and energy complex is one of the important components of the mechanism of functioning of the national economy in general and municipal economy in particular, since the main tasks of the complex include: provision of hot water supply all year round and heat during the winter period, meeting the needs of the population and municipal economy in gas, supply of gasoline and diesel fuel to satisfy consumers, as well as the supply of coal, peat, fuel oil and other fuels for the urban economy. An important role is played by enterprises of the fuel and energy complex in terms of providing jobs to the population. The fuel and energy complex of Moscow is one of the largest in Russia. A feature of its functioning is the concentrated consumption of gas, fuel, electricity, heat energy and other energy resources. The formation and development of the fuel and energy complex in Moscow is largely due to the rapidly developing economy of the megapolis – large-scale construction of housing and infrastructure, sustainable population growth entails a constant increase in consumption of fuel and energy resources. Monitoring the efficiency of the use of fuel and energy resources makes it possible to identify ways to reduce the volume of consumption to a level that allows, within the approved limit, to implement the planned rate of social and economic development of the city. Materials and methods. Information base of the research was made by statistical data characterizing the volume of consumption of certain types of fuel and energy resources in the market of the Moscow region. The methodological basis of the study is made up of statistical methods of analysis of structure and structural shifts, dynamics. Their use made it possible to conduct a thorough analysis of the differentiation of consumption of various types of fuel and energy resources, as well as structural changes in the differentiations in question. It made it possible to

  16. Constrained consumption shifting management in the distributed energy resources scheduling considering demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Pedro; Vale, Zita; Baptista, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Consumption reduction and/or shift to several periods before and after. • Optimization problem for scheduling of demand response and distributed generation. • Minimization of the Virtual Power Player operation (remuneration) costs. • Demand response can be efficient to meet distributed generation shortages. • Consumers benefit with the remuneration of the participation in demand response. - Abstract: Demand response concept has been gaining increasing importance while the success of several recent implementations makes this resource benefits unquestionable. This happens in a power systems operation environment that also considers an intensive use of distributed generation. However, more adequate approaches and models are needed in order to address the small size consumers and producers aggregation, while taking into account these resources goals. The present paper focuses on the demand response programs and distributed generation resources management by a Virtual Power Player that optimally aims to minimize its operation costs taking the consumption shifting constraints into account. The impact of the consumption shifting in the distributed generation resources schedule is also considered. The methodology is applied to three scenarios based on 218 consumers and 4 types of distributed generation, in a time frame of 96 periods

  17. Self-consumption: opportunity or real wrong track? Deciphering and positioning note - December 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    After having recalled some operating principles of electricity grids and counters, this document presents the various aspects of self-consumption and outlines that it could reach 40 per cent. It discusses how the self-consumption rate could be increased: by limiting the photovoltaic system power, by increasing the number and/or power of devices operating during the production period, by storing a part of the production in the building in order to consume it later. It discusses the distinction between self-production and self-consumption: self-production generally results in a de-optimization of the production-consumption pair, whereas self-consumption leads to virtuous behaviours. A second part comments the German example which moved from a subsidy for self-consumption to a programme for grid support, and refers to the French photovoltaic sector which is in a difficult situation. Proposals are made to support and promote self-consumption, and support mechanisms are compared in a table. Some recommendations are finally made

  18. Entrepreneurial Team: How Human and Social Capital Influence Entrepreneurial Opportunity Identification and Mobilization of External Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlem Omri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial teams play an extremely important role in the development of any country, especially in developing countries. To understand entrepreneurial teams that operate in a low-technology industry, we rely on the network and human perspective on entrepreneurship. In this paper, we investigate how the social and human capital of entrepreneurial team members influences their ability to identify entrepreneurial opportunities and mobilize external resources. We extend prior research in two ways. First, by using the ordered probit method to measure the identified entrepreneurial opportunities number at the level of entrepreneurial teams. Second, to our knowledge, there is a very small number of studies that have theoretically and empirically investigated the mobilization of external resources, especially at the level of entrepreneurial teams.

  19. CERN Colloquium: The Effects of Limited Resources and Opportunities on Women’s Careers in Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The Effects of Limited Resources and Opportunities on Women’s Careers in Physics: Results from the Global Survey of Physicists, by Rachel Ivie (American Institute of Physics).   Thursday, May 3, 2012 from 16:30 to 17:30 (Europe/Zurich) at CERN ( 503-1-001 - Council Chamber ) The results of the Global Survey of Physicists draw attention to the need to focus on factors other than representation when discussing the situation of women in physics. Previous studies of women in physics have mostly focused on the lack of women in the field. This study goes beyond the obvious shortage of women and shows that there are much deeper issues. For the first time, a multinational study was conducted with 15000 respondents from 130 countries, showing that problems for women in physics transcend national borders. Across all countries, women have fewer resources and opportunities and are more affected by cultural expectations concerning child care. We show that limited resources and opportunities hurt ca...

  20. Considerations of ensuring efficient consumption of energy resources in the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sveatoslav MIHALACHE

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Protecting the environment is essential nowadays. We have to think about us and the needs of future generations. In the last 20 years, Europe has understood that lives beyond its real opportunities and that our way of life put the planet to the test. We consume more and more of the natural resources and jeopardize environmental systems (water, soil and air. This cannot continue indefinitely, especially since the world’s population continues to grow. If we don’t change behavior now, our future will be less secured and more people will fight for natural resources increasingly reduced. Mentioned issues are examined in the following article.

  1. Identifying opportunities to reduce the consumption of energy across mining and processing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling, David; Johnson, Greg

    2010-09-15

    In addition to meeting Government Policy on Energy Efficiency Opportunities (EEOs), mining and mineral processing companies are increasing energy efficiency to reduce costs in the current financial conditions. One of the major issues with EEOs is the lack of data available on energy use, and more importantly the energy use linked to production data, that identify energy reduction opportunities. This paper looks at expanding the use of a Manufacturing Execution Systems by integrating with Energy Solutions. This will provide automatic, timely information, at a granularity that makes it easier to identify EEOs, reduce energy costs, and better predict energy use.

  2. Research and Development Opportunities for Technologies to Influence Water Consumption Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Horner, Robert M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Muehleisen, Ralph T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    In April 2015, Argonne National Laboratory hosted a two-day workshop that convened water experts and stakeholders from across industry, government, and academia to undertake three primary tasks: 1) identify technology characteristics that are favorable for motivating behavioral change, 2) identify barriers that have prevented the development and market adoption of technologies with these characteristics in the water sector, and 3) identify concrete research and development pathways that could be undertaken to overcome these barriers, increase the penetration of technologies that influence water consumption behavior, and ultimately reduce domestic water consumption. While efforts to reduce water consumption have gained momentum in recent years, there are a number of key barriers that have limited the effectiveness of such efforts. Chief among these is the fact that many consumers have limited awareness of their water consumption patterns because of poor data availability, and/or are unmotivated to reduce their consumption because of low costs and split incentives. Without improved data availability and stronger price signals, it will be difficult to effect true transformative behavioral change. This report also reviews a number of technology characteristics that have successfully motivated behavioral change in other sectors, as well as several technologies that could be developed specifically for the water sector. Workshop participants discussed how technologies that provide active feedback and promote measurable goals and social accountability have successfully influenced changes in other types of behavior. A range of regulatory and policy actions that could be implemented to support such efforts are also presented. These include institutional aggregation, revenue decoupling, and price structure reforms. Finally, several R&D pathways were proposed, including efforts to identify optimal communication strategies and to better understand consumer perceptions and

  3. Modeling climate change impact in hospitality sector, using building resources consumption signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Armando; Bernardino, Mariana; Silva Santos, António; Pimpão Silva, Álvaro; Espírito Santo, Fátima

    2016-04-01

    Hotels are one of building types that consumes more energy and water per person and are vulnerable to climate change because in the occurrence of extreme events (heat waves, water stress) same failures could compromise the hotel services (comfort) and increase energy cost or compromise the landscape and amenities due to water use restrictions. Climate impact assessments and the development of adaptation strategies require the knowledge about critical climatic variables and also the behaviour of building. To study the risk and vulnerability of buildings and hotels to climate change regarding resources consumption (energy and water), previous studies used building energy modelling simulation (BEMS) tools to study the variation in energy and water consumption. In general, the climate change impact in building is evaluated studying the energy and water demand of the building for future climate scenarios. But, hotels are complex buildings, quite different from each other and assumption done in simplified BEMS aren't calibrated and usually neglect some important hotel features leading to projected estimates that do not usually match hotel sector understanding and practice. Taking account all uncertainties, the use of building signature (statistical method) could be helpful to assess, in a more clear way, the impact of Climate Change in the hospitality sector and using a broad sample. Statistical analysis of the global energy consumption obtained from bills shows that the energy consumption may be predicted within 90% confidence interval only with the outdoor temperature. In this article a simplified methodology is presented and applied to identify the climate change impact in hospitality sector using the building energy and water signature. This methodology is applied to sixteen hotels (nine in Lisbon and seven in Algarve) with four and five stars rating. The results show that is expect an increase in water and electricity consumption (manly due to the increase in

  4. Government Resource Subsidy and its Spillover Effects: Evidence from the Excessive Oil Consumption in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattaphon Wuthisatian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analyzing the consecutive consequences of government resource subsidies in a particular industry, which can lead to the excessive oil consumption by other sectors and end users. To fully illustrate the investigation, we use the subsidies in Chinese steel production as a case study and a beginning point to develop theoretical and empirical models to examine the spillover effects, going from steel industry to a rapidly increase of overall country’s oil consumption. The theoretical model applies the market equilibrium concept to demonstrate a relationship among three economic sectors; steel industry, automobile, and households. Particularly, the government subsidies in Chinese steel production will enable the steel firms to obtain resource inputs at the lower price, making the output price of steels cheaper than the market price. As steel is a required input in automobile industry, this cheaper price of steels will induce the automotive firms to increase their production capacity, producing more cars and selling them at the cheaper price, which eventually results in the excessive usage of oil and gasoline by individuals. Using the data during the period of 1980-2012, the empirical analysis involves OLS regression and cointegration test to approve the validity of the theoretical model, which emphasizes on the strong relationship between Chinese oil consumption and steel production.

  5. Tools and measures for stimulation the efficient energy consumption. Integrated resource planning in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scripcariu, Daniela; Scripcariu, Mircea; Leca, Aureliu

    1996-01-01

    The integrated resource planning is based on analyses of the energy generation and energy consumption as a whole. Thus, increasing the energy efficiency appears to be the cheapest, the most available and the most cost-effective energy resource. In order to stimulate the increase of efficiency of energy consumption, besides economic efficiency criteria for selecting technical solutions, additional tools and measures are necessary. The paper presents the main tools and measures needed to foster an efficient energy consumption. Actions meant to stimulate DSM (Demand-Side Management) implementation in Romania are proposed. The paper contains 5 sections. In the introduction, the main aspects of the DSM are considered, namely, where the programs are implemented, who is the responsible, which are the objectives and finally, how the DSM programs are implemented. The following tools in management of energy use are examined: the energy prices, the regulation in the field of energy efficiency, standards and norms, energy labelling of the products and energy education. Among the measures for managing the energy use, the paper takes into consideration the institutions responsible for DSM, for instance, the Romanian Agency for Energy Conservation (ARCE), decentralization of decision making, the program approaches and financing the actions aiming at improving the energy efficiency. Finally, the paper analyses the criteria in choosing adequate solutions of improving the energy efficiency

  6. Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the food service sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Opportunities for conserving energy and water, as well as reducing waste, within the 24,000 establishment-strong food service sector in Ontario are identified. Operators are encouraged to take advantage of these opportunities to lower their costs while conserving valuable resources at the same time. In preparing this guide, site visits were carried out at six food service facilities in Ontario. Information about how much money is generally spent on energy, water and waste management by food service operators is provided. The amount and type of waste generated by these facilities is also described. The volatility of the commercial food service market place was identified as one of the major impediments to energy conservation. It was found that most owners of the food service facilities make business decisions based on the lowest first costs, irrespective of longer-term energy efficiency and operating costs. 31 refs., 13 tabs., 9 figs., 4 appendices.

  7. Resource Use in the Production and Consumption System—The MIPS Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Liedtke

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept Material Input per Service Unit (MIPS was developed 20 years ago as a measure for the overall natural resource use of products and services. The material intensity analysis is used to calculate the material footprint of any economic activities in production and consumption. Environmental assessment has developed extensive databases for life cycle inventories, which can additionally be adopted for material intensity analysis. Based on practical experience in measuring material footprints on the micro level, this paper presents the current state of research and methodology development: it shows the international discussions on the importance of accounting methodologies to measure progress in resource efficiency. The MIPS approach is presented and its micro level application for assessing value chains, supporting business management, and operationalizing sustainability strategies is discussed. Linkages to output-oriented Life Cycle Assessment as well as to Material Flow Analysis (MFA at the macro level are pointed out. Finally we come to the conclusion that the MIPS approach provides relevant knowledge on resource and energy input at the micro level for fact-based decision-making in science, policy, business, and consumption.

  8. Horse-meat for human consumption - Current research and future opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaunzaran, Xabier; Bessa, Rui J B; Lavín, Paz; Mantecón, Angel R; Kramer, John K G; Aldai, Noelia

    2015-10-01

    The consumption of horse-meat is currently not popular in most countries, but because of its availability and recognized nutritional value consumption is slowly increasing in several western European countries based on claims that it could be an alternative red meat. In this review, horse-meat production, trade and supply values have been summarized. In addition, the advantage of horse production is noted because of its lower methane emissions and increased uptake, particularly of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which is based on its digestive physiology. Of particular interest in this review is the unique fatty acid composition of horse-meat with its high level of the nutritionally desirable PUFAs in both the adipose and muscle fat. Because of its large frame size and digestive physiology, the horse can be considered an alternative to bovine meat, with large advantages regarding the maintenance of less favored mountain grazing areas and its facility to transfer PUFA from feed to meat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analyzing Growth Opportunity of Port from the Resource-based Perspective The Case of Port of Tanjung Pelepas Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Subhan, Muhammad; Abdul Ghani, Ahmad Bashawir

    2008-01-01

    Capturing growth opportunity has become a major integral activity of any port to sustain growth and competitive advantage. One of the famous strategies in leveraging sustainable growth and competitive advantage is the resource-based theory application into port strategic management, viewing resources of the port (internal and external) and its capabilities as the sources for achieving competitive advantage. In this study, we attempt to identify, exploit, and analyze growth opportunity of a Ma...

  10. Evidence and opportunities for integrating landscape ecology into natural resource planning across multiple-use landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trammel, E. Jamie; Carter, Sarah; Haby, Travis S.; Taylor, Jason J.

    2018-01-01

    Enhancing natural resource management has been a focus of landscape ecology since its inception, but numerous authors argue that landscape ecology has not yet been effective in achieving the underlying goal of planning and designing sustainable landscapes. We developed nine questions reflecting the application of fundamental research topics in landscape ecology to the landscape planning process and reviewed two recent landscape-scale plans in western North America for evidence of these concepts in plan decisions. Both plans considered multiple resources, uses, and values, including energy development, recreation, conservation, and protection of cultural and historic resources. We found that land use change and multiscale perspectives of resource uses and values were very often apparent in planning decisions. Pattern-process relationships, connectivity and fragmentation, ecosystem services, landscape history, and climate change were reflected less frequently. Landscape sustainability was considered only once in the 295 decisions reviewed, and outputs of landscape models were not referenced. We suggest six actionable opportunities for further integrating landscape ecology concepts into landscape planning efforts: 1) use landscape sustainability as an overarching goal, 2) adopt a broad ecosystem services framework, 3) explore the role of landscape history more comprehensively, 4) regularly consider and accommodate potential effects of climate change, 5) use landscape models to support plan decisions, and 6) promote a greater presence of landscape ecologists within agencies that manage large land bases and encourage active involvement in agency planning efforts. Together these actions may improve the defensibility, durability, and sustainability of landscape plan decisions.

  11. Executive control resources and snack food consumption in the presence of restraining versus facilitating cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter A; Lowe, Cassandra; Vincent, Corita

    2014-08-01

    Prior studies have documented a negative relationship between strength of executive control resources (ECRs) and frequency of snack food consumption. However, little is known about what effect environmental cues (restraining versus facilitating) have on the engagement of such control resources. We presented 88 healthy adults with standardized tests of ECRs followed by a bogus taste test for three appetitive snack foods. Participants were randomly assigned to receive instructions to eat the bare minimum to make their ratings ("restraint condition"), eat as much as they like ("facilitation condition") or no special instructions. We surreptitiously measured the weight of food consumed during the taste test. Findings revealed a main effect of treatment condition, such that those in the restraint condition ate significantly less than those in either of the other conditions; however, this main effect was qualified by an ECR by treatment condition interaction. Specifically, those in the facilitation condition showed a strong negative association between ECR strength and amount of food consumed, whereas those in the restraint and control conditions did not. Findings suggest that the effect of ECR strength on consumption of snack food varies substantially by the characteristics of contextual cues.

  12. Mobilizing Resources but Still Mining for Opportunities?: Indigenous Peoples, their Land and the Philippine State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRINCE AIAN G. VILLANUEVA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Kalipunan ng mga Katutubong Mamamayan ng Pilipinas (KAMP or the National Alliance of Indigenous Peoples’ Organization in the Philippines is al- most in their 30 years of existence and yet, like in most cases of indigenous peoples’ issues, there is still no significant number of studies about their role in campaigning for the betterment of the Indigenous Cultural Communities. Anchored on political opportunity structures theory as a guide, the basic motiva- tion of the paper is to illustrate how the KAMP fights and survives through resource mobilization and how the government represented by National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP and Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR accommodate their interests. Using archival research, secondary data analysis, elite interview and participant observation, the paper asserts that KAMP’s use of their organizational structure, advocacy campaigns and political assaults as their basic resources to fight for the Nueva Vizcaya Mining issue are relatively insufficient to a centralist and relatively closed government, despite the presence of democratic institutions. The ability of the Philippine government to strike the balance between development and indigenous peoples’ rights pro- tection shall remain to be a defining feature if not a challenge to the quality of democracy and governance in our land

  13. Building Virtual Watersheds: A Global Opportunity to Strengthen Resource Management and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, Lee; Miller, Daniel; Barquin, Jose; McCleary, Richard; Cai, TiJiu; Ji, Y.

    2016-03-01

    Modern land-use planning and conservation strategies at landscape to country scales worldwide require complete and accurate digital representations of river networks, encompassing all channels including the smallest headwaters. The digital river networks, integrated with widely available digital elevation models, also need to have analytical capabilities to support resource management and conservation, including attributing river segments with key stream and watershed data, characterizing topography to identify landforms, discretizing land uses at scales necessary to identify human-environment interactions, and connecting channels downstream and upstream, and to terrestrial environments. We investigate the completeness and analytical capabilities of national to regional scale digital river networks that are available in five countries: Canada, China, Russia, Spain, and United States using actual resource management and conservation projects involving 12 university, agency, and NGO organizations. In addition, we review one pan-European and one global digital river network. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the majority of the regional, national, and global scale digital river networks in our sample lack in network completeness, analytical capabilities or both. To address this limitation, we outline a general framework to build as complete as possible digital river networks and to integrate them with available digital elevation models to create robust analytical capabilities (e.g., virtual watersheds). We believe this presents a global opportunity for in-country agencies, or international players, to support creation of virtual watersheds to increase environmental problem solving, broaden access to the watershed sciences, and strengthen resource management and conservation in countries worldwide.

  14. County-Level Population Economic Status and Medicare Imaging Resource Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Hughes, Danny R; Prabhakar, Anand M; Duszak, Richard

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess relationships between county-level variation in Medicare beneficiary imaging resource consumption and measures of population economic status. The 2013 CMS Geographic Variation Public Use File was used to identify county-level per capita Medicare fee-for-service imaging utilization and nationally standardized costs to the Medicare program. The County Health Rankings public data set was used to identify county-level measures of population economic status. Regional variation was assessed, and multivariate regressions were performed. Imaging events per 1,000 Medicare beneficiaries varied 1.8-fold (range, 2,723-4,843) at the state level and 5.3-fold (range, 1,228-6,455) at the county level. Per capita nationally standardized imaging costs to Medicare varied 4.2-fold (range, $84-$353) at the state level and 14.1-fold (range, $33-$471) at the county level. Within individual states, county-level utilization varied on average 2.0-fold (range, 1.1- to 3.1-fold), and costs varied 2.8-fold (range, 1.1- to 6.4-fold). For both large urban populations and small rural states, Medicare imaging resource consumption was heterogeneously variable at the county level. Adjusting for county-level gender, ethnicity, rural status, and population density, countywide unemployment rates showed strong independent positive associations with Medicare imaging events (β = 26.96) and costs (β = 4.37), whereas uninsured rates showed strong independent positive associations with Medicare imaging costs (β = 2.68). Medicare imaging utilization and costs both vary far more at the county than at the state level. Unfavorable measures of county-level population economic status in the non-Medicare population are independently associated with greater Medicare imaging resource consumption. Future efforts to optimize Medicare imaging use should consider the influence of local indigenous socioeconomic factors outside the scope of traditional beneficiary-focused policy

  15. Understanding and managing the food-energy-water nexus - opportunities for water resources research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ximing; Wallington, Kevin; Shafiee-Jood, Majid; Marston, Landon

    2018-01-01

    Studies on the food, energy, and water (FEW) nexus lay a shared foundation for researchers, policy makers, practitioners, and stakeholders to understand and manage linked production, utilization, and security of FEW systems. The FEW nexus paradigm provides the water community specific channels to move forward in interdisciplinary research where integrated water resources management (IWRM) has fallen short. Here, we help water researchers identify, articulate, utilize, and extend our disciplinary strengths within the broader FEW communities, while informing scientists in the food and energy domains about our unique skillset. This paper explores the relevance of existing and ongoing scholarship within the water community, as well as current research needs, for understanding FEW processes and systems and implementing FEW solutions through innovations in technologies, infrastructures, and policies. Following the historical efforts in IWRM, hydrologists, water resources engineers, economists, and policy analysts are provided opportunities for interdisciplinary studies among themselves and in collaboration with energy and food communities, united by a common path to achieve sustainability development goals.

  16. Future Opportunities and Challenges with Using Demand Response as a Resource in Distribution System Operation and Planning Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Page, Janie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Potter, Jennifer [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stewart, Emma [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This scoping study focuses on identifying the ability for current and future demand response opportunities to contribute to distribution system management. To do so, this scoping study will identify the needs of a distribution system to operate efficiently, safely and reliably; summarize both benefits and challenges for the operation of the distribution system with high penetration levels of distributed energy resources; define a suite of services based on those changing operational needs that could be provided by resources; identify existing demand response opportunities sponsored by distribution utilities and/or aggregators of retail customers; assess the extent to which distribution system services can be provided via DR opportunities both in their current form and with alterations to their design; and provide a qualitative assessment of coordination issues that bulk power and distribution system providers of DR opportunities will need to address.

  17. Possibility of steadily growing per capita consumption in an economy with a wasting and non-replenishable resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H

    1976-01-01

    The Solow--Stiglitz model is modified to determine if factors other than the outstanding stock of the resource are related to per capita consumption and if technical improvements in productivity depend on investment. In the first modification, production is made dependent on the outstanding stock of a wasting resource in an economy based on a single aggregate industry producing a single consumer product. Consumption is found to follow a constant path as long as the share of capital remains greater than the share of the resource. In the second modification, no technical improvements are permitted without a research and development commitment. A set of restrictions on the parameters of the production function and the rate of population growth ensures that steadily growing per-capita consumption is feasible. 4 references.

  18. Water Resources and Sustainable Agriculture in 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar, G.

    2008-05-01

    Global agriculture faces some unique challenges and opportunities for the rest of this century. The need for food, feed and fiber will continues to grow as the world population continue to increase in the future. Agricultural ecosystems are also expected to be the source of a significant portion of renewable energy and fuels around the world, without further compromising the integrity of the natural resources base. How can agriculture continue to provide these services to meet the growing needs of world population while sustaining the integrity of agricultural ecosystems and natural resources, the very foundation it depends on? In the last century, scientific discoveries and technological innovations in agriculture resulted in significant increase in food, feed and fiber production globally, while the total amount of water, energy, fertilizers and other input used to achieve this growth remained the same or even decreased significantly in some parts of the world. Scientific and technical advances in understanding global and regional water and energy cycles, water resources management, soil and water conservation practices, weather prediction, plant breeding and biotechnology, and information and communication technologies contributed to this tremendous achievement. The projected increase in global population, urbanization, and changing lifestyles will continue the pressure on both agriculture and other managed and natural ecosystems to provide necessary goods and services for the rest of this century. To meet these challenges, we must obtain the requisite scientific and technical advances in the functioning of Earth's water, energy, carbon and biogeochemical cycles. We also need to apply the knowledge we gain and technologies we develop in assessing Earth's ecosystems' conditions, and their management and stewardship. In agricultural ecosystems, management of soil and water quality and quantity together with development of new varieties of plants based on advances

  19. GateWay Community College Water Resources Program Partnerships: An Opportunity for Program Success and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, M.

    2012-12-01

    GateWay Community College Water Resources Technologies (WRT) Program offers Certificate of Completions and Associate Degrees on Hydrologic Studies, Water Treatment and Wastewater Treatment. The program has been in existence since 1998 and has gone through several updates to meet the demand for professionals in those areas. The program includes theoretical and practical hands-on training in the monitoring of water quality and quantity as well as in water and industrial wastewater treatment. The WRT program offers online, face-to-face, and hybrid courses to address different student's needs for training. The program only Full-time faculty is supported by 15 adjunct- faculty professionals. Adjunct faculty is usually hired from a wide variety of professional people already working in the industry that have shown interest on teaching. Adjunct faculty also provide free tutoring to the WRT students when they are not teaching courses. The college Learning Center provides funding to support these tutoring activities. The program has an active Advisory Committee that provides guidance and recommends program changes to meet their training needs. This Advisory Committee is made of professionals from different federal, state, county agencies, and municipalities, private industry and consulting companies in the area. The Advisory Committee meets every year to provide feedback to GateWay on curriculum changes and commit to potential internship opportunities for the WRT students. Those internships (or voluntary work) are paid directly by the municipalities or agencies or can be paid by the GateWay WRT program. These internship jobs provides with an opportunity to actively promote the WRT program throughout the valley. The GateWay WRT program considers the Advisory Committee an essential component for the program success: the committee supports the program in recommending and acquiring the latest field equipment needed for the hands-on training. One of the main WRT program

  20. Opportunities and constraints for improved water resources management under increasing hydrological extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Increased occurrence of extreme climate events is one of the most damaging consequences of global climate change today and in the future. Estimating the impacts of such extreme events on global and regional water resources is therefore crucial for quantifying increasing risks from climate change. The quest for water security has been a struggle throughout human history. Only in recent years has the scale of this quest moved beyond the local, to the national and regional scales and to the planet itself. Absent or unreliable water supply, sanitation and irrigation services, unmitigated floods and droughts, and degraded water environments severely impact half of the planet's population. The scale and complexity of the water challenges faced by society, particularly but not only in the world's poorest regions, are now recognized, as is the imperative of overcoming these challenges for a stable and equitable world. IIASA's Water Futures and Solutions Initiative (WFAS) is an unprecedented inter-disciplinary scientific initiative to identify robust and adaptive portfolios of optional solutions across different economic sectors, including agriculture, energy and industry, and to test these solution-portfolios with multi-model ensembles of hydrologic and sector models to obtain a clearer picture of the trade-offs, risks, and opportunities. The results of WFaS scenarios and models provide a basis for long-term strategic planning of water resource development under changing environments and increasing climate extremes. And given the complexity of the water system, WFaS uniquely provides policy makers with optional sets of solutions that work together and that can be easily adapted as circumstances change in the future. As WFaS progresses, it will establish a network involving information exchange, mutual learning and horizontal cooperation across teams of researchers, public and private decision makers and practitioners exploring solutions at regional, national and local

  1. Analysis and optimization of indicators of energy and resource consumption of gas turbine and electric drives for transportation of hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golik, V. V.; Zemenkova, M. Yu; Seroshtanov, I. V.; Begalko, Z. V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents the results of the analysis of statistical indicators of energy and resource consumption in oil and gas transportation by the example of one of the regions of Russia. The article analyzes engineering characteristics of compressor station drives. Official statistical bulletins on the fuel and energy resources of the region in the pipeline oil and gas transportation system were used as the initial data.

  2. Open Educational Resources and the Opportunities for Expanding Open and Distance Learning (OERS-ODL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameson Mbale

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Distance learning (DL was a teaching modality which utilized technology to deliver teaching to students who were not physically present such as in a traditional classroom setting. DL was not constrained by geographic considerations and therefore offered unique opportunities to expand educational access. The University of Namibia (UNAM and International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH partnered to examine DL at UNAM, to assess strengths and weaknesses, and to make recommendations for improvement. The primary method used in this assessment was interviews with staff at centers and units engaged in Distance Learning at UNAM. It was analyzed how interactions vary between instructor and learner, among learners, and between learners and learning resources. DL at UNAM was categorized into five approaches including: 1 Outreach, 2 Print-based, 3 Computer based, 4 Internet-based, and 5 Digital Video Conferencing (DVC. All-in-all, a strategy of “starting small” was envisaged to allow individual instructors to voluntarily use collaborative software such as Google Groups to enhance print-based instruction and progressively expand DL at UNAM.

  3. Resource consumption and management associated with monitoring of warfarin treatment in primary health care in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Gunnar H

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Warfarin is used for the prevention and treatment of various thromboembolic complications. It is an efficacious anticoagulant, but it has a narrow therapeutic range, and regular monitoring is required to ensure therapeutic efficacy and at the same time avoid life-threatening adverse events. The objective was to assess management and resource consumption associated with patient monitoring episodes during warfarin treatment in primary health care in Sweden. Methods Delphi technique was used to systematically explore attitudes, demands and priorities, and to collect informed judgements related to monitoring of warfarin treatment. Two separate Delphi-panels were performed in three and two rounds, respectively, one concerning tests taken in primary health care centres, involving 34 GPs and 10 registered nurses, and one concerning tests taken in patients' homes, involving 49 district nurses. Results In the primary health care panel 10 of the 34 GPs regularly collaborated with a registered nurse. Average time for one monitoring episode was estimated to 10.1 minutes for a GP and 21.4 minutes for a nurse, when a nurse assisted a doctor. The average time for monitoring was 17.6 minutes for a GP when not assisted by a nurse. Considering all the monitoring episodes, 11.6% of patient blood samples were taken in the individual patient's home. Average time for such a monitoring episode was estimated to 88.2 minutes. Of all the visits, 8.2% were performed in vain and took on average 44.6 minutes. In both studies, approximately 20 different elements of work concerning management of patients during warfarin treatment were identified. Conclusion Monitoring of patients during treatment with warfarin in primary health care in Sweden involves many elements of work, and demands large resources, especially when tests are taken in the patient's home.

  4. Community care workers, poor referral networks and consumption of personal resources in rural South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Sips

    Full Text Available Although home-based care (HBC programs are widely implemented throughout Africa, their success depends on the existence of an enabling environment, including a referral system and supply of essential commodities. The objective of this study was to explore the current state of client referral patterns and practices by community care workers (CCWs, in an evolving environment of one rural South African sub-district. Using a participant triangulation approach, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 CCWs, 32 HBC clients and 32 primary caregivers (PCGs. An open-ended interview guide was used for data collection. Participants were selected from comprehensive lists of CCWs and their clients, using a diversified criterion-based sampling method. Three independent researchers coded three sets of data - CCWs, Clients and PCGs, for referral patterns and practices of CCWs. Referrals from clinics and hospitals to HBC occurred infrequently, as only eight (25% of the 32 clients interviewed were formally referred. Community care workers showed high levels of commitment and personal investment in supporting their clients to use the formal health care system. They went to the extent of using their own personal resources. Seven CCWs used their own money to ensure client access to clinics, and eight gave their own food to ensure treatment adherence. Community care workers are essential in linking clients to clinics and hospitals and to promote the appropriate use of medical services, although this effort frequently necessitated consumption of their own personal resources. Therefore, risk protection strategies are urgently needed so as to ensure sustainability of the current work performed by HBC organizations and the CCW volunteers.

  5. Community care workers, poor referral networks and consumption of personal resources in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sips, Ilona; Haeri Mazanderani, Ahmad; Schneider, Helen; Greeff, Minrie; Barten, Francoise; Moshabela, Mosa

    2014-01-01

    Although home-based care (HBC) programs are widely implemented throughout Africa, their success depends on the existence of an enabling environment, including a referral system and supply of essential commodities. The objective of this study was to explore the current state of client referral patterns and practices by community care workers (CCWs), in an evolving environment of one rural South African sub-district. Using a participant triangulation approach, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 CCWs, 32 HBC clients and 32 primary caregivers (PCGs). An open-ended interview guide was used for data collection. Participants were selected from comprehensive lists of CCWs and their clients, using a diversified criterion-based sampling method. Three independent researchers coded three sets of data - CCWs, Clients and PCGs, for referral patterns and practices of CCWs. Referrals from clinics and hospitals to HBC occurred infrequently, as only eight (25%) of the 32 clients interviewed were formally referred. Community care workers showed high levels of commitment and personal investment in supporting their clients to use the formal health care system. They went to the extent of using their own personal resources. Seven CCWs used their own money to ensure client access to clinics, and eight gave their own food to ensure treatment adherence. Community care workers are essential in linking clients to clinics and hospitals and to promote the appropriate use of medical services, although this effort frequently necessitated consumption of their own personal resources. Therefore, risk protection strategies are urgently needed so as to ensure sustainability of the current work performed by HBC organizations and the CCW volunteers.

  6. Food consumption and economic growth. Increasing affluence and the use of natural resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Nonhebel, S.; Krol, Martinus S.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes relationships between food supply, consumption and income, taking supply, meat and dairy, and consumption composition (in macronutrients) as indicators, with annual per capita GDP as indicator for income. It compares food consumption patterns for 57 countries (2001) and gives

  7. Food consumption patterns and economic growth. Increasing affluence and the use of natural resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Nonhebel, S.; Krol, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes relationships between food supply, consumption and income, taking supply, meat and dairy, and consumption composition (in macronutrients) as indicators, with annual per capita GDP as indicator for income. It compares food consumption patterns for 57 countries (2001) and gives

  8. Physicians' Patient Load per DRG, the Consumption of Hospital Resources, and the Incentives of the DRG Prospective Payment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Eric; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between numbers (high or low) of patients per diagnosis-related group (DRG) treated by individual physicians and hospital resource consumption of the patients at a large academic medical center was studied for the period 1985-87. The findings, although a result of many varied factors, suggest a relationship between the two…

  9. A model proposal concerning balance scorecard application integrated with resource consumption accounting in enterprise performance management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORHAN ELMACI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study intended to investigate the “Balance Scorecard (BSC model integrated with Resource Consumption Accounting (RCA” which helps to evaluate the enterprise as matrix structure in its all parts. It aims to measure how much tangible and intangible values (assets of enterprises contribute to the enterprises. In other words, it measures how effectively, actively, and efficiently these values (assets are used. In short, it aims to measure sustainable competency of enterprises. As expressing the effect of tangible and intangible values (assets of the enterprise on the performance in mathematical and statistical methods is insufficient, it is targeted that RCA Method integrated with BSC model is based on matrix structure and control models. The effects of all complex factors in the enterprise on the performance (productivity and efficiency estimated algorithmically with cause and effect diagram. The contributions of matrix structures for reaching the management functional targets of the enterprises that operate in market competitive environment increasing day to day, is discussed. So in the context of modern management theories, as a contribution to BSC approach which is in the foreground in today’s administrative science of enterprises in matrix organizational structures, multidimensional performance evaluation model -RCA integrated with BSC Model proposal- is presented as strategic planning and strategic evaluation instrument.

  10. Analyzing Growth Opportunity of Port from the Resource-based Perspective The Case of Port of Tanjung Pelepas Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Subhan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Capturing growth opportunity has become a major integral activity of any port to sustain growth and competitive advantage. One of the famous strategies in leveraging sustainable growth and competitive advantage is the resource-based theory application into port strategic management, viewing resources of the port (internal and external and its capabilities as the sources for achieving competitive advantage. In this study, we attempt to identify, exploit, and analyze growth opportunity of a Malaysian port from the perspective of the theory. We analyze the port’s resources in terms of values, uniqueness, inimitability, durability, and substitutability. The result is then compared with its rival ports in the region. This study recognizes that the port has successfully identified and exploited its resources for capturing growth opportunity and competing with other ports in the region. We perceive that the port will sustain its growth and competitive advantage as a major port in the region based on its current performance and rivalry circumstances. This study signifies that the higher the level to which resource-based theory of competitive advantage is applied, the higher and longer the growth and competitive advantage will be achieved by the port.

  11. Opportunities and constraints for improved water resources management using different lenses and scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Simon

    2017-04-01

    The quest for water security has been a struggle throughout human history. Only in recent years has the scale of this quest moved beyond the local, to the national and regional scales and to the planet itself. Absent or unreliable water supply, sanitation and irrigation services, unmitigated floods and droughts, and degraded water environments severely impact half of the planet's population. Over the past few years, water insecurity has become recognized in the World Economic Forum global risk studies as one of the greatest threats that business leaders themselves see that they face in the future, both in terms of likelihood and scale. The scale and complexity of the water challenges faced by society, particularly but not only in the world's poorest regions, are now recognized, as is the imperative of overcoming these challenges for a stable and equitable world. How can we ensure the well-being of all people and ecosystems with the water, human, technological, and financial resources available? In the framework of the Sustainable Development Goals water has to be managed more effectively and wisely by unlocking scientific, managerial, and business capabilities; breaking out of technological lock-in; and innovative and adaptive portfolios of solutions have to be developed while removing barriers to progress on sound water governance. IIASA's Water Futures and Solutions Initiative (WFAS) is an unprecedented inter-disciplinary scientific initiative to identify robust and adaptive portfolios of optional solutions across different economic sectors, including agriculture, energy and industry, and to test these solution-portfolios with multi-model ensembles of hydrologic and sector models to obtain a clearer picture of the trade-offs, risks, and opportunities. The results of WFaS scenarios and models will provide a basis for long-term strategic planning of water resource development. And given the complexity of the water system, WFaS will uniquely provide policy makers

  12. Natural gas cost for evaluating energy resource opportunities at Fort Stewart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stucky, D.J.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Ft. Stewart, a United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) installation located near Hinesville, Georgia, is currently undergoing an evaluation of its energy usage, which is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. In order to examine the energy resource opportunities (EROs) at Ft. Stewart, marginal fuel costs must be calculated. The marginal, or avoided, cost of gas service is used in conjunction with the estimated energy savings of an ERO to calculate the dollar value of those savings. In the case of natural gas, the costing becomes more complicated due to the installation of a propane-air mixing station. The propane-air station is being built under a shared energy savings (SES) contract. The building of a propane-air station allows Ft. Stewart to purchase natural gas from their local utility at an interruptible rate, which is lower than the rate for contracting natural gas on a firm basis. The propane-air station will also provide Ft. Stewart with fuel in the event that the natural gas supply is curtailed. While the propane-air station does not affect the actual cost of natural gas, it does affect the cost of services provided by gas. Because the propane-air station and the SES contract affect the cost of gas service, they must be included in the analysis. Our analysis indicates a marginal cost of gas service of 30.0 cents per therm, assuming a total propane usage by the mixing station of 42,278 gallons (38,600 therms) annually. Because the amount of propane that may be required in the event of a curtailment is small relative to the total service requirement, variations in the actual amount should not significantly affect the cost per therm.

  13. Natural gas cost for evaluating energy resource opportunities at Fort Stewart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucky, D.J.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Ft. Stewart, a United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) installation located near Hinesville, Georgia, is currently undergoing an evaluation of its energy usage, which is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. In order to examine the energy resource opportunities (EROs) at Ft. Stewart, marginal fuel costs must be calculated. The marginal, or avoided, cost of gas service is used in conjunction with the estimated energy savings of an ERO to calculate the dollar value of those savings. In the case of natural gas, the costing becomes more complicated due to the installation of a propane-air mixing station. The propane-air station is being built under a shared energy savings (SES) contract. The building of a propane-air station allows Ft. Stewart to purchase natural gas from their local utility at an interruptible rate, which is lower than the rate for contracting natural gas on a firm basis. The propane-air station will also provide Ft. Stewart with fuel in the event that the natural gas supply is curtailed. While the propane-air station does not affect the actual cost of natural gas, it does affect the cost of services provided by gas. Because the propane-air station and the SES contract affect the cost of gas service, they must be included in the analysis. Our analysis indicates a marginal cost of gas service of 30.0 cents per therm, assuming a total propane usage by the mixing station of 42,278 gallons (38,600 therms) annually. Because the amount of propane that may be required in the event of a curtailment is small relative to the total service requirement, variations in the actual amount should not significantly affect the cost per therm

  14. Teaching and Assessing Professionalism in Radiology: Resources and Scholarly Opportunities to Contribute to Required Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Aine Marie; Mullan, Patricia B

    2018-05-01

    Teaching and assessing trainees' professionalism now represents an explicit expectation for Accreditation Council Graduate Medical Education-accredited radiology programs. Challenges to meeting this expectation include variability in defining the construct of professionalism; limits of traditional teaching and assessment methods, used for competencies historically more prominent in medical education, for professionalism; and emerging expectations for credible and feasible professionalism teaching and assessment practices in the current context of health-care training and practice. This article identifies promising teaching resources and methods that can be used strategically to augment traditional teaching of the cognitive basis for professionalism, including role modeling, case-based scenarios, debriefing, simulations, narrative medicine (storytelling), guided discussions, peer-assisted learning, and reflective practice. This article also summarizes assessment practices intended to promote learning, as well as to inform how and when to assess trainees as their professional identities develop over time, settings, and autonomous practice, particularly in terms of measurable behaviors. This includes assessment tools (including mini observations, critical incident reports, and appreciative inquiry) for authentic assessment in the workplace; engaging multiple sources (self-, peer, other health professionals, and patients) in assessment; and intentional practices for trainees to take responsibility for seeking our actionable feedback and reflection. This article examines the emerging evidence of the feasibility and value added of assessment of medical competency milestones, including professionalism, coordinated by the Accreditation Council Graduate Medical Education in radiology and other medical specialties. Radiology has a strategic opportunity to contribute to scholarship and inform policies in professionalism teaching and assessment practices. Copyright © 2018 The

  15. Household level domestic fuel consumption and forest resource in relation to agroforestry adoption: Evidence against need-based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sood, Kamal Kishor [Division of Agroforestry, Shere-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu Main Campus-Chatha, Jammu (J and K) 180 009 (India); Mitchell, C. Paul [Institute of Energy Technologies, Fraser Noble Building, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    The need-based approach (assuming that higher consumption of tree products would motivate farmers to adopt agroforestry) has led to uneven success, in many cases failure, of many agroforestry projects. Current study investigated the association between fuelwood and forest resource use, and agroforestry adoption based on a survey of 401 households in the Indian Western Himalaya. Data on household domestic fuel utilisation and forest resource use were collected using a questionnaire in personal interviews. Agroforestry adoption increased significantly with increase in distance of nearest State forest from the house, distance travelled to collect fuelwood, and consumption of cattle dung, crop residues, charcoal, kerosene and liquid petroleum gas as domestic fuels by the household. Agroforestry adoption was also significantly higher in households with non-forest than those with State forests as primary source of fuelwood and timber. The proportion of adopters decreased significantly with increase in quantity of fuelwood used for domestic consumption, frequency of collection from State forests, total domestic energy consumption, fuelwood dependency, timber consumption and availability of timber through rights of households on State forests. Logistic regression analysis revealed that none of the factors related to need (quantity of fuelwood and timber used) appeared in the model but primary source of fuelwood, distance travelled to collect fuelwood and availability of timber through rights on the State forests appeared as important factors. This implies that need of the tree products is not a necessary condition to motivate farmers to adopt agroforestry, rather, it is accessibility of tree products which influence agroforestry adoption. (author)

  16. Experiential Education Employment Opportunities in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria: Options and Informational Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, William

    1995-01-01

    Discusses educational employment (EE) opportunities for students in German-speaking countries, and the implementation of EE programs by American colleges and universities. Also lists internship and EE opportunities administered by colleges, universities, and other organizations in the United States, Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. (six…

  17. Eating on impulse: Implicit attitudes, self-regulatory resources, and trait self-control as determinants of food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Lei; Cui, Xianghua; Fang, Yuan; Chen, Qianqiu; Wang, Ya; Qiang, Yao

    2015-12-01

    Self-regulatory resources and trait self-control have been found to moderate the impulse-behavior relationship. The current study investigated whether the interaction of self-regulatory resources and trait self-control moderates the association between implicit attitudes and food consumption. One hundred twenty female participants were randomly assigned to either a depletion condition in which their self-regulatory resources were reduced or a no-depletion condition. Participants' implicit attitudes for chocolate were measured with the Single Category Implicit Association Test and self-report measures of trait self-control were collected. The dependent variable was chocolate consumption in an ostensible taste and rate task. Implicit attitudes predicted chocolate consumption in depleted participants but not in non-depleted participants. However, this predictive power of implicit attitudes on eating in depleted condition disappeared in participants with high trait self-control. Thus, trait self-control and self-regulatory resources interact to moderate the prediction of implicit attitude on eating behavior. Results suggest that high trait self-control buffers the effect of self-regulatory depletion on impulsive eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of gari consumption on the water resource of Nigeria | Adeoti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    household level (blue water use), while water pollution impacts during processing and consumption (at households) are neglected. Using the 2007 cassava production estimates for Nigeria as baseline, the water impact related to the consumption of gari either as snack or as “eba” (gari reconstituted with hot water to form a ...

  19. Identifying Opportunities for Decision Support Systems in Support of Regional Resource Use Planning: An Approach Through Soft Systems Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu; Dale

    2000-10-01

    / Regional resource use planning relies on key regional stakeholder groups using and having equitable access to appropriate social, economic, and environmental information and assessment tools. Decision support systems (DSS) can improve stakeholder access to such information and analysis tools. Regional resource use planning, however, is a complex process involving multiple issues, multiple assessment criteria, multiple stakeholders, and multiple values. There is a need for an approach to DSS development that can assist in understanding and modeling complex problem situations in regional resource use so that areas where DSSs could provide effective support can be identified, and the user requirements can be well established. This paper presents an approach based on the soft systems methodology for identifying DSS opportunities for regional resource use planning, taking the Central Highlands Region of Queensland, Australia, as a case study.

  20. Job resources and emotional exhaustion: The mediating role of learning opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruysseveldt, J. van; Verboon, P.; Smulders, P.G.W.

    2011-01-01

    The Job Demands-Resources model predicts that job demands increase and job resources decrease emotional exhaustion in employees. In this study, we investigated one possible mechanism for this, in order to provide a deeper insight into the role of job resources in this energy-depletion process. We

  1. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Corrie E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Harto, Christopher B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schroeder, Jenna N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Martino, Louis E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Horner, Robert M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-08-01

    minimizing fresh water consumption throughout the life cycle of geothermal power development. The large resource base for EGSs represents a major opportunity for the geothermal industry; however, depending upon geology, these systems can require large quantities of makeup water due to belowground reservoir losses. Identifying potential sources of compatible degraded or low-quality water for use for makeup injection for EGS and flash systems represents an important opportunity to reduce the impacts of geothermal development on fresh water resources. The importance of identifying alternative water sources for geothermal systems is heightened by the fact that a large fraction of the geothermal resource is located in areas already experiencing water stress. Chapter 7 is a glossary of the technical terms used in the report, and Chapters 8 and 9 provide references and a bibliography, respectively.

  2. Mapping Water Resources, Allocation and Consumption in the Mills River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, J.; Jeuland, M. A.; Barros, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    Mountain basins and the headwaters of river basins along the foothills of major mountain ranges are undergoing rapid environmental change due to urban development, land acquisition by investors, population increase, and climate change. Classical water infrastructure in these regions is primarily designed to meet human water demand associated with agriculture, tourism, and economic development. Often overlooked and ignored is the fundamental interdependence of human water demand, ecosystem water demand, water rights and allocation, and water supply. A truly sustainable system for water resources takes into account ecosystem demand along with human infrastructure and economic demand, as well as the feedbacks that exist between them. Allocation policies need to take into account basin resilience that is the amount of stress the system can handle under varying future scenarios. Changes in stress on the system can be anthropogenic in the form of population increase, land use change, economic development, or may be natural in the form of climate change and decrease in water supply due to changes in precipitation. Mapping the water rights, supply, and demands within the basin can help determine the resiliency and sustainability of the basin. Here, we present a coupled natural human system project based in the French Broad River Basin, in the Southern Appalachians. In the first phase of the project, we are developing and implementing a coupled hydro-economics modeling framework in the Mills River Basin (MRB), a tributary of the French Broad. The Mills River Basin was selected as the core basin for implementing a sustainable system of water allocation that is adaptive and reflects the interdependence of water dependent sectors. The headwaters of the Mills River are in the foothills of the Appalachians, and are currently under substantial land use land cover (LULC) change pressure for agricultural purposes. In this regard, the MRB is representative of similar headwater

  3. International Trade Drives Global Resource Use: A Structural Decomposition Analysis of Raw Material Consumption from 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Barbara; Eisenmenger, Nina; Schaffartzik, Anke; Wiedenhofer, Dominik

    2018-04-03

    Globalization led to an immense increase of international trade and the emergence of complex global value chains. At the same time, global resource use and pressures on the environment are increasing steadily. With these two processes in parallel, the question arises whether trade contributes positively to resource efficiency, or to the contrary is further driving resource use? In this article, the socioeconomic driving forces of increasing global raw material consumption (RMC) are investigated to assess the role of changing trade relations, extended supply chains and increasing consumption. We apply a structural decomposition analysis of changes in RMC from 1990 to 2010, utilizing the Eora multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model. We find that changes in international trade patterns significantly contributed to an increase of global RMC. Wealthy developed countries play a major role in driving global RMC growth through changes in their trade structures, as they shifted production processes increasingly to less material-efficient input suppliers. Even the dramatic increase in material consumption in the emerging economies has not diminished the role of industrialized countries as drivers of global RMC growth.

  4. Executive control resources and frequency of fatty food consumption: findings from an age-stratified community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter A

    2012-03-01

    Fatty foods are regarded as highly appetitive, and self-control is often required to resist consumption. Executive control resources (ECRs) are potentially facilitative of self-control efforts, and therefore could predict success in the domain of dietary self-restraint. It is not currently known whether stronger ECRs facilitate resistance to fatty food consumption, and moreover, it is unknown whether such an effect would be stronger in some age groups than others. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between ECRs and consumption of fatty foods among healthy community-dwelling adults across the adult life span. An age-stratified sample of individuals between 18 and 89 years of age attended two laboratory sessions. During the first session they completed two computer-administered tests of ECRs (Stroop and Go-NoGo) and a test of general cognitive function (Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence); participants completed two consecutive 1-week recall measures to assess frequency of fatty and nonfatty food consumption. Regression analyses revealed that stronger ECRs were associated with lower frequency of fatty food consumption over the 2-week interval. This association was observed for both measures of ECR and a composite measure. The effect remained significant after adjustment for demographic variables (age, gender, socioeconomic status), general cognitive function, and body mass index. The observed effect of ECRs on fatty food consumption frequency was invariant across age group, and did not generalize to nonfatty food consumption. ECRs may be potentially important, though understudied, determinants of dietary behavior in adults across the life span.

  5. EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN THE RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PROCESS OF HUMAN RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Stoilkovska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine the problem of the concept of equal employment opportunities in the HR recruitment and selection process. Due to the fact that in these processes, both the HR managers and the applicants are involved, this research is conducted separately among them. Thus, it will be determined if both sides share the same opinion with respect to the existence of this concept in the mentioned processes. Providing equal employment opportunities is crucial for any company and represents a key for selecting the real employees. Therefore, the research includes the existence of prejudices in the recruitment and selection process such as discrimination based on national and social origin, gender and sexual orientation, age, political affiliation etc. As an essential part of this concept, the legislation in the Republic of Macedonia and its impact in the process of generating equal opportunities will be considered.

  6. Advancing Resource Efficiency in the Supply Chain - Observations and Opportunities for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides U.S. EPA’s perspectives on the discussions at the G7 Alliance on Resource Efficiency U.S.-hosted Workshop on the Use of Life Cycle Concepts in Supply Chain Management to Achieve Resource Efficiency that was held March 22-23, 2016.

  7. Leadership Learning Opportunities in Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources Education: The Role of The Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Aaron J.; Pauley, C. M.; Velez, Jonathan J.; Sorensen, Tyson J.

    2017-01-01

    Learning environments combining agriculture, food, natural resources, and leadership knowledge and skills are increasingly essential in preparing students for future success. School-based agricultural education offers a premier context in which to teach leadership within agriculture, food, and natural resources curriculum. However, providing…

  8. Cost-resources trade-off analysis for long-range efficient plutonium consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Osamu; Nakano, Yasuyuki; Yasukawa, Shigeru

    1988-01-01

    JALTES-III, an analysis model using an optimization technique, is applied to the determination of major requirements for plutonium to serve as fuel for FRR on a paying basis and estimation of the possible reduction in natural uranium consumption. The analysis covers the period from 1970 to 2100. Optimization of the nuclear fuel cycle system is studied by using the following objective functions: overall system cost (COST), natural uranium consumption (NU) and trade-off function (COST + α·NU, where α is the premium related with the price of natural uranium). Assuming that there will be no escalation of the prices of system elements, competitive conditions for FBR are analyzed based on the effective price of natural uranium in relation with the above-mentioned premium: Po + (1 + D) t ·α, where Po is the basic price and D the discount rate. To minimize the term COST, FBR cannot be introduced and the natural uranium consumption will be 2,180,000 tons. To minimize NU, FBR should be introduced to the possible greatest degree, with the estimated natural uranium consumption being 900,000 tons. Analysis is also made of the relations of the introduction of FBRs with the effective price and total consumption of natural uranium. (Nogami, K.)

  9. Sustainability in health care by allocating resources effectively (SHARE) 4: exploring opportunities and methods for consumer engagement in resource allocation in a local healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Claire; Ko, Henry; Waller, Cara; Sloss, Pamela; Williams, Pamela

    2017-05-05

    This is the fourth in a series of papers reporting a program of Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) in a local healthcare setting. Healthcare decision-makers have sought to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of services through removal or restriction of practices that are unsafe or of little benefit, often referred to as 'disinvestment'. A systematic, integrated, evidence-based program for disinvestment was being established within a large Australian health service network. Consumer engagement was acknowledged as integral to this process. This paper reports the process of developing a model to integrate consumer views and preferences into an organisation-wide approach to resource allocation. A literature search was conducted and interviews and workshops were undertaken with health service consumers and staff. Findings were drafted into a model for consumer engagement in resource allocation which was workshopped and refined. Although consumer engagement is increasingly becoming a requirement of publicly-funded health services and documented in standards and policies, participation in organisational decision-making is not widespread. Several consistent messages for consumer engagement in this context emerged from the literature and consumer responses. Opportunities, settings and activities for consumer engagement through communication, consultation and participation were identified within the resource allocation process. Sources of information regarding consumer values and perspectives in publications and locally-collected data, and methods to use them in health service decision-making, were identified. A model bringing these elements together was developed. The proposed model presents potential opportunities and activities for consumer engagement in the context of resource allocation.

  10. Consumers, food and convenience: The long way from resource constraints to actual consumption patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2005-01-01

    that the influence of resource constraints on actual convenience behaviours is doubly mediated, first by perceptions of resource constraints, and then by convenience orientations. In Study 1, the model is calibrated based on a sample of 1000 French respondents with main responsibility for food shopping and meal...

  11. Rural wood consumption patterns of local and immigrant households with differentiated access to resources in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, Charlotte Filt; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Schmidt-Vogt, Dietrich; He, Jun; Neergaard, Andreas de

    2015-01-01

    In Xishuangbanna, China, rubber production has spread rapidly, resulting in extensive land use changes and an increasing influx of migrant workers who have come to find work on the plantations. These migrant workers have limited access to subsidies and the local collective forest due to the household registration system in China called hukou. To assess how these policy-based restrictions on access affect wood consumption and local communities, a case study was conducted in Manlin village, Xishuangbanna, undertaking a household and weight survey with local and immigrant households. The results show no significant difference in firewood consumption between the subpopulations, despite predominantly more local than immigrant households have access to subsidised alternative energy sources. On the other hand, limited access to the collective forest is found to influence the choice of housing materials and living standards in immigrant households as they cannot access timber or afford brick houses. This paper highlights rural issues connected to the hukou system and suggests that rural energy and resource policies should take the growing population of immigrant workers into consideration in future to expand the reach of the polices to the de facto and not only de jure rural population and thus optimise policy efficiency. - Highlights: • The hukou system directly affects rural wood access and consumption. • Immigrant households have little or no access to timber. • Registration status does not have a significant effect on firewood consumption. • Excluding immigrant households will limit policy outreach and efficiency

  12. Sustainability of national consumption from a water resources perspective: The case study for France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercin, Ertug; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2013-01-01

    It has become increasingly evident that local water depletion and pollution are often closely tied to the structure of the global economy. It has been estimated that 20% of the water consumption and pollution in the world relates to the production of export goods. This study analyzes how French

  13. Resource Recovery from Wastewater by Biological Technologies: Opportunities, Challenges, and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puyol, Daniel; Batstone, Damien J.; Hülsen, Tim; Astals, Sergi; Peces, Miriam; Krömer, Jens O.

    2017-01-01

    Limits in resource availability are driving a change in current societal production systems, changing the focus from residues treatment, such as wastewater treatment, toward resource recovery. Biotechnological processes offer an economic and versatile way to concentrate and transform resources from waste/wastewater into valuable products, which is a prerequisite for the technological development of a cradle-to-cradle bio-based economy. This review identifies emerging technologies that enable resource recovery across the wastewater treatment cycle. As such, bioenergy in the form of biohydrogen (by photo and dark fermentation processes) and biogas (during anaerobic digestion processes) have been classic targets, whereby, direct transformation of lipidic biomass into biodiesel also gained attention. This concept is similar to previous biofuel concepts, but more sustainable, as third generation biofuels and other resources can be produced from waste biomass. The production of high value biopolymers (e.g., for bioplastics manufacturing) from organic acids, hydrogen, and methane is another option for carbon recovery. The recovery of carbon and nutrients can be achieved by organic fertilizer production, or single cell protein generation (depending on the source) which may be utilized as feed, feed additives, next generation fertilizers, or even as probiotics. Additionlly, chemical oxidation-reduction and bioelectrochemical systems can recover inorganics or synthesize organic products beyond the natural microbial metabolism. Anticipating the next generation of wastewater treatment plants driven by biological recovery technologies, this review is focused on the generation and re-synthesis of energetic resources and key resources to be recycled as raw materials in a cradle-to-cradle economy concept. PMID:28111567

  14. The rapid growth of domestic oil consumption in Saudi Arabia and the opportunity cost of oil exports foregone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gately, Dermot; Al-Yousef, Nourah; Al-Sheikh, Hamad M.H.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the rapid growth of Saudi Arabia's domestic oil consumption, a nine-fold increase in 40 years, to nearly 3 million barrels per day, about one-fourth of production. Such rapid growth in consumption – 5.7% annually, which is 37% faster than its income growth of 4.2% – will challenge Saudi Arabia's ability to increase its oil exports, which are relied upon in long-term world oil projections by the International Energy Agency (IEA), US Department of Energy (DOE) and British Petroleum (BP). However, these institutions assume unprecedented slowdowns in Saudi oil consumption – from 5.7% annual growth historically to less than 2% in the future – allowing them to project increases in Saudi oil exports. Using 1971–2010 data, we estimate that the income responsiveness (elasticity) of oil consumption is at least 1.5—using both Ordinary Least Squares regression and Cointegration methods. We believe that continued high growth rates for domestic oil consumption are more likely than the dramatic slowdowns projected by IEA, DOE and BP. This will have major implications for Saudi production and export levels. - Highlights: ► We analyze the rapid growth of Saudi Arabia's domestic oil consumption, now one-fourth of production. ► Estimated income elasticity of oil demand at least 1.5, using OLS and Co-integration. ► Yet IEA, DOE and BP project unprecedented slowdowns, from 5.7% historically to below 2%, half the rate of income growth. ► Continued high growth rates are more likely, with major implications for Saudi production and export levels.

  15. Resource consumption and environmental impacts of the agrofood sector: life cycle assessment of italian citrus-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccali, Marco; Cellura, Maurizio; Iudicello, Maria; Mistretta, Marina

    2009-04-01

    Food production and consumption cause significant environmental burdens during the product life cycles. As a result of intensive development and the changing social attitudes and behaviors in the last century, the agrofood sector is the highest resource consumer after housing in the EU. This paper is part of an effort to estimate environmental impacts associated with life cycles of the agrofood chain, such as primary energy consumption, water exploitation, and global warming. Life cycle assessment is used to investigate the production of the following citrus-based products in Italy: essential oil, natural juice, and concentrated juice from oranges and lemons. The related process flowcharts, the relevant mass and energy flows, and the key environmental issues are identified for each product. This paper represents one of the first studies on the environmental impacts from cradle to gate for citrus products in order to suggest feasible strategies and actions to improve their environmental performance.

  16. Generating opportunity : human resources needs in the bioenergy, biofuels and industrial biotechnology subsectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Canada has a plentiful resource base and a long history of innovation in bioenergy, biofuels and industrial biotechnology. Success of the industry depends on having the required human resources capacity such as the right number of skilled, job-ready professionals to support companies as they develop and commercialize new solutions. This document presented the results of a human resources survey conducted by BioTalent regarding the national and global bioenergy, biofuels and industrial biotechnology subsectors. It addressed a variety of issues, such as the increasing demand for bioenergy; the near-term perspective; growth factors; and the role of public policy. A subsector snapshot of human resources was also presented, with particular reference to the principal areas of need; types of roles required in the bio-economy; human resources capacity and company size; regional variances; skills gaps; reliance on outsourcing; knowledge, learning and connectedness; recruitment, retention and turnover; and the road ahead. Conclusions and recommendations were also offered. It was concluded that once the economy recovers, demand for bioenergy, biofuels and industrial products and services is expected to increase. 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  17. Ecological Footprint of Biological Resource Consumption in a Typical Area of the Green for Grain Project in Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the implementation of the Green for Grain Project in 2000 in Guyuan, China, the decrease in cultivated land and subsequent increase in forest and grassland pose substantial challenges for the supply of biological products. Whether the current biologically productive land-use patterns in Guyuan satisfy the biological product requirements for local people is an urgent problem. In this study, the ecological footprints of biological resource consumption in Guyuan were calculated and analyzed based on the ‘City Hectare’ Ecological Footprint (EF Method. The EFs of different types of biological resource products consumed from different types of biologically productive land were then analyzed. In addition, the EFs of various biological resource products before and after the implementation of the Green for Grain Project (1998 and 2012 were assessed. The actual EF and bio-capacity (BC were compared, and differences in the EF and BC for different types of biologically productive lands before and after the project were analyzed. The results showed that the EF of Guyuan’s biological resource products was 0.65866 ha/cap, with an EF outflow and EF inflow of 0.2280 ha/cap and 0.0951 ha/cap, respectively. The per capita EF of Guyuan significantly decreased after the project, as did the ecological deficit. Whereas the cultivated land showed a deficit, grasslands were characterized by ecological surplus. The total EF of living resource consumption in Guyuan was 810,941 ha, and the total BC was 768,065 ha. In additional to current biological production areas, approximately 42,876 ha will be needed to satisfy the demands of Guyuan’s people. Cultivated land is the main type of biologically productive land that is needed.

  18. Oil sands geologists in an industry-school partnership : a resource and teaching opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, J.S.; Doram, T.

    1999-01-01

    The province of Alberta has developed a credit course within their Career and Technology Studies Program on the earth science of oil sands for senior high school science students. The course helps students learn to apply basic sciences to earth science through workplace site visits, resource material and team work. This paper described the increasing demand for, and success of, industry-high school partnerships, and provided special emphasis on the Bowness Senior High School-Imperial Oil partnership in Calgary, Alberta. Imperial Oil Resources is a major producer of oil sands and an employer of earth scientists in a variety of careers in which a wide range of technologies is applied. Students enrolled in the credit study program visit the Imperial Oil Resources Research Centre on five different occasions to gain skills and qualities sought by the workplace including communication, adaptability, team work, and science literacy and its application. 9 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  19. Modelling resource consumption for laundry and dish treatment in individual households for various consumer segments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamminger, R. [Institute for Agricultural Engineering, Household and Appliance Technology Section, University of Bonn, Nussallee 5, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Recent research allocates up to 80% of environmental impact in energy and CO2 terms to direct and indirect consumer activities. Various models discussed how this impact can be assigned to specific lifestyles, production and consumption systems, and psychological motives in order to be able to predict and influence these effects. In this work, another approach is followed by showing on the example of laundry and dish washing how well-known factors of the technical status, consumer practices and demographic data allow building up a model to predict the energy and water consumption for these processes. The results show a variation of a factor of 5 between a more sustainable and a more careless behaviour and allow thus to identify levers to influence it. As results can also be easily transformed into monetary values, this may allow influencing the consumer via this channel as he/she can easily understand what may need to be changed.

  20. Exploring the opportunities for food and drink purchasing and consumption by teenagers during their journeys between home and school: a feasibility study using a novel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowburn, Gill; Matthews, Anne; Doherty, Aiden; Hamilton, Alex; Kelly, Paul; Williams, Julianne; Foster, Charlie; Nelson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility and acceptability of using wearable cameras as a method to capture the opportunities for food and drink purchasing/consumption that young people encounter on their regular journeys to and from school. A qualitative study using multiple data-collection methods including wearable cameras, global positioning system units, individual interviews, food and drink purchase and consumption diaries completed by participants over four days, and an audit of food outlets located within an 800 m Euclidean buffer zone around each school. A community setting. Twenty-two students (fourteen girls and eight boys) aged 13-15 years recruited from four secondary schools in two counties of England. Wearable cameras offered a feasible and acceptable method for collecting food purchase and consumption data when used alongside traditional methods of data collection in a small number of teenagers. We found evidence of participants making deliberate choices about whether or not to purchase/consume food and drink on their journeys. These choices were influenced by priorities over money, friends, journey length, travel mode and ease of access to opportunities for purchase/consumption. Most food and drink items were purchased/consumed within an 800 m Euclidean buffer around school, with items commonly selected being high in energy, fat and sugar. Wearable camera images combined with interviews helped identify unreported items and misreporting errors. Wearable camera images prompt detailed discussion and generate contextually specific information which could offer new insights and understanding around eating behaviour patterns. The feasibility of scaling up the use of these methods requires further empirical work.

  1. Integrating science and policy in natural resource management: lessons and opportunities from North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger N. Clark; Errol E. Meidinger

    1998-01-01

    Relations between science and policy concerning many issues (e.g., health, energy, natural resources) have been changing worldwide. Public pressure to resolve such complex and often controversial issues has resulted in policymakers and policy implementers seeking better knowledge on which to base their decisions. As a result, scientists have become more actively...

  2. US Department of Energy Integrated Resource Planning Program: Accomplishments and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Mihlmester, P.E. [Aspen Systems Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1993-12-17

    The US Department of Energy Integrated Resource Planning Program supports many activities and projects that enhance the process by which utilities assess demand and supply options and, subsequently, evaluate and select resources. The US Department of Energy program coordinates integrated resource planning in risk and regulatory analysis; utility and regional planning; evaluation and verification; information transfer/technological assistance; and demand-side management. Professional staff from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratories collaborate with peers and stakeholders, in particular, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, and conduct research and activities for the US Department of Energy. Twelve integrated resource planning activities and projects are summarized in this report. The summaries reflect the diversity of planning and research activities supported by the Department. The summaries also reflect the high levels of collaboration and teaming that are required by the Program and practiced by the researchers. It is concluded that the Program is achieving its objectives by encouraging innovation and improving planning and decision making. Furthermore, as the Department continues to implement planned improvements in the Program, the Department is effectively positioned to attain its ambitious goals.

  3. 77 FR 58181 - Power Resources, Inc., Smith Ranch Highland Uranium Project; License Renewal Request, Opportunity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 04008964, NRC-2012-0214] Power Resources, Inc., Smith... available in ADAMS) is provided the first time that a document is referenced. The Smith Ranch Highland... (Smith Ranch Technical Report); Accession No. ML12234A539 (Smith Ranch Environmental Report). In addition...

  4. Implementing Mobile Phone Solutions for Health in Resource Constrained Areas: Understanding the Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Tiwonge Davis; Herstad, Jo

    This paper presents results from a study on mobile phone use to connect two rural hospitals in Malawi with community health workers (CHWs), the hospitals work with. Mobile phone use at the hospitals has helped reduce the need for face-to-face communication to permit patient information exchange, meetings and appointments scheduling, as well as work coordination. On the other hand mobile phone use has proved paradoxical as it has introduced users to challenges, like recharging of phone batteries, they did not anticipate. The paper highlights use context-centric and solution based opportunities and challenges associated with mobile phone use in rural settings.

  5. Job Opportunities, Economic Resources, and the Postsecondary Destinations of American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOZICK, ROBERT

    2009-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of graduates from the high school class of 2003–2004, I test the warehouse hypothesis, which contends that youth are more likely to leave school and enter the labor force when there are available job opportunities (and vice versa). Using two measures of job opportunities—local unemployment rates and the percentage of local workers employed in jobs that require a bachelor’s degree—I find support for the warehouse hypothesis. In areas where unemployment is low, with ample jobs that do not require a bachelor’s degree, youth have higher odds of entering the labor force. In areas where unemployment is high, with few jobs that require only a high school diploma, youth have higher odds of entering college. The effect of unemployment on enrollment is more pronounced for low-income youth than for high-income youth, with both low- and high-income youth turning to four-year schools rather than two-year schools when job opportunities are limited. PMID:19771941

  6. OPPORTUNITIES OF LOCAL DEVELOPMENT USING NATURAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC RESOURCES IN TOURISM ACTIVITIES. CASE STUDY: ULMENI, MARAMUREŞ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mihaela MOJOLIC

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ulmeni locality, that became town less than a decade ago, still shows, to a high degree, the general aspects of a rural locality, where agriculture is the main economic component. As capital city of the administrative-territorial division with the same name, Ulmeni town directs the activities of the entire territory. Possessing natural resources marked by the presence of Somes River and the existence of well-wooded areas, as well as anthropogenic resources embodied in values of the national heritage: museums, monuments, religious structures, folk activities, there is the possibility of providing the impulse of local development by means of tourism activities and the awareness of the need to revitalize the entire community.

  7. Towards integrated water resources management in Colombia: challenges and opportunities for spatial environmental planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Sergio; Hernández, Sebastián

    2015-04-01

    Only until 2010 was enacted the first national policy related to the integrated management of water resources in Colombia. In 2011 was established the Directorate for Integrated Water Resources Management within the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development. Between 2010 to 2013 were adopted the regulatory instruments to be developed within the hierarchical structure for spatial environmental planning around the water resources, considering both a transdisciplinary framework and a multi-ethnic and multi-participatory approach. In this context, there is a breakthrough in the development of strategic and tactic actions summarized as follows: i) technical guidelines or projects were developed for the spatial environmental planning at the macroscale river basins (i.e. Magdalena-Cauca river basin with 2.3 million hectares), meso-scale (river basins from 50.000 to 2 million hectares and aquifers) and local scale (catchments areas less than 50.000 hectares); ii) there is an advance in the knowledge of key hydrological processes in the basins of the country as well as actions to restore and preserve ecosystems essential for the regulation of water supply and ecosystem services; iii) demand characterization introducing regional talks with socio-economic stakeholders and promoting water efficiency actions; iv) water use regulation as a way for decontamination and achieving quality standards for prospective uses; v) introduction of risks analysis associated with water resources in the spatial environmental planning and establishment of mitigation and adaptation measures; vi) strengthening the monitoring network of water quality and hydrometeorological variables; vii) strengthening interactions with national and international research as well as the implementation of a national information system of water resources; viii) steps towards water governance with the introduction of socio-economic stakeholder in the spatial environmental planning and implementation of

  8. Contributing towards the betterment of translational epilepsy research in Africa: needs, challenges, resources, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldeamanuel, Yohannes W; Girma, Belaineh

    2014-08-01

    Epilepsy affects approximately 50 million people worldwide. Among them, at least 40 million people are currently living in the developing world, where resources and standards of care are suboptimal. Around 90 % of people with epilepsy in resource-poor countries do not currently receive appropriate treatments, at a time when two thirds of these patients could have achieved good control of their epileptic seizures had they had access to appropriate therapies. Scarcity of epilepsy specialists, poor availability or access to diagnostic facilities and treatments, poor community knowledge about epilepsy-related issues, stigma, and other societal and cultural barriers are only some of the issues contributing to this deficiency. These issues in epilepsy treatment have been well recognized, and ongoing concerted efforts to address them have been undertaken by both local authorities and international organizations. In many cases, patients resort to the use of traditional local and alternative medicines (herbs, religious practices, etc.) that are closer to indigenous cosmovision, are more holistic, and are more culture-friendly, preserving an optimum subtlety of Afrocentric character shading. Compared with imported Western medicines, patients find these approaches to be more relevant to their ways of thinking, their ways of being, and their belief systems, more accessible, and more acceptable methods of dealing with health and disease states. The impressive local wealth in these natural resources has established them as a preferred source of healing in these regions, but has also fueled interest in exploring their therapeutic potential in the very few existing local research centers. In this review, we discuss the known issues related to the epilepsy treatment gap in resource-poor regions, focusing in particular on African countries, introduce the role and issues related to the use and validation of alternative medical therapies in epilepsy, and comment on the importance and

  9. Pediatric Trauma Care in Low Resource Settings: Challenges, Opportunities, and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Kiragu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Trauma constitutes a significant cause of death and disability globally. The vast majority -about 95%, of the 5.8 million deaths each year, occur in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs 3–6. This includes almost 1 million children. The resource-adapted introduction of trauma care protocols, regionalized care and the growth specialized centers for trauma care within each LMIC are key to improved outcomes and the lowering of trauma-related morbidity and mortality globally. Resource limitations in LMICs make it necessary to develop injury prevention strategies and optimize the use of locally available resources when injury prevention measures fail. This will lead to the achievement of the best possible outcomes for critically ill and injured children. A commitment by the governments in LMICs working alone or in collaboration with international non-governmental organizations (NGOs to provide adequate healthcare to their citizens is also crucial to improved survival after major trauma. The increase in global conflicts also has significantly deleterious effects on children, and governments and international organizations like the United Nations have a significant role to play in reducing these. This review details the evaluation and management of traumatic injuries in pediatric patients and gives some recommendations for improvements to trauma care in LMICs.

  10. Bridging the Chasm: Challenges, Opportunities, and Resources for Integrating a Dissemination and Implementation Science Curriculum into Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginossar, Tamar; Heckman, Carolyn J; Cragun, Deborah; Quintiliani, Lisa M; Proctor, Enola K; Chambers, David A; Skolarus, Ted; Brownson, Ross C

    2018-01-01

    Physicians are charged with implementing evidence-based medicine, yet few are trained in the science of Dissemination and Implementation (D&I). In view of the potential of evidence-based training in D&I to help close the gap between research and practice, the goal of this review is to examine the importance of D&I training in medical education, describe challenges to implementing such training, and provide strategies and resources for building D&I capacity. We conducted (1) a systematic review to identify US-based D&I training efforts and (2) a critical review of additional literature to inform our evaluation of the challenges and opportunities of integrating D&I training in medical education. Out of 269 unique articles reviewed, 11 described US-based D&I training. Although vibrant and diverse training opportunities exist, their capacity is limited, and they are not designed to meet physicians' needs. Synthesis of relevant literature using a critical review approach identified challenges inherent to changing medical education, as well as challenges related to D&I science. Finally, selected strategies and resources are available for facilitating incorporation of D&I training into medical education and overcoming existing challenges. Integrating D&I training in the medical education curriculum, and particularly in residency and fellowship training, holds promise for bridging the chasm between scientific discoveries and improved patient care and outcomes. However, unique challenges should be addressed, including the need for greater evidence.

  11. Opportunities for Fundamental University-Based Research in Energy and Resource Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, M. D.; Hitzman, M.; Tester, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    In this talk we present, from a university perspective, a few examples of fundamental research needs related to improved energy and resource recovery. One example of such a research need is related to the fact that it is not widely recognized that meeting domestic and worldwide energy needs with renewables such as wind and solar will be materials intensive. If widely deployed, the elements required by renewable technologies will be needed in significant quantities and shortage of these "energy critical elements" could significantly inhibit the adoption of otherwise game changing energy technologies. It is imperative to better understand the geology, metallurgy, and mining engineering of critical mineral deposits if we are to sustainably develop these new technologies. Unfortunately, there is currently no consensus among federal and state agencies, the national and international mining industry, the public, and the U.S. academic community regarding the importance of economic geology in the context of securing sufficient energy critical elements to undertake large-scale renewable energy development. Another option for transitioning away from our current hydrocarbon-based energy system to non-carbon based sources, is geothermal energy - from both conventional hydrothermal resources and enhanced or engineered geothermal systems (EGS). Although geothermal energy is currently used for both electric and non-electric applications worldwide from conventional hydrothermal resources and in ground source heat pumps, most of the emphasis in the US has been generating electricity. To this end, there is a need for research, development and demonstration in five important areas - estimating the magnitude and distribution of recoverable geothermal resources, establishing requirements for extracting and utilizing energy from EGS reservoirs the including drilling, reservoir design and stimulation, exploring end use options for district heating, electricity generation and co

  12. Citizen science in hydrology and water resources: opportunities for knowledge generation, ecosystem service management, and sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter eBuytaert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The participation of the general public in the research design, data collection and interpretation process together with scientists is often referred to as citizen science. While citizen science itself has existed since the start of scientific practice, developments in sensing technology, data processing and visualisation, and communication of ideas and results, are creating a wide range of new opportunities for public participation in scientific research. This paper reviews the state of citizen science in a hydrological context and explores the potential of citizen science to complement more traditional ways of scientific data collection and knowledge generation for hydrological sciences and water resources management. Although hydrological data collection often involves advanced technology, the advent of robust, cheap and low-maintenance sensing equipment provides unprecedented opportunities for data collection in a citizen science context. These data have a significant potential to create new hydrological knowledge, especially in relation to the characterisation of process heterogeneity, remote regions, and human impacts on the water cycle. However, the nature and quality of data collected in citizen science experiments is potentially very different from those of traditional monitoring networks. This poses challenges in terms of their processing, interpretation, and use, especially with regard to assimilation of traditional knowledge, the quantification of uncertainties, and their role in decision support. It also requires care in designing citizen science projects such that the generated data complement optimally other available knowledge. Lastly, we reflect on the challenges and opportunities in the integration of hydrologically-oriented citizen science in water resources management, the role of scientific knowledge in the decision-making process, and the potential contestation to established community institutions posed by co-generation of

  13. Characterizing China's energy consumption with selective economic factors and energy-resource endowment: a spatial econometric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Ji, Minhe; Bai, Ling

    2015-06-01

    Coupled with intricate regional interactions, the provincial disparity of energy-resource endowment and other economic conditions in China have created spatially complex energy consumption patterns that require analyses beyond the traditional ones. To distill the spatial effect out of the resource and economic factors on China's energy consumption, this study recast the traditional econometric model in a spatial context. Several analytic steps were taken to reveal different aspects of the issue. Per capita energy consumption (AVEC) at the provincial level was first mapped to reveal spatial clusters of high energy consumption being located in either well developed or energy resourceful regions. This visual spatial autocorrelation pattern of AVEC was quantitatively tested to confirm its existence among Chinese provinces. A Moran scatterplot was employed to further display a relatively centralized trend occurring in those provinces that had parallel AVEC, revealing a spatial structure with attraction among high-high or low-low regions and repellency among high-low or low-high regions. By a comparison between the ordinary least square (OLS) model and its spatial econometric counterparts, a spatial error model (SEM) was selected to analyze the impact of major economic determinants on AVEC. While the analytic results revealed a significant positive correlation between AVEC and economic development, other determinants showed some intricate influential patterns. The provinces endowed with rich energy reserves were inclined to consume much more energy than those otherwise, whereas changing the economic structure by increasing the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries also tended to consume more energy. Both situations seem to underpin the fact that these provinces were largely trapped in the economies that were supported by technologies of low energy efficiency during the period, while other parts of the country were rapidly modernized by adopting advanced

  14. Urban Forest and Rural Cities: Multi-sited Households, Consumption Patterns, and Forest Resources in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Padoch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In much of the Amazon Basin, approximately 70% of the population lives in urban areas and urbanward migration continues. Based on data collected over more than a decade in two long-settled regions of Amazonia, we find that rural-urban migration in the region is an extended and complex process. Like recent rural-urban migrants worldwide, Amazonian migrants, although they may be counted as urban residents, are often not absent from rural areas but remain members of multi-sited households and continue to participate in rural-urban networks and in rural land-use decisions. Our research indicates that, despite their general poverty, these migrants have affected urban markets for both food and construction materials. We present two cases: that of açaí palm fruit in the estuary of the Amazon and of cheap construction timbers in the Peruvian Amazon. We find that many new Amazonian rural-urban migrants have maintained some important rural patterns of both consumption and knowledge. Through their consumer behavior, they are affecting the areal extent of forests; in the two floodplain regions discussed, tree cover is increasing. We also find changes in forest composition, reflecting the persistence of rural consumption patterns in cities resulting in increased demand for and production of açaí and cheap timber species.

  15. Life cycle assessment of energy consumption and GHG emissions of olefins production from alternative resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Dong; Yang, Siyu; Li, Xiuxi; Qian, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Conduct a life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of olefins production processes. • Analyse effects of carbon capture and efficiency on alternative olefins production. • Analyse life cycle performance of Chinese olefins industry in three key periods. • Present the advantages and challenges of alternative olefins routes. - Abstract: Olefins are important platform chemicals widely used in industry. In terms of the short supply of oil resources, natural gas and coal are two significant alternative feedstocks. In this paper, energy consumption and GHG emissions of olefins production are analysed with life cycle assessment methods. Results showed the energy consumption and GHG emissions of natural gas-to-olefins are roughly equivalent to those of oil-to-olefins, while coal-to-olefins suffers from higher energy consumption and serious GHG emissions, including 5793 kg eq. CO 2 /t olefins of direct emissions and 5714 kg eq. CO 2 /t olefins of indirect emissions. To address the problem, the effect of carbon capture on coal-to-olefins is investigated. In comprehensive consideration of energy utilization, environmental impact, and economic benefit, the coal-to-olefins with 80% CO 2 capture of the direct emissions is found to be an appropriate choice. With this carbon capture configuration, the direct emissions of the coal-to-olefins are reduced to 1161 kg eq. CO 2 /t olefins. However, the indirect emissions are still not captured, which should be strictly monitored and significantly reduced. Finally, a scenario analysis is conducted to estimate resource utilization and GHG emissions of olefins production of China in 2020. Several suggestions are also proposed for policy making on the sustainable development of olefins industry

  16. Integrating adaptive management and ecosystem services concepts to improve natural resource management: Challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epanchin-Niell, Rebecca S.; Boyd, James W.; Macauley, Molly K.; Scarlett, Lynn; Shapiro, Carl D.; Williams, Byron K.

    2018-05-07

    Executive Summary—OverviewNatural resource managers must make decisions that affect broad-scale ecosystem processes involving large spatial areas, complex biophysical interactions, numerous competing stakeholder interests, and highly uncertain outcomes. Natural and social science information and analyses are widely recognized as important for informing effective management. Chief among the systematic approaches for improving the integration of science into natural resource management are two emergent science concepts, adaptive management and ecosystem services. Adaptive management (also referred to as “adaptive decision making”) is a deliberate process of learning by doing that focuses on reducing uncertainties about management outcomes and system responses to improve management over time. Ecosystem services is a conceptual framework that refers to the attributes and outputs of ecosystems (and their components and functions) that have value for humans.This report explores how ecosystem services can be moved from concept into practice through connection to a decision framework—adaptive management—that accounts for inherent uncertainties. Simultaneously, the report examines the value of incorporating ecosystem services framing and concepts into adaptive management efforts.Adaptive management and ecosystem services analyses have not typically been used jointly in decision making. However, as frameworks, they have a natural—but to date underexplored—affinity. Both are policy and decision oriented in that they attempt to represent the consequences of resource management choices on outcomes of interest to stakeholders. Both adaptive management and ecosystem services analysis take an empirical approach to the analysis of ecological systems. This systems orientation is a byproduct of the fact that natural resource actions affect ecosystems—and corresponding societal outcomes—often across large geographic scales. Moreover, because both frameworks focus on

  17. Feasibility study : identifying economic opportunities for bugwood and other biomass resources in Alberta and BC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-04-01

    This feasibility study discussed energy technologies for biomass feedstocks including mill residues, roadside residues, and non-merchantable tree stands in Alberta and British Columbia (BC). The study demonstrated that the lack of mill residue resources means that targeted government support may be needed to help the energy industry to use more costly resources such as roadside residue or bugwood. Government policies are also needed to support the long-term availability of biomass supplies in order to lower the supply risks related to the use of biomass resources in the energy industry. Lower prices for power in both provinces make the use of biomass unfavourable for small-scale technologies under 10 MW. However, cogeneration projects using biomass showed higher returns when power conversion efficiency was low. Higher revenues were generated from heat sales displacing natural gas than from electricity sales at current tariffs. Large-scale biomass power plants were viable when lower-cost feedstocks were available. Bio-oils were suitable as supplements for heat generation in cogeneration processes. Pellet production was also viable using less expensive feedstocks.The co-firing of biomass at coal plants required little capital investment. The study demonstrated that Alberta's power production incentive of $60 per MWh was sufficient to improve the economics of small-scale projects. It was recommended that the program be continued and paid out over a period of 10 years. It was concluded that specific electricity tariffs and incentives are needed to accelerate regrowth and create a viable biomass industry for the future. 33 refs., 45 tabs., 17 figs

  18. Health, treatment and health care resources consumption profile among Spanish adults with diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Garcia, Rodrigo; de Miguel-Díez, Javier; Rejas-Gutierrez, Javier; Martín-Centeno, Antonio; Gobartt-Vázquez, Elena; Hernandez-Barrera, Valentin; Gil de Miguel, Angel; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar

    2009-08-01

    To describe the health, treatment and health care resources consumption profile among Spanish adults with diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and compare it with that of non-diabetic COPD patients. An observational and descriptive epidemiological study (EPIDEPOC study). The study included patients with stable COPD and aged > or =40 years, evaluated in primary care. Data were collected relating to sociodemographic variables, health profile, quality of life (SF-12), treatment and health care resources consumption. The results corresponding to diabetic and non-diabetic patients were compared. A total of 10,711 patients (75.6% males) with COPD were evaluated. The prevalence of diabetes was 16.9%. The diabetic patients were significantly older, with a larger percentage of women, and a lesser educational level compared with the non-diabetic patients. In addition, the diabetics were more sedentary, smoked less, and presented a higher percentage of obesity (33.6% versus 19.7%) than the non-diabetic patients. The severity of airways obstruction was greater among the diabetics than in the non-diabetic patients (54.57+/-13.37% versus 57.92+/-13.39%, respectively, pconsumption of drugs for COPD. In addition, they consumed significantly more health care (and thus economical) resources than the non-diabetic patients. The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the variables that were independently associated to COPD among diabetic patients were: higher age, higher BMI, concomitant chronic heart disease, use of inhaled corticoids, SF-12 mental component, SF-12 physical component and total cost of COPD. The presence of diabetes in patients with COPD shows in the bivariate analysis a more severe lung disease, greater co-morbidity, poorer quality of life, and a greater consumption of resources, as well as a less favorable course in the previous year. However, the multivariate logistic regression shows that the variables that are

  19. Hawaii demand-side management resource assessment. Final report: DSM opportunity report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Hawaii Demand-Side Management Resource Assessment was the fourth of seven projects in the Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES) program. HES was designed by the Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism (DBEDT) to produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. The purpose of Project 4 was to develop a comprehensive assessment of Hawaii`s demand-side management (DSM) resources. To meet this objective, the project was divided into two phases. The first phase included development of a DSM technology database and the identification of Hawaii commercial building characteristics through on-site audits. These Phase 1 products were then used in Phase 2 to identify expected energy impacts from DSM measures in typical residential and commercial buildings in Hawaii. The building energy simulation model DOE-2.1E was utilized to identify the DSM energy impacts. More detailed information on the typical buildings and the DOE-2.1E modeling effort is available in Reference Volume 1, ``Building Prototype Analysis``. In addition to the DOE-2.1E analysis, estimates of residential and commercial sector gas and electric DSM potential for the four counties of Honolulu, Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai through 2014 were forecasted by the new DBEDT DSM Assessment Model. Results from DBEDTs energy forecasting model, ENERGY 2020, were linked with results from DOE-2.1E building energy simulation runs and estimates of DSM measure impacts, costs, lifetime, and anticipated market penetration rates in the DBEDT DSM Model. Through its algorithms, estimates of DSM potential for each forecast year were developed. Using the load shape information from the DOE-2.1E simulation runs, estimates of electric peak demand impacts were developed. 10 figs., 55 tabs.

  20. Opportunities for wind resources in the future competitive California power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezgen, O.; Marnay, C.; Bretz, S.; Markel, R.; Wiser, R.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to evaluate the profitability of wind development in the future competitive California power market. The viability of possible wind sites is assessed using a geographic information system (GIS) to determine the cost of development and Elfin, an electric utility production costing and capacity expansion model, to estimate the possible revenues and profits of wind farms at the sites. This approach improves on a simple profitability calculation by using site specific development cost calculations and by taking the effect of time varying market prices on revenues into account. The first component of the work is the characterization of wind resources suitable for use in production costing and capacity expansion models such as Elfin that are capable of simulating competitive electricity markets. An improved representation of California wind resources is built, using information collected by the California Energy Commission in previous site evaluations, and by using a GIS approach to estimating development costs at 36 specific sites. These sites, which have been identified as favorable for wind development, are placed on Digital Elevation Models and development costs are calculated based on distances to roads and transmission lines. GIS is also used to develop the potential capacity at each site by making use of the physical characteristics of the terrain, such as ridge lengths. In the second part of the effort, using a previously developed algorithm for simulating competitive entry to the California electricity market, Elfin is used to gauge the viability of wind farms at the 36 sites. The results of this exercise are forecasts of profitable development levels at each site and the effects of these developments on the electricity system as a whole. Results suggest that by the year 2030, about 7.5 GW of potential wind capacity can be profitably developed assuming rising natural gas prices. This example demonstrates that an analysis based on a

  1. Application of granulated lead-zinc slag in concrete as an opportunity to save natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwaeli, Mohamed

    2013-02-01

    The last decades marked a period of growth and prosperity in construction industry which involves the use of natural resources. This growth is jeopardized by the lack of natural resources that are available. On the other hand there has been rapid increase in the industrial waste production. Most of the waste do not find any effective use and cause a waste disposal crisis, thereby contributing to health and environmental problems. Recycling of industrial waste as aggregate is thus a logical option to manage this problem. The paper reports on some experimental results obtained from the production of concretes containing granulated slag of lead and zinc industry as sand replacement mixed in different proportions. Granulated slag is substituted for raw sand, partly or totally. Ratios of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by weight of sand are used. The effects of granulated lead-zinc slag (GLZS) as sand replacement material on the compressive strength and gamma radiation attenuation properties of concrete are investigated and analyzed. Then, these properties are compared with those of ordinary concrete. The results showed that replacement material have some effects on the compressive strength and gamma radiation properties of the concrete. The experimental results indicate that, the concrete mixed with GLZS as a sand replacement have better strength. Concerning the absorption properties for gamma radiation the data show that the addition of GLZS resulted in an increase of the attenuation of gamma radiation. Consequently, these concretes could be used for construction of shields protecting personnel who work in laboratories where radiation is used. Additionally, the thickness of the concrete with GLZS was calculated and compared with ordinary concrete.

  2. Application of granulated lead–zinc slag in concrete as an opportunity to save natural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwaeli, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The last decades marked a period of growth and prosperity in construction industry which involves the use of natural resources. This growth is jeopardized by the lack of natural resources that are available. On the other hand there has been rapid increase in the industrial waste production. Most of the waste do not find any effective use and cause a waste disposal crisis, thereby contributing to health and environmental problems. Recycling of industrial waste as aggregate is thus a logical option to manage this problem. The paper reports on some experimental results obtained from the production of concretes containing granulated slag of lead and zinc industry as sand replacement mixed in different proportions. Granulated slag is substituted for raw sand, partly or totally. Ratios of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by weight of sand are used. The effects of granulated lead–zinc slag (GLZS) as sand replacement material on the compressive strength and gamma radiation attenuation properties of concrete are investigated and analyzed. Then, these properties are compared with those of ordinary concrete. The results showed that replacement material have some effects on the compressive strength and gamma radiation properties of the concrete. The experimental results indicate that, the concrete mixed with GLZS as a sand replacement have better strength. Concerning the absorption properties for gamma radiation the data show that the addition of GLZS resulted in an increase of the attenuation of gamma radiation. Consequently, these concretes could be used for construction of shields protecting personnel who work in laboratories where radiation is used. Additionally, the thickness of the concrete with GLZS was calculated and compared with ordinary concrete. - Highlights: ► Utilization of granulated lead–zinc slag as sand replacement in concrete was investigated. ► Compressive strength and gamma attenuation of concrete included granulated slag was examined. ► The tests results

  3. Deep Unconventional Geothermal Resources: a major opportunity to harness new sources of sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridleifsson, G.O.; Albertsson, A.; Stefansson, B.; Gunnlaugsson, E.; Adalsteinsson, H.

    2007-07-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is a long-term program to improve the efficiency and economics of geothermal energy by harnessing Deep Unconventional Geothermal Resources (DUGR). Its aim is to produce electricity from natural supercritical hydrous fluids from drillable depths. Producing supercritical fluids will require drilling wells and sampling fluids and rocks to depths of 3.5 to 5 km, and at temperatures of 450-600{sup o}C. The long-term plan is to drill and test a series of such deep boreholes in Iceland at the Krafla, the Hengill, and the Reykjanes high temperature geothermal systems. Beneath these three developed drill fields temperatures should exceed 550-650{sup o}C, and the occurrence of frequent seismic activity below 5 km, indicates that the rocks are brittle and therefore likely to be permeable. Modeling indicates that if the wellhead enthalpy is to exceed that of conventionally produced geothermal steam, the reservoir temperature must be higher than 450{sup o}C. A deep well producing 0.67 m3/sec steam ({approx}2400 m3/h) from a reservoir with a temperature significantly above 450{sup o}C could yield enough high-enthalpy steam to generate 40-50 MW of electric power. This exceeds by an order of magnitude the power typically obtained from conventional geothermal wells. (auth)

  4. Cervical cancer data and data systems in limited-resource settings: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Jennifer L; Were, Martin C; Arrossi, Silvina; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara

    2017-07-01

    Appropriate collection and use of health information is critical to the planning, scaling up, and improvement of cervical cancer programs. The health information systems implementation landscape is unique to each country; however, systems serving cervical cancer programs in low-resource settings share characteristics that present common challenges. In response, many programs have taken innovative approaches to generating the quality information needed for decision making. Recent advances in health information technology also provide feasible solutions to challenges. This article draws from the experiences of the authors and from current literature to describe outstanding challenges and promising practices in the implementation of cervical cancer data systems, and to make recommendations for next steps. Recommendations include engaging all stakeholders-including providers, program managers, implementing partners, and donors-in promoting national, district, and community information systems; building on existing systems and processes, as well as introducing new technologies; and evolving data collection and data systems as programs advance. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  5. Opportunities and Barriers to Resource Recovery and Recycling from Shredder Residue in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Naren; Apelian, Diran

    2014-11-01

    Shredder residue is the by-product remaining after ferrous and nonferrous metals have been recovered from the processing of vehicles, white goods, and peddler scrap. Shredder residue consists of glass, plastics, rubber, dirt, and small amounts of metal. It is estimated that 5-7 million tons of this shredder residue are landfilled each year in the United States. Technical advancements, coupled with European Union directives and the economic climate, have transformed the recycling of shredder residue in Europe. In the United States, however, regulatory controls and the cheap cost of landfill have worked against the advancement of recycling and recovery of this resource. The Argonne National Laboratory, which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, has investigated the effectiveness of recycling shredder residue into polymers. Other research has examined the use of shredder residue in waste-to-energy applications. To improve our ability to process and recycle shredder residue, an investigation of the regulatory, economic, and technological challenges was undertaken. The objective was to conduct a comprehensive review of work done to date, to document the composition of typical shredder output and to identify potential recoverable items (residual metals, plastics, rubber, foam, etc.). Along with uncovering potential new markets, the research would identify the technical, regulatory, and economic barriers to developing those markets.

  6. Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) 2: identifying opportunities for disinvestment in a local healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Claire; Allen, Kelly; King, Richard; Ramsey, Wayne; Kelly, Cate; Thiagarajan, Malar

    2017-05-05

    This is the second in a series of papers reporting a program of Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) in a local healthcare setting. Rising healthcare costs, continuing advances in health technologies and recognition of ineffective practices and systematic waste are driving disinvestment of health technologies and clinical practices that offer little or no benefit in order to maximise outcomes from existing resources. However there is little information to guide regional health services or individual facilities in how they might approach disinvestment locally. This paper outlines the investigation of potential settings and methods for decision-making about disinvestment in the context of an Australian health service. Methods include a literature review on the concepts and terminology relating to disinvestment, a survey of national and international researchers, and interviews and workshops with local informants. A conceptual framework was drafted and refined with stakeholder feedback. There is a lack of common terminology regarding definitions and concepts related to disinvestment and no guidance for an organisation-wide systematic approach to disinvestment in a local healthcare service. A summary of issues from the literature and respondents highlight the lack of theoretical knowledge and practical experience and provide a guide to the information required to develop future models or methods for disinvestment in the local context. A conceptual framework was developed. Three mechanisms that provide opportunities to introduce disinvestment decisions into health service systems and processes were identified. Presented in order of complexity, time to achieve outcomes and resources required they include 1) Explicit consideration of potential disinvestment in routine decision-making, 2) Proactive decision-making about disinvestment driven by available evidence from published research and local data, and 3) Specific exercises in

  7. Plant genetic resources for food and agriculture: opportunities and challenges emerging from the science and information technology revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halewood, Michael; Chiurugwi, Tinashe; Sackville Hamilton, Ruaraidh; Kurtz, Brad; Marden, Emily; Welch, Eric; Michiels, Frank; Mozafari, Javad; Sabran, Muhamad; Patron, Nicola; Kersey, Paul; Bastow, Ruth; Dorius, Shawn; Dias, Sonia; McCouch, Susan; Powell, Wayne

    2018-03-01

    Contents Summary 1407 I. Introduction 1408 II. Technological advances and their utility for gene banks and breeding, and longer-term contributions to SDGs 1408 III. The challenges that must be overcome to realise emerging R&D opportunities 1410 IV. Renewed governance structures for PGR (and related big data) 1413 V. Access and benefit sharing and big data 1416 VI. Conclusion 1417 Acknowledgements 1417 ORCID 1417 References 1417 SUMMARY: Over the last decade, there has been an ongoing revolution in the exploration, manipulation and synthesis of biological systems, through the development of new technologies that generate, analyse and exploit big data. Users of Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) can potentially leverage these capacities to significantly increase the efficiency and effectiveness of their efforts to conserve, discover and utilise novel qualities in PGR, and help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This review advances the discussion on these emerging opportunities and discusses how taking advantage of them will require data integration and synthesis across disciplinary, organisational and international boundaries, and the formation of multi-disciplinary, international partnerships. We explore some of the institutional and policy challenges that these efforts will face, particularly how these new technologies may influence the structure and role of research for sustainable development, ownership of resources, and access and benefit sharing. We discuss potential responses to political and institutional challenges, ranging from options for enhanced structure and governance of research discovery platforms to internationally brokered benefit-sharing agreements, and identify a set of broad principles that could guide the global community as it seeks or considers solutions. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Global Fund investments in human resources for health: innovation and missed opportunities for health systems strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowser, Diana; Sparkes, Susan Powers; Mitchell, Andrew; Bossert, Thomas J; Bärnighausen, Till; Gedik, Gulin; Atun, Rifat

    2014-12-01

    Since the early 2000s, there have been large increases in donor financing of human resources for health (HRH), yet few studies have examined their effects on health systems. To determine the scope and impact of investments in HRH by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund), the largest investor in HRH outside national governments. We used mixed research methodology to analyse budget allocations and expenditures for HRH, including training, for 138 countries receiving money from the Global Fund during funding rounds 1-7. From these aggregate figures, we then identified 27 countries with the largest funding for human resources and training and examined all HRH-related performance indicators tracked in Global Fund grant reports. We used the results of these quantitative analyses to select six countries with substantial funding and varied characteristics-representing different regions and income levels for further in-depth study: Bangladesh (South and West Asia, low income), Ethiopia (Eastern Africa, low income), Honduras (Latin America, lower-middle income), Indonesia (South and West Asia, lower-middle income), Malawi (Southern Africa, low income) and Ukraine (Eastern Europe and Central Asia, upper-middle income). We used qualitative methods to gather information in each of the six countries through 159 interviews with key informants from 83 organizations. Using comparative case-study analysis, we examined Global Fund's interactions with other donors, as well as its HRH support and co-ordination within national health systems. Around US$1.4 billion (23% of total US$5.1 billion) of grant funding was allocated to HRH by the 138 Global Fund recipient countries. In funding rounds 1-7, the six countries we studied in detail were awarded a total of 47 grants amounting to US$1.2 billion and HRH budgets of US$276 million, of which approximately half were invested in disease-focused in-service and short-term training activities. Countries employed

  9. Resource recovery from municipal solid waste by mechanical heat treatment: An opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Ibrahim, Nurazim; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz

    2017-04-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) stream in Malaysia consists of 50 to 60 % of food wastes. In general, food wastes are commingled in nature and very difficult to be managed in sustainable manner due to high moisture content. Consequently, by dumping food wastes together with inert wastes to the landfill as final disposal destination incurs large space area and reducing the lifespan of landfill. Therefore, certain fraction of the MSW as such; food wastes (FW) can be diverted from total disposal at the landfill that can improve landfill lifespan and environmental conservation. This study aims to determine the resource characteristics of FW extracted from USM cafeteria by means of mechanical heat treatment in the presence of autoclaving technology. Sampling of FW were conducted by collecting FW samples from disposal storage at designated area within USM campus. FW characteristics was performed prior and autoclaving process. The results have demonstrated that bones fraction was the highest followed by vegetable and rice with 39, 27 and 10%, respectively. Meanwhile, based on autoclaving technique, moisture content of the FW (fresh waste) were able to be reduced ranging from 65-85% to 59-69% (treated waste). Meanwhile, chemical characteristics of treated FW results in pH, TOC, TKN, C/N ratio, TP, and TK 5.12, 27,6%, 1.6%, 17.3%, 0.9% and 0.36%. The results revealed that autoclaving technology is a promising approach for MSW diversion that can be transformed into useful byproducts such as fertilizer, RDF and recyclable items.

  10. Providing Comprehensive Educational Opportunity to Low Income Students. Part 5: A Proposal for Essential Standards and Resources. A Report of the Task Force on Comprehensive Educational Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebell, Michael A.; Wolff, Jessica R.

    2011-01-01

    This fifth in a five part series, states that, if comprehensive educational opportunity is conceived as a right, then the state must commit to providing it and must develop a policy infrastructure to assure broad access, uniform quality, regularized funding, and firm accountability strictures to ensure all students a meaningful opportunity to…

  11. Stimulating fuelwood consumption through public policies: An assessment of economic and resource impacts based on the French Forest Sector Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caurla, Sylvain; Delacote, Philippe; Lecocq, Franck; Barkaoui, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Stimulating renewable energy is a crucial objective in view of tackling climate change and coping with future fossil fuel scarcity. In France, fuelwood appears to be an important source for the renewable energy mix. Using the French Forest Sector Model, our paper aims to assess the impacts of three policy options to stimulate fuelwood consumption: a consumer subsidy, a producer subsidy and a fixed-demand contract policy. We explored their impacts in terms of five groups of criteria: (1) forest resource dynamics; (2) variations in wood products prices and quantities consumed and produced; (3) trade balance; (4) budgetary costs; and (5) variations in agent surpluses. We show that no policy option is more desirable than another on the basis of all of these criteria and that trade-offs will determine which is the best policy option to be implemented. - Highlights: • We compare the bio-economic impacts of policies to boost fuelwood consumption in France. • We simulate a producer subsidy, a consumer subsidy and fixed public demand contracts. • We explore their impacts until 2020 with a dynamic model of the forest sector. • Producer subsidy reduces the trade balance deficit and decreases forest stock. • Consumer subsidy increases consumer welfare and public contracts reduce budgetary costs

  12. Problems of attracting nuclear energy resources in order to provide economical and rational consumption of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, E.K.; Nikitin, A.T.; Ponomarev-Stepnoy, N.N.; Protsenko, A.N.; Stolyarevskii, A.Ya.; Doroshenko, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    Depletion of fossil fuel resources and the gradual increase in cost of their extraction and transportation to the places of their consumption put forward into a line of the most urgent tasks the problem of rational and economical utilization of fuel and energy resources, as well as introduction of new energy sources into various sectors of the national economy. The nuclear energy sources which are widely spread in power engineering have not yet been used to a proper extent in the sectors of industrial technologies and residential space heating, which are the most energy consuming sectors in the national economy. The most effective way of solving this problem can be the development and commercialization of high temperature nuclear reactors, as the majority of power consuming industrial processes and those involved in chemico-thermal systems of distant heat transmission demand the temperature of a heat carrier generated by nuclear reactors and assimilated by the above processes to be in the range from 900 0 to 1000 0 C. (author)

  13. “The Effects of Limited Resources and Opportunities on Women’s Careers in Physics: Results from the Global Survey of Physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The results of the Global Survey of Physicists draw attention to the need to focus on factors other than representation when discussing the situation of women in physics. Previous studies of women in physics have mostly focused on the lack of women in the field. This study goes beyond the obvious shortage of women and shows that there are much deeper issues. For the first time, a multinational study was conducted with 15000 respondents from 130 countries, showing that problems for women in physics transcend national borders. Across all countries, women have fewer resources and opportunities and are more affected by cultural expectations concerning child care. We show that limited resources and opportunities hurt career progress, and because women have fewer opportunities and resources, their careers progress more slowly. We also show the disproportionate effects of children on women physicists' careers. Cultural expectations about home and family are difficult to change. However, for women to have successful ...

  14. Prospective des ressources face à la consommation The Outlook for Resources in the Face of Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutman G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude prospective tient compte des données politiques et économiques portées à notre connaissance en septembre 1979. Des événements nouveaux, aujourd'hui imprévisibles, survenant d'ici juillet 1980, pourraient en modifier considérablement certaines des conclusions qui sont rappelées brièvement ici : - le problème d'approvisionnement en hydrocarbures n'est pas un problème d'existence physique des ressources ; - l'offre, compte tenu du contexte socio-politique et de la répartition géogra-phique des hydrocarbures, se situera dans les dix prochaines années très près du niveau actuel des 63 millions de bbl/d ; - les hypothèses faites sur la demande sont plus hasardeuses, l'une d'entre elles (W. J. Levy l'estime pour 1990 à 68,8 millions de bbl/d ; - l'équilibre offre/demande n'est pas réalisé à court terme et il faut dès maintenant, envisager un équilibre de légère pénurie à moyen et long terme ; - la contribution du gaz naturel et des autres hydrocarbures au rétablissement de l'équilibre subit divers handicaps de coûts, de difficulté de transport oude délais de mise en oeuvre ; - ceci implique que le prix du brut ne peut que croître en valeur réelle et que l'exploration-production et le développement d'hydrocarbures non conventionnels constituent le challenge majeur de la prochaine décennie ; - la solution à moyen terme passe par le développement des productions des pays de l'OPEP à condition de leur offrir des développements sociaux et industriels compatibles avec leurs besoins réels. This glance into the future takes into considaration political and economic data brought to our attention in September 1979. New and unpredictable events occurring between now and July 1980 could make considerable changes in the conclusions briefly summed up here: - the problem of hydrocarbon supplies is not a problem of the physical existence of resources; - the supply, in the light of the socio-political context and

  15. Developing improved opportunities for the recycling and reuse of materials in road, bridge, and construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The use of recycled and reused materials in transportation construction reduces consumption of non-renewable : resources. The objective of this research was to develop opportunities for improving the recycling and reuse of : materials in road and bri...

  16. Resource consumption of Germany - indicators and definitions. Development of a glossary on the concept of ''resources'' and calculation of missing characteristic data of resources consumption for further political analysis; Ressourcenverbrauch von Deutschland - aktuelle Kennzahlen und Begriffsbestimmungen. Erstellung eines Glossars zum ''Ressourcenbegriff'' und Berechnung von fehlenden Kennzahlen des Ressourcenverbrauchs fuer die weitere politische Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuetz, Helmut; Bringezu, Stefan [Wuppertal Institut fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany). Forschungsgruppe 3: Stoffstroeme und Ressourcenmanagement

    2008-02-15

    The goals of the reported study are: - to prepare a glossary on the term ''Resources'' in order to support communication based on a harmonised resource term and associated terms and - to provide key data on resource use in Germany in time series since 1991 up to the most recent year for which data were available (2004 in general), and to attribute results to the resource terms. Results achieved are presented and discussed below by the following sections: Provision of a glossary on the term ''resource'', use of the term ''resource'' at different levels, and provision of data and derived indicators for resource consumption in time series. First, a list of the relevant publications in the topic field ''resources'' was provided and co-ordinated with the client. This publication list is given in the annex to this report. On basis of national and international sources a glossary was provided which clearly describes and comments the resource term, its sub-terms and associated terms. This glossary is in the annex to this report. (orig.)

  17. Health status, resource consumption, and costs of dysthymia. A multi-center two-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbui, Corrado; Motterlini, Nicola; Garattini, Livio

    2006-02-01

    In this study we estimated the health status, resource consumption and costs of a large cohort of patients with early and late-onset dysthymia. The DYSCO (DYSthymia COsts) project is a multi-center observational study which prospectively followed for two years a randomly chosen sample of patients with dysthymia in the Italian primary health care system. A total of 501 patients were followed for two years; 81% had early-onset dysthymic disorder. During the study, improvement was seen in most domains of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. Comparison of the SF-36 scores for the two groups showed that only the physical health index significantly differed during the two years. The use of outpatient consultations, laboratory tests and diagnostic procedures was similar in the two groups, but patients with early-onset dysthymia were admitted significantly more than late-onset cases. Hospital admissions were almost entirely responsible for the higher total cost per patient per year of early-onset dysthymia. A first limitation of this study is that general practitioners were selected on the basis of their willingness to participate, not at random; secondly, no information was collected on concomitant psychiatric comorbidities. The present study provides the first prospective, long-term data on service use and costs in patients with dysthymia. Differently from patients with early-onset dysthymia, patients with late-onset dysthymia were admitted less and cost less.

  18. Foreign Language Folio. A Guide to Cultural Resources and Field Trip Opportunities in the San Francisco Bay Area for Teachers and Students of Foreign Languages, 1983-85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Tony, Ed.; O'Connor, Roger, Ed.

    A listing of San Francisco area cultural resources and opportunities of use to foreign language teachers is presented. Included are the following: museums and galleries, schools, art sources, churches, clubs, cultural centers and organizations, publications and publishing companies, restaurants, food stores and markets, travel and tourism,…

  19. Conservation of indigenous cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa's smallholder areas: turning threats into opportunities - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamushamba, G B; Mapiye, C; Tada, O; Halimani, T E; Muchenje, V

    2017-05-01

    The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified.

  20. Conservation of indigenous cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa’s smallholder areas: turning threats into opportunities — A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamushamba, G. B.; Mapiye, C.; Tada, O.; Halimani, T. E.; Muchenje, V.

    2017-01-01

    The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified. PMID:27004814

  1. Conservation of indigenous cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa’s smallholder areas: turning threats into opportunities — A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Nyamushamba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified.

  2. The relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, and water resources in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafindadi, Abdulkadir Abdulrashid; Yusof, Zarinah; Zaman, Khalid; Kyophilavong, Phouphet; Akhmat, Ghulam

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, water resources, and natural resource rents in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries, over a period of 1975-2012. The study includes number of variables in the model for robust analysis. The results of cross-sectional analysis show that there is a significant relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water productivity in the individual countries of Asia-Pacific. However, the results of each country vary according to the time invariant shocks. For this purpose, the study employed the panel least square technique which includes the panel least square regression, panel fixed effect regression, and panel two-stage least square regression. In general, all the panel tests indicate that there is a significant and positive relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water resources in the region. The fossil fuel energy consumption has a major dominating impact on the changes in the air pollution in the region.

  3. Environmental and resource burdens associated with world biofuel production out to 2050: footprint components from carbon emissions and land use to waste arisings and water consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Geoffrey P.; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Environmental or ?ecological? footprints have been widely used in recent years as indicators of resource consumption and waste absorption presented in terms of biologically productive land area [in global hectares (gha)] required per capita with prevailing technology. In contrast, ?carbon footprints? are the amount of carbon (or carbon dioxide equivalent) emissions for such activities in units of mass or weight (like kilograms per functional unit), but can be translated into a compon...

  4. Healthcare resource consumption for intermittent urinary catheterisation: cost-effectiveness of hydrophilic catheters and budget impact analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognoni, Carla; Tarricone, Rosanna

    2017-01-17

    This study presents a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing hydrophilic coated to uncoated catheters for patients performing urinary intermittent catheterisation. A national budget impact analysis is also included to evaluate the impact of intermittent catheterisation for management of bladder dysfunctions over a period of 5 years. A Markov model (lifetime horizon, 1 year cycle length) was developed to project health outcomes (life years and quality-adjusted life years) and economic consequences related to patients using hydrophilic coated or uncoated catheters. The model was populated with catheter-related clinical efficacy data retrieved from randomised controlled trials and quality-of-life data (utility weights) from the literature. Cost data (EUR, 2015) were estimated on the basis of healthcare resource consumption derived from an e-survey addressed to key opinion leaders in the field. Italian Healthcare Service perspective. Patients with spinal cord injury performing intermittent urinary catheterisation in the home setting. Incremental cost-effectiveness and cost-utility ratios (ICER and ICUR) of hydrophilic coated versus uncoated catheters and associated healthcare budget impact. The base-case ICER and ICUR associated with hydrophilic coated catheters were €20 761 and €24 405, respectively. This implies that hydrophilic coated catheters are likely to be cost-effective in comparison to uncoated ones, as proposed Italian threshold values range between €25 000 and €66 400. Considering a market share at year 5 of 89% hydrophilic catheters and 11% uncoated catheters, the additional cost for Italy is approximately €12 million in the next 5 years (current market share scenario for year 0: 80% hydrophilic catheters and 20% uncoated catheters). Considered over a lifetime, hydrophilic coated catheters are potentially a cost-effective choice in comparison to uncoated ones. These findings can assist policymakers in evaluating intermittent

  5. Multi-Scale Governance of Sustainable Natural Resource Use—Challenges and Opportunities for Monitoring and Institutional Development at the National and Global Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Bringezu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In a globalized economy, the use of natural resources is determined by the demand of modern production and consumption systems, and by infrastructure development. Sustainable natural resource use will require good governance and management based on sound scientific information, data and indicators. There is a rich literature on natural resource management, yet the national and global scale and macro-economic policy making has been underrepresented. We provide an overview of the scholarly literature on multi-scale governance of natural resources, focusing on the information required by relevant actors from local to global scale. Global natural resource use is largely determined by national, regional, and local policies. We observe that in recent decades, the development of public policies of natural resource use has been fostered by an “inspiration cycle” between the research, policy and statistics community, fostering social learning. Effective natural resource policies require adequate monitoring tools, in particular indicators for the use of materials, energy, land, and water as well as waste and GHG emissions of national economies. We summarize the state-of-the-art of the application of accounting methods and data sources for national material flow accounts and indicators, including territorial and product-life-cycle based approaches. We show how accounts on natural resource use can inform the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs and argue that information on natural resource use, and in particular footprint indicators, will be indispensable for a consistent implementation of the SDGs. We recognize that improving the knowledge base for global natural resource use will require further institutional development including at national and international levels, for which we outline options.

  6. The role of natural resource and environmental economics in determining the trade-offs in consumption and production of energy inputs: The case of biomass energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Natural resource economics issues deal with flows and funds of renewable and nonrenewable resources over time. These issues include topics concerned with management of fisheries, forests, mineral, energy resources, the extinction of species and the irreversibility of development over time. Environmental economics issues deal with regulation of polluting activities and the valuation of environmental amenities. In this study we outline a framework for studying both natural resource and environmental economics issues for any renewable or nonrenewable resource. Valuation from both the cost and benefit sides are addressed as they relate to the valuation of environmental programs or policies. By using this top-down approach to analyze and determine the costs and benefits of using renewable or nonrenewable resources, policy-makers on the global, national and local scales may be better informed as to the probable nonmarket and market ramifications of their natural resource and environmental policy decisions. This general framework for analysis is then focused to address biomass energy crops and their usage as inputs to energy production. As with any energy technology, a complete analysis must include an examination of the entire fuel cycle; specifically both production and consumption sides. From a production standpoint, market valuation issues such as crop management techniques, inputs to production, and community economics issues must be addressed as well as nonmarket valuation issues such as soil erosion, ground water effects and carbon sequestration. On the consumption side, market valuation considerations such as energy fuel efficiency and quality, cost of conversion and employment of labor are important factors while the critical nonmarket valuation factors are ambient air visibility, greenhouse gas release, and disposal of the by-products of conversion and combustion.

  7. The role of natural resource and environmental economics in determining the trade-offs in consumption and production of energy inputs: The case of biomass energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing , M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Natural resource economics issues deal with flows and funds of renewable and nonrenewable resources over time. These issues include topics concerned with management of fisheries, forests, mineral, energy resources, the extinction of species and the irreversibility of development over time. Environmental economics issues deal with regulation of polluting activities and the valuation of environmental amenities. In this study we outline a framework for studying both natural resource and environmental economics issues for any renewable or nonrenewable resource. Valuation from both the cost and benefit sides are addressed as they relate to the valuation of environmental programs or policies. By using this top-down approach to analyze and determine the costs and benefits of using renewable or nonrenewable resources, policy-makers on the global, national and local scales may be better informed as to the probable nonmarket and market ramifications of their natural resource and environmental policy decisions. The general framework for analysis is then focused to address biomass energy crops and their usage as inputs to energy production. As with any energy technology, a complete analysis must include an examination of the entire fuel cycle; specifically both production and consumption sides. From a production standpoint, market valuation issues such as crop management techniques, inputs to production, and community economics issues must be addressed as well as nonmarket valuation issues such as soil erosion, ground water effects and carbon sequestration. On the consumption side, market valuation considerations such as energy fuel efficiency and quality, cost of conversion and employment of labor are important factors while the critical nonmarket valuation factors are ambient air visibility, greenhouse gas release, and disposal of the by-products of conversion and combustion

  8. Consumption bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, P

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of consumption in relation to the growing world population. Over the past 25 years, world population increased by 53%, while world consumption per person increased by only 39%. If consumption continues to grow at 1.4%, the world consumption per person will rise by 100% over the next 50 years with the population increasing by only half that amount. The burden of reducing the environmental impact brought about by this increase lies on technology. Technology needs to deliver major changes in improving resource productivity, and decreasing the amount of waste created. Productivity such as global food production has kept up with demand. Malnutrition persists due to poverty, and not because of the inability of the world to produce enough food. However, the prospects are much worse for resources that are not traded on markets or subject to sustainable management such as groundwater, state forests, ocean fish, and communal waste sinks like rivers, lakes, and the global atmosphere. These resources are not under the direct control of people affected by shortage. People who want to change the way these resources are used or managed have to pass through the legal or political system. Usually, political responses are slow and there has to be a very widespread environmental damage before action is taken.

  9. Drug usage analysis and health care resources consumption in naïve patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangiorgi D

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Diego Sangiorgi,1 Maurizio Benucci,2 Carmela Nappi,3 Valentina Perrone,1 Stefano Buda,1 Luca Degli Esposti11CliCon S.r.l., Health, Economics and Outcomes Research, Ravenna, 2Unit of Rheumatology, S. Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Florence, 3Bristol Myers Squibb S.r.l., Rome, ItalyObjectives: The use of biologic agents has revolutionized the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA in the past 2 decades. These biologic agents directly target molecules and cells involved in the pathogenesis of RA. The purpose of this study was to assess the usage of biologic agents in terms of persistence to treatment, dose escalation, and consumption of health care resources (hospitalizations, drugs, and outpatients service in the real clinical practice in naïve patients with RA.Methods: We conducted a real-world, retrospective, observational cohort study based on data obtained from administrative databases of three Local Health Units in Italy. The population included adults diagnosed with RA who had at least one prescription between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2011, for a biologic that was approved for treatment of RA. The patients were followed for 12 months after enrollment. The clinical characteristics of the patients enrolled in this study were also investigated in the 1-year period before the index date. The main and secondary endpoints were evaluated only in biologic-naïve patients without switches. The overall health care costs for patients were evaluated.Results: A total of 594 patients met the study criteria (mean age 53.5±13.5, female:male ratio =3:1. Thirty-nine percent received etanercept, 25% adalimumab, 14% infliximab, 10% abatacept, 9% tocilizumab, and 3% golimumab. After 1 year of observation, patients showed similar use of other RA-related medication. For the naïve patients without switches, the persistence levels were: 78% for etanercept, 72% for tocilizumab, 71% for adalimumab, 69% for infliximab, and 64% for abatacept. For all agents, dose

  10. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media......This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...

  11. From the USDA: Educating the Next Generation: Funding Opportunities in Food, Agricultural, Natural Resources, and Social Sciences Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joyce E; Wagner, David J

    The National Institute of Food and Agriculture within the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides leadership, capacity, and funds to support the continuing development of a safe and competitive agricultural system. Many of the agency's educational programs are led by the Division of Community and Education (DOCE). These programs span agricultural education, enhancing agricultural literacy through both formal and nonformal education. Here, we have highlighted funding opportunities within DOCE that enhance agricultural education and literacy by supporting the improvement of students' critical communication, leadership skills, and experiential learning opportunities. Some of these programs include opportunities for which students can apply, while others focus on faculty applications. Opportunities faculty can apply for may support student-recruitment and student-retention techniques, curriculum development, innovative teaching methods, and institutional capacity-building programs. Overall, these programs foster a diverse workforce in agricultural science that matches the increasing diversity of the country. © 2016 J. E. Parker and D. J. Wagner. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  12. Improving the economic efficiency of PV plants through own consumption - risks and opportunities; Erhoehung der Wirtschaftlichkeit von PV-Anlagen durch Eigenverbrauch. Chancen und Risiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, Luis; Corradini, Roger [FfE Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft e.V., Muenchen (Germany); Roon, Serafin von [Forschungsgesellschaft fuer Energiewirtschaft mbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    The own-consumption regulation introduced in 2009 has led to an improved economic efficiency of PV plants. Even if the remuneration paid for own supply should be abolished, rising electricity prices will nevertheless strengthen the incentive for operators to increase their rate of own consumption. This scenario applies for the currently existing total of around 9 GW in installed PV capacity. A high rate of own consumption will continue to offer benefits for plants to be installed in future as well, and this will be further amplified if the scheduled cuts in feed-in compensation are moved forward in time. However, the promotion of own consumption of PV electricity can only provide relief to local electricity networks if these have a suitable load management in place. In spite of the compensation paid for own consumption it will further be necessary to find mechanisms that secure the economic effectiveness of efficiency technologies.

  13. Collaborative Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Rahbek Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben; Netter, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is based on a multiple-­‐‑case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new, clothes-­‐‑sharing concept that has emerged as a fashion niche within the last decade. Findings: It is concluded that fashion libraries offers interesting perspectives, e.g. by allow...

  14. NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RETROFIT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WATER RESOURCE PROTECTION IN URBAN ENVIRONMENTS: PROCEEDINGS, CHICAGO, IL, FEBRUARY 9-12, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water resource managers have been successful in developing approaches for reducing nonpoint source pollution in newly developing urban areas. Issues become increasingly complex, however, when managers are faced with the challenge of reducing nonpoint source impacts within previo...

  15. Is the resource man coming home? : engaging with an energy monitoring platform to foster flexible energy consumption in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkade, N.; Höffken, J.I.

    In this article we empirically study the notion of ‘The Resource Man’ put forward by Strengers (2014): a motivated and knowledgeable micro-resource manager, who uses domestic smart grid innovations to manage energy demand in a sustainable, affordable and grid-friendly way. To explore this notion, we

  16. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach – The analysis is based on a multiple-case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new...... to the new phenomenon of fashion libraries and does not cover other types of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry (Swap-parties, etc.). Originality/value – The paper is one of the first attempts to examine new business models of collaborative consumption in general and the fashion library...... concept in particular. The study contributes to the discussions of whether and how fashion sharing and collaboration holds promise as a viable business model and as a means to promote sustainability....

  17. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is based on a multiple-­‐‑case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new...... to the new phenomenon of fashion libraries and does not cover other types of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry (Swap-­‐‑parties, etc.). Originality/value: The paper is one of the first attempts to examine new business models of collaborative consumption in general and the fashion library...... concept in particular. The study contributes to the discussions of whether and how fashion sharing and collaboration holds promise as a viable business model and as a means to promote sustainability....

  18. REGULAR OBSERVATION OF CHILDREN WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA BY ALLERGOLOGIST AND ITS INFLUENCE ON CLINICAL AND FUNCTIONAL PARAMETERS OF THE DISEASE AND CONSUMPTION OF HEALTHCARE RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Artyukhov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In real practice, treatment of patients with bronchial asthma (BA is accompanied by unreasonable increase of healthcare resources consumption because of unplanned visits to the doctor due to health worsening, hospital treatment of exacerbations and emergency calls. Objective: to evaluate an effectiveness of children’s with bronchial asthma observations by allergologist. Methods: the dynamics of clinical and functional signs and frequency of emergency claims was analyzed in 115 children with BA who were observed by allergologist once in 3 months during one year. Results: in 3 months of regular observation by allergologist the number of children with day and night symptoms of BA and patients with daily rescue use of short-acting 2-agonists decreased, there were fewer children with limitations of physical activity. The number of patients with normal FEV1 increased in 6 months. Regular observation with allergologist resulted in reduction of number of patients with exacerbations and hospitalizations, shortening of acute period of BA and hospital stay, decreasing of emergency claims rate compared to those who were observed by GPs. Conclusion: regular observation by allergologist once in 3 months results in stabilization of clinical and functional state in patients with BA and decreases the consumption of emergency care resources.Key words: children, bronchial asthma, allergologist, clinical and functional state, healthcare resources.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (3: 55–59

  19. Spatio-temporal estimation of consumptive water use for assessment of irrigation system performance and management of water resources in irrigated Indus Basin, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, M.; Liedl, R.; Awan, U. K.

    2015-06-01

    Reallocation of water resources in any irrigation scheme is only possible by detailed assessment of current irrigation performance. The performance of the Lower Chenab Canal (LCC) irrigation system in Pakistan was evaluated at large spatial and temporal scales. Evaporative Fraction (EF) representing the key element to assess the three very important performance indicators of equity, adequacy and reliability, was determined by the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm (SEBAL) using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. Spatially based estimations were performed at irrigation subdivisions, lower and upper LCC and, whole LCC scales, while temporal scales covered months, seasons and years for the study period from 2005 to 2012. Differences in consumptive water use between upper and lower LCC were estimated for different crops and possible water saving options were explored. The assessment of equitable water distribution indicates smaller coefficients of variation and hence less inequity within each subdivision except Sagar (0.08) and Bhagat (0.10). Both adequacy and reliability of water resources are found lower during kharif as compared to rabi with variation from head to tail reaches. Reliability is quite low from July to September and in February/March. This is mainly attributed to seasonal rainfalls. Average consumptive water use estimations indicate almost doubled water use (546 mm) in kharif as compared to (274 mm) in rabi with significant variability for different cropping years. Crop specific consumptive water use reveals rice and sugarcane as major water consumers with average values of 593 mm and 580 mm, respectively, for upper and lower LCC, followed by cotton and kharif fodder. The water uses for cotton are 555 mm and 528 mm. For kharif fodder, corresponding values are 525 mm and 494 mm for both regions. Based on the differences in consumptive water use, different land use land cover change scenarios were evaluated with regard to savings

  20. Barriers and opportunities for integrating social science into natural resource management: lessons from National Estuarine Research Reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Patrick; Genskow, Ken; Shaw, Bret; Shepard, Robin

    2012-12-01

    The need for cross-disciplinary scientific inquiries that facilitate improved natural resource management outcomes through increased understanding of both the biophysical and human dimensions of management issues has been widely recognized. Despite this broad recognition, a number of obstacles and barriers still sometimes challenge the successful implementation of cross-disciplinary approaches. Improving understanding of these challenges and barriers will help address them and thereby foster appropriate and effective utilization of cross-disciplinary approaches to solve natural resource management challenges. This research uses a case study analysis of the United States National Estuarine Research Reserve System to improve understanding of the critical factors that influence practitioners' decisions related to incorporating social science into their natural resource management work. The case study research is analyzed and evaluated within a Theory of Planned Behavior framework to (1) determine and describe the factors that predict practitioners' intent to incorporate social science into their natural resource related activities and (2) recommend potential strategies for encouraging and enabling cross-disciplinary approaches to natural resource management. The results indicate that National Estuarine Research Reserve practitioners' decisions related to incorporating social science are primarily influenced by (1) confidence in their own capability to incorporate social science into their work and (2) beliefs about whether the outcomes of incorporating social science into their work would be valuable or beneficial.

  1. Opportunity and development of bio-based composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong Cai; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2005-01-01

    Our forests are a naturally renewable resource that has been used as a principal source of bio-energy and building materials for centuries. The rapid growth of world population has now resulted in substantial increases in demand and in consumption of all raw materials. This now provides a unique opportunity of developing new bio-based composites. The 100-year history...

  2. Socio-economic resources, young child feeding practices, consumption of highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages: a population-based survey in rural northwestern Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Mariela; Blandón, Elmer Zelaya; Persson, Lars-Åke; Hjern, Anders; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2015-01-21

    Socio-economic resources may be associated with infant feeding in complex patterns in societies undergoing a nutrition transition. This study evaluates associations of housing quality, food security and maternal education to the World Health Organization (WHO) feeding recommendations and to consumption of highly processed snacks (HP snacks) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in rural Nicaragua. Data were collected from May to November 2009, with mothers of 0- to 35-month-olds being asked about young child feeding using a food frequency questionnaire. A validated questionnaire was used to assess household food insecurity and data were collected on maternal education and housing quality. Pearson's chi-squared test was used to compare proportions and determine associations between the resources and young child feeding. The three socio-economic resources and other confounders were introduced to multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the independent contribution of the resources to the feeding practices and consumption of HP snacks and SSBs. Mothers with the lowest education level were more likely to be exclusively breastfeeding (EBF) their infants (OR not EBF: 0.19; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.51), whilst mothers of 6- to 35-month-olds in the lowest education category had more inadequate dietary diversity (DD) (OR for not meet DD: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.36, 3.08), were less likely to consume HP snacks (OR for HP snacks: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.68) and SSBs (OR for SSBs: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.98), compared to mothers with the highest level of education. Similarly, children residing in households with the highest food insecurity were also more prone to have inadequate dietary diversity (OR for not meet DD: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.05). The odds for double burden of suboptimal feeding (concurrent inadequate diet and consumption of HP snacks/SSBs) were significantly lower in children of least educated mothers (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.92). Higher level of education was associated

  3. Evaluation of crop production, trade, and consumption from the perspective of water resources: a case study of the Hetao irrigation district, China, for 1960-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Sun, Shikun; Wu, Pute; Wang, Yubao; Zhao, Xining

    2015-02-01

    The integration of water footprints and virtual water flows allows the mapping of the links between production, trade, and consumption and could potentially help to alleviate water scarcity and improve water management. We evaluated the water footprints and virtual water flows of crop production, consumption, and trade and their influencing factors in the Hetao irrigation district in China for 1960-2010. The water footprint of crop production and the export of virtual water fluctuated but tended to increase during this period and were influenced mainly by agricultural factors such as crop yield, irrigation efficiency, and area sown. The water footprint of crop consumption and the import of virtual water increased during 1960-1979 and decreased during 1980-2010 and were influenced by socio-economic factors such as total population, the retail-price index, and the proportion of the population in urban areas. Most of the water footprint of production was exported to other areas, which added to the pressure on local water systems. The import of virtual water led to a saving of water for the Hetao irrigation district, while its share of the water footprint of consumption has decreased significantly since 1977. An increase in irrigation efficiency can alleviate water scarcity, and its application should be coupled with measures that constrain the continued expansion of agriculture. Full-cost pricing of irrigation water was an effective policy tool for its management. Re-shaping regional water-production and water-trade nexuses by changing crop structures could provide alternative opportunities for addressing the problems of local water scarcity, but the trade-offs involved should first be assessed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. From Conflict to Co-co-operation in International Water Resources Management: Challenges and Opportunities in Sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyango, O.W

    2006-01-01

    Water and life are interdependent and inseparable. In order to achieve effective water management strategies ought to be premised on good understanding of ecosystems within the environment. Fresh water resources experience a lot of stress due to high competition which results in local, national and regional conflicts due to lack of co-ordinated water management system. The fresh water basins comprise nearly half of the territory and population of the world. In 2002, the World Summit on Sustainable development held in Johannesburg pointed out that, due to looming water shortage other sectors of life like health, human rights, environment, welfare politics and culture. On the other hand, due to diminishing trans-boundary water resources and their variable occurrence in space and time, there is a likelihood of inter-state tensions with possibilities of armed conflict. The paper therefore recommended for integrated, cooperative and culturally adapted solutions which take into account the diversity of human interactions with water

  5. Recent advances in understanding the genetic resources of sheep breeds locally-adapted to the UK uplands : opportunities they offer for sustainable productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianna eBowles

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Locally adapted breeds of livestock are of considerable interest since they represent potential reservoirs of adaptive fitness traits that may contribute to the future of sustainable productivity in a changing climate.Recent research, involving three hill sheep breeds geographically concentrated in the northern uplands of the UK has revealed the extent of their genetic diversity from one another and from other breeds. Results from the use of SNPs, microsatellites and retrovirus insertions are reviewed in the context of related studies on sheep breeds world-wide to highlight opportunities offered by the genetic resources of locally adapted hill breeds. One opportunity concerns reduced susceptibility to Maedi-Visna, a lentivirus with massive impacts on sheep health and productivity globally. In contrast to many mainstream breeds used in farming, each of the hill breeds analysed are likely to be far less susceptible to the disease threat. A different opportunity, relating specifically to the Herdwick breed, is the extent to which the genome of the breed has retained primitive features, no longer present in other mainland breeds of sheep in the UK and offering a new route for discovering unique genetic traits of use to agriculture.

  6. OPPORTUNITIES TO INCREASE OF ESTABLISHMENT´S COMPETITIVENESS APPLYING RESOURCES OF INFORMATION LOGISTICS IN THE CONCRETE COMPANY´S ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Ignáczová

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article solves the problem about ensuring and managing of the information flow by the institution for higher education – the Technical University of Košice (TUKE and one of its faculty, the Faculty of Mining, Ecology, Process Control and Geotechnology (FBERG. It is paid attention to the university´s official website and its complicacy. TUKE homepage is chosen for the primary source of information and the article explains the opportunities of its improvement for the purpose of streamlining the information behavior of both organizations. The implementations of concrete solution´s offer expects an increasing of organizations´s competitiveness that will promote the status and awareness of the organizations in society.

  7. From Good Work to Sustainable Development - Human Resources Consumption and Regeneration in the Post-Bureaucratic Working Life

    OpenAIRE

    Kira, Mari

    2003-01-01

    The thesis concentrates on the psychological consequences ofthe contemporary work. Two focal question of the thesis are,first, why do employees’psychological resources becomeconsumed in the contemporary working life? Second, how tocreate regenerative work enabling employees’developmentin the present situation? The latter question aims todistinguish the conditions for sustainable individual andcollective development at work. The empirical research consistsof two studies; the Empirical Study I ...

  8. Opportunities and improvisations: a pediatric surgeon's suggestions for successful short-term surgical volunteer work in resource-poor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Donald

    2010-05-01

    There is a paucity of trained pediatric surgeons in resource-poor areas, and many children never receive care for debilitating problems that could readily be managed by surgeons with proper training, supplies, and instrumentation. This article, written from the perspective of a surgeon who has been both the recipient of and the provider of volunteer surgical services, is intended to encourage surgeons in technologically advanced locations to volunteer in underserved areas and to assist them in the implementation of such endeavors. Concepts are presented with an emphasis on pediatric surgery, but most are relevant for volunteers in all surgical specialties. Volunteer paradigms include, but are not limited to, the "surgical brigade" model, where a large group of health care professionals take all needed equipment and supplies for the duration of their stint, and the "minimalist" model, where a single volunteer works with local personnel using locally available equipment. For a successful volunteer endeavor the host needs to have a perceived need for the volunteer's services, and the volunteer must be flexible in adapting to meet overwhelming needs with limited resources. It is suggested that appropriate technology, such as the inexpensive anal stimulator presented herein, should be employed whenever possible. With proper planning, realistic expectations, and a cooperative and helpful attitude, volunteer trips can be rewarding experiences for both volunteers and host physicians and lead to lasting relationships that improve children's lives globally.

  9. A Reliable TTP-Based Infrastructure with Low Sensor Resource Consumption for the Smart Home Multi-Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jungho; Kim, Mansik; Park, Jong Hyuk

    2016-07-05

    With the ICT technology making great progress in the smart home environment, the ubiquitous environment is rapidly emerging all over the world, but problems are also increasing proportionally to the rapid growth of the smart home market such as multiplatform heterogeneity and new security threats. In addition, the smart home sensors have so low computing resources that they cannot process complicated computation tasks, which is required to create a proper security environment. A service provider also faces overhead in processing data from a rapidly increasing number of sensors. This paper aimed to propose a scheme to build infrastructure in which communication entities can securely authenticate and design security channel with physically unclonable PUFs and the TTP that smart home communication entities can rely on. In addition, we analyze and evaluate the proposed scheme for security and performance and prove that it can build secure channels with low resources. Finally, we expect that the proposed scheme can be helpful for secure communication with low resources in future smart home multiplatforms.

  10. A Reliable TTP-Based Infrastructure with Low Sensor Resource Consumption for the Smart Home Multi-Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Kang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the ICT technology making great progress in the smart home environment, the ubiquitous environment is rapidly emerging all over the world, but problems are also increasing proportionally to the rapid growth of the smart home market such as multiplatform heterogeneity and new security threats. In addition, the smart home sensors have so low computing resources that they cannot process complicated computation tasks, which is required to create a proper security environment. A service provider also faces overhead in processing data from a rapidly increasing number of sensors. This paper aimed to propose a scheme to build infrastructure in which communication entities can securely authenticate and design security channel with physically unclonable PUFs and the TTP that smart home communication entities can rely on. In addition, we analyze and evaluate the proposed scheme for security and performance and prove that it can build secure channels with low resources. Finally, we expect that the proposed scheme can be helpful for secure communication with low resources in future smart home multiplatforms.

  11. A human tissue and data resource: an overview of opportunities, challenges, and development of a provider/researcher partnership model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort, Eric J; Campbell, Bryon; Resau, James H

    2003-02-01

    As we continue to strive to apply the findings of in vitro and animal studies to human disease and transition from genomics to proteomics, we will experience an ever-increasing need for human tissues. A web based system that provides access to tissues repositories and associated data will best facilitate the access to these vital resources and the application of research information to human disease treatment. There are organizational and design requirements that must be addressed in the implementation of the infrastructures that are needed to implement such a system, with special attention paid to the protection of patient anonymity. This report describes the implementation of a prototype human tissue network in the hope of encouraging implementation of similar systems among other consortia of providers and researchers.

  12. Antenatal care and opportunities for quality improvement of service provision in resource limited settings: A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Eem, Lisette; Nyanza, Elias C.; van Pelt, Sandra; Ndaki, Pendo; Basinda, Namanya; Sundby, Johanne

    2017-01-01

    Antenatal care is essential to improve maternal and newborn health and wellbeing. The majority of pregnant women in Tanzania attend at least one visit. Since implementation of the focused antenatal care model, quality of care assessments have mostly focused on utilization and coverage of routine interventions for antenatal care. This study aims to assess the quality of antenatal care provision from a holistic perspective in a rural district in Tanzania. Structure, process and outcome components of quality are explored. This paper reports on data collected over several periods from 2012 to 2015 through facility audits of supplies and services, ANC observations and exit interviews with pregnant women. Additional qualitative methods were used such as interviews, focus group observations and participant observations. Findings indicate variable performance of routine ANC services, partly explained by insufficient resources. Poor performance was also observed for appropriate history taking, attention for client’s wellbeing, basic physical examination and adequate counseling and education. Achieving quality improvement for ANC requires increased attention for the process of care provision beyond coverage, including attention for response-based services, which should be assessed based on locally determined criteria. PMID:29236699

  13. Agricultural management legacy affects microbial energetics, resource utilization and active bacterial community membership during 13C-glucose consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgason, B. L.; Levy-Booth, D.; Arcand, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    Over the long-term, differences in soil management can result in fundamental changes in biogeochemical cycling. The Alternative Cropping Systems (ACS) Study at Scott, SK, Canada (est. 1994) compares organic (ORG) vs. conventionally (CON) managed crop rotations in a loamy Typic Borall. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deficiency in the ORG systems have limited crop growth and thus plant carbon (C) inputs for over two decades, ultimately resulting in a C deficiency which has further altered biogeochemical cycling. We conducted a short-term microcosm experiment using 13C-glucose stable isotope probing (SIP) of DNA to test whether ORG soils have greater microbial C use efficiency due to long term resource limitation. Glucose-utilizing populations were dominated by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, with differing species-level identities and physiological capacities between CON and ORG systems. Of the 13C-utilizing taxa, relative abundance of Proteobacteria was greater in CON while Actinobacteria (and notably Firmicutes) were more dominant in ORG soils. Using isothermal calorimetry, we measured a thermodynamic efficiency (ηeff) of 0.68, which was not significantly different between soils indicating that the metabolic cost of glucose utilization was similar in CON and ORG soils. In spite of this, differential abundance analysis of 13C-labelled OTUs revealed that ORG soils had distinct active bacterial populations that were positively correlated with ηeff, ηsoil (glucose energy retained in soil) and primed soil organic matter (pSOM). In contrast, differentially abundant OTUs in the CON soils were negatively correlated with measures of thermodynamic efficiency but positively correlated with glucose-derived heat and CO2 production as well as NO3- and PO4- availability. ORG bacterial communities may co-metabolize other resources (N and P) from SOM to meet their metabolic requirements during glucose utilization, while the active bacteria in the CON soils could access these

  14. Opportunity Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Møller; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Tollestrup, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Creating and growing new businesses is basically about turning an entrepreneurial opportunity into future business. In literature the emergence of opportunities is often described as opportunity recognition or opportunity discovery, which points to the understanding that opportunities are out the...

  15. Patients' education, and its impact on care outcomes, resource consumption and working conditions: data from the International Diabetes Management Practices Study (IDMPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardino, J J; Aschner, P; Baik, S H; Chan, J; Chantelot, J M; Ilkova, H; Ramachandran, A

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of diabetes education provided to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in non-controlled studies ("real-world conditions") on quality of care, resource consumption and conditions of employment. This cross-sectional study and longitudinal follow-up describe the data (demographic and socioeconomic profiles, clinical characteristics, treatment of hyperglycaemia and associated cardiovascular risk factors, resource consumption) collected during the second phase (2006) of the International Diabetes Management Practices Study (IDMPS). Patients received diabetes education directly from the practice nurse, dietitian or educator, or were referred to ad hoc group-education programmes; all programmes emphasized healthy lifestyle changes, self-care and active participation in disease control and treatment. Educated vs non-educated T2DM patients (n=5692 in each group), paired by age, gender and diabetes duration, were randomly recruited for the IDMPS by participating primary-care physicians from 27 countries in Eastern Europe, Asia, Latin America and Africa. Outcome measures included clinical (body weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, foot evaluation), metabolic (HbA(1c) levels, blood lipid profile) and biochemical control measures. Treatment goals were defined according to American Diabetes Association guidelines. T2DM patients' education significantly improved the percentage of patients achieving target values set by international guidelines. Educated patients increased their insulin use and self-care performance, had a lower rate of chronic complications and a modest increase in cost of care, and probably higher salaries and slightly better productivity. Diabetes education is an efficient tool for improving care outcomes without having a major impact on healthcare costs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The difference between energy consumption and energy cost: Modelling energy tariff structures for water resource recovery facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymerich, I; Rieger, L; Sobhani, R; Rosso, D; Corominas, Ll

    2015-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of incorporating more realistic energy cost models (based on current energy tariff structures) into existing water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) process models when evaluating technologies and cost-saving control strategies. In this paper, we first introduce a systematic framework to model energy usage at WRRFs and a generalized structure to describe energy tariffs including the most common billing terms. Secondly, this paper introduces a detailed energy cost model based on a Spanish energy tariff structure coupled with a WRRF process model to evaluate several control strategies and provide insights into the selection of the contracted power structure. The results for a 1-year evaluation on a 115,000 population-equivalent WRRF showed monthly cost differences ranging from 7 to 30% when comparing the detailed energy cost model to an average energy price. The evaluation of different aeration control strategies also showed that using average energy prices and neglecting energy tariff structures may lead to biased conclusions when selecting operating strategies or comparing technologies or equipment. The proposed framework demonstrated that for cost minimization, control strategies should be paired with a specific optimal contracted power. Hence, the design of operational and control strategies must take into account the local energy tariff. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The global one health paradigm: challenges and opportunities for tackling infectious diseases at the human, animal, and environment interface in low-resource settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondwossen A Gebreyes

    Full Text Available Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011 and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013 were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1 development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2 skilled-personnel capacity building, (3 accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4 improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to

  18. The global one health paradigm: challenges and opportunities for tackling infectious diseases at the human, animal, and environment interface in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J; Oliveira, Celso J B; Schlesinger, Larry S; Saif, Yehia M; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight

  19. The dynamics of alternative food consumption: contexts, opportunities and transformations Les dynamiques de la consommation alimentaire alternative: contextes, opportunités et transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Terragni

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Can consumers contribute to a more sustainable world? In this article we describe alternative consumption in Norway, exemplified by organic food, and discuss the role of consumers in promoting change. The paper is based on studies undertaken at the Norwegian National Institute for Consumer Research (SIFO during the last 15 years. The analysis starts by considering the origin of the organic movement in Norway and follows its development, showing that over the years consumption of organic products has reached a noteworthy position in the conventional market. While organic products seem to face conventionalisation, other alternative initiatives are emerging, such as fair trade, farmers’ market, farm food outlets, box schemes and community supported agriculture (CSA. Agreeing with the critique of a ‘generic active consumer model’, the article makes the case that the consumer’s role must be understood contextually and within its limitations. At the same time, the data presented in this article show that within shifting contextual frameworks, consumers utilise consumption with the goal of producing change. The paper suggests that forms of consumption defined as alternative are socially contested and the products that consumers identify as alternative are those that, in a given time and space, best reflect alternative values.Les consommateurs peuvent-ils contribuer à un monde plus durable? Dans cet article nous décrivons la consommation alternative en Norvège à travers l’exemple des aliments bio, et nous discutons le rôle des consommateurs dans la promotion du changement. Cet article se fonde sur des recherches entreprises par l’Institut national de la recherche sur les consommateurs (SIFO en Norvège, au cours des 15 dernières années. L’analyse commence par décrire l’origine du mouvement bio en Norvège et suit son développement, montrant qu’au fil des années la consommation de produits bio a atteint une position importante

  20. Disease progression and health care resource consumption in patients affected by hepatitis C virus in real practice setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrone V

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Valentina Perrone, Diego Sangiorgi, Stefano Buda, Luca Degli Esposti CliCon S.r.l. Health, Economics & Outcomes Research, Ravenna, Italy Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection represents serious health problems worldwide and is a major contributor to end-stage liver disease including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. In Italy, ~2% of subjects are infected with HCV. The objective of this study was to describe treatment patterns, disease progression, and resource use in HCV.Methods: An observational retrospective cohort analysis based on four Local Health Units administrative and laboratory databases was conducted. HCV-positive patients between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010 were included and followed-up for 1 year. To explore which covariates were associated to disease progression (cirrhosis, HCC, death for any cause, Cox proportional hazards models were performed.Results: A total of 9,514 patients were analyzed of which 55.6% were male, aged 58.1±16.1, and prevalence 0.4%; 5.8% were positive to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, 3.0% to hepatitis B virus (HBV, and 1.6% to HCV+HBV+HIV; 26.1% had cirrhosis and 4.3% HCC. The majority of patients (76% did not receive an antiviral treatment; the main factors affecting this decision were age, 44.1% of untreated patients being aged >65 years; 31% were affected by cirrhosis, 6.6% had ongoing substance or alcohol abuse, and 5.5% were affected by HCC. Disease progression in the observed timeframe was less frequent among treated patients (incidence rate per 100 patients/year: cirrhosis 2.1±0.7 vs 13.0±1.0, HCC 0.5±0.3 vs 3.6±0.5, death 0.5±0.3 vs 6.4±0.7. The annual expenditure for HCV management (drugs, hospitalizations, outpatient services was €4,700 per patient.Conclusion: This observational, real-life study shows that only a small proportion of patients received antiviral therapy in the territorial services investigated; among patients who were not treated

  1. Aboriginal Consumption of Estuarine Food Resources and Potential Implications for Health through Trace Metal Exposure; A Study in Gumbaynggirr Country, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Shaina; Sullivan, Caroline A; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    Fishing and resource use continues to be an essential aspect of life for many Aboriginal communities throughout Australia. It is important for dietary sustenance, and also retains deep social, cultural and economic significance, playing a fundamental role in maintaining group cohesion, transferring cultural knowledge and affirming Indigenous identities. We surveyed approximately 20% of the Gumbaynggirr Aboriginal community of Nambucca Heads, New South Wales, Australia. This paper explores Gumbaynggirr Connection to Country and engagement in cultural practice. It quantifies fishing efforts and consumption of seafood within the community. We found 95% of the sample group fish, with the highest rate of fishing being 2-3 times a week (27%). Furthermore, 98% of participants eat seafood weekly or more frequently, up to more than once a day (24%). Survey results revealed that Myxus elongatus (Sand mullet) and naturally recruited Saccostrea glomerata (Sydney rock oysters) continue to be important wild resources to the Gumbaynggirr community. Trace metals were measured in M. elongatus and S. glomerata samples collected by community participants in this study. Maximum levels prescribed in the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code were not exceeded in the edible tissue for either species, however both species exceeded the generally expected levels for zinc and copper and S. glomerata samples exceeded the generally expected level for selenium. Furthermore the average dietary exposure to trace metals from consuming seafood was calculated for the surveyed population. Trace metal intake was then compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. This process revealed that copper and selenium intake were both within the provisional tolerable weekly intake, while there is no guideline for zinc. Furthermore, participants relying heavily on wild resources from the Nambucca River estuary may exceed the provisional

  2. Aboriginal Consumption of Estuarine Food Resources and Potential Implications for Health through Trace Metal Exposure; A Study in Gumbaynggirr Country, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaina Russell

    Full Text Available Fishing and resource use continues to be an essential aspect of life for many Aboriginal communities throughout Australia. It is important for dietary sustenance, and also retains deep social, cultural and economic significance, playing a fundamental role in maintaining group cohesion, transferring cultural knowledge and affirming Indigenous identities. We surveyed approximately 20% of the Gumbaynggirr Aboriginal community of Nambucca Heads, New South Wales, Australia. This paper explores Gumbaynggirr Connection to Country and engagement in cultural practice. It quantifies fishing efforts and consumption of seafood within the community. We found 95% of the sample group fish, with the highest rate of fishing being 2-3 times a week (27%. Furthermore, 98% of participants eat seafood weekly or more frequently, up to more than once a day (24%. Survey results revealed that Myxus elongatus (Sand mullet and naturally recruited Saccostrea glomerata (Sydney rock oysters continue to be important wild resources to the Gumbaynggirr community. Trace metals were measured in M. elongatus and S. glomerata samples collected by community participants in this study. Maximum levels prescribed in the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code were not exceeded in the edible tissue for either species, however both species exceeded the generally expected levels for zinc and copper and S. glomerata samples exceeded the generally expected level for selenium. Furthermore the average dietary exposure to trace metals from consuming seafood was calculated for the surveyed population. Trace metal intake was then compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. This process revealed that copper and selenium intake were both within the provisional tolerable weekly intake, while there is no guideline for zinc. Furthermore, participants relying heavily on wild resources from the Nambucca River estuary may exceed the

  3. Environmental and resource burdens associated with world biofuel production out to 2050: footprint components from carbon emissions and land use to waste arisings and water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Geoffrey P; Li, Bo

    2016-09-01

    Environmental or 'ecological' footprints have been widely used in recent years as indicators of resource consumption and waste absorption presented in terms of biologically productive land area [in global hectares (gha)] required per capita with prevailing technology. In contrast, 'carbon footprints' are the amount of carbon (or carbon dioxide equivalent) emissions for such activities in units of mass or weight (like kilograms per functional unit), but can be translated into a component of the environmental footprint (on a gha basis). The carbon and environmental footprints associated with the world production of liquid biofuels have been computed for the period 2010-2050. Estimates of future global biofuel production were adopted from the 2011 International Energy Agency (IEA) 'technology roadmap' for transport biofuels. This suggests that, although first generation biofuels will dominate the market up to 2020, advanced or second generation biofuels might constitute some 75% of biofuel production by 2050. The overall environmental footprint was estimated to be 0.29 billion (bn) gha in 2010 and is likely to grow to around 2.57 bn gha by 2050. It was then disaggregated into various components: bioproductive land, built land, carbon emissions, embodied energy, materials and waste, transport, and water consumption. This component-based approach has enabled the examination of the Manufactured and Natural Capital elements of the 'four capitals' model of sustainability quite broadly, along with specific issues (such as the linkages associated with the so-called energy-land-water nexus). Bioproductive land use was found to exhibit the largest footprint component (a 48% share in 2050), followed by the carbon footprint (23%), embodied energy (16%), and then the water footprint (9%). Footprint components related to built land, transport and waste arisings were all found to account for an insignificant proportion to the overall environmental footprint, together amounting to

  4. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  5. Assessment of resources and reserves of hard and brown coal, coal production and consumption in the EU and Poland; Ocena zasobow, wydobycia i zuzycia wegla kamiennego i brunatnego w UE i Polsce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ney, R. [Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN), Krakow (Poland). Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute

    2004-07-01

    The paper presents and discusses tables for resources and reserves of hard coal and brown coal for EU member countries and Eastern European countries, for the year 2002. Production and consumption of coal in these countries for the year 2003 are compared. 8 refs., 17 tabs.

  6. Design of the DIRECT-project : interventions to increase job resources and recovery opportunities to improve job-related health, well-being, and performance outcomes in nursing homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoor, E.M.B.; Jonge, de J.; Hamers, J.P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Because of high demands at work, nurses are at high risk for occupational burnout and physical complaints. The presence of job resources (such as job autonomy or social support) and recovery opportunities could counteract the adverse effect of high job demands. However, it is still

  7. Opportunities for addressing laminated root rot caused by Phellinus sulphuracens in Washington's forests: A Report from the Washington State Academy of Sciences in cooperation with the Washington State Department of Natural Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. James Cook; Robert L. Edmonds; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Willis Littke; Geral McDonald; Daniel Omdahl; Karen Ripley; Charles G. Shaw; Rona Sturrock; Paul Zambino

    2013-01-01

    This report from the Washington State Academy of Sciences (WSAS) is in response to a request from the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) to "identify approaches and opportunities ripe for research on understanding and managing root diseases of Douglas-fir." Similar to the process used by the National Research Council, the WSAS upon...

  8. Opportunities of using bio-based materials for value-added composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong Cai

    2010-01-01

    Our forests are a naturally renewable resource that has been used as a principal source of bio-energy and building materials for centuries. The growth of world population and affluence has resulted in substantial increases in demand and in consumption for all raw materials. Resulting increases in demand for wood products provides a unique opportunity for developing new...

  9. Design of the DIRECT-project: interventions to increase job resources and recovery opportunities to improve job-related health, well-being, and performance outcomes in nursing homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamers Jan PH

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of high demands at work, nurses are at high risk for occupational burnout and physical complaints. The presence of job resources (such as job autonomy or social support and recovery opportunities could counteract the adverse effect of high job demands. However, it is still unclear how job resources and recovery opportunities can be translated into effective workplace interventions aiming to improve employee health, well-being, and performance-related outcomes. The aim of the current research project is developing and implementing interventions to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities, which may lead to improved health, well-being and performance of nurses. Methods/design The DIRECT-project (DIsc Risk Evaluating Controlled Trial is a longitudinal, quasi-experimental field study. Nursing home staff of 4 intervention wards and 4 comparison wards will be involved. Based on the results of a base-line survey, interventions will be implemented to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities. After 12 and 24 month the effect of the interventions will be investigated with follow-up surveys. Additionally, a process evaluation will be conducted to map factors that either stimulated or hindered successful implementation as well as the effectiveness of the interventions. Discussion The DIRECT-project fulfils a strong need for intervention research in the field of work, stress, performance, and health. The results could reveal (1 how interventions can be tailored to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities, in order to counteract job demands, and (2 what the effects of these interventions will be on health, well-being, and performance of nursing staff.

  10. Design of the DIRECT-project: interventions to increase job resources and recovery opportunities to improve job-related health, well-being, and performance outcomes in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoor, Ellen; de Jonge, Jan; Hamers, Jan P H

    2010-05-28

    Because of high demands at work, nurses are at high risk for occupational burnout and physical complaints. The presence of job resources (such as job autonomy or social support) and recovery opportunities could counteract the adverse effect of high job demands. However, it is still unclear how job resources and recovery opportunities can be translated into effective workplace interventions aiming to improve employee health, well-being, and performance-related outcomes. The aim of the current research project is developing and implementing interventions to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities, which may lead to improved health, well-being and performance of nurses. The DIRECT-project (DIsc Risk Evaluating Controlled Trial) is a longitudinal, quasi-experimental field study. Nursing home staff of 4 intervention wards and 4 comparison wards will be involved. Based on the results of a base-line survey, interventions will be implemented to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities. After 12 and 24 month the effect of the interventions will be investigated with follow-up surveys. Additionally, a process evaluation will be conducted to map factors that either stimulated or hindered successful implementation as well as the effectiveness of the interventions. The DIRECT-project fulfils a strong need for intervention research in the field of work, stress, performance, and health. The results could reveal (1) how interventions can be tailored to optimize job resources and recovery opportunities, in order to counteract job demands, and (2) what the effects of these interventions will be on health, well-being, and performance of nursing staff.

  11. Comparison of cost determination of both resource consumption accounting and time-driven activity-based costing systems in a healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyapıcı, Hasan; Tanış, Veyis Naci

    2017-05-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to explore the differences between resource consumption accounting (RCA) and time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) systems in determining the costs of services of a healthcare setting. Methods A case study was conducted to calculate the unit costs of open and laparoscopic gall bladder surgeries using TDABC and RCA. Results The RCA system assigns a higher cost both to open and laparoscopic gall bladder surgeries than TDABC. The total cost of unused capacity under the TDABC system is also double that in RCA. Conclusion Unlike TDABC, RCA calculates lower costs for unused capacities but higher costs for products or services in a healthcare setting in which fixed costs make up a high proportion of total costs. What is known about the topic? TDABC is a revision of the activity-based costing (ABC) system. RCA is also a new costing system that includes both the theoretical advantages of ABC and the practical advantages of German costing. However, little is known about the differences arising from application of TDABC and RCA. What does this paper add? There is no study comparing both TDABC and RCA in a single case study based on a real-world healthcare setting. Thus, the present study fills this gap in the literature and it is unique in the sense that it is the first case study comparing TDABC and RCA for open and laparoscopic gall bladder surgeries in a healthcare setting. What are the implications for practitioners? This study provides several interesting results for managers and cost accounting researchers. Thus, it will contribute to the spread of RCA studies in healthcare settings. It will also help the implementers of TDABC to revise data concerning the cost of unused capacity. In addition, by separating costs into fixed and variable, the paper will help managers to create a blended (combined) system that can improve both short- and long-term decisions.

  12. Conference Summary Report from ENS`95. Sustainable Resource Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdgate, M [ed.

    1996-12-31

    This publication gives a survey of the ENS`95 conference held in Stavanger (Norway). The publication presents a conference summary and lists of papers for each of the main themes covering sustainable energy production and consumption (challenges and opportunities), international trade and sustainable development, sustainable resource management and economic development in the northern circumpolar region together with sustainable forestry and food production

  13. Conference Summary Report from ENS`95. Sustainable Resource Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdgate, M. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    This publication gives a survey of the ENS`95 conference held in Stavanger (Norway). The publication presents a conference summary and lists of papers for each of the main themes covering sustainable energy production and consumption (challenges and opportunities), international trade and sustainable development, sustainable resource management and economic development in the northern circumpolar region together with sustainable forestry and food production

  14. Self-consumption. German experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesner, Sven

    2015-01-01

    This document presents, first, the definition and context of self-consumption (photovoltaic and cogeneration), then its profitability (regulation and financial incentive), next, the direct consumption by third parties, and finally, the opportunities and technical challenges

  15. Bat consumption in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokwan Suwannarong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. Methods: This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok, where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April–August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. Results: In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Discussion: Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption.

  16. Bat consumption in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Schuler, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok), where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April-August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption.

  17. Informing decision makers and identifying niche opportunities for windpower: use of multiattribute trade off analysis to evaluate non-dispatchable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connors, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    The operational and flexibility characteristics of renewable energy technologies are often overlooked in traditional head to head technology comparisons. This impedes their adoption since identification of environmental and risk mitigation advantages requires evaluation of such non-dispatchable technologies in a systemwide context. Use of multiattribute resource planning tools in a trade off analysis framework identifies the complementary emissions reduction and fuel diversification characteristics of renewables. Data visualization using trade off analysis communicates electric resource interactions and the risks of following various strategies to diverse stakeholder audiences, promoting acceptance. This paper provides an overview of the multiattribute trade off approach and applies it to resource strategies incorporating windpower in the New England regional power system. Examples focus on the interaction of wind resources with demand-side management and supply-side options under fuel cost uncertainty. (Author)

  18. Material consumption and social well-being within the periphery of the world economy: an ecological analysis of maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, James

    2008-12-01

    The degree to which social well-being is predicated upon levels of material consumption remains under-examined from a large-N, quantitative perspective. The present study analyzes the factors influencing levels of maternal mortality in 2005 among 92 peripheral countries. We incorporate into regression analysis the ecological footprint, a comprehensive measure of natural resource consumption, and alternative explanatory variables drawn from previous research. Results illustrate ecological footprint consumption has a moderately strong direct influence shaping lower levels of maternal mortality. Path analysis reveals export commodity concentration has a negative effect on level of ecological footprint demand net the strong positive influence of income per capita. This illustrates cross-national trade dependency relations directly influence natural resource consumption opportunities and thereby indirectly contribute to higher maternal mortality levels within the periphery of the world economy. The results confirm material consumption is an important dimension of improvement in maternal mortality.

  19. 2014 Navajo Nation Energy and Water Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Suzanne L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Woods, Sam [Navajo Transitional Energy Company, Farmington, NM (United States)

    2017-03-31

    The Navajo Nation is the home of the largest land-based Indian reservation in the U.S., covering more than twenty-seven thousand square miles. The land in the southwestern U.S. holds an abundance of natural resources, which are intimately integrated in the history, economy, and growth of the Navajo tribe. This report aims to wholly visualize the Navajo Nation’s resources and energy and water consumption using quantitative data and systems engineering analysis. The energy and water flow chart visualizations provide structured information for tribal leaders, policymakers, and educators around energy and water system discussions, technology development opportunities, and policy decisions. The analysis of both energy and water is a first step to visualizing the interconnectedness and complexities of the energy-water-food nexus of the nation. The goal of this energy analysis was to first estimate coal resource consumption because of the considerable impact coal has on the Navajo economy, recently as much as $26 million per year in coal royalties.

  20. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  1. Consumption and direct-use values of savanna bio-resources used by rural households in Mametja, a semi-arid area of Limpopo province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Twine, W

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available was assumed to be the same throughout the year, monthly consumption was multiplied by 12. In many cases, households reported consuming bushmeat only a few times a year. ? Edible insects ? volumes of grasshoppers, termites and flying ants were calculated... local price. In the case of wooden utensils, different itemshaddifferentprices,andthecompositevaluewasthusthe sum of the mean number of each item multiplied by its mean price. Prices of fresh and dried herbs differed, and these were applied to the mean...

  2. Opportunity Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løwe Nielsen, Suna; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Nielsen, Louise Møller

    2013-01-01

    design”. The framework explains how opportunities intentionally and pro-actively can be designed from methods and processes of moving-in and moving-out. An illustrative case of opportunity design within the area of sustainable energy and electric cars is presented to link the theoretical discussion...

  3. Business opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory Search Site submit About Mission Business Newsroom Publications Los : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts Business » Short- and long-term opportunities Business opportunities Setting new standards and developing small business initiatives within NNSA

  4. Special Report on the Role of Open Educational Resources in Supporting the Sustainable Development Goal 4: Quality Education Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreal, Rory

    2017-01-01

    Open Educational Resources (OER) and their offspring, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), are becoming important factors in achieving the "Sustainable Development Goal 4: Quality Education" ("SDG4"). The OER movement is less than 15 years old and is growing rapidly as more and more nations and institutions adopt the view that…

  5. Natural resource inventory and monitoring for Ulaan Taiga Specially Protected Areas—An assessment of needs and opportunities in northern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Peggy E.; Meyer, Joseph B.; Chow, Leslie S.

    2017-03-10

    Between 1997 and 2011, Mongolia established three specially protected areas in the north-central part of the country to protect various high-value resources. These areas are jointly referred to as the Ulaan Taiga Specially Protected Areas. In accordance with the goals of the draft general management plan, this report identifies options for initiating an inventory and monitoring program for the three protected areas. Together, the three areas comprise over 1.5 million hectares of mountainous terrain west of Lake Hovsgol and bordering the Darkhad Valley. The area supports numerous rare ungulates, endangered fish, and over 40 species of threatened plants. Illegal mining, illegal logging, and poaching pose the most immediate threats to resources. As a first step, a review of published literature would inform natural resource management at the Ulaan Taiga Specially Protected Areas because it would inform other inventories.Vegetation classification and mapping also would inform other inventory efforts because the process incorporates geographic analysis to identify environmental gradients, fine-scale sampling that captures species composition and structure, and landscape-scale results that represent the variety and extent of habitats for various organisms. Mapping using satellite imagery reduces the cost per hectare.Following a determination of existing knowledge, field surveys of vertebrates and vascular plants would serve to build species lists and fill in gaps in existing knowledge. For abiotic resources, a focus on monitoring air quality, evaluating and monitoring water quality, and assembling and storing weather data would provide information for correlating resource response status with changing environmental conditions.Finally, we identify datasets that, if incorporated into a geographic information system, would inform resource management. They include political boundaries, infrastructure, topography, surficial geology, hydrology, fire history, and soils.In terms

  6. New Opportunities to Expand Information on Intense-Strained State of the Earth's Crust in the Areas of Development Mineral Resources During Monitoring Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pershin Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is established that new safe and pollution-free technologies of development of Kuzbass coal deposits should be based on new knowledge of development geodynamic and technogenic processes in exploration of mineral resources. Such information is impossible without formation of new models of deformations of the earth crust blocks. Now in traditional technologies of geomechanical ensuring development of mineral resources the main characteristic is the information about the kinematics of these processes. A comprehensive approach which beginning is development of the theory for justification of scale of the explored territory and establishment of uniform integral parameters of a strained state of blocks of crust. Justification of scale of the explored territory defines effectiveness of expenses. Establishment of uniform integral parameters of a strained state of crustal blocks characterizes the new level of information exchange between sciences about Earth and geomechanics. Practical use of the specified theory consists of assessment of geodynamic danger at development of coal fields.

  7. Opportunities for development of non-traditional hydrocarbon resources in the Timan-North Ural region, taking into account ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Burtseva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors formulate the definition of non-traditional resources from geological-genetic, technological and economic viewpoints. The authors present a detailed assessment of the resource potential of non-traditional hydrocarbon raw material in the Timan-Severouralsk region, including hydrocarbons in the deposits of the domanic type, methane of coal seams, liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons potentially extracted from black, brown coal and combustible shales. The authors also show the main directions of industrial use of coal and oil shales. The assessment of the resource potential of hydrocarbon raw materials in the deposits of the domanic type varies widely; the recoverable resources may amount to about 1 billion tons. Bituminous coals with a high volatile yield have the highest degree of conversion to liquid hydrocarbons, and brown and black coals of with a low degree of metamorphism usually serve for the production of combustible gas and primary resin. The paper describes the option of developing oil shale deposits as a possible investment project. The determined components and overall values of the economic effect from the implementation of the projects under consideration allow us to estimate that the payback period of investments does not exceed seven years. There is also a social effect: the creation of an additional 550 jobs in the operation of the quarry and about 700 jobs – in the enrichment and processing of oil shales. The estimated annual volume of output is 25–30 billion rubles, and the volume of tax revenues – up to 100 billion rubles. The authors evaluated ecosystem services in the territories of potential industrial development of coal and oil shale deposits; identified the beneficiaries of the benefits from the use of environmental services and the possibility of calculating payments.

  8. The Comparison of Virtual Water Consumption among the Various Consumption Patterns of Diet

    OpenAIRE

    SHANG Hai-yang

    2015-01-01

    Water resource is the basic and necessary input in the process of production and various consumption patterns of products and goods causes cause different impacts on the water resource using. It is very important to analysis and measures those different influences, which is especially good for the sustainability of water resource, construction of sustainable consumption pattern and the implementation of Integrated Water Resource Management. In this text, the virtual water consumption of Gansu...

  9. Making Schools the Model for Healthier Environments Toolkit: General School Nutrition Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The federal school nutrition programs are the keystones to the diets of millions of American children. Schools have the opportunity to support healthy nutrition habits early in life by creating environments that encourage the consumption of healthy foods and beverages. This paper provides resources which offer general information about the…

  10. Challenges and Opportunities in Transforming a City into a “Zero Waste City”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Lehmann

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The currently consumption-driven society produces an enormous volume of waste every day. Continuous depletion of natural finite resources by urban populations is leading the globe to an uncertain future. Therefore, to prevent further depletion of global resources, sustainable consumption and a strategic waste management system would be required. It is evident that a significant number of global non-renewable resources such as cadmium, mercury and tellurium will experience permanent shortfall in global supply within the next two to three decades. Astonishingly, the current recycling rate of these very scarce metals is significantly low in all cities around the globe. The concept of the zero waste city includes a 100% recycling of municipal solid waste and a 100% recovery of all resources from waste materials. However, transforming currently over-consuming cities into zero waste cities is challenging. Therefore, this study aims to understand the key factors waste management systems in cities such as consumption, resource depletion and possible decoupling opportunity through implementing the “zero waste city” concept. The study proposes five significant principles for transforming current cities into zero waste cities in the context of long-term sustainability. A simultaneous and harmonized application of sustainable behaviour and consumption, product stewardship, a 100% recycling and recovery of resources, legislated zero landfill and incineration are required to transform current city into a zero waste city.

  11. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... the investigative tools offered by assemblage theory, actor-network theory and non-representational theory. Clear theoretical explanation and methodological innovation, alongside empirical applications of these emerging frameworks will offer readers new and refreshing perspectives on consumer culture and market...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  12. Career opportunities in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, L

    Oncology nursing offers nurses a wide range of opportunities. Nurses need a wide range of skills in order to care for patients who may have acute oncological illnesses or require palliative care. The nature of the nurse/patient relationship can be intense. Nurses generally find this enhances job satisfaction. The pressures exerted on nurses working in oncology can be immense. Oncology nursing is rewarding but very demanding and therefore the nurse has to be resourceful. Early career planning is advisable to take advantage of the opportunities that are currently available.

  13. Obstacles, Realities and Opportunities in Human Resources Management in Public Administration Institutions From Bihor County (Romania and Hajdú-Bihar County (Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Madela ABRUDAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the par-ticularities of human resources management in the public institutions from Bihor County (Ro-mania and Hajdu-Bihar County (Hungary. The comparative dimension of our study is framed in Hofstede’s categories of cultural differences in organizational culture. The data presented is derived from a broader study conducted on the implementation of New Public Management at local public administration institutions in Ro-mania and Hungary. The project entitled ‘Es-tablishment of R&D programmes in the f eld of new public management between economic faculties of higher education in Hajdu-Bihar and Bihor Counties’ (HURO/0901/277/2.2.2 was developed in partnership between Faculties of Economics from the Universities of Oradea and Debrecen. Our results on public human resour-ces provide relevant insight in the processes re-garding personnel in the public institutions in this region and propose solutions for improvement of the observed weaknesses. The employees of the 60 public institutions included in this research consider themselves participants in the decision-al process, yet the evaluation process needs to be reshaped in order to provide a better balance between performances and the rewards system.

  14. Opportunities and costs of tourism for a new Humanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizzarri Carmen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper describes the flow of tourism on a national and international scale, emphasizing the role that entertainment tourism and theme parks play globally. Following these preliminary remarks, the second part of the paper presents the positive and negative economic effects of leisure tourism opportunities at the European and regional level. The third part of the paper analyses the environmental aspects of tourism and entertainment tourism. It shows that sustainable tourism development can be an essential condition for the protection of natural and cultural resources. Finally, the fourth part summarizes some of the most important social issues arising from tourism activities, among them the conflict between residents and tourists on the exploitation of resources and the demonstration effect deriving from the consumption of resources. To avoid this spoliation and destruction of the destination (land and local community, the paper suggests a new Humanism based on Catholicism as a way to realize a sustainability utopia.

  15. USAJOBS Job Opportunity Announcements (JOA) REST API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — This REST-based API is designed to support lightweight Federal Job Opportunity Announcement (JOA) content consumption by consumers. It is anticipated that this API...

  16. Consumption and Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe

    1996-01-01

    The contribution takes its point of departure in the relation between the many resource savings initiatives and the lack of interest for the growth in consumption. It argues that what we make up on the roundabouts, we risk to loose on the swings. In order to prevent that it reveals some of the cu...... socio-cultural and life qualitative demands into account. As a conclusion the author outlines some ideals with regard to how to integrate human the dimension in urban ecological design.......The contribution takes its point of departure in the relation between the many resource savings initiatives and the lack of interest for the growth in consumption. It argues that what we make up on the roundabouts, we risk to loose on the swings. In order to prevent that it reveals some...

  17. The challenges and opportunities of conducting a clinical trial in a low resource setting: The case of the Cameroon mobile phone SMS (CAMPS trial, an investigator initiated trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ongolo-Zogo Pierre

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conducting clinical trials in developing countries often presents significant ethical, organisational, cultural and infrastructural challenges to researchers, pharmaceutical companies, sponsors and regulatory bodies. Globally, these regions are under-represented in research, yet this population stands to gain more from research in these settings as the burdens on health are greater than those in developed resourceful countries. However, developing countries also offer an attractive setting for clinical trials because they often have larger treatment naive populations with higher incidence rates of disease and more advanced stages. These factors can present a reduction in costs and time required to recruit patients. So, balance needs to be found where research can be encouraged and supported in order to bring maximum public health benefits to these communities. The difficulties with such trials arise from problems with obtaining valid informed consent, ethical compensation mechanisms for extremely poor populations, poor health infrastructure and considerable socio-economic and cultural divides. Ethical concerns with trials in developing countries have received attention, even though many other non-ethical issues may arise. Local investigator initiated trials also face a variety of difficulties that have not been adequately reported in literature. This paper uses the example of the Cameroon Mobile Phone SMS trial to describe in detail, the specific difficulties encountered in an investigator-initiated trial in a developing country. It highlights administrative, ethical, financial and staff related issues, proposes solutions and gives a list of additional documentation to ease the organisational process.

  18. The challenges and opportunities of conducting a clinical trial in a low resource setting: the case of the Cameroon mobile phone SMS (CAMPS) trial, an investigator initiated trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Thabane, Lehana; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre; Lang, Trudie

    2011-06-09

    Conducting clinical trials in developing countries often presents significant ethical, organisational, cultural and infrastructural challenges to researchers, pharmaceutical companies, sponsors and regulatory bodies. Globally, these regions are under-represented in research, yet this population stands to gain more from research in these settings as the burdens on health are greater than those in developed resourceful countries. However, developing countries also offer an attractive setting for clinical trials because they often have larger treatment naive populations with higher incidence rates of disease and more advanced stages. These factors can present a reduction in costs and time required to recruit patients. So, balance needs to be found where research can be encouraged and supported in order to bring maximum public health benefits to these communities. The difficulties with such trials arise from problems with obtaining valid informed consent, ethical compensation mechanisms for extremely poor populations, poor health infrastructure and considerable socio-economic and cultural divides. Ethical concerns with trials in developing countries have received attention, even though many other non-ethical issues may arise. Local investigator initiated trials also face a variety of difficulties that have not been adequately reported in literature. This paper uses the example of the Cameroon Mobile Phone SMS trial to describe in detail, the specific difficulties encountered in an investigator-initiated trial in a developing country. It highlights administrative, ethical, financial and staff related issues, proposes solutions and gives a list of additional documentation to ease the organisational process.

  19. A Physical Assessment of the Opportunities for Improved Management of the Water Resources of the Bi-National Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, J.; McKinney, D.; Valdes, J.; Guitron, A.; Thomas, G.

    2007-05-01

    The hydro-physical opportunities for expanding the beneficial uses of the fixed water supply in the Rio Grande/Bravo Basin to better satisfy an array of water management goals are examined. These include making agriculture more resilient to periodic conditions of drought, improving the reliability of supplies to cities and towns, and restoring lost environmental functions in the river system. This is a comprehensive, outcome-neutral, model- based planning exercise performed by some 20 technical, primarily non-governmental institutions from both countries, aimed at proposing strategies that can reduce future conflicts over water throughout the entire basin. The second track consists in generating a set of future water management scenarios that respond to the needs and objectives of the basin stakeholders in each segment and each country. An array of scenarios for improved water management has been developed for the lower Rio Grande/Rio Bravo basin in Texas and the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. Another set under development will focus on the Rio Conchos and the El Paso/Juarez region. Eventually, scenarios will be generated such that will comprehend the entire basin on both sides of the border. These scenarios are the product of consultations with agricultural water districts, governmental organizations and environmental NGOs. They include strategies for reducing the physical losses of water in the system, conservation transfers, improvements in the operations of the Mexican and international reservoirs, improvements in environmental flow conditions, improvements in reliability of water supplies, and drought coping strategies.These scenarios will be evaluated for hydrologic feasibility by the basin-wide model and the gaming exercises. Modeling is necessary to understand how these options will affect the entire system and how they can be crafted to maximize the benefits and avoid unintended or uncompensated effects. The scenarios that have the potential to provide large

  20. Medium and Long-term Opportunities and Risks of the Biotechnological Production of Bulk Chemicals from Renewable Resources. The Potential of White Biotechnology. The BREW Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, M.; Crank, M.; Dornburg, V.; Hermann, B.; Roes, L. [Department of Science, Technology and Society NWS, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Huesing, B. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research FhG-ISl, Karlsruhe (Germany); Overbeek, L. [Plant Research International PRI, Wageningen (Netherlands); Terragni, F.; Recchia, E. [CERISS, Centro per I' Educazione, la Ricerca, I' lnformazione su Scienza e Society, Milan (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    This study investigates the medium and long-term opportunities and risks of the biotechnological production of organic chemicals. The objective is to gain better understanding of the techno-economic and the societal viability of White Biotechnology in the coming decades. The key research questions are which products could be made with White Biotechnology, whether these products can contribute to savings of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, under which conditions the products become economically viable, which risks may originate from the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in fermentation and what the public perception is. The main purpose of Chapter 2 is to provide an overview of emerging key White Biotechnology products and to explain which chemicals could be produced on their basis. For a selection of these products, detailed environmental and economic assessments are conducted in Chapter 3 (in specific terms, i.e. per tonne of product). Chapter 3 discusses also the so-called Generic Approach which is the methodology we developed and applied to assess future processes and processes, for which very little information is available. In Chapter 4, three scenario projections are developed for Europe (EU-25), thereby assuming benign, moderate and disadvantageous conditions for bio-based chemicals. The purpose of this chapter is hence to understand to which extent restructuring of the chemical sector might occur under which conditions. In Chapter 5, the risks related to the use of White Biotechnology are addressed. The main purpose of this chapter is to give insight into the main risk components influencing the overall risk and of the knowledge gaps. Both conventional risks (e.g., human toxicity and accidents) and risks related to generic modification (e.g., horizontal gene transfer) are analyzed. Since the public perception may play an important role for the implementation of White Biotechnology on a large scale, these issues are discussed in

  1. Lean consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, James P; Jones, Daniel T

    2005-03-01

    During the past 20 years, the real price of most consumer goods has fallen worldwide, the variety of goods and the range of sales channels offering them have continued to grow, and product quality has steadily improved. So why is consumption often so frustrating? It doesn't have to be--and shouldn't be--the authors say. They argue that it's time to apply lean thinking to the processes of consumption--to give consumers the full value they want from goods and services with the greatest efficiency and the least pain. Companies may think they save time and money by off-loading work to the consumer but, in fact, the opposite is true. By streamlining their systems for providing goods and services, and by making it easier for customers to buy and use those products and services, a growing number of companies are actually lowering costs while saving everyone time. In the process, these businesses are learning more about their customers, strengthening consumer loyalty, and attracting new customers who are defecting from less user-friendly competitors. The challenge lies with the retailers, service providers, manufacturers, and suppliers that are not used to looking at total cost from the standpoint of the consumer and even less accustomed to working with customers to optimize the consumption process. Lean consumption requires a fundamental shift in the way companies think about the relationship between provision and consumption, and the role their customers play in these processes. It also requires consumers to change the nature of their relationships with the companies they patronize. Lean production has clearly triumphed over similar obstacles in recent years to become the dominant global manufacturing model. Lean consumption, its logical companion, can't be far behind.

  2. Unsustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    Our dominant way of living is not sustainable and our activities as private individuals and households directly and indirectly account for a large and increasing share of total environmental impacts. These impacts are related to the structure as well as the level of consumption. In this article, ...

  3. Proper Islamic Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    mobile, religiously committed communities to the opportunities and perils presented by modernisation. It also tells us something about the debates concerning the meanings and practices of Islam within an aggressive, globalised, secularised modernity. In Malaysia this is an especially intriguing issue...... spite of a long line of social theory analyzing the spiritual in the economic, and vice versa, very little of the recent increase in scholarship on Islam addresses its relationship with capitalism. Johan Fischer’s book,Proper Islamic Consumption, begins to fill this gap. […] Fischer’s detailed...

  4. Transdisciplinary Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue L.T. McGregor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past 100 years, research about consumption has stemmed from two main disciplines: (a consumer studies/consumer sciences (including consumer policy and education (a spin off from home economics and (b consumer behaviour research (a spin off from marketing. This paper focuses on these two disciplines because the results of their respective research are used to shape consumer policy and consumer protection legislation and regulations, marketplace competition policy and regulations, consumer product and service information, media coverage of consumer issues, consumer education curricula and pedagogy, and insights into an evolving consumer culture. This paper asks consumer studies/sciences and consumer behaviour scholars to embrace the transdisciplinary methodology in addition to the traditional empirical, interpretive and critical methodologies. It provides an overview of the four axioms of transdisciplinary methodology with examples to illustrate how consumer-related research would change to address the complex reality of 21st century consumption.

  5. Municipal opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousens, D.; Chuddy, B.; Gleeson, A.; Leckie, D.; Wahl, K.; McGarry, D.

    1997-01-01

    The panel discussing market opportunities for municipal electric companies was moderated by Markham Mayor Don Cousens. He expressed himself in favour of deregulation and was optimistic about the benefits it will bring to municipal electric utilities and their customers. Barry Chuddy, General Manager of Business Development for TransAlta Energy discussed the advantages of recent cogeneration and district energy for municipal utilities in Ontario and Quebec, and expressed his support for incentive-based regulation based on a level playing field, competitive generation, and a reasonable charge for stranded assets. Toronto City Councillor Dan Leckie described cogeneration and district energy as a tremendous opportunity to reduce the cost of doing business in the city core through local job creation and by keeping money in the local economy. Karl Wahl, General Manager of Hydro Mississauga expressed optimism that the government will move expeditiously toward competition, choice and lower-cost supply. David McGarry, President of Elecsar Engineering of Sarnia spoke about the significant job creating potential that deregulation will bring to the electrical industry. He cited several examples from Ontario and British Columbia

  6. Renewable energy scenario in India: Opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Souvik; Ganguly, Sourav; Das, Ayanangshu; Sen, Joyjeet; Dey, Sourav

    2016-10-01

    Majority of the power generation in India is carried out by conventional energy sources, coal and fossil fuels being the primary ones, which contribute heavily to greenhouse gas emission and global warming. The Indian power sector is witnessing a revolution as excitement grips the nation about harnessing electricity from various renewable energy sources. Electricity generation from renewable sources is increasingly recognized to play an important role for the achievement of a variety of primary and secondary energy policy goals, such as improved diversity and security of energy supply, reduction of local pollutant and global greenhouse gas emissions, regional and rural development, and exploitation of opportunities for fostering social cohesion, value addition and employment generation at the local and regional level. This focuses the solution of the energy crisis on judicious utilization of abundant the renewable energy resources, such as biomass, solar, wind, geothermal and ocean tidal energy. This paper reviews the renewable energy scenario of India as well as extrapolates the future developments keeping in view the consumption, production and supply of power. Research, development, production and demonstration have been carried out enthusiastically in India to find a feasible solution to the perennial problem of power shortage for the past three decades. India has obtained application of a variety of renewable energy technologies for use in different sectors too. There are ample opportunities with favorable geology and geography with huge customer base and widening gap between demand and supply. Technological advancement, suitable regulatory policies, tax rebates, efficiency improvement in consequence to R&D efforts are the few pathways to energy and environment conservation and it will ensure that these large, clean resource bases are exploited as quickly and cost effectively as possible. This paper gives an overview of the potential renewable energy resources

  7. The relationship between political ideology and ethical consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Cronk, Bradley; Not applicable.

    2017-01-01

    Problem definition and research questions\\ud \\ud The determinants of ethical consumption behaviour are largely unknown. This research explores the effectiveness of political ideology as a predictor of ethical consumption. Increasing the understanding of ethical consumption will create opportunities for organisations to supply consumer segments with products that address the ethical consumption issues that are most important to them. The issues that form overall ethical consumption include: (1...

  8. From open resources to educational opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Vijay Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Since MIT’s bold announcement of the OpenCourseWare initiative in 2001, the content of over 700 of its courses have been published on the Web and made available for free to the world. Important infrastructure initiatives have also been launched recently with a view to enabling the sustainable implementation of these educational programmes, through strengthening organizational capacity as well as through building open, standards-based technology. Each of these initiatives point to a rich palet...

  9. Flexible Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Pallesen, Trine

    This report presents the first findings from our qualitative study of consumer behaviour vis-à-vis flexible consumption. The main of objective of this report is to present our first round of data from Bornholm, and to assist the design of products/services designed in WP6. In the report, we adopt...... the perspective of the consumer: what does living in a demand response setup look like to participants – and what kinds of behaviour and interest motivate – and emerge from – their participation in EcoGrid 2.0....

  10. Consumption governance toward more sustainable consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Dubuisson-Quellier, Sophie

    2018-01-01

    This article deliberates on strategies of consumption governance toward more sustainable consumption. We discuss theoretical concepts stemming from various social science perspectives to (1) promote more sustainable consumption, (2) compare strategies stemming from individualist understanding of

  11. Shifting the balance: equity and sustainable consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, Sonja; Garside, Ben; De Morais, Gabriela Weber

    2009-01-15

    On our finite planet, the dictates of ecology and technology limit growth. Yet a key element of this issue – consumption – has until recently hardly figured on policy agendas. Now there is growing recognition that transformation towards a low-carbon, resource-efficient economy means tackling consumption as well as production. Governments and businesses are beginning to make concerted, if uncoordinated, efforts to reduce energy and resource use. Rethinking consumption could, however, drive an even bigger wedge between rich and poor. Any new agenda for consumption needs to factor in equity as well as environmental benefit.

  12. Energy Resources Consumption Minimization in Housing Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balastov Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the energy savings analysis during operation of buildings, provides the heat balance of residential premises, considers options for energy-efficient solutions for hot water supply systems in buildings. As technical facilities that allow the use of secondary heat sources and solar energy, there are also considered the systems with heat recovery of “gray” wastewater, heat pumps, solar collectors and photoelectric converters.

  13. Actinide consumption: Nuclear resource conservation without breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannum, W.H.; Battles, J.E.; Johnson, T.R.; McPheeters, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to the nuclear power issue based on a metallic fast reactor fuel and pyrometallurgical processing of spent fuel is showing great potential and is approaching a critical demonstration phase. If successful, this approach will complement and validate the LWR reactor systems and the attendant infrastructure (including repository development) and will alleviate the dominant concerns over the acceptability of nuclear power. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept is a metal-fueled, sodium-cooled pool-type fast reactor supported by a pyrometallurgical reprocessing system. The concept of a sodium cooled fast reactor is broadly demonstrated by the EBR-II and FFTF in the US; DFR and PFR in the UK; Phenix and SuperPhenix in France; BOR-60, BN-350, BN-600 in the USSR; and JOYO in Japan. The metallic fuel is an evolution from early EBR-II fuels. This fuel, a ternary U-Pu-Zr alloy, has been demonstrated to be highly reliable and fault tolerant even at very high burnup (160-180,000 MWd/MT). The fuel, coupled with the pool type reactor configuration, has been shown to have outstanding safety characteristics: even with all active safety systems disabled, such a reactor can survive a loss of coolant flow, a loss of heat sink, or other major accidents. Design studies based on a small modular approach show not only its impressive safety characteristics, but are projected to be economically competitive. The program to explore the feasibility of actinide recovery from spent LWR fuel is in its initial phase, but it is expected that technical feasibility could be demonstrated by about 1995; DOE has not yet committed funds to achieve this objective. 27 refs.

  14. Actinide consumption: Nuclear resource conservation without breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannum, W.H.; Battles, J.E.; Johnson, T.R.; McPheeters, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to the nuclear power issue based on a metallic fast reactor fuel and pyrometallurgical processing of spent fuel is showing great potential and is approaching a critical demonstration phase. If successful, this approach will complement and validate the LWR reactor systems and the attendant infrastructure (including repository development) and will alleviate the dominant concerns over the acceptability of nuclear power. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept is a metal-fueled, sodium-cooled pool-type fast reactor supported by a pyrometallurgical reprocessing system. The concept of a sodium cooled fast reactor is broadly demonstrated by the EBR-II and FFTF in the US; DFR and PFR in the UK; Phenix and SuperPhenix in France; BOR-60, BN-350, BN-600 in the USSR; and JOYO in Japan. The metallic fuel is an evolution from early EBR-II fuels. This fuel, a ternary U-Pu-Zr alloy, has been demonstrated to be highly reliable and fault tolerant even at very high burnup (160-180,000 MWd/MT). The fuel, coupled with the pool type reactor configuration, has been shown to have outstanding safety characteristics: even with all active safety systems disabled, such a reactor can survive a loss of coolant flow, a loss of heat sink, or other major accidents. Design studies based on a small modular approach show not only its impressive safety characteristics, but are projected to be economically competitive. The program to explore the feasibility of actinide recovery from spent LWR fuel is in its initial phase, but it is expected that technical feasibility could be demonstrated by about 1995; DOE has not yet committed funds to achieve this objective. 27 refs

  15. Challenges and Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation. The viewgraphs presented 1998 year-end predictions of oil and gas prices. Comparisons of projected versus actual values for 1998 for natural gas consumption, production, imports and wellhead prices for the United States were also presented. A comparison of projected versus actual consumption values for 1998 in the residential, commercial, industrial and electric generation sectors was included. In many cases actual versus projected values were quite different. The importance of storage to balancing the market was illustrated. Graphs depicting gas production, workover rigs, reserve life comparisons, and GOM natural gas rig count and production for the U.S. were described. Drilling activity in the Gulf of Mexico was summarized. The total wells drilled in 1997 was 1223 compared to 1019 in 1998. The factors affecting deliverability additions on the Gulf of Mexico shelf include smaller new discoveries, diminishing completion opportunities in older fields, few productive zones in new discoveries and a rapid decline rate resulting from smaller reservoirs. 6 tabs., 13 figs

  16. Measuring the Impact of Industrialization and Financial Development on Water Resources: A Case Study of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid ZAMAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study examines the impact of industrialization and financial development on water resources, in the specific context of Pakistan. Data set from 1975-2009 are taken for time series analysis. The result reveals that economic growth positively linked with the water resource, as water plays a pivotal role in the economic development of a country. Thus limiting this resource would affect the process of economic growth. Industrial processes have a negative environmental impact which causing water pollution. Financial development has an indirect effect on water consumption, as it shows that private firms finds more funding opportunities in a country, therefore, avoid dirty industry game.

  17. International ROR: risk, opportunity, reward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krentz, D.; Gair, J.

    1996-01-01

    Norcen Energy Resources Limited's pursuit of international oil and gas opportunities since the late 1980s were outlined. By 1994 Norcen had exploration and production concessions in 12 countries stretching from Algeria, Russia, Argentina, Indonesia to offshore Australia. The company had seen its share of risks, opportunities and rewards. Since 1994 international efforts of the Company have been focused on lower risk opportunities with exploration upside in defined core areas of South America, particularly in Venezuela, a country with conventional, heavy and ultra-heavy oil resources exceeding that of Saudi Arabia. These, and other similar foreign investments in the formerly closed national oil industries of South America have been greatly facilitated by the political liberalization, economic reforms and stabilization that have taken place there over the past ten years. The story of Norcen's successful bidding on the Oritupano-Leona production block in 1993 and Delta Centro exploration block in 1996 was the subject of this presentation

  18. Rethinking the Holidays. Teacher's Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Priscilla H.

    1993-01-01

    Maintains that holidays provide opportunities for teaching about history and cultural diversity. Presents a bibliographic essay of recommended resources for elementary teachers on this topic. Materials include reading resources, activity books, and audiovisual materials. (CFR)

  19. Opportunities for green growth; Vihreaen kasvun mahdollisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antikainen, R.; Mickwitz, P.; Seppaelae, J. [and others

    2013-03-15

    The report seeks an answer to the question as to the kind of policy decisions (steps) by which preconditions for green growth may be created in Finland. The proposed steps are based on a review of earlier research and studies relating to Finland's key consumption and production systems (food, housing, transport and energy) and to certain path finding countries in terms of the green economy (the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, Brazil). In addition, the report examines various models by which systemic change towards a green economy may be supported. The report also highlights successful examples of green business activity and measures to promote green growth. Green Growth is defined as low-carbon, resource-efficient economic growth based on safeguarding the functional capacity of ecosystems while promoting wellbeing and social justice. Green growth is considered to have significant worldwide potential, which is currently evident particularly in the rapid growth of cleantech demand. Successful future actors will be more material- and energy-efficient than their competitors, and they will be able to provide services and products flexibly for a low-carbon society. There are opportunities for green growth in all sectors of society. Green growth may consist of an entirely new kind of business activity and create new companies, but there are also opportunities in our traditional energy- and resource-intensive industries. Companies have a key role in growth, but realising green growth also requires changes in consumption. Central, regional and local government will act as facilitators in creating the preconditions for green growth. The report presents a number of policy measures and processes by which Finland can support green growth. Proposals for steps towards green growth include: (A.) Creating preconditions for green growth through a joint vision and political commitment. (B.) Stimulating companies' green growth potential and boosting green demand. (C

  20. Reducing consumption through communal living

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, Horace [The Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Energy and Environment Research Unit

    2003-07-01

    This paper examines ways consumers and communities can voluntarily adopt a low consumption (or low carbon) lifestyle, often termed 'voluntary simplicity' or a policy of 'sufficiency'. There is an increasing academic literature within Europe in the last five years on the whole question of 'sustainable consumption', and the relationship between income levels and consumption particularly at the household. This debate has moved beyond 'green consumerism' to look at building 'new concepts of prosperity' through local community actions, or reducing working time to allow more time for the creation of social capital. The paper will concentrate on one aspect of the quest for sustainable communities, the relevance of communal living to reducing consumption through examining energy consumption (both direct and indirect) in one such community in the UK. The results from this preliminary study reveal that it is not the sharing of resources that reduces consumption but the mutual reinforcement of attitudes towards a low consumption lifestyle. Thus it is the creation of social capital in a community that is its key to its ecological lifestyle.

  1. The water footprint of cotton consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.; Gautam, R.

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of a cotton product is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resources in the countries where cotton is grown and processed. The aim of this report is to assess the ‘water footprint’ of worldwide cotton consumption, identifying both the location and the character of the

  2. Challenges and Opportunities for Libraries in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shafiq UR, Rehman; Pervaiz, Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: This paper, based on review of literature, observation, and informal conversations, discusses various challenges regarding finance, collection development, ICTs, human resources, library education, library association and research & development faced by library profession in Pakistan. The opportunities to meet these challenges have also been explored. Keywords: Library challenges and opportunities (Pakistan); Librarianship (Pakistan); Library issues; Library profession in Pa...

  3. Water - an inexhaustible resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Divenah, C.; Esperou, E.

    2012-04-01

    We have chosen to present the topic "Water", by illustrating problems that will give better opportunities for interdisciplinary work between Natural Science (Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geology) teachers at first, but also English teachers and maybe others. Water is considered in general, in all its shapes and states. The question is not only about drinking water, but we would like to demonstrate that water can both be a fragile and short-lived resource in some ways, and an unlimited energy resource in others. Water exists on Earth in three states. It participates in a large number of chemical and physical processes (dissolution, dilution, biogeochemical cycles, repartition of heat in the oceans and the atmosphere, etc.), helping to maintain the homeostasis of the entire planet. It is linked to living beings, for which water is the major compound. The living beings essentially organized themselves into or around water, and this fact is also valid for human kind (energy, drinking, trade…). Water can also be a destroying agent for living beings (tsunamis, mud flows, collapse of electrical dams, pollution...) and for the solid earth (erosion, dissolution, fusion). I) Water, an essential resource for the human kind After having highlighted the disparities and geopolitical problems, the pupils will study the chemistry of water with its components and their origins (isotopes, water trip). Then the ways to make it drinkable will be presented (filtration, decantation, iceberg carrying…) II) From the origin of water... We could manage an activity where different groups put several hypotheses to the test, with the goal to understand the origin(s?) of water on Earth. Example: Isotopic signature of water showing its extraterrestrial origin.. Once done, we'll try to determine the origin of drinking water, as a fossil resource. Another use of isotopes will allow them to evaluate the drinking water age, to realize how precious it can be. III) Water as a sustainable energy

  4. Environmental Modeling, The Buffer Priority layers for Phosphorus / Sediment) Removal identify priority forest/grass buffer opportunities by subwatershed. Land use, hydrology, soil, and landscape characteristics were analyzed to rank buffer opportunities with high P/sed removal., Published in 2014, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Environmental Modeling dataset current as of 2014. The Buffer Priority layers for Phosphorus / Sediment) Removal identify priority forest/grass buffer opportunities...

  5. Population growth and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, K

    1997-04-01

    The relationship between population growth, resource consumption, and environmental degradation is complex. The rise in "greenhouse gases" that will cause climatic change is clearly due to human activity, and pollutants are often concentrated in densely populated areas. However, even an area with a negative population growth, such as Russia, can experience severe environmental degradation due to poor management. Consumption patterns have the most effect on ozone depletion, while population growth threatens biodiversity of and within species through the destruction of ecosystems. Migration joins population growth and social factors, such as land inequality, as major causes of deforestation, and global demand for water is expected to increase faster than the rate of population growth. Coastal development and over-fishing threaten to deplete the oceans, while soil quality is threatened by inappropriate land use. Estimates of the earth's carrying capacity range from less than 3 billion to more than 44 billion people, indicating how difficult it is to assess this figure. Development efforts throughout the world may lead to human gains that will ultimately be negated by environmental losses. These factors have led to growing support for environmentally sustainable development.

  6. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consump...

  7. LTE UE Power Consumption Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Riis; Lauridsen, Mads; Mogensen, Preben

    2012-01-01

    is based on a review of the major power consuming parts in an LTE UE radio modem. The model includes functions of UL and DL power and data rate. Measurements on a commercial LTE USB dongle were used to assign realistic power consumption values to each model parameter. Verification measurements......In this work a novel LTE user equipment (UE) power consumption model is presented. It was developed for LTE system level optimization, because it is important to understand how network settings like scheduling of resources and transmit power control affect the UE’s battery life. The proposed model...... on the dongle show that the model results in an average error of 2.6%. The measurements show that UL transmit power and DL data rate determines the overall power consumption, while UL data rate and DL receive power have smaller impact....

  8. Nontimber forest product opportunities in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Pilz; Susan J. Alexander; Jerry Smith; Robert Schroeder; Jim. Freed

    2006-01-01

    Nontimber forest products from southern Alaska (also called special forest products) have been used for millennia as resources vital to the livelihoods and culture of Alaska Natives and, more recently, as subsistence resources for the welfare of all citizens. Many of these products are now being sold, and Alaskans seek additional income opportunities through...

  9. Energy needs, uses, and resources in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmedo, P.F.; Nathans, R.; Beardsworth, E.; Hale, S. Jr.

    1978-03-01

    The report identifies the energy needs, uses, and resources in the developing countries of the world and examines the energy options available to them for their continued social and economic growth. If traditional patterns of development are to continue, oil consumption in the non-OPEC LDCs will grow steadily to become comparable with current U.S. consumption between 2000 and 2020. Attempts to exploit indigenous hydrocarbon resources even in those LDCs with untapped reserves will be limited by shortages of capital and technical manpower. In the absence of major actions to replace noncommercial fuels or to increase the effectiveness with which they are used, a large fraction of the 3 to 4 billion LDC rural population in the year 2000 will not be able to raise their energy usage above subsistence levels. There is a wide variety of solutions to these problems, many of them emerging directly from the changed economics of energy. For example, most LDCs have not adequately explored and developed their own indigenous resources; in virtually all energy conversion and utilization processes there are opportunities for improvements in efficiency and substitution of renewable energy forms. In virtually all these areas there are opportunities for effective assistance activities.

  10. Energy consumption and technological developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okorokov, V.R.

    1990-02-01

    The paper determines an outline of the world energy prospects based on principal trends of the development of energy consumption analysed over the long past period. According to the author's conclusion the development of energy systems will be determined in the nearest future (30 - 40 years) by contemporary energy technologies based on the exploitation of traditional energy resources but in the far future technologies based on the exploitation of thermonuclear and solar energy will play the decisive role. (author)

  11. Analysis of China department water consumption efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Xi-Feng; Liu, Jia-Hong

    2018-03-01

    The water comparable non-competitive input-out model of China in 2002, 2007 and 2012 is established to calculate the department water consumption efficiency. The water direct and complete consumption coefficients of 38 departments are analysed. Agriculture and Electricity and steam supply have the highest water consumption coefficients and utilize water resource mainly by the direct way. Manufacture of food products and tobacco products, Manufacture of textiles, Manufacture of wearing apparel and leather products and Information service activities have high water complete consumption coefficients and affect water consumption mainly by the indirect way. Water complete consumption efficiency measures the efficiency from the view of final product, which reflected the department water use driving force more precisely.

  12. The Social Dynamics of Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamer, Naja Buono

    This PhD dissertation offers new empirically grounded insights into the social dynamics surrounding everyday food consumption. The aim is to investigate how three previously identified key elements – values, taste and social class – interact to explain food consumption. Drawing on quantitative data...... with their relationship to consumption, are grounded in structural logics that create differences between social classes. The dissertation thus concludes that to develop nuanced understandings of consumer behaviour we should investigate food consumption as pragmatic, moral practices that are socially and historically...... on Danish households’ actual food purchases, attitudes to food and their socio-economic resources, the analysis show that values and taste are important predictors of a range of everyday food consumption practices. However, values and taste alone cannot predict food consumption as they, together...

  13. Energy Efficiency: Finding Leadership Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rosehart

    2014-01-01

    buildings, and by issuing an annual “premier’s report card,” making public the progress on province-wide efficiency efforts. For a province that continues to enjoy growth in business and population, updated guidelines around new building codes have been proven to improve energy efficiency. And there remains a significant opportunity for Alberta to improve efficiency in its commercial and industrial sectors, the largest users of energy, by providing government incentives to replace ageing equipment with more efficient technology. Alberta is also well suited for a shift toward more combined heat and power generation plants, which can repurpose generated heat that is otherwise wasted, significantly reducing energy demand and costs. And in a province awash in natural gas, incentives to encourage travel using compressed or liquefied natural gas vehicles could serve to boost energy efficiency in the transportation sector as well. Alberta is fortunate in that it has abundant energy and prosperity, making improved energy efficiency a matter of choice, rather than — as in some jurisdictions — one of urgent necessity. It is, however, a choice that Alberta has enough reasons, and resources, to make. All it requires is the will.

  14. Exploring Challenges and Opportunities for Eco-Feedback Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdezoto, Nervo

    This position paper explores challenges and opportunities for eco-feedback technology. Drawing on two design cases, I discuss the importance of supporting active participation as well as the articulation of work in everyday practices to facilitate reduction of consumption.......This position paper explores challenges and opportunities for eco-feedback technology. Drawing on two design cases, I discuss the importance of supporting active participation as well as the articulation of work in everyday practices to facilitate reduction of consumption....

  15. Energy-Efficiency Policy Opportunities for Electric Motor-Driven Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication is the first global analysis of energy consumption and energy efficiency potential of EMDS (electric motor- driven system). The electric motors and systems they drive are the largest single electricity end use, accounting for more than 40% of global electricity consumption. Huge energy efficiency potential was found untapped in EMDS - around 25% of EMDS electricity use could be saved cost-effectively, reducing total global electricity demand by about 10%. However, the energy efficiency of EMDS has been relatively neglected in comparison with other sustainable energy opportunities. It is crucial to scale up the operations and resources committed to realizing the vast savings potential of optimized EMDS. This paper proposes a comprehensive package of policy recommendations to help governments realize the potential for energy savings in EMDS.

  16. Remittances in Rural Zimbabwe: From Consumption to Investment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ncube (Gracsious); G.M. Gómez (Georgina)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ When remittances become widespread and stable in a rural village, they adopt a critical role in supporting local development. They contribute via the promotion of businesses and employment. Productive consumption creates opportunities for investment in growth

  17. Energy consumption: energy consumption in mainland Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of this report is to describe trends in energy consumption in mainland Norway, with an emphasis on key trends within the largest consumer groups. We also explain common terms and concepts in the field of energy consumption. Finally, we look at forecasts for future energy consumption, produced by bodies outside NVE. Total final energy consumption in mainland Norway in 2009 was 207 TWh. The most important end-user groups are households, service industries, manufacturing industry and transport. In addition, the energy sector in mainland Norway consumed 15 TWh. Energy consumed in the energy sector is not considered as final consumption, as the energy is used to produce new energy products. The long-term trend in energy consumption in mainland Norway is that fuel in the transport sector and electricity for the energy sector increases, while energy consumption in other sectors flattens out. The main reason for an increased use of fuel in the transport sector is the rise in the number of motorised machinery and vehicles in mainland Norway. This has caused a rise in gasoline and diesel consumption of 75 per cent since 1976. The petroleum sector is the largest consumer of energy within the energy sector in mainland Norway, and electricity from onshore to platforms in the North Sea and to new shore side installations has led to a rise in electricity consumption from 1 TWh in 1995 to 5 TWh in 2009. The energy consumption in households showed flat trend from 1996 to 2009, after many years of growth. The main reasons are a warmer climate, higher energy prices, the use of heats pumps and more energy-efficient buildings. In the service industries, the growth in energy consumptions has slightly decreased since the late 1990s, for much the same reasons as for households. In manufacturing industries the energy consumption have flatten out mainly due to the closure of energy-intensive businesses and the establishment of new more energy-efficient businesses. Electricity is

  18. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  19. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  20. Trade, traffic and management of botanical resources in agriculture: review lecture presented at the international symposium on sustainable use of plant biodiversity to promote new opportunities for horticultural production development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    The maintenance of biological diversity is of importance for various reasons (genetic resources, ecosystem resilience, source of income, cultural heritage). The international trade in plants from wild source may have negative consequences for biodiversity (habitat alteration, introduction of

  1. Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Online Resources. Journal of Genetics. Online Resources. Volume 97. 2018 | Online resources. Volume 96. 2017 | Online resources. Volume 95. 2016 | Online resources. Volume 94. 2015 | Online resources. Volume 93. 2014 | Online resources. Volume 92. 2013 | Online resources ...

  2. Integration of cloud, grid and local cluster resources with DIRAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifield, Tom; Sevior, Martin; Carmona, Ana; Casajús, Adrián; Graciani, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Grid computing was developed to provide users with uniform access to large-scale distributed resources. This has worked well, however there are significant resources available to the scientific community that do not follow this paradigm - those on cloud infrastructure providers, HPC supercomputers or local clusters. DIRAC (Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control) was originally designed to support direct submission to the Local Resource Management Systems (LRMS) of such clusters for LHCb, matured to support grid workflows and has recently been updated to support Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud. This raises a number of new possibilities - by opening avenues to new resources, virtual organisations can change their resources with usage patterns and use these dedicated facilities for a given time. For example, user communities such as High Energy Physics experiments, have computing tasks with a wide variety of requirements in terms of CPU, data access or memory consumption, and their usage profile is never constant throughout the year. Having the possibility to transparently absorb peaks on the demand for these kinds of tasks using Cloud resources could allow a reduction in the overall cost of the system. This paper investigates interoperability by following a recent large-scale production exercise utilising resources from these three different paradigms, during the 2010 Belle Monte Carlo run. Through this, it discusses the challenges and opportunities of such a model.

  3. ACCUMULATION AND CONSUMPTION IN MICROECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghey A. Amelkin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Two main processes are common for an economic system. They are consumption and accumulation. The first one is described by utility function, either cardinal or ordinal one. The mathematical model for accumulation process can be constructed using wealth function introduced within the frame of irreversible microeconomics. Characteristics of utility and wealth functions are compared and a problem of extreme performance of resources exchange process is solved for a case when both the consumption and accumulation exist.

  4. Research Opportunities with SIRTF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicay, M. D.

    2000-05-01

    The vast majority of observing time on the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), to be launched next year, will be available to the broad science community. A unique and innovative component of this community observing time is the Legacy Science Program, enabling investigators to conduct large and coherent science programs early in the mission, with data entering the public domain immediately upon processing at the SIRTF Science Center (SSC). The Legacy Science Call for Proposals (CP) is now open, and proposals are due on September 15, 2000. The first General Observer CP will be issued in late 2001, with proposals due four months after launch. Subsequent CPs will be issued by the SSC on an approximately annual basis. Archival research with SIRTF data will be possible within 6 months of launch, utilizing data from the First-Look Survey and from early Legacy Science observations. The author will provide an overview of the research opportunities available with SIRTF, the nominal schedule of CPs, and the anticipated plans for data analysis funding. Proposal submission procedures, and an introduction to planning and proposing tools and resources, will be provided. A description of the SIRTF observing modes and their corresponding SSC pipeline data products will also be presented.

  5. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consumption began exceeding planetary supply in 1977 and by 2030, global energy demand, population, and gross domestic product are projected to greatly increase over 1977 levels. With the aim of finding sustainable energy solutions, we present a simple yet rigorous procedure for assessing and counterbalancing the relationship between energy demand, environmental impact, population, GDP, and energy efficiency. Our analyses indicated that infeasible increases in energy efficiency (over 100 %) would be required by 2030 to return to 1977 environmental impact levels and annual reductions (2 and 3 %) in energy demand resulted in physical, yet impractical requirements; hence, a combination of policy and technology approaches is needed to tackle this critical challenge. This work emphasizes the difficulty in moving toward energy sustainability and helps to frame possible solutions useful for policy and management. Based on projected energy consumption, environmental impact, human population, gross domestic product (GDP), and energy efficiency, for this study, we explore the increase in energy-use efficiency and the decrease in energy use intensity required to achieve sustainable environmental impact le

  6. Energy Consumption Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption Database The California Energy Commission has created this on-line database for informal reporting ) classifications. The database also provides easy downloading of energy consumption data into Microsoft Excel (XLSX

  7. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  8. On China's Sustainable Development of Energy—Opportunity for the China's Nuclear Power Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZengShaolun

    2005-01-01

    According to the poficy of reforming the power industry and accelerating the power construction of our country, by 2020, the national power consumption will be up to 3.6-3.7 trillion kilowatt-hours, the installed power-generating capacity is more than 800 million kilowatts. Therefore, the development of the China's nuclear power industry faces good international and domestic environments and good historical opportunities. From the point of national energy security, economic development, and resource distribution, it is analyzed that China must develop the nuclear power in a more cost-effective style in this paper.

  9. Rewriting the Opportunity Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.

    The aim of this paper is to further the discussion of opportunity theory by discussing its ontological and epistemological underpinnings, which have been neglected in previous discussions. The idea that opportunities have an objective component is critically examined drawing on insights from soci...... constructionism. It is argued that opportunity theory needs to be rewritten.......The aim of this paper is to further the discussion of opportunity theory by discussing its ontological and epistemological underpinnings, which have been neglected in previous discussions. The idea that opportunities have an objective component is critically examined drawing on insights from social...

  10. Sustainable industrial policy and environment. challenges and opportunities; Politica industrial sostenible y medio ambiente. Dificultades y oportunidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle Munoz, M.

    2013-06-01

    The European Union is aware that the current model of production and consumption contributes to global warming, pollution, intensive use of materials and depletion of natural resources and, for that reason, it promotes since years the adoption of more sustainable patterns. Increasing efficiency in the use of resources in the generation and use of energy and the production of goods could also be a powerful source of innovation and a major industrial competitiveness, according to the Commission. This article discusses the existing complementary strategies in efficiency in the use of resources, raw materials, energy, and the energy and climate package adopted in 2008, and the difficulties and opportunities that the industry is facing to implement this policy in the current economic slowdown. (Author)

  11. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/complications/sexually- ...

  12. Factor Analysis of Residential Energy Consumption at the Provincial Level in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibin Lin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the differences in the amount and the structure of residential energy consumption at the provincial level in China and identifies the hidden factors behind such differences. The econometrical analysis reveals that population, economic development level, energy resource endowment and climatic conditions are the main factors driving residential energy consumption; while the regional differences in energy consumption per capita and the consumption structure can be mainly illustrated by various economic development levels, energy resource endowments and climatic conditions. Economic development level has a significant positive impact on the proportion of gasoline consumption, whereas its impact on the proportion of electricity consumption is not notable; energy resource endowment and climatic condition indirectly affect both the proportion of electricity consumption and that of gasoline consumption, primarily through their impacts on the proportions of coal consumption and heat consumption.

  13. A New System for Households in Spain to Evaluate and Reduce Their Water Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gutierrez-Escolar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to describe a developed model and its corresponding application, known as System to Evaluate the Water Consumption at Home (SEWAT. The aim is to create a new model to evaluate the efficiency of water consumption. Thanks to the input of the water bills by users, the model allows them to check if water consumption is efficient, in order to give them an opportunity to evaluate their water usage. To succeed in it, several researches were tracked in order to establish consumer trends and to identify the most efficient value for this magnitude. Furthermore, a survey was conducted to obtain updated values to validate information from previous studies. However, the main aim of this model is to use the resources efficiently, so it has to be useful accordingly. Therefore, after the evaluation, the application has a section with recommendations for the users to reduce their water consumption through a range of different indications. This section is divided into four: bathroom, kitchen, new appliance and reusing water. Each section shows the expected benefits if the users follow the recommended options. The main result is a unique application in Spain, which includes a system of evaluation, comparison and a section of recommendations for the users. Eventually, the model will have a promising outcome, because it surely will change the awareness of citizens about this subject.

  14. The opportunity cost of animal based diets exceeds all food losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepon, Alon; Eshel, Gidon; Noor, Elad; Milo, Ron

    2018-04-10

    Food loss is widely recognized as undermining food security and environmental sustainability. However, consumption of resource-intensive food items instead of more efficient, equally nutritious alternatives can also be considered as an effective food loss. Here we define and quantify these opportunity food losses as the food loss associated with consuming resource-intensive animal-based items instead of plant-based alternatives which are nutritionally comparable, e.g., in terms of protein content. We consider replacements that minimize cropland use for each of the main US animal-based food categories. We find that although the characteristic conventional retail-to-consumer food losses are ≈30% for plant and animal products, the opportunity food losses of beef, pork, dairy, poultry, and eggs are 96%, 90%, 75%, 50%, and 40%, respectively. This arises because plant-based replacement diets can produce 20-fold and twofold more nutritionally similar food per cropland than beef and eggs, the most and least resource-intensive animal categories, respectively. Although conventional and opportunity food losses are both targets for improvement, the high opportunity food losses highlight the large potential savings beyond conventionally defined food losses. Concurrently replacing all animal-based items in the US diet with plant-based alternatives will add enough food to feed, in full, 350 million additional people, well above the expected benefits of eliminating all supply chain food waste. These results highlight the importance of dietary shifts to improving food availability and security. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  15. Food waste valorization options: opportunities from the bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imbert Enrica

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The world is confronted with the depletion of natural resources due to their unsustainable use, increased global competiveness, increasing population and other environmental and economic challenges. Under the European 2020 growth strategy launched in 2010, Europe has set itself the goal of shifting from linear to circular models of production and consumption. In this context, food waste management poses a great challenge. This study focusses on the possible destinations for food waste, specifically, on the most sustainable practices that turn waste into valuable resources. Particular attention is devoted to the potential offered by fast-growing sectors such as the bioeconomy, which is contributing to increased energy and materials production with reduced environmental impact, at the same time creating new job opportunities. In this paper we will argue that an holistic approach considering the issue of food wastage as part of a broader emerging bio-economy and circular-economic model, might provide win-win solutions able to minimize wastage, promote income growth and job creation, and prompt sustainable local development. However, in order to enable an effective transition to a circular bioeconomy able to minimize the impact of food wastage, the economic, social, and environmental sustainability of this new model must be properly evaluated through appropriate tools, e.g. through an overall Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA.

  16. Comanagement of Natural Resources

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Viet Nam: sharing the resource in Tam Giang Lagoon Image .... Rugged mountains, desert margins, remote coastal villages — these are .... Tropical forests, for example, may be intensively exploited by different users at different times. .... were given equal opportunity to share their experiences and frustrations without risk of ...

  17. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance U.S. Army – Project 276 Renewable Resource Development on Department of Defense Bases in Alaska: Challenges and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, William M.

    2010-09-30

    The potential to increase utilization of renewable energy sources among military facilities in Alaska through coordinated development and operation is the premise of this task. The US Army Pacific Command requested assistance from PNNL to help develop a more complete understanding of the context for wheeling power within Alaska, including legal and regulatory barriers that may prohibit the DOD facilities from wheeling power among various locations to optimize the development and use of renewable resources.

  18. Hunting the Opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løwe Nielsen, Suna; Rind Christensen, Poul; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2017-01-01

    This paper bring together the two research fields of design and entrepreneurship in order to stimulate new knowledge on opportunity creation. A shared theoretical framework on new opportunity creation that illustrates that design and entrepreneurship can advantageously complement each other in th...... in the opportunity design process. Practical insights into the robustness of the framework are provided by a short illustrative case on electric cars....

  19. Career development. Opportunity 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J

    Opportunity 2000 is an initiative designed to increase the role of women in the workforce and to promote equal opportunities in the workplace. The NHS Management Executive has set up a women's unit to put Opportunity 2000 into practice and to develop more 'women-friendly' working practices. The unit has produced a good practice handbook. The article discusses the eight goals produced by the NHSME to be achieved by health authorities and trusts by this year.

  20. In situ evaluation of water and energy consumptions at the end use level: The influence of flow reducers and temperature in baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, C; Briga-Sá, A; Bentes, I; Faria, D; Pereira, S

    2017-05-15

    Nowadays, water and energy consumption is intensifying every year in most of the countries. This perpetual increase will not be supportable in the long run, making urgently to manage these resources on a sustainable way. Domestic consumptions of water and electric energy usually are related and it's important to study that relation, identifying opportunities for use efficient improvement. In fact, without an understanding of water-energy relations, there are water efficiency measures that may lead to unintentional costs in the energy efficiency field. In order to take full advantage of combined effect between water and energy water management methodologies, it is necessary to collect data to ensure that the efforts are directed through the most effective paths. This paper presents a study based in the characterization, measurement and analysis of water and electricity consumption in a single family house (2months period) in order to find an interdependent relationship between consumptions at the end user level. The study was carried out on about 200 baths, divided in four different scenarios where the influence of two variables was tested: the flow reducer valve and the bath temperature. Data showed that the presence of flow reducer valve decreased electric energy consumption and water consumption, but increased the bath duration. Setting a lower temperature in water-heater, decreased electric consumption, water consumption and bath duration. Analysing the influence of the flow reducer valve and 60°C temperature simultaneously, it was concluded that it had a significant influence on electric energy consumption and on the baths duration but had no influence on water consumption. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 2005 primary energy consumption in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    According to preliminar calculations by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Working Party on Energy Balances, AGEB), the consumption of an aggregate 486 million TCE of primary energy resources in Germany last year was 1.3% below the level of the year before. Energy consumption was influenced by both the high level of prices and the development of the economy. Hardly any influence was attributable to the level of temperatures, which was largely unchanged compared to the figure of the year before. Oil consumption in 2005 in Germany dropped by nearly 2% to 174.8 million TCE. On the whole, oil with its 36% share in the energy balance remained by far the most important energy resource in Germany. Natural gas consumption of 110.4 million TCE was at the level of the year before. Its share in the primary energy balance rose slightly to 22.7%. Hard coal, because of lower use in power plants and the decline in iron making, showed a 4.6% drop in consumption to 62.8 million TCE. In this way, hard coal contributed 13% to total energy consumption. Lignite consumption dropped by 3.2% to 54.4 million TCE as a result of lower deliveries to power plants. Its 11.2% share in the total consumption of primary energy continued to make lignite the most important domestic energy resource. More than 90% of the lignite produced is used for electricity generation. The contribution to primary energy consumption of nuclear power dropped by more than 2% to 60.7 million TCE. Hydroelectric plants and wind power plants increased their contribution by 3.6%. The contribution to primary energy consumption made by all renewable energy resources rose to 4.6%. AGEB evaluates statistics of all areas of the power economy on the basis of standard criteria in order to combine these data in a comprehensive picture. Since 1994, the energy balances for Germany have been compiled by DIW on behalf of AGEB. (orig.)

  2. [birthweight And Caffeine Consumption].

    OpenAIRE

    Bicalho, Gladys Gripp; Barros Filho, Antônio de Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    To assess the association between maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and low birth weight, prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation. A case-control was carried out and 354 newborns of single labor with birthweight 3,000 g (controls) were analyzed. Caffeine consumption was calculated based on daily consumption of coffee, soft drinks and tea. Results were adjusted using multiple logistic regression for the following confounders: mother's age, schooling, income, marital status...

  3. Alcohol Consumption in Students

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Drinking behaviour among university students is a serious public health concern. Reasons for drinking are complex and many factors contribute to this behaviour. Previous research has established links between personality factors and alcohol consumption and also between metacognitions and alcohol consumption. Few studies have looked into how personality traits and metacognitions interact. This study investigated the relationships between personality, metacognitions and alcohol consumption in a...

  4. Analyzing the biophysical inputs and outputs embodied in global commodity chains - the case of Israeli meat consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira Dickler

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevailing global livestock industry relies heavily on natural capital and is responsible for high emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG. In recent years, nations have begun to take more of an active role in measuring their resource inputs and GHG outputs for various products. However, up until now, most nations have been recording data for production, focusing on processes within their geographical boundaries. Some recent studies have suggested the need to also embrace a consumption-based approach. It follows that in an increasingly globalized interconnected world, to be able to generate a sustainable food policy, a full systems approach should be embraced. The case of Israeli meat consumption presents an interesting opportunity for analysis, as the country does not have sufficient resources or the climatic conditions needed to produce enough food to support its population. Therefore, Israel, like a growing number of other countries that are dependent on external resources, relies on imports to meet demand, displacing the environmental impact of meat consumption to other countries. This research utilizes a multi-regional consumption perspective, aiming to measure the carbon and land footprints demanded by Israeli cattle and chicken meat consumption, following both domestic production and imports of inputs and products. The results of this research show that the “virtual land” required for producing meat for consumption in Israel is equivalent to 62% of the geographical area of the country. Moreover, almost 80% of meat consumption is provided by locally produced chicken products but the ecological impact of this source is inconsequential compared to the beef supply chain; beef imports comprise only 13% of meat consumption in Israel but are responsible for 71% of the carbon footprint and 83% of the land footprint. The sources of Israel’s meat supply are currently excluded from environmental impact assessments of Israeli processes. However

  5. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities forpetroleum refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-02-15

    . The findings suggest that given available resources and technology, there are opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the petroleum refining industry while maintaining the quality of the products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as the applicability of these to individual refineries, is needed to assess the feasibility of implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  6. Opportunities of Bamboo for Industrial Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.J.A.; Erkelens, P.A.; Jonge, S. de; Vliet, A.A.M. van

    2000-01-01

    Bamboo as resource for industrial raw material has many opportunities: It contains a 40 percent cellulose, with a fibre length of 3 to 4 mm, more than wood. This can be used as pulp in the paper industry or as cellulose. The fibres also can be used for fibreboard or for furniture parts. Bamboo

  7. Detroit's Fight for Equal Educational Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerdling, A. L.

    To meet the challenge of equal educational opportunity, current methods of public school finance must be revised. The present financial system, based on State equalization of local property tax valuation, is inequitable since it results in many school districts, particularly those in large cities, having inadequate resources to meet extraordinary…

  8. Utah Delivers Opportunities for Career Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Kristine; Fischio, Shannon

    2006-01-01

    Providing information and resources to support career exploration is key to the mission of career and technical education (CTE) in Utah. Utah CTE has responded in a variety of ways to meet the career exploration needs of students of all ages. This article discusses how the career and technical education in Utah delivers opportunities for career…

  9. Biorefinery opportunities for the forest products industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan W. Rudie

    2013-01-01

    Wood residues offer biorefinery opportunities for new products in our industries including fuel and chemicals. But industry must have two capabilities to succeed with biorefineries. Most forest products companies already have the first capability: knowing where the resource is, how to get it, and how much it will cost. They will need to integrate the acquisition of...

  10. Market realities: new challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The market outlook for the natural gas industry was the focus of discussion at this conference. Presentations included papers on energy and supply forecasting, natural gas supply and demand and market opportunities, growth, economics, and issues in natural gas transportation. Pricing dynamics of these energy resources and the complexities of the energy market were also addressed. tabs., figs

  11. What Is Equality of Opportunity in Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazenby, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    There is widespread disagreement about what equality of opportunity in education requires. For some it is that each child is legally permitted to go to school. For others it is that each child receives the same educational resources. Further interpretations abound. This fact presents a problem: when politicians or academics claim they are in…

  12. Information resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-10-19

    During recent decades, natural resources agency personnel and others involved with the management and stewardship of wildlife have experienced an increasing need to access information and obtain technical assistance for addressing a diverse array of wildlife disease issues. This Chapter provides a broad overview of selected sources for obtaining supplemental information and technical assistance for addressing wildlife disease issues in North America. Specifically, examples of existing major wildlife disease programs focusing on free-ranging wildlife populations are highlighted; training opportunities for enhancing within-agency wildlife disease response are identified; a selected reading list of wildlife disease references is provided; and selected Web sites providing timely information on wildlife disease are highlighted. No attempt is made to detail all the North American programs and capabilities that address disease in free-ranging wildlife populations. Instead, this Chapter is focused on enhancing awareness of the types of capabilities that exist as potential sources for assistance and collaboration between wildlife conservation agency personnel and others in addressing wildlife disease issues.

  13. Seizing Political Opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    2016-01-01

    Political actors need to be nimble and respond to the opportunity to reform old policies and initiate new ones. The article looks at how the European Commission takes advantage of politically opportune moments (the ‘gridlock interval’) in the European Parliament to put forward new legislation...

  14. Opportunity identification competence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baggen, Yvette

    2017-01-01

    Opportunities and their identification are of significant importance for competitiveness in today’s complex and turbulent business environment because they serve as a key influencing factor for new value-creation. Opportunity identification (OI) is interesting not only from the perspective of new

  15. Equal opportunities in diversity

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Promoting equal opportunities at CERN and advising the Director-General on all related matters is the task of the Equal Opportunities Officer, Doris Chromek-Burckhart, and Tim Smith, chair of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel. Changes are being introduced: in future, the focus of their work will be broadened to cover all aspects of diversity promotion.   The term "equal opportunities" has always been broader in scope than the equal treatment of men and women but this is what it has traditionally been confined to in practice. "We wanted to change how people see our mission", explains Doris Chromek-Burckhart. The word "diversity" has much wider connotations than "equal opportunities" and makes it clearer that we are also dealing with differences in nationality, religion, age, culture and physical ability”. Getting away from the old clichés is vital to ensuring equal treatment for everyone. The diversit...

  16. Immigrant Capital and Entrepreneurial Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malavika Sundararajan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study is to define and operationalize the concept of immigrant capital, a key factor that differentiates immigrant from host country entrepreneurs in how they recognize and start new ventures. Research Design & Methods: A detailed analysis of contemporary immigrant entrepreneurship and opportunity recognition literature was carried out. Using grounded theory, we synthesized the outcomes from the analysis of eight Canadian and U.S. case studies of successful immigrant entrepreneurs with the key findings from the literature to define and develop a model of immigrant capital. Findings: Based on our grounded theory development process we show that the concept of immigrant capital as a distillate of human, cultural, economic and social capital that goes beyond expected opportunity recognition (OR drivers like prior knowledge and prior experience to differentiate and enhance the immigrant entrepreneur’s ability to recognize business opportunities compared to host country entrepreneurs. We found immigrant capital to be a consequence of being boundary spanners in host and home country networks. Implications & Recommendations: Understanding a unique resource like immigrant capital, will help immigrant as well as host country entrepreneurs further develop their opportunity recognition ability by bridging gaps and fulfilling the needs for both, immigrant and host country consumers. Contribution & Value Added: The main contribution is the theoretical development, identification and definition of the immigrant capital model and propositions that will articulate the factors that lead to the conceptualization and operationalization of immigrant capital. Furthermore, the immigrant capital model can serve host country entrepreneurs to develop cross-cultural networks and jump-start entrepreneurial activities in their home countries as well as learn how to expand their operations into global markets.

  17. Decadal opportunities for space architects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2012-12-01

    A significant challenge for the new field of space architecture is the dearth of project opportunities. Yet every year more young professionals express interest to enter the field. This paper derives projections that bound the number, type, and range of global development opportunities that may be reasonably expected over the next few decades for human space flight (HSF) systems so those interested in the field can benchmark their goals. Four categories of HSF activity are described: human Exploration of solar system bodies; human Servicing of space-based assets; large-scale development of space Resources; and Breakout of self-sustaining human societies into the solar system. A progressive sequence of capabilities for each category starts with its earliest feasible missions and leads toward its full expression. The four sequences are compared in scale, distance from Earth, and readiness. Scenarios hybridize the most synergistic features from the four sequences for comparison to status quo, government-funded HSF program plans. Finally qualitative, decadal, order-of-magnitude estimates are derived for system development needs, and hence opportunities for space architects. Government investment towards human planetary exploration is the weakest generator of space architecture work. Conversely, the strongest generator is a combination of three market drivers: (1) commercial passenger travel in low Earth orbit; (2) in parallel, government extension of HSF capability to GEO; both followed by (3) scale-up demonstration of end-to-end solar power satellites in GEO. The rich end of this scale affords space architecture opportunities which are more diverse, complex, large-scale, and sociologically challenging than traditional exploration vehicle cabins and habitats.

  18. Internships, employment opportunities, and research grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    As an unbiased, multidisciplinary science organization, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is dedicated to the timely, relevant, and impartial study of the health of our ecosystems and environment, our natural resources, the impacts of climate and land-use change, and the natural hazards that threaten us. Opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students and faculty to participate in USGS science are available in the selected programs described below. Please note: U.S. citizenship is required for all government positions.This publication has been superseded by USGS General Information Product 165 Grant Opportunities for Academic Research and Training and USGS General Information Product 166 Student and Recent Graduate Employment Opportunities.This publication is proceeded by USGS General Information Product 80 Internships, Employment Opportunities, and Research Grants published in 2008.

  19. Analysis of consumption behaviour concerning current income and lags consumption: Empirical evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Qayyum Khan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As in other economies, consumption expenditure is the largest component of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP of Pakistan economy. The figure has been estimated around 80 percent of the GDP and demonstrates that historically, Pakistan’s economic growth is characterized as consumption-led growth. The present paper aims to explore the relationship between income and consumption using annual time series data for the period: 1975 to 2012 in Pakistan. For empirical investigation the linear regression model and the method of Least Squares is used as analytical techniques. Empirical results support the existence of a significant positive relationship between income and consumption. The finding suggests that long term committed planning is indispensable to enhance the productive capacity of the economy, employment opportunities and reduce poverty levels more effectively.

  20. PARADOX OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY CONSUMPTION: LEAN OR PROFLIGACY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Safina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of alternative energy resources is conventionally considered as an implement of lean management, main target of which is use of renewable (in terms of exhaustibility energy resources. However, when it comes to actual consumption of alternative energy resources, the contradiction is arisen between , the caused need of economy of non-renewable energy resources and rational environmental management and "providence" which is caused by cost reduction of energy consumption. What is the factual providence, how substantial is the dilemma between environmental friendliness and cost effectiveness in matters of energy savings, what is the significance of alternative energy consumption in countries with different economic types, what should balanced solution in energy mentioned issues are contemplated in current article.

  1. Consumption and the Consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria VADUVA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The consumer is that trader responsible for consumption act of some final goods or services who decided what must be produce and in what cantity, being the one who make the economic mechanism to move. Consumption is in close connection with the production of goods and services, exerting an active role, any activity should be complete by consuming its results; consumption creates the motivation to achieve economic and non-economic activities. The traditional approach to consumer behavior starts from hypothesised that all consumers seek to maximize the aggregate utility obtained of satisfactions resulting from consumption of goods taking into account the budgetary constraints given by income that consumer has and the prices of these goods. In the conditions of modern economy, consumption can be increased by diseconomies. If consumption depends on permanent income, revenue growth effectively does not exert influence on consumption only to the extent that this increase of income leads to increasing permanent income consumer. Consumption is viewed as an active agent of economic life, it is not only a consumer of goods and services but also a producer.

  2. Experience and Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tove Arendt

    consumption may re-enchant ordinary consumption and thereby even become a part of marketing and the experience economy. New layers of meaning are at stake and altruistic motives come into play; doing something good for someone or something, aside from oneself, is a very strong trigger of positive emotions...

  3. Experience and Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tove Arendt

    2014-01-01

    consumption may re-enchant ordinary consumption and thereby even become a part of marketing and the experience economy. New layers of meaning are at stake and altruistic motives come into play; doing something good for someone or something, aside from oneself, is a very strong trigger of positive emotions...

  4. Value Creation and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taillard, Marie; Voyer, Benjamin; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    An effect of the digital economy has been to provide consumers with almost unlimited ways to customize their consumption activities. They can craft each consumption experience to fit specific contexts, needs, emotions and other factors. A teenager’s night out is documented and shared with her...

  5. Uranium resources and the scope for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: uranium resources, forecast on nuclear programme, avenues for reduction in uranium consumption, uranium consumption for fixed programme with various breeders, possible nuclear growth determined by uranium supply. (U.K.)

  6. Urban Mining's Potential to Relieve China's Coming Resource Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, Zongguo; Zhang, Chenkai; Ji, Xiaoli; Xue, Yanyan

    2015-01-01

    China's mineral resource consumption has gone through multiple increases since 1980, resulting in the inadequacy of important strategic resources and a high level of external dependence. Some developed countries have already reduced primary resources consumption through urban mining. Can China also

  7. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996, which was followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equa...

  8. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996 followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equal Opportuni...

  9. Economic analysis of milk production and consumption in the Middle East and North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Maitah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk products are considered as the essential food commodities for humans. Milk products contain essential elements for the human body such as protein, glucose, minerals and vitamins. Moreover, milk is considered the cheapest source of animal protein, an important resource for some related transformation industries and provides employment opportunities for a large number of small producers in both rural and urban areas. The aim of this paper is to analyze the factors which determine the supply and demand for liquid milk (henceforth milk in the Middle East and North Africa in order to point out the main problems and constraints obstructing the milk production in this region. The research also attempts to understand the drivers for the development in milk production in the Middle East and North Africa.Total milk production in the Middle East and North Africa increased from about 12.57 million tons in 1990 to about 25.18 millions tons in 2008. This paper attempts to identify the factors which influence the effectiveness of production, consumption and foreign trade of milk in the Middle East and North Africa. The most important factors affecting consumption is the population, per capita income and produced quantity where a 1% increase in all of them results in increasing the quantity consumed by 1.3%, 2.86% and 0.611%, respectively. Milk sector provides employment opportunities for more than 25% of the working force in some Middle East and North Africa countries.

  10. Life-cycle phosphorus management of the crop production-consumption system in China, 1980-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huijun; Yuan, Zengwei; Gao, Liangmin; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Yongliang

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential resource for agriculture and also a pollutant capable of causing eutrophication. The possibility of a future P scarcity and the requirement to improve the environment quality necessitate P management to increase the efficiency of P use. This study applied a substance flow analysis (SFA) to implement a P management procedure in a crop production-consumption (PMCPC) system model. This model determined the life-cycle P use efficiency (PUE) of the crop production-consumption system in China during 1980-2012. The system includes six subsystems: fertilizer manufacturing, crop cultivation, crop processing, livestock breeding, rural consumption, and urban consumption. Based on this model, the P flows and PUEs of the subsystems were identified and quantified using data from official statistical databases, published literature, questionnaires, and interviews. The results showed that the total PUE of the crop production-consumption system in China was low, notably from 1980 to 2005, and increased from 7.23% in 1980 to 20.13% in 2012. Except for fertilizer manufacturing, the PUEs of the six subsystems were also low. The PUEs in the urban consumption subsystem and the crop cultivation subsystem were less than 40%. The PUEs of other subsystems, such as the rural consumption subsystem and the livestock breeding subsystem, were also low and even decreased during these years. Measures aimed to improve P management practices in China have been proposed such as balancing fertilization, disposing livestock excrement, adjusting livestock feed, changing the diet of residents, and raising the waste disposal level, etc. This study also discussed several limitations related with the model and data. Conducting additional related studies on other regions and combining the analysis of risks with opportunities may be necessary to develop effective management strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Housing in a sustainable consumption perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    In a global perspective, sustainability includes a social, an economic and an environmental perspective (United Nations 1987). In this chapter I focus on the environmental perspective from a North-Western point of view, and in this context sustainable consumption is mainly about reducing the use ......-third of all energy consumed (Danish Energy Authority 2010). Thus irrespective of whether one approaches the topic from above or from below, housing is important when dealing with sustainable consumption.......In a global perspective, sustainability includes a social, an economic and an environmental perspective (United Nations 1987). In this chapter I focus on the environmental perspective from a North-Western point of view, and in this context sustainable consumption is mainly about reducing the use...... of non-renewable resources as well as avoiding environmental pollution and waste. Resource consumption, emissions and waste related to housing can be assessed either from ‘above’ or from ‘below’. When counting from below, from the point of the individual consumer, three main consumption areas are usually...

  12. Can polar bears use terrestrial foods to offset lost ice-based hunting opportunities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Robbins, Charles T.; Nelson, Lynne; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Increased land use by polar bears (Ursus maritimus) due to climate-change-induced reduction of their sea-ice habitat illustrates the impact of climate change on species distributions and the difficulty of conserving a large, highly specialized carnivore in the face of this global threat. Some authors have suggested that terrestrial food consumption by polar bears will help them withstand sea-ice loss as they are forced to spend increasing amounts of time on land. Here, we evaluate the nutritional needs of polar bears as well as the physiological and environmental constraints that shape their use of terrestrial ecosystems. Only small numbers of polar bears have been documented consuming terrestrial foods even in modest quantities. Over much of the polar bear's range, limited terrestrial food availability supports only low densities of much smaller, resident brown bears (Ursus arctos), which use low-quality resources more efficiently and may compete with polar bears in these areas. Where consumption of terrestrial foods has been documented, polar bear body condition and survival rates have declined even as land use has increased. Thus far, observed consumption of terrestrial food by polar bears has been insufficient to offset lost ice-based hunting opportunities but can have ecological consequences for other species. Warming-induced loss of sea ice remains the primary threat faced by polar bears.

  13. Opportunities for First Nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Rodrigo [Anaia Global (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The recent development of wind energy project creates opportunities for First Nations. Although they are interested by such projects, First Nations nevertheless have questions such about how they can be a part of the wind industry, what are their rights, what investment would they need to make, and how to judge if they are getting a favourable deal. This presentation aimed at answering those questions an maintained that wind energy would bring social and economic development to First Nations communities as well as diversifying their sources of revenue. Several companies offer their services to First Nations and Anaia Global is a company which helps aboriginal people identify to promote their investment opportunities in renewable energy projects and benefit from the technology transferred to them. This presentation showed that there are significant opportunities for First Nations in the wind energy sector and that Anaia Global is focusing on helping them seize these opportunities.

  14. Identifying Strategic Scientific Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    As NCI's central scientific strategy office, CRS collaborates with the institute's divisions, offices, and centers to identify research opportunities to advance NCI's vision for the future of cancer research.

  15. Opportunities in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, Kevan M A; Gartland, Jill S

    2018-06-08

    Strategies for biotechnology must take account of opportunities for research, innovation and business growth. At a regional level, public-private collaborations provide potential for such growth and the creation of centres of excellence. By considering recent progress in areas such as genomics, healthcare diagnostics, synthetic biology, gene editing and bio-digital technologies, opportunities for smart, strategic and specialised investment are discussed. These opportunities often involve convergent or disruptive technologies, combining for example elements of pharma-science, molecular biology, bioinformatics and novel device development to enhance biotechnology and the life sciences. Analytical applications use novel devices in mobile health, predictive diagnostics and stratified medicine. Synthetic biology provides opportunities for new product development and increased efficiency for existing processes. Successful centres of excellence should promote public-private business partnerships, clustering and global collaborations based on excellence, smart strategies and innovation if they are to remain sustainable in the longer term. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the energy resources required to produce 4-10 million metric tonnes of domestic, low-carbon hydrogen in order to fuel approximately 20-50 million fuel cell electric vehicles. These projected energy resource requirements are compared to current consumption levels, projected 2040 business as usual consumptions levels, and projected 2040 consumption levels within a carbonconstrained future for the following energy resources: coal (assuming carbon capture and storage), natural gas, nuclear (uranium), biomass, wind (on- and offshore), and solar (photovoltaics and concentrating solar power). The analysis framework builds upon previous analysis results estimating hydrogen production potentials and drawing comparisons with economy-wide resource production projections

  17. Legal and financial framework of photovoltaic self-consumption. German experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about photovoltaic self-consumption in Germany: coverage on electricity needs, companies behaviour with respect to self-consumption, legal definition of self-consumption, evolution of the regulatory framework during the last years, financial incentives and benefits for households, 2009-2014 progress of self-consumption and future prospects, opportunities and challenges for citizens and companies, economic impact on grids financing and maintenance

  18. Opportunities and challenges of nanotechnology in the green economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Leso, Veruscka; Ricciardi, Walter; Hodson, Laura L; Hoover, Mark D

    2014-10-07

    In a world of finite resources and ecosystem capacity, the prevailing model of economic growth, founded on ever-increasing consumption of resources and emission pollutants, cannot be sustained any longer. In this context, the "green economy" concept has offered the opportunity to change the way that society manages the interaction of the environmental and economic domains. To enable society to build and sustain a green economy, the associated concept of "green nanotechnology" aims to exploit nano-innovations in materials science and engineering to generate products and processes that are energy efficient as well as economically and environmentally sustainable. These applications are expected to impact a large range of economic sectors, such as energy production and storage, clean up-technologies, as well as construction and related infrastructure industries. These solutions may offer the opportunities to reduce pressure on raw materials trading on renewable energy, to improve power delivery systems to be more reliable, efficient and safe as well as to use unconventional water sources or nano-enabled construction products therefore providing better ecosystem and livelihood conditions.However, the benefits of incorporating nanomaterials in green products and processes may bring challenges with them for environmental, health and safety risks, ethical and social issues, as well as uncertainty concerning market and consumer acceptance. Therefore, our aim is to examine the relationships among guiding principles for a green economy and opportunities for introducing nano-applications in this field as well as to critically analyze their practical challenges, especially related to the impact that they may have on the health and safety of workers involved in this innovative sector. These are principally due to the not fully known nanomaterial hazardous properties, as well as to the difficulties in characterizing exposure and defining emerging risks for the workforce

  19. Terroir, storytelling and cultural heritage as opportunity for island entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.

    This paper explores how entrepreneurs can create opportunities for business in rural island settings. Three cases of food entrepreneurship are examined and it is suggested that opportunities can be created by leveraging the unique localized resources available in rural island settings in persuasive...

  20. Marriage and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blow, Laura; Browning, Martin; Ejrnæs, Mette

    We examine theoretically and empirically consumption over the early part of the life-cycle. The main focus is on the transition from being single to living with someone else. Our theoretical model allows for publicness in consumption; uncertainty concerning marriage; differences between lifetime...... incomes for prospective partners and a marriage premium. We develop a two period model to bring out the main features of the impact of marriage on consumption and saving. We then develop a multi-period model that can be taken to the data on expenditures by singles and couples aged between 18 and 30. Our...

  1. Estimates of US biofuels consumption, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report is the sixth in the series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration to quantify the amount of biofuel-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It provides preliminary estimates of 1990 US biofuels energy consumption by sector and by biofuels energy resource type. The objective of this report is to provide updated annual estimates of biofuels energy consumption for use by congress, federal and state agencies, and other groups involved in activities related to the use of biofuels. 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Estimates of US biofuels consumption, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This report is the sixth in the series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration to quantify the amount of biofuel-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It provides preliminary estimates of 1990 US biofuels energy consumption by sector and by biofuels energy resource type. The objective of this report is to provide updated annual estimates of biofuels energy consumption for use by congress, federal and state agencies, and other groups involved in activities related to the use of biofuels. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  3. Compelling Research Opportunities using Isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Isotopes are vital to the science and technology base of the US economy. Isotopes, both stable and radioactive, are essential tools in the growing science, technology, engineering, and health enterprises of the 21st century. The scientific discoveries and associated advances made as a result of the availability of isotopes today span widely from medicine to biology, physics, chemistry, and a broad range of applications in environmental and material sciences. Isotope issues have become crucial aspects of homeland security. Isotopes are utilized in new resource development, in energy from bio-fuels, petrochemical and nuclear fuels, in drug discovery, health care therapies and diagnostics, in nutrition, in agriculture, and in many other areas. The development and production of isotope products unavailable or difficult to get commercially have been most recently the responsibility of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy program. The President's FY09 Budget request proposed the transfer of the Isotope Production program to the Department of Energy's Office of Science in Nuclear Physics and to rename it the National Isotope Production and Application program (NIPA). The transfer has now taken place with the signing of the 2009 appropriations bill. In preparation for this, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) was requested to establish a standing subcommittee, the NSAC Isotope Subcommittee (NSACI), to advise the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics. The request came in the form of two charges: one, on setting research priorities in the short term for the most compelling opportunities from the vast array of disciplines that develop and use isotopes and two, on making a long term strategic plan for the NIPA program. This is the final report to address charge 1. NSACI membership is comprised of experts from the diverse research communities, industry, production, and homeland security. NSACI discussed research opportunities divided into three areas: (1) medicine

  4. Compelling Research Opportunities using Isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-04-23

    Isotopes are vital to the science and technology base of the US economy. Isotopes, both stable and radioactive, are essential tools in the growing science, technology, engineering, and health enterprises of the 21st century. The scientific discoveries and associated advances made as a result of the availability of isotopes today span widely from medicine to biology, physics, chemistry, and a broad range of applications in environmental and material sciences. Isotope issues have become crucial aspects of homeland security. Isotopes are utilized in new resource development, in energy from bio-fuels, petrochemical and nuclear fuels, in drug discovery, health care therapies and diagnostics, in nutrition, in agriculture, and in many other areas. The development and production of isotope products unavailable or difficult to get commercially have been most recently the responsibility of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy program. The President's FY09 Budget request proposed the transfer of the Isotope Production program to the Department of Energy's Office of Science in Nuclear Physics and to rename it the National Isotope Production and Application program (NIPA). The transfer has now taken place with the signing of the 2009 appropriations bill. In preparation for this, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) was requested to establish a standing subcommittee, the NSAC Isotope Subcommittee (NSACI), to advise the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics. The request came in the form of two charges: one, on setting research priorities in the short term for the most compelling opportunities from the vast array of disciplines that develop and use isotopes and two, on making a long term strategic plan for the NIPA program. This is the final report to address charge 1. NSACI membership is comprised of experts from the diverse research communities, industry, production, and homeland security. NSACI discussed research opportunities divided into three areas: (1

  5. New opportunities from nuclear R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    The author presents a new initiative within Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), the intention to look for spin-off business opportunities from main-line research and development. In 1982 AECL began encouraging ideas for spin-off applications. Some problems were encountered: the reluctance of staff to divert attention from the CANDU program; resource allocation; difficulties in getting market input; and difficulties in deciding what to license and what to retain as an in-house business opportunity. Successes have come in the areas of using CANDU technology in LWRs, SLOWPOKE reactors, industrial accelerators, stable isotope production, intelligent sensing systems, and deuterated lucite for fibre optics. (L.L.)

  6. Interactive energy consumption visualization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lunga, D

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available in an office building environment. The main goal is to highlight high consumptions patterns, estimate costs and savings, and recommend energy saving strategies. In its useful nature, the dashboard can provide valuable information for further programs tied...

  7. Legal, technical and financial framework of photovoltaic self-consumption. German experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about self-consumption from photovoltaic power plants and cogeneration plants in Germany: definition and regulatory conditions of self-consumption, share of self-consumption in the overall electricity consumption, legal aspects and feed-in tariffs, grid parity achievement and modification of the support system, financial incentives for households, tertiary sector and industry, legal aspects of direct consumption by third parties, opportunities and challenges of PV self-consumption, citizens and companies commitment in energy transition, technical challenges, impact on grid dimensioning, challenge of storage on electric system optimisation, economic impact and 'lack of solidarity', summary and recommendations

  8. An examination of fuel consumption trends in construction projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Valerie A.; Manley, Dawn K.

    2012-01-01

    Recent estimates of fuel consumption in construction projects are highly variable. Lack of standards for reporting at both the equipment and project levels make it difficult to quantify the magnitude of fuel consumption and the associated opportunities for efficiency improvements in construction projects. In this study, we examined clusters of Environmental Impact Reports for seemingly similar construction projects in California. We observed that construction projects are not characterized consistently by task or equipment. We found wide variations in estimates for fuel use in terms of tasks, equipment, and overall projects, which may be attributed in part to inconsistencies in methodology and parameter ranges. Our analysis suggests that standardizing fuel consumption reporting and estimation methodologies for construction projects would enable quantification of opportunities for efficiency improvements at both the equipment and project levels. With increasing emphasis on reducing fossil fuel consumption, it will be important to quantify opportunities to increase fuel efficiency, including across the construction sector. - Highlights: ► An analysis of construction projects reveals inconsistencies in fuel use estimates. ► Fuel consumption estimates for similar construction equipment can vary greatly. ► Standards would help to quantify efficiency opportunities in construction.

  9. Emotions and consumption behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    I. Soscia

    2013-01-01

    This stimulating book scrutinizes how emotions function in consumers, from both a psychological and a managerial perspective. It demonstrates how gratitude, happiness, guilt, anger, pride and sadness determine different post-consumption behaviours such as positive and negative word of mouth, repurchase intention and complaint behaviour. The emotional side of consumption seems to play an essential role in explaining choices made and actions taken by consumers. Isabella Soscia explores the ...

  10. Carbon offsetting: sustaining consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Lovell; Harriet Bulkeley; Diana Liverman

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine how theories of sustainable and ethical consumption help us to understand a new, rapidly expanding type of consumer product designed to mitigate climate change: carbon offsets. The voluntary carbon offset market grew by 200% between 2005 and 2006, and there are now over 150 retailers of voluntary carbon offsets worldwide. Our analysis concentrates on the production and consumption of carbon offsets, drawing on ideas from governmentality and political ecology about how...

  11. Changes in cultural consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarrete, T.; Borowiecki, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Visits to museums have been studied as hedonic and utilitarian forms of cultural consumption, though limited attention has been given to the access of museum collections online. We perform a unique historic analysis of the visibility of collections in a museum of ethnographic collections and comp......, particularly when showing them being used). Results support understanding of online heritage consumption and emerging dynamics, particularly outside of an institutional environment, such as Wikipedia. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group....

  12. Consumption and Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Ejrnæs, Mette

    2009-01-01

    supply. We develop two tests of the extreme hypothesis that only changes in family structure matter. We estimate effects of the numbers and ages of children on consumption. These estimates allow us to rationalize all of the increase in consumption without recourse to any of the causal mechanisms. Our...... estimates can be interpreted either as giving upper bounds on the effects of children or as evidence that the other causes are not important....

  13. Colocation opportunities for large solar infrastructures and agriculture in drylands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi, Sujith; Macknick, Jordan; Lobell, David; Field, Christopher; Ganesan, Karthik; Jain, Rishabh; Elchinger, Michael; Stoltenberg, Blaise

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We explored the potential to colocate solar installations and agriculture. • Water use at solar installations are similar to amounts required for desert plants. • Co-located systems are economically viable in some areas. • Colocation can maximize land and water use efficiency in drylands. - Abstract: Solar energy installations in arid and semi-arid regions are rapidly increasing due to technological advances and policy support. Although solar energy provides several benefits such as reduction of greenhouse gases, reclamation of degraded land, and improved quality of life in developing countries, the deployment of large-scale renewable energy infrastructure may negatively impact land and water resources. Meeting the ever-expanding energy demand with limited land and water resources in the context of increasing demand for alternative uses such as agricultural and domestic consumption is a major challenge. The goal of this study was to explore opportunities to colocate solar infrastructures and agricultural crops to maximize the efficiency of land and water use. We investigated the energy inputs/outputs, water use, greenhouse gas emissions, and economics of solar installations in northwestern India in comparison to aloe vera cultivation, another widely promoted and economically important land use in these systems. The life cycle analyses show that the colocated systems are economically viable in some rural areas and may provide opportunities for rural electrification and stimulate economic growth. The water inputs for cleaning solar panels are similar to amounts required for annual aloe productivity, suggesting the possibility of integrating the two systems to maximize land and water use efficiency. A life cycle analysis of a hypothetical colocation indicated higher returns per m"3 of water used than either system alone. The northwestern region of India has experienced high population growth in the past decade, creating additional demand for land

  14. Consumptive water use in the production of ethanonl and petroleum gasoline.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.; Mintz, M.; Wang, M.; Arora, S.; Energy Systems

    2009-01-30

    The production of energy feedstocks and fuels requires substantial water input. Not only do biofuel feedstocks like corn, switchgrass, and agricultural residues need water for growth and conversion to ethanol, but petroleum feedstocks like crude oil and oil sands also require large volumes of water for drilling, extraction, and conversion into petroleum products. Moreover, in many cases, crude oil production is increasingly water dependent. Competing uses strain available water resources and raise the specter of resource depletion and environmental degradation. Water management has become a key feature of existing projects and a potential issue in new ones. This report examines the growing issue of water use in energy production by characterizing current consumptive water use in liquid fuel production. As used throughout this report, 'consumptive water use' is the sum total of water input less water output that is recycled and reused for the process. The estimate applies to surface and groundwater sources for irrigation but does not include precipitation. Water requirements are evaluated for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, ethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from Canadian oil sands, Saudi Arabian crude, and U.S. conventional crude from onshore wells. Regional variations and historic trends are noted, as are opportunities to reduce water use.

  15. Uranium: which resources for tomorrow?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouisset, P.; Polak, Ch.; Milesi, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    The authors give an overview of the current uranium world mine production and indicate the consumption predictions by 2030 as well as the share of high grade and low grade deposits in the world production. They outline the challenges for future production: production costs of new mines, technological development for the identification of new resources, technological development of new, innovating and cost saving processes, and new exploration processes. They indicate and comment assessments made by the IAEA regarding conventional and non-conventional resources, i.e. reasonably assured resources and resources where uranium is a by-product

  16. Ethical Perspectives of Equal Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian PALADE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of the fair equality of the concept of opportunity from the perspective of the moral and reasonable justifications brought to support positive discrimination. Although contemporary democratic societies guarantee the absence of discrimination by securing the formal equality of opportunity, this seems to be insufficient to balance opportunities. The Rawlsian model has gained ground, by advancing a redistribution of the resources to support the disadvantaged ones, which is implemented through special measures. The compulsory quotas for admission to higher education or public institutions, addressed to some disadvantaged groups, are one of the effective means of implementing fairness. As this system has shattered the principle of reward judging by one‟s merits, and ending up as a form of inverse discrimination of the majority groups, it is necessary that we analyse the arguments and the boomerang effects of the special measures. The undertaking proposed by the present paper is structured around highlighting the ethical aspects, as well as the consequences resulting from the arguments in favour of positive discrimination. Do we have the moral obligation to make up for the past inequalities suffered by some groups? Does preferential treatment really ensure the genuine integration of such groups? Do special measures contribute in creating social justice? Without the claim of having responded definitively and exhaustively to these questions, this paper attempts to emphasise the ethical dilemma that raises when special measures favour one group or another, when a group is protected judging by only one criterion, or when only an implementation area is selected.

  17. Economic theories of sustainable consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada; Bergh, van den Jeroen C.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The term `sustainable consumption' denotes the search for consumption patterns that reduce human pressure on the environment and nature. This searchinvolves three levels of research. First, the relationship between consumption, lifestyles and environmental sustainability has to be clarified.

  18. Energy consumption and conservation in food retailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassou, S.A.; Ge, Y.; Hadawey, A.; Marriott, D.

    2011-01-01

    The total annual CO 2 emissions associated with the energy consumption of the major retail food outlets in the UK amount to around 4.0 MtCO 2 . The energy consumption and emissions from supermarkets varies widely and can depend on many factors such as the type and size of the store, business and merchandising practices and refrigeration and environmental control systems used. This paper provides energy consumption data of a sample of 2570 retail food stores from a number of major retail food chains in the UK. The sample covers all major store categories from convenience stores to hypermarkets and includes approximately 30% of the total number of stores in the UK having a net sales area more than 280 m 2 . The data show a wide variability of energy intensity even within stores of the same retail chain. A power law can be used to describe the variation of the average electrical energy intensity of the stores in the sample with sales area. If the electrical intensity of the stores above the average is reduced to the average by energy conservation measures, annual energy savings of the order of 10% or 840 GWh can be achieved representing 355,000 tonnes annual reduction in CO 2 emissions. The paper also discusses the major energy consuming processes in retail food stores and identifies opportunities for energy savings. - Research highlights: → Energy consumption by supermarkets in the UK is significant and a wide variability exists between stores of similar size. → Energy conservation measures to reduce energy consumption of individual stores to the average can produce a0% energy savings. → Significant opportunities for energy savings exist from the integration of HVAC and refrigeration equipment.

  19. 75 FR 4901 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... 2, 2009. 30. EOG Resources, Inc., Pad ID: Ward M 1H, ABR-20090421.1, Springfield Township, Bradford....; Consumptive Use of up to 4.990 mgd; Approval Date: December 29, 2009. 65. EOG Resources, Inc., Pad ID: Kenyon...

  20. Energy efficiency opportunities in Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Said

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the statistics in Egypt (2013, the number of hotels is 1193, about 407 of them have contracted power greater than 500 kW.Air conditioning, lighting, water heating and refrigeration represent the main activities demanding electrical energy in hotel business.The energy consumption per night spend changes a lot, depending on various factors; facilities provided, category of hotel, occupancy , geographical situation, weather conditions, nationality of clients, design and control of the installations.Energy benchmarking is an internal management tool designed to provide ongoing, reliable and verifiable tracking on the hotels performance. The most useful performance indicator (or Energy Efficiency Benchmarking of hotels are: Lighting Power Density (LPD in W (for lighting/m2, and energy intensity (kWh/m2/ y.There are multiple benefits for improving energy in hotel business; reduces the hotel's operating cost, reduces climate change risks and promotes green tourism.Energy efficiency opportunities are low-cost measures and cost- effective investments.   There are many energy saving opportunities for lighting in hotel's guest rooms as well as the more obvious savings in lobbies and exterior lighting areas. Behavior campaigns can yield substantial energy savings, both through the guests and housekeeper behavior. Encouraging housekeepers to use natural light during room cleaning is a simple first step to implement energy saving program.This paper presents the energy efficiency guidelines and energy benchmarking for hotels. Also a case study showing how the energy efficiency program implemented is presented. 

  1. Industrial opportunities - offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerrits, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Industrial opportunities available in the Canadian offshore petroleum industry are discussed. Oil has been produced offshore from Nova Scotia since 1992, and offshore from Newfoundland since 1997. Special needs that must be addressed in offshore operations in eastern Canada such as the cold North Atlantic environment, isolation, logistics, safety, and quality assurance, are examined. The most obvious opportunities lie with the designing, building and installing the facilities needed to extract oil and gas from beneath the sea floor and transport it to market. However, there are also opportunities in designing and fabricating clothing, customized food containers and other equipment for offshore needs. Short term opportunities also exist in the decommissioning of depleted production fields and their facilities. One of the greatest obstacles facing new entrants into the offshore oil and gas industry is the lack of a track record. To meet this challenge, the ability to seek out partners to pursue local and international opportunities through joint ventures, strategic alliances and technology sharing partnering arrangements is of great importance. It may be the difference between success and failure. 6 figs

  2. Consumo e custo de recursos materiais em unidades pediátricas de terapia intensiva e semi-intensiva Costo y consumo de recursos materiales en unidades pediátricas de terapia intensiva y semi-intensiva Costs and consumption of material resources in pediatric intensive and semi-intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Lenotti Zuliani

    2012-12-01

    ón significativa en el consumo mensual de materiales. Los materiales de mayor costo presentaron un mayor impacto en el presupuesto de las unidades estudiadas. Los datos revelan la importancia del uso de un método sistémico de análisis de consumo y gastos de materiales en unidades pediátricas y subsidian acciones administrativas de economía.Cost management of hospital material resources is a trendy research topic, especially in specialized health units. Nurses are pointed out as the main managers for costs and consumption of hospital materials resources. This study aimed to characterize Pediatric Intensive and Semi-Intensive Care Units of a teaching hospital and investigate costs and consumption of material resources used to treat patients admitted to these units. This is a descriptive exploratory study with retrospective data and quantitative approach. Data were obtained from a Hospital Information System and analyzed according to the ABC classification. The average expenditures were similar in both the neonatal and cardiac units, and lower in Pediatric Intensive and Semi-Intensive care units. There was a significant variation in the monthly consumption of materials. Higher cost materials had a greater impact on the budget of the studied units. The data revealed the importance of using a systematic method for the analysis of materials consumption and expenditure in pediatric units. They subsidize administrative and economic actions.

  3. Sustainable Development of Africa's Water Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Narenda P. Sharma

    1996-01-01

    This study, African water resources: challenges and opportunities for sustainable management propose a long-term strategy for water resource management, emphasizing the socially sustainable development imperatives for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The message of this strategy is one of optimism - the groundwork already exists for the sustainable management of Africa's water resources. The stra...

  4. Mining resource profiles from event logs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pika, A.; Leyer, M.; Wynn, M.T.; Fidge, C.J.; Ter Hofstede, A.H.M.; Van Der Aalst, W.M.P.

    2017-01-01

    In most business processes, several activities need to be executed by human resources and cannot be fully automated. To evaluate resource performance and identify best practices as well as opportunities for improvement, managers need objective information about resource behaviors. Companies often

  5. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Savings Opportunities in U.S. Petroleum Refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas, representing 68% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  6. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Chemical Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. chemical manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in the production of 74 individual chemicals, representing 57% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual chemicals and for 15 subsectors of chemicals manufacturing are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  7. Links and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    At the end of June a new website was launched to enable young people to get involved with the UK's national Foresight programme and to help shape the future. `School of the Future - Young people with Foresight' will provide young people with the means to contribute to the national programme which develops scenarios of the future, looking at possible needs, opportunities or threats and deciding what should be done now to make sure these challenges can be met. The site can be found at www.asset.org.uk and it will be run by the Association for Schools' Science, Engineering and Technology (ASSET). The latest round of Foresight began in April and panels are taking a look at the aging population, crime prevention, built environment and transport, aerospace and systems, energy and the natural environment, information, communications and media, materials and sustainable development, amongst other topics. Information about Foresight activities and events can be obtained from the Office of Science and Technology or the Foresight Knowledge pool at www.foresight.gov.uk. The pool will act as a unique and freely accessible electronic library of views and information about the future that young people will be able to draw on for assistance and reference material. Futher assistance for students will also be on offer from museums and art galleries from now on, thanks to additional funding which has been made available over the next three years. Forty museums and galleries will share up to #2.5m for projects intended to improve students' literacy, numeracy and science skills as well as their understanding of history and art. Examples of the imaginative projects which have been put forward include use of the large collection of steam engines at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester to assist boys' science and literacy skills. The Museum of London will be working with over 2000 schools in the South East to provide materials for the schools' own mini-museums on the Romans

  8. PERSPECTIVES UPON CONSUMPTION AND HAPPINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Mihaela STROE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are described by economists as rational people when making a decision and when interacting with different types of framing problems. Theories explaining rational "consumer's rational behaviour" , assume that emotions can be controlled and even ignored so people be able to behave in a rational manner. An important issue was to establish the rational economic report between resources and needs and finding ways to optimize it. Rational consumer behaviour is considered to be one that ensures maximum consumer satisfaction with maximum efficiency at minimum cost. Each user asks himself at one point, if happiness is found in material goods and services. Economists would like that the consumers believe that in their attempt to explain buying behaviour. However, it is a matter of debate if psychological records tend to state otherwise. It is suggested that people buy goods and services hoping that they will substitute the factors that make them truly happy . It is debatable whether consumption is detrimental to human happiness and if the link between consumption and happiness extends to all buying experiences.

  9. International oil opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hares, T.N.D.; Mann, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    Some of the key issues to be addressed when selecting international opportunities, were discussed. The ideal opportunity should have the following characteristics: (1) large, low risk (2) high percentage of rent available to the investor, (3) low cost and low technical requirements, (4) low country risk, (5) low competition, (6) easy to access, and (7) favorable environment in which to work. Entering an international opportunity can be achieved by competitive bidding, direct negotiation, partnership, corporate and/or asset acquisition, and long-term relationships. Key success factors were identified as (1) applying technical financial and commercial skills in the international environment, (2) speedy response, (3) excellent relationships in the foreign country, (4) understanding the local culture, and (5) keeping a good track record. 6 figs

  10. Tackling the dual challenge of sustainable consumption and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedlacko, Michal; Antunes, Paula; Asara, Viviana

    There is overwhelming evidence that one of the most important challenges facing society today is the growing scale and unequal distribution of consumption of natural resources. Both the socio-economic implications of resource scarcities and the documented decline in provision of and rising threat...

  11. PV opportunities in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jack L.; Ullal, Harin S.

    1996-01-01

    The growing middle class in India, coupled with a need for electricity to provide basic services to the masses, provides an opportunity to deploy photovoltaic systems in cost-effective applications ranging from grid-connected to isolated location requirements. This need is being satisfied by aggressive government programs, the availability of funds from agencies such as the World Bank, and the desire of Indian industries to form joint ventures for in-country manufacturing. The relaxed restrictions on doing business in India makes today's opportunities timely indeed.

  12. 18 CFR 1316.2 - Affirmative action and equal opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affirmative action and equal opportunity. 1316.2 Section 1316.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY... habit, local custom, or otherwise. (3) Contractor further agrees that (except where it has obtained...

  13. Opportunities at Geoscience in Veracruz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh-Rodríguez, C.

    2006-12-01

    The State of Veracruz is located in the central part of the Gulf of Mexico. It has enormous natural, economic and cultural wealth, is the third most populous state in Mexico, with nearly 33 % of the nation's water resources. It has an enormous quantity of natural resources, including oil, and is strategically located in Mexico. On one hand, mountains to the east are a natural border on the other lies the Gulf of Mexico. Between these two barriers are located tropical forests, mountain forests, jungles, wetlands, reefs, etc., and the land is one of the richest in biodiversity within the Americas. Veracruz, because of its geographical characteristics, presents an opportunity for research and collaboration in the geosciences. The region has experienced frequent episodes of torrential rainfalls, which have caused floods resulting in large amounts of property damage to agriculture, housing, infrastructure and, in extreme situations, loss of human life. In 2004 Veracruz University initiated a bachelor degree in Geography, which will prepare professionals to use their knowledge of geosciences to understand and promote integrated assessment of the prevailing problems in the State. Along with the geography program, the Earth Science Center offers other research programs in seismology, vulcanology, climatology, sustainable development and global change. Because of these characteristics, Veracruz is an optimal environment for active research in the geosciences, as well as for sharing the results of this research with educators, students, and all learners. We look forward to facilitating these efforts in the coming years.

  14. Tuberculosis diagnostics: Challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Nema

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB has been a disease affecting almost all parts of the world since ages. Lot many efforts came in the past for improving diagnosis and treatment. Also, an effective vaccine has been sought after for long. With the emergence of resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causal organisms of tuberculosis, and complexities emerging due to other associated infections and disease conditions, there is a desperate need for further research input in the field. Be it the better medication and care or better resistance management, proper diagnostics holds the key to success. It has been observed that a high burden of the disease was accompanied by resource limitations and poor research set-up. The scenario remained like this for several decades. With the refreshed vision of resourceful countries and funding agencies, funding is being provided in many areas of research in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. This review has been written with an aim to bring forth the limitations of available methods in the field of diagnostics and making researchers aware about the changing scenario with better funding opportunities and support. The author visualizes an enthusiasm from all over the world for the development of better modalities and urges scientists to join the struggle at this very perfect time to take the challenge and come forward with innovations in this field.

  15. Implications for Forest Resource Degradation and Deforestation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Socio-Economic Status and Food Consumption Pattern on Household Energy uses: Implications for Forest Resource Degradation and Deforestation around Wondo Genet Catchments, South-Central Ethiopia.

  16. Power generation needs and opportunities in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadomski, C.R.; Hon, M.

    1990-01-01

    This article examines the market for power generation and pollution control equipment in Eastern Europe. The topics of the article include financing equipment and services, financial and political incentives, capacity, environmental impacts, energy consumption and efficiency, energy prices, energy diversification, renewable energy opportunities, strategy for the market, and the example of Poland

  17. Food Processing and Marketing: New Directions...New Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue uses tomato processing to illustrate the new directions and opportunities available in the food market. Comparative advantage and economies of scale are discussed in relation to markets. Forecasting success in the market is attributed to studying consumer consumption trends by type and monitoring standards of living in 32 newly…

  18. Ethical Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Lennart Ravn

    So-called ‘ethical’ food products have spread across the industrialised world. These are products that are produced under labelling schemes with extraordinary attentiveness to issues such as farm animal welfare and environmental protection. Political decision-makers and other stakeholders in food...... protection. In particular, it aims to examine the concrete improvements that may be pursued through markets for ethical food, and how these improvements are influenced by factors related to individual consumers’ choice of food. This thesis is structured around three research papers that illuminate different...... aspects of ethical food consumption and, based on this, provide concrete policy inputs. The scope of the research is highly interdisciplinary, and includes perspectives from ethics and the social sciences on food consumption. Paper I: Can increased organic consumption mitigate climate changes...

  19. Raiding Opportunities and Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben

    2001-01-01

    , all types of workers experience unemployment, high-ability workers involuntarily. The raiding opportunities give rise to involuntary unemployment without changing the basic properties of the competitive model and thus suggest new implications of various institutional parameters on unemployment......, in particular, unemployment compensation, minimum wages, wage taxation, and search requirements....

  20. Essays on Character & Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Children and Families at Brookings, 2014

    2014-01-01

    These essays provide richer set of writings on the philosophical, empirical and practical issues raised by a focus on character, and in particular its relationship to questions of opportunity. Each one is an intellectual pemmican: sharp and to the point. Two scholars draw attention to the gendered nature of character formation (Segal and Lexmond);…

  1. Trading fund opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The paper concerns the operation of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) as a trading fund. The changes and anticipated effects of this role are discussed, including the financial arrangements, UKAEA skills, customers, Department of Energy sponsorship and new business opportunities. (U.K.)

  2. Equal Educational Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lorenzo

    1980-01-01

    Holds that the "Bakke" decision simply reaffirmed an insufficient commitment to equal opportunities for Blacks in higher education. Reviews several studies, including research conducted at the Institute for the Study of Educational Policy (ISEP) that has focused on the social and economic context of educational discrimination. (GC)

  3. Creating Innovative Opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungberg, Daniel; McKelvey, Maureen; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops lessons about how and why the founders and ventures involved in knowledge intensive entrepreneurship (KIE) manage the process of venture creation. The meta-analysis of the 86 case studies is based upon as conceptual model (from a systemic literature review), linked to illustra...... of knowledge networks to create innovative opportunities....

  4. Seafood Consumption and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Huseyin Atar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study discussed relationship between healthy life and seafood consumption. Seafood consumption provide with predicting some chronic diseases, regular diet and a healthy eating habit. Fish and seafood have been promoted as healthy eating by health organizations in many countries all over the world. Seafood includes many important fatty acids, proteins, vitamins and minerals. These have been shown to cause significant biochemical and physiological changes in the body. Especially omega–3 and omega–6 fatty acids have been prevented some major diseases; such as CHD, cancer. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(2.000: 173-176

  5. Why Taxing Consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Robert Frank is famous for proposing an incremental tax on consumption. His proposition is motivated by the control of positional externalities, i.e. the costs that individuals impose on each other when they consume goods for securing or acquiring social status. A close analysis of Frank...... are controversial while the invocation of efficiency is actually grounded in an underlying view of social cooperation. Secondly, this chapter advances the idea that an ultimate justification for the choice of specific tax base (consumption, income and wealth) expresses such an underlying view. In other words...

  6. Digital watermarking opportunities enabled by mobile media proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modro, Sierra; Sharma, Ravi K.

    2009-02-01

    Consumer usages of mobile devices and electronic media are changing. Mobile devices now include increased computational capabilities, mobile broadband access, better integrated sensors, and higher resolution screens. These enhanced features are driving increased consumption of media such as images, maps, e-books, audio, video, and games. As users become more accustomed to using mobile devices for media, opportunities arise for new digital watermarking usage models. For example, transient media, like images being displayed on screens, could be watermarked to provide a link between mobile devices. Applications based on these emerging usage models utilizing watermarking can provide richer user experiences and drive increased media consumption. We describe the enabling factors and highlight a few of the usage models and new opportunities. We also outline how the new opportunities are driving further innovation in watermarking technologies. We discuss challenges in market adoption of applications based on these usage models.

  7. Cultural Differences in Opportunity Cost Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Ji, Li-Jun; Li, Ye

    2017-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate cultural differences in opportunity cost consideration between Chinese and Euro-Canadians. Opportunity cost is defined as the cost of a benefit that must be forgone in order to pursue a better alternative (Becker et al., 1974). In both studies, participants read about hypothetical purchase scenarios, and then decided whether they would buy a certain product. Opportunity cost consideration was measured in two ways: (1) participants' thoughts pertaining to other (nonfocal) products while making decisions; (2) participants' decisions not to buy a focal product (Study 1) or a more expensive product (Study 2). Across both indexes, we found that after controlling for individual difference variables and amount of pocket money, Chinese participants in China considered financial opportunity cost more than Euro-Canadians in Study 1. Similar results were observed in Study 2 when comparing Chinese in Canada with Euro-Canadians However, the cultural effect on opportunity cost consideration was confounded by family income in Study 2. Implications for resource management, limitations of the current research and directions for future research are discussed.

  8. Remittances in rural Zimbabwe: From consumption to investment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ncube (Gracsious); G.M. Gómez (Georgina)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWhen remittances become widespread and stable in a rural village, they adopt a critical role in supporting local development. They contribute via the promotion of businesses and employment. Productive consumption creates opportunities for investment in growth oriented SMEs, whether their

  9. Temporal factors in resource dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, L; Poortinga, W; van der Kooij, R

    The conflict between present and future consumption lies at the heart of resource dilemmas (RDs), yet the role of time has received little attention in this research area. Emphasis was on factors related to the social rather than the temporal conflict inherent in an RD. We propose a model that deals

  10. Turkey's net energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezkaymak, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop the equations for forecasting net energy consumption (NEC) using an artificial neural-network (ANN) technique in order to determine the future level of energy consumption in Turkey. In this study, two different models were used in order to train the neural network. In one of them, population, gross generation, installed capacity and years are used in the input layer of the network (Model 1). Other energy sources are used in input layer of network (Model 2). The net energy consumption is in the output layer for two models. Data from 1975 to 2003 are used for the training. Three years (1981, 1994 and 2003) are used only as test data to confirm this method. The statistical coefficients of multiple determinations (R 2 -value) for training data are equal to 0.99944 and 0.99913 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Similarly, R 2 values for testing data are equal to 0.997386 and 0.999558 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. According to the results, the net energy consumption using the ANN technique has been predicted with acceptable accuracy. Apart from reducing the whole time required, with the ANN approach, it is possible to find solutions that make energy applications more viable and thus more attractive to potential users. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable energy policies

  11. Exploring heroin consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, Franz; Frijns, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In this report we explore some aspects of heroin consumption, using the data we collected through the face-to-face interviews and comparing our findings with data from other research and monitoring sources. We focus on Italy, the Netherlands and England, the three sample Member States where we have

  12. Regional final energy consumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report comments the differences observed between the French regions and also between these regions and national data in terms of final energy consumption per inhabitant, per GDP unit, and per sector (housing and office building, transport, industry, agriculture). It also comments the evolutions during the last decades, identifies the most recent trends

  13. Bus fuel consumption model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zargari, S.A. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khan, A.M. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2000-07-01

    The interest in rapid bus transit has increased sharply with the realization that modern metropolitan areas rely on public transit to provide for strong economies and communities. As a prevention tool against traffic congestion, deteriorating air quality and rising greenhouse gas emissions, this study of bus fuel consumption was designed to assist in the planning and management of rapid bus transit. The Australian Road Research Board's (ARRB) Road Fuel Consumption Model was used as a starting point. The estimations required were realized with the help of Newtonian Mechanics. The four states of vehicular traffic were examined: acceleration, cruise, deceleration, and idle. The estimated total power required from the engine to overcome resistance forces, to run vehicle accessories and overcome internal engine friction was calculated. The data for the standard and articulated bus was obtained from OC Transpo in Ottawa. The study permitted the authors to conclude that the estimations for the parameters for power requirements and fuel consumption for heavy duty vehicles are appropriate. The methodology for the estimation of fuel consumption on the Transitway, which is part of the rapid bus transit system, proved adequate. In addition, the methodology was useful to estimate fuel savings resulting from demand management strategies with potential for modal shift. 9 refs., 6 tabs.

  14. Sustainable consumption and marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the

  15. Consumption growth accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; de Groot, Olaf J.; Los, Bart

    The methodology in this paper combines an input-output structural decomposition approach with the supply-side perspective of mainstream growth accounting. In explaining the intertemporal change in consumption per worker, three sets of effects are distinguished. First, contributions due to several

  16. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... experience alcohol’s longer-term effects, which can include: Alcohol use disorder Health problems Increased risk for certain cancers In ...

  17. Organic consumption behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Shuili; Bartels, Jos; Reinders, Machiel; Sen, Sankar

    2017-01-01

    Consumer demand for organic food and non-food products has been growing dramatically. This study examines organic consumption behavior from a social identification perspective. Focusing on the central role of organic consumer identification (OCI), or the extent to which individuals categorize

  18. The Ideology of Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This article opts for a return to a critique of the ideology of consumption. Following Slavoj Žižek it argues that what must be addressed in present-day consumer-capitalism is the level of the superego. Superego is not about living up to certain norms/standards; rather, superego fits consumerism...

  19. The Consumption Paradigm in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Ardianto

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborates consumption paradigm in marketing. In background, this paper reviews different perspectives of consumption: economic perspective and marketing perspective. In ontology, this work describes various issues regarding consumption view. In epistemology, this article demonstrates how marketers especially researches explore the consumption phenomena. In methodology, the article describes experiential marketing –one of applied consumption paradigm in marketing, which could be an alternative choice of marketing practices.

  20. Country differences in sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2010-01-01

    In a sustainability perspective, consumption research has an unfortunate individualizing bias, which means that macro and structural causes of unsustainable consumption tend to be ignored. Hence, a comprehensive model of determinants of the sustainability of consumption is developed and applied...... on a specific case: organic food consumption. The analyzed data are published research on why consumer purchase of organic food products differs between countries. As expected, organic food's share of total food consumption depends heavily on political regulation, including legal definitions and standards...

  1. Work-related consumption drivers and consumption at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    The main message in this paper is that the discussion on sustainable consumption should also incorporate the consumption that occurs in relation to work and, more generally, the relationship between consumption at work and consumption at home. I start by considering how domestic consumption...... is encouraged by work-related factors and continue to consider how consumption activities occur in the workplace, so illustrating that production and consumption are intertwined. The main part of the paper deals in detail with the conceptual distinction between production and consumption. Inspiration is drawn...... from both ecology and economics with focus on some important predecessors for ecological economics. I conclude with reflections on how to proceed with consumption studies to provide the basis for promoting more sustainable life patterns....

  2. User Frustrations as Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Weiss

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available User frustrations are an excellent source of new product ideas. Starting with this observation, this article describes an approach that entrepreneurs can use to discover business opportunities. Opportunity discovery starts with a problem that the user has, but may not be able to articulate. User-centered design techniques can help elicit those latent needs. The entrepreneur should then try to understand how users are solving their problem today, before proposing a solution that draws on the unique skills and technical capabilities available to the entrepreneur. Finally, an in-depth understanding of the user allows the entrepreneur to hone in on the points of difference and resonance that are the foundation of a strong customer value proposition.

  3. Hot business - cool opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, M.

    1997-01-01

    A new role for the deregulated electric utilities in the energy services market or performance contracting markets was discussed. It was argued that in view of the long tradition of close customer contact, distribution utilities are in a good position to leverage their relationship with their customers to expand the range of products and services that the ''utility'' provides to them. Real time pricing, energy services, HVAC maintenance and operation are just some of the areas where the distribution utility''s linkage to customers could be used to good advantage. Some case histories, and a list of potential product and service opportunities in the commercial/industrial and residential sectors were provided. Some of the potential pitfalls were also identified for utilities that wish to pursue these opportunities. These pitfalls included legal, marketing, risk management and funding issues

  4. Propane: North American opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, C.

    1992-01-01

    Opportunities for expanding the propane market in North America are discussed. The goal of change should be to enhance client satisfaction and loyalty. The current customer base is largely comprised of pick-up trucks, vans and buses in commercial fleet service, police and similar fleet service and privately owned vehicles. Opportunities for the expansion of propane exist due to: vehicles being kept and lasting longer, allowing a longer pay-back time; exhaust emission standards becoming more stringent; the possible introduction of emission standards for substances currently not controlled; and properly combusted CO 2 emissions that are at least 12% lower than gasoline. The continuing development of engine fuel management systems, application of extensive road/highway experience, matching supply and refuelling infrastructure to consumer demands, application in air quality non-attainment areas, and original equipment manufacturer, government and industry cooperation are discussed. 8 figs

  5. human resources management and lecturer's job satisfaction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    The study revealed that administrators' human resources management effectiveness has a significant influence on ... opportunity for academic publication and administrators' staff relationship. .... enhance professional development. This is true ...

  6. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  7. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  8. Barriers and opportunities to access international resources for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Despite some successes when it comes to national and global efforts at tobacco control, little evidence exists of international funding or support in this area for developing countries like Bolivia. Bolivia is one of 173 countries to date that have ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). The FCTC has ...

  9. Oceans of Opportunity. Harnessing Europe's largest domestic energy resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichaux, N.; Wilkes, J.

    2009-09-01

    Europe's offshore wind potential is enormous and able to power Europe seven times over. Over 100 GW of offshore wind projects are already in various stages of planning. If realised, these projects would produce 10% of the EU's electricity whilst avoiding 200 million tonnes of CO2 emissions each year. EWEA has a target of 40 GW of offshore wind in the EU by 2020, implying an average annual market growth of 28% over the coming 12 years. The EU market for onshore wind grew by an average 32% per year in the 12-year period from 1992-2004 - what the wind energy industry has achieved on land can be repeated at sea. EWEA's proposed offshore grid builds on the 11 offshore grids currently operating and 21 offshore grids currently being considered by the grid operators in the Baltic and North Seas to give Europe a truly pan-European electricity super highway. Strong political support and action from Europe's policy-makers will allow a new, multi-billion euro industry to be built. This new industry will deliver thousands of green collar jobs and a new renewable energy economy and establish Europe as world leader in offshore wind power technology. A single European electricity market with large amounts of wind power will bring affordable electricity to consumers, reduce import dependence, cut CO2 emissions and allow Europe to access its largest domestic energy source.

  10. Online Nutrition Education: Enhancing Opportunities for Limited-Resource Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Patty; Cluskey, Mary; Hino, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Delivering nutrition education using the Internet could allow educators to reach larger audiences at lower cost. Low-income adults living in a rural community participated in focus groups to examine their interest in, experience with, and motivators to accessing nutrition education online. This audience described limited motivation in seeking…

  11. Imagine...Opportunities and Resources for Academically Talented Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Melissa E., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    These five issues of a magazine designed for highly gifted and talented secondary students address marine science, anthropology and archaeology, making the most of summer, medicine and health sciences, and the World Wide Web. Featured articles include: (1) "The Ocean's Call: How My Love for the Ocean Grew into a Career" (Jessica Schulman Farrar);…

  12. Living resources provide diverse opportunities to coastal human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    Subsistence fishers were first recognized as a formal fishing sector in South Africa when ... 3 Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa ...... HARRIS, J. M., BRANCH, G. M., SIBIYA, C. S. and C. BILL (in.

  13. Products of steel slags an opportunity to save natural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motz, H; Geiseler, J

    2001-01-01

    In Germany, and in the most industrial countries, the use of blast furnace and steel slags as an aggregate for civil engineering, for metallurgical use and as fertiliser has a very long tradition. Since the introduction of the basic oxygen steel making furnace (BOF) process and the electric arc furnace (EAF) process the German steel industry started extensive research on the development of fields of application for BOF and EAF slags. These investigations have been mainly performed by Forschungsgemeinschaft Eisenhüttenschlacken e. V. (FEhS), the Research Association for blast furnace and steel slags. Today steel slags are well characterised and long-term experienced materials mainly used as aggregates for road construction (e.g. asphaltic or unbound layers), as armour-stones for hydraulic engineering constructions (e.g. stabilisation of shores), and as fertiliser for agriculture purposes. These multifarious fields of application could only be achieved because the steelworks influence the quality of slags by a careful selection of raw materials and a suitable process route. Furthermore, subsequent procedures like a treatment of the liquid slag, an appropriate heat treatment and a suitable processing have been developed to ensure that the quality of steel slags is always adequate for the end use. Depending on the respective field of application, the suitability of steel slags has to be proven by determining the technical properties, as well as the environmental compatibility. For this reason test methods have been developed to evaluate the technical properties especially the volume stability and the environmental behaviour. To evaluate the volume stability a suitable test (steam test) has been developed and the results from laboratory tests were compared with the behaviour of steel slags under practical conditions, e.g. in a road. To determine the environmental behaviour leaching tests have been developed. In the meanwhile most of these test methods are drafted or already accepted as a CEN standard and are used for a continuous quality control. Usually the suitability of steel slags is stated by fulfilling the requirements of national and/or international standards and regulations. Based on these standards and regulations in Germany in 1998 about 97% of the produced steel slags have been used as aggregates for road construction (e.g. as surface layer, road base and sub base for high trafficked roads), ways, earthworks, and armourstones for hydraulic structures. Consistent to the successful long-term experience not only products of steel slags but also products of blast furnace slags have been eliminated from the European Waste Catalogue and the European Shipment of Waste Regulation of the European Community, as well as from the lists of OECD for transfrontier movements by the decision of the OECD-Council from 21 September, 1995.

  14. Investing in the territory: conditions, criticalities, resources, opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio De Albertis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In order for the building sector in Italy to overcome the crisis, general conditions concerning the performance of the Italian economic system must occur and the planned public works projects and announced housing plans must be implemented. The new building cycle will bring with it a different market than the traditional one, hence the need to identify some strategic areas that refer to the current models of supply and demand, in particular the demand for housing which continues to grow and that relative to the transformation of the existing heritage. In the coming years, the challenge for the building sector will be to embark on a process of highly significant innovation, guided by the dynamics of globalization, technological evolution as well as energy and environmental issues.

  15. Energy efficiency opportunities in the brewery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan

    2002-06-28

    Breweries in the United States spend annually over $200 Million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 3-8% of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that there may still be opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively for breweries. Major brewing companies have and will continue to spend capital on cost effective measures that do not impact the quality of the beer. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies at individual breweries.

  16. Life-cycle phosphorus management of the crop production–consumption system in China, 1980–2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Huijun [School of Earth Environment, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001 (China); Yuan, Zengwei, E-mail: yuanzw@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Gao, Liangmin [School of Earth Environment, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001 (China); Zhang, Ling [College of Economics and Management, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Zhang, Yongliang [Policy Research Center for Environment and Economy, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential resource for agriculture and also a pollutant capable of causing eutrophication. The possibility of a future P scarcity and the requirement to improve the environment quality necessitate P management to increase the efficiency of P use. This study applied a substance flow analysis (SFA) to implement a P management procedure in a crop production–consumption (PMCPC) system model. This model determined the life-cycle P use efficiency (PUE) of the crop production–consumption system in China during 1980–2012. The system includes six subsystems: fertilizer manufacturing, crop cultivation, crop processing, livestock breeding, rural consumption, and urban consumption. Based on this model, the P flows and PUEs of the subsystems were identified and quantified using data from official statistical databases, published literature, questionnaires, and interviews. The results showed that the total PUE of the crop production–consumption system in China was low, notably from 1980 to 2005, and increased from 7.23% in 1980 to 20.13% in 2012. Except for fertilizer manufacturing, the PUEs of the six subsystems were also low. The PUEs in the urban consumption subsystem and the crop cultivation subsystem were less than 40%. The PUEs of other subsystems, such as the rural consumption subsystem and the livestock breeding subsystem, were also low and even decreased during these years. Measures aimed to improve P management practices in China have been proposed such as balancing fertilization, disposing livestock excrement, adjusting livestock feed, changing the diet of residents, and raising the waste disposal level, etc. This study also discussed several limitations related with the model and data. Conducting additional related studies on other regions and combining the analysis of risks with opportunities may be necessary to develop effective management strategies. - Highlights: • A model of P management of the crop production–consumption system

  17. Life-cycle phosphorus management of the crop production–consumption system in China, 1980–2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Huijun; Yuan, Zengwei; Gao, Liangmin; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Yongliang

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential resource for agriculture and also a pollutant capable of causing eutrophication. The possibility of a future P scarcity and the requirement to improve the environment quality necessitate P management to increase the efficiency of P use. This study applied a substance flow analysis (SFA) to implement a P management procedure in a crop production–consumption (PMCPC) system model. This model determined the life-cycle P use efficiency (PUE) of the crop production–consumption system in China during 1980–2012. The system includes six subsystems: fertilizer manufacturing, crop cultivation, crop processing, livestock breeding, rural consumption, and urban consumption. Based on this model, the P flows and PUEs of the subsystems were identified and quantified using data from official statistical databases, published literature, questionnaires, and interviews. The results showed that the total PUE of the crop production–consumption system in China was low, notably from 1980 to 2005, and increased from 7.23% in 1980 to 20.13% in 2012. Except for fertilizer manufacturing, the PUEs of the six subsystems were also low. The PUEs in the urban consumption subsystem and the crop cultivation subsystem were less than 40%. The PUEs of other subsystems, such as the rural consumption subsystem and the livestock breeding subsystem, were also low and even decreased during these years. Measures aimed to improve P management practices in China have been proposed such as balancing fertilization, disposing livestock excrement, adjusting livestock feed, changing the diet of residents, and raising the waste disposal level, etc. This study also discussed several limitations related with the model and data. Conducting additional related studies on other regions and combining the analysis of risks with opportunities may be necessary to develop effective management strategies. - Highlights: • A model of P management of the crop production–consumption system

  18. Fuelwood consumption in Newfoundland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This study was undertaken to get a first estimate of fuelwood consumption for the island of Newfoundland for the period April 1, 1977 to March 31, 1978. Available literature was reviewed and an assessment made on the existing data collection systems on fuelwood consumption used by the various forestry agencies in the province. A personal interview telephone survey on fuelwood use was conducted for most parts of the Island that had access to wood supplies. Householders were asked how much wood they burned, when they started burning wood, type of wood burning unit used, other sources of heat used, reasons for burning wood, employment, distance travelled to obtain wood, and expected consumption in 1978-79 compared to 1977-78. It was found that the estimated number of households burning wood increased to ca 32,000 in 1977-78. There was a further estimated increase to about 39,500 in 1978-79. In 1977-78, it was estimated that 461,571 stacked cubic metres of fuelwood were consumed on the Island. This was broken down into 318,916 m/sup 3/ of softwood and 142,655 m/sup 3/ of hardwood. Although the statistical methodology used may have led to an overestimate of the volume of wood consumed, the criteria used in the selection of households had the opposite effect in that the volume consumed by a large number of casual wood burners (less than 3 stacked m/sup 3/) was omitted from the estimate. Fuelwood consumption accounted for anywhere from 1% to 77% of the calculated allowable annual cut for the various forest management units on the Island for 1977-78. Overall, fuelwood consumption estimated by the survey accounted for 8% of the estimated allowable annual cut. Use of wood as a fuel is expected to continue increasing and it is recommended that estimates of consumption be periodically updated so that forest management plans can make adequate provision for this demand in future. 5 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  20. U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program—Mineral resource science supporting informed decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Aleeza M.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2016-09-19

    The USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP) delivers unbiased science and information to increase understanding of mineral resource potential, production, and consumption, and how mineral resources interact with the environment. The MRP is the Federal Government’s sole source for this mineral resource science and information. Program goals are to (1) increase understanding of mineral resource formation, (2) provide mineral resource inventories and assessments, (3) broaden knowledge of the effects of mineral resources on the environment and society, and (4) provide analysis on the availability and reliability of mineral supplies.

  1. Videogames, consumption and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix ETXEBERRIA VALERDI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing success and use of videogames is a reality in our current society, being 54% of the total consumption of audiovisual or interactive entertainment in Spain in 2007. One of the aspects to be taken into consideration, with respect to the education of children, is the implication for consumption in relation to videogames. The violence portrayed in these games is one of the main topics of debate in the literature about and studies on the effects of videogames on children’s behaviour. However, it is not just a question of protecting minors against the risks of videogames use without control and care exercised by parents or educators. For many years now, despite the risks involved in their use, videogames have been used as another medium in education itself.

  2. Sustainable Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia; Eberle, Ulrike; Lorek, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary food production and consumption cannot be regarded as sustainable and raises problems with its wide scope involving diverse actors. Moreover, in the face of demographic change and a growing global population, sus-tainability problems arising from food systems will likely become more...... and globalization of agriculture and food processing, the shift of consumption patterns toward more dietary animal protein, the emergence of modern food styles that entail heavily processed products, the growing gap on a global scale between rich and poor, and the paradoxical lack of food security amid an abundance...... of food. These factors are attributable to national and international policies and regulations, as well as to prevalent business prac-tices and, in particular, consumers' values and habits. The most effective ways for affluent societies to reduce the environmental impact of their diets are to reduce...

  3. Youth and Tourism Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein Kalantari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper tends to study tourism attitudes among the youth. It argues that in studying tourism among the youth, it is necessary to consider youth’s other behavioral factors in addition to the youth subculture. Therefore, we should study the youth culture from the view point of “Consumption”. In this view, youth tourism is equal to consumption of time, space and signs. Using ongoing theoretical debates and division, we would attempt to explore various factors of youth tourism. This article shows that youth tourism and youth culture are so mutually interconnected that we should comprehend youth tourism based on youth culture and vise versa. In conclusion, analyzing the youth subculture which is rooted in their consumption attitudes, the study attempts to understand youth tourism.

  4. Promoting seafood consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    was that preparing a tasty meal from fresh fish was actually not difficult. In supplemetary materials consumers were provided with recipes for fresh fish. At the same time, major retail chains made MAP-packaged fresh fish filets available in Danish supermarkets. The influence of familiy expectations was harnessed......Before and after the 3-year generic advertising campaign for fresh fish in Denmark, representative consumer samples were surveyed with regard to the attitudes towards fresh fish, perceived family norms, availability of fresh fish in shops, meal preparation skills, intentions to buy fresh fish......, and actual consumption frequencies. In the pre-campaign survey (effective N=641), significant determinants of consumption were availability in shops, meal preparation skills, and intentions to buy fresh fish. The campaign was especially designed to conquer these barriers. The key proposition...

  5. Fuelwood consumption in Newfoundland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Fuelwood consumption increased in Newfoundland in the 1970's, but although cutting permits were issued for Crown land, most forests were privately leased and no overall figures were available on the annual cut for domestic use. A personal interview telephone survey was therefore implemented in which householders were questioned on how much wood they burned, when they started burning wood, type of stove and wood used, expected consumption in 1978-79, other sources of heat, employment, and distance travelled to obtain wood. Survey methods and results obtained are presented. Woodburning households increased from about 22,000 before 1973 to about 32,000 in 1977-78 and a further increase to about 39,500 was expected in 1978-79. In 1977-78, 462,571 stacked cubic metres of roundwood were burned on the island. Softwood comprised 69% of this total.

  6. The mediatization of ethical consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, mediatization studies have investigated the influence of media in numerous sections of contemporary society. One area that has received limited attention is the mediatization of consumption, particularly issues concerning ethical consumption. This article presents a study of how...... mediatization is transforming modern consumption and contributing to the mainstreaming of ethical consumption. Based on a study of a Danish online eco-store, the article argues that modern ethical consumption increasingly depends on new media practices to present sustainable consumption as practical...

  7. Sociology of Drug Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    In this article which is a review of sociological ideas and studies of drug abusers in social situation, drug addiction steps (particularly alcohol, heroin and cocaine consumption) are revised and some explanations are made. Also, the role of some sociological ideas in drug addiction is considered in which Anomie Theory reads: "because of such duality, the individuals who are not satisfied with their role are in hurt." According to this theory, drug users choose seclusion and neglecting usual...

  8. Management of natural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielo, Olivier; Loubens, Audrey

    2016-08-01

    As a sustainable exploitation of fossil natural resources has become an ecological opportunity, this publication proposes a set of articles focused on the cases of gas, oils (conventional or not) and coal. A first article outlines the unavoidable environmental issue associated with the exploitation of fossil energies. The second one comments the meaning of fossil fuel availability, and more particularly the distinction between resources and reserves, and the transformation of resources into reserves for saving purposes. This last issue of transformation of resources into reserves is addressed by next articles which respectively focus on conventional gases and oils, on non conventional gases and oils, and on coal. Two articles then comment perspectives by 2040 by discussing the high tension between fossil resources and geopolitical situation, and by discussing whether a world energy transition is possible. The three last articles notice that the abundance of fossil energies is hiding the potential of renewable energies, discuss whether chemical industry could do without oil, and comment the fact that Russia strengthens its claims on Arctic territories

  9. Information technology resources assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loken, S.C. [ed.

    1993-01-01

    The emphasis in Information Technology (IT) development has shifted from technology management to information management, and the tools of information management are increasingly at the disposal of end-users, people who deal with information. Moreover, the interactive capabilities of technologies such as hypertext, scientific visualization, virtual reality, video conferencing, and even database management systems have placed in the hands of users a significant amount of discretion over how these resources will be used. The emergence of high-performance networks, as well as network operating systems, improved interoperability, and platform independence of applications will eliminate technical barriers to the use of data, increase the power and range of resources that can be used cooperatively, and open up a wealth of possibilities for new applications. The very scope of these prospects for the immediate future is a problem for the IT planner or administrator. Technology procurement and implementation, integration of new technologies into the existing infrastructure, cost recovery and usage of networks and networked resources, training issues, and security concerns such as data protection and access to experiments are just some of the issues that need to be considered in the emerging IT environment. As managers we must use technology to improve competitiveness. When procuring new systems, we must take advantage of scalable resources. New resources such as distributed file systems can improve access to and efficiency of existing operating systems. In addition, we must assess opportunities to improve information worker productivity and information management through tedmologies such as distributed computational visualization and teleseminar applications.

  10. Future Opportunities for Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Frick, Rachel; Glinos, Kostas; York, Jeremy; Rieger, Oya Y

    2014-01-01

    Aligning National Approaches to Digital Preservation: An Action Assembly Biblioteca de Catalunya (National Library of Catalonia) November 18-20, 2013, Barcelona, Spain Auburn University Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) Digital Curation Centre (DCC) Digital Preservation Network (DPN) Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) University of North Texas Virginia Tech Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) Innovative Inte...

  11. Energy consumption patterns. A theoretical analysis; Energieverbrauchsverhalten. Eine theoretische Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flandrich, D.

    2006-07-01

    The author questions the methodological and methodical foundations of energy consumption research and attempts a theory of energy consumption patterns on the basis of psychology, opening up a quite new perspective that has been neglected so far. Energy policy and energy marketing are two fields of applications which are getting more important in these times of increasing prices of energy resources, high public awareness of environmental issues, and deregulated energy markets. (orig.)

  12. Patrick Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlstrom, R.R.; King, D.A.; Parker, S.A.; Sandusky, W.F.

    1993-08-01

    The US Air Force has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to assess energy use at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB). The information obtained from this assessment will be used in identifying energy resource opportunities to reduce overall energy consumption on the base. The primary focus of this report is to assess the current baseline energy consumption at Patrick AFB. It is a comparison report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This assessment requires that information be obtained and characterized for buildings, utilities, energy sources, energy uses, and load profile information to be used to improve the characterization of energy use on the base. The characteristics of electricity, natural gas, and No. 2 fuel oil are analyzed for on-base facilities and housing. The assessment examines basic regional information used to determine energy-use intensity (EUI) values for Patrick AFB facilities by building, fuel type, and energy end use. It also provides a summary of electricity consumption from Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) metered data for 1985-1991. Load profile information obtained from FPL data is presented for the north and south substations for the four seasons of the year, including weekdays and weekends.

  13. Fuel cell opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, K. [Hydrogenics Corporation, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The opportunities for fuel cell development are discussed. Fuel cells are highly efficient, reliable and require little maintenance. They also produce virtually zero emissions. The author stated that there are some complicated issues to resolve before fuel cells can be widely used. These include hydrogen availability and infrastructure. While the cost of fuel cells is currently very high, these costs are constantly coming down. The industry is still in the early stages of development. The driving forces for the development of fuel cells are: deregulation of energy markets, growing expectations for distributed power generation, discontinuity between energy supply and demand, and environmental concerns. 12 figs.

  14. Competing For industry Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnstad, Marit

    1998-01-01

    This presentation by Norway's Minister of Petroleum and Energy describes (1) Norway in the energy picture, (2) oil market developments, (3) the establishment of an energy policy and (4) the investment level of the Norwegian petroleum activities. Value creation from Norwegian petroleum resources is directly connected with the commercial companies' participation in the activities. Thus, it has been a main challenge for Norway to establish a balanced petroleum policy and a legal framework. Presumably Norway will remain a prospective and attractive petroleum province for a long time. Over the years, Norway has developed three very competent and competitive national oil companies and a significant national supply industry. This industry is highly competitive internationally. Many new petroleum provinces are opening up for foreign investors and energy consumption of the world is expected to increase significantly the next 20 - 30 years. This implies increased demand for the products, but also strong competition for industry resources

  15. Critical technologies research: Opportunities for DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Recent studies have identified a number of critical technologies that are essential to the nation`s defense, economic competitiveness, energy independence, and betterment of public health. The National Critical Technologies Panel (NCTP) has identified the following critical technology areas: Aeronautics and Surface Transportation; Biotechnology and Life Sciences; Energy and Environment; Information and Communications; Manufacturing; and Materials. Sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Research (OER), the Critical Technologies Research Workshop was held in May 1992. Approximately 100 scientists, engineers, and managers from the national laboratories, industry, academia, and govemment participated. The objective of the Berkeley Workshop was to advance the role of the DOE multiprogram energy laboratories in critical technologies research by describing, defining, and illustrating research areas, opportunities, resources, and key decisions necessary to achieve national research goals. An agenda was developed that looked at DOE`s capabilities and options for research in critical technologies and provided a forum for industry, academia, govemment, and the national laboratories to address: Critical technology research needs; existing research activities and resources; capabilities of the national laboratories; and opportunities for national laboratories, industries, and universities. The Workshop included plenary sessions in which presentations by technology and policy leaders set the context for further inquiry into critical technology issues and research opportunities. Separate sessions then focused on each of the following major areas of technology: Advanced materials; biotechnology and life sciences; energy and environment; information and communication; and manufacturing and transportation.

  16. Critical technologies research: Opportunities for DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Recent studies have identified a number of critical technologies that are essential to the nation's defense, economic competitiveness, energy independence, and betterment of public health. The National Critical Technologies Panel (NCTP) has identified the following critical technology areas: Aeronautics and Surface Transportation; Biotechnology and Life Sciences; Energy and Environment; Information and Communications; Manufacturing; and Materials. Sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research (OER), the Critical Technologies Research Workshop was held in May 1992. Approximately 100 scientists, engineers, and managers from the national laboratories, industry, academia, and govemment participated. The objective of the Berkeley Workshop was to advance the role of the DOE multiprogram energy laboratories in critical technologies research by describing, defining, and illustrating research areas, opportunities, resources, and key decisions necessary to achieve national research goals. An agenda was developed that looked at DOE's capabilities and options for research in critical technologies and provided a forum for industry, academia, govemment, and the national laboratories to address: Critical technology research needs; existing research activities and resources; capabilities of the national laboratories; and opportunities for national laboratories, industries, and universities. The Workshop included plenary sessions in which presentations by technology and policy leaders set the context for further inquiry into critical technology issues and research opportunities. Separate sessions then focused on each of the following major areas of technology: Advanced materials; biotechnology and life sciences; energy and environment; information and communication; and manufacturing and transportation.

  17. Funding Opportunity: Genomic Data Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funding Opportunity CCG, Funding Opportunity Center for Cancer Genomics, CCG, Center for Cancer Genomics, CCG RFA, Center for cancer genomics rfa, genomic data analysis network, genomic data analysis network centers,

  18. CANDU co-generation opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, D.A.; Duffey, R.B.; Pendergast, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    Modern technology makes use of natural energy 'wealth' (uranium) to produce useful energy 'currency' (electricity) that can be used to society's benefit. This energy currency can be further applied to help solve a difficult problem faced by mankind. Within the next few years we must reduce our use of the same fuels which have made many countries wealthy - fossil fuels. Fortunately, electricity can be called upon to produce another currency, namely hydrogen, which has some distinct advantages. Unlike electricity, hydrogen can be stored and can be recovered for later use as fuel. It also is extremely useful in chemical processes and refining. To achieve the objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions hydrogen must, of course, be produced using a method which does not emit such gases. This paper summarizes four larger studies carried out in Canada in the past few years. From these results we conclude that there are several significant opportunities to use nuclear fission for various co-generation technologies that can lead to more appropriate use of energy resources and to reduced emissions. (author)

  19. Quantification of Uncertainty in Predicting Building Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Frier, Christian; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    Traditional building energy consumption calculation methods are characterised by rough approaches providing approximate figures with high and unknown levels of uncertainty. Lack of reliable energy resources and increasing concerns about climate change call for improved predictive tools. A new...... approach for the prediction of building energy consumption is presented. The approach quantifies the uncertainty of building energy consumption by means of stochastic differential equations. The approach is applied to a general heat balance for an arbitrary number of loads and zones in a building...... for the dynamic thermal behaviour of buildings. However, for air flow and energy consumption it is found to be much more significant due to less “damping”. Probabilistic methods establish a new approach to the prediction of building energy consumption, enabling designers to include stochastic parameters like...

  20. СURRENT TRENDS OF THE FIXED CAPITAL CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay V. Gayfulin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research article is devoted to the current trends of the fixed capital consumption, to the problems connected with the fixed capital consumption and to the innovations in the Russian economy where the increase of fixed capital consumption efficiency is of the great importance. Under the conditions of the exchange relations formation and escalating competition only those commodity producers who can make the best use of all kinds of the resources will win. The fixed capital consumption efficiency is defined as a set of a measures which is taken by the economic entities. Some of a measures are partially described in this article. Nowadays the fixed capital consumption problem is connected with the performance enhancement and optimization of the fixed assets items.

  1. Portfolio Analysis of Renewable Energy Opportunities: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Allison; Deprizio, Jodi; Anderson, Kate; DiOrio, Nick; Elgqvist, Emma; Simpkins, Travis

    2016-11-01

    Time Warner Cable (TWC), now Charter Communications (CC), partnered with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess the technical and economic potential for solar photovoltaic (PV), wind, and ground-source heat-pump systems at 696 TWC facilities. NREL identified 306 sites where adding a renewable energy system would provide cost savings over the project life-cycle. In general, the top sites have some combination of high electricity rates ($0.16-$0.29/kWh), significant state incentives, and favorable net-metering policies. If all projects were implemented via third-party power purchase agreements, TWC/CC would save $37 million over 25 years and meet 10.5% of their energy consumption with renewable energy. This paper describes the portfolio screening methodology used to identify and prioritize renewable energy opportunities across the TWC sites, as well as a summary of the potential cost savings that may be realized by implementing these projects. This may provide a template for other companies interested in identifying and prioritizing renewable energy opportunities across a large number of geographically dispersed sites. Following this initial portfolio analysis, NREL will be conducting in-depth analysis of project development opportunities at ten sites and evaluating off-grid solutions that may enable carbon emission reduction and grid independence at select facilities.

  2. Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2005-09-01

    The Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis (PDF 347 KB) identifies opportunities for developing advanced technologies and estimates both the necessary funding and the potential payoff. This analysis determines what portion of the energy bandwidth can be captured through the adoption of state-of-the-art technology and practices. R&D opportunities for addressing the remainder of the bandwidth are characterized and plotted on a marginal opportunity curve.

  3. Billboard advertising: an avenue for communicating healthcare information and opportunities to disadvantaged populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, James K; Fortenberry, John L

    2017-12-13

    Healthcare communications directed toward the disadvantaged have the potential to elevate the health status of these underprivileged and highly-challenged individuals. From conveying advice which encourages healthy lifestyles to communicating the location and availability of various medical resources, healthier lives and communities can be realized. Success on this front first requires establishing an effective communications link, something that is made more difficult as communications options available to the disadvantaged are more limited than those available to advantaged populations. One avenue which shows exceptional promise for successfully engaging the disadvantaged is that of billboard advertising. Willis-Knighton Health System's experiences and insights indicate that the characteristics and qualities of billboards, paired with the environmental circumstances typically faced by the less fortunate, create unique combinations which amplify consumption of billboard advertising content. Further, research suggests that the less privileged place greater reliance on the medium than do their more privileged counterparts, escalating the value and impact potential of billboard advertising directed toward the disadvantaged. Given the value afforded by health and wellness information successfully reaching the disadvantaged, opportunities to better distribute content to targeted audiences could very well improve community health. Billboard advertising appears to be well suited to engage the less fortunate, providing a productive pathway for the conveyance of helpful, supportive details, yielding healthier populations, enhanced opportunities, and better communities.

  4. Medical Tourism: Between Entrepreneurship Opportunities and Bioethics Boundaries: Narrative Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    BADULESCU, Daniel; BADULESCU, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nowadays, medical tourism reports impressive growth in terms of number of persons, income and number of countries involved in cross-border flows. So this study was undertaken to clarify entrepreneurship opportunities and bio-ethics boundaries in medical tourism. For tourism entrepreneurs, these outgoing flows related to medical procedures and tourism become an opportunity that cannot be ignored, so a wide range of tourist services related to health care are provided on a private, entrepreneurial basis. However, social and economic boundaries are omnipresent (impaired health services in receiving (incoming) countries, the crisis of the health care systems in emitting (outgoing) countries, over-consumption of medical and tourism services), and, not least, ethical considerations. Transforming medical care in a market tool, reducing human attributes to the status of commodity that can be bought, sold or negotiated, seriously challenges contemporary bioethics principles. It is a significant entering in the area (which is essentially un-ethic) of market transactions, where libertarianism and consumer-oriented attitudes dominates the spectrum of rational choice. So tourism comes to provide an organized and comfortable framework for all these choices, but many issues still re-main controversial and may worsen if national health systems and national and international regulations would not identify their problems and would continue to leave medical tourism to market mechanisms. Market will efficiently allocate the resources, but not always in an ethical manner. PMID:26005650

  5. Medical tourism: between entrepreneurship opportunities and bioethics boundaries: narrative review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badulescu, Daniel; Badulescu, Alina

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, medical tourism reports impressive growth in terms of number of persons, income and number of countries involved in cross-border flows. So this study was undertaken to clarify entrepreneurship opportunities and bio-ethics boundaries in medical tourism. For tourism entrepreneurs, these outgoing flows related to medical procedures and tourism become an opportunity that cannot be ignored, so a wide range of tourist services related to health care are provided on a private, entrepreneurial basis. However, social and economic boundaries are omnipresent (impaired health services in receiving (incoming) countries, the crisis of the health care systems in emitting (outgoing) countries, over-consumption of medical and tourism services), and, not least, ethical considerations. Transforming medical care in a market tool, reducing human attributes to the status of commodity that can be bought, sold or negotiated, seriously challenges contemporary bioethics principles. It is a significant entering in the area (which is essentially un-ethic) of market transactions, where libertarianism and consumer-oriented attitudes dominates the spectrum of rational choice. So tourism comes to provide an organized and comfortable framework for all these choices, but many issues still re-main controversial and may worsen if national health systems and national and international regulations would not identify their problems and would continue to leave medical tourism to market mechanisms. Market will efficiently allocate the resources, but not always in an ethical manner.

  6. Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, G.

    1998-01-01

    Challenges and opportunities facing the Canadian natural gas industry were discussed. The greatest opportunity is that the industry will become part of a fully functioning continental gas market for the first time in history. The challenge will be to ensure that the access to continental markets, which the Alliance project would provide, moves forward in a timely way, especially if the proposed merger between Canada's two dominant natural gas pipelines occurs. The second challenge is to find ways to deal with global warming in a more sensible and knowledgeable way. In the view of this author, the implications of the Kyoto greenhouse gas emission protocol could be potentially devastating to the competitiveness of the North American economy. According to the author, the emission stabilization policy will save the Earth only 0.05 degree C of warming in 2025 based on projected planetary temperature rise from 1990 to 2050. By 2050, the stabilization of emissions will have resulted in savings of only 0.10 degrees C, still a negligible amount. The impact of the Canadian Kyoto obligation was analyzed using federal Department of the Environment data. It was noted that in order for Canada to meet its commitment of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 6 per cent by 2008-2012, actual annual reduction in emission would have to amount to 20-25 per cent. To achieve that would require unimaginably drastic measures. 1 tab., 1 fig

  7. Opportunity and obligation

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    As anyone in the press or VIP offices can tell you, CERN is in the spotlight like never before. In the first two months of 2012, we welcomed some 56 VIP visits and 144 media visits on site. Not long ago, those were the kind of numbers we’d have had in six months, and 2012 is not a one-off.   Ever since CERN turned 50 in 2004, our visitor numbers have been growing, and that includes teachers and members of the public as well as VIPs and the media. It’s a sign of the explosion of interest around the world in our science, and to me it means two things. Firstly, it means that I owe everyone at CERN a vote of thanks, since I know that visits impinge on everyone’s time. I can assure you all, however, that it is time well spent. That’s because the second thing it tells me is that growing interest in CERN brings opportunity. Our current visibility gives the particle physics community the opportunity to drive science up the popular and political agendas, and it...

  8. Rationalization of water consumption in paper industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarković Darja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper was to consider the possibilities of economical paper production with rationalization of water consumption. In accordance with the principles of viable development. The pulp & paper industry has had to face global market needs and strict regulation concerning the environment. The basic motive was to provide consistent and high product quality, which is competitive on the market. The pulp & paper industry is one of the largest consumers and pollutants of natural resources. In that light, the rationalization of raw material, water, energy and chemicals consumption with minimization of environmental impact is essential. The European directive on environmental protection obliges producers of pulp & paper to decrease the volume of wastewater and to increase the efficiency treatment. Pulp and paper industry in Serbia and Montenegro will also be faced with the demands for environmental protection. Numerous examples of water consumption rationalization and improvement of water quality in the pulp & paper industry could be found in different literature sources. It is necessary to increase water system closure and implement up-to-date treatment methods. The possibilities for water consumption rationalization, in a real system the paperboard mill UMKA, were examined.

  9. Renewable energy consumption and income in emerging economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2009-01-01

    Increased economic growth and demand for energy in emerging economies is creating an opportunity for these countries to increase their usage of renewable energy. This paper presents and estimates two empirical models of renewable energy consumption and income for a panel of emerging economies. Panel cointegration estimates show that increases in real per capita income have a positive and statistically significant impact on per capita renewable energy consumption. In the long term, a 1% increase in real income per capita increases the consumption of renewable energy per capita in emerging economies by approximately 3.5%. Long-term renewable energy per capita consumption price elasticity estimates are approximately equal to -0.70.

  10. The Role of Trees on Farms: Challenges and Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamai, D.O

    2007-01-01

    The challenges facing Kenyan forestry are deforestation and degradation due to increased demand for wood and additional agricultural land, inadequate resources to strengthen capacities in specific research areas including resource accounting, modelling the beneficial effects of carbon sequestration, policy analysis and products development for market dominance, great variations in institutional development and capacity for trees on farm and agroforestry research and development and inadequate research resources to mention but a few. The opportunities for improved forestry research include, economic growth, social welfare, promoting technologies and innovations for value-added processing agroforestry products for local and external effects, emerging private sector and existing regional market such as Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa and the East African Community for opportunities for trade in agroforestry products and formulation of policies in favour of privatisation of services and management particularly the privatisation of industrial forest plantations that would offer opportunities for the development of smallholder tree crop enterprise

  11. On monitoring unrecorded alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Rehm, Jürgen; Poznyak, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Unrecorded alcohol consumption is a global problem, with about 25% of all alcohol consumption concerning this category. There are different forms of unrecorded alcohol, legally produced versus illegally produced, artisanal vs industrially produced, and then surrogate alcohol, which is officially not intended for human consumption. Monitoring and surveillance of unrecorded consumption is not well developed. The World Health Organization has developed a monitoring system, using the Nominal Grou...

  12. Challenges and Opportunities in Scaling-Up Nutrition in Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Darnton-Hill, Ian; Samman, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare continues to be in a state of flux; conventionally, this provides opportunities and challenges. The opportunities include technological breakthroughs, improved economies and increasing availability of healthcare. On the other hand, economic disparities are increasing and leading to differing accessibility to healthcare, including within affluent countries. Nutrition has received an increase in attention and resources in recent decades, a lot of it stimulated by the rise in obesity,...

  13. Research handbook on entrepreneurial opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    With a wide-ranging set of contributions, this book provides a compilation of cutting-edge original research in the field of entrepreneurial opportunities. The book reopens the subject from diverse perspectives focusing on theories and approaches to entrepreneurial opportunities. The book has been...... interested in the field of entrepreneurial opportunities....

  14. Global Biodiversity Loss by Freshwater Consumption and Eutrophication from Swiss Food Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-07-05

    We investigated water-related resource use, emissions and ecosystem impacts of food consumed in Switzerland. To do so, we coupled LCA methodologies on freshwater consumption, freshwater eutrophication and the consequent local and global biodiversity impacts with Swiss customs data and multiregional input-output analysis. Most of the resource use, emissions and impacts occur outside the national boundaries which illustrates the extent of environmental outsourcing facilitated by international trade. Countries that are severely affected by Swiss food consumption include Spain, the United States and Ecuador. Cocoa, coffee, and almonds stood out as products with high impacts. By identifying spatial hotspots and impactful products, awareness of policy-makers as well as individual consumers can be raised and efforts of detailed assessments can be streamlined. However, political and economic constraints and the resistance by individual consumers limit the high potential of changes in diets and trade relations to decrease the environmental impacts of food.

  15. Professional Development Opportunities for Two-Year College Geoscience Faculty: Issues, Opportunities, and Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, E. M.; Macdonald, H.; McDaris, J. R.; Granshaw, F. D.; Wenner, J. M.; Hodder, J.; van der Hoeven Kraft, K.; Filson, R. H.; Guertin, L. A.; Wiese, K.

    2011-12-01

    Two-year colleges (2YCs) play a critical role in geoscience education in the United States. Nearly half of the undergraduate students who take introductory geoscience do so at a 2YC. With awide reach and diverse student populations, 2YCs may be key to producing a well-trained, diverse and sufficiently large geoscience workforce. However, faculty at 2YCs often face many barriers to professional development including lack of financial resources, heavy and inflexible teaching loads, lack of awareness of opportunities, and few professional development resources/events targeted at their needs. As an example, at the 2009 GSA meeting in Portland, fewer than 80 of the 6500 attendees were from community colleges, although this was more than twice the 2YC faculty attendance the previous year. Other issues include the isolation described by many 2YC geoscience faculty who may be the only full time geoscientist on a campus and challenges faced by adjunct faculty who may have even fewer opportunities for professional development and networking with other geoscience faculty. Over the past three years we have convened several workshops and events for 2YC geoscience faculty including technical sessions and a workshop on funding opportunities for 2YC faculty at GSA annual meetings, a field trip and networking event at the fall AGU meeting, a planning workshop that examined the role of 2YCs in geoscience education and in broadening participation in the geosciences, two workshops supporting use of the 'Math You Need, When You Need It' educational materials that included a majority of 2YC faculty, and marine science summer institutes offered by COSEE-Pacific Partnerships for 2YC faculty. Our experience indicates that 2YC faculty desire professional development opportunities when the experience is tailored to the needs and character of their students, programs, and institutions. The content of the professional development opportunity must be useful to 2YC faculty -workshops and

  16. Energy consumption: Past, present, future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The energy consumption history of the United States and the changes which could occur in consumption characteristics in the next 50 years are presented. The various sources of energy are analyzed to show the limitations involved in development and utilization as a function of time available. Several scenarios were prepared to show the consumption and supply of energy under varying conditions.

  17. Investment Opportunities & Job Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Shanghai Vacancies from Chinajob.com China Pacific Insurance (Group) Co. Ltd. Senior Investment Manager and Senior Accounting Analyst are needed, full time; annual salary: $50,000-100,000. China Europe International Business School wants professors or people with doctoral degrees to teach Accounting, Finance, Human Resources and Management, Strategic and General Management, Carving out Management, Production and Transportation Management, and Information Management Systems, full time. Salary starts at $1...

  18. Cyberlearning for Climate Literacy: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.; Gold, A. U.; Ledley, T. S.; Mooney, M. E.; Niepold, F.

    2010-12-01

    Cyberlearning tools provide cost and carbon-efficient avenues for fostering a climate literate society through online engagement with learners. With climate change education becoming a Presidential Priority in 2009, funding for grants from NSF, NASA and NOAA is leading to a new generation of cyberlearning resources that supplement existing online resources. This paper provides an overview of challenges and opportunities relating to the online delivery of high quality, often complex climate science by examining several existing and emerging efforts, including the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN,) a National Science Digital Library Pathway, the development by CIRES Education and Outreach of the Inspiring Climate Education Excellence (ICEE) online course, TERC’s Earth Exploration Toolbook (EET,) DataTools, and EarthLab modules, the NOAA Climate Stewards Education Program (CSEP) that utilizes the NSTA E-Learning Center, online efforts by members of the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), UCAR’s Climate Discovery program, and the Climate Adaptation, Mitigation e-Learning (CAMeL) project. In addition, we will summarize outcomes of the Cyberlearning for Climate Literacy workshop held in Washington DC in the Fall of 2009 and examine opportunities for teachers to develop and share their own lesson plans based on climate-related web resources that currently lack built-in learning activities, assessments or teaching tips.

  19. Consumption of the Epidermis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke-Behrndtz, Marie Louise; Schmidt, Henrik; Damsgaard, Tine E

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that the extent of ulceration and the presence of epidermal involvement that theoretically precede ulceration (consumption of epidermis, COE) or seen subsequent to inflammation (reactive epidermal hyperplasia or re-epithelialization) allowed better prognostic...... supports that the proliferation drive is noninflammatory. In contrast, the presence of re-epithelialization and/or reactive epidermal hyperplasia demonstrated an 18% (95% CI: 6–53, P = 0.0021) increased density of neutrophils compared with tumor with no evidence of these possibly prolonged late......, effacement, or reactive hyperplasia of the surrounding epidermis....

  20. Sustainable Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia; Scholl, Gerd; Eberle, Ulrike

    to be tackled, including climate change water pollution and water scarcity, soil degradation,eutrophication of water bodies, and loss of habitats and biodiversity. With respect to a growing world population and demographic change, problems are predicted to become more serious in the future; for example...... on a variety of issues, including agriculture and the food supply, the availability of and access to food, physical activity, welfare and social benefits, sound environmental production and consumption, fiscal policies, the role of individual consumer decision-making, public procurement and public provision...

  1. On China's Sustainable Development of Energy--Opportunity for the China's Nuclear Power Industry%中国能源可持续发展研究--核电产业的机遇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾绍伦

    2005-01-01

    According to the policy of reforming the power industry and accelerating the power construction of our country, by 2020, the national power consumption will be up to 3.6-3.7 trillion kilowatt-hours, the installed power-generating capacity is more than 800 million kilowatts. Therefore, the development of the China's nuclear power industry faces good international and domestic environments and good historical opportunities. From the point of national energy security, economic development, and resource distribution, it is analyzed that China must develop the nuclear power in a more cost-effective style in this paper.

  2. Entrepreneurship as re-sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Anderson, Alistair; Gaddefors, Johan

    Objectives The purpose of this paper is to re-examine the concept of entrepreneurship in light of the current financial and environmental crisis and its socio-spatial impact. Building on Hudson’s analysis of production in late-capitalist societies, we identify problems inherent in the dominant...... of grounding in material reality, lacking emphasis on environmental externalities and an impoverished conceptualization of spatial relations. Comparing this analysis with the dominant opportunistic image of the entrepreneur, leads us to formulate a critique of this image. In formulating an alternative we build...... The paper presents a “new image” of entrepreneurship as re-sourcing. The concept of re-sourcing emphasizes the dual meaning of the word resource as both a stock of supply and strategy or action adopted in adverse circumstances. Re-sourcing thus signifies a shift in focus from opportunities to resources...

  3. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangloff, A.

    1978-01-01

    It is first indicated how to evaluate the mining resources as a function of the cost of production and the degree of certainty in the knowledge of the deposit. A table is given of the world resources (at the beginning 1977) and resources and reserves are compared. There is a concordance between requirements and possible production until 1990. The case of France is examined: known reserves, present and future prospection, present production (In 1978 2200 T of U metal will be produced from 3 French processing plants), production coming from Cogema. A total production of 2000 T in 1980 and 10.000 in 1985 is expected [fr

  4. Baseline non-traditional resource use in the Aurora Mine EIA local study area and the Syncrude/Suncor regional study area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    As part of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the regional and local study area of Syncrude's proposed Aurora Mine, the use of natural resources by non-aboriginal residents and non-residents in the area was documented. The objective of the study was to determine what specific resources are being used, how much, when, where and why. The topics included hunting, fishing, camping and canoeing. Public opinion regarding opportunities for resource use was also documented. The report focused on the dynamic nature of resource use, secondary economies (tourist accommodations) and quality of life. A telephone survey was conducted in which 17 respondents from recreational organizations answered a resource use questionnaire which contained 38 questions on consumptive and non-consumptive uses of wildlife, fish, berries, timber, non-resident use and resource management policies. The three environmentally significant areas of the local study area included the Muskeg River, Kearl Lake and East Jackpine Creek. The regional study are contained the Horse River Diversity area, La Saline Natural area, Schultz's Bog Diversity area, Athabasca Tar Sands Reach, Clearwater River, McClelland Lake Patterned Fens, McClelland Lake, and the Fort Hills. Agriculture in both areas is limited because of unfavourable climate and generally low-quality soil. 13 refs., 7 tabs., 6 figs

  5. Baseline non-traditional resource use in the Aurora Mine EIA local study area and the Syncrude/Suncor regional study area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    As part of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the regional and local study area of Syncrude`s proposed Aurora Mine, the use of natural resources by non-aboriginal residents and non-residents in the area was documented. The objective of the study was to determine what specific resources are being used, how much, when, where and why. The topics included hunting, fishing, camping and canoeing. Public opinion regarding opportunities for resource use was also documented. The report focused on the dynamic nature of resource use, secondary economies (tourist accommodations) and quality of life. A telephone survey was conducted in which 17 respondents from recreational organizations answered a resource use questionnaire which contained 38 questions on consumptive and non-consumptive uses of wildlife, fish, berries, timber, non-resident use and resource management policies. The three environmentally significant areas of the local study area included the Muskeg River, Kearl Lake and East Jackpine Creek. The regional study are contained the Horse River Diversity area, La Saline Natural area, Schultz`s Bog Diversity area, Athabasca Tar Sands Reach, Clearwater River, McClelland Lake Patterned Fens, McClelland Lake, and the Fort Hills. Agriculture in both areas is limited because of unfavourable climate and generally low-quality soil. 13 refs., 7 tabs., 6 figs.

  6. Storage of intermittent energies. From self-consumption to huge photovoltaic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, Marion; Martin, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Power grids are evolving rapidly due to an increased use of decentralized power units, mostly based on intermittent renewable energy resources and due also to new ways of consuming energy (e.g. electrical vehicles). In the same time, the performance increase of new technologies such as telecommunications and storage systems could provide solutions for optimizing the electrical system. In this context, we are more and more talking about the 'smart-grids concept' because in parallel to the power interconnection, we also create communication networks which allow knowing in real time the status of the power grid, and so that the power flows can be controlled in an optimal way. In this article, we investigate challenges and opportunities for managing intermittent energy sources by using energy storage systems, from the consumer level to the grid operator. First we describe how the feed-in tariff could evolve in order to improve grid integration of large solar plants. We showed that behind the constraints due to the coupling of the power plants with a storage system, we could imagine lots of opportunities to diversify the business model. Then we evaluate the medium size PV with storage installation at the community level. For this purpose, we describe the local problems induced by the PV integration before proposing new ways to manage these systems. Finally, the self-consumption business model is investigated in terms of performance for the consumer and for the grid operator. (authors)

  7. Opportunities and challenges for emerging nuclear power states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkong-Njock, V.; Facer, R.I.; Boussaha, A.

    2009-01-01

    Energy and reliable access to energy sources are essential to economic and social development and improved quality of life. However, limited access to modern energy still remains one of the major constraints to socio-economic development in many parts in the world. On the other hand, energy production, distribution and consumption may have many adverse effects on the local, regional and global environment including climate change. Production and consumption of fossil fuels constitutes the main source of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs). Cleaner and affordable energy systems are therefore needed to address all of these effects and to contribute to environmental sustainability. Nuclear power is a proven technology with virtually no greenhouse gas emissions or emission of pollutants, and therefore is expected to play an increasing role in meeting this rapidly growing global requirements for clean and economic electricity. But, it is known that challenges and opportunities are polarities, and as opposite poles of the magnet, they do not exist separately. An opportunity for some can be a challenge for others, or a challenge today can become an opportunity tomorrow. The potential growth of nuclear power has increased, in some quarters, concern that nonproliferation should be given sufficient attention. In particular, since introduction of many new power reactors will require increased uranium enrichment services, with the potential proliferation risk of adding enrichment facilities in new countries. This has urged the international community to strongly support the development of safeguarded and well-regulated nuclear power around the world, with the aim to ensure that nuclear power is deployed through a commitment to the highest possible standards of nuclear safety, security, and non-proliferation. The keys issues and trends for nuclear power expansion include therefore problems related to (i) safety, security and reliability, (ii) public perception and acceptance, (iii

  8. Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort's electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils number-sign 2 and number-sign 6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort

  9. Renewables in Russia. From opportunity to reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Russia is rich not only in oil, gas and coal, but also in wind, hydro, geothermal, biomass and solar energy - the resources of renewable energy. However, fossil fuels dominate Russia's current energy mix, while its abundant and diverse renewable energy resources play little role. What are the near- and medium-term opportunities for renewables in Russia? What preconditions are necessary to draw renewables into the energy mix to complement Russia's other ample energy resources? Russia's renewables can cost-effectively provide energy services where conventional forms are expensive. Whether it is geothermal resources in the Far East or North Caucasus, bio-energy resources from the vast territories, or hydro from the many watersheds, established renewable technologies can cost effectively supplement energy from fossil fuels. At the same time, new renewables such as wind and solar energy can serve remote populations and in the right circumstances, provide energy at competitive prices on the grid. This report demonstrates that renewable energy can offer a real means to address some of Russia's energy and economic challenges. It identifies the first steps toward creating a Russian renewables market and will contribute to a better understanding by both Russian and international industry, of the potential for profitable renewables projects, and the incentive to start undertake them.

  10. Renewables in Russia. From opportunity to reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Russia is rich not only in oil, gas and coal, but also in wind, hydro, geothermal, biomass and solar energy - the resources of renewable energy. However, fossil fuels dominate Russia's current energy mix, while its abundant and diverse renewable energy resources play little role. What are the near- and medium-term opportunities for renewables in Russia? What preconditions are necessary to draw renewables into the energy mix to complement Russia's other ample energy resources? Russia's renewables can cost-effectively provide energy services where conventional forms are expensive. Whether it is geothermal resources in the Far East or North Caucasus, bio-energy resources from the vast territories, or hydro from the many watersheds, established renewable technologies can cost effectively supplement energy from fossil fuels. At the same time, new renewables such as wind and solar energy can serve remote populations and in the right circumstances, provide energy at competitive prices on the grid. This report demonstrates that renewable energy can offer a real means to address some of Russia's energy and economic challenges. It identifies the first steps toward creating a Russian renewables market and will contribute to a better understanding by both Russian and international industry, of the potential for profitable renewables projects, and the incentive to start undertake them

  11. Teleradiology: threat or opportunity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, L.; Stanberry, B.

    2005-01-01

    The rapid advances in information technology and communication bandwidth have spawned an equally rapid development of clinical teleradiology. Current computer technology and communication capability allow easy transfer of diagnostic images, of any complexity, to any location in the world. This provides the opportunity to acquire swift primary and secondary diagnostic opinions from the remotest of locations, often at economically attractive rates, with the potential for easing the burden on hard-pressed departments of radiology. However, this comes at the potential cost of distancing the clinical radiologist from the patient, with consequent impact upon direct clinical care. As this technology advances across the world, it is vital that UK radiologists are familiar with the clinical implications, the medicolegal framework within which the field operates and the associated governance issues. This paper reviews current practice and discusses the associated risks

  12. International power opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, A.

    1995-01-01

    Key factors in international development were discussed, using TransAlta Energy Corporation as an example. Trans-Alta is a company generating 4,500 MW of electricity from coal, hydro and natural gas. It has operating facilities in Canada, Argentina and New Zealand, including extensive coal mining interests in Canada. The climate for international opportunities in the energy field were judged to be very good in view of the projected requirement for some 900,000 MW of new power generation in different parts of the world by the year 2003. The five key factors identified for international power development were: (1) using core skills to add value, (2) have a long-term focus, (3) focus on specific countries and selected regions, (4) develop strong relationships with local partners, and (5) develop appropriate projects. 2 figs

  13. Missed opportunities in crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2014-09-01

    Scrutinized from the perspective of time, the giants in the history of crystallography more than once missed a nearly obvious chance to make another great discovery, or went in the wrong direction. This review analyzes such missed opportunities focusing on macromolecular crystallographers (using Perutz, Pauling, Franklin as examples), although cases of particular historical (Kepler), methodological (Laue, Patterson) or structural (Pauling, Ramachandran) relevance are also described. Linus Pauling, in particular, is presented several times in different circumstances, as a man of vision, oversight, or even blindness. His example underscores the simple truth that also in science incessant creativity is inevitably connected with some probability of fault. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Melanoma survivorship: research opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveria, Susan A; Hay, Jennifer L; Geller, Alan C; Heneghan, Maureen K; McCabe, Mary S; Halpern, Allan C

    2007-03-01

    The rising incidence and mortality rates of melanoma, the most fatal form of skin cancer, are among the greatest increases of all preventable cancers over the past decade. However, because of recent advances in early detection, secondary prevention efforts, and treatment, the number of melanoma survivors is increasing. Little research has been conducted on melanoma survivors and important opportunities exist for research in this understudied population. Here, we outline the important research opportunities related to the study of melanoma survivorship and summarize the paucity of literature currently available. A computerized literature search was performed of the MEDLINE database of the National Library of Medicine from 1966-2005. The scope of the search was limited to those studies published in English. The search was conducted using the following MeSH headings: melanoma, neoplasms, skin neoplasms, survival, and survival rate. The reference lists of relevant book chapters and review articles were further reviewed, and printed materials from recent scientific meetings addressing this topic were obtained. Several factors that affect melanoma survivors warrant further study, including: physiologic long-term effects; psychosocial, behavioral, and cognitive factors; demographic characteristics; surveillance practices; recurrences, secondary primaries, and other cancers; family members of survivors; and economic issues, access to health care/life insurance. Understanding recurrence and second primary cancer risk, psychosocial and cognitive characteristics, behaviors, surveillance patterns, economic sequelae, and family issues of melanoma survivors is important from a public health standpoint to promote the health and well-being of this cohort. Melanoma is an understudied cancer, and the incidence and mortality of this disease are increasing. Describing the long term burden of this cancer and identifying factors that contribute to them will facilitate efforts to develop

  15. A Theory on Fashion Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Ma; Huijing Shi; Lihua Chen; Yiping Luo

    2012-01-01

    Both the theory of top-down penetration of fashion consumption (Veblen - Simmel model) and the theory of bottom-up fashion consumption have been found consistent with the consumer behavior in the China¡¯s fashion consumer market and the trend of such behavior keeps growing. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out a study on fashion consumption to meet the needs of the development of real life and fashion consumption. Firstly, we describe the content of fashion consumption, discuss the connota...

  16. From chemical risk assessment to environmental resources management: the challenge for mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Skolout, John W F; Oates, Christopher J; Plant, Jane A

    2013-11-01

    On top of significant improvements and progress made through science and engineering in the last century to increase efficiency and reduce impacts of mining to the environment, risk assessment has an important role to play in further reducing such impacts and preventing and mitigating risks. This paper reflects on how risk assessment can improve planning, monitoring and management in mining and mineral processing operations focusing on the importance of better understanding source-pathway-receptor linkages for all stages of mining. However, in light of the ever-growing consumption and demand for raw materials from mining, the need to manage environmental resources more sustainably is becoming increasingly important. The paper therefore assesses how mining can form an integral part of wider sustainable resources management, with the need for re-assessing the potential of mining in the context of sustainable management of natural capital, and with a renewed focus on its the role from a systems perspective. The need for understanding demand and pressure on resources, followed by appropriate pricing that is inclusive of all environmental costs, with new opportunities for mining in the wastes we generate, is also discussed. Findings demonstrate the need for a life cycle perspective in closing the loop between mining, production, consumption and waste generation as the way forward.

  17. Lifestyle factors in U.S. residential electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanquist, Thomas F.; Orr, Heather; Shui Bin; Bittner, Alvah C.

    2012-01-01

    A multivariate statistical approach to lifestyle analysis of residential electricity consumption is described and illustrated. Factor analysis of selected variables from the 2005 U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) identified five lifestyle factors reflecting social and behavioral patterns associated with air conditioning, laundry usage, personal computer usage, climate zone of residence, and TV use. These factors were also estimated for 2001 RECS data. Multiple regression analysis using the lifestyle factors yields solutions accounting for approximately 40% of the variance in electricity consumption for both years. By adding the household and market characteristics of income, local electricity price and access to natural gas, variance accounted for is increased to approximately 54%. Income contributed ∼1% unique variance to the models, indicating that lifestyle factors reflecting social and behavioral patterns better account for consumption differences than income. Geographic segmentation of factor scores shows distinct clusters of consumption and lifestyle factors, particularly in suburban locations. The implications for tailored policy and planning interventions are discussed in relation to lifestyle issues. - Highlights: ► Illustrates lifestyle analysis of residential electricity consumption. ► Lifestyle factors based on social and behavioral decisions and equipment use. ► Regression models using lifestyle factors account for 40% of consumption variance. ► Lifestyle factors are stable over time when applied to other data sets. ► Energy reduction opportunities are identified by segmentation analysis.

  18. Sustainable Consumption Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Vringer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To examine which considerations play a role when individuals make decisions to purchase sustainable product varieties or not, we have conducted a large scale field experiment with more than 600 participating households. Households can vote on whether the budgets they receive should only be spent on purchasing the sustainable product variety, or whether every household in a group is free to spend their budget on any product variety. By conducting several treatments, we tested whether people tend to view sustainable consumption as a social dilemma or as a moral dilemma. We find little support for the hypothesis that social dilemma considerations are the key drivers of sustainable consumption behaviour. Participants seem to be caught in a moral dilemma in which they not only weigh their individual financial costs with the sustainable benefits but they also consider the consequences of restricting other people’s freedom of choice. Complementary survey results further substantiate this claim and show that many people are reluctant to impose restrictions on their peers, but, at the same time, our results also suggest substantial support for the government to regulate the availability of unsustainable product varieties.

  19. Seaweed resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  20. Arthritis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  1. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  2. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depression/ ...

  3. Hemophilia - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  4. Diabetes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  5. Energy Savings Potential and Research & Development Opportunities for Commercial Refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-09-01

    This study documents the energy consumption of commercial refrigeration equipment (CRE) in the U.S. and evaluated the energy savings potential of various technologies and energy efficiency measures that could be applied to such equipment. The study provided an overview of CRE applications, assessed the energy-savings potential of CRE in the U.S., outline key barriers to adoption of energy-savings technologies, and recommended opportunities for advanced energy saving technology research. The study was modeled after an earlier 1996 report by Arthur D. Little, Inc., and updated key information, examined more equipment types, and outlined long-term research and development opportunities.

  6. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  7. The AFG Convention. Green growth: an opportunity for gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrier, Jerome; Maler, Philippe; Girot, Jean-Claude; Bouchon, Alexandre; Chandon, Clement; Super, Gregoire; Bouillon, Christophe; Maurel, Laurent; Lemaistre, Jean; Lemelletier, Sylvain; Rosier, Philippe; Gattaz, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This document reports the contents of contributions and round tables of a meeting which addressed the new usages of gas and their perspectives. An opening contribution notably comments and criticizes how gas was poorly considered in the bill project for energy transition. A first round table addressed the mission of coordination on employment in the LNG sector for transports (presentation, reduction of polluting emissions, European objectives for climate and energy, directive on infrastructures for alternative fuels, advantages of LNG, current situation, LNG development), the role of natural gas and bio-methane (development of natural gas for vehicles or NGV, a lever for development, propositions for a successful transition in transports, perspectives for NGV), the perspectives of development of natural gas in transports, the commitment of Iveco in heavy vehicles with gas engine, the development of a pole for renewable energies in Locmine (Brittany). These issues are then debated. A contribution then proposes an analysis of the challenges faced by energy transition. The second round table addressed the role of the gas sector in energy transition (abundant gas resources, a demand boosted by environmental policies, electricity generation in Europe, gas as the most economic alternative, evolution of gas consumption), the contribution of gas dealers to energy transition, the commitment of energy transport networks (Power to gas), the commitment of the Solvay Energy Services company (an energy trader). These issues are debated. The conclusive contribution is proposed by Mr Gattaz, chairman of the Medef, who addressed the risks and opportunities of energy transition, the assets of France, the advances and matters of worry of the bill project on energy transition, and the essential role of gas in energy transition

  8. Supply Chain Management for Improved Energy Efficiency: Review and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Marchi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency represents a key resource for economic and social development, providing substantial benefits to different stakeholders, ranging from the entities which develop energy efficient measures to everyone in society. In addition to cost savings, multiple benefits can be achieved by supporting a better alignment between energy issues and strategic business priorities: e.g., improved competitiveness, profitability, quality, etc. Thus, energy efficiency can be a strategic advantage, not just a marginal issue, for companies. However, most firms, especially small and medium enterprises (SMEs, face many problems and, in some cases, hostility when trying to effectively implement energy efficiency actions. The most dominant barriers are the access to capital and the lack of awareness (especially in terms of life cycle cost effects. The supply chain viewpoint represents one of the main opportunities for overcoming those barriers and improving energy performance even for weaker companies. Since the current literature on energy efficiency and practical approaches to ensure energy efficiency mainly focus on energy performance on a single-firm basis, this paper aims to provide a systematic review of papers on the integration of energy efficiency in supply chain design and management published in academic journal, thereby defining potential research streams to close the gaps in the literature. A number of literature reviews have been published focusing on specific aspects of sustainable or on green supply chain management; however, to the best of our knowledge, no review has focused on the energy efficiency issue. Firstly, the present paper shows how considering energy consumption in supply chain management can contribute to more energy-efficient processes from a systemic point of view. Then, the review methodology used is defined and the sampled papers are analyzed and categorized based on the different approaches they propose. From these

  9. Nuclear energy and opportunity to strengthen the sustainable electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles N, A. G.

    2016-09-01

    The beginning of electricity in Mexico was through the use and exploitation of natural resources; as the demand grew, more generation power plants were required with great capacity and at the same time the fuels used varied, although, oil continued to be the main fuel. At present, due to the effects of climate change, the Conference of the Parties has proposed to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels to give way to clean energy (wind, solar, geothermal, nuclear, etc.), which entails gradually modifying the energy matrix of the electricity sector. The National Development Plan and the National Electricity Sector Development Program, this coordinated by the Energy Secretariat in Mexico, establish policies to promote sustainable development, increasing electricity generation through clean energy sources, including nuclear energy. However, such plans are not accurate in the strategy to be followed to ensure compliance with the increased participation of nuclear energy. This article proposes a nuclear program for the Mexican electricity sector, under the terms of a State policy, aimed at crystallizing a sustainable electricity development 2015-2036; considering that the application to the electricity sector constitutes a representative and justified example of the incorporation of environmental aspects in decision processes for the preservation of the environment. In order to determine the quantity and type of reactors, as well as the number of nuclear power plants and increase of the installed capacity, the general planning scheme of the electric sector was used, taking as reference the modeling criteria of the WASP planning system. Finally, is concluded that the electricity generated by fission of radioactive elements is an opportunity to fulfill the commitments made by Mexico at COP 21 and to meet in an environmentally friendly way the energy requirement that our country needs. (Author)

  10. Energy consumption declined in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    On presenting the energy consumption figures for 1993 the Minister for Economic Affairs of Baden-Wuerttemberg Dieter Spoeri (SPD) spoke of the eternal task of saving energy. In his view the slight decline in energy consumption from 1992 to 1993 should not be interpreted as a greater willingness to save energy; its main cause is rather to be seen in the course of the economy. According to estimations, total energy consumption fell 0.5% and electricity consumption 1.0% from 1992 to 1993. The economy on the other hand, still a decisive factor in energy consumption, is estimated to have declined 3% during that period. In the ten years from 1983 to 1993 total energy consumption in the Land rose an average annual 1.8% while electricity consumption kept astride with the economy with an average annual rise 2.7%, he said. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Tecnologia e participação social no processo de produção e consumo de bens culturais: novas possibilidades trazidas pelas práticas letradas digitais mediadas pela Internet Technology and social participation in the process of production and consumption of cultural goods: new opportunities offered by digital literacy practices mediated by the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Bértoli Braga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo reflete sobre os limites sócio-estruturais que impedem a participação social mais ampla dos grupos economicamente desfavorecidos. O texto argumenta que, embora a Internet não garanta tal participação, ela propicia novos espaços para circulação social em práticas letradas diversas, inclusive aquelas de natureza hegemônica. Para ilustrar essa questão o artigo discute dados de uma entrevista realizada com um jovem líder que atua em uma comunidade localizada na periferia da cidade de Campinas, São Paulo. Os argumentos e colocações apresentados pelo entrevistado nos levam a refletir sobre a democratização dos modos de produção e consumo do conhecimento, em geral, e sobre a possibilidade de apropriação das TICs por comunidades periféricas, em particular.The present paper focuses on the limits socio-structurally imposed to exclude the social participation of economically disadvantaged groups in different spheres of cultural production and consumption. The paper argues that, although not guaranteeing new modes of participation, the Internet offers new virtual spaces that broaden the access to diversified ways of social circulation and participation in digital literacy practices, including those hegemonic in nature. To illustrate some of these major issues the study focuses on the data of an interview given by a young leader from a peripheral community located on the outskirts of the city of Campinas, São Paulo. The statements and arguments presented by the interviewee lead us to reflect on the process of democratization of knowledge production and consumption, in general, and about ICT appropriation by peripheral communities, in particular.

  12. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. pulp and paper manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas, representing 52% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity

  13. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Iron and Steel Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith Jamison, Caroline Kramer, Sabine Brueske, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. iron and steel manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas and select subareas, representing 82% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes and subareas are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  14. Diversity of inland valleys and opportunities for agricultural development in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Ronald Dossou-Yovo

    Full Text Available Inland valleys are becoming increasingly important agricultural production areas for rural households in sub-Saharan Africa due to their relative high and secure water availability and soil fertility. In addition, inland valleys are important as water buffer and biodiversity hot spots and they provide local communities with forest, forage, and fishing resources. As different inland-valley ecosystem functions may conflict with agricultural objectives, indiscriminate development should be avoided. This study aims to analyze the diversity of inland valleys in Sierra Leone and to develop guidelines for more precise interventions. Land use, biophysical and socio-economic data were analyzed on 257 inland valleys using spatial and multivariate techniques. Five cluster groups of inland valleys were identified: (i semi-permanently flooded with high soil organic carbon (4.2% and moderate available phosphorus (10.2 ppm, mostly under natural vegetation; (ii semi-permanently flooded with low soil organic carbon (1.5% and very low available phosphorus (3.1 ppm, abandoned by farmers; (iii seasonally flooded with moderate soil organic carbon (3.1% and low available phosphorus (8.3 ppm, used for rainfed rice and off-season vegetables produced without fertilizer application for household consumption and market; (iv well drained with moderate soil organic carbon (3.8% and moderate available phosphorus (10.0 ppm, used for rainfed rice and off-season vegetables produced with fertilizer application for household consumption and market; and (v well drained with moderate soil organic carbon (3.6% and moderate available phosphorus (11 ppm, used for household consumption without fertilizer application. Soil organic carbon, available phosphorus, hydrological regime, physical accessibility and market opportunity were the major factors affecting agricultural intensification of inland valleys. Opening up the areas in which inland valleys occur through improved roads and

  15. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Meeting fellow older people enthusiasts is always a pleasure and this month's encounters particularly so. The annual conference of the two RCN older people forums offered its usual blend of innovative ideas, stimulating debate, esoteric humour and a camaraderie shared with strangers as well as friends. Working with multidisciplinary colleagues on the West Midlands pilot development programme for leaders of older people services was equally inspiring. Despite the ongoing challenges of competing priorities, inadequate resources and ageist attitudes, committed teams around the UK are striving to offer high quality services to older people.

  16. Student and recent graduate employment opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2016-08-30

    As an unbiased, multidisciplinary science organization, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is dedicated to the timely, relevant, and impartial study of the health of our ecosystems and environment, our natural resources, the impacts of climate and land-use change, and the natural hazards that affect our lives. Opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as recent graduates, to participate in USGS science are available in the selected programs described in this publication. Please note: U.S. citizenship is required for all government positions.

  17. From Ideas to Opportunities: Exploring the Construction of Technology-Based Entrepreneurial Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Giones

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of business ideas into market opportunities is at the core of entrepreneurship. Nevertheless, the complexity of such a transformative process is seen to change depending on the variables influencing the opportunity-entrepreneur nexus. Although technology-entrepreneurship is regarded as a force of change and dynamism in socio-economic growth, it also depends upon an intricate process of opportunity development. The interest in understanding better how technology-based entrepreneurs simultaneously cope with technological uncertainty while trying to gain stakeholder support and access to resources, highlights a relevant research gap. The research described in this article uses the constructivist view to deepen our understanding of the technology-based entrepreneur’s conceptualization of the opportunity as a process of social construction. Our results show how initial consensus-building efforts and iteration with knowledgeable peers are an essential part of the emergence of the opportunity, changing both entrepreneur's and stakeholders' perceptions of the early business idea. Consequently, our results provide evidence in support of policy programs and measures that favour social-construction support mechanisms to foster technology-based entrepreneurship.

  18. Least-cost model predictive control of residential energy resources when applying ?mCHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, M.; Negenborn, R.R.; Heijnen, P.W.; De Schutter, B.; Hellendoorn, H.

    2007-01-01

    With an increasing use of distributed energy resources and intelligence in the electricity infrastructure, the possibilities for minimizing costs of household energy consumption increase. Technology is moving toward a situation in which households manage their own energy generation and consumption,

  19. Learning Opportunities (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We’ve reached the end of another year of publication at EBLIP, my first at the helm as Editor‐in‐Chief, and four full years of publication since we began. This year was a busy one with several changes to the editorial team, the addition of more Editorial Advisors, and new evidence summary writers joining our team. Most importantly, the journal continues to grow and thrive, with more people than ever participating in its success. This year we added a new section called Using Evidence in Practice, and in this issue there are two articles in that section which provide practical examples of applying evidence in the workplace. Putting evidence into practice is what EBLIP is all about, so it is my hope that this new section makes the application of evidence based practice more concrete for readers. As we began working on issue 4.4, the Editorial Team decided that it would be a good idea to seek out an Editorial Intern to help with some of the tasks we never seem to get to, given that we are all volunteers. We see the internship as an opportunity to give a library and information studies student a chance to get involved with an open access journal and learn about publishing in library and information studies, which will hopefully benefit them as they begin their new career. The Editorial Intern will assist with marketing and promotion of the journal, soliciting potential manuscripts, and proofreading. They will also participate in all editorial meetings and general discussions. We anticipate that they will bring a wealth of enthusiasm and fresh ideas to our conversations so that EBLIP Editors can also continue to learn and grow by having a fresh set of eyes involved with our processes. It will certainly be a win‐win situation and a learning opportunity for all involved. We are pleased to announce that Andrea Baer has accepted the position of Editorial Intern and joined our team in mid‐November. Andrea is currently attending the University of

  20. Towards a sufficiency-driven business model : Experiences and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocken, N.M.P.; Short, SW

    2016-01-01

    Business model innovation is an important lever for change to tackle pressing sustainability issues. In this paper, ‘sufficiency’ is proposed as a driver of business model innovation for sustainability. Sufficiency-driven business models seek to moderate overall resource consumption by curbing