Sample records for resource supply gradients

  1. Disturbance-mediated competition between perennial plants along a resource supply gradient

    J. Stephen. Brewer


    Traditional views of ecological disturbance emphasize the role that physical disturbances play in reducing competition between populations and maintaining species coexistence. I present an alternative view that employs a simple Lotka–Volterra model to demonstrate how disturbance resistance, disturbance resilience and resource storage can increase competition between...

  2. Uranium resources and supply

    Cameron, J.


    The future supply of uranium has to be considered against a background of forecasts of uranium demand over the next decades which show increases of a spectacular nature. It is not necessary to detail these forecasts, they are well known. A world survey by the Joint NEA/IAEA Working Party on 'Uranium Resources, Production and Demand', completed this summer, indicates that from a present production level of just over 19,000 tonnes uranium per year, the demand will rise to the equivalent of an annual production requirement of 50,000 tonnes uranium by 1980, 100,000 by 1985 and 180,000 by 1990. Few, if any, mineral production industries have been called upon to plan for a near tenfold increase in production in a space of about 15 years as these forecasts imply. This might possibly mean that, perhaps, ten times the present number of uranium mines will have to be planned and engineered by 1990

  3. Balancing supply and demand resources

    Sinha, J.; Saleeby, R.G.


    This article deals with using demand-side management (DSM) resources as an effective means of balancing supply and demand as a part of least-cost planning. The authors present a more sophisticated application of the load forecast adjustment method that reduces the number of DSM programs that need to be evaluated and provides blocks large enough to eliminate resolution problems in production costing models

  4. The supply of non-renewable resources

    Daubanes, Julien Xavier; Lasserre, Pierre

    that the substitution effect always dominates: A price increase at some point in space and time causes NRR supply to decrease at all other points. This new but orthodox supply setting extends to NRRs the partial equilibrium analysis of demand and supply policies. Thereby, it provides a generalization of many results......There exists no formal treatment of non-renewable resource (NRR) supply, systematically deriving quantity as function of price. We establish instantaneous restricted (fixed reserves) and unrestricted NRR supply functions. The supply of a NRR at any date and location not only depends on the local...... contemporary price of the resource but also on prices at all other dates and locations. Besides the usual law of supply, which characterizes the own-price effect, cross-price effects have their own law. They can be decomposed into a substitution effect and a stock compensation effect. We show...

  5. Price regulation and international resource supply

    Siebert, H


    Price regulation is an instrument between two diverging aims: The demand for low resource prices motivated by the principle of equal distribution in our day, and the desire for economical management of resources as a responsibility we have to future generations. The present publication investigates how price regulation influences intertemporal supply of resources. For the assumed cases constant resource price, constant admissible increase in resource price, expected release of resource price and deregulation of a price held constant for a period of time mathematical models are developmed.

  6. Resources and future supply of oil

    Kjaerstad, Jan; Johnsson, Filip


    This paper examines global oil resources and the future global oil supply/demand balance. The paper builds upon several comprehensive databases designed during the work and considerable efforts have been made to review what must be considered the most reliable data. Global oil resources have been investigated on three levels; country, company and field levels. Although no decisive conclusions or quantitative assessments can be made with respect to the global oil resource base, remaining resources appear to be sufficient to meet demand up to 2030 as projected in the 2006 (and 2007) world energy outlook by the IEA. Significant resources have already been discovered beyond proven reserves, many prospective regions remain to be fully explored and there are vast volumes of recoverable unconventional oil. However, it is also concluded that global supply of oil probably will continue to be tight, both in the medium term as well as in the long term mainly as a consequence of above-ground factors such as investment constraints, geopolitical tensions, limited access to reserves and mature super-giant fields. Production of unconventional oil and synthetic fuels is not believed to significantly alter this situation. Although an increasing number of recent reports have indicated an imminent or 'soon to come' peak in global oil supply, it has not been found that any of these reports have contributed with any new information on oil resources or oil supply ability. Nevertheless, there is a distinct possibility that global oil production may peak or plateau in a relatively near future, not caused by limited resources but because too many factors over long time constrain investments into exploration and production. The lack of transparency within the oil industry obviously prevents any accurate analysis of future production and supply ability. Moreover, our ability to analyse the sector will become more difficult in the future as oil increasingly will have to be sourced from

  7. Assessment of uranium resources and supply


    Uranium as nuclear fuel is an important energy resource, which generates about one-sixth of the world's total electricity generated in 1989. The current nuclear electricity generating capacity of 318 GW(e) is expected to grow by over 38% to 440 GW(e) in the year 2005. The world's uranium requirements are expected to increase similarly from about 52,000 t U in 1989 to over 70,000 t U in 2005. Beyond this time the uranium requirements are projected to reach over 80,000 t U in 2030. It was the objective of the Technical Committee Meeting on Assessment of Uranium Resources and Supply, organized by the IAEA and held in Vienna, between 29 August - 1 September 1989, to attract specialists in this field and to provide a forum for the presentation of reports on the methodologies and actual projects carried out in the different countries. Of special interest was the participation of specialists from some countries which did not or only occasionally co-operate with the IAEA in the projects related to the assessment of uranium resources and supply. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 19 papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Integrated resource planning in Danish electricity supply


    Integrated Resource Planning in Danish Electricity Supply is a development project run by a cooperation of Danish electric power companies. It takes environmental issues, such as energy conservation, into consideration in addition to the European Union's proposal for a directive on the introduction of competition within the common energy market. The concept of integrated resource planning is described as a tool that can be used for a total cost minimization of the activities on the supply side and the demand side, this concept is further elucidated. It is explained that there must be an economic balance between the efforts on both sides and that this will ensure a total cost minimization. Preconditions, related for example to socio-economics, and procedures (step-by-step planning), functional barriers, a definition of roles and international influence and dialogue are also discussed. Satisfaction is expressed for this method of integrated resource planning, yet uncertainty as to the future structure of the free electricity market implies a cautious implementation. (AB)

  9. Uranium resources and supply - demand to 2030

    Vance, R.


    Recent fluctuations in the market price for uranium have resulted in more activity in this sector over the past few years than in the preceding 20 years. Amidst this background, uranium demand is increasing. Construction of nuclear reactors is proceeding in some countries, ambitious expansion plans have been announced in others and the development of nuclear power programs to meet electricity demand and minimize greenhouse emissions in a cost effective manner is under consideration in many others. This paper reviews projections of nuclear growth and uranium demand and assesses the challenges faced by the uranium mining sector in meeting rising demand. Since the mid-1960 s, an international expert committee (the 'Uranium Group') formed by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency has published biennially comprehensive updates on global uranium resources, production and demand (the 'Red Book'). The most recent in this series, based on 2007 data and published in June 2008, includes a supply/demand projection to 2030. However, much has changed since the data were collected for this projection and an assessment of these changes and their impact on uranium production is included in this presentation. It is concluded that world identified uranium resources (5.45 million t U recoverable at costs up to US$130/kg U, or US$50/lb U 3 O 8 ) are adequate to meet projected future high case nuclear power requirements. However, recent financial market turmoil and lower uranium prices, the opaque nature of the uranium market itself, increased regulatory requirements, a scarcity of the required specialized labour and the fluctuating costs of raw materials makes the process of turning uranium resources in the ground into yellowcake in the can increasingly more challenging, particularly for new entrants. Considerable investment and expertise will be required to bring about the substantial increase in mine production required to meet future demand

  10. Community resiliency through recovery resource supply chain planning.

    Franklin, Charlotte; Todt, Kiersten


    Information in this paper is the result of recommendations and remedies developed at 'Local Supply Chain Capacity in a Crisis Summit Exercise' held in Arlington, VA on 30th-31st January,2013. At the event, which was funded through the Regional Catastrophic Preparedness Grant Program, national private sector and not-for-profit essential resource provider experts in sectors such as transportation, communication systems, energy/power, financial resources, medical supplies and other vital supplies, together with emergency managers, discussed best practices, major challenges and exchanged remedy recommendations.

  11. Optimal Allocation of Water Resources Based on Water Supply Security

    Jianhua Wang


    Full Text Available Under the combined impacts of climate change and human activities, a series of water issues, such as water shortages, have arisen all over the world. According to current studies in Science and Nature, water security has become a frontier critical topic. Water supply security (WSS, which is the state of water resources and their capacity and their capacity to meet the demand of water users by water supply systems, is an important part of water security. Currently, WSS is affected by the amount of water resources, water supply projects, water quality and water management. Water shortages have also led to water supply insecurity. WSS is now evaluated based on the balance of the supply and demand under a single water resources condition without considering the dynamics of the varying conditions of water resources each year. This paper developed an optimal allocation model for water resources that can realize the optimal allocation of regional water resources and comprehensively evaluate WSS. The objective of this model is to minimize the duration of water shortages in the long term, as characterized by the Water Supply Security Index (WSSI, which is the assessment value of WSS, a larger WSSI value indicates better results. In addition, the simulation results of the model can determine the change process and dynamic evolution of the WSS. Quanzhou, a city in China with serious water shortage problems, was selected as a case study. The allocation results of the current year and target year of planning demonstrated that the level of regional comprehensive WSS was significantly influenced by the capacity of water supply projects and the conditions of the natural water resources. The varying conditions of the water resources allocation results in the same year demonstrated that the allocation results and WSSI were significantly affected by reductions in precipitation, decreases in the water yield coefficient, and changes in the underlying surface.

  12. Resource competition model predicts zonation and increasing nutrient use efficiency along a wetland salinity gradient

    Schoolmaster, Donald; Stagg, Camille L.


    A trade-off between competitive ability and stress tolerance has been hypothesized and empirically supported to explain the zonation of species across stress gradients for a number of systems. Since stress often reduces plant productivity, one might expect a pattern of decreasing productivity across the zones of the stress gradient. However, this pattern is often not observed in coastal wetlands that show patterns of zonation along a salinity gradient. To address the potentially complex relationship between stress, zonation, and productivity in coastal wetlands, we developed a model of plant biomass as a function of resource competition and salinity stress. Analysis of the model confirms the conventional wisdom that a trade-off between competitive ability and stress tolerance is a necessary condition for zonation. It also suggests that a negative relationship between salinity and production can be overcome if (1) the supply of the limiting resource increases with greater salinity stress or (2) nutrient use efficiency increases with increasing salinity. We fit the equilibrium solution of the dynamic model to data from Louisiana coastal wetlands to test its ability to explain patterns of production across the landscape gradient and derive predictions that could be tested with independent data. We found support for a number of the model predictions, including patterns of decreasing competitive ability and increasing nutrient use efficiency across a gradient from freshwater to saline wetlands. In addition to providing a quantitative framework to support the mechanistic hypotheses of zonation, these results suggest that this simple model is a useful platform to further build upon, simulate and test mechanistic hypotheses of more complex patterns and phenomena in coastal wetlands.

  13. Applying a Dynamic Resource Supply Model in a Smart Grid

    Kaiyu Wan


    Full Text Available Dynamic resource supply is a complex issue to resolve in a cyber-physical system (CPS. In our previous work, a resource model called the dynamic resource supply model (DRSM has been proposed to handle resources specification, management and allocation in CPS. In this paper, we are integrating the DRSM with service-oriented architecture and applying it to a smart grid (SG, one of the most complex CPS examples. We give the detailed design of the SG for electricity charging request and electricity allocation between plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV and DRSM through the Android system. In the design, we explain a mechanism for electricity consumption with data collection and re-allocation through ZigBee network. In this design, we verify the correctness of this resource model for expected electricity allocation.

  14. Supply chain strategies in an era of natural resource scarcity

    Kalaitzi, Dimitra; Matopoulos, Aristides; Bourlakis, Michael; Tate, Wendy


    Purpose – The primary objective of this research is to explore the implications of natural resource scarcity for companies’ supply chain strategies. Design/methodology/approach – Drawing on resource dependence theory, a conceptual model is developed and validated through the means of exploratory research. The empirical work includes the assessment of qualitative data collected via 22 interviews representing 6 large multinational companies from the manufacturing sector. Findings – When the res...

  15. Increasing biomass resource availability through supply chain analysis

    Welfle, Andrew; Gilbert, Paul; Thornley, Patricia


    Increased inclusion of biomass in energy strategies all over the world means that greater mobilisation of biomass resources will be required to meet demand. Strategies of many EU countries assume the future use of non-EU sourced biomass. An increasing number of studies call for the UK to consider alternative options, principally to better utilise indigenous resources. This research identifies the indigenous biomass resources that demonstrate the greatest promise for the UK bioenergy sector and evaluates the extent that different supply chain drivers influence resource availability. The analysis finds that the UK's resources with greatest primary bioenergy potential are household wastes (>115 TWh by 2050), energy crops (>100 TWh by 2050) and agricultural residues (>80 TWh by 2050). The availability of biomass waste resources was found to demonstrate great promise for the bioenergy sector, although are highly susceptible to influences, most notably by the focus of adopted waste management strategies. Biomass residue resources were found to be the resource category least susceptible to influence, with relatively high near-term availability that is forecast to increase – therefore representing a potentially robust resource for the bioenergy sector. The near-term availability of UK energy crops was found to be much less significant compared to other resource categories. Energy crops represent long-term potential for the bioenergy sector, although achieving higher limits of availability will be dependent on the successful management of key influencing drivers. The research highlights that the availability of indigenous resources is largely influenced by a few key drivers, this contradicting areas of consensus of current UK bioenergy policy. - Highlights: • As global biomass demand increases, focus is placed indigenous resources. • A Biomass Resource Model is applied to analyse UK biomass supply chain dynamics. • Biomass availability is best increased

  16. Estimating uranium resources and production. A guide to future supply

    Taylor, D.M.; Haeussermann, W.


    Nuclear power can only continue to grow if sufficient fuel, uranium, is available. Concern has been expressed that, in the not too distant future, the supply of uranium may be inadequate to meet reactor development. This will not be the case. Uranium production capability, actual and planned, is the main indicator of short- and medium-term supply. However, for the longer term, uranium resource estimates and projections of the possible rate of production from the resource base are important. Once an estimate has been made of the resources contained in a deposit, several factors influence the decision to produce the uranium and also the rates at which the uranium can be produced. The effect of these factors, which include uranium market trends and ever increasing lead times from discovery to production, must be taken into account when making projections of future production capability and before comparing these with forecasts of future uranium requirements. The uranium resource base has developed over the last two decades mainly in response to dramatically changing projections of natural uranium requirements. A study of this development and the changes in production, together with the most recent data, shows that in the short- and medium-term, production from already discovered resources should be sufficient to cover any likely reactor requirements. Studies such as those undertaken during the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project, and others which project future discovery rates and production, are supported by past experience in resource development in showing that uranium supply could continue to meet demand until well into the next century. The uranium supply potential has lessened the need for the early large-scale global introduction of the breeder reactor

  17. Mackenzie Gas Project : gas resource and supply study

    Harris, D.G.; Braaten, K.M.


    A study was conducted to assess the future gas supply for the Mackenzie Gas Project. The economically recoverable gas resources and deliverability in the region were assessed in order to support construction of the Mackenzie Valley pipeline and the associated gathering system. This supply study was based on a 25 year timeframe for resource development. Production forecasts were also prepared for 50 years following the date of the study. Natural gas forecasts for the general area to be served by the proposed pipeline were also presented. This report includes an introduction to the final gas resource and supply study as well as the regional geology relating to discovered and undiscovered resources. The following regions were included in the study area: onshore Mackenzie Delta including the Niglintgak, Parsons Lake and Taglu anchor fields; central Mackenzie Valley region extending from the Mackenzie Delta south to 63 degrees latitude; northern portion of the Yukon Territory; and, portions of the offshore Mackenzie Delta region limited to a water depth of 30 metres. Forecasts and economic analyses were prepared for the following 3 scenarios: contingent onshore resources only; contingent and prospective onshore resources; and, contingent and prospective onshore and offshore resources. Sensitivity forecasts were prepared for a fully expanded pipeline capacity of 1.8 bcf/day with an equal capacity gathering system. In addition, the National Energy Board estimates of resources for the 3 anchor field were used in place of the operator's estimates. A geological review was included for the plays in the study area. 15 refs., 43 tabs., 38 figs

  18. Climate policy and the intertemporal supply of fossil resources

    Beermann, Christian


    This thesis was written by Christian Beermann while he was a research assistant at the Center for Economic Studies (CES) at the University of Munich. It was completed in December 2014 and accepted as a doctoral thesis by the Department of Economics at the University of Munich in May 2015. The thesis analyses the intertemporal supply reaction of the fossil resource supply side to demand-reducing climate policies while explicitly taking into account the global warming problem. The interaction between a climate coalition that can either be global or incomplete, comprising only a subset of the world's countries in the latter case, and a representative competitive resource supplier is analysed in a Stackelberg differential game in which the coalition leads.

  19. Climate policy and the intertemporal supply of fossil resources

    Beermann, Christian


    This thesis was written by Christian Beermann while he was a research assistant at the Center for Economic Studies (CES) at the University of Munich. It was completed in December 2014 and accepted as a doctoral thesis by the Department of Economics at the University of Munich in May 2015. The thesis analyses the intertemporal supply reaction of the fossil resource supply side to demand-reducing climate policies while explicitly taking into account the global warming problem. The interaction between a climate coalition that can either be global or incomplete, comprising only a subset of the world's countries in the latter case, and a representative competitive resource supplier is analysed in a Stackelberg differential game in which the coalition leads.

  20. Resource contrast in patterned peatlands increases along a climatic gradient

    Eppinga, M.B.; Rietkerk, M.; Belyea, L.R.; Nilsson, M.B.; Ruiter, de P.C.; Wassen, M.J.


    Spatial patterning of ecosystems can be explained by several mechanisms. One approach to disentangling the influence of these mechanisms is to study a patterned ecosystem along a gradient of environmental conditions. This study focused on hummock–hollow patterning of peatlands. Previous models

  1. Rare resource supply crisis and solution technology for semiconductor manufacturing

    Fukuda, Hitomi; Hu, Sophia; Yoo, Youngsun; Takahisa, Kenji; Enami, Tatsuo


    There are growing concerns over future environmental impact and earth resource shortage throughout the world and in many industries. Our semiconductor industry is not excluded. "Green" has become an important topic as production volume become larger and more powerful. Especially, the rare gases are widely used in semiconductor manufacturing because of its inertness and extreme chemical stability. One major component of an Excimer laser system is Neon. It is used as a buffer gas for Argon (Ar) and Krypton (Kr) gases used in deep ultraviolet (DUV) lithography laser systems. Since Neon gas accounting for more than 96% of the laser gas mixture, a fairly large amount of neon gas is consumed to run these DUV lasers. However, due to country's instability both in politics and economics in Ukraine, the main producer of neon gas today, supply reduction has become an issue and is causing increasing concern. This concern is not only based on price increases, but has escalated to the point of supply shortages in 2015. This poses a critical situation for the semiconductor industry, which represents the leading consumer of neon gas in the world. Helium is another noble gas used for Excimer laser operation. It is used as a purge gas for optical component modules to prevent from being damaged by active gases and impurities. Helium has been used in various industries, including for medical equipment, linear motor cars, and semiconductors, and is indispensable for modern life. But consumption of helium in manufacturing has been increased dramatically, and its unstable supply and price rise has been a serious issue today. In this article, recent global supply issue of rare resources, especially Neon gas and Helium gas, and its solution technology to support semiconductor industry will be discussed.

  2. Waste-wood resource supply assessment. Final report


    The report documents and analyzes the availability and supply of wood waste in New York State to determine the type and amount currently generated to estimate its potential future use as a fuel. Detailed, current information is included on the availability, quantity and price of wood waste. Topics include wood waste markets; the harvesting and supply infrastructure; current and project prices; competing markets; environmental impacts of harvesting, processing and burning wood waste for fuel; and factors affecting long-term availability and supply. New York State's waste wood resource was evaluated to complete the Energy Authority's recent investigation of the potential role of wood in producing electric power. In 1989 approximately 11.8 million tons of wood waste were generated in New York State. More than 8 million tons or 68 percent, were disposed of by municipal solid waste and construction and demolition debris facilities. Just under 3.8 million tons or 32 percent, were reused and/or recycled. More than 25.7 million tons of wood waste could be available annually for fuel. Of the amount, more than 17.2 million tons per year, or 67 percent, could be produced by silvicultural activities that improve the health and productivity of forests

  3. Econophysics of a ranked demand and supply resource allocation problem

    Priel, Avner; Tamir, Boaz


    We present a two sided resource allocation problem, between demands and supplies, where both parties are ranked. For example, in Big Data problems where a set of different computational tasks is divided between a set of computers each with its own resources, or between employees and employers where both parties are ranked, the employees by their fitness and the employers by their package benefits. The allocation process can be viewed as a repeated game where in each iteration the strategy is decided by a meta-rule, based on the ranks of both parties and the results of the previous games. We show the existence of a phase transition between an absorbing state, where all demands are satisfied, and an active one where part of the demands are always left unsatisfied. The phase transition is governed by the ratio between supplies and demand. In a job allocation problem we find positive correlation between the rank of the workers and the rank of the factories; higher rank workers are usually allocated to higher ranked factories. These all suggest global emergent properties stemming from local variables. To demonstrate the global versus local relations, we introduce a local inertial force that increases the rank of employees in proportion to their persistence time in the same factory. We show that such a local force induces non trivial global effects, mostly to benefit the lower ranked employees.

  4. Investment in defense and cost of predator-induced defense along a resource gradient

    Steiner, Uli


    An organism's investment in different traits to reduce predation is determined by the fitness benefit of the defense relative to the fitness costs associated with the allocation of time and resources to the defense. Inherent tradeoffs in time and resource allocation should result in differential...... investment in defense along a resource gradient, but competing models predict different patterns of investment. There are currently insufficient empirical data on changes in investment in defensive traits or their costs along resource gradients to differentiate between the competing allocation models....... In this study, I exposed tadpoles to caged predators along a resource gradient in order to estimate investment in defense and costs of defense by assessing predator-induced plasticity. Induced defenses included increased tail depth, reduced feeding, and reduced swimming activity; costs associated...

  5. Working group report on water resources, supply and demand

    Marta, T.J.


    A summary is presented of the issues discussed, and the conclusions and recommendations of a working group on water resources, supply and demand. The issues were grouped into the categories of detecting climatic change and water impacts, simulating potential impacts, and responding to potential impacts. The workshop groups achieved consensus on the following points: the physics of global warming and climatic change have been satifactorily proven; there appears to be some evidence of climatic change and a signal could soon be detected; policy decisions and strategic plans for climatic change and its potential impacts are needed immediately; and targets and priorities for decison making should be identified and addressed immediately. Three top-priority issues are the identification of indicators for the detection of climatic change impacts on hydrology, determining response to climate-related change, and evaluation of design criteria. Better information on regional climate and hydrology under conditions of global warming is needed before design criteria could be altered

  6. New information on world uranium resource, production, supply and demand

    Zhang Jianguo; Meng Jin


    New information on world uranium resource, production, supply and demand is introduced. Up to now, explored uranium resources at production cost < USD 40/kg U has 2523257 t uranium; production cost < USD 80/kg U has 5911514 t uranium; production cost < USD130/kg U has 11280488 t uranium; and cost range unassigned has 3102000 t uranium. At moment, the demand uranium of each year is about 67000 t U. After 2020, world uranium demand will rise well above 100000 t per annum with sharp revival of nuclear power plants. With three kinds of economic growth the cumulative requirement of the uranium in low demand case, middle demand case and high demand case from 2000 to 2050 is 3390000, 5394100 and 7577300 t respectively. In the world market uranium price rises from 20 years lowest 18.2 USD/kg U to 75.4 USD/kg U. In 2003, global uranium product is about 35385 t U, and 2004, global uranium product is about 40475 t U. In 2004's world uranium production underground mining, open pit, in situ, by product, and combination account for 39%, 27%, 19%, 11% and 4% respectively. (authors)

  7. Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) load and resource profiles.

    Giles, Lauren (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Skolnik, Edward G. (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Marchionini, Brian (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Fall, Ndeye K. (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC)


    In 1997, an international team interested in the development of Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) systems for rural electrification projects around the world was organized by the International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO) with the support of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The team focused on defining load and resource profiles for RAPS systems. They identified single family homes, small communities, and villages as candidates for RAPS applications, and defined several different size/power requirements for each. Based on renewable energy and resource data, the team devised a ''strawman'' series of load profiles. A RAPS system typically consists of a renewable and/or conventional generator, power conversion equipment, and a battery. The purpose of this report is to present data and information on insolation levels and load requirements for ''typical'' homes, small communities, and larger villages around the world in order to facilitate the development of robust design practices for RAPS systems, and especially for the storage battery component. These systems could have significant impact on areas of the world that would otherwise not be served by conventional electrical grids.

  8. Learn-and-Adapt Stochastic Dual Gradients for Network Resource Allocation

    Chen, Tianyi; Ling, Qing; Giannakis, Georgios B.


    Network resource allocation shows revived popularity in the era of data deluge and information explosion. Existing stochastic optimization approaches fall short in attaining a desirable cost-delay tradeoff. Recognizing the central role of Lagrange multipliers in network resource allocation, a novel learn-and-adapt stochastic dual gradient (LA-SDG) method is developed in this paper to learn the sample-optimal Lagrange multiplier from historical data, and accordingly adapt the upcoming resource...

  9. Topography- and management-mediated resource gradients maintain rare and common plant diversity around paddy terraces.

    Uematsu, Yuta; Ushimaru, Atushi


    Examining the causes of interspecific differences in susceptibility to bidirectional land-use changes (land abandonment and use-intensification) is important for understanding the mechanisms of global biodiversity loss in agricultural landscapes. We tested the hypothesis that rare (endangered) plant species prefer wet and oligotrophic areas within topography- and management-mediated resource (soil water content, nutrient, and aboveground biomass) gradients, making them more susceptible to both abandonment and use-intensification of agricultural lands. We demonstrated that topography and management practices generated resource gradients in seminatural grasslands around traditional paddy terraces. Terraced topography and management practices produced a soil moisture gradient within levees and a nutrient gradient within paddy terraces. Both total and rare species diversity increased with soil water content. Total species diversity increased in more eutrophied areas with low aboveground biomass, whereas rare species diversity was high under oligotrophic conditions. Rare and common species were differentially distributed along the human-induced nutrient gradient, with rare species preferring wet, nutrient-poor environments in the agricultural landscapes studied. We suggest that conservation efforts should concentrate on wet, nutrient-poor areas within such landscapes, which can be located easily using land-use and topography maps. This strategy would reduce the costs of finding and conserving rare grassland species in a given agricultural landscape.

  10. An exploratory study of governance in the intra-firm Human Resources supply chain

    Farndale, E.; Paauwe, J.; Boselie, J.P.P.E.F.


    The human resource management (HRM) literature has paid insufficient attention to supply chain management (SCM) when exploring the architecture of human resources (HR). Drawing on an SCM perspective, this study develops our understanding of (1) the intra-firm HR supply chain, and (2) how this HR

  11. The natural resources supply indexes study of the pig breeding scale in China

    Leng, Bi-Bin; Zhang, Qi-Zhen; Ji, Xue-Qiang; Xu, Yue-Feng


    For the pollution problem of the pig breeding scale, we took three indexes as evaluation criterion, including arable land per capita, the water resource per capita and per capita share of grain. Then SPSS was used to synthesized the natural resources supply indexes of the pig breeding scale. The results show that with the fast development of technology and the steadily rising of grain production, the natural resources supply indexes of the pig breeding scale are raising constantly.

  12. Ethical framework for resource allocation during a drug supply shortage.

    Gibson, Jennifer L; Bean, Sally; Chidwick, Paula; Godkin, Dianne; Sibbald, Robert W; Wagner, Frank


    Drug supply shortages are common in health systems due to manufacturing and other delays. Frequently, shortages are successfully addressed through conservation and redistribution efforts, with limited impact on patient care. However, when Sandoz Canada Inc. announced in February 2012 that it was reducing production of a number of generic injectable drugs at its Quebec facility, the scope and magnitude of the drug supply shortage were unprecedented in Canada. The potential for an extreme scarcity of some drugs raised ethical concerns about patient care, including the need to limit access to some health services. In this article, the authors describe the development and implementation of an ethical framework to promote equitable access to drugs and healthcare services in the context of a drug supply shortage within and across health systems.

  13. Mud Bugs: Supply, Demand, and Natural Resources in Louisiana

    Nagel, Paul


    Louisiana's land, coast, and inland waterways are home to many natural resources such as seafood, petroleum, natural gas, and timber--and freshwater crawfish, or "mudbugs" as the locals like to call them. These natural resources are vital to Louisiana's economy. The author describes a unit of study on economics in which a teacher taught…

  14. Modelling inter-supply chain competition with resource limitation and demand disruption

    Chen, Zhaobo; Teng, Chunxian; Zhang, Ding; Sun, Jiayi


    This paper proposes a comprehensive model for studying supply chain versus supply chain competition with resource limitation and demand disruption. We assume that there are supply chains with heterogeneous supply network structures that compete at multiple demand markets. Each supply chain is comprised of internal and external firms. The internal firms are coordinated in production and distribution and share some common but limited resources within the supply chain, whereas the external firms are independent and do not share the internal resources. The supply chain managers strive to develop optimal strategies in terms of production level and resource allocation in maximising their profit while facing competition at the end market. The Cournot-Nash equilibrium of this inter-supply chain competition is formulated as a variational inequality problem. We further study the case when there is demand disruption in the plan-execution phase. In such a case, the managers need to revise their planned strategy in order to maximise their profit with the new demand under disruption and minimise the cost of change. We present a bi-criteria decision-making model for supply chain managers and develop the optimal conditions in equilibrium, which again can be formulated by another variational inequality problem. Numerical examples are presented for illustrative purpose.

  15. Mineral supply for sustainable development requires resource governance

    Ali, Saleem H.; Giurco, Damien; Arndt, Nicholas; Nickless, Edmund; Brown, Graham; Demetriades, Alecos; Durrheim, Ray; Enriquez, Maria Amélia; Kinnaird, Judith; Littleboy, Anna; Meinert, Lawrence D.; Oberhänsli, Roland; Salem, Janet; Schodde, Richard; Schneider, Gabi; Vidal, Olivier; Yakovleva, Natalia


    Successful delivery of the United Nations sustainable development goals and implementation of the Paris Agreement requires technologies that utilize a wide range of minerals in vast quantities. Metal recycling and technological change will contribute to sustaining supply, but mining must continue and grow for the foreseeable future to ensure that such minerals remain available to industry. New links are needed between existing institutional frameworks to oversee responsible sourcing of minerals, trajectories for mineral exploration, environmental practices, and consumer awareness of the effects of consumption. Here we present, through analysis of a comprehensive set of data and demand forecasts, an interdisciplinary perspective on how best to ensure ecologically viable continuity of global mineral supply over the coming decades.

  16. Cost of supplying energy from New Zealand resources

    Norman, Robert G.


    The kinds of costs which face the community when a power project is promoted are broadly discussed. Sometimes, costs such as social, economic, and environmental impacts do not appear often in budgetary form. The growth of public participation is discussed. Components (investigation costs, development costs, distribution costs, social costs, environmental costs, etc.) which contribute to the cost of energy production and supply are examined in some detail.


    Silvestru MAXIMILIAN


    Full Text Available Economic, social and political development of human society in recent decades put to the fore the issue of natural resources available to the earth; scientists are asking ever more seriously the question to what extent these resources can support the economic development in the future, can provide food and survival of a growing population and will be able to contribute to the eradication of underdevelopment. The emphasis of major events – the population explosion, the trend of depletion of natural resources, environmental deterioration, underdevelopment etc. – was and it is still discussed with increasing responsibility by specialists, being drafted a large number of forecasts for a variable duration perspective. The trend of depletion of natural resources is another phenomenon of the contemporary world and that will become, certainly, even more pronounced in the near future. Harnessing the increasing exhaustible natural resources with low reserves and a slow recovery of renewable resources raises acutely the issue regarding the conservation of these resources. In recent decades, there is a tendency to waste energy and raw materials in the society. There are produced goods without an absolute utility, being imposed artificially by advertising or fashion swings and many products are designed in such a way that it takes little to compel the buyer to replace them. The "consumption" civilization is characterized as a "society that throws" the population of developed countries (18% of world population dispelling waste form 20 to 25% of the material production of the world. Excessive consumption of raw materials and fuel was favoured by their relatively low prices, maintained under the pressure of interests of transnational companies, prices that disfavoured, however, the developing countries. Consequently, consumption of raw materials and fuel turned to the easily accessible resources that have been heavily exploited, partially abandoning some

  18. Policy Gradient SMDP for Resource Allocation and Routing in Integrated Services Networks

    Vien, Ngo Anh; Viet, Nguyen Hoang; Lee, Seunggwan; Chung, Taechoong

    In this paper, we solve the call admission control (CAC) and routing problem in an integrated network that handles several classes of calls of different values and with different resource requirements. The problem of maximizing the average reward (or cost) of admitted calls per unit time is naturally formulated as a semi-Markov Decision Process (SMDP) problem, but is too complex to allow for an exact solution. Thus in this paper, a policy gradient algorithm, together with a decomposition approach, is proposed to find the dynamic (state-dependent) optimal CAC and routing policy among a parameterized policy space. To implement that gradient algorithm, we approximate the gradient of the average reward. Then, we present a simulation-based algorithm to estimate the approximate gradient of the average reward (called GSMDP algorithm), using only a single sample path of the underlying Markov chain for the SMDP of CAC and routing problem. The algorithm enhances performance in terms of convergence speed, rejection probability, robustness to the changing arrival statistics and an overall received average revenue. The experimental simulations will compare our method's performance with other existing methods and show the robustness of our method.

  19. Intraspecific trait variation and the leaf economics spectrum across resource gradients and levels of organization.

    Fajardo, Alex; Siefert, Andrew


    Understanding patterns of functional trait variation across environmental gradients offers an opportunity to increase inference in the mechanistic causes of plant community assembly. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) predicts global tradeoffs in leaf traits and trait-environment relationships, but few studies have examined whether these predictions hold across different levels of organization, particularly within species. Here, we asked (1) whether the main assumptions of the LES (expected trait relationships and shifts in trait values across resource gradients) hold at the intraspecific level, and (2) how within-species trait correlations scale up to interspecific or among-community levels. We worked with leaf traits of saplings of woody species growing across light and soil N and P availability gradients in temperate rainforests of southern Chile. We found that ITV accounted for a large proportion of community-level variation in leaf traits (e.g., LMA and leaf P) and played an important role in driving community-level shifts in leaf traits across environmental gradients. Additionally, intraspecific leaf trait relationships were generally consistent with interspecific and community-level trait relationships and with LES predictions-e.g., a strong negative intraspecific LMA-leaf N correlation-although, most trait relationships varied significantly among species, suggesting idiosyncrasies in the LES at the intraspecific level. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. The flow of financial resources : An inevitable part of supply chain design activities

    Hofmann, Erik


    Supply chain managers do not only face the challenge of designing material and information flows. They also need to arrange the flow of financial resources. The financial side of supply chain design comprises all the economic aspects that result from collaborative concepts and applications. This paper provides an introduction into the field of cash flow organization in supply chains by presenting a collaborative payment model and its common instruments.

  1. Reproduction and survival of a solitary bee along native and exotic floral resource gradients.

    Palladini, Jennifer D; Maron, John L


    Native bee abundance has long been assumed to be limited by floral resources. This paradigm has been established in large measure because more bees are often found in areas supporting greater floral abundance. This could result from attraction to resource-rich sites as well as greater local demographic performance in sites supporting high floral abundance; however, demographic performance is usually unknown. Factors other than floral resources such as availability of nest sites, pressure from natural enemies, or whether floral resources are from a mixed native or mostly monodominant exotic assemblage might influence survival or fecundity and hence abundance. We examined how the survival and fecundity of the native solitary bee Osmia lignaria varied along a gradient in floral resource abundance. We released bees alongside a nest block at 27 grassland sites in Montana (USA) that varied in floral abundance and the extent of invasion by exotic forbs. We monitored nest construction and the fate of offspring within each nest. The number of nests established was positively related to native forb abundance and was negatively related to exotic forb species richness. Fecundity was positively related to native forb species richness; however, offspring mortality caused by the brood parasite Tricrania stansburyi was significantly greater in native-dominated sites. These results suggest that native floral resources can positively influence bee populations, but that the relationship between native floral resources and bee population performance is not straightforward. Rather, bees may face a trade-off between high offspring production and low offspring survival in native-dominated sites.

  2. Strategic Enterprise Resource Planning for Global Supply Chain Competitiveness

    Nageswararao, A. V.; Sahu, Dasarathi; Mohan, V. Krishna


    Strategic Enterprise Resource planning (SERP) systems are networked and integrated information mechanisms which are developed to achieve competitive advantage for organizations operating in global scale. It plays a vital role in Integrating various stake holders and channel partners involved in day to day operations. In the present Globalized…

  3. Sustainable development of water resources, water supply and environmental sanitation.

    Austin, LM


    Full Text Available and be capable of destroying or isolating pathogens. A need exists for documentary evidence to support various claims about different storage periods for ensuring pathogen die-off and safe handling of biosolids (Peasy 2000). Handling of faecal material... in Water and Environmental Health, Task no. 324. [Online] http://www/ WHO (2001). Water quality, guidelines, standards and health: Assessment of risk and risk management for water...

  4. Energy security of supply and oil shale resources

    Elkarmi, F.


    Jordan must utilize its huge oil shale deposits in order to increase domestic security of energy supply and benefit financially. Utilization processes will require large scale financial expenditures, beyond Jordan's means. Therefore, the BOT scheme seems to be the perfects solution. Since oil shale retorting technology will produce oil which can be traded to generate valuable foreign exchange revenues, it is more advantageous than direct burning technology which produces electricity limited to local consumption regardless of economics. Under the BOT scheme, the incentive, for the foreign sponsor is to return his investment via quantities of oil; for Jordan the aim is to meet local energy demand and acquire the plant infrastructure in the long term. Recent events in the more traditional oil fields of the region make such a project in Jordan more attractive. (author) 3 tabs. 2 figs

  5. Analysis of Aluminum Resource Supply Structure and Guarantee Degree in China Based on Sustainable Perspective

    Shaoli Liu


    Full Text Available Aluminum is a strategic mineral resource, and China’s aluminum production and consumption is fairly large. However, its supply guarantee is uncertain because of a high dependency on external raw materials. This uncertainty may expand, so finding a way to reduce the uncertainty of aluminum resource supply is especially important. This paper applies the SFA method to analyze the aluminum flows in mainland China from 1996 to 2014, and establishes a supply structure model to measure its supply guarantee degree. The results claim that: (1 China’s aluminum production can satisfy demand and even create a surplus; (2 Domestic self-productive primary and secondary aluminum increased at an annual rate of 12% and 24%; (3 The proportion of self-productive secondary aluminum in the supply structure increased from 7.7% in 1996 to 12.8% in 2014, while that of primary aluminum decreased from 79.6% to 42.8%; (4 The total supply guarantee degree decreased from 87.3% to 55.6% in this period. These results provide a feasible way to solve this plight: the proportion of secondary aluminum in the supply structure should be enhanced, and an efficient aluminum resource recycling system needs to be established as soon as possible to ensure its sustainable supply.

  6. Interplay between r- and K-strategists leads to phytoplankton underyielding under pulsed resource supply.

    Papanikolopoulou, Lydia A; Smeti, Evangelia; Roelke, Daniel L; Dimitrakopoulos, Panayiotis G; Kokkoris, Giorgos D; Danielidis, Daniel B; Spatharis, Sofie


    Fluctuations in nutrient ratios over seasonal scales in aquatic ecosystems can result in overyielding, a condition arising when complementary life-history traits of coexisting phytoplankton species enables more complete use of resources. However, when nutrient concentrations fluctuate under short-period pulsed resource supply, the role of complementarity is less understood. We explore this using the framework of Resource Saturation Limitation Theory (r-strategists vs. K-strategists) to interpret findings from laboratory experiments. For these experiments, we isolated dominant species from a natural assemblage, stabilized to a state of coexistence in the laboratory and determined life-history traits for each species, important to categorize its competition strategy. Then, using monocultures we determined maximum biomass density under pulsed resource supply. These same conditions of resource supply were used with polycultures comprised of combinations of the isolated species. Our focal species were consistent of either r- or K-strategies and the biomass production achieved in monocultures depended on their efficiency to convert resources to biomass. For these species, the K-strategists were less efficient resource users. This affected biomass production in polycultures, which were characteristic of underyielding. In polycultures, K-strategists sequestered more resources than the r-strategists. This likely occurred because the intermittent periods of nutrient limitation that would have occurred just prior to the next nutrient supply pulse would have favored the K-strategists, leading to overall less efficient use of resources by the polyculture. This study provides evidence that fluctuation in resource concentrations resulting from pulsed resource supplies in aquatic ecosystems can result in phytoplankton assemblages' underyielding.

  7. Advancing Resource Efficiency in the Supply Chain - Observations and Opportunities for Action

    This document provides U.S. EPA’s perspectives on the discussions at the G7 Alliance on Resource Efficiency U.S.-hosted Workshop on the Use of Life Cycle Concepts in Supply Chain Management to Achieve Resource Efficiency that was held March 22-23, 2016.

  8. Fair sharing of resources in a supply network with constraints

    Carvalho, Rui; Buzna, Lubos; Just, Wolfram; Helbing, Dirk; Arrowsmith, David K.


    This paper investigates the effect of network topology on the fair allocation of network resources among a set of agents, an all-important issue for the efficiency of transportation networks all around us. We analyze a generic mechanism that distributes network capacity fairly among existing flow demands. The problem can be solved by semianalytical methods on a nearest-neighbor graph with one source and sink pair, when transport occurs over shortest paths. For this setup, we uncover a broad range of patterns of intersecting shortest paths as a function of the distance between the source and the sink. When the number of intersections is the maximum and the distance between the source and the sink is large, we find that a fair allocation implies a decrease of at least 50% from the maximum throughput. We also find that the histogram of the flow allocations assigned to the agents decays as a power law with exponent -1. Our semianalytical framework suggests possible explanations for the well-known reduction of the throughput in fair allocations. It also suggests that the combination of network topology and routing rules can lead to highly uneven (but fair) distributions of resources, a remark of caution to network designers.

  9. Nonregenerative natural resources in a sustainable system of energy supply.

    Bradshaw, Alex M; Hamacher, Thomas


    Following the lead of the European Union in introducing binding measures to promote the use of regenerative energy forms, it is not unreasonable to assume that the global demand for combustible raw materials for energy generation will be reduced considerably in the second half of this century. This will not only have a favourable effect on the CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere, but will also help preserve fossil fuels-important as raw materials in the chemical industry-for future generations. Nevertheless, associated with the concomitant massive shift to regenerative energy forms, there will be a strong demand for other exhaustible raw materials, in particular metals, some of which are already regarded as scarce. After reviewing the debate on mineral depletion between "cornucopians" and "pessimists", we discuss the meaning of mineral "scarcity", particularly in the geochemical sense, and mineral "exhaustion". The expected drastic increase in demand for mineral resources caused by demographic and societal pressures, that is, due to the increase in in-use stock, is emphasised. Whilst not discussing the issue of "strong" versus "weak" sustainability in detail, we conclude that regenerative energy systems-like nearly all resource-consuming systems in our society-do not necessarily satisfy generally accepted sustainability criteria. In this regard, we discuss some current examples, namely, lithium and cobalt for batteries, rare earth-based permanent magnets for wind turbines, cadmium and tellurium for solar cells and copper for electrical power distribution. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Present state and problems of the measures for securing stable supply of uranium resources

    Yoneda, Fumishige


    The long-term stable supply of uranium resources must be secured in order to accelerate the development and utilization of nuclear power in Japan. All uranium required in Japan is imported from foreign countries, and depends on small number of suppliers. On the use of uranium, various restrictions have been imposed by bilateral agreements from the viewpoint of nuclear non-proliferation policy. At present, the demand-supply relation in uranium market is not stringent, but in the latter half of 1980s, it is feared that it will be stringent. The prospect of the demand and supply of uranium resources, the state of securing uranium resources, the present policy on uranium resources, the necessity of establishing the new policy, and the active promotion of uranium resource measures are described. The measures to be taken are the promotion of exploration and development of mines, the participation in the management of such foreign projects, the promotion of diversifying the supply sources, the establishment of the structure to accept uranium resources, the promotion of the storage of uranium, and the rearrangement of general coordination and promotion functions for uranium resource procurement. (Kako, I.)

  11. Project Galaxy - Sustianable Resource Supply and Environmental Implications

    Downing, Mark [ORNL; Wimmer, Robert [Toyota Motor Corp.


    Understanding what it takes to move from a corn-based liquid fuels industry to one that is cellulosic-based requires a complex transition over time. This transition implies, among other things, a shift from annual cropping systems considered under United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) policy as commodity crops, to perennial lignocellulosic crops that are herbaceous and wood-based. Because of changes in land use as well as biomass and other crop supplies, land-based environmental amenities such as water quality, soil health and tilth, air quality, and animal and avian species populations and their diversity change also. Environmental effects are measured as magnitudes (how much they are impacted), and direction of the impact (either positive or negative). By developing a series of quantitative and qualitative metrics, the larger issue of defining relative sustainability may be addressed, and this can be done at a finer detail of regional (scale) and environmental amenity-specific impacts. Although much literature exists about research relevant to specific environmental variables, there is no published, documented, nor research literature on direct application of environmental over-compliance with regards a 'biorefinery.' Our three goals were to (1) understand and quantify bioenergy sustainability and some key environmental effects in a generic set of examples; (2) explain the effort and means to define and quantify specific qualitative environmental measures, and to determine a way to understand changes in these measures over time and what their implications might be; and (3) use these outcomes to evaluate potential sites in any geographic area. This would permit assessment of candidate locations, combined with an understanding of co-production of fuels, chemicals, and electric power, to interpret sustainability measures and the relationship between environmental sustainability and economic sustainability. The process of determining environmental

  12. Developing and sustaining human resources in the health supply chain in Ethiopia: barriers and enablers.

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Traulsen, Janine M; Damene Kabtimer, Woynabeba; Mekasha Habtegiorgis, Bitsatab; Teshome Gebregeorgise, Dawit; Essah, Nana Am; Khan, Sara A; Brown, Andrew N


    The health supply chain is often the weakest link in achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals and universal health coverage, requiring trained professionals who are often unavailable. In Ethiopia there have been recent developments in the area of health supply chain management. The aim of this study was to explore the current status of the development of human resources in health supply chain management in Ethiopia and to identify important factors affecting this development. A series of face-to-face interviews with key stakeholders was carried out in 2014. The interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide. The interview guide comprised 51 questions. A qualitative analysis of transcripts was made. A total of 25 interviews were conducted. Three themes were identified: General changes: recognition, commitment and resources, Education and training, and Barriers and enablers. Results confirm the development of human resources in health supply chain management in many areas. However, several problems were identified including lack of coordination, partly due to the large number of stakeholders; reported high staff mobility; and a lack of overall strategy regarding the job/career structures necessary for maintaining human resources. Rural areas have a particular set of problems, including in transportation of goods and personnel, attracting and keeping personnel, and in communication and access to information. Ethiopia is on the way to developing a nationwide viable system for health supply chain management. However, there are still challenges. Short-term challenges include the importance of highlighting strategies and programs for human resources in health supply chain management. In the long term, commitments to financial support must be obtained. A strategy is needed for the further development and sustainability of human resources in the health supply chain in Ethiopia.

  13. About economy of fuel and energy resources in the hot water supply system

    Rotov, P. V.; Sivukhin, A. A.; Zhukov, D. A.; Zhukova, A. V.


    The assessment of the power efficiency realized in the current of heat supply system of technology of regulation of loading of the hot water supply system, considering unevenness consumption of hot water is executed. For the purpose of definition the applicability boundary of realized technology comparative analysis of indicators of the effectiveness of its work within the possible range of the parameters of regulations. Developed a software application “The calculation of the total economy of fuel and energy resources in the hot water supply system when you change of the parameters of regulations”, which allows on the basis of multivariate calculations analyses of their results, to choose the optimum mode of operation heat supply system and to assess the effectiveness of load regulation in the hot water supply system.

  14. Natural biotic resources in LCA: Towards an impact assessment model for sustainable supply chain management.

    Crenna, Eleonora; Sozzo, Sara; Sala, Serenella


    Natural resources, biotic and abiotic, are fundamental from both the ecological and socio-economic point of view, being at the basis of life-support. However, since the demand for finite resources continues to increase, the sustainability of current production and consumption patterns is questioned both in developed and developing countries. A transition towards an economy based on biotic renewable resources (bio-economy) is considered necessary in order to support a steady provision of resources, representing an alternative to an economy based on fossil and abiotic resources. However, to ensure a sustainable use of biotic resources, there is the need of properly accounting for their use along supply chains as well as defining a robust and comprehensive impact assessment model. Since so far naturally occurring biotic resources have gained little attention in impact assessment methods, such as life cycle assessment, the aim of this study is to enable the inclusion of biotic resources in the assessment of products and supply chains. This paper puts forward a framework for biotic resources assessment, including: i) the definition of system boundaries between ecosphere and technosphere, namely between naturally occurring and man-made biotic resources; ii) a list of naturally occurring biotic resources which have a commercial value, as basis for building life cycle inventories (NOBR, e.g. wild animals, plants etc); iii) an impact pathway to identify potential impacts on both resource provision and ecosystem quality; iv) a renewability-based indicator (NOBRri) for the impact assessment of naturally occurring biotic resources, including a list of associated characterization factors. The study, building on a solid review of literature and of available statistical data, highlights and discusses the critical aspects and paradoxes related to biotic resource inclusion in LCA: from the system boundaries definition up to the resource characterization.

  15. Game Algorithm for Resource Allocation Based on Intelligent Gradient in HetNet

    Fang Ye


    Full Text Available In order to improve system performance such as throughput, heterogeneous network (HetNet has become an effective solution in Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LET-A. However, co-channel interference leads to degradation of the HetNet throughput, because femtocells are always arranged to share the spectrum with the macro base station. In this paper, in view of the serious cross-layer interference in double layer HetNet, the Stackelberg game model is adopted to analyze the resource allocation methods of the network. Unlike the traditional system models only focusing on macro base station performance improvement, we take into account the overall system performance and build a revenue function with convexity. System utility functions are defined as the average throughput, which does not adopt frequency spectrum trading method, so as to avoid excessive signaling overhead. Due to the value scope of continuous Nash equilibrium of the built game model, the gradient iterative algorithm is introduced to reduce the computational complexity. As for the solution of Nash equilibrium, one kind of gradient iterative algorithm is proposed, which is able to intelligently choose adjustment factors. The Nash equilibrium can be quickly solved; meanwhile, the step of presetting adjustment factors is avoided according to network parameters in traditional linear iterative model. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm enhances the overall performance of the system.

  16. Braille Literacy: Resources for Instruction, Writing Equipment, and Supplies. NLS Reference Circulars

    Peaco, Freddie L., Comp.


    This reference circular lists instructional materials, supplies, and equipment currently available for learning braille, and cites sources about braille literacy. The resources given are intended to assist sighted individuals who are interested in learning braille or want to transcribe print materials into braille; instructors who teach braille;…

  17. Determining the Supply of Material Resources for High-Rise Construction: Scenario Approach

    Minnullina, Anna; Vasiliev, Vladimir


    This article presents a multi-criteria approach to determining the supply of material resources for high-rise construction under certain and uncertain conditions, which enables integrating a number of existing models into a fairly compact generalised economic and mathematical model developed for two extreme scenarios.

  18. The Timber Resource Inventory Model (TRIM): a projection model for timber supply and policy analysis.

    P.L. Tedder; R.N. La Mont; J.C. Kincaid


    TRIM (Timber Resource Inventory Model) is a yield table projection system developed for timber supply projections and policy analysis. TRIM simulates timber growth, inventories, management and area changes, and removals over the projection period. Programs in the TRIM system, card-by-card descriptions of required inputs, table formats, and sample results are presented...

  19. Role of supply chain management in the wise use of wood resources

    Role of supply chain management in the wise use of wood resources. ... of inputs, while ensuring the health of a company in tough international competition, ... show why SCM has emerged as an important field in wood procurement and finally ...

  20. A Potential Approach for Low Flow Selection in Water Resource Supply and Management

    Ying Ouyang


    Low flow selections are essential to water resource management, water supply planning, and watershed ecosystem restoration. In this study, a new approach, namely the frequent-low (FL) approach (or frequent-low index), was developed based on the minimum frequent-low flow or level used in minimum flows and/or levels program in northeast Florida, USA. This FL approach was...

  1. Resource-efficient supply chains: a research framework, literature review and research agenda

    Matopoulos, A.; Barros, A.C.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.


    Purpose – The study aims to define a research agenda for creating resource-efficient supply chains (RESCs) by identifying and analysing their key characteristics as well as future research opportunities. Design/methodology/approach – We follow a systematic review method to analyse the literature and

  2. Selection of spatial scale for assessing impacts of groundwater-based water supply on freshwater resources

    Hybel, Anne-Marie; Godskesen, Berit; Rygaard, Martin


    used in this study: the Withdrawal-To-Availability ratio (WTA) and the Water Stress Index (WSI). Results were calculated for three groundwater based Danish urban water supplies (Esbjerg, Aarhus, and Copenhagen). The assessment was carried out at three spatial levels: (1) the groundwater body level, (2......) the river basin level, and (3) the regional level. The assessments showed that Copenhagen's water supply had the highest impact on the freshwater resource per cubic meter of water abstracted, with a WSI of 1.75 at Level 1. The WSI values were 1.64 for Aarhus's and 0.81 for Esbjerg's water supply. Spatial......Indicators of the impact on freshwater resources are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of urban water systems. To reveal the importance of spatial resolution, we investigated how the choice of catchment scale influenced the freshwater impact assessment. Two different indicators were...

  3. Developing and sustaining human resources in the health supply chain in Ethiopia

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Traulsen, Janine M; Damene Kabtimer, Woynabeba


    management. The aim of this study was to explore the current status of the development of human resources in health supply chain management in Ethiopia and to identify important factors affecting this development. METHODS: A series of face-to-face interviews with key stakeholders was carried out in 2014...... and training, and Barriers and enablers. Results confirm the development of human resources in health supply chain management in many areas. However, several problems were identified including lack of coordination, partly due to the large number of stakeholders; reported high staff mobility; and a lack...... of overall strategy regarding the job/career structures necessary for maintaining human resources. Rural areas have a particular set of problems, including in transportation of goods and personnel, attracting and keeping personnel, and in communication and access to information. CONCLUSIONS: Ethiopia...

  4. Optimization Analysis of Supply Chain Resource Allocation in Customized Online Shopping Service Mode

    Jianming Yao


    Full Text Available For an online-shopping company, whether it can provide its customers with customized service is the key to enhance its customers’ experience value and its own competence. A good customized service requires effective integration and reasonable allocation of the company’s supply chain resources running in the background. Based on the analysis of the allocation of supply chain resources in the customized online shopping service mode and its operational characteristics, this paper puts forward an optimization model for the resource allocation and builds an improved ant algorithm to solve it. Finally, the effectiveness and feasibility of the optimization method and algorithm are demonstrated by a numerical simulation. This paper finds that the special online shopping environments lead to many dynamic and uncertain characters of the service demands. Different customized service patterns and their combination patterns should match with different supply chain resource allocations. The optimization model not only reflects the required service cost and delivery time in the objective function, but also considers the service scale effect optimization and the relations of integration benefits and risks. The improved ant algorithm has obvious advantages in flexibly balancing the multiobjective optimizations, adjusting the convergence speed, and adjusting the operation parameters.

  5. Arid landscape dynamics along a precipitation gradient: addressing vegetation - landscape structure - resource interactions at different time scales

    Buis, E.


    This research is entitled ‘Arid landscape dynamics along a precipitation gradient: addressing
    vegetation – landscape structure – resource interactions at different time scales’ with as subtitle
    ‘A case study for the Northern Negev Desert of Israel’. Landscape dynamics describes the

  6. The case for conserving oil resources: the fundamentals of supply and demand

    Reynolds, D.B.


    This article summarises the evidence for an oil price shock and argues that oil producers, both OPEC and non-OPEC, need to cut back oil production more, in order to conserve oil for the future and to avert sudden extreme movements in oil prices in the next five-to-ten years. Four physical fundamentals determine long-run changes in oil prices: supply, demand, technology and substitutes. We show that supply, technology and substitutes are limited and demand is growing strongly. As demand pushes against supply, prices will rise rapidly. It would be better to conserve oil now, in order to have a smoother transition to higher-priced oil in the future. In addition, oil is such a valuable resource for the worlds economies in general, that we should conserve it for future generations. The world, in its haste for economic growth, should support OPEC conservation efforts. (author)

  7. Exergy Analysis of the Supply of Energy and Material Resources in the Swedish Society

    Mei Gong


    Full Text Available Exergy is applied to the Swedish energy supply system for the period 1970–2013. Exergy flow diagrams for the systems of electricity and district heating as well as for the total supply system of energy and material resources for 2012 are presented. The share of renewable use has increased in both electricity and district heat production. The resource use is discussed in four sectors: residential and service, transportation, industry and agriculture. The resource use is also analyzed with respect to exergy efficiency and renewable share. The total exergy input of energy and material resources amounts to about 2700 PJ of which about 530 PJ was used for final consumption in 2012. The results are also compared with similar studies. Even though the share of renewable resource use has increased from 42% in 1980 to 47% in 2012, poor efficiency is still occurring in transportation, space heating, and food production. A strong dependence on fossil and nuclear fuels also implies a serious lack of sustainability. A more exergy efficient technology and a higher renewable energy share are needed in order to become a more sustainable society.

  8. The inter-relationships between urban dynamics and water resource and supply based on multitemporal analysis

    Aldea, Alexandru; Aldea, Mihaela


    The growth and concentration of population, housing and industry in urban and suburban areas in the continuous evolution of a city over time causes complex social, economic, and physical challenges. The population and its relationship with the use and development of the land and water is a critical issue of urban growth, and since ancient times land, water and man were directly involved in the human populations' survival. Nevertheless the current potential of study over this relationship between urban growth, water supply, drainage and water resources conditions becomes more and more attractive due to the possibility to make use of the broader variety of information sources and technologies readily available in recent years, with emphasis on the open data and on the big data as primary sources. In this regard we present some new possibilities of analyses over the demographics, land use/land cover and water supply and conservation based on a study over a Romanian region of development (Bucharest-Ilfov). As urban development usually outgrows the existing water supply systems, the resolution consists in drilling new and deeper wells, building new water distribution pipelines, building longer aqueducts and larger reservoirs, or finding new sources and constructing completely new water supply systems, water supplies may evolve this way from a result into a cause and driver of urban growth. The evolution trends of the studied area was estimated based on the open satellite time-series imagery and remote sensing techniques by land use/land cover extraction and the identification of the changes in urbanization. The survey is mainly focused on the expansion of the water network in terms of areal, total length and number of connections correlated with the amount of water produced, consumed and lost within a supply zone. Some urban human activities including the industrial ones alter water resource by pollution, over pumping of groundwater, construction of dams and reservoirs

  9. The Impact of Information System-Enabled Supply Chain Process Integration on Business Performance: A Resource-Based Analysis

    Morteza Ghobakhloo; Sai Hong Tang; Mohammad Sadegh Sabouri; Norzima Zulkifli


    This paper seeks to develop and test a model to examine the relationships between, technical aspects of IS resources (IS alignment, IS resources technical quality, IS advancement), supply chain process integration, and firm performance. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to collect data from 227 supply chain, logistics, or procurement/purchasing managers of leading manufacturing and retail organizations. Drawing on resources-based view of the firm, and through extending the concept of...

  10. Resource Supply Overrides Temperature as a Controlling Factor of Marine Phytoplankton Growth

    Marañón, Emilio; Cermeño, Pedro; Huete-Ortega, María; López-Sandoval, Daffne C.; Mouriño-Carballido, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Ramos, Tamara


    The universal temperature dependence of metabolic rates has been used to predict how ocean biology will respond to ocean warming. Determining the temperature sensitivity of phytoplankton metabolism and growth is of special importance because this group of organisms is responsible for nearly half of global primary production, sustains most marine food webs, and contributes to regulate the exchange of CO2 between the ocean and the atmosphere. Phytoplankton growth rates increase with temperature under optimal growth conditions in the laboratory, but it is unclear whether the same degree of temperature dependence exists in nature, where resources are often limiting. Here we use concurrent measurements of phytoplankton biomass and carbon fixation rates in polar, temperate and tropical regions to determine the role of temperature and resource supply in controlling the large-scale variability of in situ metabolic rates. We identify a biogeographic pattern in phytoplankton metabolic rates, which increase from the oligotrophic subtropical gyres to temperate regions and then coastal waters. Variability in phytoplankton growth is driven by changes in resource supply and appears to be independent of seawater temperature. The lack of temperature sensitivity of realized phytoplankton growth is consistent with the limited applicability of Arrhenius enzymatic kinetics when substrate concentrations are low. Our results suggest that, due to widespread resource limitation in the ocean, the direct effect of sea surface warming upon phytoplankton growth and productivity may be smaller than anticipated. PMID:24921945

  11. Selection of spatial scale for assessing impacts of groundwater-based water supply on freshwater resources.

    Hybel, A-M; Godskesen, B; Rygaard, M


    Indicators of the impact on freshwater resources are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of urban water systems. To reveal the importance of spatial resolution, we investigated how the choice of catchment scale influenced the freshwater impact assessment. Two different indicators were used in this study: the Withdrawal-To-Availability ratio (WTA) and the Water Stress Index (WSI). Results were calculated for three groundwater based Danish urban water supplies (Esbjerg, Aarhus, and Copenhagen). The assessment was carried out at three spatial levels: (1) the groundwater body level, (2) the river basin level, and (3) the regional level. The assessments showed that Copenhagen's water supply had the highest impact on the freshwater resource per cubic meter of water abstracted, with a WSI of 1.75 at Level 1. The WSI values were 1.64 for Aarhus's and 0.81 for Esbjerg's water supply. Spatial resolution was identified as a major factor determining the outcome of the impact assessment. For the three case studies, WTA and WSI were 27%-583% higher at Level 1 than impacts calculated for the regional scale. The results highlight that freshwater impact assessments based on regional data, rather than sub-river basin data, may dramatically underestimate the actual impact on the water resource. Furthermore, this study discusses the strengths and shortcomings of the applied indicator approaches. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates that although WSI has the highest environmental relevance, it also has the highest uncertainty, as it requires estimations of non-measurable environmental water requirements. Hence, the development of a methodology to obtain more site-specific and relevant estimations of environmental water requirements should be prioritized. Finally, the demarcation of the groundwater resource in aquifers remains a challenge for establishing a consistent method for benchmarking freshwater impacts caused by groundwater abstraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  12. The people factor: An analysis of the human resources landscape for immunization supply chain management.

    Kasonde, Musonda; Steele, Pamela


    Human resources is the backbone of any system and the key enabler for all other functions to effectively perform. This is no different with the Immunization Supply Chain, more so in todays' complex operating environment with the increasing strain caused by new vaccines and expanding immunization programmes (Source: WHO, UNICEF). In order to drive the change that is required for sustainability and continuous improvement, every immunization supply chain needs an effective leader. A dedicated and competent immunization supply chain leader with adequate numbers of skilled, accountable, motivated and empowered personnel at all levels of the health system to overcome existing and emerging immunization supply chain (ISC) challenges. Without an effective supply chain leader supported by capable and motivated staff, none of the interventions designed to strengthen the supply chain can be effective or sustainable (Source: Gavi Alliance SC Strategy 2014). This landscape analysis was preceded by an HR Evidence Review (March 2014) and has served to inform global partner strategies and country activities, as well as highlight where most support is required. The study also aimed to define the status quo in order to create some form of baseline against which to measure the impact of interventions related to HR going forward. The analysis was comprised of a comprehensive desk review, a survey of 40 respondents from 32 countries and consultations with ISC practitioners in several forums. The findings highlight key areas that should inform the pillars of a HR capacity development plan. At the same time, it revealed that there are some positive examples of where countries are actively addressing some of the issues identified and putting in place mechanisms and structures to optimize the SC function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Sustainability Analysis of the Water Resources and Supply of the Vieux Fort Region of Saint Lucia

    Coles, D.; Johnson, B.; Morgan, F.


    In the Vieux Fort region of the Caribbean island of St. Lucia, water needs are becoming acute. The water supply shortfalls during the dry season will continue to grow as population and development increase, unless action is taken. Actions to address the problem should include measures to optimize the present water delivery system and the development of a new supply, through new intakes, groundwater, or reservoir construction. An investigation into the potential for groundwater resources using electrical resistivity soundings indicated a likely pervasive, shallow aquitard of clay materials below the water table; the shallowness of this aquitard virtually precludes the existence of productive perched aquifers. Consequently, a model of Grande Riviere du Vieux Fort (Big Vieux Fort River) seasonal surface-water flow was developed, based on a digital elevation model and rainfall data, allowing us to analyze the possible productivity of any new intakes placed along the river. A specific site downstream of the present intake was recommended for potential development. Recommendations were given for short, medium and long-term development of the resources and supply of the Vieux Fort region of southern St. Lucia.

  14. An integrated study of earth resources in the State of California using remote sensing techniques. [supply, demand, and impact of California water resources

    Colwell, R. N.; Burgy, R. H.; Algazi, V. R.; Draeger, W. C.; Estes, J. E.; Bowden, L. W. (Principal Investigator)


    The author has identified the following significant results. The supply, demand, and impact relationships of California's water resources as exemplified by the Feather River project and other aspects of the California Water Plan are discussed.

  15. Eucalyptus production and the supply, use and efficiency of use of water, light and nitrogen across a geographic gradient in Brazil

    Jose Luiz Stape; Dan Binkley; Michael G. Ryan

    Millions of hectares of Eucalyptus are intensively managed for wood production in the tropics, but little is known about the physiological processes that control growth and their regulation. We examined the main environmental factors controlling growth and resource use across a geographic gradient with clonal E. grandis x urophylla in north-eastern Brazil. Rates of...

  16. Simulation modelling of central order processing system under resource sharing strategy in demand-driven garment supply chains

    Ma, K.; Thomassey, S.; Zeng, X.


    In this paper we proposed a central order processing system under resource sharing strategy for demand-driven garment supply chains to increase supply chain performances. We examined this system by using simulation technology. Simulation results showed that significant improvement in various performance indicators was obtained in new collaborative model with proposed system.

  17. Impact of human resources on wine supply chain flexibility, quality, and economic performance

    J. L. García-Alcaraz


    Full Text Available This article assesses the impact of human resources skills on production quality, flexibility, and economic performance of La Rioja’s wine supply chain. These four elements were integrated as latent variables composed of 15 observed variables and associated through six hypotheses. Data were gathered from 64 wineries located in La Rioja, Spain, and hypotheses were validated in a structural equation model using WarpPLS v.5 software. Results indicate that human resources skills have a positive direct impact on SC flexibility and quality, but not on economic performance; however, these variables are indirectly associated through SC quality and SC flexibility.

  18. The Spanish Food Industry on Global Supply Chains and Its Impact on Water Resources

    Rosa Duarte


    Full Text Available The study of the impact of economic activities on natural resources through global supply chains is increasingly demanded in the context of the growing globalization of economies and product fragmentation. Taking Spain as a case study and a sector with significant economic and environmental impacts, the agri-food industry, the objective of this work is two-fold. First, we estimate the associated water impact, both from the production and consumption perspectives, paying special attention to the water embodied in production exchanges among countries and sectors. To that aim, we use an environmentally-extended multiregional input-output model (MRIO. Second, we assess the main driving factors behind changes in direct and embodied water consumption between the years 1995 and 2009 by means of a structural decomposition analysis. The MRIO model provides a comprehensive estimate of the economic linkages among regions and economic sectors and, therefore, allows calculating the environmental impacts over international value chains. The results indicate that the food industry exerts large impacts on global water resources, particularly given the remarkable interactions with the domestic and foreign agricultural sectors, These growing linkages show how consumption patterns, and, therefore, lifestyles, involve large environmental impacts through the whole and global supply chains.

  19. Future Oil and Gas Resources of the World: A Coming Supply Crisis?

    Ahlbrandt, T. S.


    Is the world running out of oil? Where will future oil and gas supplies come from? To help answer these questions, the U.S. Geological Survey completed in 2000 a new assessment of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources and potential additions to reserves from field growth. One hundred and twenty-eight provinces were assessed in a 100 man-year effort from 1995-2000. The assessed provinces included 76 priority provinces containing 95 percent of the world's discovered oil and gas and an additional 52 "boutique" provinces, many of which may be highly prospective. Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were identified and described for each of these provinces along with associated Assessment Units (AU) that are the basic units for assessing undiscovered petroleum. The assessment process coupled geologic analysis with a probabilistic methodology to estimate remaining potential. Within the 128 assessed provinces, were 159 TPS and 274 AU. For these provinces, the endowment of recoverable oil, which includes cumulative production, remaining reserves, reserve growth, and undiscovered resources is estimated at about 3 trillion barrels of oil (TBO). The natural gas endowment is estimated at 2.6 trillion barrels of oil equivalent (TBOE). Oil reserves are currently 1.1 TBO; world consumption is about .028 TBO per year. Natural gas reserves are about .8 TBOE; world consumption is about .014 TBOE. Thus, without any additional discoveries of oil, gas or natural gas liquids, we have about 2 TBOE of proved petroleum reserves. Of the oil and gas endowment of about 5.6 TBOE, we estimate that the world has consumed about 1 TBOE, or 18 percent leaving about 82 percent of endowment to be utilized or found. Half of the world's undiscovered potential is offshore. Arctic basins with about 25 percent of undiscovered petroleum resources make up the next great frontier. An additional 279 provinces contain some oil and gas and, if considered, would increase the oil and gas endowment

  20. Availability of food resources, distribution of invasive species, and conservation of a Hawaiian bird along a gradient of elevation

    Banko, P.C.; Oboyski, P.T.; Slotterback, J.W.; Dougill, Steve J.; Goltz, Dan M.; Johnson, L.; Laut, M.E.; Murray, T.C.


    Aim: We evaluated how an elevation gradient affects: (1) the availability of food required by a specialist seed-eater, Loxioides bailleui Oustalet (Drepanidinae), or pallia, and hence the distribution of this endangered Hawaiian bird, and (2) the distribution of alien threats to Loxioides populations, their primary foods, and their dry-forest habitat, and hence strategies for their conservation. Location: We worked throughout the subalpine forest that encircles Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawai'i Island, but we focused our studies mainly on the western slope between 2000 and 3000 m elevation, where the gradient of elevation was greatest and palila were most abundant. Methods: We determined phenology and productivity patterns of the endemic dry-forest tree species, Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem. (Fabaceae), or ma??mane, which provides Loxioides with most of their food, and another common endemic tree, Myoporum sandwicense A. Gray (Myoporaceae), or naio, which provides some resources, along a 786-m elevation gradient at monthly intervals for 10 years (Sophora only). We also determined the availability each month of moth larvae (Lepidoptera) for that were important in the diet of nestling and adult palila. In addition, we documented the incidence of parasitism on moth larvae by several wasp (Hymenoptera) and fly (Diptera) species, and we determined the distribution of predatory wasps and ants (Hymenoptera), which potentially threaten insect prey of birds. Percentage cover of alien grass species that pose fire threats in palila habitat and other weeds were assessed during one survey. Small mammal abundance and distribution were determined by trapping during three (rodent) or five (carnivore) surveys. Results: Sophora flower and seed (pod) availability varied predictably along the elevation gradient, with about 4 months separating peaks in reproduction at high and low elevations. This, together with highly variable production of flowers and pods within elevation strata

  1. Beryllium—A critical mineral commodity—Resources, production, and supply chain

    Lederer, Graham W.; Foley, Nora K.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Ayuso, Robert A.


    Beryllium is a lightweight metallic element used in a wide variety of specialty and industrial applications. As a function of its unique chemical and physical properties, such as a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, resistance to temperature extremes, and high thermal conductivity, beryllium cannot be easily replaced by substitute materials in applications where combinations of these properties make it the material of choice. Because the number of beryllium producers is limited and the use of substitute materials in specific defense-related applications that are vital to national security is inadequate, several studies have categorized beryllium as a critical and strategic material. This categorization has led to the United States Government recommending that beryllium be stockpiled for use in the event of a national emergency. As of December 31, 2015, the National Defense Stockpile inventory of hot-pressed beryllium metal powder, structured beryllium metal powder, and vacuum-cast beryllium metal totaled 78 metric tons (t).The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program supports research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources vital to the economy and national security. The USGS, through its National Minerals Information Center (NMIC), collects, analyzes, and disseminates information on more than 90 nonfuel mineral commodities from more than 180 countries. This fact sheet provides information on the production, consumption, supply chain, geology, and resource availability of beryllium in a global context.

  2. Lost food, wasted resources: global food supply chain losses and their impacts on freshwater, cropland, and fertiliser use.

    Kummu, M; de Moel, H; Porkka, M; Siebert, S; Varis, O; Ward, P J


    Reducing food losses and waste is considered to be one of the most promising measures to improve food security in the coming decades. Food losses also affect our use of resources, such as freshwater, cropland, and fertilisers. In this paper we estimate the global food supply losses due to lost and wasted food crops, and the resources used to produce them. We also quantify the potential food supply and resource savings that could be made by reducing food losses and waste. We used publically available global databases to conduct the study at the country level. We found that around one quarter of the produced food supply (614 kcal/cap/day) is lost within the food supply chain (FSC). The production of these lost and wasted food crops accounts for 24% of total freshwater resources used in food crop production (27 m(3)/cap/yr), 23% of total global cropland area (31 × 10(-3)ha/cap/yr), and 23% of total global fertiliser use (4.3 kg/cap/yr). The per capita use of resources for food losses is largest in North Africa & West-Central Asia (freshwater and cropland) and North America & Oceania (fertilisers). The smallest per capita use of resources for food losses is found in Sub-Saharan Africa (freshwater and fertilisers) and in Industrialised Asia (cropland). Relative to total food production, the smallest food supply and resource losses occur in South & Southeast Asia. If the lowest loss and waste percentages achieved in any region in each step of the FSC could be reached globally, food supply losses could be halved. By doing this, there would be enough food for approximately one billion extra people. Reducing the food losses and waste would thus be an important step towards increased food security, and would also increase the efficiency of resource use in food production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Establishing Functional Relationships between Abiotic Environment, Macrophyte Coverage, Resource Gradients and the Distribution of Mytilus trossulus in a Brackish Non-Tidal Environment.

    Jonne Kotta

    Full Text Available Benthic suspension feeding mussels are an important functional guild in coastal and estuarine ecosystems. To date we lack information on how various environmental gradients and biotic interactions separately and interactively shape the distribution patterns of mussels in non-tidal environments. Opposing to tidal environments, mussels inhabit solely subtidal zone in non-tidal waterbodies and, thereby, driving factors for mussel populations are expected to differ from the tidal areas. In the present study, we used the boosted regression tree modelling (BRT, an ensemble method for statistical techniques and machine learning, in order to explain the distribution and biomass of the suspension feeding mussel Mytilus trossulus in the non-tidal Baltic Sea. BRT models suggested that (1 distribution patterns of M. trossulus are largely driven by separate effects of direct environmental gradients and partly by interactive effects of resource gradients with direct environmental gradients. (2 Within its suitable habitat range, however, resource gradients had an important role in shaping the biomass distribution of M. trossulus. (3 Contrary to tidal areas, mussels were not competitively superior over macrophytes with patterns indicating either facilitative interactions between mussels and macrophytes or co-variance due to common stressor. To conclude, direct environmental gradients seem to define the distribution pattern of M. trossulus, and within the favourable distribution range, resource gradients in interaction with direct environmental gradients are expected to set the biomass level of mussels.

  4. Feedback-Based Projected-Gradient Method For Real-Time Optimization of Aggregations of Energy Resources: Preprint

    Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bernstein, Andrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simonetto, Andrea [IBM Research Center Ireland


    This paper develops an online optimization method to maximize the operational objectives of distribution-level distributed energy resources (DERs) while adjusting the aggregate power generated (or consumed) in response to services requested by grid operators. The design of the online algorithm is based on a projected-gradient method, suitably modified to accommodate appropriate measurements from the distribution network and the DERs. By virtue of this approach, the resultant algorithm can cope with inaccuracies in the representation of the AC power, it avoids pervasive metering to gather the state of noncontrollable resources, and it naturally lends itself to a distributed implementation. Optimality claims are established in terms of tracking of the solution of a well-posed time-varying optimization problem.

  5. Determining optimum levels of DSM [demand-side management] as a supply-side resource

    Giles, S.H.; Mitchell, E.D.


    San Diego Gas and Electric Company (SDGE) recommends the evaluation of demand-side management as a supply-side resource. The advantages of concurrent economic analysis of DSM options with other traditional sources represents a significant improvement over analysis either before or after the development of a resource plan. The evaluation of utility-sponsored DSM programs that provide system benefits that include deferment of capacity additions and improvements in more efficient system operation should be evaluated side-by-side with traditional resources that provide similar benefits. The utility decision to either provide capital costs to construct a power plant or make demand payments for a power purchase is directly analogous to the decision to provide funding for a DSM program that would defer these same investments. Both types of decision represent utility control over investment decisions that allow the utility to provide reliable, low-cost power to its customers. SDGE has also had experience with using generation expansion scenarios to test different levels of pre-selected packages of DSM programs, attempting to evaluate the total costs of system expansion for each of the different packages. This method was fraught with problems, and the best information that could be gained was if the selection of DSM packages happened to bracket a lower cost scenario, when it could reasonably be assumed that both smaller and larger levels of DSM were not as cost effective as the intermediate level. However, in many cases the selection of DSM programs did not produce this result and the important question of whether individual DSM programs were worthwhile when evaluated individually, or whether the lowest cost scenario would be improved with more or less DSM, could not be answered

  6. Resource limits and conversion efficiency with implications for climate change and California's energy supply

    Croft, Gregory Donald

    There are two commonly-used approaches to modeling the future supply of mineral resources. One is to estimate reserves and compare the result to extraction rates, and the other is to project from historical time series of extraction rates. Perceptions of abundant oil supplies in the Middle East and abundant coal supplies in the United States are based on the former approach. In both of these cases, an approach based on historical production series results in a much smaller resource estimate than aggregate reserve numbers. This difference is not systematic; natural gas production in the United States shows a strong increasing trend even though modest reserve estimates have resulted in three decades of worry about the gas supply. The implication of a future decline in Middle East oil production is that the market for transportation fuels is facing major changes, and that alternative fuels should be analyzed in this light. Because the U.S. holds very large coal reserves, synthesizing liquid hydrocarbons from coal has been suggested as an alternative fuel supply. To assess the potential of this process, one has to look at both the resource base and the net efficiency. The three states with the largest coal production declines in the 1996 to 2006 period are among the top 5 coal reserve holders, suggesting that gross coal reserves are a poor indicator of future production. Of the three categories of coal reserves reported by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, reserves at existing mines is the narrowest category and is approximately the equivalent of proved developed oil reserves. By this measure, Wyoming has the largest coal reserves in the U.S., and it accounted for all of U.S. coal production growth over the 1996 to 2006 time period. In Chapter 2, multi-cycle Hubbert curve analysis of historical data of coal production from 1850 to 2007 demonstrates that U.S. anthracite and bituminous coal are past their production peak. This result contradicts estimates based

  7. Analysis of Water Resources Supply and Demand and Security of Water Resources Development in Irrigation Regions of the Middle Reaches of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    JI Xi-bin; KANG Er-si; CHEN Ren-sheng; ZHAO Wen-zhi; XIAO Sheng-chun; JIN Bo-wen


    Based on the data for meteorology, hydrology, soil, planting, vegetation, and socio-economic development of the irrigation region in the middle reaches of the Heihe River basin, Northwest China, the model of balance of water supply and demand in the region was established, and the security of water resource was assessed, from which the results that the effects of unified management of water resources in the Heihe River basin between Gansu Province and Inner Mongolia on regional hydrology are significant with a decrease in water supply diverted from Heihe River and an increase in groundwater extracted. In addition, it was found that the groundwater level has been steadily decreasing due to over pumping and decrease in recharges. In present year (2003), the volume of potential groundwater in the irrigation districts is far small because of the groundwater overdraft; even in the particular regions, there is no availability of groundwater resources for use. By 2003, water supply is not sufficient to meet the water demand in the different irrigation districts, the sustainable development and utilization of water resources are not secured, and the water supply crisis occurs in Pingchuan irrigation district. Achieving water security for the sustainable development of society, agriculture, economy, industry, and livelihoods while maintaining or improving the abilities of the management and planning of water resources, determining of the reasonable percentage between water supply and groundwater utilization and water saving in agricultural irrigation are taken into account. If this does not occur, it is feared that the present performance of water development and planning may further aggravate the problem of scarcities of water resources and further damage the fragile ecological system.

  8. Floral and nesting resources, habitat structure, and fire influence bee distribution across an open-forest gradient

    Grundel, R.; Jean, R.P.; Frohnapple, K.J.; Glowacki, G.A.; Scott, P.E.; Pavlovic, N.B.


    Given bees' central effect on vegetation communities, it is important to understand how and why bee distributions vary across ecological gradients. We examined how plant community composition, plant diversity, nesting suitability, canopy cover, land use, and fire history affected bee distribution across an open-forest gradient in northwest Indiana, USA, a gradient similar to the historic Midwest United States landscape mosaic. When considered with the other predictors, plant community composition was not a significant predictor of bee community composition. Bee abundance was negatively related to canopy cover and positively to recent fire frequency, bee richness was positively related to plant richness and abundance of potential nesting resources, and bee community composition was significantly related to plant richness, soil characteristics potentially related to nesting suitability, and canopy cover. Thus, bee abundance was predicted by a different set of environmental characteristics than was bee species richness, and bee community composition was predicted, in large part, by a combination of the significant predictors of bee abundance and richness. Differences in bee community composition along the woody vegetation gradient were correlated with relative abundance of oligolectic, or diet specialist, bees. Because oligoleges were rarer than diet generalists and were associated with open habitats, their populations may be especially affected by degradation of open habitats. More habitat-specialist bees were documented for open and forest/scrub habitats than for savanna/woodland habitats, consistent with bees responding to habitats of intermediate woody vegetation density, such as savannas, as ecotones rather than as distinct habitat types. Similarity of bee community composition, similarity of bee abundance, and similarity of bee richness between sites were not significantly related to proximity of sites to each other. Nestedness analysis indicated that species

  9. Benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation on the supply, management, and use of water resources in the United States

    Strzepek, Kenneth; Neumann, J.; SMith, J.; Martinich, J.; Boehlert, B.; Hejazi, M.; Henderson, J.; Wobus, C.; Jones, R.; Calvin, K.; Johnson, D.; Monier, Erwan; Strzepek, J.; Yoon, J.-H.


    Climate change impacts on water resources in the United States are likely to be far-reaching and substantial because the water is integral to climate, and the water sector spans many parts of the economy. This paper estimates impacts and damages from five water resource-related models addressing runoff, drought risk, economics of water supply/demand, water stress, and flooding damages. The models differ in the water system assessed, spatial scale, and unit of assessment, but together provide ...

  10. An Extended Petri-Net Based Approach for Supply Chain Process Enactment in Resource-Centric Web Service Environment

    Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Cai, Hongming; Xu, Boyi

    Enacting a supply-chain process involves variant partners and different IT systems. REST receives increasing attention for distributed systems with loosely coupled resources. Nevertheless, resource model incompatibilities and conflicts prevent effective process modeling and deployment in resource-centric Web service environment. In this paper, a Petri-net based framework for supply-chain process integration is proposed. A resource meta-model is constructed to represent the basic information of resources. Then based on resource meta-model, XML schemas and documents are derived, which represent resources and their states in Petri-net. Thereafter, XML-net, a high level Petri-net, is employed for modeling control and data flow of process. From process model in XML-net, RESTful services and choreography descriptions are deduced. Therefore, unified resource representation and RESTful services description are proposed for cross-system integration in a more effective way. A case study is given to illustrate the approach and the desirable features of the approach are discussed.

  11. Massive post-fire flowering events in a tropical mountain region of Brazil: high episodic supply of floral resources

    Abel Augusto Conceição


    Full Text Available The species Vellozia sincorana L.B.Sm. & Ayensu is key to biodiversity conservation in the tropical mountain region of Brazil. The massive post-fire flowering of this endemic species provides a large, episodic supply of floral resources, mostly nectar, to animals.

  12. A methodology for handling exploration risk and constructing supply curves for oil and gas plays when resources are stacked

    Dallaire, S.M.


    The use of project economics to estimate full-cycle supply prices for undiscovered oil and gas resources is a straightforward exercise for those regions where oil and gas plays are not vertically superimposed on one another, ie. are not stacked. Exploration risk is incorporated into such an analysis by using a simple two-outcome decision tree model to include the costs of dry and abandoned wells. The decision tree model can be expanded to include multiple targets or discoveries, but this expansion requires additional drilling statistics and resource assessment data. A methodology is suggested to include exploration risk in the preparation of supply curves when stacked resources are expected and little or no information on uphole resources is available. In this method, all exploration costs for wells drilled to targets in the play being evaluated are assigned to that play, rather than prorated among the multiple targets or discoveries. Undiscovered pools are assumed to either bear all exploration costs (full cycle discoveries) or no exploration costs (half cycle discoveries). The weighted full- and half-cycle supply price is shown to be a more realistic estimate of the supply price of undiscovered pools in a play when stacked resources exist. The statistics required for this methodology are minimal, and resource estimates for prospects in other zones are not required. The equation relating the average pool finding cost to the discovery record is applicable to different scenarios regarding the presence of shallower and deeper resources. The equation derived for the two-outcome decision tree model is shown to be a special case of the general expression. 5 refs., 7 figs

  13. Part I. Alternative fuel-cycle and deployment strategies: their influence on long-term energy supply and resource usage

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Rudolph, R.R.


    This report examines the implications of alternative fast breeder fuel cycles and deployment strategies on long-term energy supply and uranium resource utilization. An international-aggregate treatment for nuclear energy demand and resource base assumptions was adopted where specific assumptions were necessary for system analyses, but the primary emphasis was placed on understanding the general relationships between energy demand, uranium resource and breeder deployment option. The fast breeder deployment options studied include the reference Pu/U cycle as well as alternative cycles with varying degrees of thorium utilization

  14. Future European gas supply in the resource triangle of the Former Soviet Union, the Middle East and Northern Africa

    Remme, Uwe; Blesl, Markus; Fahl, Ulrich


    A steady increase of natural gas demand can be observed in Europe over the last decades. Due to the European obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the framework of the Kyoto Protocol, the trend toward natural gas is expected to continue in the future. The increased consumption is faced by comparably low indigenous gas resources within Europe, so that the dependency of Europe on gas imports from abroad will rise in the future. In addition to the existing supply sources Russia and Algeria, gas resources from the Middle East and the Caspian and the Central Asian regions may be supply options to cover Europe's gas demand in the future. Against this background, possible natural gas supply options as well as the transport infrastructure to and within Europe are discussed regarding their technical capacity and their costs. With the help of a cost-minimization model of the European gas supply system, the gas flows and the infrastructure capacity development up to the year 2030 are analyzed. In a sensitivity analysis, the impacts of demand variations on the choice of supply sources are studied. (author)

  15. A potential approach for low flow selection in water resource supply and management

    Ouyang, Ying


    SummaryLow flow selections are essential to water resource management, water supply planning, and watershed ecosystem restoration. In this study, a new approach, namely the frequent-low (FL) approach (or frequent-low index), was developed based on the minimum frequent-low flow or level used in minimum flows and/or levels program in northeast Florida, USA. This FL approach was then compared to the conventional 7Q10 approach for low flow selections prior to its applications, using the USGS flow data from the freshwater environment (Big Sunflower River, Mississippi) as well as from the estuarine environment (St. Johns River, Florida). Unlike the FL approach that is associated with the biological and ecological impacts, the 7Q10 approach could lead to the selections of extremely low flows (e.g., near-zero flows) that may hinder its use for establishing criteria to prevent streams from significant harm to biological and ecological communities. Additionally, the 7Q10 approach could not be used when the period of data records is less than 10 years by definition while this may not the case for the FL approach. Results from both approaches showed that the low flows from the Big Sunflower River and the St. Johns River decreased as time elapsed, demonstrating that these two rivers have become drier during the last several decades with a potential of salted water intrusion to the St. Johns River. Results from the FL approach further revealed that the recurrence probability of low flow increased while the recurrence interval of low flow decreased as time elapsed in both rivers, indicating that low flows occurred more frequent in these rivers as time elapsed. This report suggests that the FL approach, developed in this study, is a useful alternative for low flow selections in addition to the 7Q10 approach.

  16. Integration of carbon capture and sequestration and renewable resource technologies for sustainable energy supply in the transportation sector

    Kim, Minsoo; Won, Wangyun; Kim, Jiyong


    Highlights: • Integration of carbon capture and sequestration and renewable resource technologies. • A new superstructure-based optimization model to identify the energy supply system. • Model validation via application study of the future transportation sector in Korea. - Abstract: In this study, a new design for a sustainable energy system was developed by integrating two technology frameworks: the renewable resource-based energy supply and the conventional (fossil fuel) resource-based energy production coupled with carbon capture and sequestration. To achieve this goal, a new superstructure-based optimization model was proposed using mixed-integer linear programming to identify the optimal combination of these technologies that minimizes the total daily cost, subject to various practical and logical constraints. The performance of the proposed model was validated via an application study of the future transportation sector in Korea. By considering six different scenarios that combined varying crude oil/natural gas prices and environmental regulation options, the optimal configuration of the energy supply system was identified, and the major cost drivers and their sensitivities were analyzed. It was shown that conventional resource-based energy production was preferred if crude oil and natural gas prices were low, even though environmental regulation was considered. Environmental regulation caused an increase in the total daily cost by an average of 26.4%, mainly due to CO_2 capture cost.

  17. Leveraging Human Resource Development Expertise to Improve Supply Chain Managers' Skills and Competencies

    Ellinger, Alexander E.; Ellinger, Andrea D.


    Purpose: There is an ongoing shortage of talented supply chain managers with the necessary skills and business-related competencies to manage increasingly complex and strategically important supply chain processes. The purpose of this paper is to propose that organizations can create and maintain competitive advantage by leveraging the expertise…

  18. Workshop Summary Proceedings Document: G7 Alliance on Resource Efficiency: U.S.-hosted Workshop on the Use of Life Cycle Concepts in Supply Chain Management to Achieve Resource Efficiency

    This proceedings document summarizes prepared remarks, presentations and discussions from the G7 Alliance on Resource Efficiency: U.S.-hosted Workshop on the Use of Life Cycle Concepts in Supply Chain Management to Achieve Resource Efficiency.

  19. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu


    Under third-party power intervention (TPPI), which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced ...

  20. Wind as a utility-grade supply resource: A planning framework for the Pacific Northwest

    Johnson, M.S.; Litchfield, J.


    Many areas throughout the United States possess favorable wind resources that, as yet, remain undeveloped. This paper provides valuable information on the type of information developers can provide, utility interpretation of the information in regard to electric energy and capacity attributes, and wind resource characteristics of interest to utilities. The paper also reviews key utility planning contexts within which prospective wind resources may be evaluated

  1. Migrant labor supply in a booming non-renewable resource economy: Cure and transmission mechanism for de-industrialization?

    Nulle, Grant Mark

    This paper challenges the determinism that booming resource economies suffer from de-industrialization, the "Dutch Disease". For several decades, economists have attempted to explain how a sudden surge in mineral and energy extraction affects an economy's output and employment from an aggregate and sectoral perspective. Economic theory shows that a "boom" in mineral and energy production is welfare enhancing to the economy experiencing it. However, the phenomenon also induces inter-sectoral adjustments among non-renewable resource (NRR), traditional traded, and non-traded industries that tend to crowd out traditional export sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing. In turn, this paper asks two fundamental questions: 1) Can the inter-sectoral adjustments wrought by a boom in NRR production be mitigated in the resource-abundant economy experiencing it; 2) Can the inter-sectoral adjustments be exported to a neighboring non-resource economy by movements in migrant labor supply? The theoretical model and empirical estimation approach presented in this paper introduces an endogenous migrant labor supply response to booms in NRR output to test the extent traditional tradable sectors shrink in the NRR-abundant economy during the boom and if such effects are exported to a neighboring jurisdiction. Using data at the U.S. county level, the empirical results show that booming economies experience positive and statistically significant rates of real income and traded sector job growth during the boom, attributable to the influx of migrant labor. By contrast, little evidence is found that non-booming counties adjacent to the booming counties experience declines in income or job growth because of labor supply outflows. Instead, the results suggest the larger the number of potential "donor" counties that can supply labor to the booming economies, the more likely the transmission of booming economy effects, namely evidence of de-industrialization, is diffused across all of the

  2. A strategy to improve skills in pharmaceutical supply management in East Africa: the regional technical resource collaboration for pharmaceutical management

    Minzi Omary


    Full Text Available Abstract Background International initiatives such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the President's Malaria Initiative have significantly increased availability and access to medicines in some parts of the developing world. Despite this, however, skills remain limited on quantifying needs for medications and ordering, receiving and storing medications appropriately; recording medications inventories accurately; distributing medications for use appropriately; and advising patients on how to use medications appropriately. The Regional Technical Resource Collaboration for Pharmaceutical Management (RTRC has been established to help address the problem of skills shortage in pharmaceutical management in East Africa. Methods The initiative brings together academic institutions from four East African countries to participate in skills-building activities in pharmaceutical supply management. The initiative targeted the institutions' ability to conduct assessments of pharmaceutical supply management systems and to develop and implement effective skills-building programmes for pharmaceutical supply chain management. Results Over a two-year period, the RTRC succeeded in conducting assessments of pharmaceutical supply management systems and practices in Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. In 2006, the RTRC participated in a materials-development workshop in Kampala, Uganda, and contributed to the development of comprehensive HIV/AIDS pharmaceutical management training materials; these materials are now widely available in all four countries. In Tanzania and Uganda the RTRC has been involved with the training of health care workers in HIV/AIDS pharmaceutical management. In Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda the RTRC has been conducting operations research to find solutions to their countries' skills-shortage problems. Some of the interventions tested include applying and evaluating the

  3. Securing renewable resource supplies for changing market demands in a bio-based economy

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Klerk-Engels, de B.; Struik, P.C.; Rabbinge, R.


    Establishment of a bio-based economy has been recognised as one of the key issues for sustainable development For future developments renewable resources will play a key role as CO2 neutral raw material for sustainable industrial production to curb depletion of fossil resources. Options to fully

  4. Combination of drainage, water supply and environmental protection as well as rational distribution of water resource in Zhengzhou mining district

    Wu, Q.; Li, D.; Di, Z.Q.; Miao, Y.; Zhao, S.Q.; Guo, Q.W. [CUMT, Beijing (China). Resource Exploitation Engineering College


    The geological condition of coalfield is much complex in China. With increasing in mining depth and drainage amount, the contradiction of drainage, water supply and environmental protection is becoming more and more serious. However, the contradiction can be solved by the scientific management of optimizing combination of drainage, water supply and environmental protection. The Philip multiple objectives simplex method used in this article has searched for a possible solution at the first step, and then it goes on searching to find out whether there is a weight number that can lead the solution to the biggest. It can reduce the randomness and difficulty of traditional weight method which determine the weight number artificially. Some beneficial coefficients are vague and the number is larger in the model of water resource dispatch. So the vague layer analysis method can consider these vague factors fully, combining the qualitative and quantitative analysis together. Especially, this method can quantify the experiential judgement of policy decider, and it will turn to be more suitable if the structure of objective factors is complex or the necessary data are absent. In the paper, the two methods above are used to solve the plans of drainage, water supply and optimizing distribution of water resource in the Zhengzhou mining district.

  5. Gen2 RFID-Based System Framework for Resource Circulation in Closed-Loop Supply Chains

    Young-woo Kim


    Full Text Available Product recycling has become a mandatory activity under extended producer responsibility. Therefore, it is important to operate a closed-loop supply chain that integrates sourcing, production, delivery, and recycling to achieve not only environmental sustainability, but also economic benefits. However, this goal is affected by chronic problems caused by uncertainties relating to the return timing, quantity, and quality of returned items. Many studies proved that information visibility could solve these problems. In this context, a system framework for closed-loop supply chain management is proposed that gathers real-time information within a supply chain and product lifecycle by using the Internet-of-Things, including radio frequency identification (RFID. Specifically, the most recent Gen2 RFID protocol, which provides new features to create new positive effects, is considered. Additionally, an information system is designed, including RFID tag encoding, which supports the operation of the proposed system. Finally, the lifecycle benefits are examined, such as counterfeit prevention, real-time monitoring and maintenance in the middle-of-life phase, and reverse process streamlining. The ultimate aim is to design a system that facilitates the profitable and environmentally friendly operation of the closed-loop supply chain.

  6. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu


    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  7. Are more resources always the answer? A supply and demand analysis for public health services in Brazilian municipalities

    Fabiana Rocha


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine whether it is necessary to increase available resources to local governments or if better use of these funds is sufficient. The paper contributes to the literature by looking both at the supply and demand for public health services. If the demand is estimated correctly, one can compare its expected value to actual health expenditures. Even if actual expenditures are lower than the estimated demand, it is not certain that additional spending is necessary. If the efficiency scores (supply side indicate that local governments can simply “save” resources to make up for the difference, then it is possible to reduce (or bring to zero new resources only by requiring local governments to efficiently manage their expenditures. Since municipalities in Brazil are very heterogeneous, we estimate their efficiency using the metafrontier approach (O’Donnell et al., 2008, while we estimate the demand through an equation derived from the median voter theorem model. Using 2010 data, we find evidence that efficient management of spending is sufficient to meet excess demand for goods and services in the health sector.

  8. Competing through operations and supply: The role of classic and extended resource-based advantage

    Lewis, Michael; Brandon-Jones, Alistair; Slack, Nigel; Howard, Mickey


    Purpose: The paper seeks to analyze the evolution of competitive advantage using both "classic" and "extended" resource-based theory (RBT). The aim is to examine the different ways in which "classic" and "extended" resource-based advantage develops and how they might combine to create long-term advantage. Design/methodology/approach: A single case study method is used to examine the process by which competitive advantage has accumulated over a 50-year period at Food Services Group Inc., a hig...

  9. Estimation of countries’ interdependence in plant genetic resources provisioning national food supplies and production systems

    Khoury, C.K.; Achicanoy, H.A.; Bjorkman, A.D.; Navarro-Racines, C.; Guarino, L.; Flores-Palacios, X.; Engels, J.M.M.; Wiersema, J.H.; Dempewolf, H.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P.; Fowler, C.; Jarvis, A.; Rieseberg, L.H.; Struik, P.C.


    The Contracting Parties of the International Treaty recognize that plant genetic resources for food and agriculture are a common concern of all countries, in that all countries depend largely on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture that originated elsewhere. Nearly 20 years ago, an initial research on interdependence mong countries on crop diversity provided information helpful for countries to establish the Treaty, and in particular its Multilateral System of Access and Benefit-s...

  10. Supply-cost curves for geographically distributed renewable-energy resources

    Izquierdo, Salvador; Dopazo, Cesar; Fueyo, Norberto


    The supply-cost curves of renewable-energy sources are an essential tool to synthesize and analyze large-scale energy-policy scenarios, both in the short and long terms. Here, we suggest and test a parametrization of such curves that allows their representation for modeling purposes with a minimal set of information. In essence, an economic potential is defined based on the mode of the marginal supply-cost curves; and, using this definition, a normalized log-normal distribution function is used to model these curves. The feasibility of this proposal is assessed with data from a GIS-based analysis of solar, wind and biomass technologies in Spain. The best agreement is achieved for solar energy.

  11. Timber resources of New England and New York with reference to pulpwood supplies

    V. L. Harper


    Pulp and paper is the most important of the wood-using industries of the Northeast. In value of product, value added by manufacture, and number of persons employed, it exceeds any other, but like all the others it is having increasing difficulties in procurement of timber supplies. Many of the pulp and paper mills have reached the stage where they are running out of...

  12. Energy supply. Resources - technologies - perspectives. [in German]. Energieversorgung. Ressourcen - Technologien - Perspektiven

    Grathwohl, M


    After an outline of the general relationship between primary energy carriers and international economics, the energy potential of the individual energy carriers is investigated from an international point of view. In accordance with the survey character of this book, conventional and nuclear energy-conversion techniques are dealt with as far as they can be realized in energy-supply systems. A further major chapter deals with environmental and safety problems connected with different energy conversion processes.

  13. Integrated Water Resource Management and Energy Requirements for Water Supply in the Copiapó River Basin, Chile

    Francisco Suárez


    Full Text Available Population and industry growth in dry climates are fully tied to significant increase in water and energy demands. Because water affects many economic, social and environmental aspects, an interdisciplinary approach is needed to solve current and future water scarcity problems, and to minimize energy requirements in water production. Such a task requires integrated water modeling tools able to couple surface water and groundwater, which allow for managing complex basins where multiple stakeholders and water users face an intense competition for limited freshwater resources. This work develops an integrated water resource management model to investigate the water-energy nexus in reducing water stress in the Copiapó River basin, an arid, highly vulnerable basin in northern Chile. The model was utilized to characterize groundwater and surface water resources, and water demand and uses. Different management scenarios were evaluated to estimate future resource availability, and compared in terms of energy requirements and costs for desalinating seawater to eliminate the corresponding water deficit. Results show a basin facing a very complex future unless measures are adopted. When a 30% uniform reduction of water consumption is achieved, 70 GWh over the next 30 years are required to provide the energy needed to increase the available water through seawater desalination. In arid basins, this energy could be supplied by solar energy, thus addressing water shortage problems through integrated water resource management combined with new technologies of water production driven by renewable energy sources.


    Sergiy Tsyganov


    Full Text Available This paper investigates corporate capital structure of multinational enterprises. Its core subject is focused on corporate capital structure defining factors that are specific for MNE rather than for domestic corporations. Substantial part of scientific literature concentrates on country specific and firm specific factors of corporate capital structure with most research devoted to domestic corporations. The main goal of our paper is to discover among plenty of corporate capital structure factors those that are specific for MNE and to develop a new approach for analyzing these factors in terms of financial resources demand and supply. There are some corporate capital structure factors that influence directly and some that have indirect influence while there is also another set of factors having both direct and indirect influence on indebtedness. Different theoretical and empirical research confirm different directions. Methodology of our study is based on analysis of two fundamental market driving forces that are demand and supply. Their influence on corporate capital structure is of a primary origin and that is why the suggested approach is to our mind theoretically significant and practically important. Demand factors imply that a corporation creates demand for financial resources and its capital structure is defined internally. Supply factors imply an external capital structure since it is created by external investors’ supply of financial resources. On empirical level, we use the primary data of corporate financial statements to analyze the leverage of MNE based in different countries and representing different industries. The key results of our study show that the main MNE specific factors of capital structure include such demand factors as multinationality level, assets tangibility and political risk. The first two are firm specific factors that can influence corporate capital structure either directly or indirectly according to

  15. Resource use in a low-input organic vegetable food supply system in UK - a case study

    Østergård, Hanne; Markussen, Mads V.; Kulak, Michal

    Until now the demand for food has been met by the use of abundant and cheap fossil fuels; however, we need to reconsider our modes of production to avoid a global environmental crisis. Food production systems should increasingly rely on renewable inputs and increase their stability by reducing...... dependency on external inputs. We apply the emergy approach to evaluate resource use efficiency of a food supply system in the UK. The main questions for this study were how much the system contributes to society by taking advantage of local renewable flows, and how much it depends on input from society....

  16. Find-rate methodology and resource base estimates of the Hydrocarbon Supply Model (1990 update). Topical report

    Woods, T.


    The Hydrocarbon Supply Model is used to develop long-term trends in Lower-48 gas production and costs. The model utilizes historical find-rate patterns to predict the discovery rate and size distribution of future oil and gas field discoveries. The report documents the methodologies used to quantify historical oil and gas field find-rates and to project those discovery patterns for future drilling. It also explains the theoretical foundations for the find-rate approach. The new field and reserve growth resource base is documented and compared to other published estimates. The report has six sections. Section 1 provides background information and an overview of the model. Sections 2, 3, and 4 describe the theoretical foundations of the model, the databases, and specific techniques used. Section 5 presents the new field resource base by region and depth. Section 6 documents the reserve growth model components

  17. MDESRAP: a model for understanding the dynamics of electricity supply, resources and pollution

    Qudrat-Ullah, H.


    The inherent dynamic complexity of the energy policy design problem makes the conventional 'closed-form' solution impossible. This paper contributes a dynamic simulation model as a possible solution. The model captures the dynamics of underlying sectors of electricity demand, investment, capital, resource, production, environment and costs and pricing. The existing feedback loops, nonlinearity and time-lag characteristics present in the real world electricity systems are incorporated in the model. The model is calibrated to Pakistan's case data. How the model has been used in policy assessments and the design of the alternative energy policies subject to various environmental and resource constraints is also discussed. (author)

  18. Critical mineral resources of the United States—Economic and environmental geology and prospects for future supply

    Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.


    SummaryMineral commodities are vital for economic growth, improving the quality of life, providing for national defense, and the overall functioning of modern society. Minerals are being used in larger quantities than ever before and in an increasingly diverse range of applications. With the increasing demand for a considerably more diverse suite of mineral commodities has come renewed recognition that competition and conflict over mineral resources can pose significant risks to the manufacturing industries that depend on them. In addition, production of many mineral commodities has become concentrated in relatively few countries (for example, tungsten, rare-earth elements, and antimony in China; niobium in Brazil; and platinum-group elements in South Africa and Russia), thus increasing the risk for supply disruption owing to political, social, or other factors. At the same time, an increasing awareness of and sensitivity to potential environmental and health issues caused by the mining and processing of many mineral commodities may place additional restrictions on mineral supplies. These factors have led a number of Governments, including the Government of the United States, to attempt to identify those mineral commodities that are viewed as most “critical” to the national economy and (or) security if supplies should be curtailed.This book presents resource and geologic information on the following 23 mineral commodities currently among those viewed as important to the national economy and national security of the United States: antimony (Sb), barite (barium, Ba), beryllium (Be), cobalt (Co), fluorite or fluorspar (fluorine, F), gallium (Ga), germanium (Ge), graphite (carbon, C), hafnium (Hf), indium (In), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), niobium (Nb), platinum-group elements (PGE), rare-earth elements (REE), rhenium (Re), selenium (Se), tantalum (Ta), tellurium (Te), tin (Sn), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), and zirconium (Zr). For a number of these commodities

  19. GM`s PICOS initiative on resource conservation and pollution prevention: Greening the supply chain

    Pritchett, T. [General Motors Corp., Detroit, MI (United States)


    This paper is comprised of reprints of several related articles from business publications. The first article, on supply-side economics, describes efforts by General Motors to cut costs by encouraging suppliers to reduce the environmental impacts of their products. The PICOS{trademark} program of General Motors helps industrial identify and implement energy efficiency and pollution prevention projects that lower operating costs while reducing emissions linked to global climate change. The second article also describes the program, focusing on aspects of global competition.

  20. Production Resource Management in the Industrialised House-Building Supply Chain

    Martin Lennartsson


    Full Text Available Industrialised house-building suppliers must learn to see how the lack of resource management disrupt the synchronisation of their production processes both upstream (e.g. capability to forecast material consumption and downstream (e.g. order delivery Just-in-Time. In contrast to focus on workflow as is more common in construction, Systematic Production Analysis (SPA is a tool capable of providing a more robust production process in terms of better resource characterisation and predictability. A roadmap model, composed of six steps, has been developed for simple introduction of SPA. The model is a straightforward way of classifying the production system in terms of impacting resource and parameters attributing to production loss (scrap or downtime. The applicability of SPA is analysed through a pilot case study at a patio door manufacturer. Two main response parameters emerged related to scrap; surface and dimension errors of the work piece material (wood. An objective function was formulated to reduce the scrap without increasing the total cost of the work piece material. It was suggested that the case company evaluates Engineering Wood Products (EWP leading to a more robust production process (less scrap, but in turn increasing the initial cost of the work piece material. Other potential measures are purchasing new processing tools, investing in new machinery or educating workers which all, directly or indirectly, lead to reduced scrap. Consequently, proper management of production resources will improve their predictability and in turn improve production control.

  1. Climate and water resource change impacts and adaptation potential for US power supply

    Miara, Ariel; Macknick, Jordan E.; Vörösmarty, Charles J.; Tidwell, Vincent C.; Newmark, Robin; Fekete, Balazs


    Power plants that require cooling currently (2015) provide 85% of electricity generation in the United States. These facilities need large volumes of water and sufficiently cool temperatures for optimal operations, and projected climate conditions may lower their potential power output and affect reliability. We evaluate the performance of 1,080 thermoelectric plants across the contiguous US under future climates (2035-2064) and their collective performance at 19 North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) sub-regions. Joint consideration of engineering interactions with climate, hydrology and environmental regulations reveals the region-specific performance of energy systems and the need for regional energy security and climate-water adaptation strategies. Despite climate-water constraints on individual plants, the current power supply infrastructure shows potential for adaptation to future climates by capitalizing on the size of regional power systems, grid configuration and improvements in thermal efficiencies. Without placing climate-water impacts on individual plants in a broader power systems context, vulnerability assessments that aim to support adaptation and resilience strategies misgauge the extent to which regional energy systems are vulnerable. Climate-water impacts can lower thermoelectric reserve margins, a measure of systems-level reliability, highlighting the need to integrate climate-water constraints on thermoelectric power supply into energy planning, risk assessments, and system reliability management.

  2. Evaluation the concentration of mercury, zinc, arsenic, lead and cobalt in the Ilam city water supply network and resources

    Ahmad Reza Yazdanbakhsh


    Full Text Available Background: The presence of heavy metals in water resources above threshold levels can be toxic and carcinogenic for consumers. This study determined the concentrations of heavy metals in the drinking water distribution network and resources of the city of Ilam in Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study from 6 sources of water supply and also, different parts of the water supply system of Ilam city, samples were collected based on standard sampling methods. The samples were tested with a BRAIC atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data was analyzed using nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Results: The concentration of zinc in all water sources of the city of Ilam was higher than WHO guidelines and Iranian standard 1053. Contamination by cobalt, arsenic and lead from Ilam dam, Pich-e Ashoori well and Haft Cheshmeh well was higher than national and international standards. The amount of cobalt and mercury at Ilam dam was significantly different from the levels at other sources (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The use of pesticides in the agricultural sector, contamination of water by human waste and aged and worn water pipes are the likely sources of the increased concentrations of heavy metals, especially lead and arsenic. Because there is a cumulative effect from these metals, appropriate measures are necessary by the relevant agencies to address this problem.

  3. Linguistic confusion in economics: utility, causality, product differentiation, and the supply of natural resources.

    Simon, J L


    Lack of careful attention to the language used in the discussion of economic concepts has resulted in considerable confusion and error. 2 frequent sources of confusion include tautology and the absence of operational definitions of concepts. This paper outlines a more effective scientific practice through reference to 2 economic examples: 1) the concept of utility, where it is demonstrated that choice of an operational definition of the concept facilitates interpersonal comparisons; and 2) causality, where a multidimensional operational definition is needed to discriminate among the various meanings of the term in theoretical, empirical, and policy contexts. The paper further discusses the example of natural resource scarcity, where application of the term "finite" reveals that there is no empirical evidence of physical limits to growth in the use of resources. A more appropriate measure of scarcity is the economic concept of price.

  4. Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies


    Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs

  5. Prediction on Human Resource Supply/Demand in Nuclear Industry Using Markov Chains Model and Job Coefficient

    Kwon, Hyuk; Min, Byung Joo; Lee, Eui Jin; You, Byung Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    According to the recent report by the OECD/NEA, there is a large imbalance between supply and demand of human resource in nuclear field. In the U.S., according to survey of Nuclear Engineering Department Heads Organization (NEDHO), 174 graduates in B.S or M.S degree were fed to nuclear industry in year 2004. Meanwhile, the total amount of demand in nuclear industry was about 642 engineers, which was approximately three times of the supply. In case of other developed western nations, the OECD/NEA report stated that the level of imbalance is similar to that of the U.S. However, nations having nuclear power development programs such as Korea, Japan and France seem to be in a different environment of supply and demand from that of the U.S. In this study, the difference of manpower status between the U.S and Korea has been investigated and the nuclear manpower required for the future in Korea is predicted. To investigate the factors making difference between the U.S. and NPP developing countries including Korea, a quantitative manpower planning model, Markov chains model, is applied. Since the Markov chains model has the strength of analyzing an inflow or push structure, the model fits the system governed by the inflow of manpower. A macroscopic status of manpower demand on nuclear industry is calculated up to 2015 using the Job coefficient (JC) and GDP, which are derived from the Survey for Roadmap of Electric Power Industry Manpower Planning. Furthermore, the total numbers of required manpower and supplied manpower up to 2030 were predicted by JC and Markov Chains model, respectively. Whereas the employee status of nuclear industries has been annually investigated by KAIF since 1995, the following data from the 10{sup th} survey and nuclear energy yearbooks from 1998 to 2005 are applied; (a) the status of the manpower demand of industry, (b) number of students entering, graduating and getting job in nuclear engineering.

  6. Prediction on Human Resource Supply/Demand in Nuclear Industry Using Markov Chains Model and Job Coefficient

    Kwon, Hyuk; Min, Byung Joo; Lee, Eui Jin; You, Byung Hoon


    According to the recent report by the OECD/NEA, there is a large imbalance between supply and demand of human resource in nuclear field. In the U.S., according to survey of Nuclear Engineering Department Heads Organization (NEDHO), 174 graduates in B.S or M.S degree were fed to nuclear industry in year 2004. Meanwhile, the total amount of demand in nuclear industry was about 642 engineers, which was approximately three times of the supply. In case of other developed western nations, the OECD/NEA report stated that the level of imbalance is similar to that of the U.S. However, nations having nuclear power development programs such as Korea, Japan and France seem to be in a different environment of supply and demand from that of the U.S. In this study, the difference of manpower status between the U.S and Korea has been investigated and the nuclear manpower required for the future in Korea is predicted. To investigate the factors making difference between the U.S. and NPP developing countries including Korea, a quantitative manpower planning model, Markov chains model, is applied. Since the Markov chains model has the strength of analyzing an inflow or push structure, the model fits the system governed by the inflow of manpower. A macroscopic status of manpower demand on nuclear industry is calculated up to 2015 using the Job coefficient (JC) and GDP, which are derived from the Survey for Roadmap of Electric Power Industry Manpower Planning. Furthermore, the total numbers of required manpower and supplied manpower up to 2030 were predicted by JC and Markov Chains model, respectively. Whereas the employee status of nuclear industries has been annually investigated by KAIF since 1995, the following data from the 10 th survey and nuclear energy yearbooks from 1998 to 2005 are applied; (a) the status of the manpower demand of industry, (b) number of students entering, graduating and getting job in nuclear engineering

  7. Biofuel impacts on world food supply: use of fossil fuel, land and water resources

    Pimentel, D.; Marklein, A.; Toth, M. A.; Karpoff, M.; Paul, G. S.; McCormack, R.; Kyriazis, J.; Krueger, T.


    The rapidly growing world population and rising consumption of biofuels are increasing demand for both food and biofuels. This exaggerates both food and fuel shortages. Using food crops such as corn grain to produce ethanol raises major nutritional and ethical concerns. Nearly 60% of humans in the world are currently malnourished, so the need for grains and other basic foods is critical. Growing crops for fuel squanders land, water and energy resources vital for the production of food for human consumption. Using corn for ethanol increases the price of U.S. beef, chicken, pork, eggs, breads, cereals, and milk more than 10% to 30%. (author)

  8. Tombs, tunnels, and terraces a cultural resources survey of a former ammunition supply point in Okinawa, Japan

    Verhaaren, B. T.; Levenson, J. B.; Komine, G.


    U.S. forces serving at military bases on foreign soil are obligated to act as good stewards of the cultural and natural resources under their control. However, cultural resources management presents special challenges at U.S. bases in other countries where cultural properties laws differ in emphasis and detail from those in the United States and issues of land ownership and occupancy are not always clear. Where status of forces agreements (SOFAs) exist, environmental governing standards bridge the gap between U.S. and host nation cultural priorities. In Japan, the Department of Defense Japan Environmental Governing Standards (JEGS) fill this function. Under Criteria 12-4.2 and 12-4.3 of the JEGS, U.S. Forces Japan commit themselves to inventory and protect cultural properties found on the lands they control or use. Cultural properties include archaeological sites, tombs, historic buildings, and shrines. Natural monuments, such as landscape features or plant and animal species, may also be designated as cultural properties. As part of this commitment, in February 1999 a cultural resources inventory was conducted in Area 1, part of Kadena Air Base (AB), Okinawa, Japan. Area 1, the former U.S. army Ammunition Supply Point 1, is currently used primarily for training exercises and recreational paint ball.

  9. Re-engineering the urban drainage system for resource recovery and protection of drinking water supplies.

    Gumbo, B


    The Harare metropolis in Zimbabwe, extending upstream from Manyame Dam in the Upper Manyame River Basin, consists of the City of Harare and its satellite towns: Chitungwiza, Norton, Epworth and Ruwa. The existing urban drainage system is typically a single-use-mixing system: water is used and discharged to "waste", excreta are flushed to sewers and eventually, after "treatment", the effluent is discharged to a drinking water supply source. Polluted urban storm water is evacuated as fast as possible. This system not only ignores the substantial value in "waste" materials, but it also exports problems to downstream communities and to vulnerable fresh-water sources. The question is how can the harare metropolis urban drainage system, which is complex and has evolved over time, be rearranged to achieve sustainability (i.e. water conservation, pollution prevention at source, protection of the vulnerable drinking water sources and recovery of valuable materials)? This paper reviews current concepts regarding the future development of the urban drainage system in line with the new vision of "Sustainable Cities of the Future". The Harare Metropolis in Zimbabwe is taken as a case, and philosophical options for re-engineering the drainage system are discussed.

  10. State planning policy 2/07: protection of extractive resources results in certainty of materials supply



    Extractive resources are primary source materials used for building infrastructure such as roads, ports, airports, bridges, railways, factories, hospitals, schools and homes. The Policy seeks to protect those essential and finite construction materials for future and existing extraction purposes. Population increases in south-east Queensland the upgrading of rail and port facilities to export coal and other minerals will form a major part in the expansion of extractive industry. Over $4 billion has been committed by the Government and industry to coal infrastructure developments such as upgrades at RG Tanna, Barney Point and the proposed Wiggins Island coal terminals at Gladstone, the Dalryample Bay and Hay Point terminals near Mackay and the Abbot Point coal terminal near Bower. The new Bauhinia regional railway will service the Rolleston coal mines.

  11. World energy resources, demand and supply of energy, and the prospects for the fast breeder reactor

    Haefele, W.


    In the past it was taken for granted that the prime role of fast breeder reactors was to complement light water reactors, mainly because of their similar and compatible fuel cycles. In particular, the plutonium converted in LWRs is most intelligently disposed of and used in FBRs. Evaluation of the time horizon of such reactor strategies generally extended only to the year 2000. It is important to realize, however, that the salient task in the breeder field after 2000 - besides electricity generation - will be to substitute for conventional ''cheap'' oil. Electricity today makes up only 10% to 12% of the total secondary energy, while liquids essentially command up to about 50%. Thus the future application of the FBR technology will have to be geared more to the production of a liquid secondary energy carrier than to electricity. A new yardstick for all these considerations is the strongly rising energy prices. They may double, for example, leading to an oil price of US 24/bbl. Under these circumstances it is prudent to generalize the scope for future fast breeders. The key element of such a new fast breeder strategy would be the production of hydrogen by electrolysis or thermolysis or a combination of both. For example, methanol synthesized from hydrogen and residual fossil fuels would thus become economically attractive. The FBR breeding gain, on the other hand, would be used for the continued supply of LWRs generating electricity. The paper identifies order-of-magnitude considerations most important for such a fast breeder application against a global energy demand scenario for the year 2030. (author)

  12. Evaluation of resource allocation and supply-demand balance in clinical practice with high-cost technologies.

    Otsubo, Tetsuya; Imanaka, Yuichi; Lee, Jason; Hayashida, Kenshi


    Japan has one of the highest numbers of high-cost medical devices installed relative to its population. While evaluations of the distribution of these devices traditionally involve simple population-based assessments, an indicator that includes the demand of these devices would more accurately reflect the situation. The purpose of this study was to develop an indicator of the supply-demand balance of such devices, using examples of magnetic resonance imaging scanners (MRI) and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripters (ESWL), and to investigate the relationship between this indicator, personnel distribution statuses and operating statuses at the prefectural level. Using data from nation-wide surveys and claims data from 16 hospitals, we developed an indicator based on the ratio of the supplied number of device units to the number of device units in demand for MRI and ESWL. The latter value was based on patient volume and utilization proportion. Correlation analyses were conducted between the supply-demand balances of these devices, personal distribution and operating statuses. Comparisons between our indicator and conventional population-based indicators revealed that 15% and 30% of prefectures were at risk of underestimating the availability of MRI and ESWL, respectively. The numbers of specialist personnel/device units showed significant, negative correlations with our indicators in both devices. Utilization-based analyses of health care resource placement and utilization status provide a more accurate indication than simple population-based assessments, and can assist decision makers in reviewing gaps between health policy and management. Such an indicator therefore has the potential to be a tool in helping to improve the efficiency of the allocation and placement of such devices. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. The precarious supply of physical therapists across Canada: exploring national trends in health human resources (1991 to 2005

    Ricketts Thomas C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health Human Resource (HHR ratios are one measure of workforce supply, and are often expressed as a ratio in the number of health professionals to a sub-set of the population. In this study, we explore national trends in HHR among physical therapists (PTs across Canada. Methods National population data were combined with provincial databases of registered physical therapists in order to estimate the HHR ratio in 2005, and to establish trends between 1991 and 2005. Results The national HHR ratio was 4.3 PTs per 10,000 population in 1991, which increased to 5.0 by 2000. In 2005, the HHR ratios varied widely across jurisdictions; however, we estimate that the national average dropped to 4.8 PTs per 10,000. Although the trend in HHR between 1991 and 2005 suggests positive growth of 11.6%, we have found negative growth of 4.0% in the latter 5-years of this study period. Conclusion Demand for rehabilitation services is projected to escalate in the next decade. Identifying benchmarks or targets regarding the optimal number of PTs, along with other health professionals working within inter professional teams, is necessary to establish a stable supply of health providers to meet the emerging rehabilitation and mobility needs of an aging and increasingly complex Canadian population.

  14. Sustainable synthesis gas from biomass. A bridge to a sustainable supply of energy and resources

    Den Uil, H.; Van Ree, R.; Van der Drift, A.; Boerrigter, H.


    Synthesis gas is currently primarily used in the (petro)chemical industry and for the production of liquid fuels. Smaller amounts are being used for electricity and synthetic natural gas (=SNG) production. Finite fossil resources, the dependence on political instable regimes and the Kyoto-protocol are drivers for the attention for renewable synthesis gas. In this report the market for, production of, use of and economy of renewable synthesis gas are analysed. Current synthesis gas use is limited to about 3% of the Dutch primary energy consumption; worldwide this is about 2%. Driven by the targets for renewable energy and the wide range of possible uses, the market for renewable synthesis gas has a large potential. When using synthesis gas for the production of SNG, electricity, liquid fuels and chemicals, the Dutch market for renewable synthesis gas can be 150 PJ in 2010, doubling about every decade to 1500 PJ in 2040. SNG and electricity, together about 80%. To reach these market volumes, import of biomass will be required due to the limited availability of local biomass resources in the Netherlands. The specifications for synthesis gas are dependent on the application. For (petro)chemical use and the production of liquid fuels high H2 and CO concentrations are required, for SNG and electricity production high CH4 concentrations are preferred. Due to the different specifications the names synthesis gas and product gas are used in this study. The name synthesis gas is claimed for a large number of gasification processes under development. But only for a number of processes this claim is justified. The gasification temperature determines the type of gas produced. At high temperatures, above 1300C, synthesis gas is produced, at low temperatures, 700-1000C, so-called product gas is being produced. Entrained-flow gasification is the only possibility for large-scale synthesis gas production in one step. For this process the particle size of the feed has to be small

  15. A Low-Pressure Oxygen Storage System for Oxygen Supply in Low-Resource Settings.

    Rassool, Roger P; Sobott, Bryn A; Peake, David J; Mutetire, Bagayana S; Moschovis, Peter P; Black, Jim Fp


    Widespread access to medical oxygen would reduce global pneumonia mortality. Oxygen concentrators are one proposed solution, but they have limitations, in particular vulnerability to electricity fluctuations and failure during blackouts. The low-pressure oxygen storage system addresses these limitations in low-resource settings. This study reports testing of the system in Melbourne, Australia, and nonclinical field testing in Mbarara, Uganda. The system included a power-conditioning unit, a standard oxygen concentrator, and an oxygen store. In Melbourne, pressure and flows were monitored during cycles of filling/emptying, with forced voltage fluctuations. The bladders were tested by increasing pressure until they ruptured. In Mbarara, the system was tested by accelerated cycles of filling/emptying and then run on grid power for 30 d. The low-pressure oxygen storage system performed well, including sustaining a pressure approximately twice the standard working pressure before rupture of the outer bag. Flow of 1.2 L/min was continuously maintained to a simulated patient during 30 d on grid power, despite power failures totaling 2.9% of the total time, with durations of 1-176 min (mean 36.2, median 18.5). The low-pressure oxygen storage system was robust and durable, with accelerated testing equivalent to at least 2 y of operation revealing no visible signs of imminent failure. Despite power cuts, the system continuously provided oxygen, equivalent to the treatment of one child, for 30 d under typical power conditions for sub-Saharan Africa. The low-pressure oxygen storage system is ready for clinical field trials. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  16. The Supply of Judicial Labour: Optimising a Scarce Resource in Australia

    Brian Opeskin


    Full Text Available Developed societies generate a multitude of controversies between their members, which need to be resolved fairly if society is to function well. Judicial officers play a central role in that process by hearing and determining disputes according to law, but they are costly and their long tenure entrenches labour market rigidities. This is an inconvenience for modern governments, as they attempt to keep the wheels of justice turning, while facing budgetary constraints that drive them to seek ever greater cost-efficiencies. This article surveys the ways in which governments in Australia have sought to optimise the judicial labour force by creating a more flexible and cost-effective supply. The system of justice that has evolved in response to these developments is a complex one, with many complementary parts. There is no unique solution to the question of how many judicial officers society needs to quell disputes because this goal can be achieved in different ways. But great care needs to be taken to ensure that government action to find flexible sources of labour to meet the demand for judicial dispute resolution does not come at too high a price in terms of respect for the rule of law. Las sociedades desarrolladas generan multitud de polémicas entre sus miembros, y éstas deben ser solucionadas de forma justa para que la sociedad funcione bien. Los agentes judiciales desempeñan un papel esencial en ese proceso, dado que atienden y solucionan disputas de acuerdo con el derecho, pero son agentes costosos y sus largas permanencias en el puesto perpetúan la rigidez del mercado laboral. Ello es un inconveniente para los gobernantes actuales, que intentan asegurar que el ejercicio de la justicia siga su curso, al tiempo que se enfrentan a limitaciones presupuestarias que los empujan a buscar una eficiencia en relación a los costes cada vez mayor. Este artículo estudia las maneras en las que los gobiernos de Australia han procurado optimizar la

  17. Do low-mercury terrestrial resources subsidize low-mercury growth of stream fish? Differences between species along a productivity gradient.

    Darren M Ward

    Full Text Available Low productivity in aquatic ecosystems is associated with reduced individual growth of fish and increased concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg in fish and their prey. However, many stream-dwelling fish species can use terrestrially-derived food resources, potentially subsidizing growth at low-productivity sites, and, because terrestrial resources have lower MeHg concentrations than aquatic resources, preventing an increase in diet-borne MeHg accumulation. We used a large-scale field study to evaluate relationships among terrestrial subsidy use, growth, and MeHg concentrations in two stream-dwelling fish species across an in-stream productivity gradient. We sampled young-of-the-year brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, potential competitors with similar foraging habits, from 20 study sites in streams in New Hampshire and Massachusetts that encompassed a wide range of aquatic prey biomass. Stable isotope analysis showed that brook trout used more terrestrial resources than Atlantic salmon. Over their first growing season, Atlantic salmon tended to grow larger than brook trout at sites with high aquatic prey biomass, but brook grew two-fold larger than Atlantic salmon at sites with low aquatic prey biomass. The MeHg concentrations of brook trout and Atlantic salmon were similar at sites with high aquatic prey biomass and the MeHg concentrations of both species increased at sites with low prey biomass and high MeHg in aquatic prey. However, brook trout had three-fold lower MeHg concentrations than Atlantic salmon at low-productivity, high-MeHg sites. These results suggest that differential use of terrestrial resource subsidies reversed the growth asymmetry between potential competitors across a productivity gradient and, for one species, moderated the effect of low in-stream productivity on MeHg accumulation.

  18. CO2 Mineralization and Utilization using Steel Slag for Establishing a Waste-to-Resource Supply Chain.

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chung, Tai-Chun; Ho, Chang-Ching; Hou, Chin-Jen; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chiang, Pen-Chi


    Both steelmaking via an electric arc furnace and manufacturing of portland cement are energy-intensive and resource-exploiting processes, with great amounts of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission and alkaline solid waste generation. In fact, most CO 2 capture and storage technologies are currently too expensive to be widely applied in industries. Moreover, proper stabilization prior to utilization of electric arc furnace slag are still challenging due to its high alkalinity, heavy metal leaching potentials and volume instability. Here we deploy an integrated approach to mineralizing flue gas CO 2 using electric arc furnace slag while utilizing the reacted product as supplementary cementitious materials to establish a waste-to-resource supply chain toward a circular economy. We found that the flue gas CO 2 was rapidly mineralized into calcite precipitates using electric arc furnace slag. The carbonated slag can be successfully utilized as green construction materials in blended cement mortar. By this modulus, the global CO 2 reduction potential using iron and steel slags was estimated to be ~138 million tons per year.

  19. Exploring the effects of telehealth on medical human resources supply: a qualitative case study in remote regions

    Duplantie Julie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of medical human resource supply is a growing concern for rural and remote communities in many countries. In the last decade, various telehealth experiences in Canada have highlighted the potential impact of this technology on professional practice. The purpose of this study was to explore physicians' and managers' perceptions regarding the potential of telehealth to support recruitment and retention of physicians in remote and rural regions. Methods A case study in Eastern Quebec was performed to explore this complex phenomenon. The analytical framework was based on two literature reviews and a Delphi study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with 41 physicians and 22 managers. Transcripts were produced and interview content was coded independently by two judges and validated by an expert panel. Results Interviews have highlighted the potential impact of telehealth on several factors influencing the recruitment and retention of physicians in rural and remote regions. The potential effects of telehealth on physicians' choice of practice location could be seen at the professional, organizational, educational and individual levels. For instance, telehealth could improve work satisfaction by allowing a regional on-call duty system and a better follow-up of patients. However, there are also certain limits related to telehealth, such as the fear that it would eventually replace all continuing medical education activities and onsite specialists in remoteregions. Conclusion Telehealth is likely to have an impact on several factors related to medical workforce supply in remote and rural regions. However, the expected benefits will materialize if and only if this technology is properly integrated into organizations as a support to professional practice.

  20. Identifying Pathways toward Sustainable Electricity Supply and Demand Using an Integrated Resource Strategic Planning Model for Saudi Arabia

    Alabbas, Nabeel H.

    Despite holding 16% of proved oil reserves in the world, Saudi Arabia might be on an unsustainable path to become a net oil importer by the 2030s. Decades of domestic energy subsidies accompanied by a high population growth rate have encouraged inefficient production and high domestic consumption of fossil fuel energy, which has resulted in environmental degradation, and significant social and economic consequences. In addition, the government's dependence on oil as a main source of revenue (89%) to finance its development programs cannot be sustained due to oil's exhaustible nature and rapidly increasing domestic consumption. The electricity and water sectors consume more energy than other sectors. The literature review revealed that electricity use in Saudi Arabia is following an unsustainable path (7-8% annual growth over the last decade). The water sector is another major energy consumer due to an unprecedented demand for water in the Kingdom (18% of world's total desalinated water output with per capita consumption is twice the world average). Multiple entities have been involved in fragmented planning activities on the supply-side as well as to a certain extent on the demand-side; moreover, comprehensive integrated resource strategic plans have been lacking at the national level. This dissertation established an integrated resource strategic planning (IRSP) model for Saudi Arabia's electricity and water sectors. The IRSP can clearly determine the Kingdom's future vision of its utility sector, including goals, policies, programs, and an execution timetable, taking into consideration economic, environmental and social benefits. Also, a weather-based hybrid end-use econometric demand forecasting model was developed to project electricity demand until 2040. The analytical economic efficiency and technical assessments reveal that Saudi Arabia can supply almost 75% of its electricity from renewable energy sources with a significant achievable potential for saving

  1. Properties of soils and tree-wood tissue across a Lake States sulfate-deposition gradient. Forest Service resource bulletin

    Ohmann, L.F.; Grigal, D.F.


    There is general concern that atmospheric pollutants may be affecting the health of forests in the USA. The hypotheses tested were that the wet sulfate deposition gradient across the Lake States: (1) is reflected in the amount of accumulated sulfur in the forest floor-soil system and tree woody tissue and (2) is related to differences in tree radial increment. The authors present the properties of the soil and tree woody tissue (mostly chemical) on the study plots. Knowledge of the properties of soil and woody tree tissue is needed for understanding and interpreting relations between sulfate deposition, sulfur accumulation in the ecosystem, soil and tree chemistry, and tree growth and climatic variation. The report provides a summary of those data for study, analysis, and interpretation

  2. Home Range Size and Resource Use of Breeding and Non-breeding White Storks Along a Land Use Gradient

    Damaris Zurell


    Full Text Available Biotelemetry is increasingly used to study animal movement at high spatial and temporal resolution and guide conservation and resource management. Yet, limited sample sizes and variation in space and habitat use across regions and life stages may compromise robustness of behavioral analyses and subsequent conservation plans. Here, we assessed variation in (i home range sizes, (ii home range selection, and (iii fine-scale resource selection of white storks across breeding status and regions and test model transferability. Three study areas were chosen within the Central German breeding grounds ranging from agricultural to fluvial and marshland. We monitored GPS-locations of 62 adult white storks equipped with solar-charged GPS/3D-acceleration (ACC transmitters in 2013–2014. Home range sizes were estimated using minimum convex polygons. Generalized linear mixed models were used to assess home range selection and fine-scale resource selection by relating the home ranges and foraging sites to Corine habitat variables and normalized difference vegetation index in a presence/pseudo-absence design. We found strong variation in home range sizes across breeding stages with significantly larger home ranges in non-breeding compared to breeding white storks, but no variation between regions. Home range selection models had high explanatory power and well predicted overall density of Central German white stork breeding pairs. Also, they showed good transferability across regions and breeding status although variable importance varied considerably. Fine-scale resource selection models showed low explanatory power. Resource preferences differed both across breeding status and across regions, and model transferability was poor. Our results indicate that habitat selection of wild animals may vary considerably within and between populations, and is highly scale dependent. Thereby, home range scale analyses show higher robustness whereas fine-scale resource

  3. Water supply facility damage and water resource operation at disaster base hospitals in miyagi prefecture in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Matsumura, Takashi; Osaki, Shizuka; Kudo, Daisuke; Furukawa, Hajime; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Abe, Yoshiko; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Egawa, Shinichi; Tominaga, Teiji; Kushimoto, Shigeki


    The aim of this study was to shed light on damage to water supply facilities and the state of water resource operation at disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture (Japan) in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake (2011), in order to identify issues concerning the operational continuity of hospitals in the event of a disaster. In addition to interview and written questionnaire surveys to 14 disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture, a number of key elements relating to the damage done to water supply facilities and the operation of water resources were identified from the chronological record of events following the Great East Japan Earthquake. Nine of the 14 hospitals experienced cuts to their water supplies, with a median value of three days (range=one to 20 days) for service recovery time. The hospitals that could utilize well water during the time that water supply was interrupted were able to obtain water in quantities similar to their normal volumes. Hospitals that could not use well water during the period of interruption, and hospitals whose water supply facilities were damaged, experienced significant disruption to dialysis, sterilization equipment, meal services, sanitation, and outpatient care services, though the extent of disruption varied considerably among hospitals. None of the hospitals had determined the amount of water used for different purposes during normal service or formulated a plan for allocation of limited water in the event of a disaster. The present survey showed that it is possible to minimize the disruption and reduction of hospital functions in the event of a disaster by proper maintenance of water supply facilities and by ensuring alternative water resources, such as well water. It is also clear that it is desirable to conclude water supply agreements and formulate strategic water allocation plans in preparation for the eventuality of a long-term interruption to water services.

  4. An Empirical Study on the Driving Path of Optimizing the Resources Allocation of Foreign Trade Enterprises from the Perspective of Energy Supply-side Reform

    You, Yu-cong; Yi, Lu-xia


    From the perspective of energy supply-side reform, this paper, by conducting an empirical study on foreign trade enterprises, conducts a research on the cross-role effect of optimizing the resources allocation and enhancing the energy efficiency. Methodologically, this paper creatively introduces the HILE's probabilistic structured property into Granger causality test analysis, forming an HILE-Granger (H-G) model, so as to empirically estimate both the short-term and long-term causal relationship effects between the energy efficiency and resources allocation. Conclusion is drawn that optimization of resources allocation is positively proportional with the energy efficiency enhancement. This paper is to provide a decision-making reference for the supply side reform strategy of foreign trade enterprises under the background of green energy economy.

  5. Chemical, physical, and radiological quality of selected public water supplies in Florida, January-May 1979. Water-resources investigations

    Franks, B.J.; Irwin, G.A.


    Most public water supplies sampled in Florida meet the National Interim Primary and Proposed Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. This conclusion is based on a water quality reconnaissance of 131 raw and treated public supplies throughout the State during the period January through May 1979. In a few public supplies, primary drinking water regulation maximum contaminant levels were exceeded for mercury, turbidity, and gross alpha particle activity. Secondary drinking water regulations were also occasionally exceeded in some public supplies for such parameters as chloride, pH, color, dissolved solids, iron, and manganese

  6. Individual and Population Level Resource Selection Patterns of Mountain Lions Preying on Mule Deer along an Urban-Wildland Gradient.

    John F Benson

    Full Text Available Understanding population and individual-level behavioral responses of large carnivores to human disturbance is important for conserving top predators in fragmented landscapes. However, previous research has not investigated resource selection at predation sites of mountain lions in highly urbanized areas. We quantified selection of natural and anthropogenic landscape features by mountain lions at sites where they consumed their primary prey, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, in and adjacent to urban, suburban, and rural areas in greater Los Angeles. We documented intersexual and individual-level variation in the environmental conditions present at mule deer feeding sites relative to their availability across home ranges. Males selected riparian woodlands and areas closer to water more than females, whereas females selected developed areas marginally more than males. Females fed on mule deer closer to developed areas and farther from riparian woodlands than expected based on the availability of these features across their home ranges. We suggest that mortality risk for females and their offspring associated with encounters with males may have influenced the different resource selection patterns between sexes. Males appeared to select mule deer feeding sites mainly in response to natural landscape features, while females may have made kills closer to developed areas in part because these are alternative sites where deer are abundant. Individual mountain lions of both sexes selected developed areas more strongly within home ranges where development occurred less frequently. Thus, areas near development may represent a trade-off for mountain lions such that they may benefit from foraging near development because of abundant prey, but as the landscape becomes highly urbanized these benefits may be outweighed by human disturbance.

  7. Exploring Tradeoffs in Demand-Side and Supply-Side Management of Urban Water Resources Using Agent-Based Modeling and Evolutionary Computation

    Lufthansa Kanta


    Full Text Available Urban water supply systems may be managed through supply-side and demand-side strategies, which focus on water source expansion and demand reductions, respectively. Supply-side strategies bear infrastructure and energy costs, while demand-side strategies bear costs of implementation and inconvenience to consumers. To evaluate the performance of demand-side strategies, the participation and water use adaptations of consumers should be simulated. In this study, a Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS framework is developed to simulate consumer agents that change their consumption to affect the withdrawal from the water supply system, which, in turn influences operational policies and long-term resource planning. Agent-based models are encoded to represent consumers and a policy maker agent and are coupled with water resources system simulation models. The CAS framework is coupled with an evolutionary computation-based multi-objective methodology to explore tradeoffs in cost, inconvenience to consumers, and environmental impacts for both supply-side and demand-side strategies. Decisions are identified to specify storage levels in a reservoir that trigger: (1 increases in the volume of water pumped through inter-basin transfers from an external reservoir; and (2 drought stages, which restrict the volume of water that is allowed for residential outdoor uses. The proposed methodology is demonstrated for Arlington, Texas, water supply system to identify non-dominated strategies for an historic drought decade. Results demonstrate that pumping costs associated with maximizing environmental reliability exceed pumping costs associated with minimizing restrictions on consumer water use.

  8. A risk-based framework to assess long-term effects of policy and water supply changes on water resources systems

    Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Wheater, Howard; Gober, Patricia


    Climate uncertainty can affect water resources availability and management decisions. Sustainable water resources management therefore requires evaluation of policy and management decisions under a wide range of possible future water supply conditions. This study proposes a risk-based framework to integrate water supply uncertainty into a forward-looking decision making context. To apply this framework, a stochastic reconstruction scheme is used to generate a large ensemble of flow series. For the Rocky Mountain basins considered here, two key characteristics of the annual hydrograph are its annual flow volume and the timing of the seasonal flood peak. These are perturbed to represent natural randomness and potential changes due to future climate. 30-year series of perturbed flows are used as input to the SWAMP model - an integrated water resources model that simulates regional water supply-demand system and estimates economic productivity of water and other sustainability indicators, including system vulnerability and resilience. The simulation results are used to construct 2D-maps of net revenue of a particular water sector; e.g., hydropower, or for all sectors combined. Each map cell represents a risk scenario of net revenue based on a particular annual flow volume, timing of the peak flow, and 200 stochastic realizations of flow series. This framework is demonstrated for a water resources system in the Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB) in Saskatchewan, Canada. Critical historical drought sequences, derived from tree-ring reconstructions of several hundred years of annual river flows, are used to evaluate the system's performance (net revenue risk) under extremely low flow conditions and also to locate them on the previously produced 2D risk maps. This simulation and analysis framework is repeated under various reservoir operation strategies (e.g., maximizing flood protection or maximizing water supply security); development proposals, such as irrigation

  9. Uranium supply/demand projections to 2030 in the OECD/NEA-IAEA ''Red Book''. Nuclear growth projections, global uranium exploration, uranium resources, uranium production and production capacity

    Vance, Robert


    World demand for electricity is expected to continue to grow rapidly over the next several decades to meet the needs of an increasing population and economic growth. The recognition by many governments that nuclear power can produce competitively priced, base load electricity that is essentially free of greenhouse gas emissions, combined with the role that nuclear can play in enhancing security of energy supplies, has increased the prospects for growth in nuclear generating capacity. Since the mid-1960s, with the co-operation of their member countries and states, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have jointly prepared periodic updates (currently every 2 years) on world uranium resources, production and demand. These updates have been published by the OECD/NEA in what is commonly known as the ''Red Book''. The 2007 edition replaces the 2005 edition and reflects information current as of 1 st January 2007. Uranium 2007: Resources, Production and Demand presents, in addition to updated resource figures, the results of a recent review of world uranium market fundamentals and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry. It contains official data provided by 40 countries (and one Country Report prepared by the IAEA Secretariat) on uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements to 2030 as well as a discussion of long-term uranium supply and demand issues are also presented. (orig.)

  10. Changes and events in uranium deposit development, exploration, resources, production and the world supply-demand relationship. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting


    This report consists of the proceedings of the Technical Committee Meeting on Recent Changes and Events in Uranium Deposit Development, Exploration, Resources, Production and the World Supply/Demand Relationship, held in co-operation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) in Kiev, Ukraine, from 22 to 26 May 1995. Some of the information from this meeting was also used in preparation of the 1995 edition of ''Uranium - Resources, Production and Demand'' a joint report by the OECD/NEA and the IAEA. At the Beginning of 1995 there were 432 nuclear power plants in operation with a combined electricity generating capacity of 340 GW(e). This represents nearly a 100% increase over the last decade. In 1995 over 2228 TW·h of electricity were generated, equivalent to about 17% of the world's total electricity. To achieve this, about 61,000 t U were required as nuclear fuel. For about a decade and a half uranium production and related activities have been decreasing because of declining uranium prices. For many participants in the nuclear industry there has been little interest in uranium supply because of the oversupplied market condition. The declining production led to the development of a supply and demand balance were production is currently meeting a little over 50% of reactor requirements and the excess inventory is being rapidly drawn down. This very unstable relationship has resulted in great uncertainty about the future supply or uranium. One of the objectives of this Technical Committee meeting was to bring together specialists in the field of uranium supply and demand to collect information on new developments. This helps provide a better understanding of the current situation, as well as providing information to plan for the future. Refs, figs, tabs

  11. Chemical, physical, and radiological quality of selected public water supplies in Florida, November 1977-February 1978. Water-resources investigations

    Irwin, G.A.; Hull, R.W.


    Virtually all treated public water supplies sampled in Florida meet the National Interim Primary and Proposed Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. These findings are based on a water-quality reconnaissance of 129 treated public supplies throughout the State during the period November 1977 through February 1978. While primary drinking water regulation exceedences were infrequent, lead, selenium, and gross alpha radioactivity in a very few water supplies were above established maximum contaminant levels. Additionally, the secondary drinking water regulation parameters--dissolved solids, chloride, sulfate, iron, color, and pH--were occasionally detected in excess of the proposed Federal regulations. The secondary regulations, however, pertain mainly to the aesthetic quality of drinking water and not directly to public health aspects

  12. Do alien plant species profit more from high resource supply than natives? : A trait-based analysis

    Ordonez, Alejandro; Olff, Han

    Aim Previous studies comparing conditions of high- versus low-resource environments have pointed at differences in key traits that would allow aliens to perform better than natives under high-resource conditions. We generalize and test the robustness of this idea by exploring how trait

  13. Resource use in a low-input organic vegetable food supply system in UK - a case study

    Østergård, Hanne; Markussen, Mads V.; Kulak, Michal


    The sustainability of a small-scale low-input organic vegetable farm in United Kingdom with high crop diversity and a related box scheme food supply system was assessed by emergy evaluation, an environmental accounting method based on the direct and indirect use of solar equivalent joules. The main...

  14. Recent developments in uranium resources and supply. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting held in Vienna, 24-28 May 1993



    In recent years substantial uncertainties regarding uranium supply have made it very difficult for both uranium producers and users to plan for the future. In 1992 uranium production met only about 63 percent of reactor requirements. This resulted in a very unstable supply/demand balance where inventory drawdown (supplemented by minor amounts of reprocessing) filled the 20,960 tonne shortfall. The IAEA convened this Technical Committee meeting to take advantage of the new opportunities to collect and analyse information related to the future supply and demand balance and to help reduce uncertainties regarding the relationship. The meeting was effective in bringing together experts from all regions to share, exchange and disseminate information regarding uranium related activities. This meeting on Recent Developments in Uranium Resources and Supply was held in Vienna from 24 to 26 May 1993. It was attended by 47 participants from 23 countries. Twenty-one papers were presented. Contributions from China, the Czech Republic, India, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Romania and the Russian Federation represent new information in this field. Refs, figs and tabs.

  15. Risk assessment and adaptive runoff utilization in water resource system considering the complex relationship among water supply, electricity generation and environment

    Zhou, J.; Zeng, X.; Mo, L.; Chen, L.; Jiang, Z.; Feng, Z.; Yuan, L.; He, Z.


    Generally, the adaptive utilization and regulation of runoff in the source region of China's southwest rivers is classified as a typical multi-objective collaborative optimization problem. There are grim competitions and incidence relation in the subsystems of water supply, electricity generation and environment, which leads to a series of complex problems represented by hydrological process variation, blocked electricity output and water environment risk. Mathematically, the difficulties of multi-objective collaborative optimization focus on the description of reciprocal relationships and the establishment of evolving model of adaptive systems. Thus, based on the theory of complex systems science, this project tries to carry out the research from the following aspects: the changing trend of coupled water resource, the covariant factor and driving mechanism, the dynamic evolution law of mutual feedback dynamic process in the supply-generation-environment coupled system, the environmental response and influence mechanism of coupled mutual feedback water resource system, the relationship between leading risk factor and multiple risk based on evolutionary stability and dynamic balance, the transfer mechanism of multiple risk response with the variation of the leading risk factor, the multidimensional coupled feedback system of multiple risk assessment index system and optimized decision theory. Based on the above-mentioned research results, the dynamic method balancing the efficiency of multiple objectives in the coupled feedback system and optimized regulation model of water resources is proposed, and the adaptive scheduling mode considering the internal characteristics and external response of coupled mutual feedback system of water resource is established. In this way, the project can make a contribution to the optimal scheduling theory and methodology of water resource management under uncertainty in the source region of Southwest River.

  16. A Retrospective Analysis on the Occurrence of Arsenic in Ground-Water Resources of the United States and Limitations in Drinking-Water-Supply Characterizations

    Focazio, Michael J.; Welch, Alan H.; Watkins, Sharon A.; Helsel, Dennis R.; Horn, Marilee A.


    The Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended in 1996, requires the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to review current drinking-water standards for arsenic, propose a maximum contaminant level for arsenic by January 1, 2000, and issue a final regulation by January, 2001. Quantification of the national occurrence of targeted ranges in arsenic concentration in ground water used for public drinking-water supplies is an important component of USEPA's regulatory process. Data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) were used in a retrospective analysis of arsenic in the ground-water resources of the United States. The analysis augments other existing sources of data on the occurrence of arsenic collected in ground water at public water-supply systems.The USGS, through its District offices and national programs, has been compiling data for many years on arsenic concentrations collected from wells used for public water supply, research, agriculture, industry, and domestic water supply throughout the United States. These data have been collected for a variety of purposes ranging from simple descriptions of the occurrence of arsenic in local or regional ground-water resources to detailed studies on arsenic geochemistry associated with contamination sites. A total of 18,864 sample locations were selected from the USGS NWIS data base regardless of well type, of which 2,262 were taken from public water-supply sources. Samples with non-potable water (dissolved-solids concentration greater than 2,000 milligrams per liter and water temperature greater than 50o Celsius) were not selected for the retrospective analysis and other criteria for selection included the amount and type of ancillary data available for each sample. The 1,528 counties with sufficient data included 76 percent of all large public water-supply systems (serving more than 10,000 people) and 61 percent of all small public water-supply systems (serving more than 1

  17. Relationships demand-supply of water and the rate of water shortage as tools for evaluating water resources in Colombia

    Dominguez Calle, Efrain Antonio; Gonzalo Rivera, Hebert; Vanegas, Sarmiento Raquel; Moreno, Pedro


    This paper shows updated results about Colombian water resources and their requirements by the economic sectors. Water demand water availability relationship is used as a pressure index on water resources. This relationship is expressed through the water scarcity index, which applies constraints over water availability; due to the runoff temporal variability and to the low levels of water during the dry season each year and for each geographic region to characterize average and low runoff years. Different water availability scenarios were building. One for modal runoff values and another for 95 percents for 2025 also were prepared. To the results call our attention to problems caused by the concentration of high density settlements and the presence of economics sectors in regions with low water availability. The infrastructure lag for management of a scarce high variable and over pressured resources emerges as a key factor to avoid a looming crisis in the process of water management

  18. Consequences of supply and demand management options for integrated water resources management in the Jabotabek- Citarum region, Indonesia

    Hengsdijk, H.; Krogt, van der W.; Verhaeghe, R.J.; Bindraban, P.S.


    In peri-urban areas competition among domestic, municipal, industrial and agriculture water use is strong and calls for identification of alternatives to bridge the widening gap between required and available water resources. In this study, the RIver BAsin SIMulation (RIBASIM) model is applied to

  19. A Multi-Objective Input–Output Linear Model for Water Supply, Economic Growth and Environmental Planning in Resource-Based Cities

    Wenlan Ke


    Full Text Available Water resource and environment capacity have become two of the most important restrictions for sustainable development in resource-based cities whose leading industries are the exploitation and processing of resources. Taking Ordos in China as an example, this article constructs an integrated model combining a multi-objective optimization model with input–output analysis to achieve the tradeoffs between economic growth, water utilization and environmental protection. This dynamic model includes socioeconomic, water supply–demand, water quality control, air quality control, energy consumption control and integrated policy sub-models. These six sub-models interact with each other. After simulation, this article proposes efficient solutions on industrial restructuring by maximizing the Gross Regional Product of Ordos from 394.3 in 2012 to 785.1 billion RMB in 2025 with a growth rate of 6.4% annually; and presents a water supply plan by maximizing the proportion of reclaimed water from 2% to 6.3% through sewage treatment technology selection and introduction, and effective water allocation. Meanwhile, the environmental impacts are all in line with the planning targets. This study illustrates that the integrated modeling is generic and can be applied to any region suffering uncoordinated development issues and can serve as a pre-evaluation approach for conducting early warning research to offer suggestions for government decision-making.


    Dania Pérez-Armayor


    Full Text Available En la actualidad los sistemas de planificación de recursos empresariales, además de facilitar las relaciones y la eficiencia intra-empresarial, incluyen elementos para viabilizar la colaboración entre empresas, como respuesta a la necesidad de las organizaciones de agruparse en cadenas de suministro. En consecuencia, el Ministerio de la Informática y las Comunicaciones, junto a otras organizaciones cubanas, están proyectando el desarrollo de un sistema de planificación de recursos empresariales desarrollado en el país (Sistema Cedrux, incluyendo funcionalidades que soporten la integración de cadenas de suministro. Este trabajo se centra en el análisis de funcionalidades que debe poseer el Sistema Cedrux para facilitar una gestión de la cadena de suministro exitosa. Para complementar este análisis fueron realizadas búsquedas bibliográficas y entrevistas a personal participante en el desarrollo de Cedrux. Como resultado se propone la configuración de los módulos acorde al rol de la empresa en la cadena, incluyendo módulos de gestión de cadenas de suministroAbstractNowadays, enterprise resource planning systems (ERP systems, in addition to help improving the relations and the intra-enterprise efficiency, include elements that facilitate inter-enterprise cooperation in response to the need for organizations to come together in supply chains. As a consequence, the Ministry of Informatics and Communications, along with other Cuban organizations, are planning the development of an ERP system developed in Cuba (named Cedrux system, which includes functionalities that support the integration of supply chains. This paper aims to analyze the functionalities that Cedrux should have in order to support a successful supply chain management. Bibliographic searches and interviews to Cedrux developers were conducted, in order to complement this analysis. As a result is suggested the inclusion of modules for supply chain management and the

  1. Wood supply : what bioenergy resources are available as harvest residue and non-merchantable wood in New Brunswick?

    Forgrave, K.


    This paper examines resources available for bioenergy production in New Brunswick. An estimate of New Brunswick harvest levels, based on New Brunswick Forest Products Association web site figures was presented. Private wood lots harvest levels were also provided, with all estimates based on volume per year. Market conditions were discussed, with an emphasis on the dictates of price and availability for private wood lot owners. Market conditions and unused volume statistics were discussed. Various forest management options include the use of veneer, saw log, stud wood and pulp wood. Details of bioenergy percentages and potential were presented and general silviculture issues were discussed. It was concluded that many of the trade-offs of bioenergy involve placing more demands on forests, and that purchase prices will increasingly dictate volumes obtained from private wood lots. tabs, figs

  2. Operations management in automotive industries from industrial strategies to production resources management, through the industrialization process and supply chain to pursue value creation

    Gobetto, Marco


    This book has proved its worth over the years as a text for courses in Production Management at the Faculty of Automotive Engineering in Turin, Italy, but deserves a wider audience as it presents a compendium of basics on Industrial Management, since it covers all major topics required. It treats all subjects from product development and “make or buy”-decision strategies to the manufacturing systems setting and management through analysis of the main resources needed in production and finally exploring the supply chain management and the procurement techniques. The very last chapter recapitulates the previous ones by analysing key management indicators to pursue the value creation that is the real purpose of every industrial enterprise. As an appendix, a specific chapter is dedicated to the basics of production management where all main relevant definitions, techniques and criteria are treated, including some numerical examples, in order to provide an adequate foundation for understanding the other chapte...

  3. Present and future water resources supply and demand in the Central Andes of Peru: a comprehensive review with focus on the Cordillera Vilcanota

    Drenkhan, Fabian; Huggel, Christian; Salzmann, Nadine; Giráldez, Claudia; Suarez, Wilson; Rohrer, Mario; Molina, Edwin; Montoya, Nilton; Miñan, Fiorella


    Glaciers have been an important element of Andean societies and livelihoods as direct freshwater supply for agriculture irrigation, hydropower generation and mining activities. Peru's mainly remotely living population in the Central Andes has to cope with a strong seasonal variation of precipitations and river runoff interannually superimposed by El Niño impacts. Direct glacier and lake water discharge thus constitute a vital continuous water supply and represent a regulating buffer as far as hydrological variability is concerned. This crucial buffer effect is gradually altered by accelerated glacier retreat which leads most likely to an increase of annual river runoff variability. Furthermore, a near-future crossing of the 'peak water' is expected, from where on prior enhanced streamflow decreases and levels out towards a new still unknown minimum discharge. Consequently, a sustainable future water supply especially during low-level runoff dry season might not be guaranteed whereas Peru's water demand increases significantly. Here we present a comprehensive review, the current conditions and perspectives for water resources in the Cusco area with focus on the Vilcanota River, Cordillera Vilcanota, Southern Peru. With 279 km2 the Cordillera Vilcanota represents the second largest glacierized mountain range of the tropics worldwide. Especially as of the second half of the 1980s, it has been strongly affected by massive ice loss with around 30% glacier area decline until present. Furthermore, glacier vanishing triggers the formation of new lakes and increase of lake levels and therefore constitutes determining hazardous drivers for mass movements related to deglaciation effects. The Vilcanota River still lacks more profound hydrological studies. It is likely that its peak water has already been or might be crossed in near-future. This has strong implications for the still at 0.9% (2.2%) annually growing population of the Cusco department (Cusco city). People mostly

  4. [The status quo and future prospects of emergency medical service systems in Japan in view of the tight supply-demand situation for medical resources].

    Aruga, Tohru


    Considering the tight supply-demand situation for medical resources contributing to emergency medical service(EMS) systems at present and in the future in Japan, the author has explained the present states and future prospects of EMS systems in our country. EMS in remote places in this country is now consisting of the concentration of limited human resources, and is therefore suggestive of the EMS systems in the future, because we will have to deal with the possible exhaustion of EMS in our superannuated society progressing now and in the future. And also EMS systems will have to be maintained in the future with concerted efforts of all the medical staffs. The transferring the medical doctors' tasks to those of nurses and other staffs, that is to say the task shifting has just authorized by recent laws, and so the task shifting will be useful in the future EMS systems performed by all kinds of medical workers, in whom general physicians will be included as they are to be distributed throughout this country in the future.

  5. Breeding resource distribution affects selection gradients on male phenotypic traits: experimental study on lifetime reproductive success in the bitterling fish (Rhodeus amarus)

    Reichard, Martin; Ondračková, Markéta; Bryjová, Anna; Smith, C.; Bryja, Josef


    Roč. 63, č. 2 (2009), s. 377-390 ISSN 0014-3820 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : directional selection gradient * individual and population consequences of behavior * opportunity for selection * parentage analysis * sexual selection * reproductive effort Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.429, year: 2009

  6. Irradiance gradients

    Ward, G.J.; Heckbert, P.S.; Technische Hogeschool Delft


    A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of irradiance resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of global illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques

  7. Uranium supply and demand

    Spriggs, M J


    Papers were presented on the pattern of uranium production in South Africa; Australian uranium--will it ever become available; North American uranium resources, policies, prospects, and pricing; economic and political environment of the uranium mining industry; alternative sources of uranium supply; whither North American demand for uranium; and uranium demand and security of supply--a consumer's point of view. (LK)

  8. Analysis of Pooled FIA and Remote Sensing Data for Fiber Supply Assessment at the Warnell School of Forest Resources at the University of Georgia - Other Studies and Effective Information Dissemination

    Chris J. Cieszewski; Michael Zasada; Tripp Lowe; Bruce Borders; Mike Clutter; Richard F. Daniels; Robert I. Elle; Robert Izlar; Jarek Zawadzki


    We provide here a short description of the origin, current work, and future outlook of the Fiber Supply Assessment program at the D.B. Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, whose work includes various analyses of FIA data. Since 1997, the program has intended to assist the implementation of the new Southern Annual Forest Inventory System through...

  9. A Novel, Gradient Boosting Framework for Sentiment Analysis in Languages where NLP Resources Are Not Plentiful: A Case Study for Modern Greek

    Vasileios Athanasiou


    Full Text Available Sentiment analysis has played a primary role in text classification. It is an undoubted fact that some years ago, textual information was spreading in manageable rates; however, nowadays, such information has overcome even the most ambiguous expectations and constantly grows within seconds. It is therefore quite complex to cope with the vast amount of textual data particularly if we also take the incremental production speed into account. Social media, e-commerce, news articles, comments and opinions are broadcasted on a daily basis. A rational solution, in order to handle the abundance of data, would be to build automated information processing systems, for analyzing and extracting meaningful patterns from text. The present paper focuses on sentiment analysis applied in Greek texts. Thus far, there is no wide availability of natural language processing tools for Modern Greek. Hence, a thorough analysis of Greek, from the lexical to the syntactical level, is difficult to perform. This paper attempts a different approach, based on the proven capabilities of gradient boosting, a well-known technique for dealing with high-dimensional data. The main rationale is that since English has dominated the area of preprocessing tools and there are also quite reliable translation services, we could exploit them to transform Greek tokens into English, thus assuring the precision of the translation, since the translation of large texts is not always reliable and meaningful. The new feature set of English tokens is augmented with the original set of Greek, consequently producing a high dimensional dataset that poses certain difficulties for any traditional classifier. Accordingly, we apply gradient boosting machines, an ensemble algorithm that can learn with different loss functions providing the ability to work efficiently with high dimensional data. Moreover, for the task at hand, we deal with a class imbalance issues since the distribution of sentiments in

  10. FY 1984 report on the results of the verification test on the methanol conversion for oil-fired power plant. Survey of the potential quantity supplied of overseas resource (Survey of the potential quantity supplied of methanol); 1984 nendo sekiyu karyoku hatsudensho metanoru tenkan tou jissho shiken kaigai shigen kyokyu kano ryo chosa (Metanoru kyokyu kano ryo chosa) seika hokokusho



    Based on the results of the survey of the potential quantity supplied of overseas resource which was made from FY 1981 to FY 1983, the paper predicted the world methanol supply plan, changes in the oil situation, economical efficiency of methanol and the competitive power with petroleum products, etc., and studied the time of potential supply, areas of potential supply and supply potential of power generation use methanol during the period toward 2000. In case the comparatively low crude oil price is predicted due to the energy supply/demand (Scenario A), the supply potential of power generation use methanol in four projects on methanol production taken up as trial calculation example is considered very low. Even in case the comparatively high crude oil price is predicted (Scenario C), it is in 1989 that the methanol market price becomes equivalent in heat quantity to the crude oil price. It is difficult to expect the potential before 1989. In case of the intermediate case between Scenario A and Scenario C (Scenario B), it is in 1993 that the methanol price becomes equivalent in heat quantity to the crude oil price. It is difficult to expect the potential before 1993. (NEDO)

  11. Sustainable Supply Chain Design

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy

    A significant conceptual and practical challenge is how to integrate triple bottom line (TBL; including economic, social and environmental) sustainability into global supply chains. Although this integration is necessary to slow down global resource depletion, understanding is limited of how...... to implement TBL goals across the supply chain. In supply chain design, the classic economic perspective still dominates, although the idea of the TBL is more widely disseminated. The purpose of this research is to add to the sustainable supply chain management literature (SSCM) research agenda...... by incorporating the physical chain, and the (information and financial) support chains into supply chain design. This manuscript tackles issues of what the chains are designed for and how they are designed structurally. Four sustainable businesses are used as illustrative case examples of innovative supply chain...

  12. Plant Size and Competitive Dynamics along Nutrient Gradients.

    Goldberg, Deborah E; Martina, Jason P; Elgersma, Kenneth J; Currie, William S


    Resource competition theory in plants has focused largely on resource acquisition traits that are independent of size, such as traits of individual leaves or roots or proportional allocation to different functions. However, plants also differ in maximum potential size, which could outweigh differences in module-level traits. We used a community ecosystem model called mondrian to investigate whether larger size inevitably increases competitive ability and how size interacts with nitrogen supply. Contrary to the conventional wisdom that bigger is better, we found that invader success and competitive ability are unimodal functions of maximum potential size, such that plants that are too large (or too small) are disproportionately suppressed by competition. Optimal size increases with nitrogen supply, even when plants compete for nitrogen only in a size-symmetric manner, although adding size-asymmetric competition for light does substantially increase the advantage of larger size at high nitrogen. These complex interactions of plant size and nitrogen supply lead to strong nonlinearities such that small differences in nitrogen can result in large differences in plant invasion success and the influence of competition along productivity gradients.

  13. Energy economics and supply



    This section of the book, Part I, consists of four chapters (1--4). Chapter 1, Energy and the Economic Future, covers the following subjects: general economics of energy; predicting energy demand; a model of energy and the economy; and interpretations. Chapter 2, Uranium and Fossil Fuel Supplies, covers the following subjects: uranium resources; oil and gas supplies; coal resources. Chapter 3, Economics of Nuclear Power, covers information on sources of uncertainty; cost of nuclear power; cost of coal-generated electricity. Chapter 4, Alternative Energy Sources, sums information on solar energy, geothermal energy, fusion power, conservation, and transmission

  14. Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. Raw materials supply and demand (Report 2); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Rohstoffe zwischen Angebot und Nachfrage (Teilbericht 2)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut (Germany)


    The demand for both energetic and non-energetic raw materials has been increasing continuously during the past few decades. Especially during the last few years, the threat of structural shortages of supply or availability came into focus. The discussion is highly controversial, especially in the case of petroleum. This sub-report presents an analysis of the supply situation of energetic and non-energetic raw materials, i.e. petroleum, coal and nuclear fuels on the one hand as well as iron and steel, chromium, nickel, cobalt, aluminium, magnesium, copper, platinum and platinum metals, industrial minerals, boron salts, phosphate, zirconium and zirconium oxide on the other hand. It is important to discuss also regional availability patterns in order to arrive at a regional picture of potential supply risks and resulting conflicts over raw materials as this is the best way to assess the danger of impending conflicts. (orig.)

  15. Multiunit water resource systems management by decomposition, optimization and emulated evolution : a case study of seven water supply reservoirs in Tunisia

    Milutin, D.


    Being one of the essential elements of almost any water resource system, reservoirs are indispensable in our struggle to harness, utilize and manage natural water resources. Consequently, the derivation of appropriate reservoir operating strategies draws significant attention in water

  16. 18 CFR 801.6 - Water supply.


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 801.6... POLICIES § 801.6 Water supply. (a) The Susquehanna River Basin is rich in water resources. With proper... forth in the comprehensive plan. (c) The Commission shall study the basin's water supply needs, the...

  17. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration Supply Chain Integration

    Lettice, Fiona; Durowoju, Olatunde


    Effective supply chain integration, and the tight co-ordination it creates, is an essential pre-requisite for successful supply chain management.  Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration is a practical reference on recent research in the area of supply chain integration focusing on distributed decision-making problems. Recent applications of various decision-making tools for integrating supply chains are covered including chapters focusing on: •Supplier selection, pricing strategy and inventory decisions in multi-level supply chains, •RFID-enabled distributed decision-making, •Operational risk issues and time-critical decision-making for sensitive logistics nodes, Modelling end to end processes to improve supply chain integration, and •Integrated systems to improve service delivery and optimize resource use. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration provides an insight into the tools and methodologies of this field with support from real-life case studies demonstrating successful application ...


    Melody, Moya; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Brown, Richard


    As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities; (2) provides detailed descriptions of resources to consult for each area of opportunity; (3) offers supplementary suggestions and information for the area; and (4) presents illustrative case studies, including analysis of cost-effectiveness.

  19. Shoot growth, root growth and resource capture under limiting water and N supply for two cultivars of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Kerbiriou, P.J.; Stomph, T.J.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Struik, P.C.


    Background and aims - To improve vegetable crops adapted to low input and variable resource availability, better understanding is needed of root system functioning, including nitrogen and water capture. Methods - This study quantified shoot and root development and patterns of water and nitrate

  20. Assessment of electricity demand-supply in health facilities in resource-constrained settings : optimization and evaluation of energy systems for a case in Rwanda

    Palacios, S.G.


    In health facilities in resource-constrained settings, a lack of access to sustainable and reliable electricity can result on a sub-optimal delivery of healthcare services, as they do not have lighting for medical procedures and power to run essential equipment and devices to treat their patients.

  1. Strategic Supply

    Alexander, Kelly; Cole, Heather; Cural, Ahmet; Daugherty, Darryl; Howard, Russell; Keane, Thomas; Louie, K. Y; McNeely, Rosa; Mordente, Patrick; Petrillo, Robert


    ...; but rather, as an enabler across all industries. Therefore, this industry study looked at Strategic Supply as an integrated process performed by industries to obtain comparative and competitive advantage in the global marketplace...

  2. Strategic Supply

    Alexander, Kelly; Cole, Heather; Cural, Ahmet; Daugherty, Darryl; Howard, Russell; Keane, Thomas; Louie, K. Y; McNeely, Rosa; Mordente, Patrick; Petrillo, Robert


    .... The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) has defined SCM as,"...encompassing the planning and management of all activities involved in sourcing and procurement, conversion, and all Logistics Management activities...

  3. Water supply

    Peterson, F.L.


    Options and methodologies for the development of fresh water supplies on Bikini Atoll are much the same as those practiced in the rest of the Marshall Islands and for that matter, most atolls in the central Pacific Ocean Basin. That is, rainfall distribution on Bikini produces a distinct wet season, lasting from about May through November, with the remaining months being generally dry. As a result, fresh water from surface catchments tends to be plentiful during the wet season? but is usually scarce during the dry months, and alternative sources such as groundwater must be utilized during this time. On Bikini the problems of fresh water supply are somewhat more difficult than for most Marshall Island atolls because rainfall is only about half the Marshall Island's average. Tus water supply is a critical factor limiting the carrying capacity of Bikini Atoll. To address this problem BARC has undertaken a study of the Bikini Atoll water supply. Te primary objectives of this work are to determine: (1) alternatives available for fresh water supply, 2 the amounts, location and quality of available supplies and 3 optimal development methods. The study planned for one's year duration, has been underway only since the summer of 1985 and is thus not yet fully completed. However, work done to date, which is presented in this report of preliminary findings, provides a reasonably accurate picture of Bikini's fresh water supplies and the various options available for their development. The work remaining to be completed will mainly add refinements to the water supply picture presented in the sections to follow

  4. Vancouver Island gas supply

    Des Brisay, C.


    Terasen Gas is pursuing alternatives for the supply of additional natural gas capacity to Vancouver Island. Its subsidiary, Terasen Gas (Vancouver Island) Inc. (TGVI), is responding to the need for delivery of increased gas supply and, is supporting plans for new gas-fired power generation on Vancouver Island. TGVI's proposal for new natural gas capacity involves a combination of compression and pipeline loops as well as the addition of a storage facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) at Mt. Hayes to help manage price volatility. This presentation outlined the objectives and components of the resource planning process, including demand forecast scenarios and the preferred infrastructure options. tabs., figs

  5. Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies. [Contains glossary and address list of geothermal project developers and owners


    Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. A new hammer to crack an old nut: interspecific competitive resource capture by plants is regulated by nutrient supply, not climate.

    Trinder, Clare J; Brooker, Rob W; Davidson, Hazel; Robinson, David


    Although rarely acknowledged, our understanding of how competition is modulated by environmental drivers is severely hampered by our dependence on indirect measurements of outcomes, rather than the process of competition. To overcome this, we made direct measurements of plant competition for soil nitrogen (N). Using isotope pool-dilution, we examined the interactive effects of soil resource limitation and climatic severity between two common grassland species. Pool-dilution estimates the uptake of total N over a defined time period, rather than simply the uptake of ¹⁵N label, as used in most other tracer experiments. Competitive uptake of N was determined by its available form (NO₃⁻ or NH₄⁺). Soil N availability had a greater effect than the climatic conditions (location) under which plants grew. The results did not entirely support either of the main current theories relating the role of competition to environmental conditions. We found no evidence for Tilman's theory that competition for soil nutrients is stronger at low, compared with high nutrient levels and partial support for Grime's theory that competition for soil nutrients is greater under potentially more productive conditions. These results provide novel insights by demonstrating the dynamic nature of plant resource competition.

  7. A new hammer to crack an old nut: interspecific competitive resource capture by plants is regulated by nutrient supply, not climate.

    Clare J Trinder

    Full Text Available Although rarely acknowledged, our understanding of how competition is modulated by environmental drivers is severely hampered by our dependence on indirect measurements of outcomes, rather than the process of competition. To overcome this, we made direct measurements of plant competition for soil nitrogen (N. Using isotope pool-dilution, we examined the interactive effects of soil resource limitation and climatic severity between two common grassland species. Pool-dilution estimates the uptake of total N over a defined time period, rather than simply the uptake of ¹⁵N label, as used in most other tracer experiments. Competitive uptake of N was determined by its available form (NO₃⁻ or NH₄⁺. Soil N availability had a greater effect than the climatic conditions (location under which plants grew. The results did not entirely support either of the main current theories relating the role of competition to environmental conditions. We found no evidence for Tilman's theory that competition for soil nutrients is stronger at low, compared with high nutrient levels and partial support for Grime's theory that competition for soil nutrients is greater under potentially more productive conditions. These results provide novel insights by demonstrating the dynamic nature of plant resource competition.

  8. Energy supply in China

    Weidou Ni; Niendak Sze


    Coal is the main primary energy source in China. How to use coal cleanly and efficiently is the extremely important problem in China. Energy conservation and technology innovation are the key measures for mitigation of the pressure of energy supply. Import of energy (petroleum, LNG and high calorific coal) is inevitable. China has quite abundant energy resources, but the energy resource per capita is rather low. Because of the structure of industry and backwardness of technology, the energy consumption per unit GNP is also very low

  9. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation


    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  10. Bio-based economy in the Netherlands. Macro-economic outline of a large-scale introduction of green resources in the Dutch energy supply

    Van der Hoeven, D.


    The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (PGG), part of the Energy Transition in The Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to conduct research on the macro-economic impact of large scale deployment of biomass for energy and materials in the Netherlands. Two model approaches were applied based on a consistent set of scenario assumptions: a bottom-up study including technoeconomic projections of fossil and bio-based conversion technologies and a topdown study including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources. The results of the top-down and bottom-up modelling work are reported separately. This is the public version of studies [nl

  11. The Global Resource Nexus

    Ridder, M. de; Duijne, F. van; Jong, S. de; Jones, J.; Luit, E. van; Bekkers, F.F.; Auping, W.


    Supply and demand of resources are connected in a complex way. This interconnectivity has been framed as the global resource nexus and can conceivebly include all types of resources. This study focus on the nexus of five essential natural resources: land, food, energy, water and minerals. Together

  12. Integrated Modeling of Crop Growth and Water Resource Management to Project Climate Change Impacts on Crop Production and Irrigation Water Supply and Demand in African Nations

    Dale, A. L.; Boehlert, B.; Reisenauer, M.; Strzepek, K. M.; Solomon, S.


    Climate change poses substantial risks to African agriculture. These risks are exacerbated by concurrent risks to water resources, with water demand for irrigation comprising 80 to 90% of water withdrawals across the continent. Process-based crop growth models are able to estimate both crop demand for irrigation water and crop yields, and are therefore well-suited to analyses of climate change impacts at the food-water nexus. Unfortunately, impact assessments based on these models generally focus on either yields or water demand, rarely both. For this work, we coupled a crop model to a water resource management model in order to predict national trends in the impact of climate change on crop production, irrigation water demand, and the availability of water for irrigation across Africa. The crop model FAO AquaCrop-OS was run at 2ox2o resolution for 17 different climate futures from the CMIP5 archive, nine for Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and eight for RCP8.5. Percent changes in annual rainfed and irrigated crop production and temporal shifts in monthly irrigation water demand were estimated for the years 2030, 2050, 2070, and 2090 for maize, sorghum, rice, wheat, cotton, sugarcane, fruits & vegetables, roots & tubers, and legumes & soybeans. AquaCrop was then coupled to a water management model (WEAP) in order to project changes in the ability of seven major river basins (the Congo, Niger, Nile, Senegal, Upper Orange, Volta, and Zambezi) to meet irrigation water demand out to 2050 in both average and dry years in the face of both climate change and irrigation expansion. Spatial and temporal trends were identified and interpreted through the lens of potential risk management strategies. Uncertainty in model estimates is reported and discussed.

  13. Co-digestion of rice straw and cow dung to supply cooking fuel and fertilizers in rural India: Impact on human health, resource flows and climate change.

    Sfez, Sophie; De Meester, Steven; Dewulf, Jo


    Anaerobic digestion of cow dung with new feedstock such as crop residues to increase the biogas potential is an option to help overcoming several issues faced by India. Anaerobic digestion provides biogas that can replace biomass cooking fuels and reduce indoor air pollution. It also provides digestate, a fertilizer that can contribute to compensate nutrient shortage on agricultural land. Moreover, it avoids the burning of rice straw in the fields which contributes to air pollution in India and climate change globally. Not only the technical and economical feasibility but also the environmental sustainability of such systems needs to be assessed. The potential effects of implementing community digesters co-digesting cow dung and rice straw on carbon and nutrients flows, human health, resource efficiency and climate change are analyzed by conducting a Substance Flow Analysis and a Life Cycle Assessment. The implementation of the technology is considered at the level of the state of Chhattisgarh. Implementing this scenario reduces the dependency of the rural community to nitrogen and phosphorus from synthetic fertilizers only by 0.1 and 1.6%, respectively, but the dependency of farmers to potassium from synthetic fertilizers by 31%. The prospective scenario returns more organic carbon to agricultural land and thus has a potential positive effect on soil quality. The implementation of the prospective scenario can reduce the health impact of the local population by 48%, increase the resource efficiency of the system by 60% and lower the impact on climate change by 13%. This study highlights the large potential of anaerobic digestion to overcome the aforementioned issues faced by India. It demonstrates the need to couple local and global assessments and to conduct analyses at the substance level to assess the sustainability of such systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. $L_{0}$ Gradient Projection.

    Ono, Shunsuke


    Minimizing L 0 gradient, the number of the non-zero gradients of an image, together with a quadratic data-fidelity to an input image has been recognized as a powerful edge-preserving filtering method. However, the L 0 gradient minimization has an inherent difficulty: a user-given parameter controlling the degree of flatness does not have a physical meaning since the parameter just balances the relative importance of the L 0 gradient term to the quadratic data-fidelity term. As a result, the setting of the parameter is a troublesome work in the L 0 gradient minimization. To circumvent the difficulty, we propose a new edge-preserving filtering method with a novel use of the L 0 gradient. Our method is formulated as the minimization of the quadratic data-fidelity subject to the hard constraint that the L 0 gradient is less than a user-given parameter α . This strategy is much more intuitive than the L 0 gradient minimization because the parameter α has a clear meaning: the L 0 gradient value of the output image itself, so that one can directly impose a desired degree of flatness by α . We also provide an efficient algorithm based on the so-called alternating direction method of multipliers for computing an approximate solution of the nonconvex problem, where we decompose it into two subproblems and derive closed-form solutions to them. The advantages of our method are demonstrated through extensive experiments.

  15. A method for easily customizable gradient gel electrophoresis.

    Miller, Andrew J; Roman, Brandon; Norstrom, Eric


    Gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is a powerful tool for the resolution of polypeptides by relative mobility. Here, we present a simplified method for generating polyacrylamide gradient gels for routine analysis without the need for specialized mixing equipment. The method allows for easily customizable gradients which can be optimized for specific polypeptide resolution requirements. Moreover, the method eliminates the possibility of buffer cross contamination in mixing equipment, and the time and resources saved with this method in place of traditional gradient mixing, or the purchase of pre-cast gels, are noteworthy given the frequency with which many labs use gradient gel SDS-PAGE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Will the Needs-Based Planning of Health Human Resources Currently Undertaken in Several Countries Lead to Excess Supply and Inefficiency?

    Basu, Kisalaya; Pak, Maxwell


    Recently, the emphasis on health human resources (HHR) planning has shifted away from a utilization-based approach toward a needs-based one in which planning is based on the projected health needs of the population. However, needs-based models that are currently in use rely on a definition of 'needs' that include only the medical circumstances of individuals and not personal preferences or other socio-economic factors. We examine whether planning based on such a narrow definition will maximize social welfare. We show that, in a publicly funded healthcare system, if the planner seeks to meet the aggregate need without taking utilization into consideration, then oversupply of HHR is likely because 'needs' do not necessarily translate into 'usage.' Our result suggests that HHR planning should track the healthcare system as access gradually improves because, even if health care is fully accessible, individuals may not fully utilize it to the degree prescribed by their medical circumstances. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Organization and scaling in water supply networks

    Cheng, Likwan; Karney, Bryan W.


    Public water supply is one of the society's most vital resources and most costly infrastructures. Traditional concepts of these networks capture their engineering identity as isolated, deterministic hydraulic units, but overlook their physics identity as related entities in a probabilistic, geographic ensemble, characterized by size organization and property scaling. Although discoveries of allometric scaling in natural supply networks (organisms and rivers) raised the prospect for similar findings in anthropogenic supplies, so far such a finding has not been reported in public water or related civic resource supplies. Examining an empirical ensemble of large number and wide size range, we show that water supply networks possess self-organized size abundance and theory-explained allometric scaling in spatial, infrastructural, and resource- and emission-flow properties. These discoveries establish scaling physics for water supply networks and may lead to novel applications in resource- and jurisdiction-scale water governance.

  18. Full magnetic gradient tensor from triaxial aeromagnetic gradient measurements: Calculation and application

    Luo, Yao; Wu, Mei-Ping; Wang, Ping; Duan, Shu-Ling; Liu, Hao-Jun; Wang, Jin-Long; An, Zhan-Feng


    The full magnetic gradient tensor (MGT) refers to the spatial change rate of the three field components of the geomagnetic field vector along three mutually orthogonal axes. The tensor is of use to geological mapping, resources exploration, magnetic navigation, and others. However, it is very difficult to measure the full magnetic tensor gradient using existing engineering technology. We present a method to use triaxial aeromagnetic gradient measurements for deriving the full MGT. The method uses the triaxial gradient data and makes full use of the variation of the magnetic anomaly modulus in three dimensions to obtain a self-consistent magnetic tensor gradient. Numerical simulations show that the full MGT data obtained with the proposed method are of high precision and satisfy the requirements of data processing. We selected triaxial aeromagnetic gradient data from the Hebei Province for calculating the full MGT. Data processing shows that using triaxial tensor gradient data allows to take advantage of the spatial rate of change of the total field in three dimensions and suppresses part of the independent noise in the aeromagnetic gradient. The calculated tensor components have improved resolution, and the transformed full tensor gradient satisfies the requirement of geological mapping and interpretation.

  19. Energy and Resources: A plan is outlined according to which solar and wind energy would supply Denmark's needs by the year 2050.

    Sørensen, B


    Two possible futures for the industrial world may be distinguished: (i) Large amounts of low-cost energy become available and the more energy-intensive methods for extracting resources from lowergrade deposits continue to sustain industrial expansion until either the environmental impact becomes unacceptable or ultimate limits, such as climate disruptions, put an end to such growth. (ii) The cost of nonrenewable energy resources continue to rise, but a fixed amount of energy from continuous sources may be utilized at constant cost. In this case a lower production level may be set by the amount of energy that is available from renewable sources, and society may thus have to be reshaped with energy economization in focus. If it is possible to choose between these two alternatives, the choice should be based on a discussion of the pros and cons of each one, and in particular on the desirability of having to process an increasing fraction of the earth's crust in search of raw materials in order to maintain growth as long as possible. However, the availability, of the first option is far from certain and it thus seems reasonable to plan for the second alternative. I have tried to propose such a plan for a small, homogeneous geographical region, namely Denmark. The ceiling on the consumption of energy from continuous sources is chosen in accordance with the criterion of not having to convert a major part of the land area to energy-collecting systems. The proposed annual average energy consumption of 19 gigawatts by the year 2050 corresponds to solar energy collecting panels (in use only 50 percent of the time) with an area of roughly 180 square kilometers and a windmill swept area of about 150 square kilometers. These (vertical) areas constitute less than 1 percent of the total land area. The selection of solar or wind energy for different applications has been based on known technology and may be subject to adjustments. The project has been shown to be economically

  20. Strategic Supply


    leaders as Sears, Limited Brands, DHL, Circuit City, Cingular, Nestle and IKEA (Manugistics, 2006). The Strategic Supply Chain Industry Study Group...inventory turns have increased. Other global customers have also reaped the benefits of the Manugistics software. IKEA , Sweden’s retail icon...turned to Manugistics after a mid-1990s ERP implementation failed to fix their forecasting problems, which gave way to fluctuating inventory levels. IKEA

  1. Fuel supply security

    Wakabayashi, Hiroaki


    Stable fuel supply is a prerequisite for any nuclear power program including ISER-PIUS. It encompasses procurement of uranium ore, enriched uranium and fuel elements. Uranium is different from oil in that it can be stockpiled for more than a decade besides the fact that the core residence time is as long as six years, for example in the case of ISER-PIUS. These basic fuel characteristics are favoring nuclear fuel over others in terms of supply security. The central concern will be a gradual increase in prices of uranium and enrichment. Under the present glut situation with the worldwide prevalence of LWRs, fuel supply security seems ensured for the time being till the middle of 21st century. It is estimated that by the turn of the century, the free world will have roughly 450 GWe capacity of nuclear power. If 10 % is supplied for ISER-PIUS, more than 200 modules of 200 MWe ISER-PIUS may be deployed all over the world probably starting around 2000. As part of the fuel supply security consideration, heavy water reactor (HWR) may seem interesting to such a country as Indonesia where there is uranium resources but no enrichment capability. But it needs heavy water instead and the operation is not so easy as of LWR, because of the positive void coefficient as was seen at the Chernobyl-4. Safeguarding of the fuel is also difficult, because it lends itself to on line refueling. The current and future situation of the fuel supply security for LWR seem well founded and established long into the future. (Nogami, K.)

  2. Estimating Swedish biomass energy supply

    Johansson, J.; Lundqvist, U.


    Biomass is suggested to supply an increasing amount of energy in Sweden. There have been several studies estimating the potential supply of biomass energy, including that of the Swedish Energy Commission in 1995. The Energy Commission based its estimates of biomass supply on five other analyses which presented a wide variation in estimated future supply, in large part due to differing assumptions regarding important factors. In this paper, these studies are assessed, and the estimated potential biomass energy supplies are discusses regarding prices, technical progress and energy policy. The supply of logging residues depends on the demand for wood products and is limited by ecological, technological, and economic restrictions. The supply of stemwood from early thinning for energy and of straw from cereal and oil seed production is mainly dependent upon economic considerations. One major factor for the supply of willow and reed canary grass is the size of arable land projected to be not needed for food and fodder production. Future supply of biomass energy depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities. Biomass energy has to compete with other energy sources as well as with alternative uses of biomass such as forest products and food production. Technical progress may decrease the costs of biomass energy and thus increase the competitiveness. Economic instruments, including carbon taxes and subsidies, and allocation of research and development resources, are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of biomass energy

  3. The role of enterprise systems in supply chain networks: a taxonomy of supply chain strategies

    Møller, Charles


    in the supply chain and to choose the right supply chain strategy. The work is based on a comprehensive study of the Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) literature and the study suggests that there is an emerging new research potential for Enterprise Systems (ES) in the supply......This paper proposes a taxonomy for supply chain integration strategies. The taxonomy is based on the contingencies of supply chain network coupling and the Extended Enterprise Systems (EES) architecture in the supply chain. The purpose of this model is to map the portfolio of relations...

  4. Who Manages Our Supply Chains?

    Flöthmann, Christoph

    to manage the manifold tasks they face on a daily basis. Unfortunately, as globalization has simultaneously increased the complexity of supply chains and the demand for highly qualified personnel, companies are facing a significant undersupply of talent (Cottrill, 2010). Moreover, organizations appear......While managers in traditional management functions focus on developing strong expertise to become “specialists” in their own discipline, supply chain managers are a different species: They have to combine a cross-functional understanding of various business fields and multi-faceted competencies......-based dissertation is to address the research gap between human resource management (HRM) and supply chain management (SCM)....

  5. Travelling gradient thermocouple calibration

    Broomfield, G.H.


    A short discussion of the origins of the thermocouple EMF is used to re-introduce the idea that the Peltier and Thompson effects are indistinguishable from one another. Thermocouples may be viewed as devices which generate an EMF at junctions or as integrators of EMF's developed in thermal gradients. The thermal gradient view is considered the more appropriate, because of its better accord with theory and behaviour, the correct approach to calibration, and investigation of service effects is immediately obvious. Inhomogeneities arise in thermocouples during manufacture and in service. The results of travelling gradient measurements are used to show that such effects are revealed with a resolution which depends on the length of the gradient although they may be masked during simple immersion calibration. Proposed tests on thermocouples irradiated in a nuclear reactor are discussed

  6. Quaternion Gradient and Hessian

    Xu, Dongpo; Mandic, Danilo P.


    The optimization of real scalar functions of quaternion variables, such as the mean square error or array output power, underpins many practical applications. Solutions typically require the calculation of the gradient and Hessian. However, real functions of quaternion variables are essentially nonanalytic, which are prohibitive to the development of quaternion-valued learning systems. To address this issue, we propose new definitions of quaternion gradient and Hessian, based on the novel gen...

  7. The cellulose resource matrix

    Keijsers, E.R.P.; Yilmaz, G.; Dam, van J.E.G.


    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where

  8. Gradient Alloy for Optical Packaging

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advances in additive manufacturing, such as Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS), enables the fabrication of compositionally gradient microstructures, i.e. gradient...

  9. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    Temkin, Richard


    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  10. NGLs supply

    Richardson, I.


    This presentation dealt with the supply of natural gas liquids (NGLs) as a prelude to a review of the Alliance pipeline project. With all approvals having been received both in Canada and the United States, and complete financing secured, construction of the line will commence in the spring of 1999, with operation scheduled to begin Oct. 1, 2000. U.S. midwest and Alberta field gas prices, natural gas production in Alberta and British Columbia, current Alberta gas exports, the Aux Sable's NGL markets, market access for Western Canadian NGLs, historical disposition of Alberta ethane, propane and butyl ethane availability in Alberta, and historical and forecast NGL recovery in Alberta and British Columbia with and without the Alliance pipeline were reviewed. It was concluded that additional natural gas pipeline capacity is necessary to stimulate industry activity and monetize Western Canada Sedimentary Basin reserves. In turn, increased natural gas production will stimulate NGL exports. The Alliance Pipeline will provide additional NGL export capacity and potentially increase producer netbacks while minimizing capital expenditures. . 14 figs

  11. 30 CFR 874.14 - Water supply restoration.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water supply restoration. 874.14 Section 874.14... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.14 Water supply restoration. (a) Any... supply restoration projects. For purposes of this section, “water supply restoration projects” are those...

  12. World uranium supply and demand

    Patterson, J.A.


    The role of nuclear energy is under increasing scrutiny and uncertainty. None the less, there will be an increasing need for expansion of uranium supply to fuel committed reactors. Longer-term demand projections are very uncertain. Improved knowledge of the extent of world resources and their availability and economics is needed to support planning for reactor development, especially for breeder reactors, and for fuel-cycle development, especially enrichment, and reprocessing and recycle of uranium and plutonium. Efforts to date to estimate world uranium resources have been very useful but have largely reflected the state of available knowledge for the lower cost resources in regions that have received considerable exploration efforts. The IUREP evaluation of world resources provides an initial speculative estimate of world resources, including areas not previously appraised. Projections of long-range supply from the estimated resources suggest that the high-growth nuclear cases using once-through cycle may not be supportable for very long. However, additional effort is needed to appraise and report more completely and consistently on world resources, the production levels attainable from these resources, and the economic and price characteristics of such production. (author)

  13. U.S. uranium supply outlook

    Hogerton, J.F.


    The subject is analysed in the light of figures and forecasts contained in the following diagrams: forecasts of U.S. uranium production, 1977 to 1990; indicated relationship between annual U.S. uranium supply and demand, 1977 to 1986; presently indicated cumulative U.S. uranium supply/demand balance, 1977 to 1990; indicated cumulative U.S. supply/demand balance (shortage or surpluses) 1976 to 1990; presently indicated balance between outstanding U.S. utility procurement needs and uncommitted domestic supply capability 1977 to 1986; projected U.S. uranium requirements in relation to existing supply base and presently indicated additional domestic resource potential, 1977 to 2000. (U.K.)

  14. Synergies between energy supply networks

    Wu, Jianzhnog; Yan, Jinyue; Desideri, Umberto


    Energy system integration uses a whole-system approach to optimize the synergies between energy supply networks to facilitate and coordinate the grid integration of distributed energy resources while enabling the synergies and conflicts between the local distribution networks and the national lev...... and integration of local renewables including solar energy wind geothermal waste heat and biomass is presented.......Energy system integration uses a whole-system approach to optimize the synergies between energy supply networks to facilitate and coordinate the grid integration of distributed energy resources while enabling the synergies and conflicts between the local distribution networks and the national level...... objectives to be understood and optimally coordinated. The latest research on the network coupling technologies analysis of synergies between energy supply networks and optimal use of synergies in network operation is discussed. A diagram on the possible interactions between different energy networks...

  15. Uniform gradient expansions

    Giovannini, Massimo


    Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.

  16. High gradient superconducting quadrupoles

    Lundy, R.A.; Brown, B.C.; Carson, J.A.; Fisk, H.E.; Hanft, R.H.; Mantsch, P.M.; McInturff, A.D.; Remsbottom, R.H.


    Prototype superconducting quadrupoles with a 5 cm aperture and gradient of 16 kG/cm have been built and tested as candidate magnets for the final focus at SLC. The magnets are made from NbTi Tevatron style cable with 10 inner and 14 outer turns per quadrant. Quench performance and multipole data are presented. Design and data for a low current, high gradient quadrupole, similar in cross section but wound with a cable consisting of five insulated conductors are also discussed

  17. Air temperature gradient in large industrial hall

    Karpuk, Michał; Pełech, Aleksander; Przydróżny, Edward; Walaszczyk, Juliusz; Szczęśniak, Sylwia


    In the rooms with dominant sensible heat load, volume airflow depends on many factors incl. pre-established temperature difference between exhaust and supply airflow. As the temperature difference is getting higher, airflow volume drops down, consequently, the cost of AHU is reduced. In high industrial halls with air exhaust grids located under the ceiling additional temperature gradient above working zone should be taken into consideration. In this regard, experimental research of the vertical air temperature gradient in high industrial halls were carried out for the case of mixing ventilation system The paper presents the results of air temperature distribution measurements in high technological hall (mechanically ventilated) under significant sensible heat load conditions. The supply airflow was delivered to the hall with the help of the swirl diffusers while exhaust grids were located under the hall ceiling. Basing on the air temperature distribution measurements performed on the seven pre-established levels, air temperature gradient in the area between 2.0 and 7.0 m above the floor was calculated and analysed.

  18. Fundamental limits to position determination by concentration gradients.

    Filipe Tostevin


    Full Text Available Position determination in biological systems is often achieved through protein concentration gradients. Measuring the local concentration of such a protein with a spatially varying distribution allows the measurement of position within the system. For these systems to work effectively, position determination must be robust to noise. Here, we calculate fundamental limits to the precision of position determination by concentration gradients due to unavoidable biochemical noise perturbing the gradients. We focus on gradient proteins with first-order reaction kinetics. Systems of this type have been experimentally characterised in both developmental and cell biology settings. For a single gradient we show that, through time-averaging, great precision potentially can be achieved even with very low protein copy numbers. As a second example, we investigate the ability of a system with oppositely directed gradients to find its centre. With this mechanism, positional precision close to the centre improves more slowly with increasing averaging time, and so longer averaging times or higher copy numbers are required for high precision. For both single and double gradients, we demonstrate the existence of optimal length scales for the gradients for which precision is maximized, as well as analyze how precision depends on the size of the concentration-measuring apparatus. These results provide fundamental constraints on the positional precision supplied by concentration gradients in various contexts, including both in developmental biology and also within a single cell.

  19. Trends in uranium supply

    Hansen, M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Nuclear Power and Reactors, Nuclear Materials and Fuel Cycle Section, Vienna (Austria)


    Prior to the development of nuclear power, uranium ores were used to a very limited extent as a ceramic colouring agent, as a source of radium and in some places as a source of vanadium. Perhaps before that, because of the bright orange and yellow colours of its secondary ores, it was probably used as ceremonial paint by primitive man. After the discovery of nuclear fission a whole new industry emerged, complete with its problems of demand, resources and supply. Spurred by special incentives in the early years of this new nuclear industry, prospectors discovered over 20 000 occurrences of uranium in North America alone, and by 1959 total world production reached a peak of 34 000 tonnes uranium from mines in South Africa, Canada and United States. This rapid growth also led to new problems. As purchases for military purposes ended, government procurement contracts were not renewed, and the large reserves developed as a result of government purchase incentives, in combination with lack of substantial commercial market, resulted in an over-supply of uranium. Typically, an over-supply of uranium together with national stockpiling at low prices resulted in depression of prices to less than $5 per pound by 1971. Although forecasts made in the early 1970's increased confidence in the future of nuclear power, and consequently the demand for uranium, prices remained low until the end of 1973 when OPEC announced a very large increase in oil prices and quite naturally, prices for coal also rose substantially. The economics of nuclear fuel immediately improved and prices for uranium began to climb in 1974. But the world-wide impact of the OPEC decision also produced negative effects on the uranium industry. Uranium production costs rose dramatically, as did capital costs, and money for investment in new uranium ventures became more scarce and more expensive. However, the uranium supply picture today offers hope of satisfactory development in spite of the many problems to be

  20. Trends in uranium supply

    Hansen, M.


    Prior to the development of nuclear power, uranium ores were used to a very limited extent as a ceramic colouring agent, as a source of radium and in some places as a source of vanadium. Perhaps before that, because of the bright orange and yellow colours of its secondary ores, it was probably used as ceremonial paint by primitive man. After the discovery of nuclear fission a whole new industry emerged, complete with its problems of demand, resources and supply. Spurred by special incentives in the early years of this new nuclear industry, prospectors discovered over 20 000 occurrences of uranium in North America alone, and by 1959 total world production reached a peak of 34 000 tonnes uranium from mines in South Africa, Canada and United States. This rapid growth also led to new problems. As purchases for military purposes ended, government procurement contracts were not renewed, and the large reserves developed as a result of government purchase incentives, in combination with lack of substantial commercial market, resulted in an over-supply of uranium. Typically, an over-supply of uranium together with national stockpiling at low prices resulted in depression of prices to less than $5 per pound by 1971. Although forecasts made in the early 1970's increased confidence in the future of nuclear power, and consequently the demand for uranium, prices remained low until the end of 1973 when OPEC announced a very large increase in oil prices and quite naturally, prices for coal also rose substantially. The economics of nuclear fuel immediately improved and prices for uranium began to climb in 1974. But the world-wide impact of the OPEC decision also produced negative effects on the uranium industry. Uranium production costs rose dramatically, as did capital costs, and money for investment in new uranium ventures became more scarce and more expensive. However, the uranium supply picture today offers hope of satisfactory development in spite of the many problems to be

  1. Manipulating the Gradient

    Gaze, Eric C.


    We introduce a cooperative learning, group lab for a Calculus III course to facilitate comprehension of the gradient vector and directional derivative concepts. The lab is a hands-on experience allowing students to manipulate a tangent plane and empirically measure the effect of partial derivatives on the direction of optimal ascent. (Contains 7…

  2. Water resources (Chapter 12)

    Thomas C. Brown; Romano Foti; Jorge Ramirez


    In this chapter, we focus on the vulnerability of U.S. freshwater supplies considering all lands, not just forest and rangelands. We do not assess the condition of those lands or report on how much of our water supply originates on lands of different land covers or ownerships, because earlier Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment work addressed these topics....

  3. Coordinated supply chain dynamic production planning model

    Chandra, Charu; Grabis, Janis


    Coordination of different and often contradicting interests of individual supply chain members is one of the important issues in supply chain management because the individual members can not succeed without success of the supply chain and vice versa. This paper investigates a supply chain dynamic production planning problem with emphasis on coordination. A planning problem is formally described using a supply chain kernel, which defines supply chain configuration, management policies, available resources and objectives both at supply chain or macro and supply chain member or micro levels. The coordinated model is solved in order to balance decisions made at the macro and micro levels and members' profitability is used as the coordination criterion. The coordinated model is used to determine inventory levels and production capacity across the supply chain. Application of the coordinated model distributes costs burden uniformly among supply chain members and preserves overall efficiency of the supply chain. Influence of the demand series uncertainty is investigated. The production planning model is a part of the integrated supply chain decision modeling system, which is shared among the supply chain members across the Internet.

  4. ERP extension - Supply Chain Management (SCM

    Vasile LUPSE


    Full Text Available This article presents an extension of a ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning, more precisely the Supply Chain Management (SCM, together with some personal considerations and contributions of the authors, regarding the presented concepts.

  5. Natural gas supply - a producer's perspective

    Papa, M.G.


    The supply of natural gas from the producers standpoint is discussed. The following factors in the marketing demand for natural gas are considered to be important: gas demand is growing, U.S. gas resource base is large, chronic gas bubble has shrunk, and North American supply is more resilient than expected

  6. Global sustainable timber supply and demand

    Peter J. Ince


    Industrial timber use has provided timber revenue that has helped make timber supply and demand more sustainable in the leading timber producing regions of the world. Sustainable development implies not consuming more resources today than we can replace tomorrow, but sustainable forest management implies more than merely a non-declining supply of timber. Forests as a...

  7. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.


    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  8. Bigravity from gradient expansion

    Yamashita, Yasuho; Tanaka, Takahiro


    We discuss how the ghost-free bigravity coupled with a single scalar field can be derived from a braneworld setup. We consider DGP two-brane model without radion stabilization. The bulk configuration is solved for given boundary metrics, and it is substituted back into the action to obtain the effective four-dimensional action. In order to obtain the ghost-free bigravity, we consider the gradient expansion in which the brane separation is supposed to be sufficiently small so that two boundary metrics are almost identical. The obtained effective theory is shown to be ghost free as expected, however, the interaction between two gravitons takes the Fierz-Pauli form at the leading order of the gradient expansion, even though we do not use the approximation of linear perturbation. We also find that the radion remains as a scalar field in the four-dimensional effective theory, but its coupling to the metrics is non-trivial.

  9. Gradient-Index Optics


    nonimaging design capabilities to incorporate 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 12-04-2011 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views, opinions...Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS Imaging Optics, Nonimaging Optics, Gradient Index Optics, Camera, Concentrator...imaging and nonimaging design capabilities to incorporate manufacturable GRIN lenses can provide imaging lens systems that are compact and


    Natalia GALANTON


    Full Text Available The present article highlights the basic characteristics of the supply chain, specific to changes in the business environment of companies at the beginning of the 21st century. Supply chain activities turn natural resources, raw materials and components into a finished product, which is then delivered to the final customer. The supply chain incorporates the production process alongside the raw material acquisition and distribution of finished products, encompassing all the existing process responsible for transforming the materials taken from the supplier to the finished products delivered to customers. Today, competitiveness and performance of an organization are dependent on belonging to an efficient and effective supply-delivery chain where synergies exist due to the establishment and implementation of common goals and strategies by partners. Competition does not take place between independent organizations or between small groups of organizations, but between supply and delivery chains, made up of interconnected networks of producers, distributors and logistics providers. Under these circumstances, supply chain managers must seek solutions to respond promptly to the most important challenges in the field.

  11. High gradient lens for charged particle beam

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan


    Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A dynamically adjustable electric lens includes a series of alternating a series of alternating layers of insulators and conductors with a hollow center. The series of alternating layers when stacked together form a high gradient insulator (HGI) tube to allow propagation of the charged particle beam through the hollow center of the HGI tube. A plurality of transmission lines are connected to a plurality of sections of the HGI tube, and one or more voltage sources are provided to supply an adjustable voltage value to each transmission line of the plurality of transmission lines. By changing the voltage values supplied to each section of the HGI tube, any desired electric field can be established across the HGI tube. This way various functionalities including focusing, defocusing, acceleration, deceleration, intensity modulation and others can be effectuated on a time varying basis.

  12. Analysis of uranium supply to 2050


    The central theme of this report is to assess the adequacy of uranium resources to meet future requirements based on a range of opinions as to the future of nuclear power. The report discusses three demand cases that project uranium requirements from 2000 to 2050. The report also reviews the supply sources that are expected to be available to meet reactor uranium demand through to 2050. Supply is divided into two broad categories: secondary and primary supply. The report also assesses the adequacy of uranium resources to satisfy market based production requirements

  13. Algae Resources



    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  14. North American natural gas supply dynamics: A focus on U.S. supply

    George, R.


    This paper discusses US natural gas supply dynamics in the context of the North American gas marketplace. Supply fundamentals are examined, methodology is briefly presented, regional supply outlooks are discussed. Assumptions, drivers and issues are highlighted. The analysis and outlook indicate that the sizeable North American resource base can be economically developed to supply growing US natural gas requirements. The major incremental supply sources are likely to come from deepwater Gulf of Mexico, Rocky Mountain regions, onshore Texas and imports from Canada. Given this outlook, major business and investment opportunities exist for the gas upstream and midstream sectors despite some short-term challenges

  15. Water resources


    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on water resources describes how climate change will affect the supply of water in Canada. Water is one of Canada's greatest resources, which contributes about $7.5 to 23 billion per year to the Canadian economy. The decisions taken to adapt to climate change within the water resources sector will have profound implications in many other areas such as agriculture, human health, transportation and industry. The water related problems include water quality issues that relate to water shortages from droughts, or excesses from floods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts an increase in global average surface air temperatures of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100. Such a change would impact the hydrological cycle, affecting runoff, evaporation patterns, and the amount of water stored in glaciers, lakes, wetlands and groundwater. The uncertainty as to the magnitude of these changes is due to the difficulty that climate models have in projecting future changes in regional precipitation patterns and extreme events. This chapter presents potential impacts of climate change on water resources in the Yukon, British Columbia, the Prairies, the Great Lakes basin, the Atlantic provinces, and the Arctic and Subarctic. The associated concerns for each region were highlighted. Adaptation research has focused on the impacts of supply and demand, and on options to adapt to these impacts. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  16. Sustainability evaluation of water supply technologies

    Godskesen, Berit

    Sustainability evaluation of water supply systems is important to include in the decision making process when planning new technologies or resources for water supply. In Denmark the motivations may be many and different for changing technology, but since water supply is based on groundwater...... the main driver is the limitations of the available resource from the groundwater bodies. The environmental impact of products and systems can be evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) which is a comprehensive and dominant decision support tool capable of evaluating a water system from the cradle......-criteria decision analysis method was used to develop a decision support system and applied to the study. In this thesis a standard LCA of the drinking water supply technology of today (base case) and 4 alternative cases for water supply technologies is conducted. The standard LCA points at the case rain...

  17. Renewables in Global Energy Supply



    Renewable energies are essential contributors to the energy supply portfolio as they contribute to world energy supply security, reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources, and provide opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gases. Differences in definition and lack of adequate data complicated the discussion between participants on these key issues. The International Energy Agency believes that this fact sheet can be of use to all to facilitate the debate on the past, current and future place and role of renewables in total energy supply. Our goal is to present as objectively as possible the main elements of the current renewables energy situation. The definitions and coverage of national statistics vary between countries and organisations. In this fact sheet, the renewables definition includes combustible renewables and waste (CRW), hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, tide and wave energy.

  18. Canadian gas supply : an update

    Rochefort, T.


    An overview of the daily production from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) from 1986 to 1997 was presented. This presentation also outlined Canadian production trends, Canadian reserves and resources, and supply challenges. Ultimate conventional marketable gas from the WCSB, the Scotian Shelf, the Beaufort Sea and Canada's Arctic region was estimated at 591 TCF. Issues regarding supply and demand of natural gas such as the impact of electricity restructuring on pricing, generation fuel mix, the capacity of the U.S. market to absorb Canadian heavy oil production, and the influence of the rate of technological advances on supply and demand were outlined. The overall conclusion confirmed the health and competitiveness of the Canadian upstream sector and expressed confidence that the WCSB can support rising levels of production to meet the expected continued market growth. tabs., figs

  19. Oxygen gradients in tissue-engineered PEGT/PBT cartilaginous constructs: Measurement and modeling

    Malda, J.; Rouwkema, Jeroen; Martens, D.E.; le Comte, EP; Kooy, F.K.; Tramper, J.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Riesle, J.U.


    The supply of oxygen within three-dimensional tissue-engineered (TE) cartilage polymer constructs is mainly by diffusion. Oxygen consumption by cells results in gradients in the oxygen concentration. The aims of this study were, firstly, to identify the gradients within TE cartilage polymer

  20. Oxygen gradients in tissue-engineered PEGT/PBT cartilaginous constructs: measurement and modeling

    Malda, J.; Rouwkema, J.; Martens, D.E.; Paul le Comte, E.; Kooy, F.K.; Tramper, J.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.; Riesle, J.


    The supply of oxygen within three-dimensional tissue-engineered (TE) cartilage polymer constructs is mainly by diffusion. Oxygen consumption by cells results in gradients in the oxygen concentration. The aims of this study were, firstly, to identify the gradients within TE: cartilage polymer

  1. Uranium supply analysis: Evolution of concepts

    Williams, R.M.


    Considerable effort has been expended during the last 15 years to develop improved methods of analysing current and future mineral supply, with the objectives of providing illustrations of mineral supply possibilities that are more meaningful and easily understood. Significant contributions toward these objectives have been made in the course of studies on world uranium supply, which took place in the 1970s prompted by concern about the future availability of mineral fuels. The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have played a key role in these efforts, through their biennial assessments of world uranium supply. There has been a pronounced shift in emphasis in the NEA/IAEA assessments away from resource estimates by themselves as a measure of supply, because of a growing awareness that, in isolation, resource estimates cannot provide a truly meaningful illustration of uranium availability. Indeed, resource estimates taken out of context can lead to false conclusions about resource adequacy. Successive NEA/IAEA studies have made increasing use of projections of production capability that show the possible availability of uranium from different categories of resources and production centres over specified time-frames. It is believed that such supply scenarios provide a much more meaningful illustration of uranium availability for both short and long-term planning purposes. As part of the effort to introduce such an approach to NEA/IAEA uranium supply analyses, the IAEA has prepared a manual which provides general guidelines for preparing projections of production capability. It is hoped that these efforts will contribute to a better understanding of the constraints on uranium supply and to the wider acceptance of projections of production capability as measures of resource adequacy. (author)

  2. Wetting of flat gradient surfaces.

    Bormashenko, Edward


    Gradient, chemically modified, flat surfaces enable directed transport of droplets. Calculation of apparent contact angles inherent for gradient surfaces is challenging even for atomically flat ones. Wetting of gradient, flat solid surfaces is treated within the variational approach, under which the contact line is free to move along the substrate. Transversality conditions of the variational problem give rise to the generalized Young equation valid for gradient solid surfaces. The apparent (equilibrium) contact angle of a droplet, placed on a gradient surface depends on the radius of the contact line and the values of derivatives of interfacial tensions. The linear approximation of the problem is considered. It is demonstrated that the contact angle hysteresis is inevitable on gradient surfaces. Electrowetting of gradient surfaces is discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy supply - a global problem

    Barthelt, K.


    The text of a speech celebrating the 10 years operation of the nuclear power plant in Goesgen. The author expresses his opinion on the future of nuclear energy, on the responsibility towards the next generation and on the energy supply for the Third World. He draws attention to the gap between north and south and to the limited amount of resources and mention the CO2-problem and the potential of nuclear energy

  4. 2005 resource options report

    Morris, T.


    This resource options report (ROR) fulfils regulatory requirements in British Columbia's two-year resource planning process. It identifies a wide range of resources and technologies that could be used to meet BC Hydro's future electricity demand. As such, it facilitates a transparent public review of resource options which include both supply-side and demand-side options. The resource options that will be used in the 2005 integrated electricity plan (IEP) were characterized. This ROR also documents where there is a general agreement or disagreement on the resource type characterization, based on the First Nations and Stakeholder engagement. BC Hydro used current information to provide realistic ranges on volume and cost to characterize environmental and social attributes. The BC Hydro system was modelled to assess the benefit and cost of various resource options. The information resulting from this ROR and IEP will help in making decisions on how to structure competitive acquisition calls and to determine the level of transmission services needed to advance certain BC Hydro projects. The IEP forecasts the nature and quantity of domestic resources required over the next 20 years. A strategic direction on how those needs will be met has been created to guide the management of BC Hydro's energy resources. Supply-side options include near-commercial technologies such as energy storage, ocean waves, tidal, fuel cells and integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. Supply-side options also include natural gas, coal, biomass, geothermal, wind, and hydro. 120 refs., 39 tabs., 21 figs., 6 appendices

  5. The future of oil supply.

    Miller, Richard G; Sorrell, Steven R


    Abundant supplies of oil form the foundation of modern industrial economies, but the capacity to maintain and grow global supply is attracting increasing concern. Some commentators forecast a peak in the near future and a subsequent terminal decline in global oil production, while others highlight the recent growth in 'tight oil' production and the scope for developing unconventional resources. There are disagreements over the size, cost and recoverability of different resources, the technical and economic potential of different technologies, the contribution of different factors to market trends and the economic implications of reduced supply. Few debates are more important, more contentious, more wide-ranging or more confused. This paper summarizes the main concepts, terms, issues and evidence that are necessary to understand the 'peak oil' debate. These include: the origin, nature and classification of oil resources; the trends in oil production and discoveries; the typical production profiles of oil fields, basins and producing regions; the mechanisms underlying those profiles; the extent of depletion of conventional oil; the risk of an approaching peak in global production; and the potential of various mitigation options. The aim is to introduce the subject to non-specialist readers and provide a basis for the subsequent papers in this Theme Issue.

  6. Outlook for Noth American natural gas supplies

    Kuuskraa, V.A.


    The underlying resource base for North America natural gas is large, sufficient for nearly 100 years of current consumption. As such, the issues are not the size of the resource, but how to convert this resource into economically competitive supply. The key questions are: Will the cost (price) of natural gas remain competitive? What is the status of near-term deliverability? Will there be enough supply to meet growing demand? These economic and market issues frame the outlook for gas supplies in North America. Most importantly, they will determine how natural gas emerges from its competition for markets with other fuels and electricity. The paper addresses these questions by examining: (1) the underlying nature of the natural gas resource base; (2) the current status and trends in deliverability; and, (3) the potential of new technologies for producing gas more cost-effectively. (author)

  7. Optimizing sampling approaches along ecological gradients

    Schweiger, Andreas; Irl, Severin D. H.; Steinbauer, Manuel


    1. Natural scientists and especially ecologists use manipulative experiments or field observations along gradients to differentiate patterns driven by processes from those caused by random noise. A well-conceived sampling design is essential for identifying, analysing and reporting underlying...... patterns in a statistically solid and reproducible manner, given the normal restrictions in labour, time and money. However, a technical guideline about an adequate sampling design to maximize prediction success under restricted resources is lacking. This study aims at developing such a solid...... and reproducible guideline for sampling along gradients in all fields of ecology and science in general. 2. We conducted simulations with artificial data for five common response types known in ecology, each represented by a simple function (no response, linear, exponential, symmetric unimodal and asymmetric...

  8. Sustainability of Drinking Water Supply Projects in Rural of North ...

    Background: Safe water supply coverage in the rural areas of Ethiopia is very marginal. The coverage still remains very low because of limited progress in water supply activities in these areas. Factors affecting the continued use of the outcome of water supply projects in the background of limited resources are not well ...

  9. A coordination theoretic model for three level supply chains using ...

    Typically, supply chain members are dependent on each other to manage various resources and information. The conflicting objectives and lack of coordination between supply chain members may often cause uncertainties in supply and demand. The basic elements of coordination theory like interdependency, coherency ...

  10. Directional phytoscreening: contaminant gradients in trees for plume delineation.

    Limmer, Matt A; Shetty, Mikhil K; Markus, Samantha; Kroeker, Ryan; Parker, Beth L; Martinez, Camilo; Burken, Joel G


    Tree sampling methods have been used in phytoscreening applications to delineate contaminated soil and groundwater, augmenting traditional investigative methods that are time-consuming, resource-intensive, invasive, and costly. In the past decade, contaminant concentrations in tree tissues have been shown to reflect the extent and intensity of subsurface contamination. This paper investigates a new phytoscreening tool: directional tree coring, a concept originating from field data that indicated azimuthal concentrations in tree trunks reflected the concentration gradients in the groundwater around the tree. To experimentally test this hypothesis, large diameter trees were subjected to subsurface contaminant concentration gradients in a greenhouse study. These trees were then analyzed for azimuthal concentration gradients in aboveground tree tissues, revealing contaminant centroids located on the side of the tree nearest the most contaminated groundwater. Tree coring at three field sites revealed sufficiently steep contaminant gradients in trees reflected nearby groundwater contaminant gradients. In practice, trees possessing steep contaminant gradients are indicators of steep subsurface contaminant gradients, providing compass-like information about the contaminant gradient, pointing investigators toward higher concentration regions of the plume.

  11. 30 CFR 36.27 - Fuel-supply system.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel-supply system. 36.27 Section 36.27 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... Construction and Design Requirements § 36.27 Fuel-supply system. (a) Fuel tank. (1) The fuel tank shall not...

  12. Consumer driven supply chains: the case of Dutch organic tomato

    Anastasiadis, F.; Dam, van Y.K.


    Supply chain management refers to the efficient integration of various processes involved in turning resources into consumer products. Effectiveness of the supply chain is more easily understood in terms of Value Chain Management, and the integration of processes that turn resources into consumer

  13. Wood fiber supply and demand in the United States.

    Kenneth E. Skog; Peter J. Ince; Richard W. Haynes


    The USDA Forest Service is preparing a national assessment of supply and demand for wood fiber resources in the United States. Based in part on preliminary results of this assessment and partly on our 1993 Assessment, this paper outlines trends and gives an outlook for demand and trade for timber and fiber products, changes in technology, and wood fiber resource supply...

  14. Forest gradient response in Sierran landscapes: the physical template

    Urban, Dean L.; Miller, Carol; Halpin, Patrick N.; Stephenson, Nathan L.


    Vegetation pattern on landscapes is the manifestation of physical gradients, biotic response to these gradients, and disturbances. Here we focus on the physical template as it governs the distribution of mixed-conifer forests in California's Sierra Nevada. We extended a forest simulation model to examine montane environmental gradients, emphasizing factors affecting the water balance in these summer-dry landscapes. The model simulates the soil moisture regime in terms of the interaction of water supply and demand: supply depends on precipitation and water storage, while evapotranspirational demand varies with solar radiation and temperature. The forest cover itself can affect the water balance via canopy interception and evapotranspiration. We simulated Sierran forests as slope facets, defined as gridded stands of homogeneous topographic exposure, and verified simulated gradient response against sample quadrats distributed across Sequoia National Park. We then performed a modified sensitivity analysis of abiotic factors governing the physical gradient. Importantly, the model's sensitivity to temperature, precipitation, and soil depth varies considerably over the physical template, particularly relative to elevation. The physical drivers of the water balance have characteristic spatial scales that differ by orders of magnitude. Across large spatial extents, temperature and precipitation as defined by elevation primarily govern the location of the mixed conifer zone. If the analysis is constrained to elevations within the mixed-conifer zone, local topography comes into play as it influences drainage. Soil depth varies considerably at all measured scales, and is especially dominant at fine (within-stand) scales. Physical site variables can influence soil moisture deficit either by affecting water supply or water demand; these effects have qualitatively different implications for forest response. These results have clear implications about purely inferential approaches

  15. Gradient Boosting Machines, A Tutorial

    Alexey eNatekin


    Full Text Available Gradient boosting machines are a family of powerful machine-learning techniques that have shown considerable success in a wide range of practical applications. They are highly customizable to the particular needs of the application, like being learned with respect to different loss functions. This article gives a tutorial introduction into the methodology of gradient boosting methods. A theoretical information is complemented with many descriptive examples and illustrations which cover all the stages of the gradient boosting model design. Considerations on handling the model complexity are discussed. A set of practical examples of gradient boosting applications are presented and comprehensively analyzed.

  16. Portico charging to control column gradient in the ESTU

    McKay, J.W.


    The problem of gradient control in the ESTU is made more complicated than in a standard machine by the presence of a Portico. Normally charge is supplied to the terminal of a Van De Graaff by chains or a belt, then flows away from the terminal via resistor chains or directly to the corona point. In addition, charge may be drawn from the terminal due to the action of radiation sources. This paper reports on efforts to charge the Portico to control column gradient

  17. Gradient waveform synthesis for magnetic propulsion using MRI gradient coils

    Han, B H; Lee, S Y; Park, S


    Navigating an untethered micro device in a living subject is of great interest for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Magnetic propulsion of an untethered device carrying a magnetic core in it is one of the promising methods to navigate the device. MRI gradients coils are thought to be suitable for navigating the device since they are capable of magnetic propulsion in any direction while providing magnetic resonance images. For precise navigation of the device, especially in the peripheral region of the gradient coils, the concomitant gradient fields, as well as the linear gradient fields in the main magnetic field direction, should be considered in driving the gradient coils. For simple gradient coil configurations, the Maxwell coil in the z-direction and the Golay coil in the x- and y-directions, we have calculated the magnetic force fields, which are not necessarily the same as the conventional linear gradient fields of MRI. Using the calculated magnetic force fields, we have synthesized gradient waveforms to navigate the device along a desired path

  18. Towards an Empirical-Relational Model of Supply Chain Flexibility

    Santanu Mandal


    Supply chains are prone to disruptions and associated risks. To develop capabilities for risk mitigation, supply chains need to be flexible. A flexible supply chain can respond better to environmental contingencies. Based on the theoretical tenets of resource-based view, relational view and dynamic capabilities theory, the current study develops a relational model of supply chain flexibility comprising trust, commitment, communication, co-operation, adaptation and interdependence. Subsequentl...

  19. Vendor Managed Inventory: A new approach to supply chain management

    Gandhi, Ujval


    The Global Supply Chain Forum (Stanford Global Supply Chain Forum Web Resource, defines supply chain management (SCM) as “Supply chain management is the integration of key business processes from end user through original suppliers that provides products, services and information that add value for customer and other stakeholders.” The rapid development of the Internet has dramatically changed the traditional definitions of manufacturer, suppliers and c...

  20. Laser power supply

    Bernstein, D.


    The laser power supply includes a regulator which has a high voltage control loop based on a linear approximation of a laser tube negative resistance characteristic. The regulator has independent control loops for laser current and power supply high voltage

  1. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    Kocherginskaya, S.A.; Cann, I.K.O.; Mackie, R.I.


    It is worthwhile considering that only some 30 species make up the bulk of the bacterial population in human faeces at any one time based on the classical cultivation-based approach. The situation in the rumen is similar. Thus, it is practical to focus on specific groups of interest within the complex community. These may be the predominant or the most active species, specific physiological groups or readily identifiable (genetic) clusters of phylogenetically related organisms. Several 16S rDNA fingerprinting techniques can be invaluable for selecting and monitoring sequences or phylogenetic groups of interest and are described below. Over the past few decades, considerable attention was focussed on the identification of pure cultures of microbes on the basis of genetic polymorphisms of DNA encoding rRNA such as ribotyping, amplified fragment length polymorphism and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA. However, many of these methods require prior cultivation and are less suitable for use in analysis of complex mixed populations although important in describing cultivated microbial diversity in molecular terms. Much less attention was given to molecular characterization of complex communities. In particular, research into diversity and community structure over time has been revolutionized by the advent of molecular fingerprinting techniques for complex communities. Denaturing or temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE/TGGE) methods have been successfully applied to the analysis of human, pig, cattle, dog and rodent intestinal populations

  2. Ion temperature gradient instability


    Anomalous ion thermal conductivity remains an open physics issue for the present generation of high temperature Tokamaks. It is generally believed to be due to Ion Temperature Gradient Instability (η i mode). However, it has been difficult, if not impossible to identify this instability and study the anomalous transport due to it, directly. Therefore the production and identification of the mode is pursued in the simpler and experimentally convenient configuration of the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM). CLM is a steady state machine which already has all the appropriate parameters, except η i . This parameter is being increased to the appropriate value of the order of 1 by 'feathering' a tungsten screen located between the plasma source and the experimental cell to flatten the density profile and appropriate redesign of heating antennas to steepen the ion temperature profile. Once the instability is produced and identified, a thorough study of the characteristics of the mode can be done via a wide range of variation of all the critical parameters: η i , parallel wavelength, etc

  3. Foreign uranium supply. Final report

    McLeod, N.B.; Steyn, J.J.


    This report presents an assessment of the extent to which foreign uranium may be available to United States utilities in the short term (through 1980), the intermediate term (1981--1985), and the long term (1986--95). All free world foreign uranium producers and prospects are included, with particular emphasis on Australia, Canada, southern Africa, France, and French-speaking Africa. The assessment includes reserves, resources, exploration and prospects; firm and potential production capacity and prospects; national policies and relevant political and economic conditions; foreign uranium demand; etc. Conclusions are: Foreign supply capability is greater than foreign demand in the near term. The current availability of uncommitted future Australian production presents an unusual opportunity for establishing commercial relations with very substantial producers. Foreign uranium contracts represent an increase in diversity of supply and access to resources but have less assurance of supply than do domestic contracts. However, uncertainties can frequently be accommodated within an overall procurement program, thereby retaining the diversity and price advantages of foreign procurement. The practice of market pricing of contracts reduces the incentives for foreign contracting

  4. Changing landscape for North American supply

    Deegan, J.


    The United States represents 29 per cent of world natural gas consumption but holds 5 per cent of world natural gas resources. Supply and demand balances in the United States were examined in this PowerPoint presentation. Issues concerning market considerations and the Energy Policy Act were reviewed. The impacts of hurricanes were assessed and the U.S. supply and demand balance for the winter of 2004-2005 was considered. Growing producer expenditures were reviewed, and average finding and development cost increases were presented. New supply sources were examined, and details of expected major domestic supply contributors by 2010 were presented by region. It was suggested that unconventional sources will play a greater role in U.S. natural gas supply, and that liquefied natural gas (LNG) will be needed to attract resources within the world market. Increased regulatory certainty and supply flexibility is essential to economical supply development decisions. Issues concerning the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's role in LNG terminal siting were examined. Permits, taxes and royalty incentives for deep water exploration were discussed. It was suggested that the Energy Policy Act falls short on increasing access to new supply. It was observed that traditional North American producing areas will provide only 75 per cent of long-term U.S. needs. Access to multi-use, non-park, non-wilderness federal lands for gas exploration will be needed. It was concluded that non-conventional resources are more costly and face greater public resistance than conventional resource plays. tabs., figs

  5. Vliv Cloud Computingu na Supply Chain Management

    Karkošková, Soňa


    Master thesis "Impact of Cloud Computing on Supply Chain Management" analyses the provisioning of IT resources in the form of cloud computing services and their impact on supply chain management environment. Attention is focused particularly on providing SaaS model of public applications delivery. The Cloud SCM implementation offers many advantages especially for small and medium sized companies. In this thesis I analysed the specifics of the deployment of Cloud SCM in highly unstable market ...

  6. Changing landscape for North American supply

    Deegan, J. [Natural Gas Supply Association, Washington DC (United States)


    The United States represents 29 per cent of world natural gas consumption but holds 5 per cent of world natural gas resources. Supply and demand balances in the United States were examined in this PowerPoint presentation. Issues concerning market considerations and the Energy Policy Act were reviewed. The impacts of hurricanes were assessed and the U.S. supply and demand balance for the winter of 2004-2005 was considered. Growing producer expenditures were reviewed, and average finding and development cost increases were presented. New supply sources were examined, and details of expected major domestic supply contributors by 2010 were presented by region. It was suggested that unconventional sources will play a greater role in U.S. natural gas supply, and that liquefied natural gas (LNG) will be needed to attract resources within the world market. Increased regulatory certainty and supply flexibility is essential to economical supply development decisions. Issues concerning the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's role in LNG terminal siting were examined. Permits, taxes and royalty incentives for deep water exploration were discussed. It was suggested that the Energy Policy Act falls short on increasing access to new supply. It was observed that traditional North American producing areas will provide only 75 per cent of long-term U.S. needs. Access to multi-use, non-park, non-wilderness federal lands for gas exploration will be needed. It was concluded that non-conventional resources are more costly and face greater public resistance than conventional resource plays. tabs., figs.

  7. Supply Cain Risk Management

    Goodwin, Les


    “The management of supply chain risk is crucial to any business, more so to Rolls Royce who face an almost doubling of load within the next 10 years. So what is supply chain risk management and how well is it deployed within an operational business of Rolls Royce? What are the tools and techniques available and what are the key issues around implementing world class supply chain risk management with a Supply Chain Unit within Rolls Royce?”

  8. Report from the Uranium Supply Committee


    Based on studies of world uranium supply made by NEA, IAEA and other national and international bodies the Danish Uranium Supply Committee has examined the uranium supply situation. The Committee concludes that there will be no lack of natural uranium in a period until year 2025 provided that more advanced and uranium economic reactors will be effiective from the beginning of the 21th century. However it will be necessary to discover new resources and to use low-grade uranium resources. Through long term contracts with the users the uranium producers should be urged to continue their production. The Committee recommends that uranium prospecting in Greenland continues in order to get a through knowledge of Greenlandic resources. The establishment of further reprocessing capacity should be speeded up, whereas the Committee do not foresee any shortages with regard to enrichment, conversion, and fuel element production. (BP)

  9. Characterization of gradient control systems

    Cortés, Jorge; van der Schaft, Arjan; Crouch, Peter E.


    Given a general nonlinear affine control system with outputs and a torsion-free affine connection defined on its state space, we investigate the gradient realization problem: we give necessary and sufficient conditions under which the control system can be written as a gradient control system

  10. Characterization of Gradient Control Systems

    Cortés, Jorge; Schaft, Arjan van der; Crouch, Peter E.


    Given a general nonlinear affine control system with outputs and a torsion-free affine connection defined on its state space, we investigate the gradient realization problem: we give necessary and sufficient conditions under which the control system can be written as a gradient control system

  11. Sobolev gradients and differential equations

    Neuberger, J W


    A Sobolev gradient of a real-valued functional on a Hilbert space is a gradient of that functional taken relative to an underlying Sobolev norm. This book shows how descent methods using such gradients allow a unified treatment of a wide variety of problems in differential equations. For discrete versions of partial differential equations, corresponding Sobolev gradients are seen to be vastly more efficient than ordinary gradients. In fact, descent methods with these gradients generally scale linearly with the number of grid points, in sharp contrast with the use of ordinary gradients. Aside from the first edition of this work, this is the only known account of Sobolev gradients in book form. Most of the applications in this book have emerged since the first edition was published some twelve years ago. What remains of the first edition has been extensively revised. There are a number of plots of results from calculations and a sample MatLab code is included for a simple problem. Those working through a fair p...

  12. Electric field gradients in metals

    Schatz, G.


    A review of the recent works on electric field gradient in metals is given. The main emphasis is put on the temperature dependence of the electric field gradient in nonmagnetic metals. Some methods of investigation of this effect using nuclear probes are described. One of them is nuclear accoustic resonance method. (S.B.)

  13. Energy supply. Energieversorgung

    Eickhof, N.


    This anthology presents nine papers dealing with the following subjects: 1) international and national aspects of energy supply, 2) regional and local energy supply concepts, and 3) issues of district-heat supply. Each of the nine papers was entered separately.

  14. Trim coil power supplies

    Haisler, R.; Peeler, H.; Zajicek, W.


    The 18 trim coil power supplies have been constructed and are now in place in the K500 pit and pit mezzanine. Final wiring of the primary power and control power is proceeding along with installation of cooling water supplies. The supplies are expected to be ready for final testing into resistive loads at the beginning of June, 1985

  15. Morphogengineering roots: comparing mechanisms of morphogen gradient formation


    Background In developmental biology, there has been a recent focus on the robustness of morphogen gradients as possible providers of positional information. It was shown that functional morphogen gradients present strong biophysical constraints and lack of robustness to noise. Here we explore how the details of the mechanism which underlies the generation of a morphogen gradient can influence those properties. Results We contrast three gradient-generating mechanisms, (i) a source-decay mechanism; and (ii) a unidirectional transport mechanism; and (iii) a so-called reflux-loop mechanism. Focusing on the dynamics of the phytohormone auxin in the root, we show that only the reflux-loop mechanism can generate a gradient that would be adequate to supply functional positional information for the Arabidopsis root, for biophysically reasonable kinetic parameters. Conclusions We argue that traits that differ in spatial and temporal time-scales can impose complex selective pressures on the mechanism of morphogen gradient formation used for the development of the particular organism. PMID:22583698

  16. The geomagnetic field gradient tensor

    Kotsiaros, Stavros; Olsen, Nils


    We develop the general mathematical basis for space magnetic gradiometry in spherical coordinates. The magnetic gradient tensor is a second rank tensor consisting of 3 × 3 = 9 spatial derivatives. Since the geomagnetic field vector B is always solenoidal (∇ · B = 0) there are only eight independent...... tensor elements. Furthermore, in current free regions the magnetic gradient tensor becomes symmetric, further reducing the number of independent elements to five. In that case B is a Laplacian potential field and the gradient tensor can be expressed in series of spherical harmonics. We present properties...... of the magnetic gradient tensor and provide explicit expressions of its elements in terms of spherical harmonics. Finally we discuss the benefit of using gradient measurements for exploring the Earth’s magnetic field from space, in particular the advantage of the various tensor elements for a better determination...

  17. Analysis of uranium supply to 2050

    Underhill, D.H.


    The 1999 uranium mine production was about 55% of the 61 500 tonnes uranium (t U) used by the nuclear industry, with the balance met by secondary supply. Based on a recent WEC-IIASA study which defines a wide range of possible future levels of nuclear electricity generation, it is estimated that by 2050 annual uranium requirements could increase to 177 000 and 283 000 t U respectively, in the mid and high cases, or fall to 52 000 t U in the low case. Cumulative requirements to 2050 for the low, mid and high cases are, respectively 3.39, 5.35 and 7.58 million t U. A new IAEA analysis describes how known uranium resources (RAR and EAR-1) plus undiscovered resources (EAR-II and SR), supplemented by secondary supplies, could be utilized to supply reactors to 2050. Secondary supplies include: existing inventories, blended down warhead material (LEU blended from HEU), MOX, Repu, and re-enrichment of tails. The methodology of this analysis estimates the amounts and annual deliveries of the secondary supply, plus non-market supply. The balance of demand is met from Market Based Production (MBP) or: 'Uranium produced at or below market price to satisfy requirements not met by other supply sources'. The analysis then evaluates the production role for 125 uranium deposits, which supply MBP considering individual deposit resources, production cost and capability, and timing. Production costs are classified from low ( $130/kgU). Annual supply and demand balancing is used to allocate the resources on an individual deposit basis, assuming use of the next lowest available cost production. Secondary supplies will continue to supplement mine production to about 2025, but their relative importance will decrease over the period. An analysis of the benefit of lowering the enrichment tails assay from 0.30% 235 U to 0.15% 235 U, when economically justified is also discussed. The report also discusses projected production cost trends to 2025 under the mid and high cases. The final

  18. True Nature of Supply Network Communication Structure

    Lokhman Hakim bin Osman


    Full Text Available Globalization of world economy has altered the definition of organizational structure. Global supply chain can no longer be viewed as an arm-length structure. It has become more complex. The complexity demands deeper research and understanding. This research analyzed a structure of supply network in an attempt to elucidate the true structure of the supply network. Using the quantitative Social Network Analysis methodology, findings of this study indicated that, the structure of the supply network differs depending on the types of network relations. An important implication of these findings would be a more focus resource management upon network relationship development that is based on firms’ positions in the different network structure. This research also contributes to the various strategies of effective and efficient supply chain management.

  19. On combined gravity gradient components modelling for applied geophysics

    Veryaskin, Alexey; McRae, Wayne


    Gravity gradiometry research and development has intensified in recent years to the extent that technologies providing a resolution of about 1 eotvos per 1 second average shall likely soon be available for multiple critical applications such as natural resources exploration, oil reservoir monitoring and defence establishment. Much of the content of this paper was composed a decade ago, and only minor modifications were required for the conclusions to be just as applicable today. In this paper we demonstrate how gravity gradient data can be modelled, and show some examples of how gravity gradient data can be combined in order to extract valuable information. In particular, this study demonstrates the importance of two gravity gradient components, Txz and Tyz, which, when processed together, can provide more information on subsurface density contrasts than that derived solely from the vertical gravity gradient (Tzz)

  20. Power supply system for KSTAR neutral beam injector

    Cho, W., E-mail:; Bae, Y.S.; Han, W.S.; Jeong, J.H.; Kim, J.S.; Park, H.T.; Yang, H.L.; Oh, Y.K.; Kwak, J.G.


    Highlights: • The power supply system in KSTAR NBI consists of DC power supplies for ion source. • For operation NBI, DC High Voltage based on the low voltage transformer with chopper. • The surge absorber near the ion source limit the energy deposited to accelerator grid. - Abstract: The power supply system in KSTAR neutral beam injector consists of low voltage and high current DC power supplies for plasma generator of ion source and high voltage and high current DC power supply for accelerator grid system. The arc discharge is initiated by an arc power supply supplying the arc voltage between the chamber wall and 12 filaments which are heated by individual filament power supply. The negative output of arc power supply is common to each positive output of 12 filament power supplies. To interrupt the arc discharging for the fault condition of the arc current unbalance, DCCT current monitor is placed at the positive output cable of the filament power supply. The plasma grid (G1) power supply has the maximum capability of 120 kV/70 A which consists of low voltage regulator with IGBT-switched chopper array system for the voltage control in unit of 600 V and the high voltage rectified transformers to supply DC voltage of 20 kV, 30 kV, and 50 kV. The output voltage of the G1 power supply is also connected to the input of the voltage divider system which supplies the gradient voltage to the gradient grid (G2) in the range of 80–90% of G1 voltage by changing tap of winding resistors in unit of 1%. The charged G1 voltage is turned on and off by the high voltage switch (HVS) system consisting of MOSFET fast semiconductor switches which can immediately be opened less than 1 μs when the ion source grid breakdown occurs. The decelerating grid (G3) power supply is inverter system using capacitor-charge power supply to supply maximum −5 kV/5 A. The important component in power supply system is the surge absorber near the ion source to limit the arc energy deposited to

  1. Power supply system for KSTAR neutral beam injector

    Cho, W.; Bae, Y.S.; Han, W.S.; Jeong, J.H.; Kim, J.S.; Park, H.T.; Yang, H.L.; Oh, Y.K.; Kwak, J.G.


    Highlights: • The power supply system in KSTAR NBI consists of DC power supplies for ion source. • For operation NBI, DC High Voltage based on the low voltage transformer with chopper. • The surge absorber near the ion source limit the energy deposited to accelerator grid. - Abstract: The power supply system in KSTAR neutral beam injector consists of low voltage and high current DC power supplies for plasma generator of ion source and high voltage and high current DC power supply for accelerator grid system. The arc discharge is initiated by an arc power supply supplying the arc voltage between the chamber wall and 12 filaments which are heated by individual filament power supply. The negative output of arc power supply is common to each positive output of 12 filament power supplies. To interrupt the arc discharging for the fault condition of the arc current unbalance, DCCT current monitor is placed at the positive output cable of the filament power supply. The plasma grid (G1) power supply has the maximum capability of 120 kV/70 A which consists of low voltage regulator with IGBT-switched chopper array system for the voltage control in unit of 600 V and the high voltage rectified transformers to supply DC voltage of 20 kV, 30 kV, and 50 kV. The output voltage of the G1 power supply is also connected to the input of the voltage divider system which supplies the gradient voltage to the gradient grid (G2) in the range of 80–90% of G1 voltage by changing tap of winding resistors in unit of 1%. The charged G1 voltage is turned on and off by the high voltage switch (HVS) system consisting of MOSFET fast semiconductor switches which can immediately be opened less than 1 μs when the ion source grid breakdown occurs. The decelerating grid (G3) power supply is inverter system using capacitor-charge power supply to supply maximum −5 kV/5 A. The important component in power supply system is the surge absorber near the ion source to limit the arc energy deposited to

  2. Supply regimes in fisheries

    Nielsen, Max


    Supply in fisheries is traditionally known for its backward bending nature, owing to externalities in production. Such a supply regime, however, exist only for pure open access fisheries. Since most fisheries worldwide are neither pure open access, nor optimally managed, rather between the extremes......, the traditional understanding of supply regimes in fisheries needs modification. This paper identifies through a case study of the East Baltic cod fishery supply regimes in fisheries, taking alternative fisheries management schemes and mesh size limitations into account. An age-structured Beverton-Holt based bio......-economic supply model with mesh sizes is developed. It is found that in the presence of realistic management schemes, the supply curves are close to vertical in the relevant range. Also, the supply curve under open access with mesh size limitations is almost vertical in the relevant range, owing to constant...

  3. Online Resources

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Online Resources. Journal of Genetics. Online Resources. Volume 97. 2018 | Online resources. Volume 96. 2017 | Online resources. Volume 95. 2016 | Online resources. Volume 94. 2015 | Online resources. Volume 93. 2014 | Online resources. Volume 92. 2013 | Online resources ...




    Full Text Available Armijo rule is an inexact line search method to determine step size in some descent method to solve unconstrained local optimization. Modified Armijo was introduced to increase the numerical performance of several descent algorithms that applying this method. The basic difference of Armijo and its modified are in existence of a parameter and estimating the parameter that is updated in every iteration. This article is comparing numerical solution and time of computation of gradient descent and conjugate gradient hybrid Gilbert-Nocedal (CGHGN that applying modified Armijo rule. From program implementation in Matlab 6, it's known that gradient descent was applying modified Armijo more effectively than CGHGN from one side: iteration needed to reach some norm of the gradient  (input by the user. The amount of iteration was representing how long the step size of each algorithm in each iteration. In another side, time of computation has the same conclusion.

  5. Combining Step Gradients and Linear Gradients in Density.

    Kumar, Ashok A; Walz, Jenna A; Gonidec, Mathieu; Mace, Charles R; Whitesides, George M


    Combining aqueous multiphase systems (AMPS) and magnetic levitation (MagLev) provides a method to produce hybrid gradients in apparent density. AMPS—solutions of different polymers, salts, or surfactants that spontaneously separate into immiscible but predominantly aqueous phases—offer thermodynamically stable steps in density that can be tuned by the concentration of solutes. MagLev—the levitation of diamagnetic objects in a paramagnetic fluid within a magnetic field gradient—can be arranged to provide a near-linear gradient in effective density where the height of a levitating object above the surface of the magnet corresponds to its density; the strength of the gradient in effective density can be tuned by the choice of paramagnetic salt and its concentrations and by the strength and gradient in the magnetic field. Including paramagnetic salts (e.g., MnSO4 or MnCl2) in AMPS, and placing them in a magnetic field gradient, enables their use as media for MagLev. The potential to create large steps in density with AMPS allows separations of objects across a range of densities. The gradients produced by MagLev provide resolution over a continuous range of densities. By combining these approaches, mixtures of objects with large differences in density can be separated and analyzed simultaneously. Using MagLev to add an effective gradient in density also enables tuning the range of densities captured at an interface of an AMPS by simply changing the position of the container in the magnetic field. Further, by creating AMPS in which phases have different concentrations of paramagnetic ions, the phases can provide different resolutions in density. These results suggest that combining steps in density with gradients in density can enable new classes of separations based on density.

  6. Block-conjugate-gradient method

    McCarthy, J.F.


    It is shown that by using the block-conjugate-gradient method several, say s, columns of the inverse Kogut-Susskind fermion matrix can be found simultaneously, in less time than it would take to run the standard conjugate-gradient algorithm s times. The method improves in efficiency relative to the standard conjugate-gradient algorithm as the fermion mass is decreased and as the value of the coupling is pushed to its limit before the finite-size effects become important. Thus it is potentially useful for measuring propagators in large lattice-gauge-theory calculations of the particle spectrum

  7. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Eugen Zaitsev


    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.


    Rogner, H.H.; Langlois, L.M.; McDonald, A.; Weisser, D.; Howells, M.


    In general, increasing a country's energy supply security does not come for free. It costs money to build up a strategic reserve, to increase supply diversity or even to accelerate energy efficiency improvements. Nor are all investments in increasing energy supply security cost effective, even if the shocks they are designed to insure against can be predicted with 100% accuracy. The first half of the paper surveys different definitions and strategies associated with the concept of energy supply security, and compares current initiatives to establish an 'assured supply of nuclear fuel' to the International Energy Agency's (IEA's) system of strategic national oil reserves. The second half of the paper presents results from several case studies of the costs and effectiveness of selected energy supply security policies. One case study examines alternative strategies for Lithuania following the scheduled closure of the Ignalina-2 nuclear reactor in 2009. The second case study examines, for countries with different energy resources and demand structures, the effectiveness of a policy to increase supply diversity by expanding renewable energy supplies. (auth)

  9. Supply Chain Management og Supply Chain costing

    Nielsen, Steen; Mortensen, Ole


    Formålet med denne artikel er at belyse de muligheder som ligger i at integrere virksomhedens økonomiske styring med begrebet Supply Chain Management (SCM). Dette søges belyst ved først at beskrive den teoretiske ramme, hvori SCM indgår. Herefter analyseres begrebet Supply Chain Costing (SCC) som...... Århus. Et resultat er, at via begrebet Supply Chain Costing skabes der mulighed for at måle logistikkædens aktiviteter i kr./øre. Anvendelsen af denne information har også strategisk betydning for at kunne vælge kunde og leverandør. Ved hjælp af integrationen skabes der også helt nye mulighed...

  10. New local energy supply as a communal task. Solar statutes between local autonomy and global climatic and resources protection; Neue oertliche Energieversorgung als kommunale Aufgabe. Solarsatzungen zwischen gemeindlicher Selbstverwaltung und globalem Klima- und Ressourcenschutz

    Longo, Fabio


    Cities and communities have a constitutionally secured autonomy. What means this within the range of the protection of climate and resources? May communities take over global tasks, or are these limited in their local sphere of activity? In the meantime, in most German city halls something is done for the employment of renewable energies. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports at first on a comprehensive jurisprudential answer on the fundamental question which local tasks are entitled to the cities and communities and how this affects the range of climate protection and resources protection. Moreover, up-to-date particularly disputed local solar statutes are evaluated legally.

  11. FY 1982 report on the results of the verification test on the methanol conversion for oil-fired power plant. Survey of the potential supply amount of overseas resource (Survey of the potential supply amount of methanol); 1982 nendo sekiyu karyoku hatsudensho metanoru tenkan tou jissho shiken. Kaigai shigen kyokyu kano ryo chosa (Metanoru kyokyu kano ryo chosa) seika hokokusho



    For the study of the potential supply amount of methanol as power generation use fuel, survey was conducted as case study on the following: Victorian brown coal of Australia, conversion of Arun natural gas to methanol at site in Indonesia, political/social/technical restrictions, supply scale, economical efficiency, etc. at the time of the supply to Japan. For the calculation of economical efficiency, it was assumed that the scale of methanol production was 5,000 t/d, that the plant operated years were 20 and that the price of acquisition of raw material was US$4-10/t in Victorian brown coal and US$1-4/t in Arun natural gas. As a result of the study, in the case of natural gas base methanol, the CIF Japan is lower than CIF prices of LNG and crude oil in case the price of acquisition of raw material is US$1/t, but is higher than those in case the price is US$2/t. In the case of brown coal base methanol, it was found that the CIF Japan could not be lower than CIF prices of LNG and crude oil even in case the price of acquisition of raw material is US$4/t, which is the lowest. (NEDO)

  12. Closed Loop Supply Chains for Sustainable Mass Customization

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev


    Closed loop supply chains reducing waste, energy consumption and natural resource depletion which all contribute to more sustainable production and products. For mass customization however, the challenges of closed loop supply chains are emphasized by the large variety of inbound end-of-life prod......Closed loop supply chains reducing waste, energy consumption and natural resource depletion which all contribute to more sustainable production and products. For mass customization however, the challenges of closed loop supply chains are emphasized by the large variety of inbound end...

  13. Competition along productivity gradients: news from heathlands.

    Delerue, Florian; Gonzalez, Maya; Achat, David L; Puzos, Luc; Augusto, Laurent


    The importance of competition in low productive habitats is still debated. Studies which simultaneously evaluate preemption of resources and consequences for population dynamics are needed for a comprehensive view of competitive outcomes. We cultivated two emblematic species of European heathlands (Calluna vulgaris and Molinia caerulea) in a nursery for 2 years at two fertility levels, reproducing the productivity gradient found in phosphorus (P)-depleted heathlands in southwest France. The second year, we planted Ulex europaeus seedlings, a ubiquitous heathland species, under the cover of the two species to evaluate its ability to regenerate. Half of the seedlings were placed in tubes for exclusion of competitor roots. We measured the development of the competitors aboveground and belowground and their interception of resources (light, water, inorganic P). Ulex seedlings' growth and survival were also measured. Our results on resources interception were consistent with species distribution in heathlands. Molinia, which dominates rich heathlands, was the strongest competitor for light and water in the rich soil. Calluna, which dominates poor heathlands, increased its root allocation in the poor soil, decreasing water and inorganic P availability. However, the impact of total competition and root competition on Ulex seedlings decreased in the poor soil. Other mechanisms, especially decrease of water stress under neighbouring plant cover, appeared to have more influence on the seedlings' response. We found no formal contradiction between Tilman and Grime's theories. Root competition has a primary role in acquisition of soil resources in poor habitats. However, the importance of competition decreases with decreasing fertility.

  14. Maintenance Resources Evaluation Technique.


    variable Z; P-6 BIBLIOGRAPHY Argentine Air Force. Reglamento de Conduction Logistica RAC 9 (Logistics Management Regulation). Estado Mayor General de ...other hand, too many resources are expensive to acquire and maintain and difficult to transport . 1-1 Sizing the means needed to accomplish its...functional areas (maintenance, supply/inventory, transportation , etc), methodologies of operations research (simulation, mathematical programming

  15. Canadian gas resource



    Canadian exports of gas to the United States are a critical component of EMF-9 (North American Gas Supplies). However, it has been noted that there are differences between US expectations for imports and Canadian forecasts of export supply capacity. Recent studies by the National Petroleum Council (NPC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) indicate that 1.8 to 2.4 Tcf of imports may be required in the mid to late 1990's; A recent study by Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) indicates that the conventional resource base may not be able to provide continued gas exports to the US after the mid 1990's and that frontier sources would need to be developed to meet US expectations. The discrepancies between US expectations and Canadian estimates of capacity are of great concern to US policymakers because they call into question the availability of secure supplies of natural gas and suggest that the cost of imports (if available) will be high. By implication, if shortages are to be averted, massive investment may be required to bring these higher cost sources to market. Since the long-term supply picture will be determined by the underlying resource base, EMF-9 participants have been asked to provide estimates of critical components of the Canadian resource base. This paper provides a summary of ICF-Lewin's recent investigation of both the Conventional and Tight Gas resource in Canada's Western Sedimentary Basin, which includes both quantitative estimates and a brief sketch of the analysis methodology

  16. Spatial gradient tuning in metamaterials

    Driscoll, Tom; Goldflam, Michael; Jokerst, Nan; Basov, Dimitri; Smith, David


    Gradient Index (GRIN) metamaterials have been used to create devices inspired by, but often surpassing the potential of, conventional GRIN optics. The unit-cell nature of metamaterials presents the opportunity to exert much greater control over spatial gradients than is possible in natural materials. This is true not only during the design phase but also offers the potential for real-time reconfiguration of the metamaterial gradient. This ability fits nicely into the picture of transformation-optics, in which spatial gradients can enable an impressive suite of innovative devices. We discuss methods to exert control over metamaterial response, focusing on our recent demonstrations using Vanadium Dioxide. We give special attention to role of memristance and mem-capacitance observed in Vanadium Dioxide, which simplify the demands of stimuli and addressing, as well as intersecting metamaterials with the field of memory-materials.

  17. Optics Supply Planning System

    Gaylord, J.


    The purpose of this study is to specify the design for an initial optics supply planning system for NIF, and to present quality assurance and test plans for the construction of the system as specified. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large laser facility that is just starting operations. Thousands of specialized optics are required to operate the laser, and must be exchanged over time based on the laser shot plan and predictions of damage. Careful planning and tracking of optic exchanges is necessary because of the tight inventory of spare optics, and the long lead times for optics procurements and production changes. Automated inventory forecasting and production planning tools are required to replace existing manual processes. The optics groups members who are expected to use the supply planning system are the stakeholders for this project, and are divided into three groups. Each of these groups participated in a requirements specification that was used to develop this design. (1) Optics Management--These are the top level stakeholdersk, and the final decision makers. This group is the interface to shot operations, is ultimately responsible for optics supply, and decides which exchanges will be made. (2) Work Center Managers--This group manages the on site optics processing work centers. They schedule the daily work center operations, and are responsible for developing long term processing, equipment, and staffing plans. (3) Component Engineers--This group manages the vendor contracts for the manufacture of new optics and the off site rework of existing optics. They are responsible for sourcing vendors, negotiating contracts, and managing vendor processes. The scope of this analysis is to describe the structure and design details of a system that will meet all requirements that were described by stakeholders and documented in the analysis model for this project. The design specifies the architecture, components, interfaces, and data stores of the system

  18. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Dimitrios Aidonis


    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 3rd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on Athens Metropolitan Expo, November 7 & 8 2015, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics Technological Educational Institute of Central Macedonia, in collaboration with the: a Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH, b Greek Association of Supply Chain Management (EEL of Northern Greece and the c Supply Chain & Logistics Journal. During the 2-Days Conference more than 60 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Transportation, (ii Best Practices in Logistics, (iii Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, (iv Food Logistics, (v New Trends in Business Logistics, and (vi Green Supply Chain Management. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Operational Research, the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  19. AC power supply systems

    Law, H.


    An ac power supply system includes a rectifier fed by a normal ac supply, and an inverter connected to the rectifier by a dc link, the inverter being effective to invert the dc output of the receiver at a required frequency to provide an ac output. A dc backup power supply of lower voltage than the normal dc output of the rectifier is connected across the dc link such that the ac output of the rectifier is derived from the backup supply if the voltage of the output of the inverter falls below that of the backup supply. The dc backup power may be derived from a backup ac supply. Use in pumping coolant in nuclear reactor is envisaged. (author)

  20. Low-gradient aortic stenosis.

    Clavel, Marie-Annick; Magne, Julien; Pibarot, Philippe


    An important proportion of patients with aortic stenosis (AS) have a 'low-gradient' AS, i.e. a small aortic valve area (AVA gradient (gradient discrepancy raises uncertainty about the actual stenosis severity and thus about the indication for aortic valve replacement (AVR) if the patient has symptoms and/or left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. The most frequent cause of low-gradient (LG) AS is the presence of a low LV outflow state, which may occur with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), i.e. classical low-flow, low-gradient (LF-LG), or preserved LVEF, i.e. paradoxical LF-LG. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of patients with AS may have a normal-flow, low-gradient (NF-LG) AS: i.e. a small AVA-low-gradient combination but with a normal flow. One of the most important clinical challenges in these three categories of patients with LG AS (classical LF-LG, paradoxical LF-LG, and NF-LG) is to differentiate a true-severe AS that generally benefits from AVR vs. a pseudo-severe AS that should be managed conservatively. A low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography may be used for this purpose in patients with classical LF-LG AS, whereas aortic valve calcium scoring by multi-detector computed tomography is the preferred modality in those with paradoxical LF-LG or NF-LG AS. Although patients with LF-LG severe AS have worse outcomes than those with high-gradient AS following AVR, they nonetheless display an important survival benefit with this intervention. Some studies suggest that transcatheter AVR may be superior to surgical AVR in patients with LF-LG AS. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email:

  1. Switzerland's electricity supply industry

    Inwyler, Ch.


    After a short description of Switzerland's electricity supply industry, the author comments on the production and consumption of electrical energy as well as on Switzerland's role within the European grid. A brief survey of electricity supply as a service is followed by a discussion of the political tools (such as e.g. the referendum, the hearing procedure etc.), which are an essential clue for understanding the position of the electricity supply industry in Switzerland. (Auth.)

  2. Perspectives of electricity supply


    The 7 papers read at the symposium discussed the following subjects: Effects of the CO 2 problems of fossil energy systems on the world climate; status and perspectives of the German electricity industry in terms of competitiveness; The European electricity market and the integrated power supply system; Power supply without nuclear power; Costs and rates for households and other customers; Renewable energy sources and their contribution to energy supply in the Federal Republic of Germany; Electricity utilities as service partners. (UA) [de

  3. Supply chain components

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.


    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  4. Supply chain components

    Vieraşu, T.


    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  5. D. C. power supply

    Ohashi, N. Watanabe, Y.; Kitani, M


    DC power supplies are for ordinary and emergency use as power sources for various structures such as office buildings, department stores, hotels, and for facilities such as roads, tunnels, dams, power stations, etc. There is strong demand for these dc power supplies to be safe, automated, and maintenance free, and to have high reliability. A dc power supply which meets these demands is described; electric circuit construction is emphasized. (10 figures, 4 tables)

  6. Food supply reliance on groundwater

    Dalin, Carole; Puma, Michael; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas


    Water resources, essential to sustain human life, livelihoods and ecosystems, are under increasing pressure from population growth, socio-economic development and global climate change. As the largest freshwater resource on Earth, groundwater is key for human development and food security. Yet, excessive abstraction of groundwater for irrigation, driven by an increasing demand for food in recent decades, is leading to fast exhaustion of groundwater reserves in major agricultural areas of the world. Some of the highest depletion rates are observed in Pakistan, India, California Central Valley and the North China Plain aquifers. In addition, the growing economy and population of several countries, such as India and China, makes prospects of future available water and food worrisome. In this context, it is becoming particularly challenging to sustainably feed the world population, without exhausting our water resources. Besides, food production and consumption across the globe have become increasingly interconnected, with many areas' agricultural production destined to remote consumers. In this globalisation era, trade is crucial to the world's food system. As a transfer of water-intensive goods, across regions with varying levels of water productivity, food trade can save significant volumes of water resources globally. This situation makes it essential to address the issue of groundwater overuse for global food supply, accounting for international food trade. To do so, we quantify the current, global use of non-renewable groundwater for major crops, accounting for various water productivity and trade flows. This will highlight areas requiring quickest attention, exposing major exporters and importers of non-renewable groundwater, and thus help explore solutions to improve the sustainability of global food supply.

  7. Graded/Gradient Porous Biomaterials

    Xigeng Miao


    Full Text Available Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young’s moduli compared to those of bones. On the other hand, porous biomaterials exhibit the potential of bone ingrowth, which will depend on porous parameters such as pore size, pore interconnectivity, and porosity. Unfortunately, a highly porous biomaterial results in poor mechanical properties. To optimise the mechanical and the biological properties, porous biomaterials with graded/gradient porosity, pores size, and/or composition have been developed. Graded/gradient porous biomaterials have many advantages over graded/gradient dense biomaterials and uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. The internal pore surfaces of graded/gradient porous biomaterials can be modified with organic, inorganic, or biological coatings and the internal pores themselves can also be filled with biocompatible and biodegradable materials or living cells. However, graded/gradient porous biomaterials are generally more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. With the development of cost-effective processing techniques, graded/gradient porous biomaterials can find wide applications in bone defect filling, implant fixation, bone replacement, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  8. Dose gradient curve: A new tool for evaluating dose gradient.

    Sung, KiHoon; Choi, Young Eun


    Stereotactic radiotherapy, which delivers an ablative high radiation dose to a target volume for maximum local tumor control, requires a rapid dose fall-off outside the target volume to prevent extensive damage to nearby normal tissue. Currently, there is no tool to comprehensively evaluate the dose gradient near the target volume. We propose the dose gradient curve (DGC) as a new tool to evaluate the quality of a treatment plan with respect to the dose fall-off characteristics. The average distance between two isodose surfaces was represented by the dose gradient index (DGI) estimated by a simple equation using the volume and surface area of isodose levels. The surface area was calculated by mesh generation and surface triangulation. The DGC was defined as a plot of the DGI of each dose interval as a function of the dose. Two types of DGCs, differential and cumulative, were generated. The performance of the DGC was evaluated using stereotactic radiosurgery plans for virtual targets. Over the range of dose distributions, the dose gradient of each dose interval was well-characterized by the DGC in an easily understandable graph format. Significant changes in the DGC were observed reflecting the differences in planning situations and various prescription doses. The DGC is a rational method for visualizing the dose gradient as the average distance between two isodose surfaces; the shorter the distance, the steeper the dose gradient. By combining the DGC with the dose-volume histogram (DVH) in a single plot, the DGC can be utilized to evaluate not only the dose gradient but also the target coverage in routine clinical practice.

  9. Model analyses for sustainable energy supply under CO2 restrictions

    Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Ishitani, Hisashi.


    This paper aims at clarifying key points for realizing sustainable energy supply under restrictions on CO 2 emissions. For this purpose, possibility of solar breeding system is investigated as a key technology for the sustainable energy supply. The authors describe their mathematical model simulating global energy supply and demand in ultra-long term. Depletion of non-renewable resources and constraints on CO 2 emissions are taken into consideration in the model. Computed results have shown that present energy system based on non-renewable resources shifts to a system based on renewable resources in the ultra-long term with appropriate incentives

  10. Herpes - resources

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- ...

  11. Norwegian gas supplies for the European market

    Hansen, B.L.


    The conference paper deals with the Norwegian key role in the European gas market with increasing market shares. The supply capacity in a long-term perspective can be 65-70 bcm/year or more if export prices support the development of new and more costly gas resources. The main challenges for the Norwegian shelf are discussed. 5 figs

  12. Instructional Aids, Materials, and Supplies--Guidelines.

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    This resource guide produced for the Follow Through Program, primarily lists instructional aids and supplies; it also suggests practical implications for provisioning the classroom environment, gives specific suggestions for Project Follow Through directors, and lists addresses of suppliers. The materials are divided into nine categories, which…

  13. Complementary Theories to Supply Chain Management

    Halldorsson, Arni; Hsuan, Juliana; Kotzab, Herbert

    Borrowing from complementary theories has become an important part of theorizing SCM. We build upon principal-agent theory (PAT), transaction cost analysis (TCA), network theory (NT), and resource-based view (RBV) to provide insights on how to structure a supply chain and manage it. Through...

  14. Water supply and needs for West Texas

    This presentation focused on the water supplies and needs of West Texas, Texas High Plains. Groundwater is the most commonly used water resources on the Texas High Plains, with withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer dominating. The saturation thickness of the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas is such that t...

  15. Comparing recent uranium supply scenarios

    Arnold, N.; Gufler, K.


    For more than one decade – even after the Fukushima accidents - an increase in global nuclear energy generation capacity is widely expected. At the same time a variety of uranium supply scenarios were published by industry, academics or international organizations, drawing different pictures of future uranium supply. They were created with the background of a uranium market facing several challenges. First an excursion in the uranium market price, in 2007, then reduced nuclear growth expectations after 2011, at least in non-Asian countries, also implying considerable changes to the supply side. For this publication a meta-study was carried out identifying, evaluating and comparing different recent scenarios on the availability of uranium. While there are some differences in the frame conditions (e.g. the expected uranium demand, the time fame, the considered mining projects,..), there are also notable similarities in these scenarios. This concerns long lead times for mine openings as well as the dependence on large mining projects (e.g. Olympic Dam, Cigar Lake). Generally, a decline in production in about 10 years is assumed, and thus the necessity of the timely development of mining projects is pointed out. In addition the omission of uranium from Russian nuclear weapons and the chances of keeping the changes in secondary supplies in balance with primary production have been widely discussed. Here, the production growth in Kazakhstan but also the role of the current market situation are central aspects. As another aspect the possible contribution from unconventional resources is of interest, particularly against the background of rising production costs for conventional resources. Finally, it shall be reflected how well older scenarios were able to map the reality and which trends could or could not be anticipated. It is relevant to identify which aspects in the development of mining capacities are essential for security of supply, and can therefore be regarded

  16. Canadian Library Human Resources Short‐Term Supply and Demand Crisis Is Averted, But a Significant Long‐Term Crisis Must Be Addressed. A review of: 8Rs Research Team. The Future of Human Resources in Canadian Libraries February 2005. Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta. 21 February 2007 .

    Julie McKenna


    Full Text Available Objective – To examine the human resources environment in Canadian libraries in order to assess readiness to accommodate change and to identify opportunities for human resources planning. The “8Rs” of the study were defined as recruitment, retirement, retention, remuneration, repatriation, rejuvenation, re‐accreditation, and restructuring.Design – This study was undertaken in three phases over nearly three years through the use a variety of methods including literature review, analyses of existing data (Statistics Canada and library school graduate data, telephone interviews (with senior library administrators, focus groups (with representatives from Canadian Association of Research Libraries, Canadian Urban Libraries Council and Alberta Association of Library Technicians, print surveys (library institutions and web‐based surveys (of professional librarians and paraprofessional library staff.Setting – Canadian libraries that are not component branches of a system, and that employ professional librarians.Subjects – Stage I: 17 senior library administrators participated in telephone interviews and three focus groups were conducted. Stage II: Surveyed library administrators representing institutions. A multi‐stage stratified random sampling technique was used to ensure geographical representation from each of Canada’s provinces and territories. Full census participation was conducted for members of the Canadian Association of Research Libraries and the Canadian Urban Libraries Council. The print survey instrument was distributed to 1,357 subjects; 461 completed surveys were returned (response rate of 34% with results for the total sample accurate within plus or minus 3.8 per centage points, 95 times out of 100. Stage III: Surveyed professional librarians and paraprofessional staff. Multi‐stage random sampling was used to ensure representation of library staff from all library sectors and sufficient sub‐sample sizes. Of the

  17. Opportunities and realities of supply chain integration

    van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Akkerman, Renzo; van der Vaart, Taco


    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to investigate the limitations and barriers for supply chain integration that food manufacturers experience and to highlight their planning and scheduling problems. Possible ways to cope with these are offered. Methodology: The paper is theoretical/conceptual ......Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to investigate the limitations and barriers for supply chain integration that food manufacturers experience and to highlight their planning and scheduling problems. Possible ways to cope with these are offered. Methodology: The paper is theoretical...... of solutions that might assist production managers in better understanding their situation and thinking about improvements. Originality/Value of the paper: The paper introduces buyer focus, shared resources and the limitations of supply chain integration into the field of food supply chains....


    Nicoleta Ciucescu


    Full Text Available In a permanently changing economy, organizations need to achieve more goals with fewer resources in order to remain competitive. A key component in this effort is the design and coordination of distribution and supply networks. Each product has a particular distribution channel to the end customer, which is often long and complex. The supply process has an important contribution to achieving results of economic, industrial and productive organizations and has direct responsibilities related to reducing costs. This article aims to present some of general questions relating to the supply process, such as the definition, classification, stages and phase of the supply process using a comparative study of literature as a research method. The article also presents a variety of information that underlying the preparation of approved vendors list.

  19. Supply Chain Management

    Wieland, Andreas; Handfield, Robert B.

    Supply chain management has made great strides in becoming a discipline with a standalone body of theories. As part of this evolution, researchers have sought to embed and integrate observed supply chain management phenomena into theoretical statements. In our review, we explore where we have been...

  20. Wood supply and demand

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever


    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  1. Optimal transport on supply-demand networks.

    Chen, Yu-Han; Wang, Bing-Hong; Zhao, Li-Chao; Zhou, Changsong; Zhou, Tao


    In the literature, transport networks are usually treated as homogeneous networks, that is, every node has the same function, simultaneously providing and requiring resources. However, some real networks, such as power grids and supply chain networks, show a far different scenario in which nodes are classified into two categories: supply nodes provide some kinds of services, while demand nodes require them. In this paper, we propose a general transport model for these supply-demand networks, associated with a criterion to quantify their transport capacities. In a supply-demand network with heterogeneous degree distribution, its transport capacity strongly depends on the locations of supply nodes. We therefore design a simulated annealing algorithm to find the near optimal configuration of supply nodes, which remarkably enhances the transport capacity compared with a random configuration and outperforms the degree target algorithm, the betweenness target algorithm, and the greedy method. This work provides a start point for systematically analyzing and optimizing transport dynamics on supply-demand networks.

  2. Rapid Gradient-Echo Imaging

    Hargreaves, Brian


    Gradient echo sequences are widely used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for numerous applications ranging from angiography to perfusion to functional MRI. Compared with spin-echo techniques, the very short repetition times of gradient-echo methods enable very rapid 2D and 3D imaging, but also lead to complicated “steady states.” Signal and contrast behavior can be described graphically and mathematically, and depends strongly on the type of spoiling: fully balanced (no spoiling), gradient spoiling, or RF-spoiling. These spoiling options trade off between high signal and pure T1 contrast while the flip angle also affects image contrast in all cases, both of which can be demonstrated theoretically and in image examples. As with spin-echo sequences, magnetization preparation can be added to gradient-echo sequences to alter image contrast. Gradient echo sequences are widely used for numerous applications such as 3D perfusion imaging, functional MRI, cardiac imaging and MR angiography. PMID:23097185

  3. The influence of ALN-Al gradient material gradient index on ballistic performance

    Wang Youcong; Liu Qiwen; Li Yao; Shen Qiang


    Ballistic performance of the gradient material is superior to laminated material, and gradient materials have different gradient types. Using ls-dyna to simulate the ballistic performance of ALN-AL gradient target plates which contain three gradient index (b = 1, b = 0.5, b = 2). Through Hopkinson bar numerical simulation to the target plate materials, we obtained the reflection stress wave and transmission stress wave state of gradient material to get the best gradient index. The internal stress state of gradient material is simulated by amplification processing of the target plate model. When the gradient index b is equal to 1, the gradient target plate is best of all.

  4. What is Climate Leadership: Examples and Lessons Learned in Supply Chain Management Webinar

    Organizations that have developed comprehensive greenhouse gas inventories and aggressive emissions reduction goals discuss their strategies for managing greenhouse gases in their organizational supply chains and use of EPA Supply Chain resources.

  5. Effect of Rainfall Variability on Water Supply in Ikeduru L.G.A. of Imo ...


    alternatives, which are that there is a strong relationship between rural water supply in ... Rainfall is a renewable resource, highly variable in space and time and ..... Due to the total dependence on the immediate environment for water supply,.

  6. Quantifying global exergy resources

    Hermann, Weston A.


    Exergy is used as a common currency to assess and compare the reservoirs of theoretically extractable work we call energy resources. Resources consist of matter or energy with properties different from the predominant conditions in the environment. These differences can be classified as physical, chemical, or nuclear exergy. This paper identifies the primary exergy reservoirs that supply exergy to the biosphere and quantifies the intensive and extensive exergy of their derivative secondary reservoirs, or resources. The interconnecting accumulations and flows among these reservoirs are illustrated to show the path of exergy through the terrestrial system from input to its eventual natural or anthropogenic destruction. The results are intended to assist in evaluation of current resource utilization, help guide fundamental research to enable promising new energy technologies, and provide a basis for comparing the resource potential of future energy options that is independent of technology and cost

  7. Heavy oil supply economics and supply response to low oil prices

    Fisher, L.


    The dynamics of the heavy oil industry are examined, including prices, market demand, supply and supply costs. Price assumptions are provided for the reference case oil price (west Texas intermediate at Cushing). Supply cost methodology is explained. Capital and operating costs for various heavy oil and synthetic sources are derived from modeling results. The range of supply costs for heavy oil and bitumen from various sources, supply costs in terms of reference case market values and in terms of 1995-1996 average market values for Bow River crude, are derived. The CERI long term supply forecast model is explained. Western Canada upstream oil and gas cash flow and capital expenditures, eastern Canada exploration and expenditures by hydrocarbon type, and Canadian heavy oil and bitumen production based on reference case prices are estimated. Based on these projections the outlook for heavy oil at reference case prices for better than average quality resources is judged to be economic. Lower quality resources will require technology gains for successful commercialization. SAGD is a likely candidate in this respect. Again based on reference prices, production is forecast to decline by 100 Kb/d over the next five years. Diluent supply is considered to be adequate throughout the forecast period. As far as thermal bitumen is concerned, the growth could, in fact, exceed the projection, but if so, more upgrading will be required. 11 figs

  8. Integrated supply chain risk management

    Riaan Bredell; Jackie Walters


    Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM) has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly ...

  9. Supply chain planning classification

    Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Trienekens, Jacques; Bonde, Hans


    Industry experience a need to shift in focus from internal production planning towards planning in the supply network. In this respect customer oriented thinking becomes almost a common good amongst companies in the supply network. An increase in the use of information technology is needed to enable companies to better tune their production planning with customers and suppliers. Information technology opportunities and supply chain planning systems facilitate companies to monitor and control their supplier network. In spite if these developments, most links in today's supply chains make individual plans, because the real demand information is not available throughout the chain. The current systems and processes of the supply chains are not designed to meet the requirements now placed upon them. For long term relationships with suppliers and customers, an integrated decision-making process is needed in order to obtain a satisfactory result for all parties. Especially when customized production and short lead-time is in focus. An effective value chain makes inventory available and visible among the value chain members, minimizes response time and optimizes total inventory value held throughout the chain. In this paper a supply chain planning classification grid is presented based current manufacturing classifications and supply chain planning initiatives.

  10. Control of supply temperature

    Madsen, H; Nielsen, T S; Soegaard, H T


    For many district heating systems, e.g. the system in Hoeje Taastrup, it is desirable to minimize the supply temperature from the heat production unit(s). Lower supply temperature implies lower costs in connection with the production and distribution of heat. Factors having impact on the heat demand are for instance solar radiation, wind speed, wind direction and a climate independent part, which is a function of the time of the day/week/year. By applying an optimization strategy, which minimizes the supply temperature, it is assumed that optimal economical operation can be obtained by minimizing the supply temperature and thereby the heat losses in the system. The models and methods described in this report take such aspects into account, and can therefore be used as elements in a more efficient minimization of the supply temperature. The theoretical part of this report describes models and methods for optimal on-line control of the supply temperature in district heating systems. Some of the models and methods have been implemented - or are going to be implemented - in the computer program PRESS which is a tool for optimal control of supply temperature and forecasting of heat demand in district heating systems. The principles for using transfer function models are briefly described. The ordinary generalized predictive control (OGPC) method is reviewed, and several extensions of this method are suggested. New controller, which is called the extended generalized predictive controller (XGPC), is described. (EG) 57 refs.

  11. Global Carbon Fiber Composites Supply Chain Competitiveness Analysis

    Sujit Das, Josh Warren, Devin West, Susan M. Schexnayder


    This analysis identifies key opportunities in the carbon fiber supply chain where resources and investments can help advance the clean energy economy. The report focuses on four application areas — wind energy, aerospace, automotive, and pressure vessels — that top the list of industries using carbon fiber and carbon fiber reinforced polymers. For each of the four application areas, the report addresses the supply and demand trends within that sector, supply chain, and costs of carbon fiber and components.

  12. Building a Natural Disaster Risk Index for Supply Chain Operations

    Kun Liao; Ozden Bayazit; Fang Wang


    Risk for an organization is associated with uncertainties in all areas of its operations. As firms move toward global sourcing, supply chain risk increases dramatically, which is linked to lower financial performance and market value. One major type of supply chain risk is disruptions caused by natural or man-made disasters. In this paper, major factors causing supply chain disruptions are identified based on resource dependency theory and contingency theory. As a result of the study, a compr...

  13. Successful use of e‐procurement in supply chains

    Puschmann, Thomas; Alt, Rainer


    Purpose – Electronic support of internal supply chains for direct or production goods has been a major element during the implementation of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems that has taken place since the late 1980s. However, supply chains to indirect material suppliers were not usually included due to low transaction volumes, low product values and low strategic importance of these goods. Dedicated information systems for streamlining indirect goods supply chains have emerged...

  14. Eigen-Gradients for Traffic Sign Recognition

    Sheila Esmeralda Gonzalez-Reyna


    Full Text Available Traffic sign detection and recognition systems include a variety of applications like autonomous driving, road sign inventory, and driver support systems. Machine learning algorithms provide useful tools for traffic sign identification tasks. However, classification algorithms depend on the preprocessing stage to obtain high accuracy rates. This paper proposes a road sign characterization method based on oriented gradient maps and the Karhunen-Loeve transform in order to improve classification performance. Dimensionality reduction may be important for portable applications on resource constrained devices like FPGAs; therefore, our approach focuses on achieving a good classification accuracy by using a reduced amount of attributes compared to some state-of-the-art methods. The proposed method was tested using German Traffic Sign Recognition Benchmark, reaching a dimensionality reduction of 99.3% and a classification accuracy of 95.9% with a Multi-Layer Perceptron.

  15. Optimal Dynamics of Intermittent Water Supply

    Lieb, Anna; Wilkening, Jon; Rycroft, Chris


    In many urban areas of the developing world, piped water is supplied only intermittently, as valves direct water to different parts of the water distribution system at different times. The flow is transient, and may transition between free-surface and pressurized, resulting in complex dynamical features with important consequences for water suppliers and users. These consequences include degradation of distribution system components, compromised water quality, and inequitable water availability. The goal of this work is to model the important dynamics and identify operating conditions that mitigate certain negative effects of intermittent water supply. Specifically, we will look at valve parameters occurring as boundary conditions in a network model of transient, transition flow through closed pipes. Optimization will be used to find boundary values to minimize pressure gradients and ensure equitable water availability.

  16. Sediment supply to beaches

    Aagaard, Troels


    Many beaches have been built by an onshore supply of sand from the shoreface, and future long-term coastal evolution critically depends on cross-shore sediment exchange between the upper and the lower shorefaces. Even so, cross-shore sediment supply remains poorly known in quantitative terms...... and this reduces confidence in predictions of long-term shoreline change. In this paper, field measurements of suspended sediment load and cross-shore transport on the lower shoreface are used to derive a model for sediment supply from the lower to the upper shoreface at large spatial and temporal scales. Data...

  17. Ethane supply and demand

    Jamerson, J.B.


    Estimates are given for ethane production, chiefly from the Gulf Coast area. Increase in interregional transfers are predicted. Comparisons from 1992 through 1995 are made. The author concludes the following: ethane will be supply limited over the decade of the 90's; values will be over competing feedstocks; minimum practical demands will be close to available supply; regional relationships will reflect pipeline tariffs; purity ethane/EP spreads may narrow with new Mt. Belvieu fractionation capacity; new domestic supplies will back out imports; and Ethane's share of ethylene production may drop over the period

  18. Uranium supply and demand


    This report covers the period 1983 to 1995. It draws together the industry's latest views on future trends in supply and demand, and sets them in their historical context. It devotes less discussion than its predecessors to the technical influences underpinning the Institute's supply and demand forecasts, and more to the factors which influence the market behaviour of the industry's various participants. As the last decade has clearly shown, these latter influences can easily be overlooked when undue attention is given to physical imbalances between supply and demand. (author)


    Clark, R.D.


    This analysis defines and evaluates the surface water supply system from the existing J-13 well to the North Portal. This system includes the pipe running from J-13 to a proposed Booster Pump Station at the intersection of H Road and the North Portal access road. Contained herein is an analysis of the proposed Booster Pump Station with a brief description of the system that could be installed to the South Portal and the optional shaft. The tanks that supply the water to the North Portal are sized, and the supply system to the North Portal facilities and up to Topopah Spring North Ramp is defined

  20. Minerals Planning Policies and Supply Practices in The Netherlands

    Ike, P.

    Table of Contents: 1 Country background. 2 General description of the mineral industry. 3 National system legislation governing ownership resources. 4 National system governing securing supply of minerals. 5 Land use planning. 6 Evaluation of sustainability of mineral supply. 7 Identification of the

  1. Minerals Planning Policies and Supply Practices in Great Britain

    Ike, P.; van der Molen, S.D.A.

    Table of Contents: 1 Country background. 2 General description of the mineral industry. 3 National system legislation governing ownership resources. 4 National system governing securing supply of minerals. 5 Land use planning. 6 Evaluation of sustainability of mineral supply. 7 Identification of the

  2. Minerals Planning Policies and Supply Practices in Ireland.

    Ike, P.; van der Molen, S.D.A.

    Table of Contents: 1 Country background. 2 General description of the mineral industry. 3 National system legislation governing ownership resources. 4 National system governing securing supply of minerals. 5 Land use planning. 6 Evaluation of sustainability of mineral supply. 7 Identification of the

  3. Barriers to Sustainable MVA Supply in Ghana: Challenges for the ...

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) is ideal for surgical uterine evacuation in low-resource settings such as Ghana, but developing a sustainable supply to MVA has been challenging. In 2007 a situational analysis was conducted in Ghana to identify barriers to sustainable MVA supply.

  4. Hardwood supply in the Pacific Northwest-a policy perspective.

    Terry L. Raettig; Kent P. Connaughton; Glenn R. Ahrens


    The policy framework for the hardwood resource and hardwood industry in western Oregon and Washington is examined. Harvesting trends, harvesting behavior of public and private landowners, and harvesting regulation are presented to complete the analysis of factors affecting short-run hardwood supply. In the short term, the supply of hardwoods is generally favorable, but...

  5. Oahu, Hawaii's Water Supply: 1848-2020 A.D.

    Felix, John Henry

    Demand projections indicate that Oahu's natural ground water supply will be fully developed by the year 2000. Supplementary water resources will need to be developed in keeping with the growth of the economy and population. The author, chairman of the Honolulu Board of Water Supply, authoritatively discusses types of ground water in Hawaii, and…

  6. The Effect of Labor Supply Shortages on Asymmetric Cost Behavior

    Hoffmann, Kira

    facing restrictions in labor supply increase costs (and resources) less than companies operating with sufficient access to additional personnel. This leads to a more symmetrical cost behavior for increasing activity compared to decreasing activity. Additional analyses show that shortages in labor supply......, such as prior period slack creation or pessimistic managerial expectations with respect to future demand....

  7. A dynamic perspective of the geopolitical supply risk of metals

    Habib, Komal; Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik


    . In the context of strategic planning and innovation, and in scientific literature, this aspect is often referred to as geopolitical supply risk. In the past few decades, cobalt crisis, the oil embargo, and the more recent Rare Earth Elements (REEs) issue are the best examples regarding the geopolitical supply...... production distribution and more dependent on the location of current geological resources and the future discoveries, as well as on the technological development to improve profitability of mining the currently sub-economical resources....

  8. The role of the Arctic in future global petroleum supply

    Lars Lindholt; Solveig Glomsrød


    The Arctic has a substantial share of global petroleum resources, but at higher costs than in most other petroleum provinces. Arctic states and petroleum companies are carefully considering the potential for future extraction in the Arctic. This paper studies the oil and gas supply from 6 arctic regions during 2010-2050 along with global economic growth and different assumptions regarding petroleum prices and resource endowments. Supply is calculated based on a global model of oil and gas mar...

  9. Fire Regime Characteristics along Environmental Gradients in Spain

    María Vanesa Moreno


    Full Text Available Concern regarding global change has increased the need to understand the relationship between fire regime characteristics and the environment. Pyrogeographical theory suggests that fire regimes are constrained by climate, vegetation and fire ignition processes, but it is not obvious how fire regime characteristics are related to those factors. We used a three-matrix approach with a multivariate statistical methodology that combined an ordination method and fourth-corner analysis for hypothesis testing to investigate the relationship between fire regime characteristics and environmental gradients across Spain. Our results suggest that fire regime characteristics (i.e., density and seasonality of fire activity are constrained primarily by direct gradients based on climate, population, and resource gradients based on forest potential productivity. Our results can be used to establish a predictive model for how fire regimes emerge in order to support fire management, particularly as global environmental changes impact fire regime characteristics.

  10. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Aidonis, D.


    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 2nd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on October 5-6, 2012, in Katerini, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics of Alexander Technological Educational Institution (ATEI of Thessaloniki, in collaboration with the Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH. During the 2-Days Conference more than 50 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Business Logistics, (ii Transportation, Telematics and Distribution Networks, (iii Green Logistics, (iv Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, and (v Services and Quality. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Humanitarian Logistics, Green Supply Chains of the Agrifood Sector and the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  11. Characterizing Oregon's supply chains.


    In many regions throughout the world, freight models are used to aid infrastructure investment and : policy decisions. Since freight is such an integral part of efficient supply chains, more realistic : transportation models can be of greater assista...

  12. Baby supplies you need

    Newborn care - baby supplies ... wintertime. Mobile. This can entertain and distract a baby who is fussy or is having a hard ... rainfall). These sounds can be soothing for the baby and can help him sleep.

  13. Tuning magnet power supply

    Han, B.M.; Karady, G.G.; Thiessen, H.A.


    The particles in a Rapid Cycling Accelerator are accelerated by rf cavities, which are tuned by dc biased ferrite cores. The tuning is achieved by the regulation of bias current, which is produced by a power supply. The tuning magnet power supply utilizes a bridge circuit, supplied by a three phase rectifier. During the rise of the current, when the particles are accelerated, the current is controlled with precision by the bridge which operates a power amplifier. During the fall of the current, the bridge operates in a switching mode and recovers the energy stored in the ferrites. The recovered energy is stored in a capacitor bank. The bridge circuit is built with 150 power transistors. The drive, protection and control circuit were designed and built from commercial component. The system will be used for a rf cavity experiment in Los Alamos and will serve as a prototype tuning power supply for future accelerators. 1 ref., 7 figs

  14. Heat supply of the town of Trnava from EBO nuclear plant

    Kovarik, Z.

    4 variants of central heat supply from the V-2 Bohunice nuclear power plant were considered. Three included the supply of hot water while the fourth envisaged the supply of steam. The variants of hot water supply differed in the proportion of heat supply during load peak, the range being from 75% to 88% to 100%. The system suggested considers hot water with a maximum overpressure of 2.5 MPa and temperature of 150/70 degC, with possible temporary decrease to 130/70 degC. The estimated power of heat exchange stations is 240 MW at a temperature gradient of 150/70 degC and 180 MW at a temperature gradient 130/70 degC. The location, design and control of the heat supply system and the specifications of heat generation facilities are given. (J.P.)

  15. Supply chain risk management

    Christian Hollstein; Frank Himpel


    Background: Supply chain risk management increasingly gains prominence in many international industries. In order to strengthen supply chain structures, processes, and networks, adequate potentials for risk management need to be built (focus on effective logistics) and to be utilized (focus on efficient logistics). Natural-based disasters, such as the case of Fukushima, illustrate how crucial risk management is. Method: By aligning a theoretical-conceptual framework with empirical-induct...

  16. Hydraulic gradients in rock aquifers

    Dahlblom, P.


    This report deals with fractured rock as a host for deposits of hazardous waste. In this context the rock, with its fractures containing moving groundwater, is called the geological barrier. The desired properties of the geological barrier are low permeability to water, low hydraulic gradients and ability to retain matter dissolved in the water. The hydraulic gradient together with the permeability and the porosity determines the migration velocity. Mathematical modelling of the migration involves calculation of the water flow and the hydrodynamic dispersion of the contaminant. The porous medium approach can be used to calculate mean flow velocities and hydrodynamic dispersion of a large number of fractures are connected, which means that a large volume have to be considered. It is assumed that the porous medium approach can be applied, and a number of idealized examples are shown. It is assumed that the groundwater table is replenished by percolation at a constant rate. One-dimensional analytical calculations show that zero hydraulic gradients may exist at relatively large distance from the coast. Two-dimensional numerical calculations show that it may be possible to find areas with low hydraulic gradients and flow velocities within blocks surrounded by areas with high hydraulic conductivity. (au)

  17. A theory of gradient analysis

    Braak, ter C.J.F.


    The theory of gradient analysis is presented in this chapter, in which the heuristic techniques are integrated with regression, calibration, ordination and constrained ordination as distinct, well-defined statistical problems. The various techniques used for each type of problem are classified into

  18. Compositional gradients in Gramineae genes

    Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wang, Jun; Tao, Lin


    In this study, we describe a property of Gramineae genes, and perhaps all monocot genes, that is not observed in eudicot genes. Along the direction of transcription, beginning at the junction of the 5'-UTR and the coding region, there are gradients in GC content, codon usage, and amino-acid usage...

  19. Orderings for conjugate gradient preconditionings

    Ortega, James M.


    The effect of orderings on the rate of convergence of the conjugate gradient method with SSOR or incomplete Cholesky preconditioning is examined. Some results also are presented that help to explain why red/black ordering gives an inferior rate of convergence.

  20. Color gradients in elliptical galaxies

    Franx, M.; Illingworth, G.


    The relationship of the color gradients within ellipticals and the color differences between them are studied. It is found that the local color appears to be strongly related to the escape velocity. This suggests that the local escape velocity is the primary factor that determines the metallicity of the stellar population. Models with and without dark halos give comparable results. 27 refs


    Borut Jereb


    Full Text Available Risks in supply chains represent one of the major business issues today. Since every organizationstrives for success and uninterrupted operations, efficient supply chain risk management is crucial.During supply chain risk research at the Faculty of Logistics in Maribor (Slovenia some keyissues in the field were identified, the major being the lack of instruments which can make riskmanagement in an organization easier and more efficient. Consequently, a model which captures anddescribes risks in an organization and its supply chain was developed. It is in accordance with thegeneral risk management and supply chain security standards, the ISO 31000 and ISO 28000families. It also incorporates recent finding from the risk management field, especially from theviewpoint of segmenting of the public.The model described in this paper focuses on the risks itself by defining them by different keydimensions, so that risk management is simplified and can be undertaken in every supply chain andorganizations within them. Based on our mode and consequent practical research in actualorganizations, a freely accessible risk catalog has been assembled and published online from the risksthat have been identified so far. This catalog can serve as a checklist and a starting point in supplychain risk management in organizations. It also incorporates experts from the field into a community,in order to assemble an ever growing list of possible risks and to provide insight into the model andits value in practice.

  2. Understanding the supply chain

    Aćimović Slobodan


    Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.

  3. Interface enabling the management of the magnetic gradients for a N.M.R. experiment

    Frutoso, J.; Mallet, J.J.; Bonmartin, A.; Minchella, P.


    The object of this work was to realize a versatile electronic system which is able to manage the three magnetic gradients necessary to a NMR experiment. The cheapest mean used is based on a microcomputer VIC 20 Commodore, connected through an interface to three ''pilotage'' power-supplies. In this paper the interface between the VIC 20 and the three power-supplies, is particularly described [fr

  4. Advanced compositional gradient and compartmentalization analysis

    Canas, Jesus A.; Petti, Daniela; Mullins, Oliver [Schlumberger Servicos de Petroleo Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Acquisition of hydrocarbons samples from the reservoir prior to oil or gas production is essential in order to design production strategies and production facilities. In addition, reservoir compartmentalization and hydrocarbon compositional grading magnify the necessity to map fluid properties vertically and laterally in the reservoir prior to production. Formation testers supply a wealth of information to observe and predict the state of fluids in hydrocarbon reservoirs, through detailed pressure and fluid analysis measurements. With the correct understanding of the state of fluids in the reservoirs, reserve calculations and adequate development plans can be prepared. Additionally, flow barriers may then be revealed. This paper describes a new Downhole Fluid Analysis technology (DFA) for improved reservoir management. DFA is a unique process that combines new fluid identification sensors, which allow real time monitoring of a wide range of parameters as GOR, fluid density, viscosity, fluorescence and composition (CH{sub 4}, C2- C5, C6 +, CO{sub 2}), free gas and liquid phases detection, saturation pressure, as well WBM and OBM filtrate differentiation and pH. This process is not limited to light fluid evaluation and we extended to heavy oil (HO) reservoirs analysis successfully. The combination of DFA Fluid Profiling with pressure measurements has shown to be very effective for compartmentalization characterization. The ability of thin barriers to hold off large depletion pressures has been established, as the gradual variation of hydrocarbon quality in biodegraded oils. In addition, heavy oils can show large compositional variation due to variations in source rock charging but without fluid mixing. Our findings indicates that steep gradients are common in gas condensates or volatile oils, and that biodegradation is more common in HO than in other hydrocarbons, which generate fluid gradients and heavy ends tars near the OWC, limiting the aquifer activity and

  5. Canadian Library Human Resources Short‐Term Supply and Demand Crisis Is Averted, But a Significant Long‐Term Crisis Must Be Addressed. A review of: 8Rs Research Team. The Future of Human Resources in Canadian Libraries February 2005. Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta. 21 February 2007 .

    Julie McKenna


    Objective – To examine the human resources environment in Canadian libraries in order to assess readiness to accommodate change and to identify opportunities for human resources planning. The “8Rs” of the study were defined as recruitment, retirement, retention, remuneration, repatriation, rejuvenation, re‐accreditation, and restructuring.Design – This study was undertaken in three phases over nearly three years through the use a variety of methods including literature review, analyses of exi...

  6. Elemental gradients in macrophytes from a reactor effluent gradient

    Grace, J.B.; Tilly, L.J.


    The tissues of submersed macrophtes from along the thermal gradient were analyzed for phosphorus to determine whether any pattern correspondent to standing crop distributions could be detected. Although water concentrations of phosphorus showed no detectable relationship to the thermal effluent, tissue concentrations of this element in submersed macrophytes declined with distance from the effluent entry point. The occurrence of this concentration pattern suggests that phosphorus availability is greater near the discharge. Because phosphorus is the element most often determined to limit aquatic productivity, its greater availability may partially account for the apparent enhancement of macrophte growth near the thermal discharge. A patter of macrophyte abundance which indicated enchancement related to the discharge gradient in the reactor-cooling reservoir, Par Pond is reported. Correlative data tended to implicate light and temperature as important in influencing the differential abundance pattern

  7. Innovation Across the Supply Chain

    Druehl, Cheryl; Carrillo, Janice; Hsuan, Juliana

    Innovation is an integral part of every firm’s ongoing operations. Beyond product innovation, supply chain innovations offer a unique source of competitive advantage. We synthesize recent research on innovation in the supply chain, specifically, innovative supply chain processes...

  8. Improved voltage gradient control system for electrostatic accelerators

    Jones, N.L.; Dittner, P.F.


    An improved voltage gradient control system has been designed and installed in the EN tandem at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. An improved design was sought due to high failure rates, increasing replacement parts and labor costs, and decreasing availability of the original carbon film resistor systems supplied for the EN-12 at ORNL. The resulting system utilizes two inexpensive, readily available, metal oxide resistors in series between each plane. They are protected by coaxial stainless steel shielding tubes, and spark gaps across individual resistors and adjacent pairs. The new resistors mount atop the column bridge in a compact configuration. This permits easy access both to the resistors and to the interior column components such as the belt. Well controlled gradients now provide improved machine performance. Both initial capital outlay and future maintenance result in reduced costs. Design, installation, performance, and cost details are reported. (orig.)

  9. Supply of nuclear materials



    Any large-scale atomic energy programme is inherently dependent on the availability of materials that can be used as fuel in reactors, and the International Atomic Energy Agency, at its inception, was intended to act as a bank for the flow of materials between Member States. According to its Statute, one of its primary functions is to provide materials 'to meet the needs of research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful purposes, including the production of electric power, with due consideration for the needs of the under-developed areas of the world'. If the Agency is to fulfil its Statutory function, it would be essential for it to have not only some ready sources of supply, but also an established framework of general terms and conditions on which it could secure the supplies. The latter would eliminate the need for going through elaborate procedural formalities whenever the Agency receives a new request for materials. Such a framework has now been established with the signing of broad agreements with three countries which had offered to supply various quantities of special fissionable materials to the Agency. These agreements, signed in Vienna on 11 May 1959, with the USSR, the UK and the USA, lay down the basic terms and conditions on which these three countries will make nuclear materials available when needed by the Agency. The USSR has agreed to make available to the Agency 50 kg of uranium-235, the UK 20 kg and the USA 5 000 kg. The material will be supplied in the form of enriched uranium in any concentration up to 20 per cent; the amounts mentioned relate to the 235-isotope content of the materials. The UK and the USA have agreed that the parties to a particular supply agreement may decide on higher enrichment of uranium to be used for research reactors, material testing reactors or for other research purposes. The USA has also agreed to make available to the Agency such additional supplies as would match in amount

  10. A profile of physiotherapy supply in Ireland.

    Eighan, James; Walsh, Brendan; Smith, Samantha; Wren, Maev-Ann; Barron, Steve; Morgenroth, Edgar


    The lack of information on public and private physiotherapy supply in Ireland makes current and future resource allocation decisions difficult. This paper estimates the supply of physiotherapists in Ireland and profiles physiotherapists across acute and non-acute sectors, and across public and private practice. It examines geographic variation in physiotherapist supply, examining the implications of controlling for healthcare need. Physiotherapist headcounts are estimated using Health Service Personnel Census (HSPC) and Irish Society of Chartered Physiotherapists (ISCP) Register data. Headcounts are converted to whole-time equivalents (WTEs) using the HSPC and a survey of ISCP members to account for full- and part-time working practices. Non-acute supply per 10,000 population in each county is estimated to examine geographic inequalities and the raw population is adjusted in turn for a range of need indicators. An estimated 3172 physiotherapists were practising in Ireland in 2015; 6.8 physiotherapists per 10,000, providing an estimated 2620 WTEs. Females accounted for 74% of supply. Supply was greater in the non-acute sector; 1774 WTEs versus 846 WTEs in the acute sector. Physiotherapists in the acute sector were located mainly in publicly financed institutions (89%) with an even public/private split observed in the non-acute sector. Non-acute physiotherapist supply is unequally distributed across Ireland (Gini coefficient = 0.12; 95% CI 0.08-0.15), and inequalities remain after controlling for variations in healthcare needs across counties. The supply of physiotherapists in Ireland is 30% lower than the EU-28 average. Substantial inequality in the distribution of physiotherapists across counties is observed.

  11. Uranium resource assessments


    The objective of this investigation is to examine what is generally known about uranium resources, what is subject to conjecture, how well do the explorers themselves understand the occurrence of uranium, and who are the various participants in the exploration process. From this we hope to reach a better understanding of the quality of uranium resource estimates as well as the nature of the exploration process. The underlying questions will remain unanswered. But given an inability to estimate precisely our uranium resources, how much do we really need to know. To answer this latter question, the various Department of Energy needs for uranium resource estimates are examined. This allows consideration of whether or not given the absence of more complete long-term supply data and the associated problems of uranium deliverability for the electric utility industry, we are now threatened with nuclear power plants eventually standing idle due to an unanticipated lack of fuel for their reactors. Obviously this is of some consequence to the government and energy consuming public. The report is organized into four parts. Section I evaluates the uranium resource data base and the various methodologies of resource assessment. Part II describes the manner in which a private company goes about exploring for uranium and the nature of its internal need for resource information. Part III examines the structure of the industry for the purpose of determining the character of the industry with respect to resource development. Part IV arrives at conclusions about the emerging pattern of industrial behavior with respect to uranium supply and the implications this has for coping with national energy issues

  12. Petroleum Supply Monthly



    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly



    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.


    P.J.S. Van Dyk


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Supply planning and traffic flow planning are major activities in the automotive manufacturing environment worldwide. Traditionally, the impact of supply planning strategies on plant traffic is rarely considered. This paper describes the development of a Decision Support System (DSS that will assist automotive manufacturers to analyse the effect of supply planning decisions on plant traffic during the supply planning phase of their logistics planning process. In essence, this DSS consists of a Supply Medium Decision Support Tool (SMDST (an interactive MS-Excel model with Visual Basic interfacing and a traffic flow simulation model tool (using eMPlant simulation software.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Verskaffingsbeplanning en verkeersvloeibeplanning is belangrike aktiwiteite in die motorvervaardigingsbedryf wêreldwyd. Tradisioneel word die uitwerking van verskaffings-beplanningsstrategië op aanlegverkeer selde in ag geneem. Hierdie artikel beskryf die ontwikkeling van ’n Besluitnemings Ondersteuningstelsel (DSS wat motorvervaardigers sal ondersteun in die analise van die effek van verskaffingsbeplanningbesluite op aanlegverkeer tydens die verskaffingsbeplanningsfase van hulle logistieke beplanningsproses. Hierdie DSS bestaan hoofsaaklik uit ’n Verskaffings-vervoermiddel Besluitnemingshulpmiddel (SMDST (’n interaktiewe MS-Excel model met “Visual Basic” koppelling asook ’n simulasiemodel van verkeersvloei (met eM-Plant simulasiesagteware.

  15. Sustainable land use and renewable materials. Options for sustainable land use and resource protection strategies considering in particular a sustainable supply with renewable raw materials; Nachhaltige Flaechennutzung und nachwachsende Rohstoffe. Optionen einer nachhaltigen Flaechennutzung und Ressourcenschutzstrategien unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der nachhaltigen Versorgung mit nachwachsenden Rohstoffen

    Bringezu, Stefan; Schuetz, Helmut; Schepelmann, Philipp [Wuppertal Inst. fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie (DE). Forschungsgruppe 3: Stoffstroeme und Ressourcenmanagement] (and others)


    This report highlights perspectives and options for action in order to promote sustainable land use considering resource of protection and supply with renewable raw materials. Land use within Germany is described as well as the global land use Germany based on its domestic consumption of products from agriculture and forestry. In terms of sustainable development, a long-lasting environmentally sound land use must be enabled which supports the required supply of renewable raw materials for energetic and non-energetic use while not endangering the future food supply of the growing world population. The Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy (WI), together with the Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology (UMSICHT) in Oberhausen and the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research Heidelberg (IFEU), have for the first time with this study performed a comprehensive global land use balance for the consumption of food and non-food biomass in Germany, and have calculated in particular those greenhouse gas emissions which result from land use changes. In order not to endanger the climate and resource policy targets of the German government corrective measures for the implementation of policy targets for biomass use are needed. Existing targets for envisaged, enacted and promoted use of energy plants and biofuels should be reviewed. Existing legal biofuel quotas should by no means be increased. Furthermore, the national biofuels target for 2020 of a 12- 15% biofuels share of fuel consumption should be withdrawn, especially as this would send a clear international message. Such a target in the future would only be justifiable if the total amount of fuel consumed would decrease drastically (i.e. by more than half) as compared with today. Thereby the respective amount of biofuels required in the future would also decrease. The bonus for renewable raw materials of the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) should be critically

  16. Supply chain management under fuzziness recent developments and techniques

    Öztayşi, Başar


    Supply Chain Management Under Fuzziness presents recently developed fuzzy models and techniques for supply chain management. These include: fuzzy PROMETHEE, fuzzy AHP, fuzzy ANP, fuzzy VIKOR, fuzzy DEMATEL, fuzzy clustering, fuzzy linear programming, and fuzzy inference systems. The book covers both practical applications and new developments concerning these methods. This book offers an excellent resource for researchers and practitioners in supply chain management and logistics, and will provide them with new suggestions and directions for future research. Moreover, it will support graduate students in their university courses, such as specialized courses on supply chains and logistics, as well as related courses in the fields of industrial engineering, engineering management and business administration.

  17. Computational Strain Gradient Crystal Plasticity

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.


    A model for strain gradient crystal visco-plasticity is formulated along the lines proposed by Fleck andWillis (2009) for isotropic plasticity. Size-effects are included in the model due to the addition of gradient terms in both the free energy as well as through a dissipation potential. A finite...... element solution method is presented, which delivers the slip-rate field and the velocity-field based on two minimum principles. Some plane deformation problems relevant for certain specific orientations of a face centered cubic crystal under plane loading conditions are studied, and effective in......-plane parameters are developed based on the crystallographic properties of the material. The problem of cyclic shear of a single crystal between rigid platens is studied as well as void growth of a cylindrical void....

  18. Computational strain gradient crystal plasticity

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.


    A numerical method for viscous strain gradient crystal plasticity theory is presented, which incorporates both energetic and dissipative gradient effects. The underlying minimum principles are discussed as well as convergence properties of the proposed finite element procedure. Three problems...... of plane crystal plasticity are studied: pure shear of a single crystal between rigid platens as well as plastic deformation around cylindrical voids in hexagonal close packed and face centered cubic crystals. Effective in-plane constitutive slip parameters for plane strain deformation of specifically...... oriented face centered cubic crystals are developed in terms of the crystallographic slip parameters. The effect on geometrically necessary dislocation structures introduced by plastic deformation is investigated as a function of the ratio of void radius to plasticity length scale....

  19. Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob


    The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum and stro......The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum....... Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural...

  20. Harvesting urban resources towards more resilient cities

    Agudelo Vera, C.M.; Leduc, W.R.W.A.; Mels, A.R.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.


    With accelerating global changes, cities have to cope with growing pressures, especially for resource supply. Cities may be considered as resources reservoirs and producers of secondary resources. This paper introduces the concept of urban harvesting as a management tool to change inefficient linear

  1. Sustainable supply chain design: a configurational approach.

    Masoumik, S Maryam; Abdul-Rashid, Salwa Hanim; Olugu, Ezutah Udoncy; Raja Ghazilla, Raja Ariffin


    Designing the right supply chain that meets the requirements of sustainable development is a significant challenge. Although there are a considerable number of studies on issues relating to sustainable supply chain design (SSCD) in terms of designing the practices, processes, and structures, they have rarely demonstrated how these components can be aligned to form an effective sustainable supply chain (SSC). Considering this gap in the literature, this study adopts the configurational approach to develop a conceptual framework that could configure the components of a SSC. In this respect, a process-oriented approach is utilized to classify and harmonize the design components. A natural-resource-based view (NRBV) is adopted to determine the central theme to align the design components around. The proposed framework presents three types of SSC, namely, efficient SSC, innovative SSC, and reputed SSC. The study culminates with recommendations concerning the direction for future research.

  2. An integrated mine development and supply system

    Muguira, T. [Brambles Coal Services, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)


    In the face of intense global competition and other business pressures on coal miners, ongoing quality initiatives and continuous process improvements are needed to enhance business performance. By viewing a minesite interms of key processes, rather than departments, and employing innovative technologies and better applying organisational resources, there exists enormous potential to achieve reductions in process cost and time. The paper identifies and selects one critical coal mining process, namely the supply system, to think about how productivity improvements might occur and what changes might be employed to enhance overall system performance. While the supply system is one of few processes existing at a minesite, the paper addresses only the supply process, but includes interaction across traditional interdepartmental boundaries. The paper has been prepared for a wide audience and is based on experience and observation at several underground mines however some of the concepts are a result of dreaming in the face of global competition. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Sustainable Supply Chain Design: A Configurational Approach

    Masoumik, S. Maryam; Raja Ghazilla, Raja Ariffin


    Designing the right supply chain that meets the requirements of sustainable development is a significant challenge. Although there are a considerable number of studies on issues relating to sustainable supply chain design (SSCD) in terms of designing the practices, processes, and structures, they have rarely demonstrated how these components can be aligned to form an effective sustainable supply chain (SSC). Considering this gap in the literature, this study adopts the configurational approach to develop a conceptual framework that could configure the components of a SSC. In this respect, a process-oriented approach is utilized to classify and harmonize the design components. A natural-resource-based view (NRBV) is adopted to determine the central theme to align the design components around. The proposed framework presents three types of SSC, namely, efficient SSC, innovative SSC, and reputed SSC. The study culminates with recommendations concerning the direction for future research. PMID:24523652

  4. Energy consumption in the food supply system

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik


    Historically, productivity gains have been possible by the application of energy intensive technologies. In the future, new technologies and practices based on energy from renewable resources are central for the development of our food supply system and they will contribute in two different ways....... As the energy sector increasingly bases energy supply on renewable sources, the energy requirements of the food sector will automatically substitute renewable energy for non-renewable energy in all stages of food supply. In principle, the food sector does not need to change if renewable energy is sufficient...... and available as the energy carriers that we are used to today. We may think of this as passive adaptation. A passive adaptation strategy may support a development towards the image ‘high input – high output’. The food sector, however, may also actively adapt to a future without fossil fuels and change...

  5. Supply chain quality management

    Hannan Amoozad Mahdiraji


    Full Text Available In recent years, there are several methods introduced for the improvement of operational performances. Total quality management and supply chain management are two methods recommended for this purpose. These two approaches have been studied in most researches separately, while they have objectives in common, and this makes them a strategic means, which can be used, simultaneously. Total quality management and supply chain management play significant roles to increase the organizational competitiveness power. Moreover, they have only one purpose that is customer satisfaction, and they are different only on their approaches to reach their objectives. In this research, we aim to study both approaches of quality management and supply chain, their positive increasing effects that may be generated after their integration. For this purpose, the concept and definitions of each approach is studied, independently, their similarities and differences are recognized, and finally, the advantages of their integration are introduced.

  6. Petroleum supply annual 1992


    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  7. Intelligent power supply controller

    Rumrill, R.S.; Reinagel, D.J.


    The authors have developed a new power supply controller which would combine 20-bit precision, simple interfacing, and versatile software control. It performs many tasks internal to the power supply and also communicates with an external host computer. Parameters can be entered and/or read over a serial link using one of the 82 command words. In addition, an optional remote control panel can be located up to thousands of feet away. This new controller will reduce the software development time normally spent by the user, while increasing the reliability of the system. The cost is less than buying the equivalent separate CAMAC system. Nonvolatile memory remembers all configuration data; one generic controller can thus be programmed to use anywhere from the smallest power supply to the largest. The controllers will be used at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Facility at Los Alamos

  8. Uranium resources, production and demand


    Nuclear power-generating capacity will continue to expand, albeit at a slower pace than during the past fifteen years. This expansion must be matched by an adequately increasing supply of uranium. This report compares uranium supply and demand data in free market countries with the nuclear industry's natural uranium requirements up to the year 2000. It also reviews the status of uranium exploration, resources and production in 46 countries

  9. Supply Chain Connectivity: Enhancing Participation in the Global Supply Chain

    Patalinghug, Epictetus E.


    Supply chain connectivity is vital for the efficient flow of trade among APEC economies. This paper reviews the literature and supply chain management, describes the barriers to enhancing participation in global supply chain, analyzes the various measures of supply chain performance, and suggests steps for the Philippines to fully reap the benefits of the global value chain.

  10. Primordial vorticity and gradient expansion

    Giovannini, Massimo


    The evolution equations of the vorticities of the electrons, ions and photons in a pre-decoupling plasma are derived, in a fully inhomogeneous geometry, by combining the general relativistic gradient expansion and the drift approximation within the Adler-Misner-Deser decomposition. The vorticity transfer between the different species is discussed in this novel framework and a set of general conservation laws, connecting the vorticities of the three-component plasma with the magnetic field intensity, is derived. After demonstrating that a source of large-scale vorticity resides in the spatial gradients of the geometry and of the electromagnetic sources, the total vorticity is estimated to lowest order in the spatial gradients and by enforcing the validity of the momentum constraint. By acknowledging the current bounds on the tensor to scalar ratio in the (minimal) tensor extension of the $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm the maximal comoving magnetic field induced by the total vorticity turns out to be, at most, of the or...

  11. 18 CFR 2.105 - Gas supply charges.


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas supply charges. 2.105 Section 2.105 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... prior to nominations by the customers a firm price or pricing formula for the service, and hold that...

  12. The uranium supply strategy of China

    Gao, S.


    Currently there are 28 units of nuclear power plants (NPPs) under construction in China. Most of these plants will be put into operation sequentially in a couple years. The paper will present the operational and construction status of NPPs in China. As the reactor fleet increases, the requirement for uranium will also substantially increase. Due to declining air quality, as atmospheric pollution spreads rapidly from northern parts to southern parts of China, the option to develop nuclear power has become the highest priority. Uranium demand will be the key to support the expanded nuclear power in the future. Current and future requirements of uranium and the envisaged supply strategy will be discussed. Domestic production is seen as one of the channels to meet the increased requirement. As the uranium price remain low, there will be limited the expansion of domestic production in the short term. The exploration of economic resources is being promoted. Decreasing production costs is mandated in operations due to low uranium prices at present. Development of overseas uranium resources is another channel to supply for the NPPs. Through acquisition of uranium mining projects, advanced uranium projects and exploration projects, China can meet the requirement of NPPs in the long-term. Joint venture partnership is also flexible option for developing uranium resources overseas. Purchasing uranium in the market is the third option. Complementing the supply by domestic production and overseas development, purchase of uranium product in the market is a simple and easy option. Advantages and disadvantages of these three channels and how these can be combined into an integrated strategy of supply and the proprotionate weightage of each channel for the potential future supply of uranium to the NNP fleet will be discussed. (author)

  13. Invaders do not require high resource levels to maintain physiological advantages in a temperate deciduous forest.

    Heberling, J Mason; Fridley, Jason D


    Non-native, invasive plants are commonly typified by trait strategies associated with high resource demands and plant invasions are often thought to be dependent upon site resource availability or disturbance. However, the invasion of shade-tolerant woody species into deciduous forests of the Eastern United States seems to contradict such generalization, as growth in this ecosystem is strongly constrained by light and, secondarily, nutrient stress. In a factorial manipulation of light and soil nitrogen availability, we established an experimental resource gradient in a secondary deciduous forest to test whether three common, woody, invasive species displayed increased metabolic performance and biomass production compared to six co-occurring woody native species, and whether these predicted differences depend upon resource supply. Using hierarchical Bayesian models of photosynthesis that included leaf trait effects, we found that invasive species exhibited functional strategies associated with higher rates of carbon gain. Further, invader metabolic and growth-related attributes were more responsive to increasing light availability than those of natives, but did not fall below average native responses even in low light. Surprisingly, neither group showed direct trait or growth responses to soil N additions. However, invasive species showed increased photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiencies with decreasing N availability, while that of natives remained constant. Although invader advantage over natives was amplified in higher resource conditions in this forest, our results indicate that some invasive species can maintain physiological advantages over co-occurring natives regardless of resource conditions.

  14. Electricity supply in India

    Abbott, H.J.


    This briefing deals with the electricity supply industry in India in two parts. In the first, the structure and organization of the industry is described under sections dealing with national government involvement, energy policy, state electricity boards, regional electricity boards, state corporations, the private sector and private investment in the power sector including foreign investment. Secondly, the power supply system is described covering generation, plant load factor, non-utility generation, nuclear power, transmission and distribution, system losses and electricity consumption. (8 tables) (UK)

  15. Supply Chain Management

    Gammelgaard, Britta


    Supply Chan management (SCM) som begreb stammer fra starten af 1990´erne. Mange definitioner af begrebet har været i cirkulation siden da, men overordnet er der enighed om, at det handler om at styre og optimere materiale- og informationsstrømme fra råvareleverandør til slutbruger.......Supply Chan management (SCM) som begreb stammer fra starten af 1990´erne. Mange definitioner af begrebet har været i cirkulation siden da, men overordnet er der enighed om, at det handler om at styre og optimere materiale- og informationsstrømme fra råvareleverandør til slutbruger....

  16. Power supply and ethics



    The 'Power Supply and Ethics' workshop was designed on the basis of a recommendation by the Nuclear Technology Committee (FA-KT) of VDI-GET. The topic is part of a series of events and publications by VDI in an area where engineering and the humanities converge. The Workshop comprised presentations and thorough discussions of seven papers on 'Power Supply and Ethics', reflecting a variety of contents and points of view of the different disciplines participating. The Workshop offered another opportunity to take the initiative and influence the public, especially politics. Other activities are planned which also the participants increasingly consider an obligation to the public. (orig.) [de

  17. Switch mode power supply

    Kim, Hui Jun


    This book concentrates on switch mode power supply. It has four parts, which are introduction of switch mode power supply with DC-DC converter such as Buck converter boost converter, Buck-boost converter and PWM control circuit, explanation for SMPS with DC-DC converter modeling and power mode control, resonance converter like resonance switch, converter, multi resonance converter and series resonance and parallel resonance converters, basic test of SMPS with PWM control circuit, Buck converter, Boost converter, flyback converter, forward converter and IC for control circuit.

  18. Interaction between supply and end-use

    Skytte, K.; Noergaard, P.; Togeby, M.


    In a future power system with a high proportion of distributed and intermittent generation, it will be difficult and costly to ensure short-term security of supply if demand is unable to react to fluctuations on the supply side. At present, most power consumers in the EU, with the exception of the largest consumers such as energy intensive industries, buy their power on fixed tariffs. Fixed tariffs provide no incentives for consumers to alter their patterns of power consumption. This calls for more interaction between the supply and demand sides, which in turn would allow better matching of demand to intermittent supply. The development of cheap and reliable electronic communication technologies has made this a realistic option, so we are left with the general question of how the demand side can become more active in the future power market. Liberalisation of the wholesale power markets has introduced market-based pricing for the marginal electricity supply. Prices are set hourly, or even more frequently, by reference to the balance between the expected demand and supply at the time. If the expected demand exceeds supply, prices increase until demand falls or more generation comes on line. If supply exceeds demand, prices fall. In this way, market prices are used to determine the balance level between generation and consumption. In liquid markets, the power price is a reliable indicator of the state of the electricity system. Price fluctuations reveal the cost of marginal production capacity; very high prices indicate that capacity is limited compared with demand. At present, it is mostly the generation side that adjust their supply in order to create balance between supply and expected demand. If demand, as well as supply, could respond to price signals from the market, the flexibility of the energy system would increase. This would make it easier to increase the proportion of intermittent renewable energy sources in the system. Demand response (DR) is the term

  19. The security of energy supplies in Europe

    Vuillemin, Francois


    As an attempt occurred against a French oil tanker in the Persian Gulf (in 2002), and showed that security of oil supplies is not only related to oil shock or to political environment such as the Cold War, this article discusses issues of security for European energy supplies. It first addresses the situation and the evolution of energy needs and resources in the World and in Europe: predictions of evolution of consumption and production, major role of fossil fuels in the European consumption. It discusses the outage risks: the supply security can be analysed with respect to consumption per sector, per usage or per energy product, and Europe must face three major risks (no more hydrocarbon resources at a reasonable cost, economic risk due to market volatility, geopolitical risk). The next part discusses the perspective of a European strategy. It identifies several elements of choice for Europe in terms of energy demand management, of opening up to competition of electricity and gas markets. It discusses European ambitions in terms of supply security: need of a community framework, actual propositions of a directive for oil and gas

  20. Gradient computation for VTI acoustic wavefield tomography

    Li, Vladimir; Wang, Hui; Tsvankin, Ilya; Diaz, Esteban; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    -power objective functions. We also obtain the gradient expressions for the data-domain objective function, which can incorporate borehole information necessary for stable VTI velocity analysis. These gradients are compared to the ones obtained with a space

  1. Information Sharing in the Hardwood Supply Chain

    Stiess, Timothy Stephen


    The Hardwood Industry in United States has been challenged by low-cost competition from overseas. Although cost reduction strategies have had minimal success, the proximity of industry to the domestic market has large implications on a more customer-focused strategy. The problem arises that individual companies and supply chains evolved based on the principles of economies of size and not on the flexibility to adapt to customer needs and changing resource constraints. An increased rate at ...

  2. Regional Resource Planning Study


    Natural gas and electricity commodities are among the most volatile commodities in the world. Spurred on by the recent significant increases in the price of natural gas, the BC Utilities Commission initiated an investigation into factors impacting on natural gas prices, and the validity of the Sumas index (a market trading point, or interchange where multiple pipelines interconnect, allowing the purchase and sale of gas among market participants) as a price setting mechanism. The Commission also sought the opinions and perspectives of the the province's natural gas industry regarding the high volatility of the Sumas gas prices, and as to what could be done to alleviate the wild fluctuations. Following review of the responses from stakeholders, the Commission issued a directive to BC Gas to undertake discussions on regional resource planning with full representation from all stakeholders. This study is the result of the Commission's directive, and is intended to address the issues contained in the directives. Accordingly, the study examined gas demand in the region, demand growth, including power generation, natural gas resource balance in the region, the California impacts on demand and on supply to the region, supply shortfalls on a peak day, and on a seasonal and annual basis, near term remedies, possible resource additions in the longer term, the economic justification for adding major resources and proposed actions to develop needed resource additions. The study confirmed the existence of a growing capacity deficit, which limits the supply of natural gas to the region. Near term options to alleviate the regional capacity deficit were found to be limited to discouraging power generation from serving export markets, demand side management efforts, and expansion of the WEI's systems by 105 mmcf/d. Longer term solutions would involve larger scale expansion of WEI's T-South capacity, the BC Gas' Inland Pacific Connector Project and the Washington Lateral proposed by

  3. Juvenile coho salmon growth and health in streams across an urbanization gradient

    Spanjer, Andrew R.; Moran, Patrick W.; Larsen, Kimberly; Wetzel, Lisa; Hansen, Adam G.; Beauchamp, David A.


    Expanding human population and urbanization alters freshwater systems through structural changes to habitat, temperature effects from increased runoff and reduced canopy cover, altered flows, and increased toxicants. Current stream assessments stop short of measuring health or condition of species utilizing these freshwater habitats and fail to link specific stressors mechanistically to the health of organisms in the stream. Juvenile fish growth integrates both external and internal conditions providing a useful indicator of habitat quality and ecosystem health. Thus, there is a need to account for ecological and environmental influences on fish growth accurately. Bioenergetics models can simulate changes in growth and consumption in response to environmental conditions and food availability to account for interactions between an organism's environmental experience and utilization of available resources. The bioenergetics approach accounts for how thermal regime, food supply, and food quality affect fish growth. This study used a bioenergetics modeling approach to evaluate the environmental factors influencing juvenile coho salmon growth among ten Pacific Northwest streams spanning an urban gradient. Urban streams tended to be warmer, have earlier emergence dates and stronger early season growth. However, fish in urban streams experienced increased stress through lower growth efficiencies, especially later in the summer as temperatures warmed, with as much as a 16.6% reduction when compared to fish from other streams. Bioenergetics modeling successfully characterized salmonid growth in small perennial streams as part of a more extensive monitoring program and provides a powerful assessment tool for characterizing mixed life-stage specific responses in urban streams.

  4. Instabilities in power law gradient hardening materials

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Tvergaard, Viggo


    Tension and compression instabilities are investigated for specimens with dimensions in the micron range. A finite strain generalization of a higher order strain gradient plasticity theory is implemented in a finite element scheme capable of modeling power law hardening materials. Effects...... of gradient hardening are found to delay the onset of localization under plane strain tension, and significantly reduce strain gradients in the localized zone. For plane strain compression gradient hardening is found to increase the load-carrying capacity significantly....

  5. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.


    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  6. Essentials of supply chain management

    Hugos, Michael H


    The latest thinking, strategies, developments, and technologies to stay current in supply chain management Presenting the core concepts and techniques of supply chain management in a clear, concise and easily readable style, the Third Edition of Essentials of Supply Chain Management outlines the most crucial tenets and concepts of supply chain management.

  7. APS power supply controls

    Saunders, C.W.; Despe, O.D.


    The purpose of this document is to provide comprehensive coverage of the APS power supply control design. This includes application software, embedded controller software, networks, and hardware. The basic components will be introduced first, followed by the requirements driving the overall design. Subsequent sections will address each component of the design one by one. Latter sections will address specific applications

  8. Innovation in Supply Chains

    Maier, Maximilian; Korbel, Jakob; Brem, Alexander


    . Moreover, along with the fourth industrial revolution – industry 4.0 – new technologies such as cyber physical systems are fast gaining popularity. Hence, based on the analysis of relevant literature, we further develop the supply chain committee model, developed by Kaluza et al. (2003) to demonstrate how...

  9. Supply Chain Costing

    Asmussen, Jesper Normann; Kristensen, Jesper; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    Based Costing (ABC) på et forsyningskædeniveau – heri benævnt Supply Chain Costing (SCC). Udoverdefordelederfindesved ABCtilføjerSCCogså et økonomisk grundlag til det strategiske rationale, der ofte ligger bag opbygningen af virksomhedens forsyningskæde, og kan dermed medvirke til konkret...

  10. Oil sands supply outlook

    Dunbar, R.


    In March 2004, The Canadian Energy Research Institute released a report on the expected future supply from Alberta's oil sands. The report indicates that the future for the already well-established oil sands industry is promising, particularly given the outlook for oil prices. The challenges facing the industry include higher industry supply costs and the need for innovative commercial and technological solutions to address the risks of irregularities and changes in crude oil prices. In 2003, the industry produced 874 thousand barrels per day of synthetic crude oil and unprocessed crude bitumen. This represents 35 per cent of Canada's total oil production. Current production capacity has increased to 1.0 million barrels per day (mbpd) due to new projects. This number may increase to 3.5 mbpd by 2017. Some new projects may be deferred due to the higher raw bitumen and synthetic crude oil supply costs. This presentation provided supply costs for a range of oil sands recovery technologies and production projections under various business scenarios. tabs., figs

  11. Investments secure supply security

    Van Baarle, D.


    In order to guarantee the supply of energy considerable investment must be made to improve the infrastructure (e.g. capacity for LNG-transport and -storage) and ties with the natural gas supplier in the Russian Federation must be intensified [nl

  12. Ethics of Information Supply.

    Oppenheim, Charles

    This discussion of the ethics of the information process provides a brief review of the process of information supply and flow, primarily in science and technology; looks at various points in the flow of information; and highlights particular ethical concerns. Facets of the process discussed in more detail include ways in which some scientists…

  13. Aid Supplies Over Time

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    The recent financial crisis has rekindled interest in the foreign aid supply behaviour of bilateral donors. Using the latest data covering the period 1960-2009, this paper examines how such behaviour is related to domestic factors. Based on a simple empirical model, a distinction is made between...

  14. Female Labor Supply

    Maassen-van den Brink, te Henriet


    To gain insight on factors that impede economic independence of women, this book concentrates on female labor supply in relation to child care, male-female wage differentials, the division of unpaid labor, and marital conflicts between women and men. It may very well be that restrictions on the

  15. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix


    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  16. Short run effects of bleaker prospects for oligopolistic producers of a non-renewable resource

    Grimsrud, Kristine; Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Storroesten, Halvor Briseid; Tsygankova, Marina


    In a non-renewable resource market with imperfect competition, the resource owners' supply is governed both by current demand and by the resource rent. New information regarding future market conditions will typically affect the resource rent and hence current supply. Bleaker prospects will tend to accelerate extraction. We show, however, that for resource owners with substantial resource stocks, a more pessimistic outlook may in fact slow down early extraction. The explanation is that for players with extensive resource stocks, the resource rent is limited and supply is more driven by current market considerations. As players with less resources accelerate their supply, it may be optimal for the large resource owners to cut back on their supply. We illustrate this in the case of the European gas market, finding that the shale gas revolution may lead to an accelerated supply by most gas producers, but a postponement of Russian gas extraction.(Author)

  17. Integrated supply chain risk management

    Riaan Bredell


    Full Text Available Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly applied, this process may optimise management decision-making and assist in the protection and enhancement of shareholder value.

  18. An education gradient in health, a health gradient in education, or a confounded gradient in both?

    Lynch, Jamie L; von Hippel, Paul T


    There is a positive gradient associating educational attainment with health, yet the explanation for this gradient is not clear. Does higher education improve health (causation)? Do the healthy become highly educated (selection)? Or do good health and high educational attainment both result from advantages established early in the life course (confounding)? This study evaluates these competing explanations by tracking changes in educational attainment and Self-rated Health (SRH) from age 15 to age 31 in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 cohort. Ordinal logistic regression confirms that high-SRH adolescents are more likely to become highly educated. This is partly because adolescent SRH is associated with early advantages including adolescents' academic performance, college plans, and family background (confounding); however, net of these confounders adolescent SRH still predicts adult educational attainment (selection). Fixed-effects longitudinal regression shows that educational attainment has little causal effect on SRH at age 31. Completion of a high school diploma or associate's degree has no effect on SRH, while completion of a bachelor's or graduate degree have effects that, though significant, are quite small (less than 0.1 points on a 5-point scale). While it is possible that educational attainment would have greater effect on health at older ages, at age 31 what we see is a health gradient in education, shaped primarily by selection and confounding rather than by a causal effect of education on health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Strain gradient effects in surface roughening

    Borg, Ulrik; Fleck, N.A.


    evidence for strain gradient effects. Numerical analyses of a bicrystal undergoing in-plane tensile deformation are also studied using a strain gradient crystal plasticity theory and also by using a strain gradient plasticity theory for an isotropic solid. Both theories include an internal material length...

  20. Gradient remediability in linear distributed parabolic systems ...

    The aim of this paper is the introduction of a new concept that concerned the analysis of a large class of distributed parabolic systems. It is the general concept of gradient remediability. More precisely, we study with respect to the gradient observation, the existence of an input operator (gradient efficient actuators) ensuring ...

  1. The Supply of Trade Credit by Brazilian Publicly Traded Firms

    Rafael Felipe Schiozer


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of trade credit supply by Brazilian publicly traded companies between the years of 2005 and 2008. International literature (both theoretical and empirical documents that the main determinants of trade credit supply are the size of the firm and the size of its debt. Both indicate that the availability of resources to the firm is an important factor for the supply of trade credit. In addition, the literature confirms strategic uses of trade credit such as those for price discrimination purposes. The results obtained using a sample of 157 Brazilian companies do not support that size and indebtedness are relevant determinants for trade credit supply, but they confirm the supply of trade credit as a strategic tool for the firms. Additionally we observed a significant decrease in trade credit supply in 2008, the year in which a severe international financial crisis took place.

  2. Future directions conventional oil supply, Western Canada

    Campbell, G.R.; Hayward, J.


    The history of the Canadian oil industry was briefly sketched and the future outlook for crude oil and natural gas liquids in western Canada was forecast. The historical review encompassed some of the significant events in history of the Canadian oil industry, including the Leduc discovery in 1947, the Swan Hills discovery in 1957, the start of commercial production from the Athabasca oil sands in 1967, the discovery of the Hibernia oilfield offshore Newfoundland in 1979, and the onset of the use of horizontal production wells in western Canada in 1987. The resource base, supply costs, and the technology that is being developed to reduce costs and to improve recovery, were reviewed. Future oil prices were predicted, taking into account the costs associated with technological developments. It was suggested that the character of the industry is undergoing a change from an industry dominated by conventional supply to a mixed industry with increasing volume of heavy oil, primary bitumen, synthetic oil and frontier supply replacing 'conventional' light crude oil. Projections into the future are subject to uncertainty both on the supply as well as on the demand side. The potential impact of technology can significantly affect demand, and technological developments can yield additional supplies which exceed current expectations. 10 figs

  3. The Supply Chain, a Strategic Marketing Approach

    Ştefan Claudiu Căescu


    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to integrate strategic marketing instruments within the supply chain in relationship with the suppliers. In order to integrate the commercial and economic activities at the supply chain level there is a need of developing tight relationships between the customer and the supplier. Thus, it is justified to approach the supply chain from a strategic perspective and the strategic marketing tools are perfectly applicable on the business-to-business market. Our research, has led us to the conclusion that, especially on business to business markets, organizations focus their marketing activities not only on the relationship with their customers, but on the relationship with their suppliers as well. In the supply chain, companies appear as buyers and as clients for the suppliers of goods, financial resources and of work force. Starting from this, we have developed a quantitative marketing research, interviewing 60 organizations from the business-to-business Romanian market, with the purpose of identifying the way in which companies from the B2b market integrate strategic marketing in their supply-chain.

  4. Monitoring the Vulnerability of Energy Supply System

    Gnansonounou, E.


    Due to the increasing complexity of the world evolution, the public decision makers, the energy supply industry and the consumers in industrialised countries are more and more sensitive to the vulnerability of energy supply. The emergence of new big consumer countries and the perspective of oil and gas depletion at the end of the current century raise the concerns about how to share fairly the remaining resources for the common and sustainable development of the mankind. Erratic energy prices discourage investment and delay the energy transition. Voluntary measures are needed mainly in industrialised countries in order to develop alternative and sustainable energy sources and to avoid world struggle for energy procurement. In this contribution a synthetic energy vulnerability index is defined for monitoring energy supply vulnerability. The proposed index is based on energy intensity, oil and gas import dependency, CO 2 content of primary energy supply, electricity supply vulnerability and non-diversity in transport fuels. The preliminary assessment of this synthetic index for selected industrialised countries provides promising results that need however further refinement.(author)

  5. Canadian gas supply: going up? or down?

    Woronuk, R. H.


    With regard to Canada's gas reserves there are clear indications that the gas market is moving from a supply/demand balance controlled by demand to one that is controlled by supply. There is evidence of a recognition that the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) , the source of most of Canada's gas supply is a mature basin, with over half of its reserves already discovered, that consumption has exceeded reserve additions for all but one of the last sixteen years, and that under these conditions consumption cannot grow, or even be maintained indefinitely. The central argument advanced in this paper is that the era of ever increasing production from the WCSB is nearing its end and that a more aggressive approach to exploration and development in the WCSB, especially in the deeper and more environmentally sensitive areas, together with the exploitation of conventional gas in frontier areas and unconventional resources will be necessary to prevent projected declines in supply. Identification of new geological plays, exploration for and connection of reserves from frontier regions and the development of technologies for enhanced recoveries will involve increasingly long lead times, therefore, initiatives to address forthcoming supply issues must begin immediately. 4 refs., 17 figs

  6. The design of supply chains

    Bøge Sørensen, Lars


    Keywords Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Design, Literature study Abstract Argues stability is a design objective for supply chain design alongside cost, lead time and responsiveness. Performs an extensive literature study on supply chain design, identifies methods, theories and objectives in the existing literature. Describes the concept external specificity and how it’s used to design supply chains. Using the concept upstream, archetypes of risk minimal and maximal desi...

  7. Reliability criteria selection for integrated resource planning

    Ruiu, D.; Ye, C.; Billinton, R.; Lakhanpal, D.


    A study was conducted on the selection of a generating system reliability criterion that ensures a reasonable continuity of supply while minimizing the total costs to utility customers. The study was conducted using the Institute for Electronic and Electrical Engineers (IEEE) reliability test system as the study system. The study inputs and results for conditions and load forecast data, new supply resources data, demand-side management resource data, resource planning criterion, criterion value selection, supply side development, integrated resource development, and best criterion values, are tabulated and discussed. Preliminary conclusions are drawn as follows. In the case of integrated resource planning, the selection of the best value for a given type of reliability criterion can be done using methods similar to those used for supply side planning. The reliability criteria values previously used for supply side planning may not be economically justified when integrated resource planning is used. Utilities may have to revise and adopt new, and perhaps lower supply reliability criteria for integrated resource planning. More complex reliability criteria, such as energy related indices, which take into account the magnitude, frequency and duration of the expected interruptions are better adapted than the simpler capacity-based reliability criteria such as loss of load expectation. 7 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs

  8. Modeling and Optimization for Management of Intermittent Water Supply

    Lieb, A. M.; Wilkening, J.; Rycroft, C.


    In many urban areas, piped water is supplied only intermittently, as valves direct water to different parts of the water distribution system at different times. The flow is transient, and may transition between free-surface and pressurized, resulting in complex dynamical features with important consequences for water suppliers and users. These consequences include degradation of distribution system components, compromised water quality, and inequitable water availability. The goal of this work is to model the important dynamics and identify operating conditions that mitigate certain negative effects of intermittent water supply. Specifically, we will look at controlling valve parameters occurring as boundary conditions in a network model of transient, transition flow through closed pipes. Gradient-based optimization will be used to find boundary values to minimize pressure gradients and ensure equitable water availability at system endpoints.

  9. An economic model of international wood supply, forest stock and forest area change

    James A. Turner; Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu


    Wood supply, the link between roundwood removals and forest resources, is an important component of forest sector models. This paper develops a model of international wood supply within the structure of the spatial equilibrium Global Forest Products Model. The wood supply model determines, for each country, the annual forest harvest, the annual change of forest stock...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1107-7 - Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water spray devices; capacity; water supply... Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements. (a) Where water spray devices are... square foot over the top surface area of the equipment and the supply of water shall be adequate to...

  11. IFLA General Conference, 1989. Pre-Session Seminar on Interlending and Document Supply. Papers.

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The papers in this compilation address topics relating to interlending and document supply and include the following: (1) "Training in Interlending" (D. E. K. Wijasuriya, Malaysia); (2) "Resource Collections and Document Supply Centre" (Stephney Ferguson, Jamaica); (3) "Organizing for Interlibrary Loan and Document Supply" (Rodrick S. Mabomba);…

  12. Temperature Gradient in Hall Thrusters

    Staack, D.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N.J.


    Plasma potentials and electron temperatures were deduced from emissive and cold floating probe measurements in a 2 kW Hall thruster, operated in the discharge voltage range of 200-400 V. An almost linear dependence of the electron temperature on the plasma potential was observed in the acceleration region of the thruster both inside and outside the thruster. This result calls into question whether secondary electron emission from the ceramic channel walls plays a significant role in electron energy balance. The proportionality factor between the axial electron temperature gradient and the electric field is significantly smaller than might be expected by models employing Ohmic heating of electrons

  13. Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple

    Perdew, J.P.; Burke, K.; Ernzerhof, M.


    Generalized gradient approximations (GGA close-quote s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. Dai-Kou type conjugate gradient methods with a line search only using gradient.

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Changhe


    In this paper, the Dai-Kou type conjugate gradient methods are developed to solve the optimality condition of an unconstrained optimization, they only utilize gradient information and have broader application scope. Under suitable conditions, the developed methods are globally convergent. Numerical tests and comparisons with the PRP+ conjugate gradient method only using gradient show that the methods are efficient.

  15. Achievement report for fiscal 1995 on the research and development of comprehensive basic technologies on marine resources (manganese nodule mining system) in industrial and scientific technology research and development project. Trends and forecasts of the supply-demand for metal resources (Ni, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn) that are contained in manganese nodules; 1995 nendo kaiyo shigen sogo kiban gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (mangan dankai saiko system) seika hokokusho. Mangan dankai ni kakawaru kinzoku shigen (Ni, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn) no kyokyu ni kansuru shorai doko no suitei



    Living standards improving in developing countries especially in China are the most influential factor to determine the demand for Cu. Consumption of Ni will depend on the trends of advanced technologies such as Ni-hydrogen battery, fuel cell, shape memory alloy, hydrogen absorbing alloy, in addition to increase in global population and developing countries' living standards improvement. Co is far more dependent on advanced technologies than Ni is. On the land, Ni ore is increasingly lower in quality and Co is being retrieved from by-products of Cu production, both meeting the problem of unstable supply. Consideration is made to apply new extraction methods to Cu production; there are some potential resources for Fe and Mn. The Mn nodule exists in great quantities and is a attractive source of supply, but a long time will be required before it is exploited. It is necessary to speed up the study to exploit the Mn nodule, but first of all the problem of its competition with land resources in terms of cost has to be solved. It needs to be found out at what stage of production the Mn nodule is competitive with land products. In any case, Japan should undertake the efforts of marine resources exploitation leading other countries of the world. (NEDO)

  16. Buyer focus : Evaluation of a new concept for supply chain integration

    van der Vaart, T; van Donk, DP


    The goal of integrated supply chains is to remove barriers to ease the flow of materials and information. This article concentrates on an important barrier: shared resources in a supply chain. The removal of these shared resources is closely related to the recently introduced concept of buyer focus.

  17. Buyer focus : evaluation of a new concept for supply chain integration

    Vaart, Taco van der; Donk, Dirk Pieter van


    The goal of integrated supply chains is to remove barriers to ease the flow of materials and information. This article concentrates on an important barrier: shared resources in a supply chain. The removal of these shared resources is closely related to the recently introduced concept of buyer focus.

  18. Geographical analyses of wood chips potentials, cost and supply for sustainable energy production in Denmark

    Möller, Bernd


    The paper presents a study which uses a practical application of rasterbased geographical information system to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production.......The paper presents a study which uses a practical application of rasterbased geographical information system to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production....

  19. Geographical cost-supply analysis forest biomass for distributed generation in Denmark

    Möller, Bernd


    The article presents a study which uses geographical information system (GIS) to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production.......The article presents a study which uses geographical information system (GIS) to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production....

  20. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements. 401.36 Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... Compact § 401.36 Water supply projects—Conservation requirements. Maximum feasible efficiency in the use...

  1. Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala: exploration geothermal gradient drilling and results

    Goff, S.J.; Goff, F.; Janik, C.J.


    Results of geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical field studies conducted in 1988 and 1989 at the Tecuamburro geothermal site, Guatemala, indicate that there is a substantial shallow heat source beneath the area of youngest volcanism. Gases from acid-sulfate springs near Laguna Ixpaco consistently yield maximum estimated subsurface temperatures of 300??C. To obtain information on subsurface temperatures and temperature gradients, stratigraphy, fracturing, hydrothermal alteration, and hydrothermal fluids, a geothermal gradient core hole (TCB-1) was drilled to 808 m low on the northern flank of the Tecuamburro Volcano complex. The hole is located 300 m south of a 300m-diameter phreatic crater. Laguna Ixpaco, dated at 2910 years. TCB-1 temperature logs do not indicate isothermal conditions at depth and the calculated thermal gradient from 500-800 m is 230??C/km. Bottom hole temperature is close to 240??C. Calculated heat flow values are around 350-400 mW/m2. Fluid-inclusion and secondary-alteration studies indicate that veins and secondary minerals were formed at temperatures equal to or slightly less than present temperatures; thus, the Tecuamburro geothermal system may still be heating up. The integration of results from the TCB-1 gradient core hole with results from field studies provides strong evidence that the Tecuamburro area holds great promise for geothermal resource development. ?? 1992.

  2. Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project: water-resources activities

    Robson, Stanley G.; Heiny, Janet S.


    Infrastructure, such as roads, buildings, airports, and dams, is built and maintained by use of large quantities of natural resources such as aggregate (sand and gravel), energy, and water. As urban area expand, local sources of these resource are becoming inaccessible (gravel cannot be mined from under a subdivision, for example), or the cost of recovery of the resource becomes prohibitive (oil and gas drilling in urban areas is costly), or the resources may become unfit for some use (pollution of ground water may preclude its use as a water supply). Governmental land-use decision and environmental mandates can further preclude development of natural resources. If infrastructure resources are to remain economically available. current resource information must be available for use in well-reasoned decisions bout future land use. Ground water is an infrastructure resource that is present in shallow aquifers and deeper bedrock aquifers that underlie much of the 2,450-square-mile demonstration area of the Colorado Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project. In 1996, mapping of the area's ground-water resources was undertaken as a U.S. Geological Survey project in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, and the Colorado Water Conservation Board.

  3. Ternary gradient metal-organic frameworks.

    Liu, Chong; Rosi, Nathaniel L


    Gradient MOFs contain directional gradients of either structure or functionality. We have successfully prepared two ternary gradient MOFs based on bMOF-100 analogues, namely bMOF-100/102/106 and bMOF-110/100/102, via cascade ligand exchange reactions. The cubic unit cell parameter discrepancy within an individual ternary gradient MOF crystal is as large as ∼1 nm, demonstrating the impressive compatibility and flexibility of the component MOF materials. Because of the presence of a continuum of unit cells, the pore diameters within individual crystals also change in a gradient fashion from ∼2.5 nm to ∼3.0 nm for bMOF-100/102/106, and from ∼2.2 nm to ∼2.7 nm for bMOF-110/100/102, indicating significant porosity gradients. Like previously reported binary gradient MOFs, the composition of the ternary gradient MOFs can be easily controlled by adjusting the reaction conditions. Finally, X-ray diffraction and microspectrophotometry were used to analyse fractured gradient MOF crystals by comparing unit cell parameters and absorbance spectra at different locations, thus revealing the profile of heterogeneity (i.e. gradient distribution of properties) and further confirming the formation of ternary gradient MOFs.

  4. Forest resource economics and policy research

    Ellefson, P.V.


    This book contains chapters relating to forest economics. Included are the following chapters: Forecasting demand and supply of forest resources, products, and services; Wood fiber production; Forestry sector environmental effects

  5. Strain gradient effects on cyclic plasticity

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Legarth, Brian Nyvang


    Size effects on the cyclic shear response are studied numerically using a recent higher order strain gradient visco-plasticity theory accounting for both dissipative and energetic gradient hardening. Numerical investigations of the response under cyclic pure shear and shear of a finite slab between...... rigid platens have been carried out, using the finite element method. It is shown for elastic–perfectly plastic solids how dissipative gradient effects lead to increased yield strength, whereas energetic gradient contributions lead to increased hardening as well as a Bauschinger effect. For linearly...... hardening materials it is quantified how dissipative and energetic gradient effects promote hardening above that of conventional predictions. Usually, increased hardening is attributed to energetic gradient effects, but here it is found that also dissipative gradient effects lead to additional hardening...

  6. Planetary Volatiles Extractor for In Situ Resource Utilization, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) or ?living off the land relies on exploiting local resources and in turn reducing burden of transporting supplies. NASA has...

  7. Discontinuous Mode Power Supply

    Lagadinos, John; Poulos, Ethel


    A document discusses the changes made to a standard push-pull inverter circuit to avoid saturation effects in the main inverter power supply. Typically, in a standard push-pull arrangement, the unsymmetrical primary excitation causes variations in the volt second integral of each half of the excitation cycle that could lead to the establishment of DC flux density in the magnetic core, which could eventually cause saturation of the main inverter transformer. The relocation of the filter reactor normally placed across the output of the power supply solves this problem. The filter reactor was placed in series with the primary circuit of the main inverter transformer, and is presented as impedance against the sudden changes on the input current. The reactor averaged the input current in the primary circuit, avoiding saturation of the main inverter transformer. Since the implementation of the described change, the above problem has not reoccurred, and failures in the main power transistors have been avoided.

  8. Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics

    Roslyng Olesen, Thomas

    This report is part of the research project “The competitive challenges and strategic development possibilities for The Blue Denmark”, which was launched in 2014. The project is funded by the Danish Maritime Fund and carried out by researchers at CBS Maritime which is a Business in Society Platform...... with companies in the maritime sector. This report “Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics – Business strategies in the offshore supply industry” is the second report in mapping project D. It examines the markets and business strategies of various suppliers and furthermore presents an analysis of the challenges...... at Copenhagen Business School with a focus on value creation in the maritime industries. The project embraces various maritime segments from shipping and offshore to ports and suppliers. The research questions for the individual projects have been formulated by researchers at CBS Maritime in cooperation...

  9. Gas in Europe: supply



    It is predicted that natural gas consumption in western Europe could rise by more than 55% over the next two decades, from 290bn cubic metres (cm) in 1991 to 450bn cm in 2010. This growth, projected by the consultants, Arthur D Little, reflects the environmental and economic attractions of natural gas, particularly in the power generation sector. Another consultant, Poten and Partners, predicts an even greater rise in gas consumption, from 301bn cm in 1992 to 482 bn cm in 2010. However, while demand is forecast to increase in all major European gas markets, indigenous production within Europe is expected to remain stable for the foreseeable future, with indigenous supplies projected to peak at approximately 350bn cubic metres per year (cm/y) in the late 1990s. This raises the prospect of significant supply constraints emerging in Europe. (author)

  10. Electricity supply in Denmark


    Electric power was introduced in Denmark in 1891. Recently, the development of the Danish electricity supply industry has been influenced by a number of political measures aiming at a cleaner environment. The booklet gives a general introduction to the industry in Denmark. It reflects the actual supply situation and looks at the future as well as giving a survey of the historical and political background. In addition to relevant statistics, brief information is given on national energy balance, consumption, costs and pricing, distribution and transmission, end-use efficiency, electric power generation, imports and exports, wind power, cogeneration and district heating, pollutive emission, planning and Danish energy policy. There is also a list of useful addresses. (AB)

  11. Environmental Retail Supply Chains

    Kotzab, Herbert; Munch, Hilde; de Faultrier, Birgitte


    which were grouped into eight categories; they refer to “fundamental environmental attitude”, “use of energy”, “use of input material”, “product”, “packaging”, “transport”, “consumption” and “waste”. The level of environmental supply chain management can be characterised as very operational and very...... short-term oriented (green operations). Long-term oriented green design initiatives were hardly observed. Furthermore, the specific environmental activities of three retailers from Denmark, France and the UK were compared. Research limitations/implications – The empirical study investigates supply chain...... operations of retailers and excludes other areas of retail management. The results are based on material that is published by the respective companies and thus do not include internal reports. Originality/value – The main contribution of this paper is to test the proposition that global retailers follow...

  12. Towards Intelligent Supply Chains

    Siurdyban, Artur; Møller, Charles


    applied to the context of organizational processes can increase the success rate of business operations. The framework is created using a set of theoretical based constructs grounded in a discussion across several streams of research including psychology, pedagogy, artificial intelligence, learning...... of deploying inapt operations leading to deterioration of profits. To address this problem, we propose a unified business process design framework based on the paradigm of intelligence. Intelligence allows humans and human-designed systems cope with environmental volatility, and we argue that its principles......, business process management and supply chain management. It outlines a number of system tasks combined in four integrated management perspectives: build, execute, grow and innovate, put forward as business process design propositions for Intelligent Supply Chains....

  13. High gradient RF breakdown study

    Laurent, L.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Scheitrum, G.; Hanna, S.; Pearson, C.; Phillips, R.


    Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and UC Davis have been investigating high gradient RF breakdown and its effects on pulse shortening in high energy microwave devices. RF breakdown is a critical issue in the development of high power microwave sources and next generation linear accelerators since it limits the output power of microwave sources and the accelerating gradient of linacs. The motivation of this research is to find methods to increase the breakdown threshold level in X-band structures by reducing dark current. Emphasis is focused on improved materials, surface finish, and cleanliness. The test platform for this research is a traveling wave resonant ring. A 30 MW klystron is employed to provide up to 300 MW of traveling wave power in the ring to trigger breakdown in the cavity. Five TM 01 cavities have previously been tested, each with a different combination of surface polish and/or coating. The onset of breakdown was extended up to 250 MV/m with a TiN surface finish, as compared to 210 MV/m for uncoated OFE copper. Although the TiN coating was helpful in depressing the field emission, the lowest dark current was obtained with a 1 microinch surface finish, single-point diamond-turned cavity

  14. NIF optics phase gradient specfication

    Williams, W.; Auerbach, J.; Hunt, J.; Lawson, L.; Manes, K.; Orth, C.; Sacks, R.; Trenholme, J.; Wegner, P.


    A root-mean-square (rms) phase gradient specification seems to allow a good connection between the NIP optics quality and focal spot requirements. Measurements on Beamlet optics individually, and as a chain, indicate they meet the assumptions necessary to use this specification, and that they have a typical rms phase gradient of ∼80 angstrom/cm. This may be sufficient for NIP to meet the proposed Stockpile Stewardship Management Program (SSMP) requirements of 80% of a high- power beam within a 200-250 micron diameter spot. Uncertainties include, especially, the scale length of the optics phase noise, the ability of the adaptive optic to correct against pump-induced distortions and optics noise, and the possibility of finding mitigation techniques against whole-beam self-focusing (e.g. a pre- correction optic). Further work is needed in these areas to better determine the NIF specifications. This memo is a written summary of a presentation on this topic given by W. Williams 24 April 1997 to NIP and LS ampersand T personnel

  15. Supply Chain Initiatives Database



    The Supply Chain Initiatives Database (SCID) presents innovative approaches to engaging industrial suppliers in efforts to save energy, increase productivity and improve environmental performance. This comprehensive and freely-accessible database was developed by the Institute for Industrial Productivity (IIP). IIP acknowledges Ecofys for their valuable contributions. The database contains case studies searchable according to the types of activities buyers are undertaking to motivate suppliers, target sector, organization leading the initiative, and program or partnership linkages.

  16. Supply chain finance

    Kasavica Petar


    Full Text Available The concept of supply chain finance is a response to global illiquidity, intensified through the global economic crisis and globalization of commercial and financial flows. The growing illiquidity undermines credit ratings of economic entities, thereby reducing the potential for achieving the projected goals (profitability and portfolio quality. In order to overcome this, banks have introduced certain products flexible to the requirements of specific transactions. The concerned products redirect the focus from a client's credit rating and risk to the credit rating and risk of a business partner (buyer, resulting in benefits for all transaction participants ('win-win-win'. Moreover, the activities are targeted at transaction analysis, i.e. the isolation and protection of the cash flow as the source of financial instrument's repayment. On the other hand, there has been an increasing number of transactions based on the risk of the commercial bank of the client's business partner, or on the risk of collateral (inventory. The focus is actually placed on the financing of adequate supply chain stages, given that counterparty relationship management has been proven to be crucial for efficient management of one's own business. The tensions existing in the relations between partners (increasingly long payment deadlines are in the basis of the supply chain finance concept. Decisions made by banks are based on the entire supply chain (wide information basis, thereby shifting the focus from the product (as was the case before the crisis to the client's needs. Thus, decisions become increasingly comprehensive, quicker, and more precise, and portfolios less risky. Through the individual portfolio of banks, the market of national economies also becomes safer and more liquid. These are rather profitable transactions, because, due to the risk transfer, financing is enabled to companies to whom classic crediting in most cases is not available.

  17. Switched mode power supplies

    Verity, P.R.


    The power supply comprises an oscillator arranged to drive the primary winding of a transformer. A nuclear impulse detector is arranged to discontinue drive to the primary winding in response to detection of a nuclear impulse. The detector comprises a monostable circuit which has its state changed for a predetermined time by photocurrents induced in response to gamma radiation. In this changed state the detector disables the oscillator. (author)

  18. Information resources for nuclear power construction

    Rozin, V.M.


    Problems of designing and introduction of data resources (in the form of magnetic carrier data) for the construction of NPP with the WWER-1000 type reactors are considered. It is suggested that the data resources should be supplied to the construction as independent production alongside with preliminary estimation and material resources. It is pointed out that the introduction of the data resource will permit to increase the efficiency of NPP construction management

  19. The design of supply chains

    Bøge Sørensen, Lars


    Keywords Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Design, Literature studyAbstract Argues stability is a design objective for supply chain design alongside cost, leadtime and responsiveness. Performs an extensive literature study on supply chain design,identifies methods, theories and objectives...... in the existing literature. Describes the conceptexternal specificity and how it's used to design supply chains. Using the concept upstream,archetypes of risk minimal and maximal design are identified. Downstream the conceptdescribes two viable scenarios, one minimizing the impact, the other minimizing...... theprobability of (intended) departure of a supply chain partner. Finally, principles for supplychain design are described and managerial outlined....

  20. Exhaustible natural resources, normal prices and intertemporal equilibrium

    Parrinello, Sergio


    This paper proposes an extension of the classical theory of normal prices to an n-commodity economy with exhaustible natural resources. The central idea is developed by two analytical steps. Firstly, it is assumed that a given flow of an exhaustible resource in short supply is combined with the coexistence of two methods of production using that resource. Sraffa’s equations are reinterpreted by adopting the concept of effectual supply of natural resources and avoiding the assumption of perfec...

  1. Port supply chain integration : analyzing biofuel supply chains

    Stevens, Leonie C. E.; Vis, Iris F. A.


    This paper focuses on port supply chain integration to strengthen operational and business performance. We provide a structured and comprehensive method to enable port supply chain integration and demonstrate its applicability to the biofuel supply chain. We define the value proposition, role,

  2. Strength gradient enhances fatigue resistance of steels

    Ma, Zhiwei; Liu, Jiabin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Hongtao; Wei, Yujie; Gao, Huajian


    Steels are heavily used in infrastructure and the transportation industry, and enhancing their fatigue resistance is a major challenge in materials engineering. In this study, by introducing a gradient microstructure into 304 austenitic steel, which is one of the most widely used types of stainless steel, we show that a strength gradient substantially enhances the fatigue life of the material. Pre-notched samples with negative strength gradients in front of the notch’s tip endure many more fatigue cycles than do samples with positive strength gradients during the crack initiation stage, and samples with either type of gradient perform better than do gradient-free samples with the same average yield strength. However, as a crack grows, samples with positive strength gradients exhibit better resistance to fatigue crack propagation than do samples with negative gradients or no gradient. This study demonstrates a simple and promising strategy for using gradient structures to enhance the fatigue resistance of materials and complements related studies of strength and ductility.

  3. Supply Chain Simulation using Business Process Modeling in Service Oriented Architecture

    Taejong Yoo


    For supply chain optimization, as a key determinant of strategic resources mobility along the value-added chain, simulation is widely used to test the impact on supply chain performance for the strategic level decisions, such as the number of plants, the modes of transport, or the relocation of warehouses. Traditionally, a single centralized model that encompasses multiple participants in the supply chain is built when optimization of the supply chain through simulation is required. However, ...

  4. Implementation of DMAs in Intermittent Water Supply Networks Based on Equity Criteria

    Amilkar E. Ilaya-Ayza; Carlos Martins; Enrique Campbell; Joaquín Izquierdo


    Intermittent supply is a common way of delivering water in many developing countries. Limitations on water and economic resources, in addition to poor management and population growth, limit the possibilities of delivering water 24 h a day. Intermittent water supply networks are usually designed and managed in an empirical manner, or using tools and criteria devised for continuous supply systems, and this approach can produce supply inequity. In this paper, an approach based on the hydraulic ...

  5. Maintenance Enterprise Resource Planning: Information Value Among Supply Chain Elements


    to$Normal$Science$ Textbook,$ar8cles$ Journal,$Socie8es$ Profession$ New$Disciplines$ New$School$ $ Material$ Managemen t $ Pr e+ Pa ra di gm :$ Th ou...Jensen, P., & Bard, J. F. (2002). Operations research models and methods (1st ed., p. 700). Danvers, MA: Wiley. Jitpaiboon, T . (2005). The roles of...of Operations Research, 19(3), 337–357. doi:10.1007/s10100-010-0168-1 Kuhn, T . S. (1970). The structure of scientific revolutions (2nd ed.). Chicago

  6. Human resources for public health supply chain management in ...


    country. Objective: The objective of this needs assessment was to identify the need for ... not to eliminate, the effect of the prevailing inadequate ... Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH),to develop the ... manage outsourcing of these activities, and.

  7. Sustainable Supply of Resources and Energy is a Challenge

    Kühn, Michael; Ask, Maria; Bruckman, Viktor; Hangx, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483579X; Juhlin, Christopher


    The European Geosciences Union brings together geoscientists from all over Europe and the rest of the world, covering all disciplines of the earth sciences. This geoscientific inter- and multi-disciplinarity is needed to tackle the challenges of the future. A major challenge for humankind is to

  8. Predicting and Supplying Human Resource Requirements for the Future.

    Blake, Larry J.

    After asserting that public institutions should not provide training for nonexistent jobs, this paper reviews problems associated with the accurate prediction of future manpower needs. The paper reviews the processes currently used to project labor force needs and notes the difficulty of accurately forecasting labor market "surprises,"…

  9. Materials Challenges and Testing for Supply of Energy and Resources

    Bollinghaus, Thomas


    One major goal of the World Materials Research Institute Forum - WMRIF is to promote young scientists in the field of materials science and engineering. To enhance the international knowledge exchange between young postdoctoral scientists all over the world, WMRIF meanwhile regularly organizes joint workshops among the member institutes. These workshops also represent an increasingly appreciated platform to get known to each other and to build co-operations. For such workshops, various topics are selected, pointing to future perspectives and challenges in the field of Materials Science and Eng

  10. Public-supply water use and self-supplied industrial water use in Tennessee, 2010

    Robinson, John A.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Division of Water Resources, prepared this report and displayed and analyzed water use by self-supplied industrial and public-supply water systems in Tennessee for 2010. Public-supply water systems in Tennessee provide water for domestic, industrial, and commercial uses and for municipal services. In 2010, 474 public-supply water systems distributed 917 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of surface water (67 percent, 617 Mgal/d) and groundwater (33 percent, 300 Mgal/d) to a population of 5.7 million in Tennessee. Gross per capita water use in Tennessee during 2010 was 162 gallons per day.Since 1950, water withdrawals by public-supply water systems in Tennessee have increased from 160 Mgal/d to 917 Mgal/d in 2010. Each of the 95 counties in Tennessee was served by at least 1 public-supply water system in 2010. Tennessee public-supply water systems withdraw less groundwater than surface water, and surface-water use has increased at a faster rate than groundwater use. Since 2005, surface-water withdrawals have increased by 26 Mgal/d, and groundwater withdrawals have decreased by 29 Mgal/d, which is the first decrease in groundwater withdrawals since 1950; however, 29 systems reported increased groundwater withdrawals during 2010, and 12 of these 29 systems reported increases of 1 Mgal/d or more. Davidson County had the largest surface-water withdrawal rate (136 Mgal/d) in 2010. The largest groundwater withdrawal rate (151 Mgal/d) by a single public-supply water system was reported by Memphis Light, Gas and Water, which served more than 669,000 people in Shelby County in 2010.Self-supplied industrial water use includes water for such purposes as fabrication, processing, washing, diluting, cooling, or transporting a product; incorporating water into a product; or for sanitation needs in facilities that manufacture various products. Water withdrawals for self-supplied

  11. Modular High Voltage Power Supply

    Newell, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The goal of this project is to develop a modular high voltage power supply that will meet the needs of safeguards applications and provide a modular plug and play supply for use with standard electronic racks.

  12. The outlook for North American supply

    Coppens, J.


    An overview of North American natural gas assets and operations is presented, along with an outlook for natural gas demand, supply, and prices. Future natural gas demand was considered in the light of 1997 natural gas consumption by the residential, commercial, industrial and utility sectors, and an attempt was made to provide answers to questions such as the reasonableness of projections 30 Tcf annual demand, and the availability of gas resources or gas infrastructure to sustain demand of this magnitude. According to projections by the Electric Industry Association, 65 per cent of gas demand growth is for electric power generation. Natural gas supply on a regional and continental basis was reviewed and the implications for production were assessed. The overall conclusion was that resource supply will not be the constraining factor since there is plenty of gas, and the demand is regionally dispersed. However, if the demand for power generation comes anywhere near the high consumption forecast of 100 to 150 GW, a huge amount of gas-fired power plants would have to be built. Expansion of this magnitude would not be inexpensive

  13. Renewable energy supply for electric vehicle operations in California

    Papavasiliou, Anthony; Oren, Shmuel S.; Sidhy, Ikhlaq; Kaminsky, Phil; 32nd IAEE International Conference


    Due to technological progress, policy thrust and economic circumstances, the large scale integration of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power is becoming a reality in California, however the variable and unpredictable supply of these renewable resources poses a significant obstacle to their integration. At the same time we are witnessing a strong thrust towards the large scale deployment of electric vehicles which can ideally complement renewable power supply by acting as stor...

  14. The role of inventory in the supply chain

    Mihai Felea


    The supply chain is a system coordinated by organizations, humans, activities, information and resources involved in the movement of a product in a physical and virtual manner from the supplier to the client. The activities from the supply chain transform raw materials and components in a product that is delivered to the consumer or to the user. The inventory, together with the transport, the location of the production spaces and of the storage represent an important factor that influences th...

  15. Water resources management plan

    Glauco Maia


    Full Text Available Water resources manageWith the mission of providing reliable data for water supply activities in medium and large firefighting operations, the Firefighting Water Supply Tactical Group (GTSAI represents an important sector of the Rio de Janeiro State Fire Departmentment plan strategic support. Acting proactively, the Tactical Group prepared a Water Resources Management Plan, aiming to set up water resources for each jurisdiction of firefighters in the City of Rio de Janeiro, in order to assist the Fire Department in its missions. This goal was reached, and in association with LAGEOP (Geoprocessing Laboratory, UFRJ, the Tactical Group started using GIS techniques. The plan provides for the register of existing operational structures within each group (troops, vehicles and special equipment, along with knowledge about the nature and operating conditions of fire hydrants, as well as a detailed survey of areas considered to be "critical". The survey helps to support actions related to environmental disasters involved in the aforementioned critical areas (hospital, churches, schools, and chemical industries, among others. The Caju neighborhood, in Rio de Janeiro, was defined as initial application area, and was the first jurisdiction to have the system implemented, followed by Copacabana, Leblon, Lagoa, and Catete districts.


    Rachma, Meutia Safrina


    There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5)-2010(6), the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not hav...

  17. Endogeneity Of Indonesian Money Supply

    Rachma, Meutia Safrina


    There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5)-2010(6), the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not hav...

  18. Energy discharge heater power supply

    Jaskierny, W.


    The heater power supply is intended to supply capacitively stored,energy to embedded heater strips in cryo magnets. The amount of energy can be controlled by setting different charge different capacitor values. Two chassis' can be operated in series or interlocks are provided. The charge voltage, number of capacitors pulse can be monitored. There and dual channel has two discharge supplies in one chassis. This report reviews the characteristics of this power supply further

  19. Detox fashion supply chain


    This first volume on detox fashion discusses various interesting topics including a Toxic-Free Supply Chain for Textiles and Clothing; Environmental Issues in Textiles; Global Regulations, Restrictions & Research; Making the Change: Consumer Adoption of Sustainable Fashion; and Strategies for Detoxing Your Wardrobe. It provides an overview of the chemical-related issues confronting the fashion sector, summarizes global regulations, and discusses how to make the change by changing consumers’ attitude towards adopting sustainable fashion, as well as the best strategies for detoxing our wardrobes.

  20. EEC's: natural uramium supplies



    The demand for nuclear fuel to supply the nuclear plants within the ECC (31,200 MW at the end of last year) totalled nearly 9,600 tons of natural uranium and 4,900 of separation work units (SWU). Once reactors currently under construction come into service, the demand for natural uranium will reach 13,200 tons by 1985 and that for SWUs to 8,600. If one takes the years 1981 to 1985, total natural uranium needs during this period will be 56,300 tons and those for SWUs 35.100 [fr

  1. Food and water supply

    Popov, I. G.


    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  2. Nuclear fuel supplies


    When the International Atomic Energy Agency was set up nearly three years ago, it was widely believed that it would soon become a world bank or broker for the supply of nuclear fuel. Some observers now seem to feel that this promise has been rather slow to come to fruition. A little closer analysis would, however, show that the promise can be fulfilled only in a certain objective context, and to the extent that this context exists, the development of the Agency's role has been commensurate with the actual needs of the situation

  3. Groundwater potential for water supply during droughts in Korea

    Hyun, Y.; Cha, E.; Moon, H. J.


    Droughts have been receiving much attention in Korea because severe droughts occurred in recent years, causing significant social, economic and environmental damages in some regions. Residents in agricultural area, most of all, were most damaged by droughts with lack of available water supplies to meet crop water demands. In order to mitigate drought damages, we present a strategy to keep from agricultural droughts by using groundwater to meet water supply as a potential water resource in agricultural areas. In this study, we analyze drought severity and the groundwater potential to mitigate social and environmental damages caused by droughts in Korea. We evaluate drought severity by analyzing spatial and temporal meteorological and hydrological data such as rainfall, water supply and demand. For drought severity, we use effective drought index along with the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and standardized runoff index(SRI). Water deficit during the drought period is also quantified to consider social and environmental impact of droughts. Then we assess the feasibility of using groundwater as a potential source for groundwater impact mitigation. Results show that the agricultural areas are more vulnerable to droughts and use of groundwater as an emergency water resource is feasible in some regions. For a case study, we select Jeong-Sun area located in Kangwon providence having well-developed Karst aquifers and surrounded by mountains. For Jeong-Sun area, we quantify groundwater potential use, design the method of water supply by using groundwater, and assess its economic benefit. Results show that water supply system with groundwater abstraction can be a good strategy when droughts are severe for an emergency water supply in Jeong-Sun area, and groundwater can also be used not only for a dry season water supply resource, but for everyday water supply system. This case study results can further be applicable to some regions with no sufficient water

  4. Designing structural supply chain flexibility

    Mulinski, Ksawery Jan


    In a continuously changing business environment the role of supply chain flexibility is constantly increasing. A flexible supply chain can ensure survival in quickly changing market conditions as well as enable sustainable growth. This thesis explores the topic of supply chain flexibility with focus

  5. Thermal conduction down steep temperature gradients

    Bell, A.R.; Evans, R.G.; Nicholas, D.J.


    The Fokker-Planck equation has been solved numerically in one spatial and two velocity dimensions in order to study thermal conduction in large temperature gradients. An initially cold plasma is heated at one end of the spatial grid producing temperature gradients with scale lengths of a few times the electron mean free path. The heat flow is an order of magnitude smaller than that predicted by the classical theory which is valid in the limit of small temperature gradients. (author)

  6. Testing the limits of gradient sensing.

    Vinal Lakhani


    Full Text Available The ability to detect a chemical gradient is fundamental to many cellular processes. In multicellular organisms gradient sensing plays an important role in many physiological processes such as wound healing and development. Unicellular organisms use gradient sensing to move (chemotaxis or grow (chemotropism towards a favorable environment. Some cells are capable of detecting extremely shallow gradients, even in the presence of significant molecular-level noise. For example, yeast have been reported to detect pheromone gradients as shallow as 0.1 nM/μm. Noise reduction mechanisms, such as time-averaging and the internalization of pheromone molecules, have been proposed to explain how yeast cells filter fluctuations and detect shallow gradients. Here, we use a Particle-Based Reaction-Diffusion model of ligand-receptor dynamics to test the effectiveness of these mechanisms and to determine the limits of gradient sensing. In particular, we develop novel simulation methods for establishing chemical gradients that not only allow us to study gradient sensing under steady-state conditions, but also take into account transient effects as the gradient forms. Based on reported measurements of reaction rates, our results indicate neither time-averaging nor receptor endocytosis significantly improves the cell's accuracy in detecting gradients over time scales associated with the initiation of polarized growth. Additionally, our results demonstrate the physical barrier of the cell membrane sharpens chemical gradients across the cell. While our studies are motivated by the mating response of yeast, we believe our results and simulation methods will find applications in many different contexts.

  7. Study of China green supply chain management policies and standard

    Zhang, Xiaoxin; Huang, Jin; Lin, Ling


    With the highlight of the environment issues, manufacturing industry needs to be environmentally managed with integrated methods in system aspect. Green supply chain management, integrating the environment aspect into each step of the implement of supply chain management, is the key measure to improve the efficiency of environmental management and to remit the pollution. It also helps to make best use and configuration of the resources and has been attracting much attention from our government, enterprises and academia in recent years. This paper introduced the definition and content of green supply chain management, concluded the research progress of green supply chain management by domestic scholars, stated the characteristic and achievement of the implement of green supply chain management in China as well as analyzed the current existing problems and suggestions in the future.

  8. Nordic research in logistics and supply chain management

    Arlbjørn, Jan Stentoft; Jonsson, Patrik; Johansen, John


    management and to explain how the discipline differs in terms of demographics, research areas, methodological approach, resources and publication. The analysis is conducted in a Nordic research context through a survey distributed to persons with research interest in logistics and supply chain management......This article reflects on research completed within logistics and supply chain management in the Nordic countries based on an empirical analysis. The purpose of this paper is to describe the characteristics of the Nordic academic discipline working in the field of logistics and supply chain....... The research does not provide clear empirical evidence of the contours of a Nordic research paradigm within logistics and supply chain management. The analysis shows that the significant and typical research issues among the Nordic researchers are the focus on supply chains/networks as the most important...

  9. Water Supply Treatment Sustainability of Panching Water Supply Treatment Process - Water Footprint Approach

    Aziz, Edriyana A.; Malek, Marlinda Abdul; Moni, Syazwan N.; Zulkifli, Nabil F.; Hadi, Iqmal H.


    In many parts of the world, freshwater is scarce and overexploited. The purpose of this study is to determine the water footprint of Water Supply Treatment Process (WSTP) at Panching Water Treatment Plant (WTP) as well as to identify the sustainability of the Sg. Kuantan as an intake resource due to the effect of land use development. The total water footprint (WF) will be calculated by using WF accounting manual. The results obtained shows that the water intake resource is still available but it is believed that it will not be able to cope with the increasing WF. The increment of water demand percentage by 1.8% from 2015 to 2016 has increased 11 times higher of the water footprint percentage, 19.9%. This result shows that the water consumption during the water supply treatment process is two times higher than the demand thus it shows the inefficient of the water management

  10. Improving large-scale groundwater models by considering fossil gradients

    Schulz, Stephan; Walther, Marc; Michelsen, Nils; Rausch, Randolf; Dirks, Heiko; Al-Saud, Mohammed; Merz, Ralf; Kolditz, Olaf; Schüth, Christoph


    Due to limited availability of surface water, many arid to semi-arid countries rely on their groundwater resources. Despite the quasi-absence of present day replenishment, some of these groundwater bodies contain large amounts of water, which was recharged during pluvial periods of the Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene. These mostly fossil, non-renewable resources require different management schemes compared to those which are usually applied in renewable systems. Fossil groundwater is a finite resource and its withdrawal implies mining of aquifer storage reserves. Although they receive almost no recharge, some of them show notable hydraulic gradients and a flow towards their discharge areas, even without pumping. As a result, these systems have more discharge than recharge and hence are not in steady state, which makes their modelling, in particular the calibration, very challenging. In this study, we introduce a new calibration approach, composed of four steps: (i) estimating the fossil discharge component, (ii) determining the origin of fossil discharge, (iii) fitting the hydraulic conductivity with a pseudo steady-state model, and (iv) fitting the storage capacity with a transient model by reconstructing head drawdown induced by pumping activities. Finally, we test the relevance of our approach and evaluated the effect of considering or ignoring fossil gradients on aquifer parameterization for the Upper Mega Aquifer (UMA) on the Arabian Peninsula.

  11. Uranium resources, 1983


    The specific character of uranium as energy resources, the history of development of uranium resources, the production and reserve of uranium in the world, the prospect regarding the demand and supply of uranium, Japanese activity of exploring uranium resources in foreign countries and the state of development of uranium resources in various countries are reported. The formation of uranium deposits, the classification of uranium deposits and the reserve quantity of each type are described. As the geological environment of uranium deposits, there are six types, that is, quartz medium gravel conglomerate deposit, the deposit related to the unconformity in Proterozoic era, the dissemination type magma deposit, pegmatite deposit and contact deposit in igneaus rocks and metamorphic rocks, vein deposit, sandstone type deposit and the other types of deposit. The main features of respective types are explained. The most important uranium resources in Japan are those in the Tertiary formations, and most of the found reserve belongs to this type. The geological features, the state of yield and the scale of the deposits in Ningyotoge, Tono and Kanmon Mesozoic formation are reported. Uranium minerals, the promising districts in the world, and the matters related to the exploration and mining of uranium are described. (Kako, I.)

  12. Water Resources

    Abira, M.A.


    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  13. Gradient Flow Convolutive Blind Source Separation

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Nielsen, Chinton Møller


    Experiments have shown that the performance of instantaneous gradient flow beamforming by Cauwenberghs et al. is reduced significantly in reverberant conditions. By expanding the gradient flow principle to convolutive mixtures, separation in a reverberant environment is possible. By use...... of a circular four microphone array with a radius of 5 mm, and applying convolutive gradient flow instead of just applying instantaneous gradient flow, experimental results show an improvement of up to around 14 dB can be achieved for simulated impulse responses and up to around 10 dB for a hearing aid...

  14. On lower order strain gradient plasticity theories

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Hutchinson, J. W.


    By way of numerical examples, this paper explores the nature of solutions to a class of strain gradient plasticity theories that employ conventional stresses, equilibrium equations and boundary conditions. Strain gradients come into play in these modified conventional theories only to alter...... the tangent moduli governing increments of stress and strain. It is shown that the modification is far from benign from a mathematical standpoint, changing the qualitative character of solutions and leading to a new type of localization that is at odds with what is expected from a strain gradient theory....... The findings raise questions about the physical acceptability of this class of strain gradient theories....

  15. Community and ecosystem responses to elevational gradients

    Sundqvist, Maja K.; Sanders, Nate; Wardle, David A.


    Community structure and ecosystem processes often vary along elevational gradients. Their responses to elevation are commonly driven by changes in temperature, and many community- and ecosystem-level variables therefore frequently respond similarly to elevation across contrasting gradients...... elevational gradients for understanding community and ecosystem responses to global climate change at much larger spatial and temporal scales than is possible through conventional ecological experiments. However, future studies that integrate elevational gradient approaches with experimental manipulations...... will provide powerful information that can improve predictions of climate change impacts within and across ecosystems....


    Nataša Krejić


    Full Text Available This papers presents an overview of gradient based methods for minimization of noisy functions. It is assumed that the objective functions is either given with error terms of stochastic nature or given as the mathematical expectation. Such problems arise in the context of simulation based optimization. The focus of this presentation is on the gradient based Stochastic Approximation and Sample Average Approximation methods. The concept of stochastic gradient approximation of the true gradient can be successfully extended to deterministic problems. Methods of this kind are presented for the data fitting and machine learning problems.

  17. Supply and demand perspectives

    Trienekens, Pieter


    The outlook for the European gas market is one of steady growth. This growth will manifest itself in all regions and in all sectors of the market, but most strongly in the power generating sector. To meet future demand, it is necessary to bring gas to Western Europe from remote sources in Russia, North Africa and Norway. These new gas supplies require heavy investments in production and transportation, which can only be undertaken on the basis of long-term take-or-pay contracts. Famous examples of such contracts are the development of the Troll field, the Yamal-Europe pipeline connection, and the bringing on stream of Nigerian LNG for Europe. Tensions are likely to arise between the nature of these long-term gas contracts and the dynamic nature of demand in the gas market, and more specifically in the main growth market, the power sector. The presentation further elaborates on the tensions underlying supply and demand in the years to come

  18. World uranium reserves and assurance of energy supply

    Warnecke, S.J.


    This book deals mainly with those aspects of energy policy which concern uranium supply. A different complexion is put on the quantitative estimates of world uranium supplies available which are being overshadowed by political problems resulting from the special properties of this primary energy source as well as from its geographical distribution. The national policy of non-proliferation and the resource policy are demonstrated, taking the largest uranium supply countries as examples. The consumers' policy is explained, taking Europe and Japan as an example. Furthermore, a few possible political solutions are suggested. (UA) [de

  19. Global Carbon Fiber Composites. Supply Chain Competitiveness Analysis

    Das, Sujit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Warren, Joshua A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Devin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schexnayder, Susan M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)


    The objective of this study is to identify key opportunities in the carbon fiber (CF) supply chain where resources and investments can help advance the clean energy economy. The report focuses on four application areas—wind energy, aerospace, automotive, and pressure vessels—that top the list of industries using CF and carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) and are particularly relevant to the mission of U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE EERE). For each of the four application areas, the report addresses the supply and demand trends within that sector, supply chain, and costs of carbon fiber and components.

  20. Business Intelligence tools as an element of information supply system

    Agnieszka Szmelter


    Full Text Available This paper aims to present theBusiness Intelligence toolsas an element improvingflow of information withinthe management information systemand as atool to facilitate theachieving the objectives ofinformation supply system.In the firstpart of the paperthe author presents the issuesrelatedto the specific character of information as a kind of resource and functioning ofthe information supply systemin the enterprise. The secondpart of the articleincludethe characteristics ofBusiness Intelligence systems. The thirdpart deals withthe impact ofBusiness Intelligence toolsto the ongoingactivities ofinformation supply system.