WorldWideScience

Sample records for resource greenhouse impacts

  1. Environmental impacts of food trade via resource use and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalin, Carole; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture will need to significantly intensify in the next decades to continue providing essential nutritive food to a growing global population. However, it can have harmful environmental impacts, due to the use of natural and synthetic resources and the emission of greenhouse gases, which alter the water, carbon and nitrogen cycles, and threaten the fertility, health and biodiversity of landscapes. Because of the spatial heterogeneity of resource productivity, farming practices, climate, and land and water availability, the environmental impact of producing food is highly dependent on its origin. For this reason, food trade can either increase or reduce the overall environmental impacts of agriculture, depending on whether or not the impact is greater in the exporting region. Here, we review current scientific understanding of the environmental impacts of food trade, focusing on water and land use, pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. In the case of water, these impacts are mainly beneficial. However, in the cases of pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, this conclusion is not as clear. Overall, there is an urgent need for a more comprehensive, integrated approach to estimate the global impacts of food trade on the environment. Second, research is needed to improve the evaluation of some key aspects of the relative value of each resource depending on the local and regional biophysical and socio–economic context. Finally, to enhance the impact of such evaluations and their applicability in decision-making, scenario analyses and accounting of key issues like deforestation and groundwater exhaustion will be required. (letter)

  2. Environmental impacts of food trade via resource use and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2016-03-01

    Agriculture will need to significantly intensify in the next decades to continue providing essential nutritive food to a growing global population. However, it can have harmful environmental impacts, due to the use of natural and synthetic resources and the emission of greenhouse gases, which alter the water, carbon and nitrogen cycles, and threaten the fertility, health and biodiversity of landscapes. Because of the spatial heterogeneity of resource productivity, farming practices, climate, and land and water availability, the environmental impact of producing food is highly dependent on its origin. For this reason, food trade can either increase or reduce the overall environmental impacts of agriculture, depending on whether or not the impact is greater in the exporting region. Here, we review current scientific understanding of the environmental impacts of food trade, focusing on water and land use, pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. In the case of water, these impacts are mainly beneficial. However, in the cases of pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, this conclusion is not as clear. Overall, there is an urgent need for a more comprehensive, integrated approach to estimate the global impacts of food trade on the environment. Second, research is needed to improve the evaluation of some key aspects of the relative value of each resource depending on the local and regional biophysical and socio-economic context. Finally, to enhance the impact of such evaluations and their applicability in decision-making, scenario analyses and accounting of key issues like deforestation and groundwater exhaustion will be required.

  3. Greenhouse gas impacts of declining hydrocarbon resource quality: Depletion, dynamics, and process emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Adam Robert

    This dissertation explores the environmental and economic impacts of the transition to hydrocarbon substitutes for conventional petroleum (SCPs). First, mathematical models of oil depletion are reviewed, including the Hubbert model, curve-fitting methods, simulation models, and economic models. The benefits and drawbacks of each method are outlined. I discuss the predictive value of the models and our ability to determine if one model type works best. I argue that forecasting oil depletion without also including substitution with SCPs results in unrealistic projections of future energy supply. I next use information theoretic techniques to test the Hubbert model of oil depletion against five other asymmetric and symmetric curve-fitting models using data from 139 oil producing regions. I also test the assumptions that production curves are symmetric and that production is more bell-shaped in larger regions. Results show that if symmetry is enforced, Gaussian production curves perform best, while if asymmetry is allowed, asymmetric exponential models prove most useful. I also find strong evidence for asymmetry: production declines are consistently less steep than inclines. In order to understand the impacts of oil depletion on GHG emissions, I developed the Regional Optimization Model for Emissions from Oil Substitutes (ROMEO). ROMEO is an economic optimization model of investment and production of fuels. Results indicate that incremental emissions (with demand held constant) from SCPs could be 5-20 GtC over the next 50 years. These results are sensitive to the endowment of conventional oil and not sensitive to a carbon tax. If demand can vary, total emissions could decline under a transition because the higher cost of SCPs lessens overall fuel consumption. Lastly, I study the energetic and environmental characteristics of the in situ conversion process, which utilizes electricity to generate liquid hydrocarbons from oil shale. I model the energy inputs and outputs

  4. Impact of climate change on renewable groundwater resources: assessing the benefits of avoided greenhouse gas emissions using selected CMIP5 climate projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portmann, Felix T; Döll, Petra; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to minimize climate change requires very significant societal effort. To motivate this effort, it is important to clarify the benefits of avoided emissions. To this end, we analysed the impact of four emissions scenarios on future renewable groundwater resources, which range from 1600 GtCO 2 during the 21st century (RCP2.6) to 7300 GtCO 2 (RCP8.5). Climate modelling uncertainty was taken into account by applying the bias-corrected output of a small ensemble of five CMIP5 global climate models (GCM) as provided by the ISI-MIP effort to the global hydrological model WaterGAP. Despite significant climate model uncertainty, the benefits of avoided emissions with respect to renewable groundwater resources (i.e. groundwater recharge (GWR)) are obvious. The percentage of projected global population (SSP2 population scenario) suffering from a significant decrease of GWR of more than 10% by the 2080s as compared to 1971–2000 decreases from 38% (GCM range 27–50%) for RCP8.5 to 24% (11–39%) for RCP2.6. The population fraction that is spared from any significant GWR change would increase from 29% to 47% if emissions were restricted to RCP2.6. Increases of GWR are more likely to occur in areas with below average population density, while GWR decreases of more than 30% affect especially (semi)arid regions, across all GCMs. Considering change of renewable groundwater resources as a function of mean global temperature (GMT) rise, the land area that is affected by GWR decreases of more than 30% and 70% increases linearly with global warming from 0 to 3 ° C. For each degree of GMT rise, an additional 4% of the global land area (except Greenland and Antarctica) is affected by a GWR decrease of more than 30%, and an additional 1% is affected by a decrease of more than 70%. (letter)

  5. Stakeholder resource information on greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Some of the many measures which have already been taken by the petroleum industry to safeguard the air, land and water were described in a background paper produced by the Petroleum Communication Foundation. It is entitled 'Canada's oil and gas industry and our global environment'. This complementary report includes a brief review of greenhouse gases and related issues such as the nature of global warming, Canadian emissions in a global context, the relationship between the economy and the environment, mitigation possibilities and successes achieved by actions such as those undertaken by the Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) program. Also included are notes and quotes from authoritative sources regarding emissions, emissions control and success stories. A sample presentation was also provided that could be used to discuss global warming issues with general audiences and other communication activities. figs

  6. The greenhouse effect: Its causes, possible impacts, and associated uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, S.H.; Rosenberg, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth's climate changes. The climatic effects of having polluted the atmosphere with gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) may already be felt. There is no doubt that the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has been rising. CO2 tends to trap heat near the Earth's surface. This is known as the greenhouse effect, and its existence and basic mechanisms are not questioned by atmospheric scientists. What is questioned is the precise amount of warming and the regional pattern of climatic change that can be expected on the Earth from the anthropogenic increase in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. It is the regional patterns of changes in temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture that will determine what impact the greenhouse effect will have on natural ecosystems, agriculture, and water supplies. These possible effects are discussed in detail. It is concluded, however, that a detailed assessment of the climatic, biological, and societal changes that are evolving and should continue to occur into the next century cannot reliably be made with available scientific capabilities. Nevertheless, enough is known to suggest a range of plausible futures with attendant impacts, both positive and negative, on natural resources and human well being

  7. The greenhouse impact of unconventional gas for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultman, Nathan; Ramig, Christopher; Rebois, Dylan; Scholten, Michael

    2011-01-01

    New techniques to extract natural gas from unconventional resources have become economically competitive over the past several years, leading to a rapid and largely unanticipated expansion in natural gas production. The US Energy Information Administration projects that unconventional gas will supply nearly half of US gas production by 2035. In addition, by significantly expanding and diversifying the gas supply internationally, the exploitation of new unconventional gas resources has the potential to reshape energy policy at national and international levels—altering geopolitics and energy security, recasting the economics of energy technology investment decisions, and shifting trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In anticipation of this expansion, one of the perceived core advantages of unconventional gas—its relatively moderate GHG impact compared to coal—has recently come under scrutiny. In this paper, we compare the GHG footprints of conventional natural gas, unconventional natural gas (i.e. shale gas that has been produced using the process of hydraulic fracturing, or 'fracking'), and coal in a transparent and consistent way, focusing primarily on the electricity generation sector. We show that for electricity generation the GHG impacts of shale gas are 11% higher than those of conventional gas, and only 56% that of coal for standard assumptions.

  8. The greenhouse impact of unconventional gas for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultman, Nathan; Ramig, Christopher [School of Public Policy, University of Maryland, 2101 Van Munching Hall, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Rebois, Dylan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, 2181 Glenn L Martin Hall, Building 088, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Scholten, Michael [Joint Quantum Institute, University of Maryland, 2207 Computer and Space Sciences Building, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    New techniques to extract natural gas from unconventional resources have become economically competitive over the past several years, leading to a rapid and largely unanticipated expansion in natural gas production. The US Energy Information Administration projects that unconventional gas will supply nearly half of US gas production by 2035. In addition, by significantly expanding and diversifying the gas supply internationally, the exploitation of new unconventional gas resources has the potential to reshape energy policy at national and international levels-altering geopolitics and energy security, recasting the economics of energy technology investment decisions, and shifting trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In anticipation of this expansion, one of the perceived core advantages of unconventional gas-its relatively moderate GHG impact compared to coal-has recently come under scrutiny. In this paper, we compare the GHG footprints of conventional natural gas, unconventional natural gas (i.e. shale gas that has been produced using the process of hydraulic fracturing, or 'fracking'), and coal in a transparent and consistent way, focusing primarily on the electricity generation sector. We show that for electricity generation the GHG impacts of shale gas are 11% higher than those of conventional gas, and only 56% that of coal for standard assumptions.

  9. Carbon dioxide from green-house gas to resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marco, Ottilia; Paiano, Annarita; Gallucci, Teodoro

    2006-01-01

    During the 20. Century the great increase of energy uses, nearly all from fossil sources, have brought on more and more significant growth of the CO 2 rate in the atmosphere. As we know, this has produced important environmental effects, which are getting worse and worse. Certainly, the importance of this problem forces the research of various solutions which can reduce or limit CO 2 emissions in atmosphere. Up at the present day, world policies about the reduction of fossil fuel uses, have failed. Consequently the aim could be to develop production cycles which convert the greenhouse CO 2 , recovered from power plant or human activities, into a resource. In fact there are a lot of different cycles that use CO 2 such as physical states: gaseous, liquid, solid and supercritical. In this paper the present and future situation is analysed. After a short examination of different uses of CO 2 , the best innovative and environmental among are studied. A particular CO 2 use (biomass production) has been examinated

  10. Estimation of greenhouse impacts of continuous regional emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinisalo, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-11-01

    In this thesis a method to calculate the greenhouse impact of continuous, time-dependent, non-global greenhouse gas emissions is used to estimate the impact of estimated anthropogenic pre-1990 and future (post 1990) emissions of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from Finland and the Nordic countries. Estimates for the impact of Finnish CFCs and their substitutes and the significance of Finnish forests as carbon sink are also calculated. The method is also used to compare several different wood and peat energy production schemes with fossil fuel use, in terms of caused greenhouse impact. The uncertainty of the results is examined. The greenhouse impact is measured in this thesis as the global mean direct radiative forcing caused by the emissions. Radiative forcing is the driving force behind the climate change and as such it can be used to assess the ensuing climate change. The method is suitable for greenhouse agents that can be considered to be well mixed in the atmosphere (mainly CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O and both CFCs and their substitutes). According to the results Finnish greenhouse impact due to anthropogenic CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions has increased eight-fold during this century, and will very likely remain higher than current level throughout the next century. The impact of the Nordic countries has followed the same general pattern as Finland. It is likely that the per capita radiative forcing of the Nordic countries will remain above the global average. The uncertainty of the absolute results is quite high due to uncertain knowledge at several stages of the calculation. When the results are used in comparisons (e.g. between emission scenarios, or emissions of different countries), the accuracy of the results increases considerably. (orig.) 54 refs.

  11. An Impact Triggered Runaway Greenhouse on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, T. L.; McKay, C. P.; Toon, O. B.

    2004-01-01

    When a planet is in radiative equilibrium, the incoming solar flux balances the outgoing longwave flux. If something were to perturb the system slightly, say the incoming solar flux increased, the planet would respond by radiating at a higher surface temperature. Since any radiation that comes in must go out, if the incoming is increased, the outgoing must also increase, and this increase manifests itself as a warmer equilibrium temperature. The increase in solar flux would correspond to an increase in temperature, which would increase the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere due to increased evaporation. Since water vapor is a greenhouse gas, it would absorb more radiation in the atmosphere leading to a yet warmer equilibrium temperature. The planet would reach radiative equilibrium at this new temperature. There exists a point, however, past which this positive feedback leads to a "runaway" situation. In this case, the planet does not simply evaporate a little more water and eventually come to a slightly higher equilibrium temperature. Instead, the planet keeps evaporating more and more water until all of the planet's available liquid and solid water is in the atmosphere. The reason for this is generally understood. If the planet's temperature increases, evaporation of water increases, and the absorption of radiation increases. This increases the temperature and the feedback continues until all water is in the atmosphere. The resulting equilibrium temperature is very high, much higher than the equilibrium temperature of a point with slightly lower solar flux. One can picture that as solar flux increases, planetary temperature also increases until the runaway point where temperature suddenly "jumps" to a higher value, in response to all the available water now residing in the atmosphere. This new equilibrium is called a "runaway greenhouse" and it has been theorized that this is what happened to the planet Venus, where the surface temperature is more than 700 K

  12. Greenhouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PurposeThe greenhouse at ERDC’s Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) is used for germination and root-growth studies to support basic and field...

  13. Impact on the greenhouse effect of peat mining and combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodhe, H.; Svensson, Bo

    1995-01-01

    Combustion of peat leads to emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the atmosphere. In addition, mining of the peat alters the environment such that the natural fluxes of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases are modified. Of particular interest is a reduction in the emission of methane (CH 4 ) in the drained parts of the mires. We estimate the total impact on the greenhouse effect of these processes. The results indicate that the decreased emission of methane from the drained mires compensates for about 15% of the CO 2 emission during the combustion of the peat. It follows that, in a time perspective of less than several hundred years, peat is comparable to a fossil fuel, as far as the contribution to the greenhouse effect is concerned. 39 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs

  14. IMPACTS OF LIVESTOCK FEEDING TECHNOLOGIES ON GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Weindl, Isabelle; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Popp, Alexander; Bodirsky, Benjamin; Rolinski, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Until 2050, the global population is projected to reach almost 9 billion people resulting in a rising demand and competition for biomass used as food, feed, raw material and bio-energy, while land and water resources are limited. Moreover, agricultural production will be constrained by the need to mitigate dangerous climate change. The agricultural sector is a major emitter of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHG). It is responsible for about 47 % and 58 % of total anthropogenic emissions of m...

  15. Impact Delivery of Reduced Greenhouse Gases on Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, R. M.; Zahnle, K. J.; Barlow, N. G.

    2017-12-01

    Reducing greenhouse gases are the latest trend in finding solutions to the early Mars climate dilemma. In thick CO2 atmospheres with modest concentrations of H2 and/or CH4, collision induced absorptions can reduce the outgoing long wave radiation enough to provide a significant greenhouse effect. To raise surface temperatures significantly by this process, surface pressures must be at least 500 mb and H2 and/or CH4 concentrations must be at or above the several percent level. Volcanism, serpentinization, and impacts are possible sources for reduced gases. Here we investigate the delivery of such gases by impact degassing from comets and asteroids. We use a time-marching stochastic impactor model that reproduces the observed crater size frequency distribution of Noachian surfaces. Following each impact, reduced gases are added to the atmosphere from a production function based on gas equilibrium calculations for several classes of meteorites and comets at typical post-impact temperatures. Escape and photochemistry then remove the reduced greenhouse gases continuously in time throughout each simulation. We then conduct an ensemble of simulations with this simple model varying the surface pressure, impact history, reduced gas production and escape functions, and mix of impactor types, to determine if this could be a potentially important part of the early Mars story. Our goal is to determine the duration of impact events that elevate reduced gas concentrations to significant levels and the total time of such events throughout the Noachian. Our initial simulations indicate that large impactors can raise H2 concentrations above the 10% level - a level high enough for a very strong greenhouse effect in a 1 bar CO2 atmosphere - for millions of years, and that the total time spent at or above that level can be in the 10's of millions of years range. These are interesting results that we plan to explore more thoroughly for the meeting.

  16. Greenhouse impact of Finnish peatlands 1900-2100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J; Minkkinen, K [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology; Tolonen, K; Turunen, J [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Martikainen, P; Nykaenen, H [National Public Health Inst. Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Microbiology; Sinisalo, J; Savolainen, I [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Northern peatlands are significant in regulating the global climate. While sequestering carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}, ca. 100 Tg C a{sup -} {sup 1}), these peatlands release cat 24-39 Tg methane (CH{sub 4}) annually to the atmosphere. This is 5-15 % of the annual anthropogenic and 10-35 % of the annual natural CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. The greenhouse gas balance of peatlands may change as a consequence of water level drawdown after land use change, or if summers become warmer and drier, as has been predicted for high latitudes after climatic warming. Currently, some 15 million hectares of northern peatlands and other wetlands have been drained for forestry. More than 90 % of this area is found in Scandinavia and the former Soviet Union. The area drained annually has, however, been declining during the last two decades and, in Finland for instance the annual drained area of nearly 300 000 hectares in the late 1960`s has decreased to cat 35 000 hectares in the early 1990`s. Radiative forcing is the change in the radiative energy balance at the tropopause and it is the driving force behind the greenhouse effect. It is a common quantity for most greenhouse gases and takes into account the dynamics of the greenhouse impact. Radiative forcing model was used to compute the greenhouse impact of the drainage of the peatlands, combining the effects of CO{sub 2} and CH4 balances; N{sub 2}O was not included in the calculations because its contribution is minor. (14 refs.)

  17. Greenhouse impact of Finnish peatlands 1900-2100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J.; Minkkinen, K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology; Tolonen, K.; Turunen, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Martikainen, P.; Nykaenen, H. [National Public Health Inst. Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Microbiology; Sinisalo, J.; Savolainen, I. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Northern peatlands are significant in regulating the global climate. While sequestering carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}, ca. 100 Tg C a{sup -} {sup 1}), these peatlands release cat 24-39 Tg methane (CH{sub 4}) annually to the atmosphere. This is 5-15 % of the annual anthropogenic and 10-35 % of the annual natural CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. The greenhouse gas balance of peatlands may change as a consequence of water level drawdown after land use change, or if summers become warmer and drier, as has been predicted for high latitudes after climatic warming. Currently, some 15 million hectares of northern peatlands and other wetlands have been drained for forestry. More than 90 % of this area is found in Scandinavia and the former Soviet Union. The area drained annually has, however, been declining during the last two decades and, in Finland for instance the annual drained area of nearly 300 000 hectares in the late 1960`s has decreased to cat 35 000 hectares in the early 1990`s. Radiative forcing is the change in the radiative energy balance at the tropopause and it is the driving force behind the greenhouse effect. It is a common quantity for most greenhouse gases and takes into account the dynamics of the greenhouse impact. Radiative forcing model was used to compute the greenhouse impact of the drainage of the peatlands, combining the effects of CO{sub 2} and CH4 balances; N{sub 2}O was not included in the calculations because its contribution is minor. (14 refs.)

  18. Warming Early Mars by Impact Degassing of Reduced Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, R. M.; Zahnle, K.; Barlow, N. G.

    2018-01-01

    Reducing greenhouse gases are once again the latest trend in finding solutions to the early Mars climate dilemma. In its current form collision induced absorptions (CIA) involving H2 and/or CH4 provide enough extra greenhouse power in a predominately CO2 atmosphere to raise global mean surface temperatures to the melting point of water provided the atmosphere is thick enough and the reduced gases are abundant enough. Surface pressures must be at least 500 mb and H2 and/or CH4 concentrations must be at or above the several percent level for CIA to be effective. Atmospheres with 1-2 bars of CO2 and 2- 10% H2 can sustain surface environments favorable for liquid water. Smaller concentrations of H2 are sufficient if CH4 is also present. If thick CO2 atmospheres with percent level concentrations of reduced gases are the solution to the faint young Sun paradox for Mars, then plausible mechanisms must be found to generate and sustain the gases. Possible sources of reducing gases include volcanic outgassing, serpentinization, and impact delivery; sinks include photolyis, oxidation, and escape to space. The viability of the reduced greenhouse hypothesis depends, therefore, on the strength of these sources and sinks. In this paper we focus on impact delivered reduced gases.

  19. Assessment of the impact of the greenhouse gas emission and sink scenarios in Finland on radiative forcing and greenhouse effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, I.; Sinisalo, J.; Pipatti, R. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this work is to study greenhouse gas emissions and sinks and their greenhouse impact as a function of time. The greenhouse impact is expressed in terms of global average radiative forcing, which measures the perturbation in the Earth`s radiation budget. Radiative forcing is calculated on the basis of the concentration changes of the greenhouse gases and the radiation absorption properties of the gases. It takes into account the relatively slow changes in the concentrations due to natural removal and transformation processes and also allows a comparison of the impact of various greenhouse gases and their possible control options as a function of time. In addition to the applications mentioned above, the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission histories of Nordic countries have been estimated, and the radiative forcing caused by them has been calculated with REFUGE. The dynamic impact of aerosol emissions both from the global point of view and in the context of different energy sources (coal, oil and natural gas) have also been studied. In some instances the caused radiative forcing has been examined on a per capita basis. The radiative forcing calculations contain considerable uncertainty due to inaccurately known factors at several stages of the calculation (emission estimation, concentration calculation and radiative forcing calculation). The total uncertainty of the results is typically on the order of +- 40 %, when absolute values are used. If the results are used in a relative way, e.g. to compare the impacts of different scenarios, the final uncertainty is considerably less (typically + 10 %), due to correlations in almost all stages of the calculation process

  20. Assessment of the impact of the greenhouse gas emission and sink scenarios in Finland on radiative forcing and greenhouse effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, I; Sinisalo, J; Pipatti, R [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this work is to study greenhouse gas emissions and sinks and their greenhouse impact as a function of time. The greenhouse impact is expressed in terms of global average radiative forcing, which measures the perturbation in the Earth`s radiation budget. Radiative forcing is calculated on the basis of the concentration changes of the greenhouse gases and the radiation absorption properties of the gases. It takes into account the relatively slow changes in the concentrations due to natural removal and transformation processes and also allows a comparison of the impact of various greenhouse gases and their possible control options as a function of time. In addition to the applications mentioned above, the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission histories of Nordic countries have been estimated, and the radiative forcing caused by them has been calculated with REFUGE. The dynamic impact of aerosol emissions both from the global point of view and in the context of different energy sources (coal, oil and natural gas) have also been studied. In some instances the caused radiative forcing has been examined on a per capita basis. The radiative forcing calculations contain considerable uncertainty due to inaccurately known factors at several stages of the calculation (emission estimation, concentration calculation and radiative forcing calculation). The total uncertainty of the results is typically on the order of +- 40 %, when absolute values are used. If the results are used in a relative way, e.g. to compare the impacts of different scenarios, the final uncertainty is considerably less (typically + 10 %), due to correlations in almost all stages of the calculation process

  1. Understanding the Greenhouse Effect by Embodiment - Analysing and Using Students' and Scientists' Conceptual Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebert, Kai; Gropengießer, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, science education studies have reported that there are very different understandings among students of science regarding the key aspects of climate change. We used the cognitive linguistic framework of experientialism to shed new light on this valuable pool of studies to identify the conceptual resources of understanding climate change. In our study, we interviewed 35 secondary school students on their understanding of the greenhouse effect and analysed the conceptions of climate scientists as drawn from textbooks and research reports. We analysed all data by metaphor analysis and qualitative content analysis to gain insight into students' and scientists' resources for understanding. In our analysis, we found that students and scientists refer to the same schemata to understand the greenhouse effect. We categorised their conceptions into three different principles the conceptions are based on: warming by more input, warming by less output, and warming by a new equilibrium. By interrelating students' and scientists' conceptions, we identified the students' learning demand: First, our students were afforded with experiences regarding the interactions of electromagnetic radiation and CO2. Second, our students reflected about the experience-based schemata they use as source domains for metaphorical understanding of the greenhouse effect. By uncovering the-mostly unconscious-deployed schemata, we gave students access to their source domains. We implemented these teaching guidelines in interventions and evaluated them in teaching experiments to develop evidence-based and theory-guided learning activities on the greenhouse effect.

  2. Adaptation to Impacts of Greenhouse Gases on the Ocean (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, K.

    2010-12-01

    Greenhouse gases are producing changes in ocean temperature and circulation, and these changes are already adversely affecting marine biota. Furthermore, carbon dioxide is absorbed by the oceans from the atmosphere, and this too is already adversely affecting some marine ecosystems. And, of course, sea-level rise affects both what is above and below the waterline. Clearly, the most effective approach to limit the negative impacts of climate change and acidification on the marine environment is to greatly diminish the rate of greenhouse gas emissions. However, there are other measures that can be taken to limit some of the negative effects of these stresses in the marine environment. Marine ecosystems are subject to multiple stresses, including overfishing, pollution, and loss of coastal wetlands that often serve as nurseries for the open ocean. The adaptive capacity of marine environments can be improved by limiting these other stresses. If current carbon dioxide emission trends continue, for some cases (e.g., coral reefs), it is possible that no amount of reduction in other stresses can offset the increase in stresses posed by warming and acidification. For other cases (e.g., blue-water top-predator fisheries), better fisheries management might yield improved population health despite continued warming and acidification. In addition to reducing stresses so as to improve the adaptive capacity of marine ecosystems, there is also the issue of adaptation in human communities that depend on this changing marine environment. For example, communities that depend on services provided by coral reefs may need to locate alternative foundations for their economies. The fishery industry will need to adapt to changes in fish abundance, timing and location. Most of the things we would like to do to increase the adaptive capacity of marine ecosystems (e.g., reduce fishing pressure, reduce coastal pollution, preserve coastal wetlands) are things that would make sense to do even in

  3. Greenhouse impacts of the use of peat and wood for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, I.; Hillebrand, K.; Nousiainen, I.; Sinisalo, J.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases may well double or increase even more during the next hundred years. The resultant disturbance in the global radiation energy balance (radiative forcing) may change almost as much. Stabilizing these concentrations at a level innocuous to the climate - the aim expressed in the Climate Convention - will take decades, perhaps more than a hundred years, to carry out. This study examines the greenhouse impacts of using peat and wood for energy and the time factors involved, taking the entire energy production chain and renewal of the energy source into account. The greenhouse effects of peat and wood use are compared with those of fossil fuels. The calculations apply to test cases. Financial considerations and other sources of energy are not dealt with. Greenhouse effects are measured in terms of radiative forcing caused by using an energy resource. The calculations are made per units of primary energy. The study further proposes ways to apply the results obtained to assessing the extent to which radiative forcing caused by Finland could be reduced by the use of peat or wood fuels. The calculations take into account emissions of CO 2 , CH 4 , N2 O and possible sinks of CO 2 arising from energy production. The emissions and sinks of each chain of energy production are calculated as a function of time, deducting emissions which would arise in the reference case, in which energy production is not begun. Real emissions due to production are obtained by deducting emissions in the reference case from emissions which arise during production. The difference is used as a basis for calculating radiative forcing per unit of energy produced

  4. Impact of greenhouse gases on agricultural productivity in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valasai, G.D; Harijan, K.; Uqaili, M.S.; Memon, H.R

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan is an agricultural developing country. About 68% of the country's population resides in rural areas and is mostly linked with agriculture. Agricultural sector contributes more than 25% to GDP, employees about 45% of the labour force and contributes significantly to export earnings of the country. Energy sector is the major source (80%) of emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs). Agriculture and livestock sectors are also responsible for GHGs emissions. The emissions of GHGs results in acid rain and earth's temperature rise (global warming). The destabilization of the global climate destroys natural ecosystem and increases natural disasters, such as violent storms, floods, droughts etc. The acid rain and these natural disasters affect the agricultural productivity. The study indicates that the agricultural productivity per capita in Pakistan decreased continuously during the last two decades. The paper concludes that due to emissions of GHGs, the agricultural productivity is significantly affected in the country. The government should take concrete measures to minimize the emissions of GHGs for increasing the agricultural productivity and reducing other harmful impacts in the country. This paper presents the review and analysis of the effects of GHGs emissions on the agricultural productivity in Pakistan. (author)

  5. Wellbeing impacts of city policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing...... and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported...

  6. High-Impact Actions for Individuals to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Wynes, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is the result of greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere, which records the aggregation of billions of individual decisions. While systemic and structural changes receive great attention for addressing climate change, the contribution that individual citizens can make is often overlooked, especially in developed countries where per-capita emissions are highest. Here we consider a broad range of individual lifestyle choices and calculate their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. We find that four widely applicable high-impact actions have the potential to reduce personal emissions by more than 1 tonne CO2-equivalent per year: having one fewer child (59.2 tonnes of reductions), living car-free (2.3 tonnes), avoiding airplane travel (1.5 tonnes per flight) and eating a plant-based diet (0.82 tonnes). These actions have much greater potential to reduce emissions than commonly promoted strategies like recycling (4 times less effective than a plant-based diet) or changing lightbulbs (8 times). However, high school textbooks from Canada and government resources from the EU, USA, Canada, and Australia largely fail to mention these actions, instead focusing on incremental changes with much smaller potential impact. We conclude that climate policy should focus not only on national and international targets, but also on encouraging responsible behaviour, especially for adolescents who will grow up in the era of climate change and are poised to establish a lifelong pattern of sustainable lifestyle choices.

  7. Greenhouse gas emission impacts of carsharing in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study evaluating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission changes that result from individuals participating in a carsharing organization. In this study, the authors conducted a survey of carsharing members across the c...

  8. Wellbeing Impacts of City Policies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Hiscock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what ‘wellbeing’ is and how it can be operationalised for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies.

  9. Impact of Urbanization on Greenhouse Gases Emission and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anthropogenic factors which drive land use change are primarily population pressure on land (i.e. mean population per unit area) which has resulted in undue depletion and degradation of most forest land in Nigeria. Deforestation, reduction in biodiversity, depletion of stratospheric ozone, increases in greenhouse ...

  10. Climate change impacts and greenhouse gas mitigation effects on U.S. hydropower generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehlert, Brent; Strzepek, Kenneth M.; Gebretsadik, Yohannes; Swanson, Richard; McCluskey, Alyssa; Neumann, James E.; McFarland, James; Martinich, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analyze contiguous U.S. hydropower generation under various emissions scenarios. • Employ systems model that allocates water to competing uses in 2119 river basins. • Average U.S. generation increases under climate change, but falls under low flows. • Mitigation benefits are $2-$4 billion/year due to high values of carbon-free energy. - Abstract: Climate change will have potentially significant effects on hydropower generation due to changes in the magnitude and seasonality of river runoff and increases in reservoir evaporation. These physical impacts will in turn have economic consequences through both producer revenues and consumer expenditures. We analyze the physical and economic effects of changes in hydropower generation for the contiguous U.S. in futures with and without global-scale greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation, and across patterns from 18 General Circulation Models. Using a monthly water resources systems model of 2119 river basins that routes simulated river runoff through reservoirs, and allocates water to potentially conflicting and climate dependent demands, we provide a first-order estimate of the impacts of various projected emissions outcomes on hydropower generation, and monetize these impacts using outputs from an electric sector planning model for over 500 of the largest U.S. hydropower facilities. We find that, due to generally increasing river runoff under higher emissions scenarios in the Pacific Northwest, climate change tends to increase overall hydropower generation in the contiguous U.S. During low flow months, generation tends to fall with increasing emissions, potentially threatening the estimated low flow, firm energy from hydropower. Although global GHG mitigation slows the growth in hydropower generation, the higher value placed on carbon-free hydropower leads to annual economic benefits ranging from $1.8 billion to $4.3 billion. The present value of these benefits to the U.S. from global greenhouse gas

  11. The Impact of Upper Tropospheric Humidity from Microwave Limb Sounder on the Midlatitude Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hua; Liu, W. Timothy

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of upper tropospheric humidity, as measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder, and the impact of the humidity on the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes. Enhanced upper tropospheric humidity and an enhanced greenhouse effect occur over the storm tracks in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. In these areas, strong baroclinic activity and the large number of deep convective clouds transport more water vapor to the upper troposphere, and hence increase greenhouse trapping. The greenhouse effect increases with upper tropospheric humidity in areas with a moist upper troposphere (such as areas over storm tracks), but it is not sensitive to changes in upper tropospheric humidity in regions with a dry upper troposphere, clearly demonstrating that there are different mechanisms controlling the geographical distribution of the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes.

  12. Allocation of biomass resources for minimising energy system greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Jack, Michael W.; Felby, Claus; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2014-01-01

    The European Union (EU) energy policy has three targets: supply security, development of a competitive energy sector and environmental sustainability. The EU countries have issued so-called National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAP) for increased renewable energy generation. Biomass is stipulated to account for 56% of renewable energy generation by 2020, corresponding to an increase in bioenergy generation from 2.4 × 10 9  GJ in 2005 to 5.7 × 10 9  GJ in 2020. There is uncertainty about the amounts of biomass available in the EU, and import challenges policy targets on supply security and sustainability. We address issues about how, from a technical point of view, the EU may deploy its biomass resources to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy consumption. We investigate if deployment patterns depend on resource availability and technological development. In situations with adequate biomass availability the analysis suggests that liquid fuel production should be based on agricultural residues. Electricity production should be based on forest residues and other woody biomass and heat production on forest and agricultural residues. Improved conversion technologies implicitly relax the strain on biomass resources and improve supply security. - Highlights: • Optimal allocation of biomass to energy is analysed conceptually for the EU by 2020. • Allocation is influenced not only by GHG performance, also by resource availability. • Surplus biomass could be allocated to electricity generation to reduce GHG emissions

  13. Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

    2002-09-01

    Accurate and verifiable emission reductions are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated emissions reductions. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG emission reduction can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs

  14. Livestock Production and its Impact on Nutrient Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakadevan, K.; Nguyen, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    The livestock sector provides more than one third of human protein needs and is a major provider of livelihood in almost all developing countries. While providing such immense benefits to the population, poor livestock management can potentially provide harmful environmental impacts at local, regional and national levels which have not been adequately addressed in many countries with emerging economies. Twenty six percent of global land area is used for livestock production and forest lands are continuously being lost to such production. The intensification of livestock production led to large surpluses of nitrogen and phosphorus at the farm in many parts of the world with non-point source pollution of water resources that became a national concern. The sector is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) contributing around 14.5% of all human induced GHG emissions, a major driver of use and pollution of freshwater (accounting 10% anthropogenic water use) and contributed to the loss of biodiversity. About 60% of global biomass harvested annually to support all human activity is consumed by livestock industry, undermining the sustainability of allocating such large resource to the industry.

  15. Resource programs: Draft Environmental Impact Statement Resource Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    Every two years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) prepares a Resource Program which identifies the resource actions BPA will take to meet its obligation to serve the forecasted power requirements of its customers. The Resource Program's Environmental Impact Statement (RPEIS) is a programmatic environmental document which will support decisions made in several future Resource Programs. Environmental documents tiered to the EIS may be prepared on a site-specific basis. The RPEIS includes a description of the environmental effects and mitigation for the various resource types available in order to evaluate the trade-offs among them. It also assesses the environmental impacts of adding thirteen alternative combinations of resources to the existing power system. This report contains the appendices to the RPEIS

  16. The impact of subclinical ketosis in dairy cows on greenhouse gas emissions of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, P.F.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the impact of subclinical ketosis (SCK) and related diseases in dairy cows on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of milk production. A dynamic stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model was developed and combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify the impact of SCK

  17. The relative greenhouse gas impacts of realistic dietary choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berners-Lee, M.; Hoolohan, C.; Cammack, H.; Hewitt, C.N.

    2012-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions embodied in 61 different categories of food are used, with information on the diet of different groups of the population (omnivorous, vegetarian and vegan), to calculate the embodied GHG emissions in different dietary scenarios. We calculate that the embodied GHG content of the current UK food supply is 7.4 kg CO 2 e person −1 day −1 , or 2.7 t CO 2 e person −1 y −1 . This gives total food-related GHG emissions of 167 Mt CO 2 e (1 Mt=10 6 metric tonnes; CO 2 e being the mass of CO 2 that would have the same global warming potential, when measured over 100 years, as a given mixture of greenhouse gases) for the entire UK population in 2009. This is 27% of total direct GHG emissions in the UK, or 19% of total GHG emissions from the UK, including those embodied in goods produced abroad. We calculate that potential GHG savings of 22% and 26% can be made by changing from the current UK-average diet to a vegetarian or vegan diet, respectively. Taking the average GHG saving from six vegetarian or vegan dietary scenarios compared with the current UK-average diet gives a potential national GHG saving of 40 Mt CO 2 e y −1 . This is equivalent to a 50% reduction in current exhaust pipe emissions from the entire UK passenger car fleet. Hence realistic choices about diet can make substantial differences to embodied GHG emissions. - Highlights: ► We calculate the greenhouse gas emissions embodied in different diets. ► The embodied GHG content of the current UK food supply is 7.4 kg CO 2 e person −1 day −1 . ► Changing to a vegetarian or vegan diet reduces GHG emissions by 22–26%. ► Changing to a vegetarian or vegan diet would reduce UK GHG emissions by 40 Mt CO 2 e y −1 .

  18. Livestock-related greenhouse gas emissions: impacts and options for policy makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, Tara

    2009-01-01

    Research shows that livestock account for a significant proportion of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and global consumption of livestock products is growing rapidly. This paper reviews the life cycle analysis (LCA) approach to quantifying these emissions and argues that, given the dynamic complexity of our food system, it offers a limited understanding of livestock's GHG impacts. It is argued that LCA's conclusions need rather to be considered within a broader conceptual framework that incorporates three key additional perspectives. The first is an understanding of the indirect second order effects of livestock production on land use change and associated CO 2 emissions. The second compares the opportunity cost of using land and resources to rear animals with their use for other food or non-food purposes. The third perspective is need-the paper considers how far people need livestock products at all. These perspectives are used as lenses through which to explore both the impacts of livestock production and the mitigation approaches that are being proposed. The discussion is then broadened to consider whether it is possible to substantially reduce livestock emissions through technological measures alone, or whether reductions in livestock consumption will additionally be required. The paper argues for policy strategies that explicitly combine GHG mitigation with measures to improve food security and concludes with suggestions for further research.

  19. Renewable energy development in China: Resource assessment, technology status, and greenhouse gas mitigation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y.; Renne, O.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Junfeng, Li [Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    China, which has pursued aggressive policies to encourage economic development, could experience the world`s fastest growth in energy consumption over the next two decades. China has become the third largest energy user in the world since 1990 when primary energy consumption reached 960 million tons of coal equivalent (tce). Energy use is increasing at an annual rate of 6-7% despite severe infrastructure and capital constraints on energy sector development. Energy consumption in China is heavily dominated by coal, and fossil fuels provide up to 95% of all commercial energy use. Coal currently accounts for 77% of total primary energy use; oil, 16%; hydropower, 5%; and natural gas, 2%. Coal is expected to continue providing close to three-quarters of all energy consumed, and the amount of coal used is expected to triple by year 2020. Currently, renewable energy resources (except for hydropower) account for only a fraction of total energy consumption. However, the estimated growth in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as serious local and regional environmental pollution problems caused by combustion of fossil fuels, provides strong arguments for the development of renewable energy resources. Renewable energy potential in China is significantly greater than that indicated by the current level of use. With a clear policy goal and consistent efforts from the Government of China, renewables can play a far larger role in its future energy supply.

  20. The Role of Sustainability Resources of Large Greenhouse Gas Emitters: The Case of Corporations in Alberta, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Hannouf, Marwa; Assefa, Getachew

    2017-01-01

    With the global challenge of climate change, it becomes crucial to understand the factors that can guide carbon intensive companies to comply with environmental regulations through significant reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Using the natural-resource-based view, the argument in this paper is that focusing on sustainability-driven resources by companies is a way to meet environmental compliance and reduce GHG emissions while gaining differential competitive benefits. A specific ...

  1. Mechanisms of impact of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorozhny, Alexander; Dyominov, Igor

    A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the atmosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the impact of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O on the future long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer, in particular on its expected recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circu-lation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the North to South Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar strato-spheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from Climate Change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abun-dance of the greenhouse gases on the long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2, essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weak-ness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in Antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification be-gins to be more effective in Arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard

  2. Greenhouse impact assessment of peat-based Fischer-Tropsch diesel life-cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkinen, Johanna; Soimakallio, Sampo; Maekinen, Tuula; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2010-01-01

    New raw materials for transportation fuels need to be introduced, in order to fight against climate change and also to cope with increasing risks of availability and price of oil. Peat has been recognised suitable raw material option for diesel produced by gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The energy content of Finnish peat reserves is remarkable. In this study, the greenhouse impact of peat-based FT diesel production and utilisation in Finland was assessed from the life-cycle point of view. In 100 year's time horizon the greenhouse impact of peat-based FT diesel is likely larger than the impact of fossil diesel. The impact can somewhat be lowered by producing peat from the agricultural peatland (strong greenhouse gas emissions from the decaying peatlayer are avoided) with new peat production technique, and utilising the produced biomass from the after-treatment area for diesel also. If diesel production is integrated with pulp and paper mill to achieve energy efficiency benefits and if the electricity demand can be covered by zero emission electricity, the greenhouse impact of peat-based FT diesel reduces to the level of fossil diesel when agricultural peatland is used, and is somewhat higher when forestry-drained peatland is used as raw material source.

  3. The impact of municipal solid waste management on greenhouse gas emissions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Keith A; Thorneloe, Susan A; Nishtala, Subba R; Yarkosky, Sherry; Zannes, Maria

    2002-09-01

    Technological advancements, environmental regulations, and emphasis on resource conservation and recovery have greatly reduced the environmental impacts of municipal solid waste (MSW) management, including emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). This study was conducted using a life-cycle methodology to track changes in GHG emissions during the past 25 years from the management of MSW in the United States. For the baseline year of 1974, MSW management consisted of limited recycling, combustion without energy recovery, and landfilling without gas collection or control. This was compared with data for 1980, 1990, and 1997, accounting for changes in MSW quantity, composition, management practices, and technology. Over time, the United States has moved toward increased recycling, composting, combustion (with energy recovery) and landfilling with gas recovery, control, and utilization. These changes were accounted for with historical data on MSW composition, quantities, management practices, and technological changes. Included in the analysis were the benefits of materials recycling and energy recovery to the extent that these displace virgin raw materials and fossil fuel electricity production, respectively. Carbon sinks associated with MSW management also were addressed. The results indicate that the MSW management actions taken by U.S. communities have significantly reduced potential GHG emissions despite an almost 2-fold increase in waste generation. GHG emissions from MSW management were estimated to be 36 million metric tons carbon equivalents (MMTCE) in 1974 and 8 MMTCE in 1997. If MSW were being managed today as it was in 1974, GHG emissions would be approximately 60 MMTCE.

  4. Impact of mineral resource depletion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In a letter to the editor, the authors comment on BA Steen's article on "Abiotic Resource Depletion: different perceptions of the problem with mineral deposits" published in the special issue of the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment...

  5. The potential for nuclear energy and its impact on the greenhouse situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.

    1992-01-01

    In this address, the author maintains that the nuclear industry has the ability to provide economic, safe electric generating capacity with minimum environmental impacts. Even with an increased nuclear capacity, there will still be problems in stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions; however, without this growth stabilization will be more difficult. Pressure from developing countries to acquire electricity will result in the use of more fossil fuels. As a result, it may be desirable for OECD countries to make even stronger commitments to technologies that emit no greenhouse gases

  6. Climate Leadership webinar on Greenhouse Gas Management Resources for Small Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small businesses can calculate their carbon footprint and construct a greenhouse gas inventory to help track progress towards reaching emissions reduction goals. One strategy for this is EPA's Simplified GHG Emissions Calculator.

  7. Greenhouse Gas and Particulate Emissions and Impacts from Cooking Technologies in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, D. M.; Bailis, R.; Kituyi, E.; Ezzati, M.

    2003-12-01

    cooking the same meal with LPG or kerosene. When charcoal is produced in large quantities, as it is in Africa, the net warming effect can exceed the impact from the "modern energy sector" (transportation and industry) by 50-100 percent, even if charcoal is produced on a sustainable cycle so that all of the wood harvested for charcoal production is allowed to regenerate. However, while charcoal may be worse than firewood with respect to greenhouse gas emissions, it is an improvement with respect to exposure to health damaging pollutants, particularly particulate matter (PM). Levels of PM in households using charcoal are over 90 percent lower than households using open wood fires (316 -(159) mg/m3 for households using charcoal in a common improved stove compared to 3764 (360) mg/m3) for households using wood in open fires: mean (standard error)). These differences in exposure are consistent with 30 and 50 percent reductions in the incidence of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in adults and children under 5 respectively. Reconciling the costs and benefits of different household energy technologies creates a difficult policy challenge, particularly with the severe budgetary and resource constraints that household consumers and government agencies face in sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. Environmental impacts of biomass energy resource production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, J.L.; Dunn, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the environmental impacts associated with the production, conversion and utilization of biomass energy resources and compare them with the impacts of conventional fuels. The use of sustainable biomass resources can play an important role in helping developing nations meet their rapidly growing energy needs, while providing significant environmental advantages over the use of fossil fuels. Two of the most important environmental benefits biomass energy offers are reduced net emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO 2 , and reduced emissions of SO 2 , the primary contributor to acid rain. The paper also addresses the environmental impacts of supplying a range of specific biomass resources, including forest-based resources, numerous types of biomass residues and energy crops. Some of the benefits offered by the various biomass supplies include support for improved forest management, improved waste management, reduced air emissions (by eliminating the need for open-field burning of residues) and reduced soil erosion (for example, where perennial energy crops are planted on degraded or deforested land). The environmental impacts of a range of biomass conversion technologies are also addressed, including those from the thermochemical processing of biomass (including direct combustion in residential wood stoves and industrial-scale boilers, gasification and pyrolysis); biochemical processing (anaerobic digestion and fermentation); and chemical processing (extraction of organic oils). In addition to reducing CO 2 and SO 2 , other environmental benefits of biomass conversion technologies include the distinctly lower toxicity of the ash compared to coal ash, reduced odours and pathogens from manure, reduced vehicle emissions of CO 2 , with the use of ethanol fuel blends, and reduced particulate and hydrocarbon emissions where biodiesel is used as a substitute for diesel fuel. In general, the key elements for

  9. Resource Programs: Final Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    Every two years, BA prepares a Resource Program, which identifies the resource actions BA will take to meet its obligation to serve the forecasted power requirements of its customers. The Resource Programs Environmental Impact Statement (RPEIS) is a programmatic environmental document that will support decisions made in several future Resource Programs. Environmental documents tiered to this EIS may be prepared on a site-specific basis. The RPEIS includes a description of the environmental effects and mitigation for the various resource types available in order to evaluate the trade-offs among them. It also assesses the environmental impacts of adding thirteen alternative combinations of resources to the existing power system. The alternatives represent the range of actions BA could take to meet its load obligations. Each of the alternatives allows BA to meet the almost 5,000 average megawatt load increase that could occur with high load growth, or an equivalent need for resources caused by a combination of load growth and any future loss of resources

  10. Impact of Trade Openness and Sector Trade on Embodied Greenhouse Gases Emissions and Air Pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Moinul; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Managi, Shunsuke

    2016-01-01

    The production of goods and services generates greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollution both directly and through the activities of the supply chains on which they depend. The analysis of the latter—called embodied emissions—in the cause of internationally traded goods and services is the subject of this paper. We find that trade openness increases embodied emissions in international trade (EET). We also examine the impact of sector trade on EET. By applying a fixed-effect model using large...

  11. The impact of soil amendments on greenhouse gas emissions: a comprehensive life cycle assessment approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLonge, M. S.; Ryals, R.; Silver, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    Soil amendments, such as compost and manure, can be applied to grasslands to improve soil conditions and enhance aboveground net primary productivity. Applying such amendments can also lead to soil carbon (C) sequestration and, when materials are diverted from waste streams (e.g., landfills, manure lagoons), can offset greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, amendment production and application is also associated with GHG emissions, and the net impact of these amendments remains unclear. To investigate the potential for soil amendments to reduce net GHG emissions, we developed a comprehensive, field-scale life cycle assessment (LCA) model. The LCA includes GHG (i.e., CO2, CH4, N2O) emissions of soil amendment production, application, and ecosystem response. Emissions avoided by diverting materials from landfills or manure management systems are also considered. We developed the model using field observations from grazed annual grassland in northern California (e.g., soil C; above- and belowground net primary productivity; C:N ratios; trace gas emissions from soils, manure piles, and composting), CENTURY model simulations (e.g., long-term soil C and trace gas emissions from soils under various land management strategies), and literature values (e.g., GHG emissions from transportation, inorganic fertilizer production, composting, and enteric fermentation). The LCA quantifies and contrasts the potential net GHG impacts of applying compost, manure, and commercial inorganic fertilizer to grazing lands. To estimate the LCA uncertainty, sensitivity tests were performed on the most widely ranging or highly uncertain parameters (e.g., compost materials, landfill emissions, manure management system emissions). Finally, our results are scaled-up to assess the feasibility and potential impacts of large-scale adoption of soil amendment application as a land-management strategy in California. Our base case results indicate that C sinks and emissions offsets associated with

  12. Estimating the Impact of US Agriculture Subsidies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, G.; Martin, P. A.

    2006-12-01

    It has been proposed in the popular media that US agricultural subsidies contribute deleteriously to both the American diet and environment. In this view, subsidies render mostly corn-based, animal products and sweeteners artificically cheap, leading to enhanced consumption. Problems accompanying this structure mentioned include enhanced meat, fat and sugar consumption and the associated enhancement of obesity, cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes and possible various types of cancer, as well as air, soil and water pollution. Often overlooked in these discussions is the potential enhancement of greenhouse gas emissions accompanying this policy-based steering of food consumption toward certain products at the expense of others, possibly more nutritionally and environmentally benign. If such enhancements are in fact borne out by data, the policies that give rise to them will prove to constitute government-sponsored enhancement of greenhouse gas emissions, in contrast to any climate change mitigation efforts. If so, they represent low- hanging fruits in the national effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which may one day be launched. Agriculture subsidies impact the emissions of CO2 (by direct energy consumption), nitrous oxide (by land use alteration and manure management), and methane (by ruminant digestion and manure treatment). Quantifying the impacts of agricultural subsidies is complicated by many compounding and conflicting effects (many related to human behavior rather than the natural sciences) and the relatively short data timeseries. For example, subsidy policies change over time, certain subsidy types are introduced or eliminated, food preferences change as nutritional understanding (or propaganda) shift, etc. Despite the difficulties, such quantification is crucial to better estimate the overall effect and variability of dietary choices on greenhouse gas emissions, and ultimately minimize environmental impacts. In this study, we take preliminary

  13. Assessment of urgent impacts of greenhouse gas emissions—the climate tipping potential (CTP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Nielsen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on climate change receives much focus today. This impact is however often considered only in terms of global warming potential (GWP), which does not take into account the need for staying below climatic target levels, in order to avoid...... passing critical climate tipping points. Some suggestions to include a target level in climate change impact assessment have been made, but with the consequence of disregarding impacts beyond that target level. The aim of this paper is to introduce the climate tipping impact category, which represents...... as on the chosen climatic target level and background scenario for atmospheric GHG concentration development. In order to enable direct application in life cycle assessment (LCA), CTP characterisation factors are presented for the three main anthropogenic GHGs, CO2, CH4 and N2O.The CTP metric distinguishes...

  14. Economic, energy and greenhouse emissions impacts of some consumer choice, technology and government outlay options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzen, Manfred; Dey, Christopher J.

    2002-01-01

    The impacts of selected spending options in the Australian economy are determined in terms of energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and a range of economic parameters. Six case studies of one current-practice and one alternative, environmentally motivated spending option are carried out, describing consumer choices, technologies and government outlays. The assessment method is based on input-output theory and, as such, enables both the direct and indirect effects of spending to be quantified. In general, the results indicate that pro-environmental objectives, such as reductions in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, are compatible with broad socio-economic benefits, such as increases in employment and income, and reductions in imports

  15. Final Environmental Impact Statement Resource Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    BPA's preferred alternative is the Emphasize Conservation Alternative. System and environmental costs are low. Environmental impacts from conservation are minimal. This alternative is cost-effective and environmentally responsible; only the High Conservation Alternative has lower costs and fewer environmental impacts. However, there is some concern about the cost-effectiveness, reliability, and commercial availability of the high conservation resources. If the supply of the additional conservation potential was confirmed and it became cost-effective, the High Conservation Alternative would be preferred. The Draft Resource Programs EIS was released for public review during the summer of 1992. Comments received by letter or in the public hearing held June 16, 1992, were used to revise and update data and analyses of the EIS (public comments and BPA's responses are contained in Volume III of the Final EIS). In addition, a number of revisions were made in the Chapter 3 material describing each resource type, and in Chapter 4 and the Summary, to assure consistency with the modeling and analysis in Chapter 5. Additional information about the capacity aspects of each resource type and alternative has been added, and the material on conservation and its impacts has been reorganized

  16. Life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission impacts of different corn ethanol plant types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Michael; Wu, May; Hong Huo

    2007-01-01

    Since the United States began a programme to develop ethanol as a transportation fuel, its use has increased from 175 million gallons in 1980 to 4.9 billion gallons in 2006. Virtually all of the ethanol used for transportation has been produced from corn. During the period of fuel ethanol growth, corn farming productivity has increased dramatically, and energy use in ethanol plants has been reduced by almost by half. The majority of corn ethanol plants are powered by natural gas. However, as natural gas prices have skyrocketed over the last several years, efforts have been made to further reduce the energy used in ethanol plants or to switch from natural gas to other fuels, such as coal and wood chips. In this paper, we examine nine corn ethanol plant types-categorized according to the type of process fuels employed, use of combined heat and power, and production of wet distiller grains and solubles. We found that these ethanol plant types can have distinctly different energy and greenhouse gas emission effects on a full fuel-cycle basis. In particular, greenhouse gas emission impacts can vary significantly-from a 3% increase if coal is the process fuel to a 52% reduction if wood chips are used. Our results show that, in order to achieve energy and greenhouse gas emission benefits, researchers need to closely examine and differentiate among the types of plants used to produce corn ethanol so that corn ethanol production would move towards a more sustainable path

  17. The Role of Sustainability Resources of Large Greenhouse Gas Emitters: The Case of Corporations in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Hannouf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the global challenge of climate change, it becomes crucial to understand the factors that can guide carbon intensive companies to comply with environmental regulations through significant reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Using the natural-resource-based view, the argument in this paper is that focusing on sustainability-driven resources by companies is a way to meet environmental compliance and reduce GHG emissions while gaining differential competitive benefits. A specific analysis on Alberta case has discussed large GHG emitters’ environmental compliance mechanisms in the context of their sustainability resources. The aim is examining if large GHG emitters in Alberta related to corporations having sustainability resources are complying with the Specified Gas Emitters Regulation (SGER reduction requirement through cleaner-production driven internal mechanisms. The paper examines the existence of the sustainability resources in the reporting companies related to large GHG emitters responsible for 86% of total GHG reported by facilities with emissions above the threshold of 100 kilotonnes of GHG per year under SGER in Alberta. Corporations are found not using their sustainability resource potential to achieve internal reductions in GHG emissions throughout their facilities. Thus, some recommendations are presented for Alberta case as well as for environmental regulations in other jurisdictions that can potentially help policy makers improve their climate change regulations and achieve their global targets and enable companies to gain competitive advantage while meeting GHG reduction compliance.

  18. High accuracy Primary Reference gas Mixtures for high-impact greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenkamp, Gerard; Zalewska, Ewelina; Pearce-Hill, Ruth; Brewer, Paul; Resner, Kate; Mace, Tatiana; Tarhan, Tanil; Zellweger, Christophe; Mohn, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    Climate change, due to increased man-made emissions of greenhouse gases, poses one of the greatest risks to society worldwide. High-impact greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) and indirect drivers for global warming (e.g. CO) are measured by the global monitoring stations for greenhouse gases, operated and organized by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Reference gases for the calibration of analyzers have to meet very challenging low level of measurement uncertainty to comply with the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) set by the WMO. Within the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), a project to improve the metrology for high-impact greenhouse gases was granted (HIGHGAS, June 2014-May 2017). As a result of the HIGHGAS project, primary reference gas mixtures in cylinders for ambient levels of CO2, CH4, N2O and CO in air have been prepared with unprecedented low uncertainties, typically 3-10 times lower than usually previously achieved by the NMIs. To accomplish these low uncertainties in the reference standards, a number of preparation and analysis steps have been studied and improved. The purity analysis of the parent gases had to be performed with lower detection limits than previously achievable. E.g., to achieve an uncertainty of 2•10-9 mol/mol (absolute) on the amount fraction for N2O, the detection limit for the N2O analysis in the parent gases has to be in the sub nmol/mol domain. Results of an OPO-CRDS analyzer set-up in the 5µm wavelength domain, with a 200•10-12 mol/mol detection limit for N2O, will be presented. The adsorption effects of greenhouse gas components at cylinder surfaces are critical, and have been studied for different cylinder passivation techniques. Results of a two-year stability study will be presented. The fit-for-purpose of the reference materials was studied for possible variation on isotopic composition between the reference material and the sample. Measurement results for a suit of CO2 in air

  19. Effect of forest drainage on the carbon balance and greenhouse impact of Finnish peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J.; Minkkinen, K.; Laiho, R. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this project is to produce an estimate of the change in the biomass and peat carbon stores arising from the drainage of peatlands for forestry, and of the change of greenhouse impact of these ecosystems. The study shows that the subsidence of mire surfaces due to drainage has been relatively small, on average about 20 cm. The observed increase in bulk density after drainage is caused by the physical compression of peat and the post-drainage input of organic material in the form of litter production from the above and below ground parts of the tree layer. Oxidative decay of organic matter may have further increased the compaction of peat, especially in fertile sites. When the changes in peat and vegetation carbon stores are summed up, it seems that, within the site types studied, the total impact of drainage to the ecosystem carbon store is close to zero on the nutrient rich sites and clearly positive on the poorer types. Water level drawdown in peatlands after drainage for forestry appears to decrease the greenhouse impact at least for a few hundred years. The estimated changes in all three emission components (CH{sub 4} emissions, CO{sub 2} sink from peatland and CO{sub 2} sequestered in trees) reduce the radiative forcing by approximately similar amounts

  20. Effect of forest drainage on the carbon balance and greenhouse impact of Finnish peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J; Minkkinen, K; Laiho, R [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this project is to produce an estimate of the change in the biomass and peat carbon stores arising from the drainage of peatlands for forestry, and of the change of greenhouse impact of these ecosystems. The study shows that the subsidence of mire surfaces due to drainage has been relatively small, on average about 20 cm. The observed increase in bulk density after drainage is caused by the physical compression of peat and the post-drainage input of organic material in the form of litter production from the above and below ground parts of the tree layer. Oxidative decay of organic matter may have further increased the compaction of peat, especially in fertile sites. When the changes in peat and vegetation carbon stores are summed up, it seems that, within the site types studied, the total impact of drainage to the ecosystem carbon store is close to zero on the nutrient rich sites and clearly positive on the poorer types. Water level drawdown in peatlands after drainage for forestry appears to decrease the greenhouse impact at least for a few hundred years. The estimated changes in all three emission components (CH{sub 4} emissions, CO{sub 2} sink from peatland and CO{sub 2} sequestered in trees) reduce the radiative forcing by approximately similar amounts

  1. Resource Contingency Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    In 1990, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP) to fulfill its statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later if needed. Three option development agreements were signed in September 1993 with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop Washington and near Hermiston, Oregon. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options.

  2. Hydropower developments in Canada: greenhouse gas emissions, energy outputs and review of environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Peter G.; Cheng, Ryan; Scheelar, Catherine [Global Forest Watch Canada (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    Hydropower is an important source of energy for Canada, accounting for 60% of the electricity generation mix. It is therefore important to understand the environmental performance of such developments in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impacts. From study of the Eastmain-1 reservoir, it has been extrapolated that hydropower facilities emit between 20 and 36 kilograms of CO2 per megawatt-hour. Hydropower facilities emissions are thus significantly lower than those of fossil fuel facilities, which can emit up to 1,000 kg of CO2 per MW/h. However, hydro projects have several other environmental impacts, such as habitat degradation, bio-accumulation of methyl mercury, and important sediment flow changes. The 271 large hydropower facilities affect 130,000 km of rivers and tens of thousands square kilometres of adjacent habitat. This study pointed out that despite being a low emitter of carbon dioxide, the hydropower sector has significant environmental impacts which require further assessment.

  3. Benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation on the supply, management, and use of water resources in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Strzepek, Kenneth; Neumann, J.; SMith, J.; Martinich, J.; Boehlert, B.; Hejazi, M.; Henderson, J.; Wobus, C.; Jones, R.; Calvin, K.; Johnson, D.; Monier, Erwan; Strzepek, J.; Yoon, J.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change impacts on water resources in the United States are likely to be far-reaching and substantial because the water is integral to climate, and the water sector spans many parts of the economy. This paper estimates impacts and damages from five water resource-related models addressing runoff, drought risk, economics of water supply/demand, water stress, and flooding damages. The models differ in the water system assessed, spatial scale, and unit of assessment, but together provide ...

  4. Environmental impacts of biomass energy resource production and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterly, J L; Dunn, S M [DynCorp, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the environmental impacts associated with the production, conversion and utilization of biomass energy resources and compare them with the impacts of conventional fuels. The use of sustainable biomass resources can play an important role in helping developing nations meet their rapidly growing energy needs, while providing significant environmental advantages over the use of fossil fuels. Two of the most important environmental benefits biomass energy offers are reduced net emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO{sub 2}, and reduced emissions of SO{sub 2}, the primary contributor to acid rain. The paper also addresses the environmental impacts of supplying a range of specific biomass resources, including forest-based resources, numerous types of biomass residues and energy crops. Some of the benefits offered by the various biomass supplies include support for improved forest management, improved waste management, reduced air emissions (by eliminating the need for open-field burning of residues) and reduced soil erosion (for example, where perennial energy crops are planted on degraded or deforested land). The environmental impacts of a range of biomass conversion technologies are also addressed, including those from the thermochemical processing of biomass (including direct combustion in residential wood stoves and industrial-scale boilers, gasification and pyrolysis); biochemical processing (anaerobic digestion and fermentation); and chemical processing (extraction of organic oils). In addition to reducing CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}, other environmental benefits of biomass conversion technologies include the distinctly lower toxicity of the ash compared to coal ash, reduced odours and pathogens from manure, reduced vehicle emissions of CO{sub 2}, with the use of ethanol fuel blends, and reduced particulate and hydrocarbon emissions where biodiesel is used as a substitute for diesel fuel. In general

  5. Analyzing the greenhouse gas impact potential of smallholder development actions across a global food security program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewer, Uwe; Nash, Julie; Gurwick, Noel; Bockel, Louis; Galford, Gillian; Richards, Meryl; Costa Junior, Ciniro; White, Julianna; Pirolli, Gillian; Wollenberg, Eva

    2018-04-01

    This article analyses the greenhouse gas (GHG) impact potential of improved management practices and technologies for smallholder agriculture promoted under a global food security development program. Under ‘business-as-usual’ development, global studies on the future of agriculture to 2050 project considerable increases in total food production and cultivated area. Conventional cropland intensification and conversion of natural vegetation typically result in increased GHG emissions and loss of carbon stocks. There is a strong need to understand the potential greenhouse gas impacts of agricultural development programs intended to achieve large-scale change, and to identify pathways of smallholder agricultural development that can achieve food security and agricultural production growth without drastic increases in GHG emissions. In an analysis of 134 crop and livestock production systems in 15 countries with reported impacts on 4.8 million ha, improved management practices and technologies by smallholder farmers significantly reduce GHG emission intensity of agricultural production, increase yields and reduce post-harvest losses, while either decreasing or only moderately increasing net GHG emissions per area. Investments in both production and post-harvest stages meaningfully reduced GHG emission intensity, contributing to low emission development. We present average impacts on net GHG emissions per hectare and GHG emission intensity, while not providing detailed statistics of GHG impacts at scale that are associated to additional uncertainties. While reported improvements in smallholder systems effectively reduce future GHG emissions compared to business-as-usual development, these contributions are insufficient to significantly reduce net GHG emission in agriculture beyond current levels, particularly if future agricultural production grows at projected rates.

  6. The impact of 'Cash for Clunkers' on greenhouse gas emissions: a life cycle perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenski, Shoshannah M; Keoleian, Gregory A; Bolon, Kevin M

    2010-01-01

    One of the goals of the US Consumer Assistance to Recycle and Save (CARS) Act of 2009, more commonly known as 'Cash for Clunkers', was to improve the US vehicle fleet fuel efficiency. Previous studies of the program's environmental impact have focused mainly on the effect of improved fuel economy, and the resulting reductions in fuel use and emissions during the vehicle use phase. We propose and apply a method for analyzing the net effect of CARS on greenhouse gas emissions from a full vehicle life cycle perspective, including the impact of premature production and retirement of vehicles. We find that CARS had a one-time effect of preventing 4.4 million metric tons of CO 2 -equivalent emissions, about 0.4% of US annual light-duty vehicle emissions. Of these, 3.7 million metric tons are avoided during the period of the expected remaining life of the inefficient 'clunkers'. 1.5 million metric tons are avoided as consumers purchase vehicles that are more efficient than their next replacement vehicle would otherwise have been. An additional 0.8 million metric tons are emitted as a result of premature manufacturing and disposal of vehicles. These results are sensitive to the remaining lifetime of the 'clunkers' and to the fuel economy of new vehicles in the absence of CARS, suggesting important considerations for policymakers deliberating on the use of accelerated vehicle retirement programs as a part of the greenhouse gas emissions policy.

  7. An alternative to the global warming potential for comparing climate impacts of emissions of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shine, Keith P.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Stuber, Nicola

    2003-01-01

    The global warming potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climate impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GQP has been subject at many criticism because of its formulation but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of this design and application and its transparency compared to proposed alternatives. Here a new metric which we call the Global Temperature Change Potential (GTP) is proposed which is based on a simple analytical climate model that represents the temperature change as a given time due to either a pulse emission of a gas or a sustained emission change relative to a similar emission change of carbon dioxide. The GTP for a pulse emission illustrates that the GWP does not represent well the relative temperature response; however, the GWP is shown to be very close to the GTP for a sustained emission change for time horizons of 100 years or more. The new metric retains the advantage of the GWP in terms of transparency and the relatively small number of input parameters required for calculation. However, it has an enhanced relevance as it is further down the cause-effect chain of the impacts of greenhouse gases emissions. The GTP for a sustained emission appears to be robust to a number of uncertainties and simplifications in its derivation and may be an attractive alternative to the GWP. (Author)

  8. Modelled impacts of mitigation measures on greenhouse gas emissions from Finnish agriculture up to 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. REGINA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Emission scenarios based on integrated quantitative modelling are a valuable tool in planning strategies for greenhouse gas mitigation. By estimating the potential of individual mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, resources can be targeted to the most promising policy measures. This paper reports two agricultural emission scenarios for Finland up to year 2020, one baseline scenario (Scenario 1 based on the projected agricultural production levels determined by markets and agricultural policy and one with selected mitigation measures included (Scenario 2. Measures selected for the analysis consisted of 1 keeping agricultural area at the current level, 2 decreasing the proportion of organic soils, 3 increasing the proportion of grass cultivation on organic soils and 4 supporting biogas production on farms. Starting from 2005, the emissions of nitrous oxide and methane from agriculture would decrease 2.3% in Scenario 1 by 2020 whereas the respective decrease would be 11.5% in Scenario 2. According to the results, mitigation measures targeted to cultivation of organic soils have the largest potential to reduce the emissions. Such measures would include reducing the area of cultivated organic soils and increasing the proportion of perennial crops on the remaining area.

  9. Energy resources' utilization in organic and conventional vineyards: Energy flow, greenhouse gas emissions and biofuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavargiris, Stefanos E.; Mamolos, Andreas P.; Tsatsarelis, Constantinos A.; Nikolaidou, Anna E.; Kalburtji, Kiriaki L.

    2009-01-01

    An energy analysis, in conventional and organic vineyards, combined with ethanol production and greenhouse gas emissions, is useful in evaluating present situation and deciding best management strategies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in the energy flow between organic and conventional vineyards in three locations, to calculate CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O-emissions based on the used fossil energy and to explore if wine industry wastes can be used to extract bioethanol. The data were collected through personal interviews with farmers during 2004-2005. Eighteen farmers, who owned vineyards about 1 ha each, were randomly selected to participate in this study [(3 conventional and 3 organic) x 3 locations]. The means averaged over all locations for fertilizer application, plant protection products application, transportation, harvesting, labor, machinery, fuels, plant protections products and tools energy inputs, total energy inputs, outputs (grapes), outputs (grapes + shoots), grape yield, man hour, pomace and ethanol from pomace were significantly higher in conventional than in organic vineyards, while the opposite occurred for the pruning. Means averaged over two farming systems for harvesting, tools energy inputs, energy outputs (grapes), grape yield, pomace and ethanol from pomace were significantly higher at location A, followed by location C and location B. Finally, for irrigation, the means averaged over the two farming systems were significantly lower at location C. Greenhouse gas emissions were significant lower in organic than in conventional vineyards. The results show a clear response of energy inputs to energy outputs that resulted from the farming system and location.

  10. Economic Analysis of the Effects of Climate Change Induced by Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Agricultural Productions and Available Water Resources (Case Study: Down Lands of the Taleghan Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Mozaffari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Greenhouse gases absorb the radiation reflected from the earth surface which would otherwise be sent back into space. The composition and mixture of these gases make life on earth possible. In recent years, human activity has affected both the composition and mixture of the atmosphere, modifying the climate. When climate changes, crop production is affected. There are many studies that consider the type and amount of production changes for particular crops, places and scenarios. Others attempt to expand knowledge about production changes and their impacts on economy and regional welfare. Climate change affects agriculture through direct and indirect affects i.e. temperature, and precipitation changes in the biological and physical environment. Restriction in water availability is one of the most dramatic consequences of climate change for the agricultural sector. Water availability is expected to be even more limited in the future. Scarcity of water is due to potential evapotranspiration increase. It is related to increase in air and earth surface temperatures. This phenomenon is important in low-precipitation seasons, and is even more severe in dry areas. The number of regions with loss of soil moisture is expected to increase, resulting in direct economic consequences on the production capacity. Considering the above decisions, the main objective of this paper is to integrate climate change into agricultural decision-making by using an Economic Modeling System to identify the impacts of climate change induced by greenhouse gas emissions on agricultural sector productions and available water resources in the down lands of the Taleghan Dam. Materials and Methods: In this study, the effects of greenhouse gases on climate variables of temperature and precipitation under emission scenarios A1B, A2 and B1 were evaluated using time series data from 1981- 2008 and General Circulation Models (GCM. Then Ordinary Least Squares (OLS was used

  11. The impacts of local farming system development trajectories on greenhouse gas emissions in the northern mountains of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leisz, S.J.; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Olesen, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    fields, paddy, fruit trees and animal husbandry. Discussion in the policy debate and literature focuses on the impacts these changes have on local people's livelihoods. There have been no attempts to evaluate the impact of these changes on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper examines the realities...

  12. Impact of Globalization on the Human Resource Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Globalization on the Human Resource Management Function in ... impact on the management of human resources in developing countries including Kenya. ... The non-core jobs have been outsourced which has led to an increase in ...

  13. Understanding the Greenhouse Effect by Embodiment--Analysing and Using Students' and Scientists' Conceptual Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebert, Kai; Gropengießer, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, science education studies have reported that there are very different understandings among students of science regarding the key aspects of climate change. We used the cognitive linguistic framework of experientialism to shed new light on this valuable pool of studies to identify the conceptual resources of understanding…

  14. Simulating the Impact of Carbon Taxes on Greenhouse Gas Emission and Nutrition in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Revoredo-Giha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions associated with food consumption have become particularly pertinent issues given recent warnings that the planet recently has experienced its hottest year. One way proposed to reduce those emissions is through a carbon consumption taxes. This study uses consumption, nutrient and GHG emission data to estimate the impact of two ad-valorem taxes: one applied by food category and another by the carbon emission of the products. The results suggest that the carbon consumption tax scenarios would reduce GHG emissions by a greater quantity relative to the ad-valorem tax scenario; however, the intake of important nutrients will also decrease in these scenarios. Therefore, creating an environmentally sustainable and nutritious diet through taxation is challenging and requires compromise between the nutrition and environmental sustainability.

  15. The Impact of a Potential Shale Gas Development in Germany and the United Kingdom on Pollutant and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weger, L.; Cremonese, L.; Bartels, M. P.; Butler, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Several European countries with domestic shale gas reserves are considering extracting this natural gas resource to complement their energy transition agenda. Natural gas, which produces lower CO2 emissions upon combustion compared to coal or oil, has the potential to serve as a bridge in the transition from fossil fuels to renewables. However, the generation of shale gas leads to emissions of CH4 and pollutants such as PM, NOx and VOCs, which in turn impact climate as well as local and regional air quality. In this study, we explore the impact of a potential shale gas development in Europe, specifically in Germany and the United Kingdom, on emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutants. In order to investigate the effect on emissions, we first estimate a range of wells drilled per year and production volume for the two countries under examination based on available geological information and on regional infrastructural and economic limitations. Subsequently we assign activity data and emissions factors to the well development, gas production and processing stages of shale gas generation to enable emissions quantification. We then define emissions scenarios to explore different storylines of potential shale gas development, including low emissions (high level of regulation), high emissions (low level of regulation) and middle emissions scenarios, which influence fleet make-up, emission factor and activity data choices for emissions quantification. The aim of this work is to highlight important variables and their ranges, to promote discussion and communication of potential impacts, and to construct possible visions for a future shale gas development in the two study countries. In a follow-up study, the impact of pollutant emissions from these scenarios on air quality will be explored using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) model.

  16. Greenhouse gas emission impacts of electric vehicles under varying driving cycles in various counties and US cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.Q.; Marr, W.W.

    1994-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) can reduce greenhouse gas emissions, relative to emissions from gasoline-fueled vehicles. However, those studies have not considered all aspects that determine greenhouse gas emissions from both gasoline vehicles (GVs) and EVs. Aspects often overlooked include variations in vehicle trip characteristics, inclusion of all greenhouse gases, and vehicle total fuel cycle. In this paper, we estimate greenhouse gas emission reductions for EVs, including these important aspects. We select four US cities (Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Washington, D.C.) and six countries (Australia, France, Japan, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and analyze greenhouse emission impacts of EVs in each city or country. We also select six driving cycles developed around the world (i.e., the US federal urban driving cycle, the Economic Community of Europe cycle 15, the Japanese 10-mode cycle, the Los Angeles 92 cycle, the New York City cycle, and the Sydney cycle). Note that we have not analyzed EVs in high-speed driving (e.g., highway driving), where the results would be less favorable to EVs; here, EVs are regarded as urban vehicles only. We choose one specific driving cycle for a given city or country and estimate the energy consumption of four-passenger compact electric and gasoline cars in the given city or country. Finally, we estimate total fuel cycle greenhouse gas emissions of both GVs and EVs by accounting for emissions from primary energy recovery, transportation, and processing; energy product transportation; and powerplant and vehicle operations

  17. Alternatives to the Global Warming Potential for Comparing Climate Impacts of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shine, Keith P.; Fuglestvedt, J.S.; Hailemariam, K.; Stuber, N.

    2005-01-01

    The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climatic impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GWP has been subjected to many criticisms because of its formulation, but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of its design and application, and its transparency compared to proposed alternatives. Here, two new metrics are proposed, which are based on a simple analytical climate model. The first metric is called the Global Temperature Change Potential and represents the temperature change at a given time due to a pulse emission of a gas (GTPP); the second is similar but represents the effect of a sustained emission change (hence GTPS). Both GTPP and GTPS are presented as relative to the temperature change due to a similar emission change of a reference gas, here taken to be carbon dioxide. Both metrics are compared against an upwelling-diffusion energy balance model that resolves land and ocean and the hemispheres. The GTPP does not perform well, compared to the energy balance model, except for long-lived gases. By contrast, the GTPS is shown to perform well relative to the energy balance model, for gases with a wide variety of lifetimes. It is also shown that for time horizons in excess of about 100 years, the GTPS and GWP produce very similar results, indicating an alternative interpretation for the GWP. The GTPS retains the advantage of the GWP in terms of transparency, and the relatively small number of input parameters required for calculation. However, it has an enhanced relevance, as it is further down the cause-effect chain of the impacts of greenhouse gases emissions and has an unambiguous interpretation. It appears to be robust to key uncertainties and simplifications in its derivation and may be an attractive alternative to the GWP

  18. Stormwater impacts on a coldwater resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.

    1995-01-01

    The Kinnickinnic River in west-central Wisconsin is classified as a state outstanding resource water, and is a premiere Midwest trout stream, with a self-sustaining brown trout population. River Falls, Wisconsin (population 10,000), located in the heart of the Kinnickinnic River watershed, is developing rapidly because of its proximity to the Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolis. With increasing residential, commercial, and industrial development, concerns about urban stormwater impacts on the Kinnickinnic River are also increasing. These impacts include higher stream flows, thermal pollution, and sedimentation, all of which pose threats to trout and aquatic habitat. In response to the concern about thermal pollution, the Kiap-TU-Wish Chapter of Trout Unlimited established a temperature monitoring network in 1992, at four Kinnickinnic River locations throughout River Falls. Data-logging thermometers continuously record stream temperatures at 10-minute intervals, clearly demonstrating stormwater-induced thermal changes. Rapidly-increasing stream temperatures are often evident at locations downstream from stormwater outfalls during summer rainfalls, and stormwater temperatures may exceed 80 F. The thermal impacts of two small municipal hydropower impoundments have also been documented. Storm event-based composite sampling of residential, commercial, and industrial areas of River Falls (1992) suggests that these areas are highly susceptible to soil erosion, with sediment concentrations greater than the NURP average. Concentrations of some sediment-associated metals are also high. In 1994, River Falls developed a stormwater management plan for the Kinnickinnic River. Plan recommendations include a limitation of 12% impervious area within the city, proper detention pond design to mitigate thermal impacts, stringent erosion control ordinances, additional stormwater BMP'S, and increased public awareness and involvement

  19. Greenhouse gas impacts of ethanol from Iowa corn: Life cycle assessment versus system wide approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Hongli; Rubin, Ofir D.; Babcock, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is the standard approach used to evaluate the greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits of biofuels. However, the need for the appropriate use of LCA in policy contexts is highlighted by recent findings that corn-based ethanol may actually increase GHG emissions. This is in contrary to most existing LCA results. LCA estimates can vary across studies due to heterogeneities in inputs and production technology. Whether marginal or average impacts are considered can matter as well. Most important of all, LCA is product-centered. The determination of the impact of biofuels expansion requires a system wide approach (SWA) that accounts for impacts on all affected products and processes. This paper presents both LCA and SWA for ethanol based on Iowa corn. LCA was conducted in several different ways. Growing corn in rotation with soybean generates 35% less GHG emissions than growing corn after corn. Based on average corn production, ethanol's GHG benefits were lower in 2007 than in 2006 because of an increase in continuous corn in 2007. When only additional corn was considered, ethanol emitted about 22% less GHGs than gasoline. SWA was applied to two simple cases. Using 2006 as a baseline and 2007 as a scenario, corn ethanol's benefits were about 20% of the emissions of gasoline. If geographical limits are expanded beyond Iowa, then corn ethanol could generate more GHG emissions than gasoline. These results highlight the importance of boundary definition for both LCA and SWA.

  20. Relevance of emissions timing in biofuel greenhouse gases and climate impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwietzke, Stefan; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2011-10-01

    Employing life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as a key performance metric in energy and environmental policy may underestimate actual climate change impacts. Emissions released early in the life cycle cause greater cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) over the next decades than later emissions. Some indicate that ignoring emissions timing in traditional biofuel GHG accounting overestimates the effectiveness of policies supporting corn ethanol by 10-90% due to early land use change (LUC) induced GHGs. We use an IPCC climate model to (1) estimate absolute CRF from U.S. corn ethanol and (2) quantify an emissions timing factor (ETF), which is masked in the traditional GHG accounting. In contrast to earlier analyses, ETF is only 2% (5%) over 100 (50) years of impacts. Emissions uncertainty itself (LUC, fuel production period) is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher, which dwarfs the timing effect. From a GHG accounting perspective, emissions timing adds little to our understanding of the climate impacts of biofuels. However, policy makers should recognize that ETF could significantly decrease corn ethanol's probability of meeting the 20% GHG reduction target in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The added uncertainty of potentially employing more complex emissions metrics is yet to be quantified.

  1. Greenhouse gas impacts of ethanol from Iowa corn: Life cycle assessment versus system wide approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Hongli [Department of Economics, 377 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Rubin, Ofir D. [Department of Economics, 573 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Babcock, Bruce A. [Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD), Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Department of Economics, 578F Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is the standard approach used to evaluate the greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits of biofuels. However, the need for the appropriate use of LCA in policy contexts is highlighted by recent findings that corn-based ethanol may actually increase GHG emissions. This is in contrary to most existing LCA results. LCA estimates can vary across studies due to heterogeneities in inputs and production technology. Whether marginal or average impacts are considered can matter as well. Most important of all, LCA is product-centered. The determination of the impact of biofuels expansion requires a system wide approach (SWA) that accounts for impacts on all affected products and processes. This paper presents both LCA and SWA for ethanol based on Iowa corn. LCA was conducted in several different ways. Growing corn in rotation with soybean generates 35% less GHG emissions than growing corn after corn. Based on average corn production, ethanol's GHG benefits were lower in 2007 than in 2006 because of an increase in continuous corn in 2007. When only additional corn was considered, ethanol emitted about 22% less GHGs than gasoline. SWA was applied to two simple cases. Using 2006 as a baseline and 2007 as a scenario, corn ethanol's benefits were about 20% of the emissions of gasoline. If geographical limits are expanded beyond Iowa, then corn ethanol could generate more GHG emissions than gasoline. These results highlight the importance of boundary definition for both LCA and SWA. (author)

  2. Climate impact on BC Hydro's water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.; Rodenhuis, D.

    2008-01-01

    BC Hydro like many other hydro utilities has used the historical record of weather and runoff as the standard description the variability and uncertainty of the key weather drivers for its operation and planning studies. It has been conveniently assumed that this historical record is or has been statistically stationary and therefore is assumed to represent the future characteristics of climatic drivers on our system. This assumption is obviously no longer justifiable. To address the characterisation of future weather, BC Hydro has a multi-year a directed research program with the Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium to evaluate the impacts of climate change on the water resources that BC Hydro manages for hydropower generation and other uses. The objective of this program is to derive climate change adjusted meteorologic and hydrologic sequences suitable for use in system operations and planning studies. These climate-adjusted sequences then can be used to test system sensitivity to climate change scenarios relative to the baseline of the historical record. This paper describes BC Hydro's research program and the results achieved so far. (author)

  3. A missing link? The case of Norway and Sweden: Does increased renewable energy production impact domestic greenhouse gas emissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blindheim, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how the EU's RES directive will impact domestic greenhouse gas emissions in Norway and Sweden by 2020. The directive aims for a higher RES share in the energy consumption mix, and Norway and Sweden have established a common electricity certificate scheme to help achieve these RES goals. In terms of how these two national RES plans will impact domestic emissions by 2020, factors such as nuclear power, consumption changes and the energy balance must be considered. The most practical approach to evaluate the plans’ impact on emissions is to focus on changes in carbon-based consumption within the three directive sectors. The Norwegian RES action plan will not affect domestic emissions unless the electricity surplus generated by the certificate market is used to phase out fossil fuels in domestic sectors beyond the scope of the RES directive. The use of electricity to phase out fossil fuel consumption in the offshore sector would substantially reduce Norwegian emissions figures. The Swedish plan would positively impact Swedish greenhouse gas emissions; however, this impact is limited, primarily because a substantial increase in energy consumption is expected. - Highlights: • Implementation of the EU directive on use of energy from renewable sources (RES). • A comparison between Norway and Sweden. • The common green certificate market. • Does increased share of renewable energy impact on greenhouse gas emissions. • Calculations indicate that increased RES share has limited impact on emissions

  4. Impacts of urban form on future US passenger-vehicle greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hankey, Steve; Marshall, Julian D. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota, 500 Pillsbury Drive SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Urban form - for example, sprawl versus infill development - impacts people's daily travel patterns and annual vehicle-kilometers traveled (VKT). This paper explores how urban form impacts greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from passenger-vehicles, the largest source of urban transportation GHG emissions. Our research uses a recently published urban scaling rule to develop six scenarios for high- and low-sprawl US urban growth. We develop and apply a Monte Carlo approach that describes ensemble statistics for several dozen urban areas rather than forecasting changes in individual urban areas. Then, employing three vehicle- and fuel-technology scenarios, we estimate total passenger VKT and resulting GHG emissions for US urban areas. Our results indicate that comprehensive compact development could reduce US 2000-2020 cumulative emissions by up to 3.2 GtCO{sub 2}e (15-20% of projected cumulative emissions). In general, vehicle GHG mitigation may involve three types of approaches: more-efficient vehicles, lower-GHG fuels, and reduced VKT. Our analyses suggest that all three categories must be evaluated; otherwise, improvements in one or two areas (e.g., vehicle fuel economy, fuel carbon content) can be offset by backsliding in a third area (e.g., VKT growth). (author)

  5. Impacts of urban form on future US passenger-vehicle greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankey, Steve; Marshall, Julian D.

    2010-01-01

    Urban form - for example, sprawl versus infill development - impacts people's daily travel patterns and annual vehicle-kilometers traveled (VKT). This paper explores how urban form impacts greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from passenger-vehicles, the largest source of urban transportation GHG emissions. Our research uses a recently published urban scaling rule to develop six scenarios for high- and low-sprawl US urban growth. We develop and apply a Monte Carlo approach that describes ensemble statistics for several dozen urban areas rather than forecasting changes in individual urban areas. Then, employing three vehicle- and fuel-technology scenarios, we estimate total passenger VKT and resulting GHG emissions for US urban areas. Our results indicate that comprehensive compact development could reduce US 2000-2020 cumulative emissions by up to 3.2 GtCO 2 e (15-20% of projected cumulative emissions). In general, vehicle GHG mitigation may involve three types of approaches: more-efficient vehicles, lower-GHG fuels, and reduced VKT. Our analyses suggest that all three categories must be evaluated; otherwise, improvements in one or two areas (e.g., vehicle fuel economy, fuel carbon content) can be offset by backsliding in a third area (e.g., VKT growth).

  6. Impact of evolving greenhouse gas forcing on the warming signal in regional climate model experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerez, S; López-Romero, J M; Turco, M; Jiménez-Guerrero, P; Vautard, R; Montávez, J P

    2018-04-03

    Variations in the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) may not be included as external forcing when running regional climate models (RCMs); at least, this is a non-regulated, non-documented practice. Here we investigate the so far unexplored impact of considering the rising evolution of the CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O atmospheric concentrations on near-surface air temperature (TAS) trends, for both the recent past and the near future, as simulated by a state-of-the-art RCM over Europe. The results show that the TAS trends are significantly affected by 1-2 K century -1 , which under 1.5 °C global warming translates into a non-negligible impact of up to 1 K in the regional projections of TAS, similarly affecting projections for maximum and minimum temperatures. In some cases, these differences involve a doubling signal, laying further claim to careful reconsideration of the RCM setups with regard to the inclusion of GHG concentrations as an evolving external forcing which, for the sake of research reproducibility and reliability, should be clearly documented in the literature.

  7. Impact of distributed and independent power generation on greenhouse gas emissions: Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C.; Shrestha, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Sri Lanka has a hydropower dominated power system with approximately two thirds of its generation capacity based on large hydro plants. The remaining one third are based on oil fired thermal generation with varying technologies, such as oil steam, Diesel, gas turbines and combined cycle plants. A significant portion of this capacity is in operation as independent power plants (IPPs). In addition to these, Sri Lanka presently has about 40 MWs of mini-hydro plants, which are distributed in the highlands and their surrounding districts, mainly connected to the primary distribution system. Further, there are a few attempts to build fuel wood fired power plants of small capacities and connect them to the grid in various parts of the country. The study presented in this paper investigates the impact of these new developments in the power sector on the overall emissions and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in particular. It examines the resulting changes to the emissions and costs in the event of developing the proposed coal power plant as an IPP under different investment and operational conditions. The paper also examines the impact on emissions with 80 MWs of distributed power in different capacities of wind, mini-hydro and wood fired power plants. It is concluded that grid connected, distributed power generation (DPG) reduces emissions, with only a marginal increase in overall costs, due to the reduction in transmission and distribution network losses that result from the distributed nature of generation. These reductions can be enhanced by opting for renewable energy based DPGS, as the case presented in the paper, and coupling them with demand side management measures. It is also concluded that there is no impact on overall emissions by the base load IPPs unless they are allowed to change over to different fuel types and technologies. (author)

  8. Impact of policy on greenhouse gas emissions and economics of biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivetti, Elsa; Gülşen, Ece; Malça, João; Castanheira, Erica; Freire, Fausto; Dias, Luis; Kirchain, Randolph

    2014-07-01

    As an alternative transportation fuel to petrodiesel, biodiesel has been promoted within national energy portfolio targets across the world. Early estimations of low lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of biodiesel were a driver behind extensive government support in the form of financial incentives for the industry. However, studies consistently report a high degree of uncertainty in these emissions estimates, raising questions concerning the carbon benefits of biodiesel. Furthermore, the implications of feedstock blending on GHG emissions uncertainty have not been explicitly addressed despite broad practice by the industry to meet fuel quality standards and to control costs. This work investigated the impact of feedstock blending on the characteristics of biodiesel by using a chance-constrained (CC) blend optimization method. The objective of the optimization is minimization of feedstock costs subject to fuel standards and emissions constraints. Results indicate that blending can be used to manage GHG emissions uncertainty characteristics of biodiesel, and to achieve cost reductions through feedstock diversification. Simulations suggest that emissions control policies that restrict the use of certain feedstocks based on their GHG estimates overlook blending practices and benefits, increasing the cost of biodiesel. In contrast, emissions control policies which recognize the multifeedstock nature of biodiesel provide producers with feedstock selection flexibility, enabling them to manage their blend portfolios cost effectively, potentially without compromising fuel quality or emissions reductions.

  9. Impacts of Vehicle Weight Reduction via Material Substitution on Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jarod C; Sullivan, John L; Burnham, Andrew; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2015-10-20

    This study examines the vehicle-cycle and vehicle total life-cycle impacts of substituting lightweight materials into vehicles. We determine part-based greenhouse gas (GHG) emission ratios by collecting material substitution data and evaluating that alongside known mass-based GHG ratios (using and updating Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model) associated with material pair substitutions. Several vehicle parts are lightweighted via material substitution, using substitution ratios from a U.S. Department of Energy report, to determine GHG emissions. We then examine fuel-cycle GHG reductions from lightweighting. The fuel reduction value methodology is applied using FRV estimates of 0.15-0.25, and 0.25-0.5 L/(100km·100 kg), with and without powertrain adjustments, respectively. GHG breakeven values are derived for both driving distance and material substitution ratio. While material substitution can reduce vehicle weight, it often increases vehicle-cycle GHGs. It is likely that replacing steel (the dominant vehicle material) with wrought aluminum, carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CRFP), or magnesium will increase vehicle-cycle GHGs. However, lifetime fuel economy benefits often outweigh the vehicle-cycle, resulting in a net total life-cycle GHG benefit. This is the case for steel replaced by wrought aluminum in all assumed cases, and for CFRP and magnesium except for high substitution ratio and low FRV.

  10. Determining air quality and greenhouse gas impacts of hydrogen infrastructure and fuel cell vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens-Romero, Shane; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jacob; Dabdub, Donald; Samuelsen, Scott

    2009-12-01

    Adoption of hydrogen infrastructure and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) to replace gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles has been proposed as a strategy to reduce criteria pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector and transition to fuel independence. However, it is uncertain (1) to what degree the reduction in criteria pollutants will impact urban air quality, and (2) how the reductions in pollutant emissions and concomitant urban air quality impacts compare to ultralow emission gasoline-powered vehicles projected for a future year (e.g., 2060). To address these questions, the present study introduces a "spatially and temporally resolved energy and environment tool" (STREET) to characterize the pollutant and GHG emissions associated with a comprehensive hydrogen supply infrastructure and HFCVs at a high level of geographic and temporal resolution. To demonstrate the utility of STREET, two spatially and temporally resolved scenarios for hydrogen infrastructure are evaluated in a prototypical urban airshed (the South Coast Air Basin of California) using geographic information systems (GIS) data. The well-to-wheels (WTW) GHG emissions are quantified and the air quality is established using a detailed atmospheric chemistry and transport model followed by a comparison to a future gasoline scenario comprised of advanced ICE vehicles. One hydrogen scenario includes more renewable primary energy sources for hydrogen generation and the other includes more fossil fuel sources. The two scenarios encompass a variety of hydrogen generation, distribution, and fueling strategies. GHG emissions reductions range from 61 to 68% for both hydrogen scenarios in parallel with substantial improvements in urban air quality (e.g., reductions of 10 ppb in peak 8-h-averaged ozone and 6 mug/m(3) in 24-h-averaged particulate matter concentrations, particularly in regions of the airshed where concentrations are highest for the gasoline scenario).

  11. Optimal distributed energy resources and the cost of reduced greenhouse gas emissions in a large retail shopping centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braslavsky, Julio H.; Wall, Josh R.; Reedman, Luke J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimal options for distributed energy resources are analysed for a shopping centre. • A multiobjective optimisation model is formulated and solved using DER-CAM. • Cost and emission trade-offs are compared in four key optimal investment scenarios. • Moderate investment in DER technologies lowers emissions by 29.6% and costs by 8.5%. • Larger investment in DER technologies lowers emissions by 72% at 47% higher costs. - Abstract: This paper presents a case study on optimal options for distributed energy resource (DER) technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in a large retail shopping centre located in Sydney, Australia. Large retail shopping centres take the largest share of energy consumed by all commercial buildings, and present a strong case for adoption of DER technologies to reduce energy costs and emissions. However, the complexity of optimally designing and operating DER systems has hindered their widespread adoption in practice. This paper examines and demonstrates the value of DER in reducing the carbon footprint of the shopping centre by formulating and solving a multiobjective optimisation problem using the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) tool. An economic model of the shopping centre is developed in DER-CAM using on-site-specific demand, tariffs, and performance data for each DER technology option available. Four key optimal DER technology investment scenarios are then analysed by comparing: (1) solution trade-offs of costs and emissions, (2) the cost of reduced emissions attained in each investment scenario, and (3) investment benefits with respect to the business-as-usual scenario. The analysis shows that a moderate investment in combined cooling, heat and power (CCHP) technology alone can reduce annual energy costs by 8.5% and carbon dioxide-equivalent emissions by 29.6%. A larger investment in CCHP technology, in conjunction with on-site solar photovoltaic (PV) generation, can deliver

  12. Renewable resource policy when distributional impacts matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, R.D.; Shortle, J.S.; Bulte, E.H.

    1999-01-01

    The standard assumption in bioeconomic resource models is that optimal policies maximize the present value of economic surplus to society. This assumption implies that regulatory agencies should not be concerned with the distributional consequences of management strategies. Both contemporary welfare-theoretic and rent-seeking approaches suggests distributional issues are important in designing resource management policies. This paper explores resource management when the managing agency has preferences defined over the economic welfare of various groups with a direct economic interest in the use of resources. Policy schemes consistent with this approach are derived and compared with standard results. 42 refs

  13. Greenhouse production systems for people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, G.A.; Sase, S.; Cramer, R.; Hoogeboom, J.; McKenzie, A.; Parbst, K.; Sacrascia-Mugnozza, G.; Selina, P.; Sharp, D.A.; Voogt, J.O.; Weel, van P.A.; Mears, D.

    2012-01-01

    Environmentally sound greenhouse production requires that: demand for market products is understood; greenhouse design addresses the climate circum-stances; input resources are available and consumed efficiently, and; there must be a reasonable balance of production products to the environmental

  14. Impact of water quality and irrigation management on organic greenhouse horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorais, M.; Alsanius, B.W.; Voogt, W.; Pepin, S.; Tuzel, Hakki; Tuzel, Yuksel; Möller, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Water quality and water supply are essential for organic greenhouse grown crops to prevent soil contamination by undesirable chemicals and microorganisms, while providing the correct amount of water required for plant growth. The absence of natural precipitation combined with higher

  15. Environmental assessment of bioenergy technologies application in Russia, including their impact on the balance of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Irina; Vasenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, Russia adopted a policy towards increasing of the share of renewable energy in total amount of used energy, albeit with some delay comparing to the EU countries and the USA. It was expected that the use of biofuels over time will reduce significantly the dependency of Russian economy on fossil fuels, increase its competitiveness, and increase Russian contribution to the prevention of global climate changes. Russia has significant bio-energy potential and resources which are characterized by great diversity due to the large extent of the territory, which require systematic studies and environmental assessment of used bio-energy technologies. Results of research carried at the Laboratory of agroecological monitoring, modeling and prediction of ecosystems RSAU-MTAA demonstrated significant differences in the assessment of the environmental, economic and social effects of biofuel production and use, depending on the species of bio-energy crops, regional soil-ecological and agro-climatic characteristics, applied farming systems and production processes. The total area of temporarily unused and fallow land, which could be allocated to the active agricultural use in Russia, according to various estimates, ranges from 20 to 33 million hectares, which removes the problem, typical of most European countries, of adverse agro-ecological changes in land use connected with the expansion of bio-energy crops cultivation. However, the expansion of biofuel production through the use of fallow land and conversion of natural lands has as a consequence the problem of greenhouse gas emissions due to land use changes, which, according to FAO, could be even higher than CO2 emission from fossil fuels for some of bio-energy raw materials and production systems. Assessment of the total impacts of biofuels on greenhouse gas emissions in the Russian conditions should be based on regionally adapted calculations of flows throughout the entire life cycle of production, taking

  16. Chapter 14. Greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    Greenhouse heating is one of the most common uses of geothermal resources. Because of the significant heating requirements of greenhouses and their ability to use very low- temperature fluids, they are a natural application. The evaluation of a particular greenhouse project involves consideration of the structure heating requirements, and the system to meet those requirements. This chapter is intended to provide information on each of these areas.

  17. Greenhouse impact due to the use of combustible fuels: life cycle viewpoint and relative radiative forcing commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkinen, Johanna; Palosuo, Taru; Holmgren, Kristina; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2008-09-01

    Extensive information on the greenhouse impacts of various human actions is important in developing effective climate change mitigation strategies. The greenhouse impacts of combustible fuels consist not only of combustion emissions but also of emissions from the fuel production chain and possible effects on the ecosystem carbon storages. It is important to be able to assess the combined, total effect of these different emissions and to express the results in a comprehensive way. In this study, a new concept called relative radiative forcing commitment (RRFC) is presented and applied to depict the greenhouse impact of some combustible fuels currently used in Finland. RRFC is a ratio that accounts for the energy absorbed in the Earth system due to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations (production and combustion of fuel) compared to the energy released in the combustion of fuel. RRFC can also be expressed as a function of time in order to give a dynamic cumulative picture on the caused effect. Varying time horizons can be studied separately, as is the case when studying the effects of different climate policies on varying time scales. The RRFC for coal for 100 years is about 170, which means that in 100 years 170 times more energy is absorbed in the atmosphere due to the emissions of coal combustion activity than is released in combustion itself. RRFC values of the other studied fuel production chains varied from about 30 (forest residues fuel) to 190 (peat fuel) for the 100-year study period. The length of the studied time horizon had an impact on the RRFC values and, to some extent, on the relative positions of various fuels.

  18. A methodology framework for weighting genetic traits that impact greenhouse gas emission intensities in selection indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, P R; Hely, F S; Quinton, C D; Cromie, A R

    2018-01-01

    A methodological framework was presented for deriving weightings to be applied in selection indexes to account for the impact genetic change in traits will have on greenhouse gas emissions intensities (EIs). Although the emission component of the breeding goal was defined as the ratio of total emissions relative to a weighted combination of farm outputs, the resulting trait-weighting factors can be applied as linear weightings in a way that augments any existing breeding objective before consideration of EI. Calculus was used to define the parameters and assumptions required to link each trait change to the expected changes in EI for an animal production system. Four key components were identified. The potential impact of the trait on relative numbers of emitting animals per breeding female first has a direct effect on emission output but, second, also has a dilution effect from the extra output associated with the extra animals. Third, each genetic trait can potentially change the amount of emissions generated per animal and, finally, the potential impact of the trait on product output is accounted for. Emission intensity weightings derived from this equation require further modifications to integrate them into an existing breeding objective. These include accounting for different timing and frequency of trait expressions as well as a weighting factor to determine the degree of selection emphasis that is diverted away from improving farm profitability in order to achieve gains in EI. The methodology was demonstrated using a simple application to dairy cattle breeding in Ireland to quantify gains in EI reduction from existing genetic trends in milk production as well as in fertility and survival traits. Most gains were identified as coming through the dilution effect of genetic increases in milk protein per cow, although gains from genetic improvements in survival by reducing emissions from herd replacements were also significant. Emission intensities in the Irish

  19. Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Production of Hydrogen Use of Hydrogen Greenhouse Gases Basics | | Did you know? Without naturally occurring greenhouse gases, the earth would be too cold to support life as we know it. Without the greenhouse effect, ...

  20. The impact of dry matter loss during herbaceous biomass storage on net greenhouse gas emissions from biofuels production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, Isaac R.; Mosier, Nathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle inventory models of greenhouse gas emissions from biofuel production have become tightly integrated into government mandates and other policies to encourage biofuel production. Current models do not include life cycle impacts of biomass storage or reflect current literature on emissions from soil and biomass decomposition. In this study, the GREET model framework was used to determine net greenhouse gas emissions during ethanol production from corn and switchgrass via three biomass storage systems: wet ensiling of whole corn, and indoor and outdoor dry bale storage of corn stover and switchgrass. Dry matter losses during storage were estimated from the literature and used to modify GREET inventory analysis. Results showed that biomass stability is a key parameter affecting fuel production per farmed hectare and life cycle greenhouse gas emissions. Corn silage may generate 5358 L/ha of ethanol at 26.5 g CO 2 eq/MJ, relative to 5654 L/ha at 52.3 g CO 2 eq/MJ from combined corn stover and conventional grain corn ethanol production, or 3919 L/ha at 21.3 g CO 2 eq/MJ from switchgrass. Dry matter losses can increase net emissions by 3–25% (ensiling), 5–53% (bales outdoors), or 1–12% (bales indoors), decreasing the net GHG reduction of ethanol over gasoline by up to 10.9%. Greater understanding of biomass storage losses and greenhouse gas fluxes during storage is necessary to accurately assess biomass storage options to ensure that the design of biomass supply logistics systems meet GHG reduction mandates for biofuel production. -- Highlights: ► Analyzed the impact of biomass loss during storage. ► Probable dry matter losses strongly depend on storage method and infrastructure. ► Assessed impact of storage losses on LCA for cellulosic ethanol production. ► Storage losses increase GHG emissions by 1–53% depending upon storage conditions.

  1. Man -made greenhouse gases trigger unified force to start global warming impacts referred to as climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karishnan, K.J.; Kalam, A.

    2011-01-01

    Global warming problems due to man-made greenhouse gases (GHGs), appear to be a serious concern and threat to the globe. CO/sub 2/, O/sub 3, NOx and HFC's are the main greenhouse gases and CO/sub 2/ is one of the main cause of global warming. CO/sub 2/ is emitted from burning fossil fuels to produce electricity from power plants and burning of gasoline in vehicles and airplanes. Global greenhouse gases and its sources in regions are discussed in this paper. This paper initially discusses the CO/sub 2/ emissions and the recycle of CO/sub 2/ in biodiesel. This paper mainly focuses on 'Unified Force'. The increase of H/sub 2/O in the sea due to warming of the globe triggers the 'Unified Force' or 'Self-Compressive Surrounding Pressure Force' which is proportional to the H/sub 2/O level in the sea to start global warming impacts referred to as climate change. This paper also points out the climate change and the ten surprising results of global warming. Finally, this paper suggests switching from fossil fuel technology to green energy technologies like biodiesel which recycles CO/sub 2/ emissions and also Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cell Technologies which eradicates global warming impacts. The benefits of switching from fossil fuel to biodiesel and Hydrogen Energy utilization includes reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and pollution, economic independence by having distributed production and burning of biodiesel does not add extra CO/sub 2/ to the air that contributes global warming impacts. (author)

  2. Impact of cutting meat intake on hidden greenhouse gas emissions in an import-reliant city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Y. Y.; Thibodeau, B.; Not, C.

    2018-06-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions embodied in trade is a growing concern for the international community. Multiple studies have highlighted drawbacks in the territorial and production-based accounting of greenhouse gas emissions because it neglects emissions from the consumption of goods in trade. This creates weak carbon leakage and complicates international agreements on emissions regulations. Therefore, we estimated consumption-based emissions using input-output analysis and life cycle assessment to calculate the greenhouse gas emissions hidden in meat and dairy products in Hong Kong, a city predominately reliant on imports. We found that emissions solely from meat and dairy consumption were higher than the city’s total greenhouse gas emissions using conventional production-based calculation. This implies that government reports underestimate more than half of the emissions, as 62% of emissions are embodied in international trade. The discrepancy emphasizes the need of transitioning climate targets and policy to consumption-based accounting. Furthermore, we have shown that dietary change from a meat-heavy diet to a diet in accordance with governmental nutrition guidelines could achieve a 67% reduction in livestock-related emissions, allowing Hong Kong to achieve the Paris Agreement targets for 2030. Consequently, we concluded that consumption-based accounting for greenhouse gas emissions is crucial to target the areas where emissions reduction is realistically achievable, especially for import-reliant cities like Hong Kong.

  3. Peat 1999. Resources, use, environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report discusses peat as a natural resource. It describes the peat land area, the peat harvest area, the use of peat for energy production and other purposes, laws and other regulations affecting peat production and use, environmental impact, market situation, trade, research and development, and the government grant to the peat industry. In Sweden, the extraction and use of peat for energy production is regulated by several laws. A company planning peat extraction must first apply for an examination concession. Then a harvesting concession must be approved by the county council. All combustion plants must be reported, or verified by regional or central authorities, depending on the size of the plant. Most important in this process is to verify the maximum emission levels permitted for sulphur, nitrogen oxides, particles, etc. Since 1991, a law on municipal energy planning requires descriptions of environmental consequences. Thus, environmental considerations must govern energy planning. Energy taxation in Sweden was changed in 1993. At present, the sulphur tax on fuel peat amounts to SEK 30 per kg of sulphur. Nitrogen oxides are also subject to a tax of SEK 40 per emitted kg. For peat, energy and environmental taxes total SEK 0.02 per kWh, excluding VAT. More than six millions hectares have been defined as peat land (with a peat layer of more than 30 cm) in Sweden, which means that about 15 per cent of the total land area consists of peat lands. Thinner peat layers (wet mineral soils) cover an additional 10 per cent of the land area. At the end of 1999 concessions for fuel peat harvesting had been granted for 45 900 hectares or 0.8 per cent of the total peat land area. Peat harvesting for the production of energy aroused interest in the early 1980s as a consequence of the energy crises. In 1999, about 2 650 000 cubic metres of fuel peat were harvested in Sweden. The fuel peat is used mainly for production of hot water in heating plants. In 1999, the total use

  4. Peat 2000. Resources, use, environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This report discusses peat as a natural resource. It describes the peat land area, the peat harvest area, the use of peat for energy production and other purposes, laws and other regulations affecting peat production and use, environmental impact, market situation, trade, research and development, and the government grant to the peat industry. In Sweden, the extraction and use of peat for energy production is regulated by several laws. A company planning peat extraction must first apply for an examination concession. Then a harvesting concession must be approved by the county council. All combustion plants must be reported, or verified by regional or central authorities, depending on the size of the plant. Most important in this process is to verify the maximum emission levels permitted for sulphur, nitrogen oxides, particles, etc. Since 1991, a law on municipal energy planning requires descriptions of environmental consequences. Thus, environmental considerations must govern energy planning. Energy taxation in Sweden was changed in 1993. At present, the sulphur tax on fuel peat amounts to SEK 30 per kg of sulphur. Nitrogen oxides are also subject to a tax of SEK 40 per emitted kg. For peat, energy and environmental taxes total SEK 0.02 per kWh, excluding VAT. More than six millions hectares have been defined as peat land (with a peat layer of more than 30 cm) in Sweden, which means that about 15 per cent of the total land area consists of peat lands. Thinner peat layers (wet mineral soils) cover an additional 10 per cent of the land area. At the end of 1999 concessions for fuel peat harvesting had been granted for 45,000 hectares or 0.8 per cent of the total peat land area. Peat harvesting for the production of energy aroused interest in the early 1980s as a consequence of the energy crises. In 2000, about 1,372,000 cubic metres of fuel peat were harvested in Sweden. The fuel peat is used mainly for production of hot water in heating plants. In 2000, the total use

  5. Peat 2002. Resources, use, environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    vertically. In the cultivation market, peat is the market leader. Most companies specialise on horticultural peat, but some companies also produce fuel peat. The professional cultivators buy peat directly through the peat producers' selling organisations. For the household sector, peat is distributed via wholesale dealers and retail chains. Prices for fuel peat have been fairly stable in recent years. The prices for sod peat are approximately SEK 114 per MWh. Around 70-85 per cent of the production price represent costs in the producer stage, the rest in loading, transportation, and terminal costs. Peat for cultivation is sold in many different qualities, with prices ranging from SEK 110 to SEK 300 per cubic meter. In most areas of Sweden, peat production is a complementary industry. Only in Haerjedalen (west Mid-Sweden), is peat of major importance for employment and maintaining the infrastructure. The environmental impact of peat harvesting represents a total destruction of the vegetation where all original plants and animal life disappear. There is a risk in combustion that rather large quantities of sulphur are emitted together with nitrogen oxides, all of which are acidifying. Radioactive substances exist naturally in the peat and are released during combustion and are also found together with heavy metals in the ashes. In December 2000 the Swedish Government appointed a committee to investigate the role of peat in a sustainable energy system (Dir 2000:110). The assignment included analysing the classification of peat, environmental pressure, peat resources etc. The official report says that peat cannot be classified as fossil in a geological sense. Peat has been formed over thousands of years since the end of the last ice age, and it is still continuously being formed. Fossil fuels are formed over millions of years. In the national context, peat should not be classified as either fossil or non-fossil, but rather regarded in an overall view and adaptable to the

  6. Spatialization of the impacts of the economic regulation of the greenhouse in the agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayet, P.A.

    2004-02-01

    This report addresses the issue of the spatialization of the impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation policies in the agricultural sector. Generally speaking, the objective is to reach a compromise between large-scale macro-economic modelling approaches - which often overlook the spatial variability of emissions and abatement costs - and field-scale biophysical modelling approaches. The studies carried out in the course of this project rely for the most part on a supply-side oriented economic model of the EU agriculture based on micro-economic concepts, mathematical programming and optimization. The analysis of spatial implications of GHG mitigation polices relies on the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which allows for spatial integration of the results provided by the economic model. We first carry out a comprehensive assessment of the emission sources of methane and nitrous oxide for the EU agriculture at a regional scale (FADN regions, scale at which data that feed the economic model are available). The abatement supply from the agricultural sector is derived from this assessment by simulating the impact of a first-best instrument (namely an emission tax). We therefore estimate the marginal abatement cost curves for all sources and at the farm-type level. The heterogeneity of abatement costs is discussed both at the regional scale (spatially defined) and at the farm-type level (non spatially-defined). Our results show that the spatial heterogeneity of abatement costs is of crucial importance in the design of GHG mitigation policies. The greater is the heterogeneity of abatement costs, the larger is the efficiency loss associated with non incentive-based instruments. We estimate this efficiency loss in the case of uniform quotas. Down-scaling the economic and environmental results from the FADN-region scale to a finer scale requires the linking of the simulation results with geo-referenced databases and GIS tools. This has been carried out for a test

  7. Impact of mine wastewaters on greenhouse gas emissions from northern peatlands used for mine water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Katharina; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Klöve, Björn; Hynynen, Jenna; Maljanen, Marja

    2015-04-01

    The amount of wastewaters generated during mining operations is increasing along with the increasing number of operation mines, which poses great challenges for mine water management and purification. Mine wastewaters contain high concentrations of nitrogen compounds such as nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) originating from remnant explosives as well as sulfate (SO42-) originating from the oxidation of sulfidic ores. At a mine site in Finnish Lapland, two natural peatlands have been used for cost-effective passive wastewater treatment. One peatland have been used for the treatment of drainage waters (TP 1), while the other has been used for the treatment of process-based wastewaters (TP 4). In this study, the impact of mine water derived nitrogen compounds as well as SO42- on the emission of the potent greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from those treatment peatlands was investigated. Contaminant concentrations in the input and output waters of the treatment peatlands were monitored which allowed for the calculation of contaminant-specific retention efficiencies. Treatment peatlands showed generally good retention efficiencies for metals and metalloids (e.g. nickel, arsenic, antimony, up to 98% reduction in concentration) with rather low input-concentrations (i.e., in the μg/l-range). On the other hand, retention of contaminants with high input-concentrations (i.e., in mg/l-range) such as NO3-, NH4+ and SO42- was much lower (4-41%, 30-60% and -42-30%, respectively), indicating the limited capability of the treatment peatlands to cope with such high input concentrations. NO3- and NH4+ concentrations were determined in surface and pore water from TP 4 in July 2013 as well as in surface water from TP 1 and TP 4 in October 2013. Up to 720 μM NO3- and up to 600 μM NH4+ were detected in surface water of TP 4 in July 2013. NO3- and NH4+ concentrations in surface waters were highest near the mine wastewater distribution ditch and decreased with

  8. Greenhouse gas strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    Because the overall effects of climate change will likely be more pronounced in the North than in other parts of the country, the Government of the Northwest Territories considers it imperative to support global and local actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Government support is manifested through a coordinating role played by senior government representatives in the development of the NWT Greenhouse Gas Strategy, and by participation on a multi-party working committee to identify and coordinate northern actions and to contribute a northern perspective to Canada's National Climate Change Implementation Strategy. This document outlines the NWT Government's goals and objectives regarding greenhouse gas emission reduction actions. These will include efforts to enhance awareness and understanding; demonstrate leadership by putting the Government's own house in order; encouraging action across sectors; promote technology development and innovation; invest in knowledge and building the foundation for informed future decisions. The strategy also outlines the challenges peculiar to the NWT, such as the high per person carbon dioxide emissions compared to the national average (30 tonnes per person per year as opposed to the national average of 21 tonnes per person per year) and the increasing economic activity in the Territories, most of which are resource-based and therefore energy-intensive. Appendices which form part of the greenhouse gas strategy document, provide details of the potential climate change impact in the NWT, a detailed explanation of the proposed measures, an emission forecast to 2004 from industrial processes, fuel combustion and incineration, and a statement of the official position of the Government of the NWT on climate change

  9. Assessment of the greenhouse effect impact of technologies used for energy recovery from municipal waste: a case for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, A; Barton, J R; Karagiannidis, A

    2009-07-01

    Waste management activities contribute to global greenhouse gas emissions approximately by 4%. In particular the disposal of waste in landfills generates methane that has high global warming potential. Effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions is important and could provide environmental benefits and sustainable development, as well as reduce adverse impacts on public health. The European and UK waste policy force sustainable waste management and especially diversion from landfill, through reduction, reuse, recycling and composting, and recovery of value from waste. Energy from waste is a waste management option that could provide diversion from landfill and at the same time save a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions, since it recovers energy from waste which usually replaces an equivalent amount of energy generated from fossil fuels. Energy from waste is a wide definition and includes technologies such as incineration of waste with energy recovery, or combustion of waste-derived fuels for energy production or advanced thermal treatment of waste with technologies such as gasification and pyrolysis, with energy recovery. The present study assessed the greenhouse gas emission impacts of three technologies that could be used for the treatment of Municipal Solid Waste in order to recover energy from it. These technologies are Mass Burn Incineration with energy recovery, Mechanical Biological Treatment via bio-drying and Mechanical Heat Treatment, which is a relatively new and uninvestigated method, compared to the other two. Mechanical Biological Treatment and Mechanical Heat Treatment can turn Municipal Solid Waste into Solid Recovered Fuel that could be combusted for energy production or replace other fuels in various industrial processes. The analysis showed that performance of these two technologies depends strongly on the final use of the produced fuel and they could produce GHG emissions savings only when there is end market for the fuel. On the

  10. Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-07-31

    The transportation sector accounts for a large and growing share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Worldwide, motor vehicles emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year, accounting for more than 15 percent of global fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions.1 In the industrialized world alone, 20-25 percent of GHG emissions come from the transportation sector. The share of transport-related emissions is growing rapidly due to the continued increase in transportation activity.2 In 1950, there were only 70 million cars, trucks, and buses on the world’s roads. By 1994, there were about nine times that number, or 630 million vehicles. Since the early 1970s, the global fleet has been growing at a rate of 16 million vehicles per year. This expansion has been accompanied by a similar growth in fuel consumption.3 If this kind of linear growth continues, by the year 2025 there will be well over one billion vehicles on the world’s roads.4 In a response to the significant growth in transportation-related GHG emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods to reverse this trend. However, due to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the world’s roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emissions from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such

  11. Environmental Impact Assessment in Sustainable Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During project study and design, major environmental impacts of water ... should be identified and made available for decision makers and the public. ... remotely sensed data can be analysed in GIS environment to generate data and map the ...

  12. The impacts of climate change on water resources and agriculture in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Shilong; Ciais, Philippe; Huang, Yao; Shen, Zehao; Peng, Shushi; Li, Junsheng; Zhou, Liping; Liu, Hongyan; Ma, Yuecun; Ding, Yihui; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Liu, Chunzhen; Tan, Kun; Yu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Tianyi; Fang, Jingyun

    2010-09-02

    China is the world's most populous country and a major emitter of greenhouse gases. Consequently, much research has focused on China's influence on climate change but somewhat less has been written about the impact of climate change on China. China experienced explosive economic growth in recent decades, but with only 7% of the world's arable land available to feed 22% of the world's population, China's economy may be vulnerable to climate change itself. We find, however, that notwithstanding the clear warming that has occurred in China in recent decades, current understanding does not allow a clear assessment of the impact of anthropogenic climate change on China's water resources and agriculture and therefore China's ability to feed its people. To reach a more definitive conclusion, future work must improve regional climate simulations-especially of precipitation-and develop a better understanding of the managed and unmanaged responses of crops to changes in climate, diseases, pests and atmospheric constituents.

  13. Impact of subclinical mastitis on greenhouse gas emissions intensity and profitability of dairy cows in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan Gülzari, Şeyda; Vosough Ahmadi, Bouda; Stott, Alistair W

    2018-02-01

    Impaired animal health causes both productivity and profitability losses on dairy farms, resulting in inefficient use of inputs and increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced per unit of product (i.e. emissions intensity). Here, we used subclinical mastitis as an exemplar to benchmark alternative scenarios against an economic optimum and adjusted herd structure to estimate the GHG emissions intensity associated with varying levels of disease. Five levels of somatic cell count (SCC) classes were considered namely 50,000 (i.e. SCC50), 200,000, 400,000, 600,000 and 800,000cells/mL (milliliter) of milk. The effects of varying levels of SCC on milk yield reduction and consequential milk price penalties were used in a dynamic programming (DP) model that maximizes the profit per cow, represented as expected net present value, by choosing optimal animal replacement rates. The GHG emissions intensities associated with different levels of SCC were then computed using a farm-scale model (HolosNor). The total culling rates of both primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) cows for the five levels of SCC scenarios estimated by the model varied from a minimum of 30.9% to a maximum of 43.7%. The expected profit was the highest for cows with SCC200 due to declining margin over feed, which influenced the DP model to cull and replace more animals and generate higher profit under this scenario compared to SCC50. The GHG emission intensities for the PP and MP cows with SCC50 were 1.01kg (kilogram) and 0.95kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO 2 e) per kg fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM), respectively, with the lowest emissions being achieved in SCC50. Our results show that there is a potential to reduce the farm GHG emissions intensity by 3.7% if the milk production was improved through reducing the level of SCC to 50,000cells/mL in relation to SCC level 800,000cells/mL. It was concluded that preventing and/or controlling subclinical mastitis consequently reduces the GHG

  14. The impact of a pulsing groundwater table on greenhouse gas emissions in riparian grey alder stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Ülo; Maddison, Martin; Soosaar, Kaido; Teemusk, Alar; Kanal, Arno; Uri, Veiko; Truu, Jaak

    2015-02-01

    Floods control greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in floodplains; however, there is a lack of data on the impact of short-term events on emissions. We studied the short-term effect of changing groundwater (GW) depth on the emission of (GHG) carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in two riparian grey alder (Alnus incana) stands of different age in Kambja, southern Estonia, using the opaque static chamber (five replicates in each site) and gas chromatography methods. The average carbon and total nitrogen content in the soil of the old alder (OA) stand was significantly higher than in the young alder (YA) stand. In both stands, one part was chosen for water table manipulation (Manip) and another remained unchanged with a stable and deeper GW table. Groundwater table manipulation (flooding) significantly increases CH4 emission (average: YA-Dry 468, YA-Manip 8,374, OA-Dry 468, OA-Manip 4,187 μg C m(-2) h(-1)) and decreases both CO2 (average: OA-Dry 138, OA-Manip 80 mg C m(-2) h(-1)) and N2O emissions (average: OA-Dry 23.1, OA-Manip 11.8 μg N m(-2) h(-1)) in OA sites. There was no significant difference in CO2 and CH4 emissions between the OA and YA sites, whereas in OA sites with higher N concentration in the soil, the N2O emission was significantly higher than at the YA sites. The relative CO2 and CH4 emissions (the soil C stock-related share of gaseous losses) were higher in manipulated plots showing the highest values in the YA-Manip plot (0.03 and 0.0030 % C day(-1), respectively). The soil N stock-related N2O emission was very low achieving 0.000019 % N day(-1) in the OA-Dry plot. Methane emission shows a negative correlation with GW, whereas the 20 cm depth is a significant limit below which most of the produced CH4 is oxidized. In terms of CO2 and N2O, the deeper GW table significantly increases emission. In riparian zones of headwater streams, the short-term floods (e.g. those driven by extreme climate events) may significantly enhance

  15. The Effect of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation on Drought Impacts in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, we present a methodology for analyzing the economic benefits in the U.S. of changes in drought frequency and severity due to global greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. We construct reduced-form models of the effect of drought on agriculture and reservoir recreation i...

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions and management practices that impact them in US rice systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous reviews have quantified factors affecting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) systems, but not from rice systems typical for the United States, which often vary considerably particularly in practices (i.e., water and carbon management) that affect emissions. Usi...

  17. Impact of stream geomorphology on greenhouse gas concentration in a New York mountain stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe Vidon; Satish Serchan

    2016-01-01

    As increased greenhouse gas concentrations (GHG: N2O, CO2, CH4) in our atmosphere remain a major concern, better quantifying GHG fluxes from natural systems is essential. In this study, we investigate GHG concentrations in saturated riparian sediments (dry, wet, mucky), streambed hyporheic zone...

  18. The Organizational Impact of Open Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclater, Niall

    The open educational resource (OER) movement has been growing rapidly since 2001, stimulated by funding from benefactors such as the Hewlett Foundation and UNESCO, and providing educational content freely to institutions and learners across the world. Individuals and organizations are motivated by a variety of drivers to produce OERs, both altruistic and self-interested. There are parallels with the open source movement, where authors and others combine their efforts to provide a product which they and others can use freely and adapt to their own purposes. There are many different ways in which OER initiatives are organized and an infinite range of possibilities for how the OERs themselves are constituted. If institutions are to develop sustainable OER initiatives, they need to build successful change management initiatives, developing models for the production and quality assurance of OERs, licensing them through appropriate mechanisms such as the Creative Commons, and considering how the resources will be discovered and used by learners.

  19. Resource Programs : Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 2, Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-03-01

    Every two years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) prepares a Resource Program which identifies the resource actions BPA will take to meet its obligation to serve the forecasted power requirements of its customers. The Resource Program`s Environmental Impact Statement (RPEIS) is a programmatic environmental document which will support decisions made in several future Resource Programs. Environmental documents tiered to the EIS may be prepared on a site-specific basis. The RPEIS includes a description of the environmental effects and mitigation for the various resource types available in order to evaluate the trade-offs among them. It also assesses the environmental impacts of adding thirteen alternative combinations of resources to the existing power system. This report contains the appendices to the RPEIS.

  20. Impact of Land Reform Migration on Natural Resource Management ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-09-04

    Mobile Nav Footer Links ... Impact of Land Reform Migration on Natural Resource Management in Zimbabwe ... to migrants' livelihoods; determine the relationship between gender, poverty and access to forest ... Start Date. September 4, 2008 ...

  1. Climate, greenhouse effect, energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, Thormod; Kanestroem, Ingolf

    2001-01-01

    The book has sections on the sun as energy source, the earth climate and it's changes and factors influencing this, the greenhouse effect on earth and other planets, greenhouse gases and aerosols and their properties and importance, historic climate and paleoclimate, climatic models and their uses and limitations, future climate, consequences of climatic changes, uncertainties regarding the climate and measures for reducing the greenhouse effect. Finally there are sections on energy and energy resources, the use, sources such as fossil fuels, nuclear power, renewable resources, heat pumps, energy storage and environmental aspects and the earth magnetic field is briefly surveyed

  2. The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this paper is on the impact of HRM practices on private sector organisations performance in Nigeria. Guinness Nigeria Plc is a private sector driving entity. Its human resource practices can be crucial to its performance. The purpose of this study therefore was to assess whether Guinness‟s human resource ...

  3. Agriculture and greenhouse effect: economic regulation of cross impacts and combination of agricultural and environmental policies - analysis for the France and extension to the european union. Economic analysis of the interactions agriculture- greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayet, P.A.

    2002-09-01

    The objectives of the research program are: the impacts evaluation of a double relation climate - agriculture on the agricultural production and the greenhouse gases emission; the compatibility of agricultural policies and environmental policies of the sector. Simulations are realized at a regional scale with a coupling of economical and biophysical models (manure spreading, cultivation yield). (A.L.B.)

  4. Application for approval of the Cold Lake Expansion Project: volume 2: environmental impact assessment: Part 1: biophysical and resource use assessment. Part 2: impact model descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.; Eccles, R.; Hegmann, G.; Morrison, L.; Salter, R.; van Egmond, T.; Vonk, P.; Ash, G.; Crowther, R.; Dance, T.; Edwards, W.; Veldman, W.

    1997-02-01

    An environmental assessment of the Cold Lake Expansion Project has been conducted to identify major issues of concern by public and government agencies, to determine means to eliminate or reduce those impacts, and to recommend any further efforts required to obtain missing information or monitor impacts. Volume 2 of the environmental impact assessment is divided into two parts. Part 1 (biophysical and resource use assessment) constitutes the primary environmental impact assessment document for the Cold Lake expansion project. It includes technical support documentation in regard to: (1) an assessment of noise impacts, (2) an assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, (3) a conceptual conservation and reclamation plan, (4) a historical resource impact assessment, and (5) a description of effects of oil spills on fish. Part 2 (impact model description) serves a reference document for part 1. It describes the approach taken in developing and assessing the impact models, discusses proposed methods for mitigation and management of residual impacts, and the recommended monitoring requirements for each of the major resource disciplines. The impact models describe the specific pathways through which impacts will occur as a result of interactions between project-related activities and important environmental components. 476 refs., 58 tabs., 23 figs

  5. Assessing the impacts of climate change on natural resource systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, K.D.; Rosenberg, N.J. [eds.

    1994-11-30

    This volume is a collection of papers addressing the theme of potential impacts of climatic change. Papers are entitled Integrated Assessments of the Impacts of Climatic Change on Natural Resources: An Introductory Editorial; Framework for Integrated Assessments of Global Warming Impacts; Modeling Land Use and Cover as Part of Global Environmental Change; Assessing Impacts of Climatic Change on Forests: The State of Biological Modeling; Integrating Climatic Change and Forests: Economic and Ecological Assessments; Environmental Change in Grasslands: Assessment using Models; Assessing the Socio-economic Impacts of Climatic Change on Grazinglands; Modeling the Effects of Climatic Change on Water Resources- A Review; Assessing the Socioeconomic Consequences of Climate Change on Water Resources; and Conclusions, Remaining Issues, and Next Steps.

  6. The greenhouse effect gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the greenhouse effect gases. It presents the greenhouses effect as a key component of the climate system, the impacts of the human activity, the foreseeable consequences of global warming, the Kyoto protocol and Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  7. The greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of the sustainable development, this paper presents the greenhouse effect and its impact on the climatic change, the world interest from Rio to Buenos Aires, the human activities producing the carbon dioxide and responsible of the greenhouse effect, the carbon dioxide emission decrease possibilities and shows the necessity of the electric power producers contribution. (A.L.B.)

  8. GEOTHERMAL GREENHOUSING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Karaman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Use of renewable energy resources should be brought forward to reduce heating costs of greenhouses and to minimize the use of ever-depleting fossil fuels. Geothermal energy not only provides the heat required throughout plant growth, but also allow a year-long production. Geothermal resources with several other benefits therefore play significant role in agricultural activities. With regard to geothermal potential and implementation, Turkey has the 7th place in the world and the 1st place in Europe. Majority of country geothermal resources is used in greenhouse heating. The size of geothermal greenhouses increased 5 folds during the last decade and reached to 2500 decare. In this study, current status of geothermal greenhousing of Turkey was presented; problems and possible solutions were discussed.

  9. Mitigation of greenhouse gases emissions impact and their influence on terrestrial ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik Oliveira, K.; Niedbała, G.

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, one of the most important challenges faced by the humanity in the current century is the increasing temperature on Earth, caused by a growing emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Terrestrial ecosystems, as an important component of the carbon cycle, play an important role in the sequestration of carbon, which is a chance to improve the balance of greenhouse gases. Increasing CO2 absorption by terrestrial ecosystems is one way to reduce the atmospheric CO2 emissions. Sequestration of CO2 by terrestrial ecosystems is not yet fully utilized method of mitigating CO2 emission to the atmosphere. Terrestrial ecosystems, especially forests, are essential for the regulation of CO2 content in the atmosphere and more attention should be paid to seeking the natural processes of CO2 sequestration.

  10. Impacts of the Grenelle de l'Environnement: must France reduce its greenhouse gas emissions of 30% by 2020?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    Within the international context (Copenhagen agreement), this text analyses efforts made by France to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, and compares them to those of other countries, notably the United States. Using the NEMESIS model, it also analyses the possible consequences of the present crisis for energy demand and CO 2 emissions. It proposes an assessment of additional efforts to be made to go from 20% to 30% of reduction of these emissions. It tries to assess impacts of investments foreseen by the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' on activity, GNP, employment, and competitiveness

  11. Greenhouse gas emission controls : differentiated vs. flat rate targets : impacts and concerts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydanek, D.

    1997-01-01

    Continuing the discussion on differentiation in greenhouse gas emission targets and timetables for all nations, the different implications of differentiation vs. flat rate controls were examined. A scenario of how different targets for different countries based on national circumstances might be implemented, was presented. Implications of differentiation for the Dow Chemical Company were also reviewed. For more than 20 years, Dow has practiced leading edge energy efficiency in environmental management systems and has committed to a series of environmental, health and safety goals. The company believes that at the international level, fully differentiated targets and timetables need to be negotiated, party by party, by the 150 nations who agreed to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by year 2000. It was suggested that a strong disincentive exists to delivering energy efficiency beyond compliance. It was predicted that despite efficiency, the energy intensive assets in place today in Annex I countries will be disadvantaged and prematurely retired as the costs of greenhouse gas emission controls grow and exert pressure to move productive capacity offshore

  12. A synthesis of research on wood products and greenhouse gas impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathre, R.; O'Connor, J.

    2008-11-01

    Existing scientific literature on the wood products industry was reviewed in an effort to summarize consensus findings, or range of findings, addressing the net life cycle greenhouse gas footprint of wood construction products. The report sought to clarify whether actively managing forests for wood production was better, worse or neutral for climate change than leaving the forest in its natural state. In addition, it sought to quantify the greenhouse gas emissions avoided per unit of wood substituted for non-wood materials. Forty-eight international studies were examined in terms of fossil energy used in wood manufacturing and compared alternatives, such as the avoidance of industrial process carbon emissions as with cement manufacturing; the storage of carbon in forests and forest products; the use of wood by-products as a biofuel replacement for fossil fuels; and carbon storage and emission due to forest products in landfills. The report presented a list of studies reviewed and individual summaries of study findings. A meta-analysis of displacement factors of wood product use was also presented. It was concluded from all of the studies reviewed, that the production of wood-based materials and products results in less greenhouse gas emission than the production of functionally comparable non-wood materials and products. 48 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    An-Yuan Tsai Wen-Cheng Huang

    2011-01-01

    This paper establishes a comprehensive assessment model to measure the regional impact of climate change on Taiwan¡¦s water resources. Working from future rainfall data simulated by Japan¡¦s high-resolution GCM model JMA/MRI TL959L60 in a SRES-A1B scenario, we first apply climate change to an assessment model of renewable water resources to estimate the volume of renewable water resources on a regional basis. We then conduct a water resources system simulation based on estimates of future wat...

  14. Resource impact: curse or blessing? a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.

    2003-01-01

    Common sense and economic theory suggest large revenues from natural resource projects should generate economic progress and development. Yet much evidence argues the opposite and that resource-rich countries suffer from 'resource curse'. This paper provides a survey of the academic literature on the impact of natural resources on an economy. The topic has long attracted interest in the economics literature but more recently, interest has revived. The paper first considers the large body of empirical work examining the relationship between resource abundance, poor economic performance and poverty. While this evidence supports the view of a negative impact, it is not without criticism and some assert a few countries managed instead to receive a 'blessing'. The paper assesses how the literature explains the transmission mechanisms between resource revenues and economic damage. Six areas are discussed: a long-term decline in terms of trade; revenue volatility; Dutch disease; crowding out effects; increasing the role of the state; and the sociocultural and political impacts. Finally, various options from the literature to avoid negative impacts are analysed: not developing the mineral deposits; diversifying the economy away from dependence on oil, gas and mineral exports; sterilising the incoming revenue; the use of stabilisation and oil funds; and reconsidering investment policies. The paper finishes by assessing what political reforms might be needed to carry out the necessary policies to avoid negative impacts. (author)

  15. Energy Resources of Iran and Their Environmental Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Bubnov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of main sources of energy resource production and their sale  in the domestic and export markets. The authors have analyzed type of domestic energy consumers and estimated their environmental impacts. The paper shows that the shift to alternative energy sources will reduce an ecological impact on the environment.

  16. Impact of improved technology on industrial greenhouse-gas emissions in developing countries. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    In response to a formal request by the Group of 77 and China, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) initiated a study to identify opportunities to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from energy-intensive industries in developing countries. These sectors currently include iron and steel, petroleum refining, cement, paper and pulp and nitrogen fertilizers. The aim of this first phase was to describe: how energy is used in the energy-intensive industries in developing countries today; what current trends indicate for the future; the potential contribution of improved technologies and practices to moving toward more sustainable industrial production in developing countries, and to provide developing countries with an analytical tool for evaluating opportunities to limit industrial greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions in their industrial sectors through the transfer of improved technologies and processes. The immediate objectives of Phase 1 were twofold: to provide information to developing countries in the form of an inventory of energy-efficient, best-available technologies and processes that can be used to abate greenhouse-gas emissions in the most energy-intensive industrial sub-sectors as well as cross-cutting measures applicable in a range of sub-sectors, and; to provide an analytical methodology in the form of a software tool that enables the user to evaluate and compare the costs, energy requirements, and greenhouse-gas emissions associated with scenarios of specific technology and process options. To meet these objectives, the first phase of the study comprised: a Report entitled Industrial Greenhouse-gas Emissions from Developing Countries; a Software Package containing, an Industrial Technology Inventory, and an Analysis Tool, and; Industry/country-specific Case Studies. The Report describes current energy use and greenhouse-gas emissions in energy-intensive industries in developing countries, and similar industries exemplifying good

  17. Impacts of prescribed burning on soil greenhouse gas fluxes in a suburban native forest of south-eastern Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, Y. Z.; Xu, Z. H.; Fu, L.

    2015-11-01

    Prescribed burning is a forest management practice that is widely used in Australia to reduce the risk of damaging wildfires. Prescribed burning can affect both carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in the forest and thereby influence the soil-atmosphere exchange of major greenhouse gases, i.e. carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). To quantify the impact of a prescribed burning (conducted on 27 May 2014) on greenhouse gas exchange and the potential controlling mechanisms, we carried out a series of field measurements before (August 2013) and after (August 2014 and November 2014) the fire. Gas exchange rates were determined in four replicate plots which were burned during the combustion and in another four adjacent unburned plots located in green islands, using a set of static chambers. Surface soil properties including temperature, pH, moisture, soil C and N pools were also determined either by in situ measurement or by analysing surface 10 cm soil samples. All of the chamber measurements indicated a net sink of atmospheric CH4, with mean CH4 uptake ranging from 1.15 to 1.99 mg m-2 d-1. Prescribed burning significantly enhanced CH4 uptake as indicated by the significant higher CH4 uptake rates in the burned plots measured in August 2014. In the following 3 months, the CH4 uptake rate was recovered to the pre-burning level. Mean CO2 emission from the forest soils ranged from 2721.76 to 7113.49 mg m-2 d-1. The effect of prescribed burning on CO2 emission was limited within the first 3 months, as no significant difference was observed between the burned and the adjacent unburned plots in both August and November 2014. The CO2 emissions showed more seasonal variations, rather than the effects of prescribed burning. The N2O emission in the plots was quite low, and no significant impact of prescribed burning was observed. The changes in understory plants and litter layers, surface soil temperature, C and N substrate availability and microbial

  18. Global impacts of energy demand on the freshwater resources of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Robert Alan; Scott, Kate A; Flörke, Martina; Brown, Gareth; Ewers, Robert M; Farmer, Elizabeth; Kapos, Valerie; Muggeridge, Ann; Scharlemann, Jörn P W; Taylor, Gail; Barrett, John; Eigenbrod, Felix

    2015-12-01

    The growing geographic disconnect between consumption of goods, the extraction and processing of resources, and the environmental impacts associated with production activities makes it crucial to factor global trade into sustainability assessments. Using an empirically validated environmentally extended global trade model, we examine the relationship between two key resources underpinning economies and human well--being-energy and freshwater. A comparison of three energy sectors (petroleum, gas, and electricity) reveals that freshwater consumption associated with gas and electricity production is largely confined within the territorial boundaries where demand originates. This finding contrasts with petroleum, which exhibits a varying ratio of territorial to international freshwater consumption, depending on the origin of demand. For example, although the United States and China have similar demand associated with the petroleum sector, international freshwater consumption is three times higher for the former than the latter. Based on mapping patterns of freshwater consumption associated with energy sectors at subnational scales, our analysis also reveals concordance between pressure on freshwater resources associated with energy production and freshwater scarcity in a number of river basins globally. These energy-driven pressures on freshwater resources in areas distant from the origin of energy demand complicate the design of policy to ensure security of fresh water and energy supply. Although much of the debate around energy is focused on greenhouse gas emissions, our findings highlight the need to consider the full range of consequences of energy production when designing policy.

  19. The impact of liberalization on the greenhouse sector and the environment in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gelder, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Many owners of greenhouses in the Netherlands are afraid they will have to pay higher prices for their energy once the new Dutch Natural Gas Act will come into effect for them too in 2004. It is expected that the use of cogeneration installations and waste heat will no longer be efficient, while the extra use of natural gas for CO2 fertilization and co-firing of less clean fuel oil will become economically more attractive. There is still time to look for operational adjustments and an alternative pricing system

  20. The impacts of a concept greenhouse with highly insulating double glass and a new method for greenhouse dehumidification management on energy use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempkes, F.; Zwart, de H.F.; Janse, J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels, the Dutch horticultural sector puts a lot of effort in the reduction of energy demand. By using multiple thermal screens, a modest temperature regime and allowing high humidities, the energy consumption of a greenhouse can be reduced substantially,

  1. The Impacts of Regulations and Financial Development on the Operations of Supply Chains with Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhuang; Tian, Yixiang; Yuan, Zheng

    2018-01-01

    To establish a micro foundation to understand the impacts of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission regulations and financial development levels on firms’ GHG emissions, we build a two-stage dynamic game model to incorporate GHG emission regulations (in terms of an emission tax) and financial development (represented by the corresponding financing cost) into a two-echelon supply chain. With the subgame perfect equilibrium, we identify the conditions to determine whether an emission regulatory policy and/or financial development can affect GHG emissions in the supply chain. We also reveal the impacts of the strictness of GHG emission regulation, the financial development level, and the unit GHG emission rate on the operations of the supply chain and the corresponding profitability implications. Managerial insights are also discussed. PMID:29470451

  2. Precipitation and soil impacts on partitioning of subsurface moisture in Avena barbata: Observations from a greenhouse experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salve, R.; Torn, M.S.

    2011-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of two grassland soils and precipitation regimes on soil-moisture dynamics. We set up an experiment in a greenhouse, and monitored soil moisture dynamics in mesocosms planted with Avena barbata, an annual species found in California grasslands. By repeating the precipitation input at regular intervals, we were able to observe plant manipulation of soil moisture during well-defined periods during the growing season. We found that the amount of water partitioned to evapotranspiration, seepage, and soil storage varied among different growth stages. Further, both soil type and precipitation regimes had a significant impact on redistributing soil moisture. Whereas in the low-precipitation treatments most water was released to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration, major losses from the high-precipitation treatment occurred as gravity drainage. Observations from this study emphasize the importance of understanding intra-seasonal relationships between vegetation, soil, and water.

  3. Impact of imidacloprid residues on the development of Eisenia fetida during vermicomposting of greenhouse plant waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Gómez, Manuel J; Romero, Esperanza; Nogales, Rogelio

    2011-09-15

    Pesticide application in agriculture causes residues in post-harvest plant waste at different concentrations. Knowledge concerning how pesticide concentrations in such waste affect earthworms is essential for recycling greenhouse plant debris through vermicomposting. Here, we have evaluated the effects of imidacloprid (IMD) residues on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) during the vermicomposting of plant waste from greenhouse crops in Spain. Before, the effect of different IMD concentrations on earthworms was tested using cattle manure as an optimum waste for worm development. The results after using cattle manure indicate that IMD dose ≥ 5 mg kg(-1) hinders worm growth and even causes death, whereas IMD dose ≤ 2 mg IMD kg(-1) allows worm growth similar to control but impedes reproduction. The results from the vermicomposting of plant waste reveal that IMD inhibits adequate worm growth and increases mortality. Although 89% worms became sexually mature in substrate containing 2 mg IMD kg(-1), they did not produce cocoons. IMD also affected microorganisms harboured in the substrates for vermicomposting, as indicated by the reduction in their dehydrogenase activity. This enzyme activity was restored after vermicomposting. This study provides a sound basis for the vermicomposting of pesticide-contaminated plant waste. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sludge thermal oxidation processes: mineral recycling, energy impact, and greenhouse effect gases release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guibelin, Eric

    2003-07-01

    Different treatment routes have been studied for a mixed sludge: the conventional agricultural use is compared with the thermal oxidation processes, including incineration (in gaseous phase) and wet air oxidation (in liquid phase). The interest of a sludge digestion prior to the final treatment has been also considered according to the two major criteria, which are the fossil energy utilisation and the greenhouse effect gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) release. Thermal energy has to be recovered on thermal processes to make these processes environmentally friendly, otherwise their main interest is to extract or destroy micropollutants and pathogens from the carbon cycle. In case of continuous energy recovery, incineration can produce more energy than it consumes. Digestion is especially interesting for agriculture: according to these two schemes, the energy final balance can also be in excess. As to wet air oxidation, it is probably one of the best way to minimize greenhouse effect gases emission. (author)

  5. Environmental impact of irrational and wasteful use of natural resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolba, M K

    1978-01-01

    The author defines irrational use of resources as actions that are not based on existing knowledge of resources and wasteful use as actions using more resources than necessary. The three basic environmental impacts of irrational and wasteful uses are encroachment, exhaustion, and distribution effects. Man's contamination of the planet, which increased with population growth and technological advances that enable him to divert resources, can be altered by improving information and setting better criteria for the use of resources. The demand for resources can be lowered if life styles, prices, and income distribution patterns are modified to make resources use less wasteful and living conditions more equitable. The author reviews the present means of managing resources through minimum safety and social standards and notes that this approach leads to ownership and control problems. He suggests that criteria should ensure that all costs and benefits of a project be considered and that the project should promise a net positive change for better resource use. Several questions are suggested for use in assessing the comprehensiveness and relevancy of criteria.

  6. Impacts of climate change on living aquatic resources of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flittner, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Anthropogenic forced warming of the Earth due to the greenhouse effect could have profound impacts on the world's living aquatic resources. An extensive review is provided of literature concerning such impacts, including physical changes in the ocean and coastal zone, biological changes in coastal wetlands and estuaries, effects of temperature rises and changes in ice cover on marine species, physical and biological impacts on inland waters, and impacts on fisheries. The principal effects would be caused by the increases in temperature and sea-level rise, but changes in precipitation would also be important. Suitable habitats would generally shift poleward and inland. Species would likely shift in abundances and distribution, thus affecting fisheries. It is likely that global warming will produce collapses of some fisheries and expansions of others. The likelihood of collapse may be aggravated by inadequate management due to insufficient authority, unwillingness to act, or lack of knowledge. Options available for reducing the impact of these changes are discussed, along with research needed to help prepare for climate change. 111 refs

  7. Impact of changes in diet on the availability of land, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions of agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazeni, Karin; Steinmueller, Horst [Johannes Kepler Univ. (JKU Linz), Linz (Austria). Energy Inst.

    2011-12-15

    Recent scientific investigations have revealed a correlation between nutrition habits and the environmental impacts of agriculture. So, it is obviously worthwhile to study what effects a change in diet has on land use patterns, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions of agricultural production. This study calculates the amount of energy and emission savings as well as changes in land use that would result from different scenarios underlying a change in diet. Based on the healthy eating recommendations of the German Nutrition Society, meat consumption in Austria should decrease by about 60%, and consumption of fruits and vegetables has to increase strongly. This investigation showed that compliance with healthy eating guidelines leads to lower energy demand and a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions, largely due to a decrease in livestock numbers. Furthermore, arable land and grassland no longer needed for animal feed production becomes redundant and can possibly be used for the production of raw materials for renewable energy. The scenario examination shows that in the self-sufficiency scenario and in the import/export scenario, up to 443,100 ha and about 208,800 ha, respectively, of arable land and grassland are released for non-food uses. The cumulative energy demand of agriculture is lower by up to 38%, and the greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture decrease by up to 37% in these scenarios as against the reference situation. The land use patterns for the scenario demonstrate that animal feed production still takes up the largest share of agricultural land even though the extent of animal husbandry decreased considerably in the scenarios. (orig.)

  8. Impact of renewable energy sources on greenhouse gas emissions in comparison to conventional energies - Simplified examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses definition problem of the full energy chain greenhouse gas (FENCH-GHG) emission analysis. The importance of good definition of the problem is essential: for what purpose this analysis is done, what shall be included and what can be excluded from the analysis. This is done by giving simplified examples of FENCH-GHG emission analysis. The example is use of small solar heating systems in an oil heated single family house in Finland and another renewable energy source: liquid biofuel combustion. The paper gives rough data for those options. Paper concludes with this example, to recommendations how definition of FENCH-GHG analysis should be done for intermittent renewable energies. (author)

  9. Tourism's impacts on natural resources: A positive case from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Chunyan; Xue, Qifu

    2006-10-01

    Tourism development may result in negative impacts on natural resources owing to overuse and mismanagement. However, tourism may also play positive roles in natural resource conservation, which has rarely been verified in practice, although some researchers have demonstrated this in theory. In this article, taking the Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve as a case study area, we conducted an analysis for the environmental impacts from tourism development based on social survey and interpretation of remote sensing images. The results show that the natural environment was not degraded and some indicators are even improving because all the residents have participated in tourism and given up farming and hunting. It is concluded that it is possible to use tourism as a way to balance natural resource conservation and economic development under the preconditions of making effective policies to encourage and help local people participate in tourism business and to benefit from it.

  10. Tourism's Impacts on Natural Resources: A Positive Case from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Chunyan; Xue, Qifu

    2006-10-01

    Tourism development may result in negative impacts on natural resources owing to overuse and mismanagement. However, tourism may also play positive roles in natural resource conservation, which has rarely been verified in practice, although some researchers have demonstrated this in theory. In this article, taking the Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve as a case study area, we conducted an analysis for the environmental impacts from tourism development based on social survey and interpretation of remote sensing images. The results show that the natural environment was not degraded and some indicators are even improving because all the residents have participated in tourism and given up farming and hunting. It is concluded that it is possible to use tourism as a way to balance natural resource conservation and economic development under the preconditions of making effective policies to encourage and help local people participate in tourism business and to benefit from it.

  11. Australia's uranium - greenhouse friendly fuel for an energy hungry world: a case study into the strategic importance of Australia's uranium resources for the inquiry into developing Australia's non-fossil fuel energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    The terms of reference for the case study were to inquire into and report on the strategic importance of Australia's uranium resources. The Committee was asked to give particular attention to the: global demand for Australia's uranium resources and associated supply issues; potential implications for global greenhouse emission reductions from the further development and export of Australia's uranium resources; and the current regulatory environment of the uranium mining sector. The Committee indicated in its letters inviting submissions that it would also welcome comments in relation to six additional issues, relating to: whole of life cycle waste management; adequacy of social impact assessment, consultation and approval processes with traditional owners; health risks to workers and to the public from exposure to radiation; adequacy of regulation of uranium mining by the Commonwealth; the extent of federal subsidies and other mechanisms to facilitate uranium mining; and the effectiveness of safeguards regimes in addressing proliferation. These matters are addressed in the Committee's report, which consists of 12 chapters. The contents, findings and recommendations of each chapter are summarised as follows. The Committee's conclusions and recommendations are also summarised in a key messages section at the beginning of each chapter and in the conclusions section at the end of each chapter.

  12. Australia's uranium - greenhouse friendly fuel for an energy hungry world: a case study into the strategic importance of Australia's uranium resources for the inquiry into developing Australia's non-fossil fuel energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    The terms of reference for the case study were to inquire into and report on the strategic importance of Australia's uranium resources. The Committee was asked to give particular attention to the: global demand for Australia's uranium resources and associated supply issues; potential implications for global greenhouse emission reductions from the further development and export of Australia's uranium resources; and the current regulatory environment of the uranium mining sector. The Committee indicated in its letters inviting submissions that it would also welcome comments in relation to six additional issues, relating to: whole of life cycle waste management; adequacy of social impact assessment, consultation and approval processes with traditional owners; health risks to workers and to the public from exposure to radiation; adequacy of regulation of uranium mining by the Commonwealth; the extent of federal subsidies and other mechanisms to facilitate uranium mining; and the effectiveness of safeguards regimes in addressing proliferation. These matters are addressed in the Committee's report, which consists of 12 chapters. The contents, findings and recommendations of each chapter are summarised as follows. The Committee's conclusions and recommendations are also summarised in a key messages section at the beginning of each chapter and in the conclusions section at the end of each chapter

  13. Greenhouse impact of CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O and CFC emissions in Finland and its control potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipatti, R.; Savolainen, I.; Sinisalo, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions contribute considerably to the anthropogenic enhancement of Earth`s greenhouse effect. The limitation of atmospheric concentrations of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O is considered important also in the Climate Convention. Chlorine released from the CFCs in the stratosphere destroys ozone (O{sub 3}) and the emissions are therefore regulated with the Montreal Protocol. The greenhouse impact of CFCs might be, at least to some extent, compensated by the depletion of O{sub 3} which is also a greenhouse gas. The objective of the presentation is to assess the role of anthropogenic CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, and CFC emissions in the total direct greenhouse impact due to human activities in Finland. The emission estimates for the gases are presented, as well as scenarios for emission history, future development and control potential. The greenhouse impact of the gases is compared with that of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in Finland. (author)

  14. Greenhouse impact of CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O and CFC emissions in Finland and its control potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipatti, R; Savolainen, I; Sinisalo, J [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions contribute considerably to the anthropogenic enhancement of Earth`s greenhouse effect. The limitation of atmospheric concentrations of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O is considered important also in the Climate Convention. Chlorine released from the CFCs in the stratosphere destroys ozone (O{sub 3}) and the emissions are therefore regulated with the Montreal Protocol. The greenhouse impact of CFCs might be, at least to some extent, compensated by the depletion of O{sub 3} which is also a greenhouse gas. The objective of the presentation is to assess the role of anthropogenic CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, and CFC emissions in the total direct greenhouse impact due to human activities in Finland. The emission estimates for the gases are presented, as well as scenarios for emission history, future development and control potential. The greenhouse impact of the gases is compared with that of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in Finland. (author)

  15. Economic and energy impacts from participation in the regional greenhouse gas initiative: A case study of the State of Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, Matthias; Gabriel, Steven A.; Palmer, Karen L.; Burtraw, Dallas; Paul, Anthony; Chen, Yihsu; Hobbs, Benjamin F.; Irani, Daraius; Michael, Jeffrey; Ross, Kim M.; Conklin, Russell; Miller, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Tradable emissions allowance systems to reduce carbon emissions are increasingly promoted as means to mitigate climate change. This paper briefly reviews the application of such systems at the global, regional, and corporate scales. Given the recent expansion of cap-and-trade systems at the regional level, the paper concentrates on energy and economic implications at that level, using the decision of the State of Maryland, USA, to join the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative as an illustration. The paper presents the results of an analysis of the implications for technology choice, generation capacity, energy reliability, and cost to ratepayers of that decision, combining a national electricity market model with a regional model that includes market power and an economic impact model. The results suggest several issues that will be key to the acceptability and effectiveness of cap-and-trade systems for regional climate change mitigation policy, including rules for distribution of allowances and subsidies for energy efficiency programs. (author)

  16. Use of the Edmonds-Reilly Model to model energy-sector impacts of greenhouse gas emissions control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barns, D.W.; Edmonds, J.A.; Reilly, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document the results of our application of the Edmonds-Reilly Model (ERM) using several scenarios provided in connection with the 1991 Energy Modeling Forum (EMF). The purpose of this session of the forum is to compare the efforts of several modeling teams using common assumptions to examine the energy sector impacts of strategies to control greenhouse gas emissions. Because the output of this exercise is data-rich, most of this exposition is in graphical form with the narrative serving mainly as a roadmap for moving from one highlight to the next. The following sessions briefly describe the model and some of the special modifications made for this effort. The case-by-case discussion is contained in Section IV, followed by a summary of the potential pitfalls involved in attempting to assess the cost of emissions reduction from the model data

  17. Economic and energy impacts from participation in the regional greenhouse gas initiative: A case study of the State of Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Matthias [Center for Integrative Environmental Research, Division of Research, University of Maryland, 2101 Van Munching Hall, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Environmental Policy Program, School of Public Policy, University of Maryland, MD (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, A. James Clark School of Engineering, University of Maryland, MD (United States); Gabriel, Steven A. [Center for Integrative Environmental Research, Division of Research, University of Maryland, 2101 Van Munching Hall, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, A. James Clark School of Engineering, University of Maryland, MD (United States); Applied Mathematics and Scientific Computation Program, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, MD (United States); Palmer, Karen L.; Burtraw, Dallas; Paul, Anthony [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States); Chen, Yihsu [School of Engineering, Social Sciences, Humanities and Arts, University of California, Merced, CA (United States); Hobbs, Benjamin F. [Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Whiting School of Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, MD (United States); Irani, Daraius [Regional Economic Studies Institute, Towson University, Towson, Maryland, MD (United States); Michael, Jeffrey [Eberhardt School of Business, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA (United States); Ross, Kim M. [Center for Integrative Environmental Research, Division of Research, University of Maryland, 2101 Van Munching Hall, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Conklin, Russell; Miller, Julia [Center for Integrative Environmental Research, Division of Research, University of Maryland, 2101 Van Munching Hall, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Environmental Policy Program, School of Public Policy, University of Maryland, MD (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Tradable emissions allowance systems to reduce carbon emissions are increasingly promoted as means to mitigate climate change. This paper briefly reviews the application of such systems at the global, regional, and corporate scales. Given the recent expansion of cap-and-trade systems at the regional level, the paper concentrates on energy and economic implications at that level, using the decision of the State of Maryland, USA, to join the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative as an illustration. The paper presents the results of an analysis of the implications for technology choice, generation capacity, energy reliability, and cost to ratepayers of that decision, combining a national electricity market model with a regional model that includes market power and an economic impact model. The results suggest several issues that will be key to the acceptability and effectiveness of cap-and-trade systems for regional climate change mitigation policy, including rules for distribution of allowances and subsidies for energy efficiency programs. (author)

  18. Reduction of CO2 emissions from road transport in cities impact of dynamic route guidance system on greenhouse gas emission

    CERN Document Server

    Markiewicz, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Michal Markiewicz presents the outcomes of his research regarding the influence of dynamic route guidance system on overall emission of carbon dioxide from road transport in rural areas. Sustainable transportation in smart cities is a big challenge of our time, but before electric vehicles replace vehicles that burn fossil fuels we have to think about traffic optimization methods that reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Contents Comparison of Travel Time Measurements Using Floating Car Data and Intelligent Infrastructure Integration of Cellular Automata Traffic Simulator with CO2 Emission Model Impact of Dynamic Route Guidance System on CO2 Emission Naxos Vehicular Traffic Simulator Target Groups Lecturers and students of computer science, transportation and logistics Traffic engineers The Author Dr. Michal Markiewicz defended his PhD thesis in computer science at the University of Bremen,TZI Technologie-Zentrum Informatik und Informationstechnik, Germany. Currently, he is working on commercializat...

  19. The Impact of Strategic Human Resource Management on Organizational Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luftim CANIA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Organizational performance is getting more and more important, especially in a market with greater competition and dynamic. Organizational performance is measured through different indicators. It guarantees the continuity of the organization to be competitive in a global marketplace. Normally, the implementation of performance indicators achieved through human resources. Human resources are the key for keeping the organization in the market so competitive. These human resources need to be managed effectively to achieve the required performance of the organization. It is necessary to manage strategically the human resources and to adapt at its strategy with organizational strategy. The aim of this study is focused on the impact of the strategic management of human resource in achieving organizational performance. This study was conducted based on primary and secondary sources. How much organizations appear competitive in the market through achieving the performance indicators? How important is the management of human resources in achieving organizational performance? So, through the skills, behaviors and attitudes would be expected by human resources to achieve the required performance in the organization.

  20. Bounding the Resource Availability of Partially Ordered Events with Constant Resource Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    We compare existing techniques to bound the resource availability of partially ordered events. We first show that, contrary to intuition, two existing techniques, one due to Laborie and one due to Muscettola, are not strictly comparable in terms of the size of the search trees generated under chronological search with a fixed heuristic. We describe a generalization of these techniques called the Flow Balance Constraint to tightly bound the amount of available resource for a set of partially ordered events with piecewise constant resource impact We prove that the new technique generates smaller proof trees under chronological search with a fixed heuristic, at little increase in computational expense. We then show how to construct tighter resource bounds but at increased computational cost.

  1. Impact of equatorial and continental airflow on primary greenhouse gases in the northern South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Yen, Ming-Cheng; Lin, Neng-Huei; Lin, Tang-Huang; Wang, Jia-Lin; Schnell, Russell C; Lang, Patricia M; Chantara, Somporn

    2015-01-01

    Four-year ground-level measurements of the two primary greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 )) were conducted at Dongsha Island (DSI), situated in the northern South China Sea (SCS), from March 2010 to February 2014. Their mean mixing ratios are calculated to be 396.3 ± 5.4 ppm and 1863.6 ± 50.5 ppb, with an annual growth rate of +2.19 ± 0.5 ppm yr –1 and +4.70 ± 4.4 ppb yr –1 for CO 2 and CH 4 , respectively, over the study period. Our results suggest that the Asian continental outflow driven by the winter northeast monsoon could have brought air pollutants into the northern SCS, as denoted by significantly elevated levels of 6.5 ppm for CO 2 and 59.6 ppb for CH 4 , which are greater than the marine boundary layer references at Cape Kumukahi (KUM) in the tropical northern Pacific in January. By contrast, the summertime CH 4 at DSI is shown to be lower than that at KUM by 19.7 ppb, whereas CO 2 is shown to have no differences (<0.42 ppm in July) during the same period. Positive biases of the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) L4B data against the surface measurements are estimated to be 2.4 ± 3.4 ppm for CO 2 and 43.2 ± 36.8 ppb for CH 4 . The satellite products retrieved from the GOSAT showed the effects of anthropogenic emissions and vegetative sinks on land on a vertical profiling basis. The prevailing southeasterly winds originating from as far south as the equator or Southern Hemisphere pass through the lower troposphere in the northern SCS, forming a tunnel of relatively clean air masses as indicated by the low CH 4 mixing ratios observed on the DSI in summer. (letter)

  2. Environmental Impact of the use of natural Resources (EIRES)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Tukker, Arnold; Weidema, Bo

    relationships between resource use and environmental impacts, and therefore of possibilities to give consolidated advice on priority needs in policy development. * Persisting weaknesses in environmental impact assessment models. Proposals to develop further the scientific input concerning the environmental......, Kerssemeeckers M, Blok K, Patel M, de Beer J (2002). Assessing the environmental potential of clean material technologies. Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Joint Research Centre (DG JRC), European Commission. Report EUR 20515 EN. * Nemry F, Thollier K, Jansen B, Theunis J (2002). Identifying key...... Deliverable No. 9. Groningen: Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, University of Groningen. The objectives of the present study were to analyse and evaluate this existing body of research with a view to identifying those materials and resources whose use has the greatest environmental impacts...

  3. The greenhouse effect, impacts and possible solutions: overall credibility?; Effet de serre, impacts et solutions: quelle credibilite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, M. [Conseil General des Technologies de l' Information, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    The average temperature of a planet in space vacuum, such our Earth, is determined by the balance between the energy of the absorbed part of the incoming visible solar radiation and the energy of its emitted infrared radiation. This infrared radiation increases when the planet's temperature increases. If its atmosphere contains a larger amount of a gas absorbing the infrared radiation, its temperature increases to compensate this absorption of energy. This phenomenon is called 'Greenhouse Effect'. The large use of fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas) corresponds to a yearly carbon burning of 6.3 billions of tons, which are sent into the atmosphere, as carbon dioxide CO{sub 2}. The carbon dioxide concentration growth is nowadays observed to be 0,5% per year on the average since year 1958, when systematic accurate measurements have been performed. The corresponding yearly increase of carbon content of the atmosphere is 3.3 billions tons. As the carbon dioxide absorbs infrared radiations, a global warming must result from human activities. This thematic issue illustrates the diversity and the importance of the problems resulting from the greenhouse effect and paves the way for future researches. (author)

  4. Greener greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paksoy, Halime; Turgut, Bekir; Beyhan, Beyza; Dasgan, H. Yildiz; Evliya, Hunay; Abak, Kazim; Bozdag, Saziye

    2010-09-15

    Agricultural greenhouses are solution to the increased demand for higher production yields, facilitating off season cultivation and allowing the growth of certain varieties in areas where it was not possible earlier. Heating and/or cooling system, required to maintain the inside micro-climate in greenhouses mostly rely on fossil fuels and/or electricity. This paper aims to discuss the 'greener' solutions for heating and cooling systems of greenhouses based on different thermal energy storage concepts. Results from a greenhouse Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) application in Turkey producing tomatoes with zero fossil fuels and up to 40% higher yield are presented.

  5. Impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel on emissions of regulated pollutants and greenhouse gases on a 2000 heavy duty diesel truck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kwangsam; Biswas, Subhasis; Robertson, William; Sahay, Keshav; Okamoto, Robert; Mitchell, Alexander; Lemieux, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    As part of a broad evaluation of the environmental impacts of biodiesel and renewable diesel as alternative motor fuels and fuel blends in California, the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) Heavy-duty Diesel Emission Testing Laboratory conducted chassis dynamometer exhaust emission measurements on in-use heavy-heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDT). The results presented here detail the impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels and fuel blends as compared to CARB ULSD on particulate matter (PM), regulated gases, and two greenhouse gases emissions from a HHDDT with a 2000 C15 Caterpillar engine with no exhaust after treatment devices. This vehicle was tested over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and the cruise portion of the California HHDDT driving schedule. Three neat blend stocks (soy-based and animal-based fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesels, and a renewable diesel) and CARB-certified ultra-low sulfur diesel (CARB ULSD) along with their 20% and 50% blends (blended with CARB ULSD) were tested. The effects of blend level on emission characteristics were discussed on g·km-1 basis. The results showed that PM, total hydrocarbon (THC), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were dependent on driving cycles, showing higher emissions for the UDDS cycles with medium load than the highway cruise cycle with high load on per km basis. When comparing CARB ULSD to biodiesels and renewable diesel blends, it was observed that the PM, THC, and CO emissions decreased with increasing blend levels regardless of the driving cycles. Note that biodiesel blends showed higher degree of emission reductions for PM, THC, and CO than renewable diesel blends. Both biodiesels and renewable diesel blends effectively reduced PM emissions, mainly due to reduction in elemental carbon emissions (EC), however no readily apparent reductions in organic carbon (OC) emissions were observed. When compared to CARB ULSD, soy- and animal-based biodiesel blends showed statistically

  6. The impact of municipal solid waste treatment methods on greenhouse gas emissions in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Syeda Adila; Chuadhry, Muhammad Nawaz

    2009-01-01

    The contribution of existing municipal solid waste management to emission of greenhouse gases and the alternative scenarios to reduce emissions were analyzed for Data Ganj Bukhsh Town (DGBT) in Lahore, Pakistan using the life cycle assessment methodology. DGBT has a population of 1,624,169 people living in 232,024 dwellings. Total waste generated is 500,000 tons per year with an average per capita rate of 0.84kg per day. Alternative scenarios were developed and evaluated according to the environmental, economic, and social atmosphere of the study area. Solid waste management options considered include the collection and transportation of waste, collection of recyclables with single and mixed material bank container systems (SMBCS, MMBCS), material recovery facilities (MRF), composting, biogasification and landfilling. A life cycle inventory (LCI) of the six scenarios along with the baseline scenario was completed; this helped to quantify the CO2 equivalents, emitted and avoided, for energy consumption, production, fuel consumption, and methane (CH4) emissions. LCI results showed that the contribution of the baseline scenario to the global warming potential as CO2 equivalents was a maximum of 838,116 tons. The sixth scenario had a maximum reduction of GHG emissions in terms of CO2 equivalents of -33,773 tons, but the most workable scenario for the current situation in the study area is scenario 5. It saves 25% in CO2 equivalents compared to the baseline scenario.

  7. The impact of municipal solid waste treatment methods on greenhouse gas emissions in Lahore, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batool, Syeda Adila; Chuadhry, Muhammad Nawaz

    2009-01-01

    The contribution of existing municipal solid waste management to emission of greenhouse gases and the alternative scenarios to reduce emissions were analyzed for Data Ganj Bukhsh Town (DGBT) in Lahore, Pakistan using the life cycle assessment methodology. DGBT has a population of 1,624,169 people living in 232,024 dwellings. Total waste generated is 500,000 tons per year with an average per capita rate of 0.84 kg per day. Alternative scenarios were developed and evaluated according to the environmental, economic, and social atmosphere of the study area. Solid waste management options considered include the collection and transportation of waste, collection of recyclables with single and mixed material bank container systems (SMBCS, MMBCS), material recovery facilities (MRF), composting, biogasification and landfilling. A life cycle inventory (LCI) of the six scenarios along with the baseline scenario was completed; this helped to quantify the CO 2 equivalents, emitted and avoided, for energy consumption, production, fuel consumption, and methane (CH 4 ) emissions. LCI results showed that the contribution of the baseline scenario to the global warming potential as CO 2 equivalents was a maximum of 838,116 tons. The sixth scenario had a maximum reduction of GHG emissions in terms of CO 2 equivalents of -33,773 tons, but the most workable scenario for the current situation in the study area is scenario 5. It saves 25% in CO 2 equivalents compared to the baseline scenario

  8. Impacts of Thai bio-ethanol policy target on land use and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Sagisaka, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    The growing demand for biofuels has led to an increased demand for feedstocks which in turn is anticipated to induce changes in the cropping systems or land requirement for agriculture use. This study used consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental consequences of possible (future) changes in agricultural production systems and determine their effects on land use change (LUC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) implications when cassava demand in Thailand increases. Six different cropping systems to increase cassava production including converting unoccupied land to cropland, yield improvement, displacement of area currently under sugarcane cultivation and the other potential changes in cropping systems in Vietnam and Australia are modeled and assessed. The comparative results show that LUC is an important factor in overall GHG emissions of the first generation biofuels especially change in soil carbon stock contributing about 58-60% of the net GHG emissions. Increased cassava production by expanding cultivation area has a significantly larger effect on GHG emissions than increased productivity. The analysis shows that increasing productivity of both sugarcane and cassava are important ways to maximize benefits in using of certain area of Thailand to serve both the food and fuel industries.

  9. Impact of socially responsible human resources policies on intellectual capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Barrena-Martínez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research focuses on the benefits that social responsibility can report on the area of human resources, examined the impact of a socially responsible configuration of human resource policies and practices in the generation value process for the company, and more specifically in its intellectual capital. Design/methodology/approach: The study performed a regression analysis, testing the individual effects of socially responsible human resource policies on intellectual capital, broken down into three main variables such as human, social and organizational capital. Findings: The results shed light on how the introduction of socially responsible aspects in the management of human resources can facilitate the exchange of knowledge, skills and attitudes human--capital; lead to improvements in communication, trust, cooperation among employees social-capital and, in turn, generates an institutionalized knowledge encoded in the own organizational culture –organizational capital–. Research limitations/implications: The study only provides information from large companies with over 250 employees. Practical implications: There are important implications in the measure of corporate social responsibility concerns in the area of human resources. Social implications: Also important intangible effects on non-economic variables are confirmed, such as intellectual capital. Originality/value: The value of the study lies in its novelty, testing socially responsible configurations of human resources as well as the direct effects of different policies on intellectual capital.

  10. Pomace waste management scenarios in Québec--impact on greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassara, Fatma; Brar, S K; Pelletier, F; Verma, M; Godbout, S; Tyagi, R D

    2011-09-15

    Fruit processing industries generate tremendous amount of solid wastes which is almost 35-40% dry weight of the total produce used for the manufacturing of juices. These solid wastes, referred to as, "pomace" contain high moisture content (70-75%) and biodegradable organic load (high BOD and COD values) so that their management is an important issue. During the management of these pomace wastes by different strategies comprising incineration, landfill, composting, solid-state fermentation to produce high-value enzymes and animal feed, there is production of greenhouse gases (GHG) which must be taken into account. In this perspective, this study is unique that discusses the GHG emission analysis of agro-industrial waste management strategies, especially apple pomace waste management and repercussions of value-addition of these wastes in terms of their sustainability using life cycle assessment (LCA) model. The results of the analysis indicated that, among all the apple pomace management sub-models for a functional unit, solid-state fermentation to produce enzymes was the most effective method for reducing GHG emissions (906.81 tons CO(2) eq. per year), while apple pomace landfill resulted in higher GHG emissions (1841.00 tons CO(2) eq. per year). The assessment and inventory of GHG emissions during solid-state fermentation gave positive indications of environmental sustainability for the use of this strategy to manage apple pomace and other agricultural wastes, particularly in Quebec and also extended to other countries. The analysis and use of parameters in this study were drawn from various analytical approaches and data sources. There was absence of some data in the literature which led to consideration of some assumptions in order to calculate GHG emissions. Hence, supplementary experimental studies will be very important to calculate the GHG emissions coefficients during agro-industrial waste management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The impacts of recent permafrost thaw on land–atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, Daniel J; Yuan, Fengming; Wullschleger, Stan D; Kicklighter, David W; Melillo, Jerry M; McGuire, A David; Chen, Min; Zhuang, Qianlai

    2014-01-01

    Permafrost thaw and the subsequent mobilization of carbon (C) stored in previously frozen soil organic matter (SOM) have the potential to be a strong positive feedback to climate. As the northern permafrost region experiences as much as a doubling of the rate of warming as the rest of the Earth, the vast amount of C in permafrost soils is vulnerable to thaw, decomposition and release as atmospheric greenhouse gases. Diagnostic and predictive estimates of high-latitude terrestrial C fluxes vary widely among different models depending on how dynamics in permafrost, and the seasonally thawed ‘active layer’ above it, are represented. Here, we employ a process-based model simulation experiment to assess the net effect of active layer dynamics on this ‘permafrost carbon feedback’ in recent decades, from 1970 to 2006, over the circumpolar domain of continuous and discontinuous permafrost. Over this time period, the model estimates a mean increase of 6.8 cm in active layer thickness across the domain, which exposes a total of 11.6 Pg C of thawed SOM to decomposition. According to our simulation experiment, mobilization of this previously frozen C results in an estimated cumulative net source of 3.7 Pg C to the atmosphere since 1970 directly tied to active layer dynamics. Enhanced decomposition from the newly exposed SOM accounts for the release of both CO 2 (4.0 Pg C) and CH 4 (0.03 Pg C), but is partially compensated by CO 2 uptake (0.3 Pg C) associated with enhanced net primary production of vegetation. This estimated net C transfer to the atmosphere from permafrost thaw represents a significant factor in the overall ecosystem carbon budget of the Pan-Arctic, and a non-trivial additional contribution on top of the combined fossil fuel emissions from the eight Arctic nations over this time period. (paper)

  12. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  13. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-01-01

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions

  14. Impact of office productivity cloud computing on energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Daniel R; Tang, Yinshan

    2013-05-07

    Cloud computing is usually regarded as being energy efficient and thus emitting less greenhouse gases (GHG) than traditional forms of computing. When the energy consumption of Microsoft's cloud computing Office 365 (O365) and traditional Office 2010 (O2010) software suites were tested and modeled, some cloud services were found to consume more energy than the traditional form. The developed model in this research took into consideration the energy consumption at the three main stages of data transmission; data center, network, and end user device. Comparable products from each suite were selected and activities were defined for each product to represent a different computing type. Microsoft provided highly confidential data for the data center stage, while the networking and user device stages were measured directly. A new measurement and software apportionment approach was defined and utilized allowing the power consumption of cloud services to be directly measured for the user device stage. Results indicated that cloud computing is more energy efficient for Excel and Outlook which consumed less energy and emitted less GHG than the standalone counterpart. The power consumption of the cloud based Outlook (8%) and Excel (17%) was lower than their traditional counterparts. However, the power consumption of the cloud version of Word was 17% higher than its traditional equivalent. A third mixed access method was also measured for Word which emitted 5% more GHG than the traditional version. It is evident that cloud computing may not provide a unified way forward to reduce energy consumption and GHG. Direct conversion from the standalone package into the cloud provision platform can now consider energy and GHG emissions at the software development and cloud service design stage using the methods described in this research.

  15. Impact of neonicotinoid insecticides on natural enemies in greenhouse and interiorscape environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Bethke, James A

    2011-01-01

    The neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, thiamethoxam and clothianidin are commonly used in greenhouses and/or interiorscapes (plant interiorscapes and conservatories) to manage a wide range of plant-feeding insects such as aphids, mealybugs and whiteflies. However, these systemic insecticides may also be harmful to natural enemies, including predators and parasitoids. Predatory insects and mites may be adversely affected by neonicotinoid systemic insecticides when they: (1) feed on pollen, nectar or plant tissue contaminated with the active ingredient; (2) consume the active ingredient of neonicotinoid insecticides while ingesting plant fluids; (3) feed on hosts (prey) that have consumed leaves contaminated with the active ingredient. Parasitoids may be affected negatively by neonicotinoid insecticides because foliar, drench or granular applications may decrease host population levels so that there are not enough hosts to attack and thus sustain parasitoid populations. Furthermore, host quality may be unacceptable for egg laying by parasitoid females. In addition, female parasitoids that host feed may inadvertently ingest a lethal concentration of the active ingredient or a sublethal dose that inhibits foraging or egg laying. There are, however, issues that require further consideration, such as: the types of plant and flower that accumulate active ingredients, and the concentrations in which they are accumulated; the influence of flower age on the level of exposure of natural enemies to the active ingredient; the effect of neonicotinoid metabolites produced within the plant. As such, the application of neonicotinoid insecticides in conjunction with natural enemies in protected culture and interiorscape environments needs further investigation. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. The impacts of recent permafrost thaw on land-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Daniel J.; Kicklighter, David W.; McGuire, A. David; Chen, Min; Zhuang, Qianlai; Yuan, Fengming; Melillo, Jerry M.; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2014-01-01

    Permafrost thaw and the subsequent mobilization of carbon (C) stored in previously frozen soil organic matter (SOM) have the potential to be a strong positive feedback to climate. As the northern permafrost region experiences as much as a doubling of the rate of warming as the rest of the Earth, the vast amount of C in permafrost soils is vulnerable to thaw, decomposition and release as atmospheric greenhouse gases. Diagnostic and predictive estimates of high-latitude terrestrial C fluxes vary widely among different models depending on how dynamics in permafrost, and the seasonally thawed 'active layer' above it, are represented. Here, we employ a process-based model simulation experiment to assess the net effect of active layer dynamics on this 'permafrost carbon feedback' in recent decades, from 1970 to 2006, over the circumpolar domain of continuous and discontinuous permafrost. Over this time period, the model estimates a mean increase of 6.8 cm in active layer thickness across the domain, which exposes a total of 11.6 Pg C of thawed SOM to decomposition. According to our simulation experiment, mobilization of this previously frozen C results in an estimated cumulative net source of 3.7 Pg C to the atmosphere since 1970 directly tied to active layer dynamics. Enhanced decomposition from the newly exposed SOM accounts for the release of both CO2 (4.0 Pg C) and CH4 (0.03 Pg C), but is partially compensated by CO2 uptake (0.3 Pg C) associated with enhanced net primary production of vegetation. This estimated net C transfer to the atmosphere from permafrost thaw represents a significant factor in the overall ecosystem carbon budget of the Pan-Arctic, and a non-trivial additional contribution on top of the combined fossil fuel emissions from the eight Arctic nations over this time period.

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from MSW incineration in China: Impacts of waste characteristics and energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Na [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang Hua, E-mail: zhanghua_tj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Chen Miao; Shao Liming [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); He Pinjing, E-mail: xhpjk@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Determination of the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted during municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is complex because both contributions and savings of GHGs exist in the process. To identify the critical factors influencing GHG emissions from MSWI in China, a GHG accounting model was established and applied to six Chinese cities located in different regions. The results showed that MSWI in most of the cities was the source of GHGs, with emissions of 25-207 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. Within all process stages, the emission of fossil CO{sub 2} from the combustion of MSW was the main contributor (111-254 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw), while the substitution of electricity reduced the GHG emissions by 150-247 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. By affecting the fossil carbon content and the lower heating value of the waste, the contents of plastic and food waste in the MSW were the critical factors influencing GHG emissions of MSWI. Decreasing food waste content in MSW by half will significantly reduce the GHG emissions from MSWI, and such a reduction will convert MSWI in Urumqi and Tianjin from GHG sources to GHG sinks. Comparison of the GHG emissions in the six Chinese cities with those in European countries revealed that higher energy recovery efficiency in Europe induced much greater reductions in GHG emissions. Recovering the excess heat after generation of electricity would be a good measure to convert MSWI in all the six cities evaluated herein into sinks of GHGs.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from MSW incineration in China: impacts of waste characteristics and energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Miao; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2012-12-01

    Determination of the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted during municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is complex because both contributions and savings of GHGs exist in the process. To identify the critical factors influencing GHG emissions from MSWI in China, a GHG accounting model was established and applied to six Chinese cities located in different regions. The results showed that MSWI in most of the cities was the source of GHGs, with emissions of 25-207 kg CO(2)-eq t(-1) rw. Within all process stages, the emission of fossil CO(2) from the combustion of MSW was the main contributor (111-254 kg CO(2)-eq t(-1) rw), while the substitution of electricity reduced the GHG emissions by 150-247 kg CO(2)-eq t(-1) rw. By affecting the fossil carbon content and the lower heating value of the waste, the contents of plastic and food waste in the MSW were the critical factors influencing GHG emissions of MSWI. Decreasing food waste content in MSW by half will significantly reduce the GHG emissions from MSWI, and such a reduction will convert MSWI in Urumqi and Tianjin from GHG sources to GHG sinks. Comparison of the GHG emissions in the six Chinese cities with those in European countries revealed that higher energy recovery efficiency in Europe induced much greater reductions in GHG emissions. Recovering the excess heat after generation of electricity would be a good measure to convert MSWI in all the six cities evaluated herein into sinks of GHGs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Regional greenhouse climate effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.; Rind, D.; Delgenio, A.; Lacis, A.; Lebedeff, S.; Prather, M.; Ruedy, R.; Karl, T.

    1990-01-01

    The authors discuss the impact of an increasing greenhouse effect on three aspects of regional climate: droughts, storms and temperature. A continuous of current growth rates of greenhouse gases causes an increase in the frequency and severity of droughts in their climate model simulations, with the greatest impacts in broad regions of the subtropics and middle latitudes. But the greenhouse effect enhances both ends of the hydrologic cycle in the model, that is, there is an increased frequency of extreme wet situations, as well as increased drought. Model results are shown to imply that increased greenhouse warming will lead to more intense thunderstorms, that is, deeper thunderstorms with greater rainfall. Emanual has shown that the model results also imply that the greenhouse warming leads to more destructive tropical cyclones. The authors present updated records of observed temperatures and show that the observations and model results, averaged over the globe and over the US, are generally consistent. The impacts of simulated climate changes on droughts, storms and temperature provide no evidence that there will be regional winners if greenhouse gases continue to increase rapidly

  20. Residential greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-02-01

    The following report examines the technical and economic viability of residential greenhouse additions in Whitehorse, Yukon. The greenhouse was constructed using the south facing wall of an existing residence as a common wall. Total construction costs were $18,000, including labour. Annual fuel demand for the residence has been reduced by about 10 per cent for an annual saving of $425. In addition, produce to the value of $1,000 is grown annually in the greenhouse for domestic consumption and commercial resale. Typically the greenhouse operates for nine months each year. There is a net thermal loss during the months of November, December and January as a result of the large area of glazing. As well as supplementing the heating supply solar greenhouses can provide additional cash crops which can be used to offset the cost of construction. Humidity problems are minimal and can be dealt with by exhausting high humidity air. One system which has been considered for the greenhouse is to use a standard residential heat pump to remove excess moisture and to pump heat into the house. This would have a secondary benefit of excluding the need to circulate greenhouse air through the house. Thus any allergenic reactions to the greenhouse air would be prevented. 8 refs., 3 figs, 2 tabs.

  1. Climate Change Impacts and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Effects on U.S. Hydropower Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change will have potentially significant effects on hydropower generation due to changes in the magnitude and seasonality of river runoff and increases in reservoir evaporation. These physical impacts will in turn have economic consequences through both producer revenues ...

  2. Impacts of climate change on resource management in the north

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A Canada/USA symposium was held to communicate with people of the Arctic regions of North America about current issues in climate and climatic change; to promote dialogue between northern groups about various aspects of the climate problem relevant to northern people; and to discuss and formulate recommendations regarding management of northern resources that might be affected by global warming and associated regional climatic change. Papers were presented on the impacts of climatic change on water resources and hydrology, snow cover and sea ice, forest ecosystems, wildlife and marine resources, offshore petroleum operations, engineered structures, and the socio-economic system in the north. Arctic research programs and international initiatives on climatic change were also described. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 21 papers from this symposium

  3. How much will be economic impact of climate change on water resources? A Meta-Analytic Review of previous literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Iseri, Y.; Kanae, S.

    2016-12-01

    Water resources is vital in social and economic activities. Total global water use is increasing, mainly due to economic and population growth in developing countries. It has one of risk with high agreement and robust evidence that freshwater-related risks of climate change increase significantly with increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. It is difficult to compare the risk with other field risk (e.g. agriculture, forestry, sea level rise) for considering both adaptation and mitigation policy with the level of decision makers and public servants. Economic impacts of climate change on water scarcity has been estimated by economic researchers. We have no certainty at all about integration between hydrological and economical fields on global scale. In this study, we highlight key concerns about conventional estimations of economic impact on water resources through meta-analysis. The economic impact on water resource in same base year using consumer price index is shown with increase in the global mean temperature. We clarified four concerns which are involved in 1) classification of economic mechanism, 2) estimated items of economic impact, 3) difference in estimating equations, and 4) definition of parameters related with economic impact of climate change. This study would be essential to next challenge as transdisciplinary research between hydrologic and economic fields.

  4. THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL AUDIT IN HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NĂSTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available General research area of this article is the impacts of social audit in human resources management, in full compliance with the identification of social risks that may threaten the proper functioning of the economic entity. An essential tool used in human resource management is social audit, which provides a balance between the economic entity's financial results and its social results. Social audit is at the same time, an instrument of leadership and management interference in internal audit and financial audit and pursues an economic entity management capacity on the part of human problems and on the other hand the social problems generated by a continuously changing environment. This article is part of a broader research and through it we tried to address a topical issue, ie the impact of social audit and its consequences on economic and financial development level of economic entities.

  5. Social Media Impact on Human Resources Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela-Eliza Micu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to do a research of human resource management in Romania for the ITsector, and focus the attention to a couple of things like culture, trainings and the impact resultedon social media that this companies and their employees are producing. The use of social media has a huge impact on the quality of the work and also is contributing tostrengthen the relationships between employees. It can be a good resource in attracting new talentsand also promoting the company. This research used mined data from LinkedIn and other socialmedia and publicly available websites in order to statistically test hypotheses using the Pearsonchi-square method and successfully finding 6 strong correlations between data analyzed forRomanian software development companies.

  6. Impacts of Demand-Side Resources on Electric Transmission Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sanstad, Alan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Will demand resources such as energy efficiency (EE), demand response (DR), and distributed generation (DG) have an impact on electricity transmission requirements? Five drivers for transmission expansion are discussed: interconnection, reliability, economics, replacement, and policy. With that background, we review the results of a set of transmission studies that were conducted between 2010 and 2013 by electricity regulators, industry representatives, and other stakeholders in the three physical interconnections within the United States. These broad-based studies were funded by the US Department of Energy and included scenarios of reduced load growth due to EE, DR, and DG. While the studies were independent and used different modeling tools and interconnect-specific assumptions, all provided valuable results and insights. However, some caveats exist. Demand resources were evaluated in conjunction with other factors, and limitations on transmission additions between scenarios made understanding the role of demand resources difficult. One study, the western study, included analyses over both 10- and 20-year planning horizons; the 10-year analysis did not show near-term reductions in transmission, but the 20-year indicated fewer transmission additions, yielding a 36percent capital cost reduction. In the eastern study the reductions in demand largely led to reductions in local generation capacity and an increased opportunity for low-cost and renewable generation to export to other regions. The Texas study evaluated generation changes due to demand, and is in the process of examining demand resource impacts on transmission.

  7. Pomace waste management scenarios in Quebec-Impact on greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassara, Fatma; Brar, S.K.; Pelletier, F.; Verma, M.; Godbout, S.; Tyagi, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Incineration, landfill, animal feed, enzyme production by fermentation and, composting as apple pomace management strategies. → Reduction of GHG emissions using solid state fermentation of apple pomace → Highest GHG emissions during landfill. - Abstract: Fruit processing industries generate tremendous amount of solid wastes which is almost 35-40% dry weight of the total produce used for the manufacturing of juices. These solid wastes, referred to as, 'pomace' contain high moisture content (70-75%) and biodegradable organic load (high BOD and COD values) so that their management is an important issue. During the management of these pomace wastes by different strategies comprising incineration, landfill, composting, solid-state fermentation to produce high-value enzymes and animal feed, there is production of greenhouse gases (GHG) which must be taken into account. In this perspective, this study is unique that discusses the GHG emission analysis of agro-industrial waste management strategies, especially apple pomace waste management and repercussions of value-addition of these wastes in terms of their sustainability using life cycle assessment (LCA) model. The results of the analysis indicated that, among all the apple pomace management sub-models for a functional unit, solid-state fermentation to produce enzymes was the most effective method for reducing GHG emissions (906.81 tons CO 2 eq. per year), while apple pomace landfill resulted in higher GHG emissions (1841.00 tons CO 2 eq. per year). The assessment and inventory of GHG emissions during solid-state fermentation gave positive indications of environmental sustainability for the use of this strategy to manage apple pomace and other agricultural wastes, particularly in Quebec and also extended to other countries. The analysis and use of parameters in this study were drawn from various analytical approaches and data sources. There was absence of some data in the literature which led to

  8. Life cycle greenhouse gas impacts of ethanol, biomethane and limonene production from citrus waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourbafrani, Mohammad; McKechnie, Jon; MacLean, Heather L.; Saville, Bradley A.

    2013-03-01

    The production of biofuel from cellulosic residues can have both environmental and financial benefits. A particular benefit is that it can alleviate competition for land conventionally used for food and feed production. In this research, we investigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production of ethanol, biomethane, limonene and digestate from citrus waste, a byproduct of the citrus processing industry. The study represents the first life cycle-based evaluations of citrus waste biorefineries. Two biorefinery configurations are studied—a large biorefinery that converts citrus waste into ethanol, biomethane, limonene and digestate, and a small biorefinery that converts citrus waste into biomethane, limonene and digestate. Ethanol is assumed to be used as E85, displacing gasoline as a light-duty vehicle fuel; biomethane displaces natural gas for electricity generation, limonene displaces acetone in solvents, and digestate from the anaerobic digestion process displaces synthetic fertilizer. System expansion and two allocation methods (energy, market value) are considered to determine emissions of co-products. Considerable GHG reductions would be achieved by producing and utilizing the citrus waste-based products in place of the petroleum-based or other non-renewable products. For the large biorefinery, ethanol used as E85 in light-duty vehicles results in a 134% reduction in GHG emissions compared to gasoline-fueled vehicles when applying a system expansion approach. For the small biorefinery, when electricity is generated from biomethane rather than natural gas, GHG emissions are reduced by 77% when applying system expansion. The life cycle GHG emissions vary substantially depending upon biomethane leakage rate, feedstock GHG emissions and the method to determine emissions assigned to co-products. Among the process design parameters, the biomethane leakage rate is critical, and the ethanol produced in the large biorefinery would not meet EISA

  9. Greenhouse gas exchange in grasslands: impacts of climate, intensity of management and other factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. A.

    2003-04-01

    several Western European countries, very high rates of N application to both grazed grassland and to grass crops grown for winter feed have made these lands the principal source of N_2O. It has been estimated that 40% of global emissions of NO, a precursor of tropospheric ozone, come from grasslands and savannas. Global warming is expected to bring about substantial changes in the overall greenhouse gas exchange of grasslands, with a net loss of soil C as CO_2, and possibly enhanced N_2O emissions. Increased rainfall is predicted for some regions, and this can also be expected to give rise to increases in N_2O.

  10. Life cycle greenhouse gas impacts of ethanol, biomethane and limonene production from citrus waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourbafrani, Mohammad; MacLean, Heather L; Saville, Bradley A; McKechnie, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The production of biofuel from cellulosic residues can have both environmental and financial benefits. A particular benefit is that it can alleviate competition for land conventionally used for food and feed production. In this research, we investigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production of ethanol, biomethane, limonene and digestate from citrus waste, a byproduct of the citrus processing industry. The study represents the first life cycle-based evaluations of citrus waste biorefineries. Two biorefinery configurations are studied—a large biorefinery that converts citrus waste into ethanol, biomethane, limonene and digestate, and a small biorefinery that converts citrus waste into biomethane, limonene and digestate. Ethanol is assumed to be used as E85, displacing gasoline as a light-duty vehicle fuel; biomethane displaces natural gas for electricity generation, limonene displaces acetone in solvents, and digestate from the anaerobic digestion process displaces synthetic fertilizer. System expansion and two allocation methods (energy, market value) are considered to determine emissions of co-products. Considerable GHG reductions would be achieved by producing and utilizing the citrus waste-based products in place of the petroleum-based or other non-renewable products. For the large biorefinery, ethanol used as E85 in light-duty vehicles results in a 134% reduction in GHG emissions compared to gasoline-fueled vehicles when applying a system expansion approach. For the small biorefinery, when electricity is generated from biomethane rather than natural gas, GHG emissions are reduced by 77% when applying system expansion. The life cycle GHG emissions vary substantially depending upon biomethane leakage rate, feedstock GHG emissions and the method to determine emissions assigned to co-products. Among the process design parameters, the biomethane leakage rate is critical, and the ethanol produced in the large biorefinery would not meet EISA

  11. Pomace waste management scenarios in Quebec-Impact on greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassara, Fatma [INRS-ETE, Universite du Quebec, 490, Rue de la Couronne, Quebec, Canada G1K 9A9 (Canada); Brar, S.K., E-mail: satinder.brar@ete.inrs.ca [INRS-ETE, Universite du Quebec, 490, Rue de la Couronne, Quebec, Canada G1K 9A9 (Canada); Pelletier, F.; Verma, M.; Godbout, S. [Institut de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement inc. (IRDA), 2700 rue Einstein, Quebec (Quebec), Canada G1P 3W8 (Canada); Tyagi, R.D. [INRS-ETE, Universite du Quebec, 490, Rue de la Couronne, Quebec, Canada G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Incineration, landfill, animal feed, enzyme production by fermentation and, composting as apple pomace management strategies. {yields} Reduction of GHG emissions using solid state fermentation of apple pomace {yields} Highest GHG emissions during landfill. - Abstract: Fruit processing industries generate tremendous amount of solid wastes which is almost 35-40% dry weight of the total produce used for the manufacturing of juices. These solid wastes, referred to as, 'pomace' contain high moisture content (70-75%) and biodegradable organic load (high BOD and COD values) so that their management is an important issue. During the management of these pomace wastes by different strategies comprising incineration, landfill, composting, solid-state fermentation to produce high-value enzymes and animal feed, there is production of greenhouse gases (GHG) which must be taken into account. In this perspective, this study is unique that discusses the GHG emission analysis of agro-industrial waste management strategies, especially apple pomace waste management and repercussions of value-addition of these wastes in terms of their sustainability using life cycle assessment (LCA) model. The results of the analysis indicated that, among all the apple pomace management sub-models for a functional unit, solid-state fermentation to produce enzymes was the most effective method for reducing GHG emissions (906.81 tons CO{sub 2} eq. per year), while apple pomace landfill resulted in higher GHG emissions (1841.00 tons CO{sub 2} eq. per year). The assessment and inventory of GHG emissions during solid-state fermentation gave positive indications of environmental sustainability for the use of this strategy to manage apple pomace and other agricultural wastes, particularly in Quebec and also extended to other countries. The analysis and use of parameters in this study were drawn from various analytical approaches and data sources. There was absence of some data

  12. Transport sector strategies and their impact on the air quality and on greenhouse gasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo Garcia, L.; Portillo Jimenez-Landi, A.

    2009-01-01

    The transport sector plays on essential role in our society, but generates non desired effects on the air quality as well on climate change. This is the reason why the transport and the environment governmental actions are crucial to mitigate them. In this article we introduced the most important resources and regulations to control and to evaluate the air quality and emissions, and also the most relevant objectives in transport actions to reduce them, not only in Spain but also in the European Union. We discuss herein their compliance degree and their effectiveness in relation with the transport emissions evolution during 1990-2006 in spain. (Author) 11 refs

  13. Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Yuan Tsai Wen-Cheng Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a comprehensive assessment model to measure the regional impact of climate change on Taiwan¡¦s water resources. Working from future rainfall data simulated by Japan¡¦s high-resolution GCM model JMA/MRI TL959L60 in a SRES-A1B scenario, we first apply climate change to an assessment model of renewable water resources to estimate the volume of renewable water resources on a regional basis. We then conduct a water resources system simulation based on estimates of future water needs, regional reservoir effective capacity and renewable water resource volume. This paper uses three water resource assessment indicators: the annual water utilization ratio indicator, the water shortage indicator and the extreme event occurrence indicator. Through fuzzy comprehensive assessment, we divide the evaluation set into five levels: very good (L1, good (L2, fair (L3, poor (L4 and very poor (L5. Results indicate that, given the effects of future climate change (2080 - 2099 and the increase in water demand, future water resources conditions in northern and eastern Taiwan will not be significantly different from historical levels (1979 - 1998 and will maintain a ¡§good¡¨ level (L2, while the conditions in southern Taiwan will visibly deteriorate from its historical ¡§fair¡¨ level (L3 to ¡§poor¡¨ (L4; and the future conditions for central Taiwan will be ¡§poor¡¨ (L4. The initiation of adaptation options for water management in southern and central Taiwan would be needed by increasing reservoir capacity and reducing overall water use.

  14. Shale Gas and Oil in Germany - Resources and Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladage, Stefan; Blumenberg, Martin; Houben, Georg; Pfunt, Helena; Gestermann, Nicolai; Franke, Dieter; Erbacher, Jochen

    2017-04-01

    In light of the controversial debate on "unconventional" oil and gas resources and the environmental impacts of "fracking", the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) conducted a comprehensive resource assessment of shale gas and light tight oil in Germany and studied the potential environmental impacts of shale gas development and hydraulic fracturing from a geoscientific perspective. Here, we present our final results (BGR 2016), incorporating the majority of potential shale source rock formations in Germany. Besides shale gas, light tight oil has been assessed. According to our set of criteria - i.e. thermal maturity 0.6-1.2 %vitrinite reflectance (VR; oil) and >1.2 % VR (gas) respectively, organic carbon content > 2%, depth between 500/1000 m and 5000 m as well as a net thickness >20 m - seven potentially generative shale formations were indentified, the most important of them being the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) Posidonia shale with both shale gas and tight oil potential. The North German basin is by far the most prolific basin. The resource assessment was carried out using a volumetric in-place approach. Variability inherent in the input parameters was accounted for using Monte-Carlo simulations. Technically recoverable resources (TRR) were estimated using recent, production-based recovery factors of North American shale plays and also employing Monte-Carlo simulations. In total, shale gas TRR range between 320 and 2030 bcm and tight oil TRR between 13 and 164 Mio. t in Germany. Tight oil potential is therefore considered minor, whereas the shale gas potential exceeds that of conventional resources by far. Furthermore an overview of numerical transport modelling approaches concerning environmental impacts of the hydraulic fracturing is given. These simulations are based on a representative lithostratigraphy model of the North-German basin, where major shale plays can be expected. Numerical hydrogeological modelling of frac fluid

  15. What Is the Contribution of City-Scale Actions to the Overall Food System's Environmental Impacts?: Assessing Water, Greenhouse Gas, and Land Impacts of Future Urban Food Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Dana; Ramaswami, Anu

    2017-10-17

    This paper develops a methodology for individual cities to use to analyze the in- and trans-boundary water, greenhouse gas (GHG), and land impacts of city-scale food system actions. Applied to Delhi, India, the analysis demonstrates that city-scale action can rival typical food policy interventions that occur at larger scales, although no single city-scale action can rival in all three environmental impacts. In particular, improved food-waste management within the city (7% system-wide GHG reduction) matches the GHG impact of preconsumer trans-boundary food waste reduction. The systems approach is particularly useful in illustrating key trade-offs and co-benefits. For instance, multiple diet shifts that can reduce GHG emissions have trade-offs that increase water and land impacts. Vertical farming technology (VFT) with current applications for fruits and vegetables can provide modest system-wide water (4%) and land reductions (3%), although implementation within the city itself may raise questions of constraints in water-stressed cities, with such a shift in Delhi increasing community-wide direct water use by 16%. Improving the nutrition status for the bottom 50% of the population to the median diet is accompanied by proportionally smaller increases of water, GHG, and land impacts (4%, 9%, and 8%, systemwide): increases that can be offset through simultaneous city-scale actions, e.g., improved food-waste management and VFT.

  16. Selecting downscaled climate projections for water resource impacts and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Hingray, Benoît

    2015-04-01

    Increasingly large ensembles of global and regional climate projections are being produced and delivered to the climate impact community. However, such an enormous amount of information can hardly been dealt with by some impact models due to computational constraints. Strategies for transparently selecting climate projections are therefore urgently needed for informing small-scale impact and adaptation studies and preventing potential pitfalls in interpreting ensemble results from impact models. This work proposes results from a selection approach implemented for an integrated water resource impact and adaptation study in the Durance river basin (Southern French Alps). A large ensemble of 3000 daily transient gridded climate projections was made available for this study. It was built from different runs of 4 ENSEMBLES Stream2 GCMs, statistically downscaled by 3 probabilistic methods based on the K-nearest neighbours resampling approach (Lafaysse et al., 2014). The selection approach considered here exemplifies one of the multiple possible approaches described in a framework for identifying tailored subsets of climate projections for impact and adaptation studies proposed by Vidal & Hingray (2014). It was chosen based on the specificities of both the study objectives and the characteristics of the projection dataset. This selection approach aims at propagating as far as possible the relative contributions of the four different sources of uncertainties considered, namely GCM structure, large-scale natural variability, structure of the downscaling method, and catchment-scale natural variability. Moreover, it took the form of a hierarchical structure to deal with the specific constraints of several types of impact models (hydrological models, irrigation demand models and reservoir management models). The implemented 3-layer selection approach is therefore mainly based on conditioned Latin Hypercube sampling (Christierson et al., 2012). The choice of conditioning

  17. Modeling Future Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Environmental Impacts of Electricity Supplies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Bilec

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s status as a rapidly developing country is visible in its need for more energy, including electricity. While the current electricity generation mix is primarily hydropower based, high-quality dam sites are diminishing and diversification to other sources is likely. We combined life-cycle data for electricity production with scenarios developed using the IAEA’s MESSAGE model to examine environmental impacts of future electricity generation under a baseline case and four side cases, using a Monte-Carlo approach to incorporate uncertainty in power plant performance and LCA impacts. Our results show that, under the cost-optimal base case scenario, Brazil’s GHGs from electricity (excluding hydroelectric reservoir emissions rise 370% by 2040 relative to 2010, with the carbon intensity per MWh rising 100%. This rise would make Brazil’s carbon emissions targets difficult to meet without demand-side programs. Our results show a future electricity mix dominated by environmental tradeoffs in the use of large-scale renewables, questioning the use tropical hydropower and highlighting the need for additional work to assess and include ecosystem and social impacts, where information is currently sparse.

  18. Analysis of High Plains Resource Risk and Economic Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vargas, Vanessa N [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Shannon M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dealy, Bern Caudill [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shaneyfelt, Calvin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Braeton James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moreland, Barbara Denise [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the High Plains Aquifer is broadly recognized as is its vulnerability to continued overuse. T his study e xplore s how continued depletions of the High Plains Aquifer might impact both critical infrastructure and the economy at the local, r egional , and national scale. This analysis is conducted at the county level over a broad geographic region within the states of Kansas and Nebraska. In total , 140 counties that overlie the High Plains Aquifer in these two states are analyzed. The analysis utilizes future climate projections to estimate crop production. Current water use and management practices are projected into the future to explore their related impact on the High Plains Aquifer , barring any changes in water management practices, regulat ion, or policy. Finally, the impact of declining water levels and even exhaustion of groundwater resources are projected for specific sectors of the economy as well as particular elements of the region's critical infrastructure.

  19. Pakistan's resources proficiency in global fever, greenhouse gases and atmospheric pollution control and need of their mobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.N.

    1997-01-01

    The temperature of earth planet is rising at an alarming rate and environmental changes, green house gasses emission and atmospheric pollution are approaching very critical limits. Ozone layer hole is increasing at very fast rate. On account of these very serious issues, the earth planet is heading at a very fast rate towards total collapse of life on it. For overcoming these very dangerous global problems Pakistan has very ideal resources subject to their proper management and well planned and timely mobilization. The efficient scientific utilization of these resources will not resolve its own pollution problems along contributing towards its own agricultural, industrial and economic growth, but also heavily contribute to the very critical global issues endangering the very existence of life on the earth along with contributing towards its own agricultural, industrial and economic growth. This will also forbid it to join hand with the rations already engaged in contributing toward the world's destruction by adding to these highly dangerous factors. In this work role of proper management of its water flow, gradient and storage resources in hydroelectric power generation and irrigation of its vast fertile agricultural fields and substantial control of these very dangerous global issues in highlighted. Also the economic boost of Pakistan due to its firm footing in respect economy, agricultural and industrial output, energy employment and flood damages control as a result of this mobilization is elaborated. At the end world's political leaders, electronic media, scientific and financial institutions are urged to help Pakistan in playing its role not only for welfare but very existence of mankind on this planet. (author)

  20. Greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This special issue is devoted to the greenhouse effect and reviews the possible climate change by mankind, paleoclimates, climate models, measurement of terrestrial temperature, CO 2 concentration and energy policy

  1. Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of a novel process for converting food waste to ethanol and co-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebner, Jacqueline; Babbitt, Callie; Winer, Martin; Hilton, Brian; Williamson, Anahita

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Co-fermentation using SSF at ambient temperature has potential as an ethanol pathway. • Bio-refinery GHG emissions are similar to corn and MSW ethanol production processes. • Net production GHG impact is negative with inclusion of waste disposal avoidance. • Food waste diversion from landfills is the largest contributor to GHG benefits. - Abstract: Waste-to-ethanol conversion is a promising technology to provide renewable transportation fuel while mitigating feedstock risks and land use conflicts. It also has the potential to reduce environmental impacts from waste management such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that contribute to climate change. This paper analyzes the life cycle GHG emissions associated with a novel process for the conversion of food processing waste into ethanol (EtOH) and the co-products of compost and animal feed. Data are based on a pilot plant co-fermenting retail food waste with a sugary industrial wastewater, using a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process at room temperature with a grinding pretreatment. The process produced 295 L EtOH/dry t feedstock. Lifecycle GHG emissions associated with the ethanol production process were 1458 gCO 2 e/L EtOH. When the impact of avoided landfill emissions from diverting food waste to use as feedstock are considered, the process results in net negative GHG emissions and approximately 500% improvement relative to corn ethanol or gasoline production. This finding illustrates how feedstock and alternative waste disposal options have important implications in life cycle GHG results for waste-to-energy pathways

  2. The impact of renewables and energy efficiency on greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report analyses the impact of renewables, CO2 pricing and energy efficiency improvements on CO2 emissions from stationary energy use in the Nordic countries except Iceland. Electricity and heat production (and use) account for the largest emissions from the Nordic economies. The analysis shows that CO2 emissions from 1990 to 2005 could have been as much as 3050% higher without the penetration of renewables in the energy system and the improvement in the energy intensity of GDP. Looking ahead, it is clear that both the EU ETS and renewables policies may have a significant impact on CO2 emissions. For moderate CO2 prices, the overlap between the two types of measures is not found to be substantial, although both yield significant CO2 emission reductions applied separately. This is because the measures to some extent apply to different sectors and uses. The effectiveness of energy efficiency improvements is also found to have a significant effect on emissions. Measures leading to a reduction in electricity consumption are found to be more effective than measures leading to a reduction in heat consumption. (au)

  3. Greenhouse Warming Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    2016-01-01

    The changing greenhouse effect caused by natural and anthropogenic causes is explained and efforts to model the behavior of the near-surface constituents of the Earth's land, ocean and atmosphere are discussed. Emissions of various substances and other aspects of human activity influence...... the greenhouse warming, and the impacts of the warming may again impact the wellbeing of human societies. Thus physical modeling of the near-surface ocean-soil-atmosphere system cannot be carried out without an idea of the development of human activities, which is done by scenario analysis. The interactive...

  4. Greenhouse gases and their impact on climate change: case of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghauri, B.; Lodhi, A.

    1997-01-01

    Changes in climate caused by human activities will have far-reaching environmental impacts. Of particular concern are the possibilities of major changes in regional water quantity and quality. An increase in average monthly temperature of 4 deg. C decreases spring runoff over 50% while increasing winter runoff nearly 35%; summer Soil moisture decreases over 30%. Changes in precipitation, whether positive or negative may have been greater consequences for the timing and magnitude of runoff and may contribute significantly to the possibility and consequences of flooding and drought. Global Climatic Changes caused by increasing atmospheric concentration of CO/sub 2/ from fuel combustion and other trace gases are likely to appear within the next few decades. One of the most important of such environmental changes will be alternations in regional hydrologic characteristics such as surface runoff and soil moisture. (author)

  5. Impacts of nationally determined contributions on 2030 global greenhouse gas emissions: uncertainty analysis and distribution of emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, Hélène; Boucher, Olivier; Guivarch, Céline; Le Treut, Hervé; Criqui, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), submitted by Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change before and after the 21st Conference of Parties, summarize domestic objectives for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions for the 2025-2030 time horizon. In the absence, for now, of detailed guidelines for the format of NDCs, ancillary data are needed to interpret some NDCs and project GHG emissions in 2030. Here, we provide an analysis of uncertainty sources and their impacts on 2030 global GHG emissions based on the sole and full achievement of the NDCs. We estimate that NDCs project into 56.8-66.5 Gt CO2eq yr-1 emissions in 2030 (90% confidence interval), which is higher than previous estimates, and with a larger uncertainty range. Despite these uncertainties, NDCs robustly shift GHG emissions towards emerging and developing countries and reduce international inequalities in per capita GHG emissions. Finally, we stress that current NDCs imply larger emissions reduction rates after 2030 than during the 2010-2030 period if long-term temperature goals are to be fulfilled. Our results highlight four requirements for the forthcoming ‘climate regime’: a clearer framework regarding future NDCs’ design, an increasing participation of emerging and developing countries in the global mitigation effort, an ambitious update mechanism in order to avoid hardly feasible decarbonization rates after 2030 and an anticipation of steep decreases in global emissions after 2030.

  6. Influence of Biochar on C and N Transformation in Soil and Their Impact on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintala, R.; Schumacher, T. E.; Kumar, S.; Clay, D. E.; Malo, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    (microbial biomass N, inorganic N, and δ 15N). Greenhouse gas fluxes (CO2, CH4, and N2O) were measured and correlation studies will be conducted to determine the relationship with the interference effect of biochars on C and N transformation in soil. Initial data shows that biochar has an impact especially on CO2, and N2O emissions.

  7. The Greenhouse Effect: Science and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephen H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses many of the scientific questions surrounding the greenhouse effect debate and the issue of plausible responses. Discussion includes topics concerning projecting emissions and greenhouse gas concentrations, estimating global climatic response, economic, social, and political impacts, and policy responses. (RT)

  8. Quantifying climate change impacts on hydropower generation and implications on electric grid greenhouse gas emissions and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroja, Brian; AghaKouchak, Amir; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Here we translate the impacts of climate change on hydropower generation, and discuss implications on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and operation in California. We integrate a model of major surface-water reservoirs with an electric grid dispatch model, and perturb it by projected runoff based on representative concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Results show that climate change and variability is expected to decrease the average annual hydropower generation by 3.1% under RCP4.5, but have negligible impact under the RCP8.5. Model simulations indicate more inflow, caused by more future extremes, in the future that does not necessarily translate to more energy production because of reservoir spillage of water. While overall volume of future available water for energy production may be similar or higher, the delivery of this volume is expected to be significantly more variable in the future climate than the historical average, which has many implications for hydropower generation. Our results show that the expected changes in future climate leads to increases in grid GHG emissions, load-following capacity, fuel usage, and costs for the RCP4.5 due to generation shortfall, and very slight increases in the same metrics for the RCP8.5 case due to variability causing decreased efficiencies in load-following power plants. - Highlights: • Climate change caused increased overall volume inflow levels to hydropower reservoirs. • Extreme precipitation events caused reservoir spillage and inability to fully use increased inflow. • Hydropower generation decreased for RCP 4.5 and remained similar to historical for RCP 8.5. • Increased climate variability caused decreased efficiencies in load-following power plants.

  9. Projection of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions by motor vehicles in China: Policy options and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Hong; Wang, Michael; Zhang Xiliang; He Kebin; Gong Huiming; Jiang Kejun; Jin Yuefu; Shi Yaodong; Yu Xin

    2012-01-01

    We project the well-to-wheels (WTW) and tank-to-wheels (TTW) fossil-energy use, petroleum use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the road-transport sector in China up to year 2050 and evaluate the effects of various potential policy options with the fuel economy and environmental impacts (FEEI) model ( (http://www.feeimodel.org/)). The policies evaluated include (1) vehicle fuel-consumption improvements, (2) dieselization, (3) vehicle electrification, and (4) fuel diversification, with plausible policy scenarios. Under the business-as-usual scenario, road transport in China would create 410–520 million metric tons (MMT) of oil-equivalent of TTW oil demand (three to four times the current level), 28–36 billion GJ of WTW energy demand, and 1900–2300 MMT of CO 2 -equivalent of WTW GHG emissions by 2050. The policies (in the same order as above) are projected to reduce the TTW oil demand by 35%, 10%, 29%, and 44%, and reduce WTW GHG emissions by 34%, 5%, 12%, and 13%, respectively, by 2050. This evaluation reveals that the fuel-consumption improvement policy could achieve greater benefit in reducing oil use, fossil-energy use, and GHG emissions. Implications of each policy option are discussed and the uncertainties associated with the policy scenarios are analyzed. - Highlights: ► Fuel-cycle energy use and GHG emissions of vehicles in China are projected up to 2050. ► Various policies are evaluated with the fuel economy and environmental impacts model. ► Fuel economy standards have greatest benefit in saving energy use and GHG emissions. ► Electrification is effective. Benefit of dieselization and fuel blending is limited.

  10. The estimated impact of California’s urban water conservation mandate on electricity consumption and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, Edward S.; Holguin, Andrew J.; Loge, Frank J.

    2018-01-01

    In April 2015, the Governor of California mandated a 25% statewide reduction in water consumption (relative to 2013 levels) by urban water suppliers. The more than 400 public water agencies affected by the regulation were also required to report monthly progress towards the conservation goal to the State Water Resources Control Board. This paper uses the reported data to assess how the water utilities have responded to this mandate and to estimate the electricity savings and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions associated with reduced operation of urban water infrastructure systems. The results show that California succeeded in saving 524 000 million gallons (MG) of water (a 24.5% decrease relative to the 2013 baseline) over the mandate period, which translates into 1830 GWh total electricity savings, and a GHG emissions reduction of 521 000 metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents (MT CO2e). For comparison, the total electricity savings linked to water conservation are approximately 11% greater than the savings achieved by the investor-owned electricity utilities’ efficiency programs for roughly the same time period, and the GHG savings represent the equivalent of taking about 111 000 cars off the road for a year. These indirect, large-scale electricity and GHG savings were achieved at costs that were competitive with existing programs that target electricity and GHG savings directly and independently. Finally, given the breadth of the results produced, we built a companion website, called ‘H2Open’ (https://cwee.shinyapps.io/greengov/), to this research effort that allows users to view and explore the data and results across scales, from individual water utilities to the statewide summary.

  11. Impacts of an extreme cyclone event on landscape-scale savanna fire, productivity and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutley, L B; Maier, S W; Evans, B J; Beringer, J; Cook, G D; Razon, E

    2013-01-01

    North Australian tropical savanna accounts for 12% of the world’s total savanna land cover. Accordingly, understanding processes that govern carbon, water and energy exchange within this biome is critical to global carbon and water budgeting. Climate and disturbances drive ecosystem carbon dynamics. Savanna ecosystems of the coastal and sub-coastal of north Australia experience a unique combination of climatic extremes and are in a state of near constant disturbance from fire events (1 in 3 years), storms resulting in windthrow (1 in 5–10 years) and mega-cyclones (1 in 500–1000 years). Critically, these disturbances occur over large areas creating a spatial and temporal mosaic of carbon sources and sinks. We quantify the impact on gross primary productivity (GPP) and fire occurrence from a tropical mega-cyclone, tropical Cyclone Monica (TC Monica), which affected 10 400 km 2 of savanna across north Australia, resulting in the mortality and severe structural damage to ∼140 million trees. We estimate a net carbon equivalent emission of 43 Tg of CO 2 -e using the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) GPP (MOD17A2) to quantify spatial and temporal patterns pre- and post-TC Monica. GPP was suppressed for four years after the event, equivalent to a loss of GPP of 0.5 Tg C over this period. On-ground fuel loads were estimated to potentially release 51.2 Mt CO 2 -e, equivalent to ∼10% of Australia’s accountable greenhouse gas emissions. We present a simple carbon balance to examine the relative importance of frequency versus impact for a number of key disturbance processes such as fire, termite consumption and intense but infrequent mega-cyclones. Our estimates suggested that fire and termite consumption had a larger impact on Net Biome Productivity than infrequent mega-cyclones. We demonstrate the importance of understanding how climate variability and disturbance impacts savanna dynamics in the context of the increasing interest in

  12. The effect on climate change impacts for building products when including the timing of greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D Bergman

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) trap infrared radiation emitting from the Earth’s surface to generate the “greenhouse effect” thus keeping the planet warm. Many natural activities including rotting vegetation emit GHGs such as carbon dioxide to produce this natural affect. However, in the last 200 years or so, human activity has increased the atmospheric concentrations of GHGs...

  13. Greenhouse effect: Myth or reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper debates on greenhouse effect controversy. Natural greenhouse effect is beneficent but additional greenhouse effect, in relation with human activities, can present a major risk for humanity. However an international agreement is difficult owing to the enormous costs which could not be endured by South economies. A tax on carbon dioxide emissions would have for consequence a wave of industrial delocalizations without precedent with important unemployment in Europe and no impact on additional greenhouse effect because it is a radiative effect and it is not a classic local chemical pollution. 11 refs., 10 figs

  14. The impact of resource tax reform on China's coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Huihui; Chen, ZhanMing; Wang, Jianliang; Fan, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Contributing to approximately two-thirds of primary energy consumption, coal usage is the focus of China's energy policies. To regulate the resource taxation system and reduce the burden of coal enterprises, the Chinese government launched a reform of its resource tax system in 2014 for coal, introducing the ad valorem system to replace the volume-based system that had been in place for the preceding thirty years. To assess the impact of the tax reform, this paper constructs two-stage dynamic game models by taking the coal and coal-fired power industries as the players. The market situations of shortage and oversupply are investigated separately. Empirical data are collected to estimate the model parameters for numerical simulations. The model results suggest that the tax reform will reduce both coal prices and the coal industry profitability if the tax levied on each ton of coal is maintained at the same level as before the reform, regardless of whether the market is in a shortage or an oversupply situation. However, the increased buyer's power will amplify the effect of the tax reform. The numerical simulations also provide an estimation of the tax rate of the ad valorem system that maintains the profit of the coal industry. Considering the demand and supply situations in China's coal market, policy recommendations are provided to guide further reform of China's resource tax system. - Highlights: • The paper examines the influence of resource tax reform on China's coal industry. • We construct two-stage game models between coal and coal-fired power industries. • Market situations of shortage and oversupply are studied in two taxation systems. • Coal price will decrease if maintaining the tax levied on each ton of coal the same. • To achieve the reform objective, the ad valorem tax rate should not be set too high.

  15. Greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    This book speaks about the growth of greenhouse gases content in the atmosphere and try to forecast the different scenarios which may happen. But, in spite of international cooperation and coordinated research programs, nobody owns the answer. So possible future climatic changes depend on the behavior of the concerned actors. A review of energy policy driven by USA, Japan, Sweden, United Kingdom and Federal Republic of Germany is given. Political management of this file and public opinion in front of greenhouse effect are also described. 7 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Impact of longevity on greenhouse gas emissions and profitability of individual dairy cows analysed with different system boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandl, F; Furger, M; Kreuzer, M; Zehetmeier, M

    2018-05-29

    Dairy production systems are often criticized as being major emitters of greenhouse gases (GHG). In this context, the extension of the length of the productive life of dairy cows is gaining interest as a potential GHG mitigation option. In the present study, we investigated cow and system GHG emission intensity and profitability based on data from 30 dairy cows of different productive lifetime fed either no or limited amounts of concentrate. Detailed information concerning productivity, feeding and individual enteric methane emissions of the individuals was available from a controlled experiment and herd book databases. A simplified GHG balance was calculated for each animal based on the milk produced at the time of the experiment and for their entire lifetime milk production. For the lifetime production, we also included the emissions arising from potential beef produced by fattening the offspring of the dairy cows. This accounted for the effect that changes in the length of productive life will affect the replacement rate and thus the number of calves that can be used for beef production. Profitability was assessed by calculating revenues and full economic costs for the cows in the data set. Both emission intensity and profitability were most favourable in cows with long productive life, whereas cows that had not finished their first lactation performed particularly unfavourably with regard to their emissions per unit of product and rearing costs were mostly not repaid. Including the potential beef production, GHG emissions in relation to total production of animal protein also decreased with age, but the overall variability was greater, as the individual cow history (lifetime milk yield, twin births, stillbirths, etc.) added further sources of variation. The present results show that increasing the length of productive life of dairy cows is a viable way to reduce the climate impact and to improve profitability of dairy production.

  17. Pilot Greenhouse

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This pilot greenhouse was built in collaboration with the "Association des Maraichers" of Geneva in the frame of the study for making use of the heat rejected as warm water by CERN accelerators and experiments. Among other improvements, more automated and precise regulation systems for heating and ventilation were developed. See also 8305598X.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from the production and use of alternative transport fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Cornu, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    A number of the commonly proposed alternative transport fuels were ranked according to both the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions and the production costs incurred between the recovery of the prime resource and the fuel's end use by the Australian transport fleet. An examination of the emissions of each greenhouse gas at each production stage confirmed the common presumption that the low levels of secondary greenhouse gas emissions involved contribute little to the overall greenhouse impact of a fuel's production and use. From a greenhouse point of view the transport fuels studied could be reasonable well ranked by considering their carbon dioxide emissions alone. A possible exception may apply in the case of the compressed natural gas option, which may need to separate consideration of the effect of fugitive emissions of methane from gas distribution systems. An assumption involved in reaching this result was that nitrous oxide emissions, on which there was inadequate hard data, would not form more than 1% of the total nitrogen oxide emissions. At such an emission level it could contribute up to 5% of a fuel's total greenhouse impact. It is concluded that apart from some small niche opportunities, there is no Australian alternative transport fuel option whose production cost and greenhouse impact makes it one which policy should favour over other fuels. It is stressed that this is no more than a preliminary scouting study of generic options, which addresses only greenhouse issues. 17 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  19. Open Manufacturing: Impacts of Resource Based View and Servitisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Johansen, John

    2010-01-01

    The environment of manufacturing has faced significant changes in the past decade. Meanwhile, the traditional focus of manufacturing strategy is also impacted by resource-based view and servitisation. Thus, no matter from a practical or theoretical perspective, it is time to rethink what kind...... of view we can have on manufacturing. In this paper, the literature is reviewed firstly to track the evolution of theories on manufacturing strategy and to investigate new views on manufacturing from a theoretical perspective. This is followed by three case studies, which are used to explore how...... manufacturing is used from a practical perspective. The usages of manufacturing are classified into three groups and their relationships are discussed further. Based on these findings and inspired by open source software (OSS) and open innovation, a new paradigm on manufacturing termed as “open manufacturing...

  20. Impact of feedstock, land use change, and soil organic carbon on energy and greenhouse gas performance of biomass cogeneration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njakou Djomo, S.; Witters, N.; Van Dael, M.; Gabrielle, B.; Ceulemans, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison of 40 bioenergy pathways to a fossil-fuel based CHP system. • Not all energy efficient pathways led to lower GHG emissions. • iLUC through intensification increased the total energy input and GHG emissions. • Fluidized bed technologies maximize the energy and GHG benefits of all pathways. • Perennial crops are in some cases better than residues on GHG emissions criteria. - Abstract: Bioenergy (i.e., bioheat and bioelectricity) could simultaneously address energy insecurity and climate change. However, bioenergy’s impact on climate change remains incomplete when land use changes (LUC), soil organic carbon (SOC) changes, and the auxiliary energy consumption are not accounted for in the life cycle. Using data collected from Belgian farmers, combined heat and power (CHP) operators, and a life cycle approach, we compared 40 bioenergy pathways to a fossil-fuel CHP system. Bioenergy required between 0.024 and 0.204 MJ (0.86 MJ th + 0.14 MJ el ) −1 , and the estimated energy ratio (energy output-to-input ratio) ranged from 5 to 42. SOC loss increased the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of residue based bioenergy. On average, the iLUC represented ∼67% of the total GHG emissions of bioenergy from perennial energy crops. However, the net LUC (i.e., dLUC + iLUC) effects substantially reduced the GHG emissions incurred during all phases of bioenergy production from perennial crops, turning most pathways based on energy crops to GHG sinks. Relative to fossil-fuel based CHP all bioenergy pathways reduced GHG emissions by 8–114%. Fluidized bed technologies maximize the energy and the GHG benefits of all pathways. The size and the power-to-heat ratio for a given CHP influenced the energy and GHG performance of these bioenergy pathways. Even with the inclusion of LUC, perennial crops had better GHG performance than agricultural and forest residues. Perennial crops have a high potential in the multidimensional approach to increase energy

  1. Impact of human resource management practices on nursing home performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau, K V; Wagar, T H

    2001-08-01

    Management scholars and practitioners alike have become increasingly interested in learning more about the ability of certain 'progressive' or 'high-performance' human resource management (HRM) practices to enhance organizational effectiveness. There is growing evidence to suggest that the contribution of various HRM practices to impact firm performance may be synergistic in effect yet contingent on a number of contextual factors, including workplace climate. A contingency theory perspective suggests that in order to be effective, HMR policies and practices must be consistent with other aspects of the organization, including its environment. This paper reports on empirical findings from research that examines the relationship between HRM practices, workplace climate and perceptions of organizational performance, in a large sample of Canadian nursing homes. Data from 283 nursing homes were collected by means of a mail survey that included questions on HRM practices, programmes, and policies, on human resource aspects of workplace climate, as well as a variety of indicators that include employee, customer/resident and facility measures of organizational performance. Results derived from ordered probit analysis suggest that nursing homes in our sample which had implemented more 'progressive' HRM practices and which reported a workplace climate that strongly values employee participation, empowerment and accountability tended to be perceived to generally perform better on a number of valued organizational outcomes. Nursing homes in our sample that performed best overall were found to be more likely to not only have implemented more of these HRM practices, but also to report having a workplace climate that reflects the seminal value that it places on its human resources. This finding is consistent with the conclusion that simply introducing HRM practices or programmes, in the absence of an appropriately supportive workplace climate, will be insufficient to attain

  2. Buying greenhouse insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manne, A.S.; Richels, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    A growing concern that the increasing accumulation of greenhouse gases will lead to undesirable changes in global climate has resulted in proposals, both in the United States and internationally, to set physical targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. But what will these proposals cost? This book outlines a way to think about greenhouse-effect decisions under uncertainty. It describes an insightful model for determining the economic costs of limiting CO 2 emissions produced by burning fossil fuels and provides a solid analytical base for rethinking public policy on the far-reaching issue of global warming. It presents region-by-region estimates of the costs that would underlie an international agreement. Using a computer model known as Global 2100, they analyze the economic impacts of limiting CO 2 emissions under alternative supply and conservation scenarios. The results clearly indicate that a reduction in emissions is not the sole policy response to potential climate change. Following a summary of the greenhouse effect, its likely causes, and possible consequences, this book takes up issues that concern the public at large. They provide an overview of Global 2100, look at how the U.S. energy sector is likely to evolve under business-as-usual conditions and under carbon constraints, and describe the concept of greenhouse insurance. They consider possible global agreements, including an estimate of benefits that might result from trading in an international market in emission rights. They conclude with a technical description directed toward modeling specialists

  3. Optimizing Resources for Trustworthiness and Scientific Impact of Domain Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, K.

    2017-12-01

    Domain repositories, i.e. data archives tied to specific scientific communities, are widely recognized and trusted by their user communities for ensuring a high level of data quality, enhancing data value, access, and reuse through a unique combination of disciplinary and digital curation expertise. Their data services are guided by the practices and values of the specific community they serve and designed to support the advancement of their science. Domain repositories need to meet user expectations for scientific utility in order to be successful, but they also need to fulfill the requirements for trustworthy repository services to be acknowledged by scientists, funders, and publishers as a reliable facility that curates and preserves data following international standards. Domain repositories therefore need to carefully plan and balance investments to optimize the scientific impact of their data services and user satisfaction on the one hand, while maintaining a reliable and robust operation of the repository infrastructure on the other hand. Staying abreast of evolving repository standards to certify as a trustworthy repository and conducting a regular self-assessment and certification alone requires resources that compete with the demands for improving data holdings or usability of systems. The Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance (IEDA), a data facility funded by the US National Science Foundation, operates repositories for geochemical, marine Geoscience, and Antarctic research data, while also maintaining data products (global syntheses) and data visualization and analysis tools that are of high value for the science community and have demonstrated considerable scientific impact. Balancing the investments in the growth and utility of the syntheses with resources required for certifcation of IEDA's repository services has been challenging, and a major self-assessment effort has been difficult to accommodate. IEDA is exploring a partnership model to share

  4. Proposed law of nature linking impacts, plume volcanism, and Milankovitch cycles to terrestrial vertebrate mass extinctions via greenhouse-embryo death coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclean, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    A greenhouse-physiological coupling killing mechanism active among mammals, birds, and reptiles has been identified. Operating via environmental thermal effects upon the maternal core-skin blood flow critical to the survival and development of embryos, it reduces the flow of blood to the uterine tract. Today, during hot summers, this phenomena kills embryos on a vast, global scale. Because of sensitivity of many mammals to modern heat, a major modern greenhouse could reduce population numbers on a global scale, and potentially trigger population collapses in the more vulnerable parts of the world. In the geological past, the killing mechanism has likely been triggered into action by greenhouse warming via impact events, plume volcanism, and Earth orbital variations (Milankovitch cycles). Earth's biosphere is maintained and molded by the flow of energy from the solar energy source to Earth and on to the space energy sink (SES). This SES energy flow maintains Earth's biosphere and its living components, as open, intermediate, dissipative, nonequilibrium systems whose states are dependent upon the rate of energy flowing through them. Greenhouse gases such as CO2 in the atmosphere influence the SES energy flow rate. Steady-state flow is necessary for global ecological stability (autopoiesis). Natural fluctuations of the C cycle such as rapid releases of CO2 from the mantle, or oceans, disrupt steady-state SES flow. These fluctuations constantly challenge the biosphere; slowdown of SES energy flow drives it toward thermodynamical equilibrium and stagnation. Fluctuations induced by impact event, mantle plume volcanism, and Milankovitch cycles can grow into structure-breaking waves triggering major perturbations of Earth's C cycle and mass extinctions. A major C cycle perturbation involves readjustment of the outer physiochemical spheres of the Earth: the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere; and by necessity, the biosphere. A greenhouse, one manifestation of a major

  5. Climate change impact on water resource extremes in a headwater region of the Tarim basin in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Liu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Tarim river basin in China is a huge inland arid basin, which is expected to be highly vulnerable to climatic changes, given that most water resources originate from the upper mountainous headwater regions. This paper focuses on one of these headwaters: the Kaidu river subbasin. The climate change impact on the surface and ground water resources of that basin and more specifically on the hydrological extremes were studied by using both lumped and spatially distributed hydrological models, after simulation of the IPCC SRES greenhouse gas scenarios till the 2050s. The models include processes of snow and glacier melting. The climate change signals were extracted from the grid-based results of general circulation models (GCMs and applied on the station-based, observed historical data using a perturbation approach. For precipitation, the time series perturbation involves both a wet-day frequency perturbation and a quantile perturbation to the wet-day rainfall intensities. For temperature and potential evapotranspiration, the climate change signals only involve quantile based changes. The perturbed series were input into the hydrological models and the impacts on the surface and ground water resources studied. The range of impact results (after considering 36 GCM runs were summarized in high, mean, and low results. It was found that due to increasing precipitation in winter, snow accumulation increases in the upper mountainous areas. Due to temperature rise, snow melting rates increase and the snow melting periods are pushed forward in time. Although the qualitive impact results are highly consistent among the different GCM runs considered, the precise quantitative impact results varied significantly depending on the GCM run and the hydrological model.

  6. Resource impact evaluation of in-situ uranium groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbeneau, R.J.; Rohlich, G.A.

    1981-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of restoration on the groundwater following in-situ uranium solution mining in South Texas. Restoration is necessary in order to reduce the amounts of undesired chemical constituents left in solution after mining operations have ceased, and thus return the groundwater to a quality consistent with pre-mining use and potential use. Various restoration strategies have been proposed and are discussed. Of interest are the hydrologic, environmental, social, and economic impacts of these restoration alternatives. Much of the discussion concerning groundwater restoration is based on the use of an ammonium carbonate-bicarbonate leach solution in the mining process. This has been the principal leach solution used during the early period of mining in South Texas. Recently, because of apparent difficulties in restoring ammonium to proposed or required levels, many of the companies have changed to the use of other leach solutions. Because little is known about restoration with these other leach solutions they have not been specifically addressed in this report. Likewise, we have not addressed the question of the fate of heavy metals. Following a summary of the development of South Texas in-situ mining in Chapter Two, Chapter Three describes the surface and groundwater resources of the uranium mining district. Chapter Four addresses the economics of water use, and Chapter Five is concerned with regulation of the in-situ uranium industry in Texas. A discussion of groundwater restoration alternatives and impacts is presented in Chapter Six. Chapter Seven contains a summary and a discussion, and conclusions derived from this study. Two case histories are presented in Appendices A and B

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from the mineralisation process in a Sludge Treatment Reed Bed system: Seasonal variation and environmental impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Dam; Nielsen, Steen; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission data from the mineralisation process in Sludge Treatment Reed Bed systems (STRB) are scarce. The aim of this study was to quantify the emission rates of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and to investigate seasonal variations in order to estimate ...

  8. Projected wood energy impact on US forest wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skog, K.E. [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The USDA Forest Service has developed long-term projections of wood energy use as part of a 1993 assessment of demand for and supply of resources from forest and range lands in the United States. To assess the impact of wood energy demand on timber resources, a market equilibrium model based on linear programming was developed to project residential, industrial, commercial, and utility wood energy use from various wood energy sources: roundwood from various land sources, primary wood products mill residue, other wood residue, and black liquor. Baseline projections are driven by projected price of fossil fuels compared to price of wood fuels and the projected increase in total energy use in various end uses. Wood energy use is projected to increase from 2.67 quad in 1986 to 3.5 quad in 2030 and 3.7 quad in 2040. This is less than the DOE National Energy Strategy projection of 5.5 quad in 2030. Wood energy from forest sources (roundwood) is projected to increase from 3.1 billion (10{sup 9}) ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 4.4. billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 4.8 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (88, 124 and 136 million m{sup 3}, respectively). This rate of increase of roundwood use for fuel -- 0.8 percent per year -- is virtually the same as the projected increase rate for roundwood for pulpwood. Pulpwood roundwood is projected to increase from 4.2 billion ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 6.0 billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 6.4 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (119, 170 and 183 million m{sup 3}, respectively).

  9. Efficacy of insect-proof nets used in Tunisian tomato greenhouses against Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and potential impact on plant growth and fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Harbi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Insect-proof screens constitute efficient physical means of protecting horticultural crops against insect pests and their use has become widespread. However, they may have a negative impact on plant growth and fruit quality by modifying climatic parameters of greenhouses. In case of tomato crops, they are used mainly against white flies and the tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. In Tunisia, tomato plastic tunnels are often netted following two modalities: i complete netting of the greenhouse under the plastic screen (total netting; or ii netting only doors and lateral aeration windows (partial netting. Weekly monitoring of T. absoluta in two tomato greenhouses with different netting setups using pheromone traps and sampling of leaves and fruits showed no differences in the levels of infestation by the pest with a maximum average values of 6.66 eggs/leaf, 4.16 larvae/leaf and 4.16 mines/leaf. The maximum infestation rate of leaves was 86.66% and that of fruits was 10.83%. No effects of the netting setup used on plant growth parameters were detected. However, the study of fruit quality parameters revealed significant decrease in sugar contents in tomato fruits when using total netting setup (4.26°Brix versus 3.68°Brix. Recommendations regarding the combined use of pheromones traps and insect-proof nets are given and possibilities to enhance the efficiency of nets as physical barrier against T. absoluta are explored.

  10. Uranium mining impacts on water resources in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes Filho, Francisco Fernando Lamego; Lauria, Dejanira C.; Vasconcellos, Luisa M.H.; Fernandes, Horst M.; Clain, Almir F.; Silva, Liliane F.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium mining and milling activities started operations in Brazil during the 80's. The first production Center was deployed in Pocos de Caldas (CIPC) State of Minas Gerais. The mine was exhausted in 1997, after has produced only 1200 t of U 3 O 8 . The second uranium plant began the operations in Caetite (URA), Bahia State, since 1999 and keeps operations until now with an annual U 3 O 8 production of up to 400 t. The company plans to double this mark in Caetite production center with the exploration of another uranium deposits and initiate underground operations of current open-pit mine. Simultaneously, they are seeking a license for a third plant in the State of Ceara that could produce the double of foreseen capacity in URA. This scenery drives to some issues related to the impact of uranium production on water resources of the respective watersheds. The CIPC plant is a closing mine site, which requires permanent treatment of the company due to the fact their sources of pollutants are subject to the occurrence of Acid Mine Drainage. The URA plant is located in a semi-arid region of Brazil. The extraction of uranium from the ore is achieved by means of a Heap-Leach process, which has low water demand supplied by a network of wells and from a dam, but can contribute to change the groundwater quality and in some cases the extinguishing of wells was observed. An overall assessment of these impacts in national level could produce some lessons that we must take advantage for the ongoing project of Santa Quiteria or even in future sites. (author)

  11. Impact Assessment of Abiotic Resources in LCA: Quantitative Comparison of Selected Characterization Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbech, Jakob Thaysen; Vadenbo, Carl; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Resources have received significant attention in recent years resulting in development of a wide range of resource depletion indicators within life cycle assessment (LCA). Understanding the differences in assessment principles used to derive these indicators and the effects on the impact assessment...... results is critical for indicator selection and interpretation of the results. Eleven resource depletion methods were evaluated quantitatively with respect to resource coverage, characterization factors (CF), impact contributions from individual resources, and total impact scores. We included 2247...... groups, according to method focus and modeling approach, to aid method selection within LCA....

  12. THE IMPACT OF KNOWLEDGE AND RESOURCES ON MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Padovani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the knowledge, resource, and competence management practices of a capital intensive company in Brazil. We map general and essential competencies, identify critical performance factors and catalogue the knowledge management tools available to the firm. We also attempt to trace the impact of the implementation strategies selected on the success or failure of the project. Two specific questions that arose in the course of the research were: a. How can firms maintain the knowledge base of the organization in the presence of high turnover, and b. What are the effects of the loss of intellectual capital on the firm. This was exploratory research, using the longitudinal case study method advocated by Voss, Tsikritsis and Frolich. The unit of analysis was the individual project. We studied 15 new plant erections or revamps carried out between 2007 and 2009. Data sources included interviews with key project management employees as well as analyses of management reports, firm data banks, and software used in the project management process. Among other things, our research identified a strong relationship between the profile of the individual project manager and the management structure adopted on a given project.

  13. Economic Impact of CDM Implementation through Alternate Energy Resource Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Sreekanth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the Kyoto protocol agreement, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM hasgarnered large emphasis in terms of certified emission reductions (CER not only amidst the globalcarbon market but also in India. This paper attempts to assess the impact of CDM towardssustainable development particularly in rural domestic utility sector that mainly includes lightingand cooking applications, with electricity as the source of energy. A detailed survey has undertakenin the state of Kerala, in southern part of India to study the rural domestic energy consumptionpattern. The data collected was analyzed that throws insight into the interrelationships of thevarious parameters that influence domestic utility sector pertaining to energy consumption byusing electricity as the source of energy. The interrelationships between the different parameterswere modeled that optimizes the contribution of electricity on domestic utility sector. The resultswere used to estimate the feasible extent of CO2 emission reduction through use of electricity as theenergy resources, vis-à-vis its economic viability through cost effectiveness. The analysis alsoprovides a platform for implementing CDM projects in the sector and related prospects withrespects to the Indian scenario.

  14. The impact of human resource valuation on corporate performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was recommended that accounting bodies should educate management of companies & human resource managers on the need to capitalize investment in human resource. It was also recommended that there should be harmonization of the various concept of human resource accounting which include human asset ...

  15. Greenhouse gases and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    From previous articles we have learned about the complexities of our environment, its atmosphere and its climate system. we have also learned that climate change and, therefore global warm and cool periods are naturally occurring phenomena. Moreover, all scientific evidence suggests that global warming, are likely to occur again naturally in the future. However, we have not yet considered the role of the rates of climate change in affecting the biosphere. It appears that how quickly the climate changes may be more important than the change itself. In light of this concern, let us now consider the possibility that, is due to human activity. We may over the next century experience global warming at rates and magnitudes unparalleled in recent geologic history. The following questions are answered; What can we learn from past climates? What do we know about global climates over the past 100 years? What causes temperature change? What are the greenhouse gases? How much have concentration of greenhouse gases increased in recent years? Why are increases in concentrations of greenhouse of concern? What is the e nhanced greenhouse effect ? How can human activity impact the global climate? What are some reasons for increased concentrations of greenhouse gases? What are fossil fuel and how do they transform into greenhouse gases? Who are the biggest emitters of greenhouse gases? Why are canada per capita emissions of greenhouse gases relatively high? (Author)

  16. Reduction of exhaust gases an fuel consumption. Impacts on air qulity and greenhouse effect; Abgas- und Verbrauchsverringerung. Auswirkungen auf Luftqualitaet und Treibhauseffekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, N. (ed.)

    2007-07-01

    The book includes contributions on European exhaust gas limits for stationary and mobile pollution sources, challenges for the automotive industry, NO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and fine dust emissions of power plants, potential for emission reductions of modern engines, comparison of CO{sub 2} avoidance costs with costs for mitigation measures, CO{sub 2} saving potentials in buildings, characterization of diesel particulates, concepts for emission reductions, development of air quality and greenhouse gases, impact of fine dust and NO{sub 2} on public health, new combustion processes based on new fuel specifications.

  17. Assessment of Methane Emissions – Impact of Using Natural Gas Engines in Unconventional Resource Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nix, Andrew [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Johnson, Derek [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Heltzel, Robert [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Oliver, Dakota [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2018-04-08

    Researchers at the Center for Alternative Fuels, Engines, and Emissions (CAFEE) completed a multi-year program under DE-FE0013689 entitled, “Assessing Fugitive Methane Emissions Impact Using Natural Gas Engines in Unconventional Resource Development.” When drilling activity was high and industry sought to lower operating costs and reduce emissions they began investing in dual fuel and dedicated natural gas engines to power unconventional well equipment. From a review of literature we determined that the prime-movers (or major fuel consumers) of unconventional well development were the service trucks (trucking), horizontal drilling rig (drilling) engines, and hydraulic stimulation pump (fracturing) engines. Based on early findings from on-road studies we assessed that conversion of prime movers to operate on natural gas could contribute to methane emissions associated with unconventional wells. As such, we collected significant in-use activity data from service trucks and in-use activity, fuel consumption, and gaseous emissions data from drilling and fracturing engines. Our findings confirmed that conversion of the prime movers to operate as dual fuel or dedicated natural gas – created an additional source of methane emissions. While some gaseous emissions were decreased from implementation of these technologies – methane and CO2 equivalent emissions tended to increase, especially for non-road engines. The increases were highest for dual fuel engines due to methane slip from the exhaust and engine crankcase. Dedicated natural gas engines tended to have lower exhaust methane emissions but higher CO2 emissions due to lower efficiency. Therefore, investing in currently available natural gas technologies for prime movers will increase the greenhouse gas footprint of the unconventional well development industry.

  18. A framework for quantitative assessment of impacts related to energy and mineral resource development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth S.; Diffendorfer, James; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Berger, Byron R.; Cook, Troy A.; Gautier, Donald L.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Gerritsen, Margot; Graffy, Elisabeth; Hawkins, Sarah; Johnson, Kathleen; Macknick, Jordan; McMahon, Peter; Modde, Tim; Pierce, Brenda; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Semmens, Darius; Simon, Benjamin; Taylor, Jason; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Natural resource planning at all scales demands methods for assessing the impacts of resource development and use, and in particular it requires standardized methods that yield robust and unbiased results. Building from existing probabilistic methods for assessing the volumes of energy and mineral resources, we provide an algorithm for consistent, reproducible, quantitative assessment of resource development impacts. The approach combines probabilistic input data with Monte Carlo statistical methods to determine probabilistic outputs that convey the uncertainties inherent in the data. For example, one can utilize our algorithm to combine data from a natural gas resource assessment with maps of sage grouse leks and piñon-juniper woodlands in the same area to estimate possible future habitat impacts due to possible future gas development. As another example: one could combine geochemical data and maps of lynx habitat with data from a mineral deposit assessment in the same area to determine possible future mining impacts on water resources and lynx habitat. The approach can be applied to a broad range of positive and negative resource development impacts, such as water quantity or quality, economic benefits, or air quality, limited only by the availability of necessary input data and quantified relationships among geologic resources, development alternatives, and impacts. The framework enables quantitative evaluation of the trade-offs inherent in resource management decision-making, including cumulative impacts, to address societal concerns and policy aspects of resource development.

  19. Impacts of afforestation on groundwater resources and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alistair; Chapman, Deborah

    2001-07-01

    Plans to double the proportion of land under forest cover in Ireland by the year 2035 have been initiated. The plan, primarily financially driven, ignores potential environmental impacts of forestry, particularly impacts on groundwater resources and quality. Since groundwater supplies almost 25% of Ireland's total potable water, these impacts are important. Field investigations indicate that afforestation leads to a reduction in runoff by as much as 20%, mainly due to interception of rainfall by forest canopies. Clearfelling has the opposite impact. Implications are that uncoordinated forestry practices can potentially exacerbate flooding. Groundwater recharge is affected by forestry, largely due to greater uptake of soil water by trees and to increased water-holding capacity of forest soils, arising from higher organic contents. Recharge rates under forests can be reduced to one tenth that under grass or heathland. Groundwater quality may be affected by enhanced acidification and nitrification under forests, due partly to scavenging of atmospheric pollutants by forest canopies, and partly to greater deposition of highly acid leaf litter. The slower recharge rates of groundwater under forests lead to significant delays in manifestation of deterioration in groundwater quality. Résumé. Des plans sont à l'étude pour doubler la proportion du couvert forestier en Irlande d'ici à 2035. Le plan, primitivement déterminé sur une base financière, ignore les impacts environnementaux potentiels de la foresterie, et particulièrement les impacts sur les ressources en eau souterraine et leur qualité. Du fait que les eaux souterraines satisfont presque 25% du total de l'eau potable de l'Irlande, ces impacts sont importants. Les études de terrain montrent que le reboisement conduit à une réduction du ruissellement d'au moins 20%, principalement à cause d'une interception de la pluie par le couvert forestier. Les coupes ont un impact contraire. Les implications sont

  20. Impact on healthcare resource utilization of multiple sclerosis in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Ruíz-Beato, Elena; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Maurino, Jorge

    2017-12-29

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease with a high socioeconomic impact. The aim of this study was to assess healthcare resources utilization and costs in a sample of patients with MS. A retrospective, cohort study was conducted using electronic medical records from 19 primary care centres in Asturias and Catalonia, Spain. Adult patients diagnosed with MS were distributed into two groups according to the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score: 0-3.5 (no-moderate disability) and 4-9.5 (severe disability). Healthcare (direct cost) and non-healthcare costs (work productivity losses) were analysed. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used for correction, p < 0.05. A multiple regression model was performed to obtain the variables associated with costs. A total of 222 patients were analyzed; mean (SD) age: 45.5 (12.5) years, 64.4% female, and 62.2% presented a diagnosis of relapsing-remitting MS. Median EDSS score was 2.5, with 68.5% of the patients with no to moderate disability. The mean annual cost per MS patient was €25,103. For no-moderate and severe disability, the ANCOVA-adjusted mean annual cost was €23,157 and €29,242, respectively (p = 0.013). Direct costs and MS disease-modifying therapy accounted for 39.4% and 31.7% of the total costs, respectively. The total costs were associated with number of relapses (β = 0.135, p = 0.001), time since diagnosis (β = 0.281, p = 0.023), and age (β = 0.198, p = 0.037). Multiple sclerosis imposes a substantial economic burden on the Spanish National Health System, patients and society as a whole. Costs significantly correlated with disease progression.

  1. The climate fund. Some notions on the socio-economic impacts of greenhouse gas emissions and emission reductions in an international context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tol, R.S.J.; Van der Burg, T.; Jansen, H.M.A.; Verbruggen, H.

    1995-05-01

    The title project investigates the possibility of setting up an international climate fund and the way in which this could be arranged. A climate fund is a potential method to enhance the efficiency and efficacy of the reduction of the increase in the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. It would allow countries to transfer capital, for instance through the here proposed climate fund, and to redistribute the damages caused by global warming. This project focuses on the economic aspects of a climate fund, although some attention will also be given to its political feasibility. The system of tradeable emission permits, of which joint implementation is often seen as a pilot phase, presumes that fixed emission targets exist. In this report the emissions are not prefixed, but optimised in a cost-benefit analysis in which the impact of international capital transfer is examined. In order to determine the impact of international capital transfer on the efficiency and efficacy on optimal greenhouse gas emission reduction, three building blocks are needed. The first block concerns the costs of climate change, or the benefits of climate change control. The second block concerns the costs of emission reduction. The third block is the model to integrate costs and benefits, and calculate the optimal emission control with and without international capital transfers. The project is split into four conceptual phases. In the first phase, a literature survey has been performed of the socio-economic costs and benefits of greenhouse gas emission reductions, with a particular focus on the international distribution of costs and benefits. In the second phase, the costs and benefits are modelled in the Climate Framework for Uncertainty, Negotiation and Distribution (FUND). In the third phase the optimal emission reductions are calculated with and without international capital transfers in several game-theoretic settings. (Abstract Truncated)

  2. Impact of Market-Based Disturbance on the Composition of West Virginia's Forest Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; John E. Baumgras; John E. Baumgras

    2000-01-01

    The eastern hardwood resource has been shaped by a combination of human and natural disturbances. This impact on the forest resources of West Virginia has been especially dramatic. This resource has changed from a virgin forest dominated white oak, chestnut, spruce, white pine, and hemlock in the late 19th century, to one dominated by red oak in the 1950's, to...

  3. 76 FR 22721 - Notice of Availability of Draft Resource Management Plans and Associated Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ...] Notice of Availability of Draft Resource Management Plans and Associated Environmental Impact Statement for the Bighorn Basin Resource Management Plan Revision Project, Cody and Worland Field Offices... Draft Resource Management Plan (RMP) for the Cody Field Office, a Draft RMP for the Worland Field Office...

  4. 76 FR 27344 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... and resource management activities must be guided by general principles that can be applied to... Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San Bernardino County... Management Plan/ Environmental Impact Statement for Mojave National Preserve. SUMMARY: In accordance with Sec...

  5. 76 FR 75556 - Notice of Availability of the Proposed Resource Management Plan and Final Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ...] Notice of Availability of the Proposed Resource Management Plan and Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Taos Field Office, New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...) has prepared the Proposed Resource Management Plan/Final Environmental Impact Statement (Proposed RMP...

  6. The impact of job crafting on job demands, job resources, and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tims, M.; Bakker, A.B.; Derks, D.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether employees can impact their own well-being by crafting their job demands and resources. Based on the Job Demands-Resources model, we hypothesized that employee job crafting would have an impact on work engagement, job satisfaction, and burnout through changes

  7. The greenhouse gas and energy impacts of using wood instead of alternatives in residential construction in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, Brad; Miner, Reid; Spinney, Mike; Heath, Linda S.

    2008-01-01

    Data developed by the Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials were used to estimate savings of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption associated with use of wood-based building materials in residential construction in the United States. Results indicate that houses with wood-based wall systems require 15-16% less total energy for non-heating/cooling purposes than thermally comparable houses employing alternative steel- or concrete-based building systems. Results for non-renewable energy consumption are essentially the same as those for total energy, reflecting the fact that most of the displaced energy is in fossil fuels. Over a 100-year period, net greenhouse gas emissions associated with wood-based houses are 20-50% lower than emissions associated with thermally comparable houses employing steel- or concrete-based building systems. Assuming 1.5 million single-family housing starts per year, the difference between wood and non-wood building systems represents about 9.6 Mt of CO 2 equivalents per year. The corresponding energy benefit associated with wood-based building materials is approximately 132 PJ year -1 . These estimates represent about 22% of embodied energy and 27% of embodied greenhouse gas emissions in the residential sector of the US economy. The results of the analysis are very sensitive to assumptions and uncertainties regarding the fate of forestland that is taken out of wood production due to reduced demand for wood, the continued production of co-products where demand for wood products is reduced, and the rate at which carbon accumulates in forests

  8. 78 FR 37846 - Resource Management Plan/General Plan and Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ...The Bureau of Reclamation and the California Department of Parks and Recreation (CDPR) have prepared a Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the San Luis Reservoir State Recreation Area Resource Management Plan/General Plan (RMP/GP). The Final EIS/EIR describes and presents the environmental effects of the No Action/No Project Alternative and three Action Alternatives for implementing the RMP/GP. A Notice of Availability of the Draft EIS/EIR was published in the Federal Register on August 3, 2012 (77 FR 46518). The comment period on the Draft EIS/EIR ended on October 2, 2012. The Final EIS/EIR contains responses to all comments received and reflects comments and any additional information received during the review period.

  9. The Greenhouse Effect - Re-examination of the Impact of an Increase in Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, T. G.

    2017-12-01

    Examination of the radiation budget at the surface of the Earth shows that there are three factors affecting the surface temperature; the amount of solar radiation absorbed by the atmosphere and by the surface respectively, and the amount of leakage of infrared radiation emitted from the surface directly into space. If there were no leakage, the upwelling infrared radiation from the Earth's surface would be equal to the incoming solar radiation absorbed by the atmosphere plus twice the solar radiation absorbed by the surface. This results from the summation of a sequence of equal upward and downward re-emissions of infrared radiation absorbed by the atmosphere following the initial absorption of solar radiation. At current levels of solar absorption, this would result in total upwelling radiation of approximately 398.6 W/m2, or a maximum surface temperature of 16.4°C. Allowing for leakage of infrared radiation through the atmospheric window, the resulting emission from the Earth's surface is reduced to around 396 W/m2, corresponding to the current average global surface temperature of around 15.9°C. Absorption of solar and infrared radiation by greenhouse gases is determined by the absorption bands for the respective gases and their concentrations. Absorption of incoming solar radiation is largely by water vapor and ozone, and an increase in absorption would reduce not increase the surface temperature. Moreover, it is probable that all emitted infrared radiation that can be absorbed by greenhouse gases, primarily water vapor, with a small contribution from carbon dioxide and ozone, is already fully absorbed, and the leakage of around 5.5 % corresponds to the part of the infrared red spectrum that is not absorbed by greenhouse gases. The carbon dioxide absorption bands, which represent a very small percentage of the infrared spectrum, are most likely fully saturated. In these circumstances, increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, and carbon dioxide in

  10. Submission to the Senate Standing Committee on Industry, Science and Technology Inquiry into the impact that Australian industry, science and technology can make to reducing the impact of the Greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    The submission makes some comments on historical aspects of comparisons between nuclear energy and non-nuclear strategies and technologies (including conservation/efficiency and renewable energy) and the relative economics of nuclear energy and conservation/efficiency strategies. It seek to place the nuclear factor within a larger perspective of choices and trade-offs and then to analyse that nuclear factor in more detail to demonstrate its potential and limitations and to counter misinformation and distortion about it. The nuclear techniques described in Section 2 provide Australia and the world with tools which not only can provide basic data about the Greenhouse effect in the immediate term, but can also contribute immediate term solutions to aspects of the problems which are either contributing to the Greenhouse effect (industrial processes) or likely to be affected by it in the near future (land and water uses). The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization has many of these nuclear-related and non-nuclear techniques which can be of assistance in building up the data base on Greenhouse effects and developing techniques for controlling or reducing industrial and other sources of Greenhouse gases. Therefore, nuclear energy can be a longer term strategy which could be integrated into many countries' programs of actions to ameliorate the impact of global warning. 23 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Measuring the Impact of Industrialization and Financial Development on Water Resources: A Case Study of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid ZAMAN; Muhammad Mushtaq KHAN; Mehboob AHMAD

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study examines the impact of industrialization and financial development on water resources, in the specific context of Pakistan. Data set from 1975-2009 are taken for time series analysis. The result reveals that economic growth positively linked with the water resource, as water plays a pivotal role in the economic development of a country. Thus limiting this resource would affect the process of economic growth. Industrial processes have a negative environmental impact ...

  12. Natural biotic resources in LCA: Towards an impact assessment model for sustainable supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenna, Eleonora; Sozzo, Sara; Sala, Serenella

    2018-01-20

    Natural resources, biotic and abiotic, are fundamental from both the ecological and socio-economic point of view, being at the basis of life-support. However, since the demand for finite resources continues to increase, the sustainability of current production and consumption patterns is questioned both in developed and developing countries. A transition towards an economy based on biotic renewable resources (bio-economy) is considered necessary in order to support a steady provision of resources, representing an alternative to an economy based on fossil and abiotic resources. However, to ensure a sustainable use of biotic resources, there is the need of properly accounting for their use along supply chains as well as defining a robust and comprehensive impact assessment model. Since so far naturally occurring biotic resources have gained little attention in impact assessment methods, such as life cycle assessment, the aim of this study is to enable the inclusion of biotic resources in the assessment of products and supply chains. This paper puts forward a framework for biotic resources assessment, including: i) the definition of system boundaries between ecosphere and technosphere, namely between naturally occurring and man-made biotic resources; ii) a list of naturally occurring biotic resources which have a commercial value, as basis for building life cycle inventories (NOBR, e.g. wild animals, plants etc); iii) an impact pathway to identify potential impacts on both resource provision and ecosystem quality; iv) a renewability-based indicator (NOBRri) for the impact assessment of naturally occurring biotic resources, including a list of associated characterization factors. The study, building on a solid review of literature and of available statistical data, highlights and discusses the critical aspects and paradoxes related to biotic resource inclusion in LCA: from the system boundaries definition up to the resource characterization.

  13. Pragmatics in the greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubb, M.J.; Victor, D.G.; Hope, C.W. (Royal Institute of International Affairs, London (UK))

    1991-12-05

    Negotiations towards a global framework convention on climate change are hampered by the range of greenhouse gases, sources and sinks. The US government promotes a comprehensive approach to climate change which provides flexibility but faces obstacles arising from the different characteristics of the sources and sinks involved, and uncertainties in attempting to estimate and compare the radiative impacts of different gases. Relying on approximations to enable a comprehensive approach is unrealistic for two reasons: monitoring and revision. The comprehensive approach is a worthwhile goal but is not yet fully practicable. Two lists are suggested - a quantified list for CFCs and CO{sub 2} and a transition list. Frequent renegotiation would be necessary. With this approach an overall goal for controlling the magnitude and rate of change in greenhouse forcing is possible. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  14. The impact of marketing resources on corporate competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Gyulavári

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze the association between marketing resources and corporate competitiveness. Empirical data were collected by a survey of 300 domestic organizations and the results were compared to the ones of a similar research conducted five years before. We have found that all the marketing resources investigated have a significant effect on marketing performance. Among them the most marketing-related resource dimension, called market management, excels regarding the strength of the association with competitiveness. Clusters of companies were formulated and analyzed. A small group of the companies investigated (12% managed to advance in the development and possession of marketing resources whilst maintaining competitive product supply and price. The proportion of successful companies among them is highly significant.

  15. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    ... Julita Nawe. University of Dar Es Salaam Library, P.O. Box 35092, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania .... significantly, while 28.3% observed that quality of service to the community had improved .... resources and evaluate them is an important area.

  16. The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Employee Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Ozoliņa-Ozola, I

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify the human resource management practices that are effective for employee turnover reducing. For this purpose the methods of document analysis and expert survey were used. On the basis of analysis of the scientific literature retrieved from academic databases the human resource management practices, which were mentioned in connection with employee turnover, were detected and described its effect on employee turnover. By conducting two separate expert sur...

  17. The impact of earth resources exploration from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordberg, W.

    1976-01-01

    Remote sensing of the earth from satellite systems such as Landsat, Nimbus, and Skylab has demonstrated the potential influence of such observations on a number of major human concerns. These concerns include the management of food, water and fiber resources, the exploration and management of mineral and energy resources, the protection of the environment, the protection of life and property, and improvements in shipping and navigation.

  18. The impact of human resource practices on psychological empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Moradi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, human capital is considered a key factor of achieving the competitive advantage in different industries. The present study, as an applied and descriptive research, aims at providing formulation and evaluation of human resource development of an Iranian Petrochemical Company (APC. The human resource experts and managers of APC together with university professors of human capital and familiar with local conditions of Khuzestan province, Iran, made up the statistical population of this research. In this connection, first the internal factors (including advantages and disadvantages were identified using human resource excellence indicators. Then, the opportunities and threats of human resource system were found via PESTEL approach. In the next step, the primary strategies were formulated using the strength, weakness, opportunities and threats (SWOT Matrix. The next phases of the study were included evaluation and ranking of human resource development strategies based on analytical network process (ANP multi-criteria decision making method and grey systems theory. According to results of the research, defensive strategies (WT are suggested as the best and most appropriate strategies in human resource area. In other words, the internal and external factors of APC are problematic. Accordingly, APC is expected to adopt WT strategy, minimize the weaknesses, and avoid threats. Subsequent to the above policy, the strategies of WO, ST, and SO are advised to employ.

  19. Documentation of greenhouse gas emission, energy consumption and energy resources in agriculture and food industry; Dokumentasjon av klimagassutslipp, energiforbruk og energiressurser i landbruk og naeringsmiddelindustri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillestad, Margaret Eide

    2008-07-01

    Emission from agriculture, forestry and food industry is approximately 5 million ton greenhouse gases measured in CO{sub 2} equivalent. This amount to approximately 10 % of the total greenhouse gas emission in Norway. The main source to increased CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is combustion of fossil fuel. It is fundamental differences between reducing submissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel and removing carbon from the atmosphere by storing it in forests or in ground. The differences consists of that carbon storing in ground or for rests are parts of today's ecosystem and the plant's photosynthesis. When fossil carbon reserves from petroleum, gas and coal fields are released to the atmosphere through combustion, it is difficult to remove the carbon permanent and secure from cycle. (AG)

  20. Impact of direct greenhouse gas emissions on the carbon footprint of water reclamation processes employing nitrification–denitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Andrew G.; Townsend-Small, Amy; Rosso, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Water reclamation has the potential to reduce water supply demands from aquifers and more energy-intensive water production methods (e.g., seawater desalination). However, water reclamation via biological nitrification–denitrification is also associated with the direct emission of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) CO 2 , N 2 O, and CH 4 . We quantified these direct emissions from the nitrification–denitrification reactors of a water reclamation plant in Southern California, and measured the 14 C content of the CO 2 to distinguish between short- and long-lived carbon. The total emissions were 1.5 (± 0.2) g-fossil CO 2 m −3 of wastewater treated, 0.5 (± 0.1) g-CO 2 -eq of CH 4 m −3 , and 1.8 (± 0.5) g-CO 2 -eq of N 2 O m −3 , for a total of 3.9 (± 0.5) g-CO 2 -eq m −3 . This demonstrated that water reclamation can be a source of GHGs from long lived carbon, and thus a candidate for GHG reduction credit. From the 14 C measurements, we found that between 11.4% and 15.1% of the CO 2 directly emitted was derived from fossil sources, which challenges past assumptions that the direct CO 2 emissions from water reclamation contain only modern carbon. A comparison of our direct emission measurements with estimates of indirect emissions from several water production methods, however, showed that the direct emissions from water reclamation constitute only a small fraction of the plant's total GHG footprint. - Highlights: • Direct greenhouse gas emissions were measured at a wastewater reclamation plant. • These greenhouse gas emissions amounted to 3.9 (± 0.5) g-CO 2 -eq m −3 of wastewater. • 14 C analysis of the CO 2 emissions was conducted to determine the fossil component. • 11.4% to 15.1% of the emitted CO 2 was derived from fossil sources

  1. Climate Change and the Impact of Greenhouse Gasses: CO2 and NO, Friends and Foes of Plant Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassia, Raúl; Nocioni, Macarena; Correa-Aragunde, Natalia; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    Here, we review information on how plants face redox imbalance caused by climate change, and focus on the role of nitric oxide (NO) in this response. Life on Earth is possible thanks to greenhouse effect. Without it, temperature on Earth’s surface would be around -19°C, instead of the current average of 14°C. Greenhouse effect is produced by greenhouse gasses (GHG) like water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxides (NxO) and ozone (O3). GHG have natural and anthropogenic origin. However, increasing GHG provokes extreme climate changes such as floods, droughts and heat, which induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in plants. The main sources of ROS in stress conditions are: augmented photorespiration, NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity, β-oxidation of fatty acids and disorders in the electron transport chains of mitochondria and chloroplasts. Plants have developed an antioxidant machinery that includes the activity of ROS detoxifying enzymes [e.g., superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and peroxiredoxin (PRX)], as well as antioxidant molecules such as ascorbic acid (ASC) and glutathione (GSH) that are present in almost all subcellular compartments. CO2 and NO help to maintain the redox equilibrium. Higher CO2 concentrations increase the photosynthesis through the CO2-unsaturated Rubisco activity. But Rubisco photorespiration and NOX activities could also augment ROS production. NO regulate the ROS concentration preserving balance among ROS, GSH, GSNO, and ASC. When ROS are in huge concentration, NO induces transcription and activity of SOD, APX, and CAT. However, when ROS are necessary (e.g., for pathogen resistance), NO may inhibit APX, CAT, and NOX activity by the S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues, favoring cell death. NO also regulates GSH concentration in several ways. NO may react with GSH to form GSNO, the NO cell reservoir and main source of S

  2. Climate Change and the Impact of Greenhouse Gasses: CO2 and NO, Friends and Foes of Plant Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassia, Raúl; Nocioni, Macarena; Correa-Aragunde, Natalia; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    Here, we review information on how plants face redox imbalance caused by climate change, and focus on the role of nitric oxide (NO) in this response. Life on Earth is possible thanks to greenhouse effect. Without it, temperature on Earth's surface would be around -19°C, instead of the current average of 14°C. Greenhouse effect is produced by greenhouse gasses (GHG) like water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxides (N x O) and ozone (O 3 ). GHG have natural and anthropogenic origin. However, increasing GHG provokes extreme climate changes such as floods, droughts and heat, which induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in plants. The main sources of ROS in stress conditions are: augmented photorespiration, NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity, β-oxidation of fatty acids and disorders in the electron transport chains of mitochondria and chloroplasts. Plants have developed an antioxidant machinery that includes the activity of ROS detoxifying enzymes [e.g., superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and peroxiredoxin (PRX)], as well as antioxidant molecules such as ascorbic acid (ASC) and glutathione (GSH) that are present in almost all subcellular compartments. CO 2 and NO help to maintain the redox equilibrium. Higher CO 2 concentrations increase the photosynthesis through the CO 2 -unsaturated Rubisco activity. But Rubisco photorespiration and NOX activities could also augment ROS production. NO regulate the ROS concentration preserving balance among ROS, GSH, GSNO, and ASC. When ROS are in huge concentration, NO induces transcription and activity of SOD, APX, and CAT. However, when ROS are necessary (e.g., for pathogen resistance), NO may inhibit APX, CAT, and NOX activity by the S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues, favoring cell death. NO also regulates GSH concentration in several ways. NO may react with GSH to form GSNO, the NO cell reservoir and main source of S

  3. Impact of direct greenhouse gas emissions on the carbon footprint of water reclamation processes employing nitrification–denitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Andrew G., E-mail: andrew.schneider@yale.edu [University of Cincinnati, Department of Geology, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Townsend-Small, Amy [University of Cincinnati, Department of Geology, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); University of Cincinnati, Department of Geography, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Rosso, Diego [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-2175 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Water reclamation has the potential to reduce water supply demands from aquifers and more energy-intensive water production methods (e.g., seawater desalination). However, water reclamation via biological nitrification–denitrification is also associated with the direct emission of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 4}. We quantified these direct emissions from the nitrification–denitrification reactors of a water reclamation plant in Southern California, and measured the {sup 14}C content of the CO{sub 2} to distinguish between short- and long-lived carbon. The total emissions were 1.5 (± 0.2) g-fossil CO{sub 2} m{sup −3} of wastewater treated, 0.5 (± 0.1) g-CO{sub 2}-eq of CH{sub 4} m{sup −3}, and 1.8 (± 0.5) g-CO{sub 2}-eq of N{sub 2}O m{sup −3}, for a total of 3.9 (± 0.5) g-CO{sub 2}-eq m{sup −3}. This demonstrated that water reclamation can be a source of GHGs from long lived carbon, and thus a candidate for GHG reduction credit. From the {sup 14}C measurements, we found that between 11.4% and 15.1% of the CO{sub 2} directly emitted was derived from fossil sources, which challenges past assumptions that the direct CO{sub 2} emissions from water reclamation contain only modern carbon. A comparison of our direct emission measurements with estimates of indirect emissions from several water production methods, however, showed that the direct emissions from water reclamation constitute only a small fraction of the plant's total GHG footprint. - Highlights: • Direct greenhouse gas emissions were measured at a wastewater reclamation plant. • These greenhouse gas emissions amounted to 3.9 (± 0.5) g-CO{sub 2}-eq m{sup −3} of wastewater. • {sup 14}C analysis of the CO{sub 2} emissions was conducted to determine the fossil component. • 11.4% to 15.1% of the emitted CO{sub 2} was derived from fossil sources.

  4. Greenhouse gases and solid waste management systems: Understanding the relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, K.; Smith, P.A.

    1999-07-01

    In one of the first applications of life cycle analysis at the state level, the Minnesota Office of Environmental Assistance has assessed the resource conservation benefits and greenhouse gas impacts of the state's municipal solid waste (MSW) system. Using a life cycle inventory, the Phase 1 work estimated the resource conservation benefits of Minnesota's 1996 MSW reduction and management strategies. It compared the production processes used to obtain useful products from MSW with alternative production processes using virgin materials. The Phase 2 work, conducted under a grant from the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), focused specifically on measuring the greenhouse gas implications of reduction, recycling, and management from 1991--1996. This phase expanded the analysis to included life cycle assessment and improvement. The work will be used in Minnesota's MSW policy and program development efforts, as well as in climate change mitigation planning.

  5. China's natural gas: Resources, production and its impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jianliang; Feng, Lianyong; Zhao, Lin; Snowden, Simon

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve energy consumption targets, and subsequently reduce carbon emissions, China is working on energy strategies and policies aimed at actively increasing the consumption of natural gas—the lowest carbon energy of the fossil fuels, and to enhance the proportion of gas in total primary energy consumption. To do this, it is a necessary prerequisite that China must have access to adequate gas resources and production to meet demand. This paper shows that the availability of domestic gas resources are overestimated by China's authorities due to differences in classification and definitions of gas resources/reserves between China and those accepted internationally. Based on official gas resource figures, China's gas production remains low with respect to the projected demand, and will only be 164.6 bcm in 2020, far lower than the 375 bcm of forecast demand. The gap between gas production and demand will reach 210.4 bcm by 2020. Existing plans for the importation of gas and the development of unconventional gas will not close this gap in the next 10 years, and this situation will therefore present a severe challenge to China's gas security, achievement of targets in improving energy consumption structure and reducing carbon emissions. - Highlights: ► We show that available gas resources are overestimated by China's authorities. ► We forecast China's future gas production under different resource scenarios. ► This paper shows that China's gas production will not meet the soaring demand. ► The gap between supply and demand will continue to increase rapidly in future. ► China's gas security will meet a severe challenge because of this increasing gap

  6. THE IMPACT OF ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING SYSTEMS ON MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Gabriela PONORÎCĂ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The added value on the ongoing improvement process of forecasts for financial and non-financial information systems is the main object of this study during nowadays context. Our results reveal the findings of an empirical research on the communication with various software vendors, such as SAP or Oracle, confirming the hypothesis that enterprise resource planning systems are not so well connected with the field of financial reporting analysis, but strongly linked with the management accounting field. Our study is and will be further opened for future research, passing over the limits of resource planning.

  7. No 2902. Proposal of law dealing with the durable management of forest resources in the consideration of the fight against greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    This proposal of law aims at implementing viable financial incentive systems for the improvement of forests management resources in France. The easily available but still unemployed wood fuel resource represents today about 10 million tons. (J.S.)

  8. The Impact of Strategic Human Resource Management on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study conducted a survey on 120 small and medium-scale hospitality companies. Primary data were collected through structured questionnaire administered to the human resource managers of the companies. Data collected were analysed using frequency, percentage, correlation and multiple regression analysis.

  9. Human and climate impacts on global water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341387819

    2013-01-01

    Over past decades, terrestrial water fluxes have been affected by humans at an unprecedented scale and the fingerprints that humans have left on Earth’s water resources are turning up in a diverse range of records. In this thesis, a state-of-the-art global hydrological model (GHM) and global water

  10. Impact of Age, and Cognitive and Coping Resources on Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouillet, Raphael; Doan-Van-Hay, Loane-Martine; Launay, Michel; Martin, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    To explore the predictive value of cognitive and coping resources for problem- and emotion-focused coping with age, we collected data from community-dwelling adults between 20 and 90 years old. We hypothesized that age, perceived stress, self-efficacy, working-memory capacity, and mental flexibility were predictors of coping. We collected data…

  11. Extraction of Greenhouse Areas with Image Processing Methods in Karabuk Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirima, M. Z.; Ozcan, C.

    2017-11-01

    Greenhouses provide the environmental conditions to be controlled and regulated as desired while allowing agricultural products to be produced without being affected by external environmental conditions. High quality and a wide variety of agricultural products can be produced throughout the year. In addition, mapping and detection of these areas has great importance in terms of factors such as yield analysis, natural resource management and environmental impact. Various remote sensing techniques are currently available for extraction of greenhouse areas. These techniques are based on the automatic detection and interpretation of objects on remotely sensed images. In this study, greenhouse areas were determined from optical images obtained from Landsat. The study was carried out in the greenhouse areas in Karabuk province. The obtained results are presented with figures and tables.

  12. Gardening with Greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses come in all shapes, sizes, and price ranges: from simple hand-built plastic-covered frames to dazzling geodesic domes. Some child care centers install greenhouses as a part of their outdoor garden space. Other centers have incorporated a greenhouse into the building itself. Greenhouses provide a great opportunity for children to grow…

  13. Evaluating options for balancing the water–electricity nexus in California: Part 2—Greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarroja, Brian; AghaKouchak, Amir; Sobhani, Reza; Feldman, David; Jiang, Sunny; Samuelsen, Scott, E-mail: gss@uci.edu

    2014-11-01

    A study was conducted to compare the technical potential and effectiveness of different water supply options for securing water availability in a large-scale, interconnected water supply system under historical and climate-change augmented inflow and demand conditions. Part 2 of the study focused on determining the greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts of different pathways to stabilize major surface reservoir levels. Using a detailed electric grid model and taking into account impacts on the operation of the water supply infrastructure, the greenhouse gas emissions and effect on overall grid renewable penetration level was calculated for each water supply option portfolio that successfully secured water availability from Part 1. The effects on the energy signature of water supply infrastructure were found to be just as important as that of the fundamental processes for each option. Under historical (baseline) conditions, many option portfolios were capable of securing surface reservoir levels with a net neutral or negative effect on emissions and a benefit for renewable energy utilization. Under climate change augmented conditions, however, careful selection of the water supply option portfolio was required to prevent imposing major emissions increases for the system. Overall, this analysis provided quantitative insight into the tradeoffs associated with choosing different pathways for securing California's water supply. - Highlights: • Part I presents a spatially and temporally resolved model of California’s surface reservoirs. • Part II presents GHG emissions and grid renewable penetration for water availability options. • In particular, the energy signature of water supply infrastructure is delineated. • Different pathways for securing California’s water supply are developed quantitatively. • Under baseline conditions, portfolios capable of securing surface reservoir levels emerge. • Under climate change conditions, the

  14. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of the adoption of the EU Directive on biofuels in Spain. Effect of the import of raw materials and land use changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechon, Y.; Cabal, H.; Saez, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impacts of the use of different alternative biofuels in passenger vehicles in Spain in order to meet EU biofuel goals. Different crop production alternatives are analysed, including the possible import of some raw materials. Availability of land for national production of the raw materials is analysed and indirect land use changes and associated GHG emissions are quantified. There are important differences in GHG emissions of biofuels depending on the raw material used and whether this is domestically produced or imported. Ethanol production using imported cereals and FAME production using domestic rapeseed have the highest GHG emissions per kilometre driven. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) production from sunflower has shown the lowest emissions. When taking into account the results of GHG emissions savings per hectare, these findings are somehow reversed. Production of ethanol and around 12% of FAME can be done domestically. The rest will need to be imported and will cause indirect land use change (ILUC). Therefore, ethanol production will not displace any land, whereas FAME production will displace some amounts of land. Calculated ILUC factors are 29%-34%. The additional GHG emissions due to these indirect land use changes are significant (67%-344% of life cycle GHG emissions). Standalone, the EU biofuel targets can have important benefits for Spain in terms of global warming emissions avoided. However, when considering the impact of land use change effects, these benefits are significantly reduced and can even be negative. -- Highlights: → Biofuel greenhouse gas emissions in Spain using domestic and imported raw materials. → Availability of land, indirect land use changes (ILUC) and GHG emissions quantified. → Important differences in biofuels GHG emissions depending on the raw material found. → All ethanol and 12% FAME can be produced domestically with ILUC factors of 29

  15. Evaluating options for balancing the water–electricity nexus in California: Part 2—Greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroja, Brian; AghaKouchak, Amir; Sobhani, Reza; Feldman, David; Jiang, Sunny; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the technical potential and effectiveness of different water supply options for securing water availability in a large-scale, interconnected water supply system under historical and climate-change augmented inflow and demand conditions. Part 2 of the study focused on determining the greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts of different pathways to stabilize major surface reservoir levels. Using a detailed electric grid model and taking into account impacts on the operation of the water supply infrastructure, the greenhouse gas emissions and effect on overall grid renewable penetration level was calculated for each water supply option portfolio that successfully secured water availability from Part 1. The effects on the energy signature of water supply infrastructure were found to be just as important as that of the fundamental processes for each option. Under historical (baseline) conditions, many option portfolios were capable of securing surface reservoir levels with a net neutral or negative effect on emissions and a benefit for renewable energy utilization. Under climate change augmented conditions, however, careful selection of the water supply option portfolio was required to prevent imposing major emissions increases for the system. Overall, this analysis provided quantitative insight into the tradeoffs associated with choosing different pathways for securing California's water supply. - Highlights: • Part I presents a spatially and temporally resolved model of California’s surface reservoirs. • Part II presents GHG emissions and grid renewable penetration for water availability options. • In particular, the energy signature of water supply infrastructure is delineated. • Different pathways for securing California’s water supply are developed quantitatively. • Under baseline conditions, portfolios capable of securing surface reservoir levels emerge. • Under climate change conditions, the

  16. Current knowledge on the air quality impacts and greenhouse gas emissions of methane valorization or production facilities - Study report. Study synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galsomies, Laurence; Bastide, Guillaume; Eglin, Thomas; Bardinal, Marc; Leveque, Benjamin; Moniot, Lenaic; Genin, Leo; Ruscassie, Claire

    2015-06-01

    The high potential of biogas activities development raises the question of the real impacts of the biogas sector. This study establishes the state of knowledge of impacts of biogas production and recovery plants on air pollutants and greenhouse gases emissions. This state of art is a statement of direct impacts (for any biogas plant, throughout his life cycle) and indirect impacts (for the particular case of agricultural biogas plants), aiming to propose technical recommendations to control air emissions and research subjects to further knowledge. To date, four priority thematic areas to deepen have been identified: ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions for the digestate recovery step, the uncontrolled emissions of methane in the biogas plant, odorous compounds emissions during feedstock storage and ammonia and methane emissions during digestate storage and treatment. Knowledge about indirect impacts is limited and does not allow to identify and quantify them into details. A mapping of the changes caused by the establishment of anaerobic digestion plant on a farm is proposed in the study. This is a methodological basis for reflection for further developments. The quantitative study of two cases of agricultural biogas plants is a first attempt to quantify the impacts, based on the lessons learned from the state of knowledge. Recommendations by step of anaerobic digestion process are proposed and analyzed according to their technical feasibility, maturity, efficiency and the level of investment needed. Finally, research subjects are presented: they aim at achieving measurement campaigns in installations which are functioning, at producing reference values and at developing methodologies of assessment of the impacts. (authors)

  17. Assessing the environmental consequences of global climate and economic changes in Venezuela: Impacts of the greenhouse effect and of free trade agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, M.F.; Harwell, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    The ecological resources of most Latin American countries are subject to intense pressures for economic and industrial development which need to be balanced with local and global concerns about the long term sustainability of that resource base. Global issues and their potential long term effects should not be ignored when environmental policy strategies at the national level are elaborated. In this paper, the potential environmental consequences of two important global changes are examined, by taking Venezuela as a country case study: changes in climate, temperature, precipitation and radiation, generated by the greenhouse effect and changes in environmental stresses originating from shifts in local economic activity due to changing global trade, specifically free trade agreements. Both assessments are conducted using scenario-consequence approaches and expert judgment. The first analysis reported here is an example of the application of simulation models of global climate and local ecosystems, whereas the second analysis demonstrates the application of screening methodology which relies on processing of qualitative information. The approaches illustrated here are generic and can be applied to other Latin American countries

  18. The role of nuclear energy in mitigating greenhouse warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    A behavioral, top-down, forced-equilibrium market model of long-term (∼ 2,100) global energy-economics interactions has been modified with a bottom-up nuclear energy model and used to construct consistent scenarios describing future impacts of civil nuclear materials flows in an expanding, multi-regional (13) world economy. The relative measures and tradeoffs between economic (GNP, tax impacts, productivity, etc.), environmental (greenhouse gas accumulations, waste accumulation, proliferation risk), and energy (resources, energy mixes, supply-side versus demand-side attributes) interactions that emerge from these analyses are focused herein on advancing understanding of the role that nuclear energy (and other non-carbon energy sources) might play in mitigating greenhouse warming. Two ostensibly opposing scenario drivers are investigated: (a) demand-side improvements in (non-price-induced) autonomous energy efficiency improvements; and (b) supply-side carbon-tax inducements to shift energy mixes towards reduced- or non-carbon forms. In terms of stemming greenhouse warming for minimal cost of greenhouse-gas abatement, and with the limitations of the simplified taxing schedule used, a symbiotic combination of these two approaches may offer advantages not found if each is applied separately

  19. Impact of Human Resources Management on Entrepreneurship Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obasan Kehinde A.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The decisive role played by Human Resources Management (HRM in the emergence and sustenance of entrepreneurship development in an organisation cannot be misplaced as it ensures optimum deployment and development of personnel towards the actualization of set organisational objectives. Using a primary data sourced through a well-structured and self- administered questionnaires served to sixty HR managers and supervisors, and analyzed with descriptive statistics and Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, this study investigates the role of (HRM in entrepreneurship development. The tested hypotheses revealed a correlation coefficient of 0.44 which indicate the existence of a moderate positive relationship between Human Resources Management (HRM and entrepreneurship development. This indicates that HRM can facilitate entrepreneurship development in an organization. Hence HR managers must seek as much as possible measures that will ensure that their human resource are adequately compensated, rewarded and motivated to enhance their performance which will translate to improved performance that will influence the overall performance of the organisation.

  20. Impacts of sugarcane agriculture expansion over low-intensity cattle ranch pasture in Brazil on greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Camila Bolfarini; Filoso, Solange; Pitombo, Leonardo Machado; Cantarella, Heitor; Rossetto, Raffaella; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio; do Carmo, Janaina Braga

    2018-01-15

    Sugarcane is a widespread bioenergy crop in tropical regions, and the growing global demand for renewable energy in recent years has led to a dramatic expansion and intensification of sugarcane agriculture in Brazil. Currently, extensive areas of low-intensity pasture are being converted to sugarcane, while management in the remaining pasture is becoming more intensive, i.e., includes tilling and fertilizer use. In this study, we assessed how such changes in land use and management practices alter emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO 2 , N 2 O and CH 4 by measuring in situ fluxes for one year after conversion from low-intensity pasture to conventional sugarcane agriculture and management-intensive pasture. Results show that CO 2 and N 2 O fluxes increased significantly in pasture and sugarcane with tillage, fertilizer use, or both combined. Emissions were highly variable for all GHGs, yet, cumulatively, it was clear that annual emissions in CO 2 -equivalent (CO 2 -eq) were higher in management-intense pasture and sugarcane than in unmanaged pasture. Surprisingly, tilled pasture with fertilizer (management-intensive pasture) resulted in higher CO 2 -eq emissions than conventional sugarcane. We concluded that intensification of pasture management and the conversion of pasture to sugarcane can increase the emission factor (EF) estimated for sugarcane produced in Brazil. The role of management practices and environmental conditions and the potential for reducing emissions are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of the intensity of milk production on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions in Portuguese cattle farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, J.; Trindade, H.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was evaluate the relationship between the intensity of milk production for a wide range of Portuguese commercial cattle farms and NH3 and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manure management and enteric fermentation. A survey was carried out at 1471 commercial dairy cattle farms (Holstein-Friesian) and the NH3, N2O and CH4 emissions at each stage of manure management were estimated as well as CH4 losses from enteric fermentation. Gaseous emissions were estimated by a mass flow approach and following the recommendations of IPCC guidelines. The manure management and enteric fermentation in a typical Portuguese cattle farm contributes with 7.5±0.15 g N/L milk produced as NH3 and 1.2±0.22 kg CO2 equivalent per litre of milk as GHG. Increasing milk production will significantly reduce NH3 and GHG emissions per litre of milk produced. It can be concluded that a win-win strategy for reducing NH3 and GHG emissions from dairy cattle farms will be the increase of milk production on these farms. This goal can be achieved by implementing animal breeding programs and improving feed efficiency in order to increase productivity. (Author)

  2. Eco-socio Impact of Mineral Resource Mining in the Karamoja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eco-socio Impact of Mineral Resource Mining in the Karamoja Region of ... Oftentimes, the economic aspect of mining overshadows ecological and social needs in ... For that reason, Karamoja region has experienced violent ethnic conflicts, ...

  3. The Impact of Relaxation and Hypnosis on Medical Resources Utilization in Pediatric Asthma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barber, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    .... The estimated economic impact of asthma in the United States exceeds $6.2 billion. Behavioral interventions have been shown to improve the management of pediatric asthma, as well as reduce the utilization of medical resources...

  4. GREENHOUSE BRITAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Haley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We believe that the cultural landscape is largely formed by the dominant cultures of a place. “It is formed by a sometimes conflicted, sometimes consensual discourse or narrative from an array of stories, observations and intentions, first spoken by people of these dominant cultures and thereafter enacted on the ground. To our view, such a story has certain fluidity about it, and may change directions for any number of reasons. This work, Greenhouse Britain, is designed literally to express what the risingof waters would mean to the landscape of the island. It takes the 3 positions of defense, withdrawal and then defense, withdrawal to the high grounds. We suggest that the existing plans for greenhouse emissions control will be insufficient to keep temperature rise at 2° or less. In fact, we believe that the tipping point is past. In this context, the rising ocean becomes a form determinant. By “form determinant”, we mean, the rising ocean will determine many of the new forms that culture, industry and many other elements of civilization will have to take. There is another piece of this picture that we wish to give Voice to. That is up until this present rising of the world oceans, the creators of Western civilization have held and enacted the belief that all limitations in the physical world, particularly in the ecological world are there to be used and overcome. We think that the rising ocean is an opportunity for transformation, but it is exactly the reverse of a new frontier to overcome from civilization’s perspective. Now, from the ocean’s perspective, its boundary is perhaps a continuing, evolving transforming new frontier. Therefore, assuming a rapid rise of waters, even for a modest 5 meters in 100 years, there are apparently no models of precedence, no information, design, nor planning on the table, with the exception of ocean defenses and typical development models, albeit more energy efficient ones. It is the intention of

  5. Estimating the Economic Impacts of Recreation Response to Resource Management Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald B.K. English; J. Michael Bowker; John C. Bergstrom; H. Ken Cordell

    1995-01-01

    Managing forest resources involves tradeoffs and making decisions among resource management alternatives. Some alternatives will lead to changes in the level of recreation visitation and the amount of associated visitor spending. Thus, the alternatives can affect local economies. This paper reports a method that can be used to estimate the economic impacts of such...

  6. The Impacts of the Great Recession on State Natural Resource Extension Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serenari, Christopher; Peterson, M. Nils; Bardon, Robert E.; Brown, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Recession contributed to major budget cuts for natural resource Extension programs in the United States. Despite the potentially large cuts, their impacts and how Extension has adapted their programs have not been evaluated. We begin addressing these needs with surveys of Association of Natural Resource Extension Professionals members…

  7. Human Resource Management in Hong Kong Preschools: The Impact of Falling Rolls on Staffing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Choi-Wa Dora

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the impact of falling rolls on human resource management in local preschools in Hong Kong. It aims to argue that the developing role of leadership in creating a culture and procedures for collective participation in staff appraisal is important for human resource management in preschool settings.…

  8. Downscaling climate model output for water resources impacts assessment (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, E. P.; Pierce, D. W.; Cayan, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Water agencies in the U.S. and around the globe are beginning to wrap climate change projections into their planning procedures, recognizing that ongoing human-induced changes to hydrology can affect water management in significant ways. Future hydrology changes are derived using global climate model (GCM) projections, though their output is at a spatial scale that is too coarse to meet the needs of those concerned with local and regional impacts. Those investigating local impacts have employed a range of techniques for downscaling, the process of translating GCM output to a more locally-relevant spatial scale. Recent projects have produced libraries of publicly-available downscaled climate projections, enabling managers, researchers and others to focus on impacts studies, drawing from a shared pool of fine-scale climate data. Besides the obvious advantage to data users, who no longer need to develop expertise in downscaling prior to examining impacts, the use of the downscaled data by hundreds of people has allowed a crowdsourcing approach to examining the data. The wide variety of applications employed by different users has revealed characteristics not discovered during the initial data set production. This has led to a deeper look at the downscaling methods, including the assumptions and effect of bias correction of GCM output. Here new findings are presented related to the assumption of stationarity in the relationships between large- and fine-scale climate, as well as the impact of quantile mapping bias correction on precipitation trends. The validity of these assumptions can influence the interpretations of impacts studies using data derived using these standard statistical methods and help point the way to improved methods.

  9. Freshwater Aquatic Nuisance Species Impacts and Management Costs and Benefits at Federal Water Resources Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    ERDC/TN ANSRP-06-3 September 2006 Freshwater Aquatic Nuisance Species Impacts and Management Costs and Benefits at Federal Water Resources...Cole, R. A. (2006). “ Freshwater aquatic nuisance species impacts and management costs and benefits at Federal Water resources projects,” ANSRP...Projects1 by Richard A. Cole THE ISSUE: A small fraction of the species that inhabit the nation’s fresh waters become aquatic nuisance species (ANS

  10. A holistic model for evaluating the impact of individual technology-enhanced learning resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, James D; Joynes, Viktoria C T

    2016-12-01

    The use of technology within education has now crossed the Rubicon; student expectations, the increasing availability of both hardware and software and the push to fully blended learning environments mean that educational institutions cannot afford to turn their backs on technology-enhanced learning (TEL). The ability to meaningfully evaluate the impact of TEL resources nevertheless remains problematic. This paper aims to establish a robust means of evaluating individual resources and meaningfully measure their impact upon learning within the context of the program in which they are used. Based upon the experience of developing and evaluating a range of mobile and desktop based TEL resources, this paper outlines a new four-stage evaluation process, taking into account learner satisfaction, learner gain, and the impact of a resource on both the individual and the institution in which it has been adapted. A new multi-level model of TEL resource evaluation is proposed, which includes a preliminary evaluation of need, learner satisfaction and gain, learner impact and institutional impact. Each of these levels are discussed in detail, and in relation to existing TEL evaluation frameworks. This paper details a holistic, meaningful evaluation model for individual TEL resources within the specific context in which they are used. It is proposed that this model is adopted to ensure that TEL resources are evaluated in a more meaningful and robust manner than is currently undertaken.

  11. Impact of e-resources on learning in biochemistry: first-year medical students’ perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background E-learning resources (e-resources) have been widely used to facilitate self-directed learning among medical students. The Department of Biochemistry at Christian Medical College (CMC), Vellore, India, has made available e-resources to first-year medical students to supplement conventional lecture-based teaching in the subject. This study was designed to assess students’ perceptions of the impact of these e-resources on various aspects of their learning in biochemistry. Methods Sixty first-year medical students were the subjects of this study. At the end of the one-year course in biochemistry, the students were administered a questionnaire that asked them to assess the impact of the e-resources on various aspects of their learning in biochemistry. Results Ninety-eight percent of students had used the e-resources provided to varying extents. Most of them found the e-resources provided useful and of a high quality. The majority of them used these resources to prepare for periodic formative and final summative assessments in the course. The use of these resources increased steadily as the academic year progressed. Students said that the extent to which they understood the subject (83%) and their ability to answer questions in assessments (86%) had improved as a result of using these resources. They also said that they found biochemistry interesting (73%) and felt motivated to study the subject (59%). Conclusions We found that first-year medical students extensively used the e-resources in biochemistry that were provided. They perceived that these resources had made a positive impact on various aspects of their learning in biochemistry. We conclude that e-resources are a useful supplement to conventional lecture-based teaching in the medical curriculum. PMID:22510159

  12. Impact of e-resources on learning in biochemistry: first-year medical students' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Joe; Faith, Minnie; Jacob, Molly

    2012-05-16

    E-learning resources (e-resources) have been widely used to facilitate self-directed learning among medical students. The Department of Biochemistry at Christian Medical College (CMC), Vellore, India, has made available e-resources to first-year medical students to supplement conventional lecture-based teaching in the subject. This study was designed to assess students' perceptions of the impact of these e-resources on various aspects of their learning in biochemistry. Sixty first-year medical students were the subjects of this study. At the end of the one-year course in biochemistry, the students were administered a questionnaire that asked them to assess the impact of the e-resources on various aspects of their learning in biochemistry. Ninety-eight percent of students had used the e-resources provided to varying extents. Most of them found the e-resources provided useful and of a high quality. The majority of them used these resources to prepare for periodic formative and final summative assessments in the course. The use of these resources increased steadily as the academic year progressed. Students said that the extent to which they understood the subject (83%) and their ability to answer questions in assessments (86%) had improved as a result of using these resources. They also said that they found biochemistry interesting (73%) and felt motivated to study the subject (59%). We found that first-year medical students extensively used the e-resources in biochemistry that were provided. They perceived that these resources had made a positive impact on various aspects of their learning in biochemistry. We conclude that e-resources are a useful supplement to conventional lecture-based teaching in the medical curriculum.

  13. Quantification of physical and economic impacts of climate change on public infrastructure in Alaska and benefits of global greenhouse gas mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, A. M.; Larsen, P.; Boehlert, B.; Martinich, J.; Neumann, J.; Chinowsky, P.; Schweikert, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change poses many risks and challenges for the Arctic and sub-Arctic, including threats to infrastructure. The safety and stability of infrastructure in this region can be impacted by many factors including increased thawing of permafrost soils, reduced coastline protection due to declining arctic sea ice, and changes in inland flooding. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is coordinating an effort to quantify physical and economic impacts of climate change on public infrastructure across the state of Alaska and estimate how global greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation may avoid or reduce these impacts. This research builds on the Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project developed for the contiguous U.S., which is described in an EPA report released in June 2015. We are using a multi-model analysis focused primarily on the impacts of changing permafrost, coastal erosion, and inland flooding on a range of infrastructure types, including transportation (e.g. roads, airports), buildings and harbors, energy sources and transmission, sewer and water systems, and others. This analysis considers multiple global GHG emission scenarios ranging from a business as usual future to significant global action. These scenarios drive climate projections through 2100 spanning a range of outcomes to capture variability amongst climate models. Projections are being combined with a recently developed public infrastructure database and integrated into a version of the Infrastructure Planning Support System (IPSS) we are modifying for use in the Arctic and sub-Arctic region. The IPSS tool allows for consideration of both adaptation and reactive responses to climate change. Results of this work will address a gap in our understanding of climate change impacts in Alaska, provide estimates of the physical and economic damages we may expect with and without global GHG mitigation, and produce important insights about infrastructure vulnerabilities in response to

  14. The Impact of Strategic Human Resource Management on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Department of Management and Accounting, ... in SHRM and its impact on the competitiveness of firms, few empirical contributions .... management training in HR, selection system, career planning, and job definition ... The current study was conducted in a single industry to control for between- .... career path information to.

  15. The impact of resource loss on Holocaust survivors facing war and terrorism in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, R.; Hobfoll, S. E.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the distress level of 102 Holocaust survivors in Israel during a recent period of continuous exposure of the Israeli population to terror and the threat of missile attack. Based on the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, we explored the contribution of losses suffered during the Holocaust and of current loss of resources due to terror attacks on their distress level. Twenty one percent of the sample had probable PTSD and high psychological distress levels in general. Current loss of psychosocial resources contributed significantly to survivors’ current PTSD symptomatology and general psychological distress, above the contribution of the previous Holocaust-related loss. Our findings support COR theory, which states that traumatic events are associated with ongoing and often rapid loss of resources. Resource loss, in turn, is associated with higher distress levels. Moreover, current loss of resources compounds the impact of earlier resource losses incurred during the Holocaust. PMID:17453549

  16. Hydroelectric power available resources and environmental impact reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penta, P.

    1998-01-01

    The actual energy demand in Italy is met only in part by means of hydropower, as the available resources are almost entirely exploited. Italy is therefore obliged to import energy from far countries, in form of fossil fuel, that gives rise to serious outcomes due to the emission of undesirable gas in the environment. According to some recent evaluations conducted by the Ministry of Environment and the Agency for Alternative Energy (ENEA), the situation could improve in the year 2020 if the demand would reduce and the use of clean-energy increase. However, such an ambitious programme require to invest in ten years more than 100.000 billion Liras and the overall fuel consumption will only partially, decrease. To look at the problem in a broader view, taking into account that a drastic demand reduction is unthinkable, new resources, preferably non-polluting, must be identified. An energy source, still unexploited, is that of River Congo at the Inga falls, where the estimated potential is of 270 GWh, namely of the same order of the total energy consumed in Italy in 1997. Because such an energy cannot be conveyed to Italy by means of electric lines, it must be transformed into a vector suitable of an easier transportation: this could be the hydrogen [it

  17. U.S. Forest Greenhouse Gas Impacts of a continued Expansion of E.U. Wood Pellet Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, G.; Baker, J.; Ohrel, S. B.

    2016-12-01

    The United States has ambitious goals of greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions. A portion of these reductions are based on expected contributions from land use, land use change, and forestry (LULUCF). The European Union has similar goals which have resulted in a doubling of wood pellets exported from US ports destined for EU power plants over the last few years. There are potential conflicts between the GHG consequences of this pellet supply and the LULUCF contribution to US GHG goals. This study seeks to inform the discussion by modeling US forest GHG accounts using data measured on a grid of over 150,000 USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) forestland plots across the conterminous United States. Empirical yield functions are estimate from plot log volume, biomass and carbon and provide the basis for changes in forest characteristics over time. Demand data based on a spatial database of over 2,000 forest product manufacturing facilities representing 11 intermediate and 13 final solid and pulpwood products. Manufacturing and logging costs are specific to slope, log size, and volume removed along with transportation costs based on fuel prices, FIA plot, and milling locations. The resulting partial spatial equilibrium model of the US forest sector is solved annually for the period 2010 - 2030 with demand shifted by energy prices and macroeconomic indicators from the US EIA's Annual Energy Outlook for a series of potential wood pellet export targets. For each wood pellet export level simulated, figures showing historic and scenario-specific forest products production are generated. Maps of the spatial allocation of both forest harvesting and carbon fluxes are presented at the National level and detail is given in both the US North and Southeast.

  18. Response of Soil Biogeochemistry to Freeze-thaw Cycles: Impacts on Greenhouse Gas Emission and Nutrient Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezanezhad, F.; Parsons, C. T.; Smeaton, C. M.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2014-12-01

    Freeze-thaw is an abiotic stress applied to soils and is a natural process at medium to high latitudes. Freezing and thawing processes influence not only the physical properties of soil, but also the metabolic activity of soil microorganisms. Fungi and bacteria play a crucial role in soil organic matter degradation and the production of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO2, CH4 and N2O. Production and consumption of these atmospheric trace gases are the result of biological processes such as photosynthesis, aerobic respiration (CO2), methanogenesis, methanotrophy (CH4), nitrification and denitrification (N2O). To enhance our understanding of the effects of freeze-thaw cycles on soil biogeochemical transformations and fluxes, a highly instrumented soil column experiment was designed to realistically simulate freeze-thaw dynamics under controlled conditions. Pore waters collected periodically from different depths of the column and solid-phase analyses on core material obtained at the initial and end of the experiment highlighted striking geochemical cycling. CO2, CH4 and N2O production at different depths within the column were quantified from dissolved gas concentrations in pore water. Subsequent emissions from the soil surface were determined by direct measurement in the head space. Pulsed CO2 emission to the headspace was observed at the onset of thawing, however, the magnitude of the pulse decreased with each subsequent freeze-thaw cycle indicating depletion of a "freeze-thaw accessible" carbon pool. Pulsed CO2 emission was due to a combination of physical release of gases dissolved in porewater and entrapped below the frozen zone and changing microbial respiration in response to electron acceptor variability (O2, NO3-, SO42-). In this presentation, we focus on soil-specific physical, chemical, microbial factors (e.g. redox conditions, respiration, fermentation) and the mechanisms that drive GHG emission and nutrient cycling in soils under freeze-thaw cycles.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gas mitigation in transport: A review of methodological approaches and their impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, Robert; Annema, Jan Anne; Wee, Bert van

    2011-01-01

    A review is given of methodological practices for ex ante cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of transport greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation measures, e.g. fuel economy and CO 2 standards for road vehicles in the US and EU. Besides the fundamental differences between different types of policies and abatement options which inherently result in different CEA outcomes, differences in methodological choices and assumptions are another important source of variation in CEA outcomes. Fourteen methodological issues clustered into six groups are identified on which thirty-three selected studies are systematically reviewed. The potential variation between lower and upper cost-effectiveness estimates for GHG mitigation measures in transport, resulting from different methodological choices and assumptions, lies in the order of $400 per tonne CO 2 -eq. The practise of using CEA for policy-making could improve considerably by clearly indicating the specific purpose of the CEA and its strengths and limitations for policy decisions. Another improvement is related to the dominant approach in transport GHG mitigation studies: the bottom-up financial technical approach which assesses isolated effects, implying considerable limitations for policy-making. A shift to welfare-economic approaches using a hybrid model has the potential to establish an improved assessment of transport GHG mitigation measures based on realistic market responses and behavioural change. - Highlights: ► We identify fourteen important methodological issues clustered into six groups. ► We systematically review thirty-three selected transport GHG mitigation studies. ► Methodological choices can lead to a difference by up to $400 per tonne CO 2 -eq. ► The dominant bottom-up approach has limitations for policy-making. ► Welfare-economic approaches could improve cost-effectiveness analysis.

  20. Impact of direct greenhouse gas emissions on the carbon footprint of water reclamation processes employing nitrification-denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Andrew G; Townsend-Small, Amy; Rosso, Diego

    2015-02-01

    Water reclamation has the potential to reduce water supply demands from aquifers and more energy-intensive water production methods (e.g., seawater desalination). However, water reclamation via biological nitrification-denitrification is also associated with the direct emission of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) CO₂, N₂O, and CH₄. We quantified these direct emissions from the nitrification-denitrification reactors of a water reclamation plant in Southern California, and measured the (14)C content of the CO₂ to distinguish between short- and long-lived carbon. The total emissions were 1.5 (±0.2) g-fossil CO₂ m(-3) of wastewater treated, 0.5 (±0.1) g-CO₂-eq of CH₄ m(-3), and 1.8 (±0.5) g-CO₂-eq of N₂O m(-3), for a total of 3.9 (±0.5) g-CO₂-eqm(-3). This demonstrated that water reclamation can be a source of GHGs from long lived carbon, and thus a candidate for GHG reduction credit. From the (14)C measurements, we found that between 11.4% and 15.1% of the CO₂ directly emitted was derived from fossil sources, which challenges past assumptions that the direct CO₂ emissions from water reclamation contain only modern carbon. A comparison of our direct emission measurements with estimates of indirect emissions from several water production methods, however, showed that the direct emissions from water reclamation constitute only a small fraction of the plant's total GHG footprint. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Measuring the Impact of Industrialization and Financial Development on Water Resources: A Case Study of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid ZAMAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study examines the impact of industrialization and financial development on water resources, in the specific context of Pakistan. Data set from 1975-2009 are taken for time series analysis. The result reveals that economic growth positively linked with the water resource, as water plays a pivotal role in the economic development of a country. Thus limiting this resource would affect the process of economic growth. Industrial processes have a negative environmental impact which causing water pollution. Financial development has an indirect effect on water consumption, as it shows that private firms finds more funding opportunities in a country, therefore, avoid dirty industry game.

  2. Climate change impacts on hydrology and water resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Fokko Hattermann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of our study is to quantify the impacts of climate change on hydrology in the large river basins in Germany (Rhine, Elbe, Danube, Weser and Ems and thereby giving the range of impact uncertainty created by the most recent regional climate projections. The study shows mainly results for the A1B SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenario scenario by comparing the reference period 1981–2010 and the scenario periods 2031–2060 and 2061–2090 and using climate projections of a combination of 4 Global Climate Models (GCMs and 12 Regional Climate Models (RCMs as climate driver. The outcome is compared against impacts driven by a more recent RCP (Representative Emission Pathways scenario by using data of a statistical RCM. The results indicate that more robust conclusions can be drawn for some river basins, especially the Rhine and Danube basins, while diversity of results leads to higher uncertainty in the other river basins. The results also show that hydrology is very sensitive to changes in climate and effects of a general increase in precipitation can even be over-compensated by an increase in evapotranspiration. The decrease of runoff in late summer shown in most results can be an indicator for more pronounced droughts under scenario conditions.

  3. Modeling Impacts of Alternative Practices on Net Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensity from Rice–Wheat Annual Rotation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinyang; Zhang, Xiaolin; Liu, Yinglie; Pan, Xiaojian; Liu, Pingli; Chen, Zhaozhi; Huang, Taiqing; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluating the net exchange of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in conjunction with soil carbon sequestration may give a comprehensive insight on the role of agricultural production in global warming. Materials and Methods Measured data of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were utilized to test the applicability of the Denitrification and Decomposition (DNDC) model to a winter wheat – single rice rotation system in southern China. Six alternative scenarios were simulated against the baseline scenario to evaluate their long-term (45-year) impacts on net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI). Principal Results The simulated cumulative CH4 emissions fell within the statistical deviation ranges of the field data, with the exception of N2O emissions during rice-growing season and both gases from the control treatment. Sensitivity tests showed that both CH4 and N2O emissions were significantly affected by changes in both environmental factors and management practices. Compared with the baseline scenario, the long-term simulation had the following results: (1) high straw return and manure amendment scenarios greatly increased CH4 emissions, while other scenarios had similar CH4 emissions, (2) high inorganic N fertilizer increased N2O emissions while manure amendment and reduced inorganic N fertilizer scenarios decreased N2O emissions, (3) the mean annual soil organic carbon sequestration rates (SOCSR) under manure amendment, high straw return, and no-tillage scenarios averaged 0.20 t C ha−1 yr−1, being greater than other scenarios, and (4) the reduced inorganic N fertilizer scenario produced the least N loss from the system, while all the scenarios produced comparable grain yields. Conclusions In terms of net GWP and GHGI for the comprehensive assessment of climate change and crop production, reduced inorganic N fertilizer scenario followed by no-tillage scenario would be advocated for this specified cropping system. PMID

  4. Modeling impacts of alternative practices on net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity from rice-wheat annual rotation in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyang Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evaluating the net exchange of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions in conjunction with soil carbon sequestration may give a comprehensive insight on the role of agricultural production in global warming. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Measured data of methane (CH(4 and nitrous oxide (N(2O were utilized to test the applicability of the Denitrification and Decomposition (DNDC model to a winter wheat - single rice rotation system in southern China. Six alternative scenarios were simulated against the baseline scenario to evaluate their long-term (45-year impacts on net global warming potential (GWP and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI. PRINCIPAL RESULTS: The simulated cumulative CH(4 emissions fell within the statistical deviation ranges of the field data, with the exception of N(2O emissions during rice-growing season and both gases from the control treatment. Sensitivity tests showed that both CH(4 and N(2O emissions were significantly affected by changes in both environmental factors and management practices. Compared with the baseline scenario, the long-term simulation had the following results: (1 high straw return and manure amendment scenarios greatly increased CH(4 emissions, while other scenarios had similar CH(4 emissions, (2 high inorganic N fertilizer increased N(2O emissions while manure amendment and reduced inorganic N fertilizer scenarios decreased N(2O emissions, (3 the mean annual soil organic carbon sequestration rates (SOCSR under manure amendment, high straw return, and no-tillage scenarios averaged 0.20 t C ha(-1 yr(-1, being greater than other scenarios, and (4 the reduced inorganic N fertilizer scenario produced the least N loss from the system, while all the scenarios produced comparable grain yields. CONCLUSIONS: In terms of net GWP and GHGI for the comprehensive assessment of climate change and crop production, reduced inorganic N fertilizer scenario followed by no-tillage scenario would be advocated for this specified

  5. Impacts of European livestock production: nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and greenhouse gas emissions, land-use, water eutrophication and biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leip, Adrian; Grizzetti, Bruna; Weiss, Franz; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Lassaletta, Luis; Reis, Stefan; Sutton, Mark A; Simpson, David; De Vries, Wim; Westhoek, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production systems currently occupy around 28% of the land surface of the European Union (equivalent to 65% of the agricultural land). In conjunction with other human activities, livestock production systems affect water, air and soil quality, global climate and biodiversity, altering the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon. Here, we quantify the contribution of European livestock production to these major impacts. For each environmental effect, the contribution of livestock is expressed as shares of the emitted compounds and land used, as compared to the whole agricultural sector. The results show that the livestock sector contributes significantly to agricultural environmental impacts. This contribution is 78% for terrestrial biodiversity loss, 80% for soil acidification and air pollution (ammonia and nitrogen oxides emissions), 81% for global warming, and 73% for water pollution (both N and P). The agriculture sector itself is one of the major contributors to these environmental impacts, ranging between 12% for global warming and 59% for N water quality impact. Significant progress in mitigating these environmental impacts in Europe will only be possible through a combination of technological measures reducing livestock emissions, improved food choices and reduced food waste of European citizens. (letter)

  6. Future Climate Impacts of Direct Radiative Forcing Anthropogenic Aerosols, Tropospheric Ozone, and Long-lived Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Liao, Hong; Seinfeld, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs) are the most important driver of climate change over the next century. Aerosols and tropospheric ozone (O3) are expected to induce significant perturbations to the GHG-forced climate. To distinguish the equilibrium climate responses to changes in direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and GHG between present day and year 2100, four 80-year equilibrium climates are simulated using a unified tropospheric chemistry-aerosol model within the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM) 110. Concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, primary organic (POA) carbon, secondary organic (SOA) carbon, black carbon (BC) aerosols, and tropospheric ozone for present day and year 2100 are obtained a priori by coupled chemistry-aerosol GCM simulations, with emissions of aerosols, ozone, and precursors based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenario (SRES) A2. Changing anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and GHG from present day to year 2100 is predicted to perturb the global annual mean radiative forcing by +0.18 (considering aerosol direct effects only), +0.65, and +6.54 W m(sup -2) at the tropopause, and to induce an equilibrium global annual mean surface temperature change of +0.14, +0.32, and +5.31 K, respectively, with the largest temperature response occurring at northern high latitudes. Anthropogenic aerosols, through their direct effect, are predicted to alter the Hadley circulation owing to an increasing interhemispheric temperature gradient, leading to changes in tropical precipitation. When changes in both aerosols and tropospheric ozone are considered, the predicted patterns of change in global circulation and the hydrological cycle are similar to those induced by aerosols alone. GHG-induced climate changes, such as amplified warming over high latitudes, weakened Hadley circulation, and increasing precipitation over the

  7. Environmental impacts assessment: Instruments for environmental policy making and resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavelli, C.M.; Sartori, S.

    1993-06-01

    This review of evaluation criteria for environmental impacts assessments in Italy covers the following aspects: the efficacy of current Italian normatives governing assessment methods, the current approach of regional public administrations, the necessity for the creation of a national regulating board, environmental impacts assessment for complex environmental systems, the application of impacts assessment recommendations to resource development modelling in the planning of integrated environmental-economic systems, the involvement of the general public in decision making, techniques to determine the monetary worth of environmental resources, the use of multi-criteria analysis techniques

  8. Agriculture and greenhouse effect: economic regulation of cross impacts and combination of agricultural and environmental policies - analysis for the France and extension to the european union. Economic analysis of the interactions agriculture- greenhouse effect; Agriculture et effet de serre: regulation economique des impacts croises et combinaison des politiques agricole et environnementale - Analyse pour la France et extension pour l'Union Europeenne. Analyse economique des interactions agriculture - effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayet, P.A

    2002-09-15

    The objectives of the research program are: the impacts evaluation of a double relation climate - agriculture on the agricultural production and the greenhouse gases emission; the compatibility of agricultural policies and environmental policies of the sector. Simulations are realized at a regional scale with a coupling of economical and biophysical models (manure spreading, cultivation yield). (A.L.B.)

  9. State Energy Efficiency Resource Standards: Design, Status, and Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, D.; Zinaman, O.

    2014-05-01

    An energy efficiency resource standard (EERS) is a policy that requires utilities or other entities to achieve a specified amount of energy savings through customer energy efficiency programs within a specified timeframe. EERSs may apply to electricity usage, natural gas usage, or both. This paper provides an overview of the key design features of EERSs for electricity, reviews the variation in design of EERSs across states, and provides an estimate of the amount of savings required by currently specified EERSs in each state. As of December, 2013, 23 states have active and binding EERSs for electricity. We estimate that state EERSs will require annual electricity savings of approximately 8-11% of total projected demand by 2020 in states with EERSs, however the level of savings targeted by the policies varies significantly across states. In addition to the variation in targeted savings, the design of EERSs varies significantly across states leading to differences in the suite of incentives created by the policy, the flexibility of compliance with the policy, the balance of benefits and costs of the policy between producers and consumers, and the certainty with which the policy will drive long-term savings.

  10. Uncertainties in emission estimates of greenhouse gases and air pollutants in China and India and their impacts on regional air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikawa, E.; Trail, M.; Young, C. L.; Zhong, M.; Avramov, A.; Kim, H.; Wu, Q.; Janssens-Maenhout, G. G. A.; Kurokawa, J. I.; Klimont, Z.; Wagner, F.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Zhao, Y.; Nagpure, A.; Gurjar, B.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Greenhouse gas and air pollutant precursor emissions have been increasing rapidly in both China and India, resulting in local to regional scale effects on air quality. Modelers use emission inventories to represent the temporal and spatial distribution of impacts of air pollutant emissions on regional and global air quality. However, large uncertainties exist in emission inventories. Quantification of uncertainties in emission estimates is essential to better understand the linkages among emissions, air quality, climate, and health. We use Monte Carlo methods to assess the uncertainties of the existing carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) emission estimates for both China and India. We focus on the period between 2000 and 2008. In addition to national totals, we also analyze emissions from four source sectors, including industry, transport, power, and residential. We also assess differences in the existing emission estimates within each of the subnational regions. We find large disagreements among the existing inventories at disaggregated levels. We further assess the impact of these differences in emissions on air quality using a chemical transport model. More efforts are needed to constrain emissions, especially in the Indo-Gangetic Plains and in the East and Central regions of China, where large differences across emission inventories result in concomitant large differences in the simulated concentrations of PM and ozone. Our study also highlights the importance of constraining SO2, NOx, and NH3 emissions for secondary PM concentrations over China and India.

  11. Impact of a possible environmental externalities internalisation on energy prices: The case of the greenhouse gases from the Greek electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgakellos, Dimitrios A.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with the impact of the internalisation of environmental externalities on energy prices. In this context, its aim is to quantify the external cost of greenhouse gases (specifically carbon dioxide) generated during electricity production in the thermal power plants in Greece and to estimate the impact on the electricity production cost and on the electricity prices of a possible internalisation of this external cost by the producers. For this purpose, this paper applies the EcoSenseLE online tool to quantify the examined externalities. This research finds that the calculated external cost is significantly high (compared to the corresponding production cost) mainly in lignite-fired power plants. Specifically, a possible internalisation of this external cost would increase the production cost by more than 52% (on average), which, in turn, would affect similarly the electricity prices. This finding could be important for decision makers in the electricity sector to develop strategies for emission reduction and to develop environmental and energy policies. The general limitation of the external cost methodology applies to this work as it uses the standard method developed for the Externe project. Similarly, the data limitations as well as assumptions related to the costs and exclusions/ omissions of cost elements affect the results.

  12. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  13. Reversible and irreversible impacts of greenhouse gas emissions in multi-century projections with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froelicher, Thomas L.; Joos, Fortunat [University of Bern, Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, Bern (Switzerland); University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, Bern (Switzerland)

    2010-12-15

    The legacy of historical and the long-term impacts of 21st century greenhouse gas emissions on climate, ocean acidification, and carbon-climate feedbacks are investigated with a coupled carbon cycle-climate model. Emission commitment scenarios with zero emissions after year 2100 and 21st century emissions of 1,800, 900, and 0 gigatons of carbon are run up to year 2500. The reversibility and irreversibility of impacts is quantified by comparing anthropogenically-forced regional changes with internal, unforced climate variability. We show that the influence of historical emissions and of non-CO{sub 2} agents is largely reversible on the regional scale. Forced changes in surface temperature and precipitation become smaller than internal variability for most land and ocean grid cells in the absence of future carbon emissions. In contrast, continued carbon emissions over the 21st century cause irreversible climate change on centennial to millennial timescales in most regions and impacts related to ocean acidification and sea level rise continue to aggravate for centuries even if emissions are stopped in year 2100. Undersaturation of the Arctic surface ocean with respect to aragonite, a mineral form of calcium carbonate secreted by marine organisms, is imminent and remains widespread. The volume of supersaturated water providing habitat to calcifying organisms is reduced from preindustrial 40 to 25% in 2100 and to 10% in 2300 for the high emission case. We conclude that emission trading schemes, related to the Kyoto Process, should not permit trading between emissions of relatively short-lived agents and CO{sub 2} given the irreversible impacts of anthropogenic carbon emissions. (orig.)

  14. Climate change impacts on wind energy resources in northern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryor, S.C.; Barthelmie, R.J.; Kjellstroem, E.

    2005-01-01

    Energy is a fundamental human need. Heat, light and transport for individuals combined with the needs of industry have created a demand for energy which for the last 100-200 years has been met largely through consumption of fossil fuels leading to altered atmospheric composition and modification of the global climate. These effects will be realised on local scales affecting not just temperature and precipitation but also wind, radiation and other parameters. Annual mean wind speeds and wind energy density over northern Europe were significantly higher at the end of twentieth century than during the middle portion of that century, with the majority of the change being focused on the winter season. To address questions regarding possible future wind climates we employ dynamical and empirical downscaling techniques that seek to take coarse resolution output from General Circulation Models (GCM), run to provide scenarios of future climate, and develop higher resolution regional wind climates. Analyses of the wind climate during the historical record indicate that both the dynamical approach and the empirical approach are capable of generating accurate, robust and quantitative assessments of the wind climate and energy density in northern Europe, and hence that they may be of great utility to those seeking financing for, or risk management of, wind farms in the face of climate uncertainty. The synthesis of application of these downscaling tools to climate projections for northern Europe is that there is no evidence of major changes in the wind energy resource. However, more research is required to quantify the uncertainties in developing these projections and to reduce those uncertainties. Further work should also be conducted to assess the validity of these downscaling approaches in other geographical locations. (BA)

  15. TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS ON WATER RESOURCES IN NORTHERN KUTA DISTRICT OF BADUNG BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Sunarta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the problem in the development of Bali tourism is declining carrying capacity supporting tourism resources, especially water. In the past, rural areas have never experienced a lack of water, by which presently facing a water crisis. This condition corresponds to the higher intensity of exploitation of water resources as a result of tourism development. The rapid development of business on accommodation facilities in North Kuta District is potential to accupy rice paddy and water resources. If this development is not properly controlled can cause negative impacts not only on the existence of the fields, but also for the potential of water resources. Tourism is significantly depend on adequacy of water resources to be able to function properly, thus in case of a water crisis in the tourist areas of Bali in particular, then sooner or later will create the economic crisis and the crisis of tourism. The research was located in North Kuta District aimed to know the impacts of the development of the tourism on water resources potential. In order to understand the impact on water resources used geography disciplines approach, and applying survey research methods. Tourism development is determined by the interpretation of Quickbird imagery in a different location. Carrying capacity of water resources is determined by using the guidelines of Per Men LH. No. 17 year 2009. Impact of tourism development on water resources was determined using comparative analysis of surface water and groundwater, both an quantity and quality. There were two patterns of land use change in North Kuta District, namely from the rice fields to tourist accommodation and from the dryland/orchard land, to tourist accommodation. Changes from rice field for about 16 years (1992-2008 in North Kuta District was 1,218.44 Ha. Carrying capacity of water resources was considered deficit at all village in North Kuta District. Development of tourism, especially tourism accommodation

  16. Agriculture: Nurseries and Greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurseries and Greenhouses. Information about environmental requirements specifically relating to the production of many types of agricultural crops grown in nurseries and greenhouses, such as ornamental plants and specialty fruits and vegetables.

  17. Impact of feedstock, land use change, and soil organic carbon on energy and greenhouse gas performance of biomass cogeneration technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Njakou Djomo , Sylvestre; Witters , N.; Van Dael , M.; Gabrielle , Benoit; Ceulemans , R.

    2015-01-01

    Bioenergy (i.e., bioheat and bioelectricity) could simultaneously address energy insecurity and climate change. However, bioenergy’s impact on climate change remains incomplete when land use changes (LUC), soil organic carbon (SOC) changes, and the auxiliary energy consumption are not accounted for in the life cycle. Using data collected from Belgian farmers, combined heat and power (CHP) operators, and a life cycle approach, we compared 40 bioenergy pathways to a fossil-fuel CHP system. B...

  18. Relationship between level of economic development and motorcycle and car ownerships and their impacts on fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pongthanaisawan, Jakapong; Sorapipatana, Chumnong [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Pracha-Uthit Rd., Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Center for Energy Technology and Environment, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2010-12-15

    An increase in road vehicles secondary to economic development has strongly pushed up energy demand and adversely impact the environment by the emission of greenhouse gases and pollutants. This paper aims to analyse the relationship between motorcycle and car ownerships and level of economic development in Thailand. In addition, an overall private vehicle ownership which is a sum of both types of private vehicle ownership is also studied. An understanding of these relationships due to the economic development is a key knowledge for the sustainable transport policy in the future. The results of this study revealed that at the early stage of economic development of developing countries like Thailand, the number of motorcycles predominates over private cars. Economic development strongly affects the ownership of private vehicles in two ways: (1) overall private vehicle ownerships increase as the income levels grow and (2) after personal income grows up to a certain level, people will shift from motorcycle to car ownerships for their prestige, convenience, comfort and safety. Because of continuing economic development and population growth, the expected increase in overall private vehicle ownership is projected to push up the total private vehicle stock of Thailand in the year 2050 to about twice of the present level. This will drive fuel demands in 2050 to about 2.4 times, and the greenhouse gases (GHG) emission to about 2.5 times of the current levels. Hence, policy makers in developing countries should not overlook the impacts on the consequences of increasing overall private vehicle stock in the near future. The best and most appropriate policies should be given to the development of public transport as the first priority rather than the traditional one, which gives highest priority to traffic mobility of private vehicles by road transport neglecting the effectiveness of passengers' mobility of the public transport. In addition, policies to promote high

  19. A global meta-analysis on the impact of management practices on net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity from cropland soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural practices contribute significant amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but little is known about their effects on net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) that account for all sources and sinks of carbon dioxide emissions per unit area or crop yield. Se...

  20. The Dynamic Greenhouse Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses are marvelous devices, allowing one to enjoy the flower spectacle of summer all year round. At night, greenhouses use supplemental heat to keep the fragile plants warm. Over the last 30 years, greenhouse technology has undergone many changes, with the structures being automated and monitored and low-cost plastic structures emerging as…

  1. Potential impacts on groundwater resources of deep CO2 storage: natural analogues for assessing potential chemical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lions, J.; Gale, I.; May, F.; Nygaard, E.; Ruetters, H.; Beaubien, S.; Sohrabi, M.; Hatzignatiou, D. G.; CO2GeoNet Members involved in the present study Team

    2011-12-01

    Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is considered as one of the promising options for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO2 related to human activities. One of the main concerns associated with the geological storage of CO2 is that the CO2 may leak from the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment and, eventually, escape from the ground. This is a concern because such leakage may affect aquifers overlying the storage site and containing freshwater that may be used for drinking, industry and agriculture. The IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG) recently commissioned the CO2GeoNet Association to undertake a review of published and unpublished literature on this topic with the aim of summarizing 'state of the art' knowledge and identifying knowledge gaps and research priorities in this field. Work carried out by various CO2GeoNet members was also used in this study. This study identifies possible areas of conflict by combining available datasets to map the global and regional superposition of deep saline formations (DSF) suitable for CO2 storage and overlying fresh groundwater resources. A scenario classification is developed for the various geological settings where conflict could occur. The study proposes two approaches to address the potential impact mechanisms of CO2 storage projects on the hydrodynamics and chemistry of shallow groundwater. The first classifies and synthesizes changes of water quality observed in natural/industrial analogues and in laboratory experiments. The second reviews hydrodynamic and geochemical models, including coupled multiphase flow and reactive transport. Various models are discussed in terms of their advantages and limitations, with conclusions on possible impacts on groundwater resources. Possible mitigation options to stop or control CO2 leakage are assessed. The effect of CO2 pressure in the host DSF and the potential effects on shallow aquifers are also examined. The study provides a review of

  2. Computational fluid dynamics in greenhouses: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... reduce environmental impact while enhancing crop qua- lity and yields .... within a mild climate, appropriate design and control of ventilation are required .... crucial parameter in the pattern of internal greenhouse temperatures ...

  3. Impact of policies and measures devoted to the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions; L'impact des politiques et mesures destinees a reduire les emissions de gaz a effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document is the proceedings of the 7. session of the series of conferences on energy policies jointly organized by the general commission of national development and the general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP). A first part is devoted to the presentation of the report entitled 'greenhouse effect: economic modeling and public decision'. This report presents the work carried out for the building of a reference scenario for the evaluation of the expected impact of policies and measures on the evolution of CO{sub 2} emissions. A second part gives some comments about the cost-benefit impacts of environmental policies and the last part summarizes the interventions of some of the participants during the debates. (J.S.)

  4. The role of advanced nuclear plants in reducing the environmental and economic impact of greenhouse emissions on electrical generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redding, J.; Veitch, C.

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the potential impact of imposing economic penalties (externalities) in an effort to reduce emission levels and environmental effect of existing and newly constructed electric facilities, on the selection of generation technology and fuel type, and how the nuclear industry's efforts to develop the next generation of nuclear power facilities will provide an economic, low emission generating option to meet the expanding global electrical needs. The efforts of the US nuclear industry to improve the performance and economics of the existing and next generation facilities are presented, focusing on General Electric's Advanced Boiling Water Reactor and Simplified Boiling Water Reactor. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  5. An assessment of UK bioenergy production, resource availability, biomass gasification and life cycle impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Energy use and the environment are inextricably linked and form a key role in concerns over sustainability. All methods of energy production involve resource uncertainties and environmental impacts. A clear example of this is the use of fossil fuels which present three main problems, being: finite resources; significant contribution to environmental pollution; and reliance on imports. Hence there is a clear need to reduce the use of fossil fuels for energy. Bioenergy has the potential to both...

  6. Per capita emissions of greenhouse gases and international trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karman, D.; Baptiste, S.

    1994-01-01

    The role played by international trade in Canada's emissions of greenhouse gases is investigated. Data used in the study include Environment Canada greenhouse gas emission estimates for 1990, a Statistics Canada input-output model linking greenhouse gas emissions to economic activity in different sectors, and monetary statistics on imports and exports. Subject to some simplifying assumptions, it is estimated that nearly 20% of Canada's greenhouse gas emissions can be attributed to the production of commodities destined for export to other countries. If the same greenhouse gas emission intensities are assumed for Canada's imports, the greenhouse gas emissions due to Canada's net trade is nearly 7% of the 660 megatonnes of CO 2 equivalent emissions for 1990. Commodities from natural resource exploitation head the list of greenhouse gas emissions attributed to international trade, as expected from their large export volumes and large greenhouse gas emission intensities. 4 refs., 1 fig

  7. Macro-economic impact of large-scale deployment of biomass resources for energy and materials on a national level—A combined approach for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagels, Ric; Banse, Martin; Dornburg, Veronika; Faaij, André

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is considered one of the most important options in the transition to a sustainable energy system with reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increased security of enegry supply. In order to facilitate this transition with targeted policies and implementation strategies, it is of vital importance to understand the economic benefits, uncertainties and risks of this transition. This article presents a quantification of the economic impacts on value added, employment shares and the trade balance as well as required biomass and avoided primary energy and greenhouse gases related to large scale biomass deployment on a country level (the Netherlands) for different future scenarios to 2030. This is done by using the macro-economic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model LEITAP, capable of quantifying direct and indirect effects of a bio-based economy combined with a spread sheet tool to address underlying technological details. Although the combined approach has limitations, the results of the projections show that substitution of fossil energy carriers by biomass, could have positive economic effects, as well as reducing GHG emissions and fossil energy requirement. Key factors to achieve these targets are enhanced technological development and the import of sustainable biomass resources to the Netherlands. - Highlights: • We analyse large scale production of bioenergy and biochemicals in the Netherlands. • The scenarios include up to 30% substitution of fossil fuels by biomass in 2030. • Resulting in strong greenhouse gas savings and positive macro-economic effects. • Large amounts of imported biomass are required to meet the domestic demand. • This requires high rates of technological change and strict sustainability criteria

  8. The impact of job crafting on job demands, job resources, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, Maria; Bakker, Arnold B; Derks, Daantje

    2013-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether employees can impact their own well-being by crafting their job demands and resources. Based on the job demands-resources model, we hypothesized that employee job crafting would have an impact on work engagement, job satisfaction, and burnout through changes in job demands and job resources. Data was collected in a chemical plant at three time points with one month in between the measurement waves (N = 288). The results of structural equation modeling showed that employees who crafted their job resources in the first month of the study showed an increase in their structural and social resources over the course of the study (2 months). This increase in job resources was positively related to employee well-being (increased engagement and job satisfaction, and decreased burnout). Crafting job demands did not result in a change in job demands, but results revealed direct effects of crafting challenging demands on increases in well-being. We conclude that employee job crafting has a positive impact on well-being and that employees therefore should be offered opportunities to craft their own jobs.

  9. The impact of individual and organizational resources on nurse outcomes and intent to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetto, Yvonne; Rodwell, John; Shacklock, Kate; Farr-Wharton, Rod; Demir, Defne

    2016-12-01

    To examine the impact of an individual resource factor (psychological capital) and an organizational resource (management support) on nurses' intentions to quit. Nursing work can be stressful and as a consequence, nurses suffer greater stress and stress-related sickness, including depression, than the general population. Stress can be mitigated in the workplace depending on the availability of resources in the workplace. Resources can come from the organization or the individual themselves. The study is quantitative using a cross-sectional design. The study analysed data from 242 nurses working in five Australian hospitals in the one regional network during 2013. The predictors explained almost half of the variance of nurses' intent to quit. Psychological capital had the dual benefits of reducing nurses' perceptions of psychological distress and simultaneously increasing their job satisfaction. Psychological capital is an example of the personal resources a nurse brings to work. Nurse managers can now understand the impact of a new form of protective resources that influence the levels of strain felt by nurses. If nurses present with low psychological capital, then up-skilling nurses with these personal attributes will positively impact on their health and well-being and, in turn, enhance the care of patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. INPRO Methodology for Sustainability Assessment of Nuclear Energy Systems: Environmental Impact from Depletion of Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    INPRO is an international project to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in a sustainable manner to meeting the energy needs of the 21st century. A basic principle of INPRO in the area of environmental impact from depletion of resources is that a nuclear energy system will be capable of contributing to the energy needs in the 21st century while making efficient use of non-renewable resources needed for construction, operation and decommissioning. Recognizing that a national nuclear energy programme in a given country may be based both on indigenous resources and resources purchased from abroad, this publication provides background materials and summarizes the results of international global resource availability studies that could contribute to the corresponding national assessments

  11. Greenhouse effect and climate: the man impact; Effet de serre et climat: l'influence humaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquart, Y. [Universite des Sciences et technologies de Lille, Lab. d' Optique Atmospherique, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2001-04-01

    In this article the author describes the different mechanisms that are involved in the setting of the earth climate. The main natural causes of climate variations are reviewed: - the variations in the orbit of the earth around the sun, - the interactions between oceans and the atmosphere, and - the volcanic eruptions. It is shown that mean earth temperature has continuously increased for the last 150 years. The impact of man activities on climate changes will not be scientifically proved before at least 10 years, but computerized simulations based on models taking into account industrial emissions of aerosols agree with temperatures values recorded since the beginning of the industrial era. This article supports the current opinion that climate is changing beyond natural variations. (A.C.)

  12. Assessing the impacts of changes in treatment technology on energy and greenhouse gas balances for organic waste and wastewater treatment using historical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2009-11-01

    Historical data on organic waste and wastewater treatment during the period of 1970-2020 were used to assess the impact of treatment on energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances. The assessment included the waste fractions: Sewage sludge, food waste, yard waste and other organic waste (paper, plastic, etc.). Data were collected from Aalborg, a municipality located in Northern Denmark. During the period from 1970-2005, Aalborg Municipality has changed its waste treatment strategy from landfilling of all wastes toward composting of yard waste and incineration with combined heat and power production from the remaining organic municipal waste. Wastewater treatment has changed from direct discharge of untreated wastewater to full organic matter and nutrient (N, P) removal combined with anaerobic digestion of the sludge for biogas production with power and heat generation. These changes in treatment technology have resulted in the waste and wastewater treatment systems in Aalborg progressing from being net consumers of energy and net emitters of GHG, to becoming net producers of energy and net savers of GHG emissions (due to substitution of fossil fuels elsewhere). If it is assumed that the organic waste quantity and composition is the same in 1970 and 2005, the technology change over this time period has resulted in a progression from a net annual GHG emission of 200 kg CO( 2)-eq. capita(-1) in 1970 to a net saving of 170 kg CO(2)-eq. capita(-1) in 2005 for management of urban organic wastes.

  13. Impact of future urban form on the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from residential, commercial and public buildings in Utsunomiya, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Satoshi; Tabushi, Shoichi; Aramaki, Toshiya; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2010-01-01

    Energy-saving technologies' applicability to making cities more environmentally sustainable can be strongly influenced by the city's form, building uses and their density pattern. Technological developments have clearly shown specific urban forms to be more conducive to installing certain mitigation technologies. In this study, the capacity for implementation and impacts on energy savings and subsequent greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction potential of mitigation technologies such as photovoltaic cells (PV) and combined heat and power (CHP) technologies were analysed with respect to three potential urban forms (high density centralised, medium density averaged and low density de-centralized) for Utsunomiya City, Japan. Given current building use patterns, scenarios for 2030 and 2050, showed the medium density averaged form, which benefits from both PV and CHP technologies, to outperform the other forms, resulting in an energy savings and GHG reduction potential of 27.6% in 2030 and 67.6% in 2050. Interestingly, GHG reduction in 2050 was primarily attributable to PV, while CHP technology had the greater influence in 2030. Despite the limitation of the analysis, the study provides a useful insight, highlighting the relationship between urban forms and GHG reduction potential by two energy-saving technologies.

  14. Impact of food, housing, and transportation insecurity on ART adherence: a hierarchical resources approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Talea; Jones, Maranda; Merly, Cynthia; Welles, Brandi; Kalichman, Moira O; Kalichman, Seth C

    2017-04-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed HIV into a manageable illness. However, high levels of adherence must be maintained. Lack of access to basic resources (food, transportation, and housing) has been consistently associated with suboptimal ART adherence. Moving beyond such direct effects, this study takes a hierarchical resources approach in which the effects of access to basic resources on ART adherence are mediated through interpersonal resources (social support and care services) and personal resources (self-efficacy). Participants were 915 HIV-positive men and women living in Atlanta, GA, recruited from community centers and infectious disease clinics. Participants answered baseline questionnaires, and provided prospective data on ART adherence. Across a series of nested models, a consistent pattern emerged whereby lack of access to basic resources had indirect, negative effects on adherence, mediated through both lack of access to social support and services, and through lower treatment self-efficacy. There was also a significant direct effect of lack of access to transportation on adherence. Lack of access to basic resources negatively impacts ART adherence. Effects for housing instability and food insecurity were fully mediated through social support, access to services, and self-efficacy, highlighting these as important targets for intervention. Targeting service supports could be especially beneficial due to the potential to both promote adherence and to link clients with other services to supplement food, housing, and transportation. Inability to access transportation had a direct negative effect on adherence, suggesting that free or reduced cost transportation could positively impact ART adherence among disadvantaged populations.

  15. The Impact of Library Resources and Services on the Scholarly Activity of Medical Faculty and Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesenberry, Alexandria C; Oelschlegel, Sandy; Earl, Martha; Leonard, Kelsey; Vaughn, Cynthia J

    2016-01-01

    Librarians at an academic medical center library gathered data to determine if library services and resources impacted scholarly activity. A survey was developed and sent out to faculty and residents asking how they used the library during scholarly activity. Sixty-five faculty members and residents responded to the survey. The majority of respondents involved with scholarly activity use the library's services and resources. PubMed is the most frequently used database. The positive results show the library impacts the scholarly activity of medical faculty and residents.

  16. Individual and organizational impact of enterprises resources planning system in health care sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyas, A.; Fiaz, M.; Tayyaba, A.

    2016-01-01

    Use of ERPS (Enterprise Resource Planning System) in health care sector has positive impacts. The purpose of this research is to find out the individual and organizational impact in health care sector. Hypotheses were postulated that the use of ERPS has positive individual and organizational impacts. A research questionnaire was used to test these hypotheses which have twelve dimensions for both impacts. This instrument was adopted from literature and self-administrated to 504 individuals with response rate of 60 percentage and only 56 percentage of questionnaires were used. The results of this study revealed that the use of ERPS has positive individual and organizational impacts. This study will help the health care organizations to find out impacts of ERPS in health care sector and also to better understand the individual and organizational impacts. (author)

  17. A Global Meta-Analysis on the Impact of Management Practices on Net Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensity from Cropland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainju, Upendra M.

    2016-01-01

    Management practices, such as tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization, may affect net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), but their global impact on cropland soils under different soil and climatic conditions need further evaluation. Available global data from 57 experiments and 225 treatments were evaluated for individual and combined effects of tillage, cropping systems, and N fertilization rates on GWP and GHGI which accounted for CO2 equivalents from N2O and CH4 emissions with or without equivalents from soil C sequestration rate (ΔSOC), farm operations, and N fertilization. The GWP and GHGI were 66 to 71% lower with no-till than conventional till and 168 to 215% lower with perennial than annual cropping systems, but 41 to 46% greater with crop rotation than monocroppping. With no-till vs. conventional till, GWP and GHGI were 2.6- to 7.4-fold lower when partial than full accounting of all sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) were considered. With 100 kg N ha-1, GWP and GHGI were 3.2 to 11.4 times greater with partial than full accounting. Both GWP and GHGI increased curvilinearly with increased N fertilization rate. Net GWP and GHGI were 70 to 87% lower in the improved combined management that included no-till, crop rotation/perennial crop, and reduced N rate than the traditional combined management that included conventional till, monocopping/annual crop, and recommended N rate. An alternative soil respiration method, which replaces ΔSOC by soil respiration and crop residue returned to soil in the previous year, similarly reduced GWP and GHGI by 133 to 158% in the improved vs. the traditional combined management. Changes in GWP and GHGI due to improved vs. traditional management varied with the duration of the experiment and inclusion of soil and climatic factors in multiple linear regressions improved their relationships. Improved management practices reduced GWP and GHGI compared with traditional management

  18. A Global Meta-Analysis on the Impact of Management Practices on Net Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensity from Cropland Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainju, Upendra M

    2016-01-01

    Management practices, such as tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization, may affect net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), but their global impact on cropland soils under different soil and climatic conditions need further evaluation. Available global data from 57 experiments and 225 treatments were evaluated for individual and combined effects of tillage, cropping systems, and N fertilization rates on GWP and GHGI which accounted for CO2 equivalents from N2O and CH4 emissions with or without equivalents from soil C sequestration rate (ΔSOC), farm operations, and N fertilization. The GWP and GHGI were 66 to 71% lower with no-till than conventional till and 168 to 215% lower with perennial than annual cropping systems, but 41 to 46% greater with crop rotation than monocroppping. With no-till vs. conventional till, GWP and GHGI were 2.6- to 7.4-fold lower when partial than full accounting of all sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) were considered. With 100 kg N ha-1, GWP and GHGI were 3.2 to 11.4 times greater with partial than full accounting. Both GWP and GHGI increased curvilinearly with increased N fertilization rate. Net GWP and GHGI were 70 to 87% lower in the improved combined management that included no-till, crop rotation/perennial crop, and reduced N rate than the traditional combined management that included conventional till, monocopping/annual crop, and recommended N rate. An alternative soil respiration method, which replaces ΔSOC by soil respiration and crop residue returned to soil in the previous year, similarly reduced GWP and GHGI by 133 to 158% in the improved vs. the traditional combined management. Changes in GWP and GHGI due to improved vs. traditional management varied with the duration of the experiment and inclusion of soil and climatic factors in multiple linear regressions improved their relationships. Improved management practices reduced GWP and GHGI compared with traditional management

  19. Assessing the impact on chronic disease of incorporating the societal cost of greenhouse gases into the price of food: an econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Adam D M; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Tiffin, Richard; Garnett, Tara; Rayner, Mike; Scarborough, Peter

    2013-10-22

    To model the impact on chronic disease of a tax on UK food and drink that internalises the wider costs to society of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to estimate the potential revenue. An econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study. The UK. The UK adult population. Two tax scenarios are modelled: (A) a tax of £2.72/tonne carbon dioxide equivalents (tCO2e)/100 g product applied to all food and drink groups with above average GHG emissions. (B) As with scenario (A) but food groups with emissions below average are subsidised to create a tax neutral scenario. Primary outcomes are change in UK population mortality from chronic diseases following the implementation of each taxation strategy, the change in the UK GHG emissions and the predicted revenue. Secondary outcomes are the changes to the micronutrient composition of the UK diet. Scenario (A) results in 7770 (95% credible intervals 7150 to 8390) deaths averted and a reduction in GHG emissions of 18 683 (14 665to 22 889) ktCO2e/year. Estimated annual revenue is £2.02 (£1.98 to £2.06) billion. Scenario (B) results in 2685 (1966 to 3402) extra deaths and a reduction in GHG emissions of 15 228 (11 245to 19 492) ktCO2e/year. Incorporating the societal cost of GHG into the price of foods could save 7770 lives in the UK each year, reduce food-related GHG emissions and generate substantial tax revenue. The revenue neutral scenario (B) demonstrates that sustainability and health goals are not always aligned. Future work should focus on investigating the health impact by population subgroup and on designing fiscal strategies to promote both sustainable and healthy diets.

  20. Assessing impact of changes in human resources features on enterprise activities: simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalmykova Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for creating programs of human resources development is shown; the impact of these programs on organizational effectiveness is taken into account. The stages of development tools and HRD programs on the basis of cognitive modelling are disclosed; these stages will help assess the impact of HR-practices on the key indicators of organization activity at the design stage. The method of HR-practices’ pre-selection in professional development of the employees is represented.

  1. Selection of spatial scale for assessing impacts of groundwater-based water supply on freshwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybel, A-M; Godskesen, B; Rygaard, M

    2015-09-01

    Indicators of the impact on freshwater resources are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of urban water systems. To reveal the importance of spatial resolution, we investigated how the choice of catchment scale influenced the freshwater impact assessment. Two different indicators were used in this study: the Withdrawal-To-Availability ratio (WTA) and the Water Stress Index (WSI). Results were calculated for three groundwater based Danish urban water supplies (Esbjerg, Aarhus, and Copenhagen). The assessment was carried out at three spatial levels: (1) the groundwater body level, (2) the river basin level, and (3) the regional level. The assessments showed that Copenhagen's water supply had the highest impact on the freshwater resource per cubic meter of water abstracted, with a WSI of 1.75 at Level 1. The WSI values were 1.64 for Aarhus's and 0.81 for Esbjerg's water supply. Spatial resolution was identified as a major factor determining the outcome of the impact assessment. For the three case studies, WTA and WSI were 27%-583% higher at Level 1 than impacts calculated for the regional scale. The results highlight that freshwater impact assessments based on regional data, rather than sub-river basin data, may dramatically underestimate the actual impact on the water resource. Furthermore, this study discusses the strengths and shortcomings of the applied indicator approaches. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates that although WSI has the highest environmental relevance, it also has the highest uncertainty, as it requires estimations of non-measurable environmental water requirements. Hence, the development of a methodology to obtain more site-specific and relevant estimations of environmental water requirements should be prioritized. Finally, the demarcation of the groundwater resource in aquifers remains a challenge for establishing a consistent method for benchmarking freshwater impacts caused by groundwater abstraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  2. GREENHOUSE GASES AND MEANS OF PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušica Stojanović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse effect can be defined as the consequence of increased heating of the Earth's surface, as well as the lower atmosphere by carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other trace amounts gases. It is well-known that human industrial activities have released large amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, about 900 billion tons of carbon dioxide, and it is estimated that up to 450 billion are still in the atmosphere. In comparison to greenhouse gases water vapor is one of the greatest contributors to the greenhouse effect on Earth. Many projects, as does the PURGE project, have tendences to build on the already conducted research and to quantify the positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing of the population with greenhouse gas reduction strategies that are curently being implemented and should be increasingly applied in various sectors and urban areas, having offices in Europe, China and India.

  3. 78 FR 12347 - Notice of Availability of the Proposed Resource Management Plan and Final Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLWYR05000 L16100000.DQ0000 LXSS04 K0000] Notice of Availability of the Proposed Resource Management Plan and Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Lander Field Office Planning Area, WY AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION...

  4. How Does Scale of Implementation Impact the Environmental Sustainability of Wastewater Treatment Integrated with Resource Recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, Pablo K; Zhang, Qiong; Mihelcic, James R

    2016-07-05

    Energy and resource consumptions required to treat and transport wastewater have led to efforts to improve the environmental sustainability of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Resource recovery can reduce the environmental impact of these systems; however, limited research has considered how the scale of implementation impacts the sustainability of WWTPs integrated with resource recovery. Accordingly, this research uses life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate how the scale of implementation impacts the environmental sustainability of wastewater treatment integrated with water reuse, energy recovery, and nutrient recycling. Three systems were selected: a septic tank with aerobic treatment at the household scale, an advanced water reclamation facility at the community scale, and an advanced water reclamation facility at the city scale. Three sustainability indicators were considered: embodied energy, carbon footprint, and eutrophication potential. This study determined that as with economies of scale, there are benefits to centralization of WWTPs with resource recovery in terms of embodied energy and carbon footprint; however, the community scale was shown to have the lowest eutrophication potential. Additionally, technology selection, nutrient control practices, system layout, and topographical conditions may have a larger impact on environmental sustainability than the implementation scale in some cases.

  5. Job resources buffer the impact of work-family conflict on absenteeism in female employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demerouti, E.; Bouwman, K.; Sanz-Vergel, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between work-family conflict and objective absenteeism 1 year later, by demonstrating that several job resources buffer the impact of work-family conflict on absenteeism. Female employees (N = 386) of a large financial services organization participated in the

  6. 76 FR 57760 - Notice of Availability of Draft Resource Management Plan and Draft Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... approximately 707,000 subsurface acres of Federal mineral estate. Decisions in the Colorado River Valley RMP... Availability of Draft Resource Management Plan and Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Colorado River Valley Field Office, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability...

  7. Valuation of selected environmental impacts associated with Bonneville Power Administration Resource Program alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englin, J.E.; Gygi, K.F.

    1992-03-01

    This report documents work undertaken by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and its contractors to assist the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in assessing the potential environmental consequences of new power resources. A major purpose of this effort is to describe and evaluate the techniques available for economic valuation of environmental costs. Another is to provide estimates of the environmental costs associated with specific power resources called for under Bonneville's Resource Programs. Bonneville's efforts to extend valuation techniques to as many impacts as can be reliably assessed represents a substantial advance in the application of state-of-the-art economic techniques to environmental assessments. This economic analysis evaluates effects on human health, wildlife, crops, and visibility impacts associated with air pollution. This report also discusses river recreation (primarily fishing) which may be affected by fluctuations in water levels. 70 refs

  8. Cultural resources and tradition: the consequences of their evaluation for socioeconomic impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, S. A.

    1979-01-01

    The use of cultural resource data to improve the content and quality of the standard Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) socioeconomic profile and impact sections is illustrated. Emphasis is placed on an approach for identifying some kinds of potentially disruptive sociocultural changes in rural communities and ethnic groups that may be brought about by energy developments. The report is divided into three parts. Part one reviews the legislative reason for the EIS and problems with the current implementation of many socioeconomic studies. Part two explores how and why clutural resource data can be made meaningful for the EIS community studies and provides two case examples. Part three presents information for those who are not experts in cultural-resource management for quality control of usable culturalresource information.

  9. Impact of negation salience and cognitive resources on negation during attitude formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Kathryn L; Rydell, Robert J

    2012-10-01

    Because of the increased cognitive resources required to process negations, past research has shown that explicit attitude measures are more sensitive to negations than implicit attitude measures. The current work demonstrated that the differential impact of negations on implicit and explicit attitude measures was moderated by (a) the extent to which the negation was made salient and (b) the amount of cognitive resources available during attitude formation. When negations were less visually salient, explicit but not implicit attitude measures reflected the intended valence of the negations. When negations were more visually salient, both explicit and implicit attitude measures reflected the intended valence of the negations, but only when perceivers had ample cognitive resources during encoding. Competing models of negation processing, schema-plus-tag and fusion, were examined to determine how negation salience impacts the processing of negations.

  10. An integrated study of earth resources in the State of California using remote sensing techniques. [supply, demand, and impact of California water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R. N.; Burgy, R. H.; Algazi, V. R.; Draeger, W. C.; Estes, J. E.; Bowden, L. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The supply, demand, and impact relationships of California's water resources as exemplified by the Feather River project and other aspects of the California Water Plan are discussed.

  11. Healthy diets with reduced environmental impact? - The greenhouse gas emissions of various diets adhering to the Dutch food based dietary guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kamp, Mirjam E; van Dooren, Corné; Hollander, Anne; Geurts, Marjolein; Brink, Elizabeth J; van Rossum, Caroline; Biesbroek, Sander; de Valk, Elias; Toxopeus, Ido B; Temme, Elisabeth H M

    2018-02-01

    To determine the differences in environmental impact and nutrient content of the current Dutch diet and four healthy diets aimed at lowering greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG emissions (as proxy for environmental impact) and nutrient content of the current Dutch diet and four diets adhering to the Dutch food based dietary guidelines (Wheel of Five), were compared in a scenario study. Scenarios included a healthy diet with or without meat, and the same diets in which only foods with relatively low GHG emissions are chosen. For the current diet, data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010 were used. GHG emissions (in kg CO 2 -equivalents) were based on life cycle assessments. Results are reported for men and women aged 19-30years and 31-50years. The effect on GHG emissions of changing the current Dutch diet to a diet according to the Wheel of Five (corresponding with the current diet as close as possible), ranged from -13% for men aged 31-50years to +5% for women aged 19-30years. Replacing meat in this diet and/or consuming only foods with relatively low GHG emissions resulted in average GHG emission reductions varying from 28-46%. In the scenarios in which only foods with relatively low GHG emissions are consumed, fewer dietary reference intakes (DRIs) were met than in the other healthy diet scenarios. However, in all healthy diet scenarios the number of DRIs being met was equal to or higher than that in the current diet. Diets adhering to food based dietary guidelines did not substantially reduce GHG emissions compared to the current Dutch diet, when these diets stayed as close to the current diet as possible. Omitting meat from these healthy diets or consuming only foods with relatively low associated GHG emissions both resulted in GHG emission reductions of around a third. These findings may be used to expand food based dietary guidelines with information on how to reduce the environmental impact of healthy diets. Copyright © 2017 The

  12. Selection of spatial scale for assessing impacts of groundwater-based water supply on freshwater resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybel, Anne-Marie; Godskesen, Berit; Rygaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    used in this study: the Withdrawal-To-Availability ratio (WTA) and the Water Stress Index (WSI). Results were calculated for three groundwater based Danish urban water supplies (Esbjerg, Aarhus, and Copenhagen). The assessment was carried out at three spatial levels: (1) the groundwater body level, (2......) the river basin level, and (3) the regional level. The assessments showed that Copenhagen's water supply had the highest impact on the freshwater resource per cubic meter of water abstracted, with a WSI of 1.75 at Level 1. The WSI values were 1.64 for Aarhus's and 0.81 for Esbjerg's water supply. Spatial......Indicators of the impact on freshwater resources are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of urban water systems. To reveal the importance of spatial resolution, we investigated how the choice of catchment scale influenced the freshwater impact assessment. Two different indicators were...

  13. Modelling impacts of climate change on water resources in ungauged and data-scarce watersheds. Application to the Siurana catchment (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim; Olivares, Gonzalo; Gomez, Manuel

    2012-12-01

    Gaining knowledge on potential climate change impacts on water resources is a complex process which depends on numerical models capable of describing these processes in quantitative terms. Under limited data or ungauged basin conditions, which constrain the modelling approach, a physically based coherent methodological approach is required. The traditional approach to assess flow regime and groundwater recharge impacts, based on coupling general atmosphere-ocean circulation models (GCM) and hydrologic models, has been investigated in the Siurana ungauged catchment (NE Spain). The future A2 (medium-high) and B1 (medium-low) greenhouse gas scenarios and time slices 2013-2037 (2025) and 2038-2062 (2050), developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001), have been selected. For scenario simulations, coupled GCM ECHAM5 scenarios, stochastically downscaled outputs and surface-subsurface modelling to simulate changes in water resources were applied to the catchment. Flow regime analysis was assessed by HEC-HMS, a physically based hydrologic model to assess rainfall-runoff in a catchment, while recharge was estimated with VisualBALAN, a distributed model for natural recharge estimation. Simulations show that the projected climate change at the catchment will affect the entire hydrological system with a maximum of 56% reduction of water resources. While subtle changes are observed for the 2025 time slice, the temperature and precipitation forecast for 2050 shows a maximum increase of 2.2 °C and a decreased precipitation volume of 11.3% in relation to historical values. Regarding historical values, runoff output shows a maximum 20% decrease, and 18% decrease of natural recharge with a certain delay in relation to runoff and rainfall data. According to the results, the most important parameters conditioning future water resources are changes in climatic parameters, but they are highly dependent on soil moisture conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B

  14. Economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansuategi, Alberto [Environment Department, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Escapa, Marta [Foundations of Economic Analysis Department, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao (Spain)

    2002-01-01

    Recent empirical research has examined the relationship between certain indicators of environmental degradation and income, concluding that in some cases an inverted U-shaped relationship, which has been called an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC), exists between these variables. Unfortunately, this inverted U-shaped relationship does not hold for greenhouse gas emissions. One explanation of the absence of EKC-like behavior in greenhouse gas emissions is that greenhouse gases are special pollutants that create global, not local, disutility. But the international nature of global warming is not the only reason that prevents de-linking greenhouse gas emissions from economic growth. The intergenerational nature of the negative impact of greenhouse gas emissions may have also been an important factor preventing the implementation of greenhouse gas abatement measures in the past. In this paper we explore the effect that the presence of intergenerational spillovers has on the emissions-income relationship. We use a numerically calibrated overlapping generations model of climate-economy interactions. We conclude that: (1) the intertemporal responsibility of the regulatory agency, (2) the institutional capacity to make intergenerational transfers and (3) the presence of intergenerationally lagged impact of emissions constitute important determinants of the relationship between economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. Impact of electric range and fossil fuel price level on the economics of plug-in hybrid vehicles and greenhouse gas abatement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özdemir, Enver Doruk; Hartmann, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the energy consumption shares of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) for electricity from the grid and conventional fuel depending on electric driving range are estimated. The resulting mobility costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement costs per vehicle kilometer for the year 2030 are calculated and optimal electric driving range (which indicates the size of the battery) is found for different oil price levels with the help of a MATLAB based model for a typical compact passenger car (e.g. VW Golf). The results show that the optimum electric driving range for minimum mobility costs of a PHEV is between 12 and 32 km. Furthermore, optimum GHG abatement costs are achieved with an electric driving range between 16 and 23 km. These results are considerable lower than most market ready PHEVs (electric driving range of 50 to 100 km), which shows that the automobile industry should concentrate on shorter electric driving range for PHEVs in the near future to offer cost optimum mobility and low GHG abatement costs. However, the oil price level and the consumer driving habits impact heavily on the cost performance as well as the optimum electric driving range of plug-in hybrid vehicles. - Highlights: ► We analyze the energy consumption (and share of grid electricity) of plug-in hybrid vehicles. ► We analyzed the mobility costs and GHG abatement costs depending on electric driving range. ► Mobility costs of plug-in hybrid vehicles can be lower than those of conventional diesel vehicles in 2030. ► The optimum mobility costs are achieved with the electric driving range between 12 and 32 km. ► The optimum GHG abatement costs are achieved with the electric driving range between 16 and 23 km.

  16. The overwhelming role of soil N2O emissions in net greenhouse gas balance of the U.S. Corn Belt: Modeling estimate of nitrogen fertilizer impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C.; Yu, Z.; Cao, P.; Tian, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Corn Belt of the Midwestern U.S. is one of the most productive systems in the world during the growing season, with gross primary production exceeding even that of the Amazon forests. Fueled by increased commodity prices in the late 2000s, the area in corn and soybean in the U.S. has reached record highs with most of the newly added cropland converted from grasslands, wetland, and Conservation Reserve Program land. Intensive management practices, such as fertilizer use, irrigation, tillage, residue removal etc., have been implemented following cropland expansion to maximize crop yield from converted marginal land or from more monoculture production. The Corn Belt has been recognized as one of the major contributors to carbon sinks in the U.S., partially because crop harvest and residue removal reduced soil respiration. In the meanwhile, 75% of the total N2O emission in the U.S. comes from agriculture, among which the Corn Belt is the major source due to nitrogen management, and has large potential of climate mitigation. However, it remains far from certain how intensive cropland expansion and management practices in this region have affected soil carbon accumulation and non-CO2 GHG emissions. In this study, by using a process-based land ecosystem model, Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM), we investigated the impacts of nitrogen fertilizer use on soil carbon accumulation and direct N2O emissions across the U.S. Corn Belt. Surprisingly, we found N fertilizer-induced SOC storage continued shrinking after the 1980s while N2O emissions remains relatively constant. The N fertilizer use led to a net greenhouse gas release since 2000 in both the western and eastern Corn Belt, contributing to climate warming. This study implies an increasing importance of nitrogen management for both agricultural production and climate mitigation.

  17. Future energy loads for a large-scale adoption of electric vehicles in the city of Los Angeles: Impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae D.; Rahimi, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Using plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) has become an important component of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction strategy in the transportation sector. Assessing the net effect of PEVs on GHG emissions, however, is dependent on factors such as type and scale of electricity generation sources, adoption rate, and charging behavior. This study creates a comprehensive model that estimates the energy load and GHG emissions impacts for the years 2020 and 2030 for the city of Los Angeles. For 2020, model simulations show that the PEV charging loads will be modest with negligible effects on the overall system load profile. Contrary to previous study results, the average marginal carbon intensity is higher if PEV charging occurs during off-peak hours. These results suggest that current economic incentives to encourage off-peak charging result in greater GHG emissions. Model simulations for 2030 show that PEV charging loads increase significantly resulting in potential generation shortages. There are also significant grid operation challenges as the region's energy grid is required to ramp up and down rapidly to meet PEV loads. For 2030, the average marginal carbon intensity for off-peak charging becomes lower than peak charging mainly due to the removal of coal from the power generation portfolio. - Highlights: • Future energy load from PEV charging in the city of Los Angeles is modeled. • Changes in the marginal carbon intensity of the region's electric grid are modeled. • In the short run, offpeak charging results in higher marginal carbon intensity. • There is a mismatch between emissions and economic incentives for charging

  18. Greening the greenhouse grower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staats, Henk; Jansen, Lilian; Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    Growing plants and flowers in greenhouses is a commercial activity that imposes a burden on the environment. Recently a system of registration, control, and licensing has been developed by the sector of greenhouse growers in the Netherlands, acknowledged by the state. The current study was executed...... to understand the achievements of the greenhouse growers within this system. We applied a social-cognitive model to understand intentions to reduce emissions and predict actual pesticide use. The social-cognitive concepts from the model were measured in a questionnaire that was completed by 743 greenhouse...

  19. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  20. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    given to methods appropriate to low-income countries, where strategies are needed for getting robust data with extremely limited resources in order to support national mitigation planning within widely accepted standards and thus provide access to essential international support, including climate funding. Managing agricultural emissions needs to occur in tandem with managing for agricultural productivity, resilience to climate change, and ecosystem impacts. Management decisions and priorities will require measures and information that identify GHG efficiencies in production and reduce inputs without reducing yields, while addressing climate resilience and maintaining other essential environmental services, such as water quality and support for pollinators. Another set of papers in this issue considers the critical synergies and tradeoffs possible between these multiple objectives of mitigation, resilience, and production efficiency to help us understand how we need to tackle these in our quantification systems. Significant capacity to quantify greenhouse gases is already built, and with some near-term strategic investment, could become an increasingly robust and useful tool for planning and development in the agricultural sector around the world. Acknowledgments The Climate Change Agriculture and Food Security Program of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, the Technical Working Group on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (T-AGG) at Duke University's Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions, and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) have come together to guide the development of this focus issue and associated activities and papers, given their common desire to improve our understanding of the state of agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) quantification and to advance ideas for building data and methods that will help mitigation policy and programs move forward around the world. We thank the David and Lucile Packard

  1. Workshop summary: detection, impact, and control of specific pathogens in animal resource facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Keith G; Riley, Lela K; Kent, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    Despite advances, infectious diseases remain a threat to animal facilities, continue to affect animal health, and serve as potential confounders of experimental research. A workshop entitled Detection, Impact, and Control of Specific Pathogens in Animal Resource Facilities was sponsored by the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) and National Institutes of Aging (NIA) and held April 23-24, 2009, at the Lister Hill Conference Center on the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) Bethesda campus. The meeting brought together laboratory animal scientists and veterinarians with experience in fish, rodent, and nonhuman primate models to identify common issues and problems. Session speakers addressed (1) common practices and current knowledge of these species, (2) new technologies in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, (3) impact of environmental quality on infectious disease, (4) normal microbial flora in health and disease, (5) genetics and infectious disease, and (6) specific infectious agents and their impact on research. Attendees discussed current challenges and future needs, highlighting the importance of education and training, the funding of critical infrastructure and resource research, and the need for improved communication of disease risks and integration of these risks with strategic planning. NIH and NCRR have a strong record of supporting resource initiatives that have helped address many of these issues and recent efforts have focused on the building of consortium activities among such programs. This manuscript summarizes the presentations and conclusions of participants at the meeting; abstracts and a full conference report are available online (www.ncrr.nih.gov).

  2. Effect of farming practices for greenhouse gas mitigation and subsequent alternative land use on environmental impacts of beef cattle production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T T H; Doreau, M; Eugène, M; Corson, M S; Garcia-Launay, F; Chesneau, G; van der Werf, H M G

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated effects of farming practice scenarios aiming to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and subsequent alternative land use on environmental impacts of a beef cattle production system using the life cycle assessment approach. The baseline scenario includes a standard cow-calf herd with finishing heifers based on grazing, and a standard bull-fattening herd using a diet mainly based on maize silage, corresponding to current farm characteristics and management by beef farmers in France. Alternative scenarios were developed with changes in farming practices. Some scenarios modified grassland management (S1: decreasing mineral N fertiliser on permanent grassland; S2: decreasing grass losses during grazing) or herd management (S3: underfeeding of heifers in winter; S4: fattening female calves instead of being reared at a moderate growth rate; S5: increasing longevity of cows from 7 to 9 years; S6: advancing first calving age from 3 to 2 years). Other scenarios replaced protein sources (S7: partially replacing a protein supplement by lucerne hay for the cow-calf herd; S8: replacing soya bean meal with rapeseed meal for the fattening herd) or increased n-3 fatty acid content using extruded linseed (S9). The combination of compatible scenarios S1, S2, S5, S6 and S8 was also studied (S10). The impacts, such as climate change (CC, not including CO2 emissions/sequestration of land use and land-use change, LULUC), CC/LULUC (including CO2 emissions of LULUC), cumulative energy demand, eutrophication (EP), acidification and land occupation (LO) were expressed per kg of carcass mass and per ha of land occupied. Compared with the baseline, the most promising practice to reduce impacts per kg carcass mass was S10 (all reduced by 13% to 28%), followed by S6 (by 8% to 10%). For other scenarios, impact reduction did not exceed 5%, except for EP (up to 11%) and LO (up to 10%). Effects of changes in farming practices (the scenarios) on environmental impacts varied

  3. A Water Resources Management Model to Evaluate Climate Change Impacts in North-Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciarelli, L. F.; Losano, F. T.; Marizza, M.; Cello, P.; Forni, L.; Young, C. A.; Girardin, L. O.; Nadal, G.; Lallana, F.; Godoy, S.; Vallejos, R.

    2014-12-01

    Most recently developed climate scenarios indicate a potential future increase in water stress in the region of Comahue, located in the North-Patagonia, Argentina. This region covers about 140,000 km2 where the Limay River and the Neuquén River converge into the Negro River, constituting the largest integrated basins in Argentina providing various uses of water resources: a) hydropower generation, contributing 15% of the national electricity market; b) fruit-horticultural products for local markets and export; c) human and industrial water supply; d) mining and oil exploitation, including Vaca Muerta, second world largest reserves of shale gas and fourth world largest reserves of shale-oil. The span of multiple jurisdictions and the convergence of various uses of water resources are a challenge for integrated understanding of economically and politically driven resource use activities on the natural system. The impacts of climate change on the system could lead to water resource conflicts between the different political actors and stakeholders. This paper presents the results of a hydrological simulation of the Limay river and Neuquén river basins using WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning) considering the operation of artificial reservoirs located downstream at a monthly time step. This study aims to support policy makers via integrated tools for water-energy planning under climate uncertainties, and to facilitate the formulation of water policy-related actions for future water stress adaptation. The value of the integrated resource use model is that it can support local policy makers understand the implications of resource use trade-offs under a changing climate: 1) water availability to meet future growing demand for irrigated areas; 2) water supply for hydropower production; 3) increasing demand of water for mining and extraction of unconventional oil; 4) potential resource use conflicts and impacts on vulnerable populations.

  4. Evaluating Impacts of Land Use/Land Cover Change on Water Resources in Semiarid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Faunt, C. C.; Pool, D. R.; Reedy, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes play an integral role in water resources by controlling the partitioning of water at the land surface. Here we evaluate impacts of changing LU/LC on water resources in response to climate variation and change and land use change related to agriculture using data from semiarid regions in the southwestern U.S. Land cover changes in response to climate can amplify or dampen climate impacts on water resources. Changes from wet Pleistocene to much drier Holocene climate resulted in expansion of perennial vegetation, amplifying climate change impacts on water resources by reducing groundwater recharge as shown in soil profiles in the southwestern U.S.. In contrast, vegetation response to climate extremes, including droughts and floods, dampen impacts of these extremes on water resources, as shown by water budget monitoring in the Mojave Desert. Agriculture often involves changes from native perennial vegetation to annual crops increasing groundwater recharge in many semiarid regions. Irrigation based on conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater increases water resource availability, as shown in the Central Valley of California and in southern Arizona. Surface water irrigation in these regions is enhanced by water transported from more humid settings through extensive pipelines. These projects have reversed long-term declining groundwater trends in some regions. While irrigation design has often focused on increased efficiency, "more crop per drop", optimal water resource management may benefit more from inefficient (e.g. flood irrigation) surface-water irrigation combined with efficient (e.g. subsurface drip) irrigation to maximize groundwater recharge, as seen in parts of the Central Valley. Flood irrigation of perennial crops, such as almonds and vineyards, during winter is being considered in the Central Valley to enhance groundwater recharge. Managed aquifer recharge can be considered a special case of conjunctive use of

  5. Intergenerational modelling of the greenhouse effect

    OpenAIRE

    Spash, Clive L.

    1994-01-01

    A major implication of global climate change is that future generations will suffer severe damages while the current generation benefits. In this paper a model is developed to analyze the potential need for mitigating the adverse impacts of the greenhouse effect on efficiency grounds. The model characterises basic transfers, investigate the effect of greenhouse emissions, and analyze exogenous and endogenous uncertainty. The first (or current) generation faces the problem of dividing availabl...

  6. The Spanish Food Industry on Global Supply Chains and Its Impact on Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Duarte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the impact of economic activities on natural resources through global supply chains is increasingly demanded in the context of the growing globalization of economies and product fragmentation. Taking Spain as a case study and a sector with significant economic and environmental impacts, the agri-food industry, the objective of this work is two-fold. First, we estimate the associated water impact, both from the production and consumption perspectives, paying special attention to the water embodied in production exchanges among countries and sectors. To that aim, we use an environmentally-extended multiregional input-output model (MRIO. Second, we assess the main driving factors behind changes in direct and embodied water consumption between the years 1995 and 2009 by means of a structural decomposition analysis. The MRIO model provides a comprehensive estimate of the economic linkages among regions and economic sectors and, therefore, allows calculating the environmental impacts over international value chains. The results indicate that the food industry exerts large impacts on global water resources, particularly given the remarkable interactions with the domestic and foreign agricultural sectors, These growing linkages show how consumption patterns, and, therefore, lifestyles, involve large environmental impacts through the whole and global supply chains.

  7. Expecting a boomtown? Exploring potential housing – related impacts of large scale resource developments in Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Ennis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Darwin is a city in the Northern Territory of Australia expecting a ‘boomtown’ scenario due to significant natural resource developments in the Greater Darwin area. The experience of ‘booming’ has a range of impacts upon communities. Housing is a key area of impact, particularly for the most vulnerable members of a population, who may not reap the benefits of the ‘boom’. In Darwin, new resource developments will begin in the context of record high house prices, high rents and high homelessness rates. This literature review explores what is known about the housing-related impacts of boomtowns and considers the likely housing-related impacts of a boomtown scenario in Darwin. While the city’s diverse economy and population size may provide some insulation from severe boomtown impacts, housing availability and affordability is likely to be negatively impacted. The implications of this for the most vulnerable members of the greater Darwin population require careful consideration.

  8. Impact of shale gas development on water resources: a case study in northern poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, Ine; Marí Rivero, Inés; Sala, Serenella; Baranzelli, Claudia; Barranco, Ricardo; Batelaan, Okke; Lavalle, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    Shale gas is currently being explored in Europe as an alternative energy source to conventional oil and gas. There is, however, increasing concern about the potential environmental impacts of shale gas extraction by hydraulic fracturing (fracking). In this study, we focussed on the potential impacts on regional water resources within the Baltic Basin in Poland, both in terms of quantity and quality. The future development of the shale play was modeled for the time period 2015-2030 using the LUISA modeling framework. We formulated two scenarios which took into account the large range in technology and resource requirements, as well as two additional scenarios based on the current legislation and the potential restrictions which could be put in place. According to these scenarios, between 0.03 and 0.86% of the total water withdrawals for all sectors could be attributed to shale gas exploitation within the study area. A screening-level assessment of the potential impact of the chemicals commonly used in fracking was carried out and showed that due to their wide range of physicochemical properties, these chemicals may pose additional pressure on freshwater ecosystems. The legislation put in place also influenced the resulting environmental impacts of shale gas extraction. Especially important are the protection of vulnerable ground and surface water resources and the promotion of more water-efficient technologies.

  9. Impact of Shale Gas Development on Water Resources: A Case Study in Northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, Ine; Marí Rivero, Inés; Sala, Serenella; Baranzelli, Claudia; Barranco, Ricardo; Batelaan, Okke; Lavalle, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    Shale gas is currently being explored in Europe as an alternative energy source to conventional oil and gas. There is, however, increasing concern about the potential environmental impacts of shale gas extraction by hydraulic fracturing (fracking). In this study, we focussed on the potential impacts on regional water resources within the Baltic Basin in Poland, both in terms of quantity and quality. The future development of the shale play was modeled for the time period 2015-2030 using the LUISA modeling framework. We formulated two scenarios which took into account the large range in technology and resource requirements, as well as two additional scenarios based on the current legislation and the potential restrictions which could be put in place. According to these scenarios, between 0.03 and 0.86 % of the total water withdrawals for all sectors could be attributed to shale gas exploitation within the study area. A screening-level assessment of the potential impact of the chemicals commonly used in fracking was carried out and showed that due to their wide range of physicochemical properties, these chemicals may pose additional pressure on freshwater ecosystems. The legislation put in place also influenced the resulting environmental impacts of shale gas extraction. Especially important are the protection of vulnerable ground and surface water resources and the promotion of more water-efficient technologies.

  10. Impacts of soil incorporation of pre-incubated silica-rich rice residue on soil biogeochemistry and greenhouse gas fluxes under flooding and drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutekunst, Madison Y; Vargas, Rodrigo; Seyfferth, Angelia L

    2017-09-01

    Incorporation of silica-rich rice husk residue into flooded paddy soil decreases arsenic uptake by rice. However, the impact of this practice on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and elemental cycling is unresolved particularly as amended soils experience recurrent flooding and drying cycles. We evaluated the impact of pre-incubated silica-rich rice residue incorporation to soils on pore water chemistry and soil GHG fluxes (i.e., CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O) over a flooding and drying cycle typical of flooded rice cultivation. Soils pre-incubated with rice husk had 4-fold higher pore water Si than control and 2-fold higher than soils pre-incubated with rice straw, whereas the pore water As and Fe concentrations in soils amended with pre-incubated straw and husk were unexpectedly similar (maximum ~0.85μM and ~450μM levels, respectively). Pre-incubation of residues did not affect Si but did affect the pore water levels of As and Fe compared to previous studies using fresh residues where straw amended soils had higher As and Fe in pore water. The global warming potential (GWP) of soil GHG emissions decreased in the order straw (612±76g CO 2 -eqm -2 )>husk (367±42gCO 2 -eqm -2 )>ashed husk=ashed straw (251±26 and 278±28gCO 2 -eqm -2 )>control (186±23gCO 2 -eqm -2 ). The GWP increase due to pre-incubated straw amendment was due to: a) larger N 2 O fluxes during re-flooding; b) smaller contributions from larger CH 4 fluxes during flooded periods; and c) higher CH 4 and CO 2 fluxes at the onset of drainage. In contrast, the GWP of the husk amendment was dominated by CO 2 and CH 4 emissions during flooded and drainage periods, while ashed amendments increased CO 2 emissions particularly during drainage. This experiment shows that ashed residues and husk addition minimizes GWP of flooded soils and enhances pore water Si compared to straw addition even after pre-incubation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental impacts of construction materials. A report on the contribution of construction materials to greenhouse gas emissions of construction; Rakennusmateriaalien ympaeristoevaikutukset. Selvitys rakennusmateriaalien vaikutuksesta rakentamisen kasvihuonekaasupaeaestoeihin, tiivistelmaeraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruuska, A.; Haekkinen, T.; Vares, S.; Korhonen, M.-R.; Myllymaa, T.

    2013-05-15

    As the energy performance of new construction improves and the related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions diminish the carbon footprint of construction materials becomes more important. One objective in the current government's programme is to take into account construction materials and products in the energy performance assessment of buildings. At the request of the Ministry of the Environment, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and the Finnish Environment Institute analysed, through a case study, the significance of the environmental impacts of construction materials. The aim was to develop preliminary recommendations for guiding construction. The case study calculated the overall GHG emissions from the materials used in an apartment building over its life cycle and estimated the range of emissions. In addition, the amount of construction waste was assessed, as was the effects of waste management and waste utilisation processes on GHG emissions. This report presents a summary of the results. According to this case study, GHG emissions can vary in typical multi-storey residential buildings within the range of 1 to 2.2 or 1 to 3.9 when the site foundation work also taken into account. The study shows that the construction materials and related processes contribute significantly to the GHG emissions of a building over its life cycle. In fact the level of significance is of the same order as the heating of spaces in an A-class energy performance building. The efficient recycling of materials can contribute to reductions in GHG emissions. The study showed that the estimated benefit was 9 % of the total life-cycle emissions. In the future, specific assessments of different types of waste could look at opportunities for the recycling and reuse of critical materials. Plastics and wood are especially important waste components. Future research topics include improving the use of recycled materials, collecting information on user experiences and enhancing quality

  12. The Impact of Resource Constraints on the Psychological Well-Being of Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeble, Marisa L.; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of resource constraints on the psychological well-being of survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV), testing whether resource constraints is one mechanism that partially mediates the relationship between IPV and women's well-being. Although within-woman changes in resource constraints did not mediate the…

  13. Using widely spaced observations of land use, forest attributes, and intrusions to map resource potential and human impact probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor A. Rudis

    2000-01-01

    Scant information exists about the spatial extent of human impact on forest resource supplies, i.e., depreciative and nonforest uses. I used observations of ground-sampled land use and intrusions on forest land to map the probability of resource use and human impact for broad areas. Data came from a seven State survey region (Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi,...

  14. Using widely spaced observations of land use, forest attributes, and intrusions to map resource potential and human impact probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor A. Rudis

    2000-01-01

    Scant information exists about the spatial extent of human impact on forest resource supplies, i.e., depreciative and nonforest uses. I used observations of ground-sampled land use and intrusions on forest land to map the probability of resource use and human impact for broad areas. Data came from a seven-state survey region (Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi,...

  15. Introduction of a Greenhouse as an Alternative Housing System to a Conventional House and Its Impact on Broiler Performance and Blood and Carcass Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khajali F

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare the growth performance as well as blood and carcass variables of two broiler strains reared in a conventional broiler house and a modified greenhouse equipped with cooling pads and tunnel ventilation system. Eight hundred day-old chickens of two commercial strains (Ross  308 and Lohmann were selected and placed in  8 floor pens (4 pens of  50 broilers for each strain in each housing system. The pens were located randomly throughout the modified greenhouse or the conventional broiler house (two-way ANOVA design. The broilers were provided a standard starter and grower diets  ad libitum. The environmental conditions (i.e.  temperature, relative humidity, lighting program and ventilation rate were kept  similar between the two houses. The results showed that the birds in the greenhouse consumed significantly (P

  16. Plant Physiology in Greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004 Ep Heuvelink and Tijs Kierkels have been writing a continuing series of plant physiology articles for the Dutch horticultural journal Onder Glas and the international edition In Greenhouses. The book Plant Physiology in Greenhouses consists of 50 of their plant physiology articles. The

  17. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  18. Grappling with greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    A natural greenhouse effect keeps the Earth at a temperature suitable for life. Some of the gases responsible for the greenhouse effect are increasing at an unprecedented rate because of human activity. These increased levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will strengthen the natural greenhouse effect, leading to an overall warming of the Earth's surface. Global warming resulting from the enhanced greenhouse effect is likely to be obscured by normal climatic fluctuations for another ten years or more. The extent of human-caused climate change will depend largely on future concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In turn, the composition of the atmosphere depends on the release of greenhouse gases. Releases are hard to predict, because they require an understanding of future human activity. The composition of the atmosphere also depends on the processes which remove greenhouse gases from it. This booklet is summarizing the latest research results in the form of climate change scenarios. The present scenarios of change are based on climate models, together with an understanding of how present-day climate, with its inherent natural variability, affects human activities. These scenarios present a coherent range of future possibilities for climate; they are not predictions but they serve as a useful starting point. It is estimated that human-caused climate change will affect all aspects of life in Australia, including our cities, agriculture, pests and diseases, fisheries and natural ecosystems. 15 figs., ills

  19. Towards the semiclosed greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemming, S.

    2009-01-01

    What can we do right now to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels in the greenhouse sector? What technologies should we concentrate on in the future? Researchers, consultants and technology enterprises working with the greenhouse sector have tried to answer these questions in collaboration with the

  20. The scale-dependent impact of wolf predation risk on resource selection by three sympatric ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittle, Andrew M; Fryxell, John M; Desy, Glenn E; Hamr, Joe

    2008-08-01

    Resource selection is a fundamental ecological process impacting population dynamics and ecosystem structure. Understanding which factors drive selection is vital for effective species- and landscape-level management. We used resource selection probability functions (RSPFs) to study the influence of two forms of wolf (Canis lupus) predation risk, snow conditions and habitat variables on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces alces) resource selection in central Ontario's mixed forest French River-Burwash ecosystem. Direct predation risk was defined as the frequency of a predator's occurrence across the landscape and indirect predation risk as landscape features associated with a higher risk of predation. Models were developed for two winters, each at two spatial scales, using a combination of GIS-derived and ground-measured data. Ungulate presence was determined from snow track transects in 64 16- and 128 1-km(2) resource units, and direct predation risk from GPS radio collar locations of four adjacent wolf packs. Ungulates did not select resources based on the avoidance of areas of direct predation risk at any scale, and instead exhibited selection patterns that tradeoff predation risk minimization with forage and/or mobility requirements. Elk did not avoid indirect predation risk, while both deer and moose exhibited inconsistent responses to this risk. Direct predation risk was more important to models than indirect predation risk but overall, abiotic topographical factors were most influential. These results indicate that wolf predation risk does not limit ungulate habitat use at the scales investigated and that responses to spatial sources of predation risk are complex, incorporating a variety of anti-predator behaviours. Moose resource selection was influenced less by snow conditions than cover type, particularly selection for dense forest, whereas deer showed the opposite pattern. Temporal and spatial scale

  1. Assessing climate change impacts on fresh water resources of the Athabasca River Basin, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Narayan Kumar; Du, Xinzhong; Wang, Junye

    2017-12-01

    Proper management of blue and green water resources is important for the sustainability of ecosystems and for the socio-economic development of river basins such as the Athabasca River Basin (ARB) in Canada. For this reason, quantifying climate change impacts on these water resources at a finer temporal and spatial scale is often necessary. In this study, we used a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess climate change impacts on fresh water resources, focusing explicitly on the impacts to both blue and green water. We used future climate data generated by the Canadian Center for Climate Modelling and Analysis Regional Climate Model (CanRCM4) with a spatial resolution of 0.22°×0.22° (~25km) for two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and 8.5). Results projected the climate of the ARB to be wetter by 21-34% and warmer by 2-5.4°C on an annual time scale. Consequently, the annual average blue and green water flow was projected to increase by 16-54% and 11-34%, respectively, depending on the region, future period, and emission scenario. Furthermore, the annual average green water storage at the boreal region was expected to increase by 30%, while the storage was projected to remain fairly stable or decrease in other regions, especially during the summer season. On average, the fresh water resources in the ARB are likely to increase in the future. However, evidence of temporal and spatial heterogeneity could pose many future challenges to water resource planners and managers. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of human resources on wine supply chain flexibility, quality, and economic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. García-Alcaraz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the impact of human resources skills on production quality, flexibility, and economic performance of La Rioja’s wine supply chain. These four elements were integrated as latent variables composed of 15 observed variables and associated through six hypotheses. Data were gathered from 64 wineries located in La Rioja, Spain, and hypotheses were validated in a structural equation model using WarpPLS v.5 software. Results indicate that human resources skills have a positive direct impact on SC flexibility and quality, but not on economic performance; however, these variables are indirectly associated through SC quality and SC flexibility.

  3. Assessing impacts on biological resources from Site Characterization Activities of the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.A.; Cox, M.K.; Doerr, T.B.; O'Farrell, T.P.; Ostler, W.K.; Rautenstrauch, K.R.; Wills, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    An integrated impact assessment program was developed to monitor the possible effects of Site Characterization Activities (SCA) on the biological resources of the Yucca Mountain area. The program uses control and treatment sites incorporating both spatial and temporal controls. The selection of biotic variables for monitoring was based on their relative importance in the ecosystem and their ability to provide information on potential impacts. All measures of biotic and abiotic variables will be made on the same sample plots to permit linking changes in variables to each other

  4. Papers of the CWRA climate change symposium : understanding climate change impacts on Manitoba's water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This symposium provided an opportunity for discussions on climate change issues with particular reference to the impacts on Manitoba's water resources. The presentations addressed issues of importance to governments, scientists, academics, managers, consultants and the general public. Topics of discussion ranged from climate change impacts on water quality, wetlands, hydropower, fisheries and drought, to adaptation to climate change. Recent advances in global and regional climate modelling were highlighted along with paleo-environmental indicators of climate change. The objective was to provide a better understanding of the science of climate change. The conference featured 16 presentations of which 1 was indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  5. Regulatory, design and methodological impacts in determining tidal-in-stream power resource potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwater, Joel F.; Lawrence, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Tidal-in-Stream energy has been heralded by many as a significant potential source for clean power, a scheme where kinetic energy is extracted from tidal currents. A number of estimates have suggested that tidal power may become a sizeable fraction of overall electricity generation, however these estimates have been largely based on a resource assessment methodology that dramatically oversimplifies the physical phenomenon at play. This paper develops a model that considers the effect of energy extraction on the bulk flow, showing that tidal energy inventories that assess solely kinetic energy flux may represent both an order-of-magnitude overestimation of the resource and a significant oversimplification of regulatory impacts. The interplay between the characteristics of a flow and the regulatory and economic issues will likely limit tidal power generation to levels significantly below the physical maximums. Permitted flow reduction, turbine design and staging of development all have significant and predictable impacts on the extractible resource. Energy planners must therefore understand these relationships in order to appropriately assess the magnitude of generation that can be realistically be produced from tidal energy. - Research highlights: → Inventorying kinetic energy is not appropriate for assessing the tidal energy potential and may overestimate the resource by orders of magnitude. → The physical maximum for tidal power extraction is 38% of the total fluid power of a channel and causes a flow reduction of 42%. → Any amount of tidal power generation will reduce the flow rate in a channel. → Limiting the permitted reduction in flow significantly reduces the available resource. → Turbine efficiency is important as extraneous resistance depletes the resource without providing power generation.

  6. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix D: Cultural Resources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This study attempts to identify and analyze the impacts of the System Operating Strategy (SOS) alternatives on cultural resources. The impacts include effects on Native American traditional cultural values, properties and practices. They also include effects on archeological or historic properties meeting the criteria of the National Register of Historic Places. In addition to responding to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), this analysis addresses the requirements of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), the Archeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA), the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), the Native American Religious Freedom Act (NARFA), and other relevant legislation. To meet their legally mandated cultural resources requirements, the SOR agencies will develop agreements and Implementation Plans with the appropriate State Historic Preservation Officers (SHPOs), Tribes, and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) detailing the measures necessary to best manage the resource. The planning and implementation activities will be staged over a number of years in consultation with affected Tribes.

  7. The potential impacts of biomass feedstock production on water resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, K C; Hunt, P G; Cantrell, K B; Ro, K S

    2010-03-01

    Biofuels are a major topic of global interest and technology development. Whereas bioenergy crop production is highly dependent on water, bioenergy development requires effective allocation and management of water. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the bioenergy production relative to the impacts on water resource related factors: (1) climate and weather impact on water supplies for biomass production; (2) water use for major bioenergy crop production; and (3) potential alternatives to improve water supplies for bioenergy. Shifts to alternative bioenergy crops with greater water demand may produce unintended consequences for both water resources and energy feedstocks. Sugarcane and corn require 458 and 2036 m(3) water/m(3) ethanol produced, respectively. The water requirements for corn grain production to meet the US-DOE Billion-Ton Vision may increase approximately 6-fold from 8.6 to 50.1 km(3). Furthermore, climate change is impacting water resources throughout the world. In the western US, runoff from snowmelt is occurring earlier altering the timing of water availability. Weather extremes, both drought and flooding, have occurred more frequently over the last 30 years than the previous 100 years. All of these weather events impact bioenergy crop production. These events may be partially mitigated by alternative water management systems that offer potential for more effective water use and conservation. A few potential alternatives include controlled drainage and new next-generation livestock waste treatment systems. Controlled drainage can increase water available to plants and simultaneously improve water quality. New livestock waste treatments systems offer the potential to utilize treated wastewater to produce bioenergy crops. New technologies for cellulosic biomass conversion via thermochemical conversion offer the potential for using more diverse feedstocks with dramatically reduced water requirements. The development of bioenergy

  8. Comparison of Personal Resources in Patients Who Differently Estimate the Impact of Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilski, Maciej; Tomczak, Maciej

    2017-04-01

    Discrepancies between physicians' assessment and patients' subjective representations of the disease severity may influence physician-patient communication and management of a chronic illness, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). For these reasons, it is important to recognize factors that distinguish patients who differently estimate the impact of MS. The purpose of this study was to verify if the patients who overestimate or underestimate the impact of MS differ in their perception of personal resources from individuals presenting with a realistic appraisal of their physical condition. A total of 172 women and 92 men diagnosed with MS completed Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale, University of Washington Self Efficacy Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Body Esteem Scale, Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, Treatment Beliefs Scale, Actually Received Support Scale, and Socioeconomic resources scale. Physician's assessment of health status was determined with Expanded Disability Status Scale. Linear regression analysis was conducted to identify the subsets of patients with various patterns of subjective health and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores. Patients overestimating the impact of their disease presented with significantly lower levels of self-esteem, self-efficacy in MS, and body esteem; furthermore, they perceived their condition more threatening than did realists and underestimators. They also assessed anti-MS treatment worse, had less socioeconomic resources, and received less support than underestimators. Additionally, underestimators presented with significantly better perception of their disease, self, and body than did realists. Self-assessment of MS-related symptoms is associated with specific perception of personal resources in coping with the disease. These findings may facilitate communication with patients and point to new directions for future research on adaptation to MS.

  9. Global impacts of conversions from natural to agricultural ecosystems on water resources: Quantity versus quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Jolly, Ian; Sophocleous, Marios; Zhang, Lu

    2007-03-01

    Past land use changes have greatly impacted global water resources, with often opposing effects on water quantity and quality. Increases in rain-fed cropland (460%) and pastureland (560%) during the past 300 years from forest and grasslands decreased evapotranspiration and increased recharge (two orders of magnitude) and streamflow (one order of magnitude). However, increased water quantity degraded water quality by mobilization of salts, salinization caused by shallow water tables, and fertilizer leaching into underlying aquifers that discharge to streams. Since the 1950s, irrigated agriculture has expanded globally by 174%, accounting for ˜90% of global freshwater consumption. Irrigation based on surface water reduced streamflow and raised water tables resulting in waterlogging in many areas (China, India, and United States). Marked increases in groundwater-fed irrigation in the last few decades in these areas has lowered water tables (≤1 m/yr) and reduced streamflow. Degradation of water quality in irrigated areas has resulted from processes similar to those in rain-fed agriculture: salt mobilization, salinization in waterlogged areas, and fertilizer leaching. Strategies for remediating water resource problems related to agriculture often have opposing effects on water quantity and quality. Long time lags (decades to centuries) between land use changes and system response (e.g., recharge, streamflow, and water quality), particularly in semiarid regions, mean that the full impact of land use changes has not been realized in many areas and remediation to reverse impacts will also take a long time. Future land use changes should consider potential impacts on water resources, particularly trade-offs between water, salt, and nutrient balances, to develop sustainable water resources to meet human and ecosystem needs.

  10. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory contains information on direct emissions of greenhouse gases as well as indirect or potential emissions of greenhouse...

  11. Climate change impact on available water resources obtained using multiple global climate and hydrology models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hagemann

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to alter the hydrological cycle resulting in large-scale impacts on water availability. However, future climate change impact assessments are highly uncertain. For the first time, multiple global climate (three and hydrological models (eight were used to systematically assess the hydrological response to climate change and project the future state of global water resources. This multi-model ensemble allows us to investigate how the hydrology models contribute to the uncertainty in projected hydrological changes compared to the climate models. Due to their systematic biases, GCM outputs cannot be used directly in hydrological impact studies, so a statistical bias correction has been applied. The results show a large spread in projected changes in water resources within the climate–hydrology modelling chain for some regions. They clearly demonstrate that climate models are not the only source of uncertainty for hydrological change, and that the spread resulting from the choice of the hydrology model is larger than the spread originating from the climate models over many areas. But there are also areas showing a robust change signal, such as at high latitudes and in some midlatitude regions, where the models agree on the sign of projected hydrological changes, indicative of higher confidence in this ensemble mean signal. In many catchments an increase of available water resources is expected but there are some severe decreases in Central and Southern Europe, the Middle East, the Mississippi River basin, southern Africa, southern China and south-eastern Australia.

  12. Analyses of impacts of China's international trade on its water resources and uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. Y.; Yang, H.; Shi, M. J.; Zehnder, A. J. B.; Abbaspour, K. C.

    2011-04-01

    This study provides an insight into the impact of China's international trade of goods and services on its water resources and uses. Virtual water flows associated with China's international trade are quantified in an input-output framework. The analysis is scaled down to the sectoral and provincial levels to trace the origins and destinations of virtual water flows associated with the international trade. The results reveal that China is a net virtual water exporter of 4.7 × 1010 m3 year-1, accounting for 2.1% of its total water resources and 8.9% of the total water use. Water scarce regions tend to have higher percentages of virtual water export relative to their water resources and water uses. In the water scarce Huang-Huai-Hai region, the net virtual water export accounts for 7.9% of the region's water resources and 11.2% of its water uses. For individual sectors, major net virtual water exporters are those where agriculture provides raw materials in the initial process of the production chain and/or pollution intensity is high. The results suggest that China's economic gains from being a world "manufacture factory" have come at a high cost to its water resources and through pollution to its environment.

  13. Impact of long-term conservation management on soil microbial N cycling and greenhouse gas emissions in a humid agroecosystem in West Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, S. M.; Konkel, J. M.; Jin, V.

    2017-12-01

    Conservation practices such as no-tillage, cover crops, and reduced mineral fertilizer application are thought to help mitigate atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations through building soil organic matter. However, some studies have shown that both no-till and cover crops can increase GHG emissions, perhaps due to increased microbial activity. It is possible that these results are confounded by perturbations caused when management practices are newly implemented. There is a clear lack of data from long-term sites where experimental plots are well equilibrated to the management systems. Starting in 2016, we measured fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in twelve combinations of tillage (disk, no-till), N fertilizer rate (0, 67 kg N ha-1), and winter cover crops (none, hairy vetch, winter wheat) under continuous cotton production for 35 years. During the cotton growing season, the largest daily fluxes of N2O (36.9±11.9 g N ha-1 d-1) occurred in tilled plots regardless of cover crop or fertilization rate. However, over the entire year, the largest fluxes were observed during winter cover crop growth (63.0±21.4 g N ha-1 d-1). Overall, N2O fluxes were lower in no-till compared to tilled soils, save those under hairy vetch, a nitrogen fixing cover crop. These results, combined with our observation of higher rates of microbial N mineralization and nitrification in no-till and vetch plots, suggest vetch cover crops may stimulate both GHG and inorganic N production. We observed seasonal patterns in CH4 flux with net CH4 production during Spring and early Summer (from 0.2±0.8 to 4.8±3.2 g C ha-1 d-1), switching to net CH4 consumption by late summer (from -6.3±3.4 to 0.8±0.5 g C ha-1 d-1). Cumulative CH4 fluxes suggest that reduced tillage and fertilization may change these agroecosystems from weak sources to weak sinks for CH4. Our results highlight the impact of nitrogen availability on GHG emissions, and the need for improved

  14. Detectability of the impacts of ozone-depleting substances and greenhouse gases upon stratospheric ozone accounting for nonlinearities in historical forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandoro, Justin; Solomon, Susan; Santer, Benjamin D.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Mills, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    We perform a formal attribution study of upper- and lower-stratospheric ozone changes using observations together with simulations from the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model. Historical model simulations were used to estimate the zonal-mean response patterns (fingerprints) to combined forcing by ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and well-mixed greenhouse gases (GHGs), as well as to the individual forcing by each factor. Trends in the similarity between the searched-for fingerprints and homogenized observations of stratospheric ozone were compared to trends in pattern similarity between the fingerprints and the internally and naturally generated variability inferred from long control runs. This yields estimated signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios for each of the three fingerprints (ODS, GHG, and ODS + GHG). In both the upper stratosphere (defined in this paper as 1 to 10 hPa) and lower stratosphere (40 to 100 hPa), the spatial fingerprints of the ODS + GHG and ODS-only patterns were consistently detectable not only during the era of maximum ozone depletion but also throughout the observational record (1984-2016). We also develop a fingerprint attribution method to account for forcings whose time evolutions are markedly nonlinear over the observational record. When the nonlinearity of the time evolution of the ODS and ODS + GHG signals is accounted for, we find that the S/N ratios obtained with the stratospheric ODS and ODS + GHG fingerprints are enhanced relative to standard linear trend analysis. Use of the nonlinear signal detection method also reduces the detection time - the estimate of the date at which ODS and GHG impacts on ozone can be formally identified. Furthermore, by explicitly considering nonlinear signal evolution, the complete observational record can be used in the S/N analysis, without applying piecewise linear regression and introducing arbitrary break points. The GHG-driven fingerprint of ozone changes was not statistically identifiable in either

  15. The impact of land-use change from forest to oil palm on soil greenhouse gas and volatile organic compound fluxes in Malaysian Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewer, Julia; Leduning, Melissa; Kerdraon-Byrne, Deirdre; Sayer, Emma; Sentien, Justin; Skiba, Ute

    2017-04-01

    Monocultures of oil palm have expanded in SE Asia, and more recently also in Africa and South America, frequently replacing tropical forests. The limited data available clearly show that this conversion is associated with a potentially large greenhouse gas (GHG) burden. The physical process of land-use change, such is felling, drainage and ploughing can significantly increase emissions of N2O and soil CO2 respiration and decrease CH4 oxidation rates in the short term; and in the long-term regular nitrogen applications will impact in particular soil N2O fluxes. Little is known about volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes from soil and litter in tropical forests and their speciation or about the links between GHG and VOC fluxes. VOC emissions are important as they directly and indirectly influence the concentrations and lifetimes of air pollutants and GHGs. For example, oxidation of VOCs generate tropospheric ozone which is also a potent GHG. Within ecosystems, monoterpenes can mediate plant-microbe and plant- interactions and protect photosynthesis during abiotic stress. However, little is known about monoterpene composition in the tropics - a widely recognized major global source of terpenoids to the atmosphere. These knowledge gaps make it difficult for developing countries in the tropics, especially SE Asia, to develop effective mitigation strategies. Current understanding of soil GHG fluxes associated with land-use change from forest to oil palm is not sufficient to provide reliable estimates of their carbon footprints and sustainability or advice on GHG mitigation strategies. To provide the necessary data we have installed a total of 56 flux chambers in logged forests, forest fragments and mature and young oil palm plantations as well as riparian zones within the SAFE landscape in SE Sabah (Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems; http://www.safeproject.net). Soil respiration rates, N2O, CH4 and VOC fluxes together with soil moisture, pH, mineral and total C and

  16. The impact of the rebound effect of the use of first generation biofuels in the EU on greenhouse gas emissions: A critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, E.M.W.; Tabeau, A.A.; Berkum, van S.; Moorad, J.; Meijl, van J.C.M.; Woltjer, G.B.

    2014-01-01

    An important objective of the mandated blending of biofuel in conventional gasoline and diesel in the EU is reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. An important assumption thereby is that biofuels replace the production and consumption of oil. However, recent literature challenges this assumption,

  17. The Impact of Secondary School Students' Preconceptions on the Evolution of Their Mental Models of the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinfried, Sibylle; Tempelmann, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a video-based learning process study that investigates the kinds of mental models of the atmospheric greenhouse effect 13-year-old learners have and how these mental models change with a learning environment, which is optimised in regard to instructional psychology. The objective of this explorative study was to observe and…

  18. Greenhouse effect: effects on refrigerating and air conditioning industries; Effet de serre: impacts sur les professions du froid et de la climatisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Boru, B. [Association Francaise de Froid, Alliance Froid Climatisation Environnement, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The various factors (refrigerant characteristics, design and operating performance, insulation type, etc.) involved in greenhouse gas emission from refrigerating and air conditioning equipment are listed with the potential actions that may be taken at the different stages of equipment design, engineering, installation, operation, maintenance and dismantling, in order to reduce pollutant emissions

  19. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    2017-04-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States, in Australia extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus to date. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics including the potential requirement for hydraulic fracturing. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction on surface and groundwater resources may be of even greater concern. In Australia, an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) has been established to provide scientific advice to federal and state government regulators on the impact that coal seam gas and large coal mining developments may have on water resources. This advice is provided to enable decisions to be informed by the best available science about the potential water-related impacts associated with these developments. To support this advice, the Australian Government Department of the Environment has implemented a programme of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment is defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are currently being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the programme and results to date can be found at http://www.bioregionalassessments.gov.au. The bioregional assessment programme has modelled the impacts of coal seam gas development on surface and groundwater resources in three regions of eastern Australia, namely the Clarence-Moreton, Gloucester, and Namoi regions. This presentation will discuss the

  20. The thermal impact of subsurface building structures on urban groundwater resources - A paradigmatic example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epting, Jannis; Scheidler, Stefan; Affolter, Annette; Borer, Paul; Mueller, Matthias H; Egli, Lukas; García-Gil, Alejandro; Huggenberger, Peter

    2017-10-15

    Shallow subsurface thermal regimes in urban areas are increasingly impacted by anthropogenic activities, which include infrastructure development like underground traffic lines as well as industrial and residential subsurface buildings. In combination with the progressive use of shallow geothermal energy systems, this results in the so-called subsurface urban heat island effect. This article emphasizes the importance of considering the thermal impact of subsurface structures, which commonly is underestimated due to missing information and of reliable subsurface temperature data. Based on synthetic heat-transport models different settings of the urban environment were investigated, including: (1) hydraulic gradients and conductivities, which result in different groundwater flow velocities; (2) aquifer properties like groundwater thickness to aquitard and depth to water table; and (3) constructional features, such as building depths and thermal properties of building structures. Our results demonstrate that with rising groundwater flow velocities, the heat-load from building structures increase, whereas down-gradient groundwater temperatures decrease. Thermal impacts on subsurface resources therefore have to be related to the permeability of aquifers and hydraulic boundary conditions. In regard to the urban settings of Basel, Switzerland, flow velocities of around 1 md -1 delineate a marker where either down-gradient temperature deviations or heat-loads into the subsurface are more relevant. Furthermore, no direct thermal influence on groundwater resources should be expected for aquifers with groundwater thicknesses larger 10m and when the distance of the building structure to the groundwater table is higher than around 10m. We demonstrate that measuring temperature changes down-gradient of subsurface structures is insufficient overall to assess thermal impacts, particularly in urban areas. Moreover, in areas which are densely urbanized, and where groundwater flow

  1. Greenhouse Gas Dynamics in Streams and Riparian Floodplains located within Forested Landscapes of the US Northeast: Impact of Key Floodplain Geomorphic Features on Greenhouse Gas Production in a Forested Watershed in Northern New York State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serchan, S. P.; Vidon, P.

    2015-12-01

    This study measured dissolved greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in interstitial water and stream across various "hotspots" in headwater catchments of Archer Creek watershed, New York, USA. Results indicated that stream water was hyper saturated with methane (CH4), and moderately saturated with carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (N2O). The values of dissolved CO2 (88.3 μmol/L), dissolved CH4 (1.2 μmol/L), and dissolved N2O (0.02 μmol/L) found in the stream were 5.8, 432, and 2.3 times in excess of atmospheric equilibrium, respectively. Results of dissolved GHG measured in interstitial water across various sites: riparian dry (RZ-Dry), riparian wet (RZ-Wet), riparian mucky (RZ-Mucky), pool with fine textured bed sediments (IS-fine-sedpool), pool with coarse textured bed sediments (IS-coarse-sed-pool), and riffles (Riffle) indicated high variations in the degree of saturation of all three GHG. RZ-Mucky, RZ-Wet, and IS-fine-sedpool sites were hotspots of CH4 and CO2 relative to other sites. RZ-Dry sites were hotspots of N2O. Multiple linear regression models indicated that dissolved oxygen (D.O.) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) influenced dissolved CO2 and CH4 at most of the sites. Relationships between dissolved N2O and predictor variables were highly variable across all sites. Patterns of dissolved N2O in relatively oxic RZ-Dry sites (D.O. 5.3 mg/L) were positively correlated with nitrate (NO3) indicating nitrification as a dominant process in N2O production. In contrast, patterns of dissolved N2O were positively correlated with ammonium (NH4+) at RZ-Wet and RZ-Mucky sites where concentrations of D.O. were significantly lower compared to other sites.

  2. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Chen, W.Y.; Seiner, J.; Suzuki, T.; Lackner, M.

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessments of greenhouse gas emissions have been developed for analyzing products "from cradle to grave": from resource extraction to waste disposal. Life cycle assessment methodology has also been applied to economies, trade between countries, aspects of production and to waste

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Chen, W.Y.; Suzuki, T.; Lackner, M.

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessments of greenhouse gas emissions have been developed for analyzing products "from cradle to grave": from resource extraction to waste disposal. Life cycle assessment methodology has also been applied to economies, trade between countries, aspects of production, and waste

  4. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Chen, W.-Y.; Suzuki, T.; Lackner, M.

    2017-01-01

    Life cycle assessments of greenhouse gas emissions have been developed for analyzing products “from cradle to grave”: from resource extraction to waste disposal. Life cycle assessment methodology has also been applied to economies, trade between countries, aspects of production, and waste

  5. Greenhouse gas mitigation with scarce land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Aurich, A; Olesen, Jørgen E; Prochnow, A

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural lands have been identified to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions primarily by production of energy crops and substituting fossil energy resources and through carbon sequestration in soils. Increased fertilizer input resulting in increased yields may reduce the area needed for crop...

  6. Is current irrigation sustainable in the United States? An integrated assessment of climate change impact on water resources and irrigated crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Elodie; Caron, Justin; Fant, Charles; Monier, Erwan

    2017-08-01

    While climate change impacts on crop yields has been extensively studied, estimating the impact of water shortages on irrigated crop yields is challenging because the water resources management system is complex. To investigate this issue, we integrate a crop yield reduction module and a water resources model into the MIT Integrated Global System Modeling framework, an integrated assessment model linking a global economic model to an Earth system model. We assess the effects of climate and socioeconomic changes on water availability for irrigation in the U.S. as well as subsequent impacts on crop yields by 2050, while accounting for climate change projection uncertainty. We find that climate and socioeconomic changes will increase water shortages and strongly reduce irrigated yields for specific crops (i.e., cotton and forage), or in specific regions (i.e., the Southwest) where irrigation is not sustainable. Crop modeling studies that do not represent changes in irrigation availability can thus be misleading. Yet, since the most water-stressed basins represent a relatively small share of U.S. irrigated areas, the overall reduction in U.S. crop yields is small. The response of crop yields to climate change and water stress also suggests that some level of adaptation will be feasible, like relocating croplands to regions with sustainable irrigation or switching to less irrigation intensive crops. Finally, additional simulations show that greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation can alleviate the effect of water stress on irrigated crop yields, enough to offset the reduced CO2 fertilization effect compared to an unconstrained GHG emission scenario.

  7. A Framework for Assessing the Impacts of Mining Development on Regional Water Resources in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil McIntyre

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing its large-scale mining industry is an economic priority for Colombia. However, national capacity to assess and manage the water resource impacts of mining is currently limited. This includes lack of baseline data, lack of suitable hydrological models and lack of frameworks for evaluating risks. Furthermore, public opposition to large scale mining is high and is a barrier to many proposed new mining projects mainly because of concerns about impacts on water resources. There are also concerns about impacts on the uplands that are important water sources, particularly the páramo ecosystem. This paper argues the case for a new framework for Strategic Assessment of Regional Water Impacts of Mining, aiming to support land use planning decisions by government for selected mining and prospective mining regions. The proposed framework is modelled on the Australian Government’s Bioregional Assessments program, converted into seven stages plus supporting activities that meet the Colombian development context. The seven stages are: (1 Contextual information; (2 Scenario definition; (3 Risk scoping; (4 Model development; (5 Risk analysis; (6 Database development; and (7 Dissemination by government to stakeholders including the general public. It is emphasised that the process and results should be transparent, the data and models publicly accessible, and dissemination aimed at all levels of expertise.

  8. The greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, A.

    1991-01-01

    The greenhouse effect on earth can be defined as the long wave energy trapped in the atmosphere. Climate forcing and climate system response within which climate feedback mechanisms are contained are determined. Quantitative examples illustrate what could happen if the greenhouse effect is perturbed by human activities, in particular if CO2 atmospheric concentration would double in the future. Recent satellite measurements of the greenhouse effect are given. The net cooling effect of clouds and whether or not there will be less cooling by clouds as the planet warms are also discussed

  9. Through the greenhouse window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsley, M.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear power is being promoted as the only answer to the greenhouse effect. However, power station emissions (from fossil-fuel powered stations) account for only a fraction of the total carbon dioxide emissions. And carbon dioxide accounts for only about a half of the global warming effect -the other gases which create the greenhouse effect must also be limited. Nuclear energy is neither a practical nor economic alternative. Energy efficiency and conservation is a far better answer to the greenhouse effect. (U.K.)

  10. Environmental impact of coal utilization (from raw material to waste resources): Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, K.C.

    1991-10-01

    The proceedings contains 27 papers presented at the conference on environmental impact of coal utilization from raw material to waste resources which was held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, during 14-15 January 1991. The conference was held as a follow-up of the research project to study the impact of coal utilization. The project was undertaken jointly by the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay and the University of Western Ontario, Canada. The project was funded by the International Development Research Centre, Ottawa (Canada). The principle themes of the conference were : occurrence of trace elements in coal, fate of trace elements during combustion of coal, characterisation of fly ash and its properties and utilization, and environmental impact of ash disposal. (M.G.B.)

  11. Analysis of the Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Biomass Resources for Energy and Materials in the Netherlands. Appendix 1. Bottom-up Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagels, R.; Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.; Banse, M.

    2009-03-01

    The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (PGG), part of the Energy Transition in The Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to conduct research on the macro-economic impact of large scale deployment of biomass for energy and materials in the Netherlands. Two model approaches were applied based on a consistent set of scenario assumptions: a bottom-up study including technoeconomic projections of fossil and bio-based conversion technologies and a topdown study including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources. The results of the top-down and bottom-up modelling work are reported separately. The results of the synthesis of the modelling work are presented in the main report. This report (part 1) presents scenarios for future biomass use for energy and materials, and analyses the consequences on energy supply, chemical productions, costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with a bottom-up approach. The bottom-up projections, as presented in this report, form the basis for modelling work using the top-down macro-economic model (LEITAP) to assess the economic impact of substituting fossil-based energy carriers with biomass in the Netherlands. The results of the macro-economic modelling work, and the linkage between the results of the bottom-up and top-down work, will be presented in the top-down economic part and synthesis report of this study

  12. Policy Considerations for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Freshwater Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Mäkinen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging concern over greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from wetlands has prompted calls to address the climate impact of dams in climate policy frameworks. Existing studies indicate that reservoirs can be significant sources of emissions, particularly in tropical areas. However, knowledge on the role of dams in overall national emission levels and abatement targets is limited, which is often cited as a key reason for political inaction and delays in formulating appropriate policies. Against this backdrop, this paper discusses the current role of reservoir emissions in existing climate policy frameworks. The distance between a global impact on climate and a need for local mitigation measures creates a challenge for designing appropriate mechanisms to combat reservoir emissions. This paper presents a range of possible policy interventions at different scales that could help address the climate impact of reservoirs. Reservoir emissions need to be treated like other anthropogenic greenhouse gases. A rational treatment of the issue requires applying commonly accepted climate change policy principles as well as promoting participatory water management plans through integrated water resource management frameworks. An independent global body such as the UN system may be called upon to assess scientific information and develop GHG emissions policy at appropriate levels.

  13. Resource contingency program - Oregon. Final environmental impact statement, Hermiston power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial, and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. In 1990, to cover the outer range of potential load growth with new resources, BPA embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP). Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later, if and when it is needed. The decision to acquire any of these option energy projects to fulfill statutory supply obligations will be influenced by Federal system load growth, the outcome of BPA's Business Plan, required operational changes in Columbia-Snake River Hydroelectric facilities, and the loss of major generating resources. In September 1993, three option development agreements were signed with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop, Washington, and near Hermiston, Oregon. Together these three projects could supply BPA with 1,090 average megawatts (aMW) of power. Under these agreements, sponsors are obtaining permits and conducting project design work, and BPA is completing this EIS process. In September 1993, BPA published a Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) on these three proposed gas-fired combustion turbine projects and held public scoping meetings in October 1993 at each site. In February 1994, BPA released an Implementation Plan on the proposed scope of the EIS. A draft EIS on the three proposed projects was published in February 1995. The impacts of the Chehalis and Satsop projects located in Washington State will be covered in one EIS document, while the impacts of the Hermiston project located in Oregon are covered in this final EIS document. It is BPA's intent to continue to base the analysis of impacts on the assumption that all three projects may be constructed at some point in the future

  14. Resource Contingency Program - Oregon : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hermiston Power Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial, and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. In 1990, to cover the outer range of potential load growth with new resources, BPA embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP). Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later, if and when it is needed. The decision to acquire any of these option energy projects to fulfill statutory supply obligations will be influenced by Federal system load growth, the outcome of BPA`s Business Plan, required operational changes in Columbia-Snake River Hydroelectric facilities, and the loss of major generating resources. In September 1993, three option development agreements were signed with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop, Washington, and near Hermiston, Oregon. Together these three projects could supply BPA with 1,090 average megawatts (aMW) of power. Under these agreements, sponsors are obtaining permits and conducting project design work, and BPA is completing this EIS process. In September 1993, BPA published a Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) on these three proposed gas-fired combustion turbine projects and held public scoping meetings in October 1993 at each site. In February 1994, BPA released an Implementation Plan on the proposed scope of the EIS. A draft EIS on the three proposed projects was published in February 1995. The impacts of the Chehalis and Satsop projects located in Washington State will be covered in one EIS document, while the impacts of the Hermiston project located in Oregon are covered in this final EIS document. It is BPA`s intent to continue to base the analysis of impacts on the assumption that all three projects may be constructed at some point in the future.

  15. Environmental impacts of water resources exploitation works: prevention acts; Impactos ambientais de obras de exploracao de recursos hidricos: acoes preventivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, Suetonio [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    1989-11-01

    This paper discusses the environmental impacts that becomes from works of water resources exploitation, like dam construction, river rectification and irrigation projects, and its impacts on the biotic, physical and social environment, and shows the actions will be made to prevent or minimize this impacts 6 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Watered down : overcoming federal inaction on the impact of oil sands development to water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droitsch, D.

    2009-11-01

    The oil sands industry is having a negative impact on Canada's fresh water resources and aquatic ecosystems. Members of the Government of the Northwest Territories (NT) and experts from scientific, non-governmental, and First Nations groups have stated at federal hearings that the federal government must involve itself in the protection of Canada's water resources. This report discussed compelling testimony from recent federal hearings by the House of Commons Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development.The federal government must establish enforceable standards for key toxic substances created by oil sands activity. A water-sharing agreement must be established between Alberta, NT, Saskatchewan, and First Nations governments. Other recommendations included the establishment of a peer-reviewed assessment of the health impacts of industrial oil sands development on First Nations communities; the establishment of cumulative effects assessment procedures; the identification and protection of listed species at risk; and the establishment of proactive measures designed to ensure that oil sands operators pay for the environmental damage caused to water resources. 94 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Analyzing climate change impacts on water resources under uncertainty using an integrated simulation-optimization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, X. W.; Li, Y. P.; Nie, S.; Fan, Y. R.; Huang, G. H.

    2018-01-01

    An integrated simulation-optimization (ISO) approach is developed for assessing climate change impacts on water resources. In the ISO, uncertainties presented as both interval numbers and probability distributions can be reflected. Moreover, ISO permits in-depth analyses of various policy scenarios that are associated with different levels of economic consequences when the promised water-allocation targets are violated. A snowmelt-precipitation-driven watershed (Kaidu watershed) in northwest China is selected as the study case for demonstrating the applicability of the proposed method. Results of meteorological projections disclose that the incremental trend of temperature (e.g., minimum and maximum values) and precipitation exist. Results also reveal that (i) the system uncertainties would significantly affect water resources allocation pattern (including target and shortage); (ii) water shortage would be enhanced from 2016 to 2070; and (iii) the more the inflow amount decreases, the higher estimated water shortage rates are. The ISO method is useful for evaluating climate change impacts within a watershed system with complicated uncertainties and helping identify appropriate water resources management strategies hedging against drought.

  18. Measuring the impact of computer resource quality on the software development process and product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgarry, Frank; Valett, Jon; Hall, Dana

    1985-01-01

    The availability and quality of computer resources during the software development process was speculated to have measurable, significant impact on the efficiency of the development process and the quality of the resulting product. Environment components such as the types of tools, machine responsiveness, and quantity of direct access storage may play a major role in the effort to produce the product and in its subsequent quality as measured by factors such as reliability and ease of maintenance. During the past six years, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has conducted experiments with software projects in an attempt to better understand the impact of software development methodologies, environments, and general technologies on the software process and product. Data was extracted and examined from nearly 50 software development projects. All were related to support of satellite flight dynamics ground-based computations. The relationship between computer resources and the software development process and product as exemplified by the subject NASA data was examined. Based upon the results, a number of computer resource-related implications are provided.

  19. Multimorbidity in chronic disease: impact on health care resources and costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPhail SM

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Steven M McPhail1,2 1Centre for Functioning and Health Research, Metro South Health, 2Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation and School of Public Health and Social Work, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Abstract: Effective and resource-efficient long-term management of multimorbidity is one of the greatest health-related challenges facing patients, health professionals, and society more broadly. The purpose of this review was to provide a synthesis of literature examining multimorbidity and resource utilization, including implications for cost-effectiveness estimates and resource allocation decision making. In summary, previous literature has reported substantially greater, near exponential, increases in health care costs and resource utilization when additional chronic comorbid conditions are present. Increased health care costs have been linked to elevated rates of primary care and specialist physician occasions of service, medication use, emergency department presentations, and hospital admissions (both frequency of admissions and bed days occupied. There is currently a paucity of cost-effectiveness information for chronic disease interventions originating from patient samples with multimorbidity. The scarcity of robust economic evaluations in the field represents a considerable challenge for resource allocation decision making intended to reduce the burden of multimorbidity in resource-constrained health care systems. Nonetheless, the few cost-effectiveness studies that are available provide valuable insight into the potential positive and cost-effective impact that interventions may have among patients with multiple comorbidities. These studies also highlight some of the pragmatic and methodological challenges underlying the conduct of economic evaluations among people who may have advanced age, frailty, and disadvantageous socioeconomic circumstances, and where long-term follow-up may be required to

  20. Solar greenhouse aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toever, W V

    1979-01-01

    Rainbow and Speckled Trout have been successfully hatched and reared in a recirculating aquaculture system. The system is integrated into the Ark greenhouse providing thermal mass for temperature regulation and supplying nutrient-rich water for plants. The system incorporates bacterial, algal and hydroponic water filtration. Various vegetable crops have been raised in the hydroponic troughs. A scaled-down system suitable for domestic solar greenhouse application is also under development.

  1. Water Resource Impacts Embedded in the Western US Electrical Energy Trade; Current Patterns and Adaptation to Future Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, E. A.; Herron, S.; Qiu, Y.; Tidwell, V. C.; Ruddell, B. L.

    2013-12-01

    Water resources are a key element in the global coupled natural-human (CNH) system, because they are tightly coupled with the world's social, environmental, and economic subsystems, and because water resources are under increasing pressure worldwide. A fundamental adaptive tool used especially by cities to overcome local water resource scarcity is the outsourcing of water resource impacts through substitutionary economic trade. This is generally understood as the indirect component of a water footprint, and as ';virtual water' trade. This work employs generalized CNH methods to reveal the trade in water resource impacts embedded in electrical energy within the Western US power grid, and utilizes a general equilibrium economic trade model combined with drought and demand growth constraints to estimate the future status of this trade. Trade in embedded water resource impacts currently increases total water used for electricity production in the Western US and shifts water use to more water-limited States. Extreme drought and large increases in electrical energy demand increase the need for embedded water resource impact trade, while motivating a shift to more water-efficient generation technologies and more water-abundant generating locations. Cities are the largest users of electrical energy, and in the 21st Century will outsource a larger fraction of their water resource impacts through trade. This trade exposes cities to risks associated with disruption of long-distance transmission and distant hydrological droughts.

  2. Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C S; Burk, K W; Driver, C J; Liljegren, J C; Neitzel, D A; Schwartz, M N; Dana, M T; Laws, G L; Mahoney, L A; Rhoads, K

    1992-04-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives.

  3. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 4. Impact of geothermal resource development in Hawaii (including air and water quality)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, S.M.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    The environmental consequences of natural processes in a volcanic-fumerolic region and of geothermal resource development are presented. These include acute ecological effects, toxic gas emissions during non-eruptive periods, the HGP-A geothermal well as a site-specific model, and the geothermal resources potential of Hawaii. (MHR)

  4. Closing the loop: integrating human impacts on water resources to advanced land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitchik, B. F.; Nie, W.; Rodell, M.; Kumar, S.; Li, B.

    2016-12-01

    Advanced Land Surface Models (LSMs), including those used in the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS), offer a physically consistent and spatially and temporally complete analysis of the distributed water balance. These models are constrained both by physically-based process representation and by observations ingested as meteorological forcing or as data assimilation updates. As such, they have become important tools for hydrological monitoring and long-term climate analysis. The representation of water management, however, is extremely limited in these models. Recent advances have brought prognostic irrigation routines into models used in NLDAS, while assimilation of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) derived estimates of terrestrial water storage anomaly has made it possible to nudge models towards observed states in water storage below the root zone. But with few exceptions these LSMs do not account for the source of irrigation water, leading to a disconnect between the simulated water balance and the observed human impact on water resources. This inconsistency is unacceptable for long-term studies of climate change and human impact on water resources in North America. Here we define the modeling challenge, review instances of models that have begun to account for water withdrawals (e.g., CLM), and present ongoing efforts to improve representation of human impacts on water storage across models through integration of irrigation routines, water withdrawal information, and GRACE Data Assimilation in NLDAS LSMs.

  5. Climate change impact on water resources - Example of an anthropized basin (Llobregat, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versini, P.-A.; Pouget, L.; Mc Ennis, S.; Guiu Carrio, R.; Sempere-Torres, D.; Escaler, I.

    2012-04-01

    The impact of climate change is one of the central topics of study by water agencies and companies. Indeed, the forecasted increase of atmospheric temperature may change the amount, frequency and intensity of precipitation and affect the hydrological cycle: runoff, infiltration, aquifer recharge, etc… Moreover, global change combining climate change but also land use and water demand changes, may cause very important impacts on water availability and quality. Global change scenarios in Spain describe a general trend towards increased temperature and water demand, and reduced precipitation as a result of its geographical situation and socio-economic characteristics. The European project WATER CHANGE (included in the LIFE + Environment Policy and Governance program) aims to develop a modeling system to assess the Global Change impacts, and their associated uncertainties, on water availability for water supply and water use. Its objective is to help river basin agencies and water companies in their long term planning and in the definition of adaptation measures. This work presents the results obtained by applying the modelling system to the Llobregat river basin (Spain). This is an anthropized catchment of about 5000 km2, where water resources are used for different purposes, such as drinking water production, agriculture irrigation, industry and hydroelectric energy production. Based on future global change scenarios, the water resources system has been assessed in terms of water deficit and supply. A cost-benefit analysis has also been conducted in order to evaluate every realistic measure that could optimize and improve the system.

  6. Proceedings of the CEATI water management 2008 workshop : climate change impacts on hydroelectric water resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Hydroelectric power will occupy a significant portion of future renewable energy sources. This conference provided a forum for scientists, industry experts, and utility operators to discuss methods of determining and managing the potential impacts of climatic change on water resources. Attendants at the conference discussed issues related to future water supplies, and examined methods of predicting hydrological shifts and pattern changes for various watersheds and basins. Methods of using global climate and regional climate models for predicting the impacts of climatic change on water resources were reviewed, and new strategies for simulating and predicting shifts in sedimentation and shoreline erosion were discussed. New technologies and tools designed to improve the accuracy of utility risk assessments were also presented. The conference was divided into the following 11 sessions: (1) climate change impacts, (2) hydroclimatic variability, (3) downscaling of climate models, (4) global climate models and regional climate models, (5) watershed modelling, (6) adaptation on short-, medium-, and long-term planning, (7) climate change adaptation, (8) operations and planning, (9) risk assessment and uncertainty, (10) operations and planning, and (11) extreme events. A series of workshop posters presented new forecasting and simulation tools. The conference featured 35 presentations, of which 11 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  7. Geothermal energy from the earth: Its potential impact as an environmentally sustainable resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mock, J.E.; Tester, J.W.; Wright, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    Geothermal energy technology is reviewed in terms of its current impact and future potential as an energy source. In general, the geothermal energy resource base is large and well distributed globally. Geothermal systems have a number of positive social characteristics (they are simple, safe, and adaptable systems with modular 1--50 MW [thermal (t) or electric (e)] plants capable of providing continuous baseload, load following, or peaking capacity) and benign environmental attributes (negligible emissions of CO 2 , SO x , NO x , and particulates, and modest land and water use). Because these features are compatible with sustainable growth of global energy supplies in both developed and developing countries, geothermal energy is an attractive option to replace fossil and fissile fuels. In 1997, about 7,000 MWe of base-load generating capacity and over 15,000 MWt of heating capacity from high-grade geothermal resources are in commercial use worldwide. 114 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  8. The impact of work-related and personal resources on older workers' fatigue, work enjoyment and retirement intentions over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stynen, Dave; Jansen, Nicole W H; Kant, IJmert

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of work-related and personal resources on older workers' retirement intentions by studying the pathways (fatigue and work enjoyment) from resources to retirement intentions, the buffering role of resources for psychological job demands, in a cross-sectional and longitudinal timeframe. Longitudinal results on a subsample of full-time, older workers (n = 1642) from the Maastricht Cohort Study suggest that over four years of follow-up personal resources like personal mastery and perceived health related to less (prolonged) fatigue and more work enjoyment. Personal mastery also related to later retirement intentions. A work-related resource like decision authority related to less prolonged fatigue. (Prolonged) fatigue related to earlier retirement intentions, suggesting that fatigue may be a pathway to early retirement. Finally, little evidence was found for effect modification by resources. This prospective study indicates that work-related and personal resources may be useful for prolonging working careers. Practitioner Summary: To date, the impact of work-related and personal resources on older workers' retirement intentions is rarely studied. As this prospective study shows that resources may impact older workers' (prolonged) fatigue, work enjoyment and retirement intentions, the monitoring and fostering of resources is of importance for prolonging their working careers.

  9. Hydrological Appraisal of Climate Change Impacts on the Water Resources of the Xijiang Basin, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehua Zhu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of climate change on streamflow is critical to understanding the changes to water resources and to improve water resource management. The use of hydrological models is a common practice to quantify and assess water resources in such situations. In this study, two hydrological models with different structures, e.g., a physically-based distributed model Liuxihe (LXH and a lumped conceptual model Xinanjiang (XAJ are employed to simulate the daily runoff in the Xijiang basin in South China, under historical (1964–2013 and future (2014–2099 climate conditions. The future climate series are downscaled from a global climate model (Beijing Climate Centre-Climate System Model, BCC-CSM version 1.1 by a high-resolution regional climate model under two representative concentration pathways—RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The hydrological responses to climate change via the two rainfall–runoff models with different mathematical structures are compared, in relation to the uncertainties in hydrology and meteorology. It is found that the two rainfall–runoff models successfully simulate the historical runoff for the Xijiang basin, with a daily runoff Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency of 0.80 for the LXH model and 0.89 for the XAJ model. The characteristics of high flow in the future are also analysed including their frequency (magnitude–return-period relationship. It shows that the distributed model could produce more streamflow and peak flow than the lumped model under the climate change scenarios. However the difference of the impact from the two climate scenarios is marginal on median monthly streamflow. The flood frequency analysis under climate change suggests that flood magnitudes in the future will be more severe than the historical floods with the same return period. Overall, the study reveals how uncertain it can be to quantify water resources with two different but well calibrated hydrological models.

  10. Energy, environment and economics: greenhouse policy in the balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkenfeld, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Taking New South Wales as a case study, this paper reviews the government's major economic and environmental concerns, and analyses how they bear on energy and greenhouse policy options. The government's economic strategy emphasises the continuing importance of primary resources, minerals processing and energy-intensive manufacturing, where the State is perceived to have a competitive advantage because of its extensive coal resources. The implications of these trends for the energy utilities and for greenhouse energy policy are analysed. 22 refs., 1 tab

  11. Modelling impacts of climate change on water resources in ungauged and data-scarce watersheds. Application to the Siurana catchment (NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim; Olivares, Gonzalo; Gomez, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Gaining knowledge on potential climate change impacts on water resources is a complex process which depends on numerical models capable of describing these processes in quantitative terms. Under limited data or ungauged basin conditions, which constrain the modelling approach, a physically based coherent methodological approach is required. The traditional approach to assess flow regime and groundwater recharge impacts, based on coupling general atmosphere–ocean circulation models (GCM) and hydrologic models, has been investigated in the Siurana ungauged catchment (NE Spain). The future A2 (medium-high) and B1 (medium-low) greenhouse gas scenarios and time slices 2013–2037 (2025) and 2038–2062 (2050), developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001), have been selected. For scenario simulations, coupled GCM ECHAM5 scenarios, stochastically downscaled outputs and surface–subsurface modelling to simulate changes in water resources were applied to the catchment. Flow regime analysis was assessed by HEC-HMS, a physically based hydrologic model to assess rainfall–runoff in a catchment, while recharge was estimated with VisualBALAN, a distributed model for natural recharge estimation. Simulations show that the projected climate change at the catchment will affect the entire hydrological system with a maximum of 56% reduction of water resources. While subtle changes are observed for the 2025 time slice, the temperature and precipitation forecast for 2050 shows a maximum increase of 2.2 °C and a decreased precipitation volume of 11.3% in relation to historical values. Regarding historical values, runoff output shows a maximum 20% decrease, and 18% decrease of natural recharge with a certain delay in relation to runoff and rainfall data. According to the results, the most important parameters conditioning future water resources are changes in climatic parameters, but they are highly dependent on soil moisture conditions. -- Highlights:

  12. Modelling impacts of climate change on water resources in ungauged and data-scarce watersheds. Application to the Siurana catchment (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candela, Lucila, E-mail: lucila.candela@upc.edu [Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geoscience, Technical University of Catalonia-UPC, 08034, Barcelona (Spain); Tamoh, Karim [Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geoscience, Technical University of Catalonia-UPC, 08034, Barcelona (Spain); Olivares, Gonzalo; Gomez, Manuel [Flumen Research Institute, UPC Gran Capitan s.n. Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-12-01

    Gaining knowledge on potential climate change impacts on water resources is a complex process which depends on numerical models capable of describing these processes in quantitative terms. Under limited data or ungauged basin conditions, which constrain the modelling approach, a physically based coherent methodological approach is required. The traditional approach to assess flow regime and groundwater recharge impacts, based on coupling general atmosphere-ocean circulation models (GCM) and hydrologic models, has been investigated in the Siurana ungauged catchment (NE Spain). The future A2 (medium-high) and B1 (medium-low) greenhouse gas scenarios and time slices 2013-2037 (2025) and 2038-2062 (2050), developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001), have been selected. For scenario simulations, coupled GCM ECHAM5 scenarios, stochastically downscaled outputs and surface-subsurface modelling to simulate changes in water resources were applied to the catchment. Flow regime analysis was assessed by HEC-HMS, a physically based hydrologic model to assess rainfall-runoff in a catchment, while recharge was estimated with VisualBALAN, a distributed model for natural recharge estimation. Simulations show that the projected climate change at the catchment will affect the entire hydrological system with a maximum of 56% reduction of water resources. While subtle changes are observed for the 2025 time slice, the temperature and precipitation forecast for 2050 shows a maximum increase of 2.2 Degree-Sign C and a decreased precipitation volume of 11.3% in relation to historical values. Regarding historical values, runoff output shows a maximum 20% decrease, and 18% decrease of natural recharge with a certain delay in relation to runoff and rainfall data. According to the results, the most important parameters conditioning future water resources are changes in climatic parameters, but they are highly dependent on soil moisture conditions. -- Highlights

  13. Assessing climate change impacts on water resources in remote mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, Wouter; De Bièvre, Bert

    2013-04-01

    From a water resources perspective, remote mountain regions are often considered as a basket case. They are often regions where poverty is often interlocked with multiple threats to water supply, data scarcity, and high uncertainties. In these environments, it is paramount to generate locally relevant knowledge about water resources and how they impact local livelihoods. This is often problematic. Existing environmental data collection tends to be geographically biased towards more densely populated regions, and prioritized towards strategic economic activities. Data may also be locked behind institutional and technological barriers. These issues create a "knowledge trap" for data-poor regions, which is especially acute in remote and hard-to-reach mountain regions. We present lessons learned from a decade of water resources research in remote mountain regions of the Andes, Africa and South Asia. We review the entire tool chain of assessing climate change impacts on water resources, including the interrogation and downscaling of global circulation models, translating climate variables in water availability and access, and assessing local vulnerability. In global circulation models, mountain regions often stand out as regions of high uncertainties and lack of agreement of future trends. This is partly a technical artifact because of the different resolution and representation of mountain topography, but it also highlights fundamental uncertainties in climate impacts on mountain climate. This problem also affects downscaling efforts, because regional climate models should be run in very high spatial resolution to resolve local gradients, which is computationally very expensive. At the same time statistical downscaling methods may fail to find significant relations between local climate properties and synoptic processes. Further uncertainties are introduced when downscaled climate variables such as precipitation and temperature are to be translated in hydrologically

  14. Candy or apple? How self-control resources and motives impact dietary healthiness in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Strohbach, Stefanie; Schupp, Harald; Renner, Britta

    2011-06-01

    People can choose between a virtually endless array of food items rising the question, which factors determine healthy or unhealthy food choice. The present study examines the impact of two contrasting motives for food choice (affect regulation and body weight control) and self-regulatory competences on healthy eating within a sample of women (N=761). The data show that a relative lack of self-regulatory resources combined with a high tendency to regulate negative affect through comfort eating was associated with an unfavorable dietary pattern. Accordingly, a healthy dietary pattern requires not only self-regulatory capacities but also a facilitating motive structure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preference and Priority in Federal Funding: Aligning Federal Resources to Maximize Program Investment Efficiency and Impacts in Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the document, Preference and Priority in Federal Funding: Aligning Federal Resources to Maximize Program Investment Efficiency and Impacts in Communities - Lessons from EPA’s Brownfields Program.

  16. Impacts of HIV/AIDS mortality on food security and natural resource utilisation in rural South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mambo, J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available AIDS mortality, its linkages as a determinant and consequence of food security and its impact on natural resource utilisation by mainly rural populations, has not been well researched, especially their effects on rural livelihoods. Determining...

  17. STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND ITS IMPACT ON WORK LIFE BALANCE OF EMPLOYEES OF AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY IN PUNE REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Ramamurthi; Mr. Lambodar Saha

    2017-01-01

    Various strategic practices have already been established to promote the value of Human Resource Management in organizations. The Human Resource Management function is now considered as a strategic tool in the formulation and implementation of organizational strategies to attain its objectives. Automobile Industries are chosen as subjects for this study with specific aspects relating to various strategic human resource management practices and its impact on work-life balance and to determine ...

  18. Global warming and climate change in Amazonia: Climate-vegetation feedback and impacts on water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, José; Nobre, Carlos A.; Betts, Richard A.; Cox, Peter M.; Sampaio, Gilvan; Salazar, Luis

    This chapter constitutes an updated review of long-term climate variability and change in the Amazon region, based on observational data spanning more than 50 years of records and on climate-change modeling studies. We start with the early experiments on Amazon deforestation in the late 1970s, and the evolution of these experiments to the latest studies on greenhouse gases emission scenarios and land use changes until the end of the twenty-first century. The "Amazon dieback" simulated by the HadCM3 model occurs after a "tipping point" of CO2 concentration and warming. Experiments on Amazon deforestation and change of climate suggest that once a critical deforestation threshold (or tipping point) of 40-50% forest loss is reached in eastern Amazonia, climate would change in a way which is dangerous for the remaining forest. This may favor a collapse of the tropical forest, with a substitution of the forest by savanna-type vegetation. The concept of "dangerous climate change," as a climate change, which induces positive feedback, which accelerate the change, is strongly linked to the occurrence of tipping points, and it can be explained as the presence of feedback between climate change and the carbon cycle, particularly involving a weakening of the current terrestrial carbon sink and a possible reversal from a sink (as in present climate) to a source by the year 2050. We must, therefore, currently consider the drying simulated by the Hadley Centre model(s) as having a finite probability under global warming, with a potentially enormous impact, but with some degree of uncertainty.

  19. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  20. Impacts of climate change on resource management of the north: Symposium summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goos, T.; Wall, G.

    1994-01-01

    A Canada/USA symposium was held to address critical issues related to the impacts of climatic changes on Arctic regions. A review of the papers presented at the symposium and the symposium findings and recommendations is presented. Highlights of the proceedings are as follows. An improved understanding of Arctic processes, such as the hydrological cycle, ocean circulation, and permafrost is required. This information should be incorporated as it becomes available into global climate models at scales which will allow representation and assessment of regional consequences. Improved mechanisms are needed to facilitate the use of the results of scientific work in the formulation of resource management options and decisions. If climate change occurs as expected, the presence of ice and permafrost will be reduced throughout much of the north, with profound implications for such aspects of northern living as life styles, transport, land use, and resource development. Improved knowledge is required regarding the sensitivities of Arctic species and ecosystems and their responses when thresholds are exceeded. There is also a need to assess the relative importance of climate in the context of other factors which have implications for resource management decisions

  1. WE-FG-201-00: High Impact Technologies for Low Resource Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries lack the resources and services to manage cancer, from screening and diagnosis to radiation therapy planning, treatment and quality assurance. The challenges in upgrading or introducing the needed services are enormous, and include severe shortages in equipment and trained staff. In this symposium, we will describe examples of technology and scientific research that have the potential to impact all these areas. These include: (1) the development of high-quality/low-cost colposcopes for cervical cancer screening, (2) the application of automated radiotherapy treatment planning to reduce staffing shortages, (3) the development of a novel radiotherapy treatment unit, and (4) utilizing a cloud-based infrastructure to facilitate collaboration and QA. Learning Objectives: Understand some of the issues in cancer care in low- resource environments, including shortages in staff and equipment, and inadequate physical infrastructure for advanced radiotherapy. Understand the challenges in developing and deploying diagnostic and treatment devices and services for low-resource environments. Understand some of the emerging technological solutions for cancer management in LMICs. NCI; L. Court, NIH, Varian, Elekta; I. Feain, Ilana Feain is founder and CTO of Nano-X Pty Ltd

  2. WE-FG-201-00: High Impact Technologies for Low Resource Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    Many low- and middle-income countries lack the resources and services to manage cancer, from screening and diagnosis to radiation therapy planning, treatment and quality assurance. The challenges in upgrading or introducing the needed services are enormous, and include severe shortages in equipment and trained staff. In this symposium, we will describe examples of technology and scientific research that have the potential to impact all these areas. These include: (1) the development of high-quality/low-cost colposcopes for cervical cancer screening, (2) the application of automated radiotherapy treatment planning to reduce staffing shortages, (3) the development of a novel radiotherapy treatment unit, and (4) utilizing a cloud-based infrastructure to facilitate collaboration and QA. Learning Objectives: Understand some of the issues in cancer care in low- resource environments, including shortages in staff and equipment, and inadequate physical infrastructure for advanced radiotherapy. Understand the challenges in developing and deploying diagnostic and treatment devices and services for low-resource environments. Understand some of the emerging technological solutions for cancer management in LMICs. NCI; L. Court, NIH, Varian, Elekta; I. Feain, Ilana Feain is founder and CTO of Nano-X Pty Ltd.

  3. Modelling the impacts of projected future climate change on water resources in north-west England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the frequency of water resource drought in the UK, coupled with the more recent pan-European drought of 2003, has increased concern over changes in climate. Using the UKCIP02 Medium-High (SRES A2 scenario for 2070–2100, this study investigates the impact of climate change on the operation of the Integrated Resource Zone (IRZ, a complex conjunctive-use water supply system in north-western England. The results indicate that the contribution of individual sources to yield may change substantially but that overall yield is reduced by only 18%. Notwithstanding this significant effect on water supply, the flexibility of the system enables it to meet modelled demand for much of the time under the future climate scenario, even without a change in system management, but at significant expense for pumping additional abstraction from lake and borehole sources. This research provides a basis for the future planning and management of the complex water resource system in the north-west of England.

  4. Social, environmental and resource impact of wood gasification on isolated communities. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The adequacy of forest resources and the social and environmental consequences of wood gasification on 15 northern communities that are serviced by diesel electric generators was assessed. Projections are based on the operation of the B.C. Research wood gasifier, with a gasifier supporting a 250 KW generator expected to need 750,000 lb. dry wood/year at 20% average load. Assuming that forest resources are harvested on a sustained yield basis and that wastewood is used, forest resources appear adequate to supply a small wood gasification plant (4 million BTUs/hour) for at least 50 years in each community. The social consequences are expected to be largely positive and the potential environmental impact minimal. Each plant would require two full-time and two part-time employees. The listed recommendations include a careful choice of harvesting and gasifier sites and suggested further studies, particularly on the six communities north of latitude 57 degrees where forest volume information is inadequate. Guidelines are given for the protection of the environment.

  5. Cross-ecosystem impacts of stream pollution reduce resource and contaminant flux to riparian food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Johanna M.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Walters, David; Wanty, Richard B.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Wolf, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of aquatic contaminants are propagated across ecosystem boundaries by aquatic insects that export resources and contaminants to terrestrial food webs; however, the mechanisms driving these effects are poorly understood. We examined how emergence, contaminant concentration, and total contaminant flux by adult aquatic insects changed over a gradient of bioavailable metals in streams and how these changes affected riparian web-building spiders. Insect emergence decreased 97% over the metal gradient, whereas metal concentrations in adult insects changed relatively little. As a result, total metal exported by insects (flux) was lowest at the most contaminated streams, declining 96% among sites. Spiders were affected by the decrease in prey biomass, but not by metal exposure or metal flux to land in aquatic prey. Aquatic insects are increasingly thought to increase exposure of terrestrial consumers to aquatic contaminants, but stream metals reduce contaminant flux to riparian consumers by strongly impacting the resource linkage. Our results demonstrate the importance of understanding the contaminant-specific effects of aquatic pollutants on adult insect emergence and contaminant accumulation in adults to predict impacts on terrestrial food webs.

  6. Edible peanut worm ( Sipunculus nudus) in the Beibu Gulf: Resource, aquaculture, ecological impact and counterplan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junwei; Xie, Xiaoyong; Zhu, Changbo; Guo, Yongjian; Chen, Suwen

    2017-10-01

    Sipunculus nudus is an important economic species because of its high nutritional and medicinal values. The exploitation and utilization of S. nudus primarily occur in the coastal regions of the Beibu Gulf. However, wild resource of S. nudus is rapidly decreasing because of the overexploitation, which has led to considerable developments of artificial breeding techniques. The cultivation scale of S. nudus has increased in response to successful artificial breeding; however, methods for culturing S. nudus in tidal flats or ponds require further study. Most studies have focused on the breeding, nutrition, medical value and ecological impact of these worms. Studies on the distribution, sediment requirements, nutrition characteristics, breeding techniques and aquaculture ecology of this species are summarized in this paper to promote the development of the aquaculture industry for S. nudus. The high biomass of S. nudus in the Beibu Gulf is positively correlated with the sediment characteristics and water quality of the region. The production of peanut worm has improved to some extent through culturing; however, the nutrient value and ecological environment problems have been observed, which reflect the over exploitation of trace elements and the sediment. These problems will worsen unless they are resolved, and the release of organic materials, nitrogen and phosphorus during harvesting impacts the coastal environment. Moreover, genetic erosion is a potential risk for larvae in artificial breeding programs in tidal flats. Therefore, culturing and collecting methods should be improved and the wild resource conservation should be implemented to promote the sustainable development of the peanut worm.

  7. Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopal, Anand R; Kammen, Daniel M

    2009-01-01

    Many biofuel standards, including California's recently adopted low carbon fuel standard, consider just one feedstock from one supplying country for the production of sugarcane ethanol: fresh mill-pressed cane juice from a Brazilian factory. While cane juice is the dominant feedstock for ethanol in most Brazilian factories, a large number of producers in Indonesia, India, and the Caribbean, and a significant number in Brazil, manufacture most of their ethanol from molasses, a low value co-product of raw sugar. Several producers in these countries have the capacity to export ethanol to California, but the GREET (from: greenhouse gas, regulated emissions and energy use in transportation) model, which is the LCA (lifecycle assessment) model of choice for most biofuel regulators including California, does not currently include this production pathway. We develop a modification to GREET to account for this pathway. We use the upstream and process lifecycle results from the existing GREET model for Brazilian ethanol to derive lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for ethanol manufactured from any combination of molasses and fresh cane juice. We find that ethanol manufactured with only molasses as a feedstock with all other processes and inputs identical to those of the average Brazilian mill has a lifecycle GHG (greenhouse gas) rating of 15.1 gCO 2 - eq MJ -1 , which is significantly lower than the current California-GREET assigned rating of 26.6 gCO 2 - eq MJ -1 . Our model can be applied at any level of granulation from the individual factory to an industry-wide average. We examine some ways in which current sugarcane producers could inaccurately claim this molasses credit. We discuss methods for addressing this in regulation.

  8. Hydrological externalities and livelihoods impacts: Informed communities for better resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, V. Ratna

    2012-01-01

    SummaryHydrological knowledge or information has mostly remained in the domain of scientific community. The communities that interact with the hydrological aspects such as groundwater and surface water on a day to day basis are hardly aware of the information that could critically influence their livelihoods. From the perspective of the communities' information pertaining to groundwater aquifer characters, potential to provide the water resource, surface groundwater interactions in varying geo-hydrological conditions are important. The 'public good' nature of the resources and their linkages with ecological systems gives rise to externalities that could be pervasive. In a number of countries, especially the developing countries, groundwater is the single largest source of drinking as well as irrigation water. In the absence of scientific information with the communities, extraction of groundwater resources for productive purposes has become a risky venture leading to adverse impacts on livelihoods. The externalities associated with over exploitation of groundwater resources and the resulting widespread well failure is identified as one of the main reasons for pushing farmers into debt trap and one of the reasons for farmer suicides in India. The negative externalities are increasingly becoming severe in the context of climate variability. This paper attempts to highlight the importance of hydrological information to the user communities from a socioeconomic perspective using a newly developed framework 'REDUCE' based on theories of effective communication. It shows, based on the evidence, how farming communities are getting affected in the absence of the basic hydrological information across socioeconomic groups. It is argued, using relevant information that the negative externalities could be mitigated to a large extent with proper dissemination of information among the communities and capacitating them to measure and use the information on their own. In order to

  9. Assessing climate change impacts on the near-term stability of the wind energy resource over the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, S C; Barthelmie, R J

    2011-05-17

    The energy sector comprises approximately two-thirds of global total greenhouse gas emissions. For this and other reasons, renewable energy resources including wind power are being increasingly harnessed to provide electricity generation potential with negligible emissions of carbon dioxide. The wind energy resource is naturally a function of the climate system because the "fuel" is the incident wind speed and thus is determined by the atmospheric circulation. Some recent articles have reported historical declines in measured near-surface wind speeds, leading some to question the continued viability of the wind energy industry. Here we briefly articulate the challenges inherent in accurately quantifying and attributing historical tendencies and making robust projections of likely future wind resources. We then analyze simulations from the current generation of regional climate models and show, at least for the next 50 years, the wind resource in the regions of greatest wind energy penetration will not move beyond the historical envelope of variability. Thus this work suggests that the wind energy industry can, and will, continue to make a contribution to electricity provision in these regions for at least the next several decades.

  10. Evaluation of the climate change impact on wind resources in Taiwan Strait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tsang-Jung; Chen, Chun-Lung; Tu, Yi-Long; Yeh, Hung-Te; Wu, Yu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a new statistical downscaling framework to evaluate the climate change impact on wind resources in Taiwan Strait. • The statistical model relates Weibull distribution parameters to output of a GCM model and regression coefficients. • Validation of the simulated wind speed distribution presents an acceptable agreement with meteorological data. • Three chosen GCMs show the same tendency that the eastern half of Taiwan Strait stores higher wind resources. - Abstract: A new statistical downscaling framework is proposed to evaluate the climate change impact on wind resources in Taiwan Strait. In this framework, a two-parameter Weibull distribution function is used to estimate the wind energy density distribution in the strait. An empirically statistical downscaling model that relates the Weibull parameters to output of a General Circulation Model (GCM) and regression coefficients is adopted. The regression coefficients are calculated using wind speed results obtained from a past climate (1981–2000) simulation reconstructed by a Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. These WRF-reconstructed wind speed results are validated with data collected at a weather station on an islet inside the strait. The comparison shows that the probability distributions of the monthly wind speeds obtained from WRF-reconstructed and measured wind speed data are in acceptable agreement, with small discrepancies of 10.3% and 7.9% for the shape and scale parameters of the Weibull distribution, respectively. The statistical downscaling framework with output from three chosen GCMs (i.e., ECHAM5, CM2.1 and CGCM2.3.2) is applied to evaluate the wind energy density distribution in Taiwan Strait for three future climate periods of 2011–2040, 2041–2070, and 2071–2100. The results show that the wind energy density distributions in the future climate periods are higher in the eastern half of Taiwan Strait, but reduce slightly by 3% compared with that in the

  11. Potential environmental impacts of light-emitting diodes (LEDs): metallic resources, toxicity, and hazardous waste classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Kang, Daniel; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Schoenung, Julie M

    2011-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are advertised as environmentally friendly because they are energy efficient and mercury-free. This study aimed to determine if LEDs engender other forms of environmental and human health impacts, and to characterize variation across different LEDs based on color and intensity. The objectives are as follows: (i) to use standardized leachability tests to examine whether LEDs are to be categorized as hazardous waste under existing United States federal and California state regulations; and (ii) to use material life cycle impact and hazard assessment methods to evaluate resource depletion and toxicity potentials of LEDs based on their metallic constituents. According to federal standards, LEDs are not hazardous except for low-intensity red LEDs, which leached Pb at levels exceeding regulatory limits (186 mg/L; regulatory limit: 5). However, according to California regulations, excessive levels of copper (up to 3892 mg/kg; limit: 2500), Pb (up to 8103 mg/kg; limit: 1000), nickel (up to 4797 mg/kg; limit: 2000), or silver (up to 721 mg/kg; limit: 500) render all except low-intensity yellow LEDs hazardous. The environmental burden associated with resource depletion potentials derives primarily from gold and silver, whereas the burden from toxicity potentials is associated primarily with arsenic, copper, nickel, lead, iron, and silver. Establishing benchmark levels of these substances can help manufacturers implement design for environment through informed materials substitution, can motivate recyclers and waste management teams to recognize resource value and occupational hazards, and can inform policymakers who establish waste management policies for LEDs.

  12. Influence of three common calibration metrics on the diagnosis of climate change impacts on water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiller, G.; Roy, R.; Anctil, F.

    2017-04-01

    Uncertainties associated to the evaluation of the impacts of climate change on water resources are broad, from multiple sources, and lead to diagnoses sometimes difficult to interpret. Quantification of these uncertainties is a key element to yield confidence in the analyses and to provide water managers with valuable information. This work specifically evaluates the influence of hydrological modeling calibration metrics on future water resources projections, on thirty-seven watersheds in the Province of Québec, Canada. Twelve lumped hydrologic models, representing a wide range of operational options, are calibrated with three common objective functions derived from the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency. The hydrologic models are forced with climate simulations corresponding to two RCP, twenty-nine GCM from CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) and two post-treatment techniques, leading to future projections in the 2041-2070 period. Results show that the diagnosis of the impacts of climate change on water resources are quite affected by the hydrologic models selection and calibration metrics. Indeed, for the four selected hydrological indicators, dedicated to water management, parameters from the three objective functions can provide different interpretations in terms of absolute and relative changes, as well as projected changes direction and climatic ensemble consensus. The GR4J model and a multimodel approach offer the best modeling options, based on calibration performance and robustness. Overall, these results illustrate the need to provide water managers with detailed information on relative changes analysis, but also absolute change values, especially for hydrological indicators acting as security policy thresholds.

  13. The greenhouse effect; L'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    In the framework of the sustainable development, this paper presents the greenhouse effect and its impact on the climatic change, the world interest from Rio to Buenos Aires, the human activities producing the carbon dioxide and responsible of the greenhouse effect, the carbon dioxide emission decrease possibilities and shows the necessity of the electric power producers contribution. (A.L.B.)

  14. The greenhouse effect gases; Les gaz a effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the greenhouse effect gases. It presents the greenhouses effect as a key component of the climate system, the impacts of the human activity, the foreseeable consequences of global warming, the Kyoto protocol and Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  15. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator for Grain and Biofuel Farming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiney, Claire P.; Bohm, Sven; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for farmers to participate in greenhouse gas (GHG) credit markets require that growers, students, extension educators, offset aggregators, and other stakeholders understand the impact of agricultural practices on GHG emissions. The Farming Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator, a web-based tool linked to the SOCRATES soil…

  16. Transpiration of greenhouse crops : an aid to climate management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanghellini, C.

    1987-01-01

    In this book some physical aspects of greenhouse climate are analyzed to show the direct interrelation between microclimate and crop transpiration. The energy balance of a greenhouse crop is shown to provide a sound physical framework to quantify the impact of microclimate on transpiration

  17. Economic approaches to greenhouse warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordhaus, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    Global environmental problems raise a host of major policy questions. They are all scientifically complex and controversial, and no scientific consensus is likely to emerge until irreversible decisions have been made. The costs and benefits of these changes transcend national boundaries, and nations, which cannot appropriate the global costs and benefits of such changes, are unlikely to be able or willing to make efficient decisions on how to combat these global externalities. In addition, these concerns sometimes have impacts over hundreds of years and thereby strain political decision making, which often functions effectively only when the crisis is at hand. This chapter considers some of the economic issues involved in deciding how to react to the threat of global warming. The author first reviews the theory and evidence on the greenhouse effect. He then presents evidence on the impacts of greenhouse warming, the costs of stabilizing climate, and the kinds of adaptations that might be available. In the final section, he reviews the policy initiatives that nations might follow in the near term

  18. Dynamical response of Mediterranean precipitation to greenhouse gases and aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols and greenhouse gases affect cloud properties, radiative balance and, thus, the hydrological cycle. Observations show that precipitation has decreased in the Mediterranean since the beginning of the 20th century, and many studies have investigated possible mechanisms. So far, however, the effects of aerosol forcing on Mediterranean precipitation remain largely unknown. Here we compare the modeled dynamical response of Mediterranean precipitation to individual forcing agents in a set of global climate models (GCMs. Our analyses show that both greenhouse gases and aerosols can cause drying in the Mediterranean and that precipitation is more sensitive to black carbon (BC forcing than to well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHGs or sulfate aerosol. In addition to local heating, BC appears to reduce precipitation by causing an enhanced positive sea level pressure (SLP pattern similar to the North Atlantic Oscillation–Arctic Oscillation, characterized by higher SLP at midlatitudes and lower SLP at high latitudes. WMGHGs cause a similar SLP change, and both are associated with a northward diversion of the jet stream and storm tracks, reducing precipitation in the Mediterranean while increasing precipitation in northern Europe. Though the applied forcings were much larger, if forcings are scaled to those of the historical period of 1901–2010, roughly one-third (31±17 % of the precipitation decrease would be attributable to global BC forcing with the remainder largely attributable to WMGHGs, whereas global scattering sulfate aerosols would have negligible impacts. Aerosol–cloud interactions appear to have minimal impacts on Mediterranean precipitation in these models, at least in part because many simulations did not fully include such processes; these merit further study. The findings from this study suggest that future BC and WMGHG emissions may significantly affect regional water resources, agricultural practices, ecosystems and

  19. Beyond Vienna and Montreal: A global framework convention on greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, D.A.; Lashof, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter discusses the need for a framework treaty analogous to the Vienna Convention and to the Montreal Protocol for greenhouse gases. Discussed are the following topics: (1) the immediate need for multilateral greenhouse gas controls, including policy implications of scientific uncertainties; (2) recent steps toward a greenhouse gas convention; (3) an environmentally meaningful plan for a greenhouse gase conventions, including the ozone precident, CO 2 targets, resource transfers, trading emissions allocations, institutional issues

  20. Greenhouse effects on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Calculations that used Pioneer-Venus measurements of atmosphere composition, temperature profiles, and radiative heating predicted Venus' surface temperature ‘very precisely,’ says the Ames Research Center. The calculations predict not only Venus' surface temperature but agree with temperatures measured at various altitudes above the surface by the four Pioneer Venus atmosphere probe craft.Using Pioneer-Venus spacecraft data, a research team has virtually proved that the searing 482° C surface temperature of Venus is due to an atmospheric greenhouse effect. Until now the Venus greenhouse effect has been largely a theory.

  1. Harnessing greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, F.; Rivet, P.; Terrier, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    This book considers the energy and greenhouse effect questions in a global way. It presents the different methods of fight against the increase of the greenhouse effect (energy saving, carbon sinks, cogeneration,..), describes the main alternative energy sources to fossil fuels (biomass, wind power, solar, nuclear,..), and shows that, even worrying, the future is not so dark as it seems to be and that technical solutions exist which will allow to answer the worldwide growing up energy needs and to slow down the climatic drift. (J.S.)

  2. Modelling and evaluation of productivity and economic feasibility of a combined production of tomato and algae in Dutch greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slager, B.; Sapounas, A.; Henten, van E.J.; Hemming, S.

    2014-01-01

    Combination of production of algae and tomato increases efficient use of available resources of greenhouse enterprises, such as controlled environment, water and nutrients, carbon dioxide, greenhouse space and infrastructure and knowledge. No information is available, however, about the potential

  3. The Impact of Secondary School Students' Preconceptions on the Evolution of their Mental Models of the Greenhouse effect and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinfried, Sibylle; Tempelmann, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a video-based learning process study that investigates the kinds of mental models of the atmospheric greenhouse effect 13-year-old learners have and how these mental models change with a learning environment, which is optimised in regard to instructional psychology. The objective of this explorative study was to observe and analyse the learners' learning pathways according to their previous knowledge in detail and to understand the mental model formation processes associated with them more precisely. For the analysis of the learning pathways, drawings, texts, video and interview transcripts from 12 students were studied using qualitative methods. The learning pathways pursued by the learners significantly depend on their domain-specific previous knowledge. The learners' preconceptions could be typified based on specific characteristics, whereby three preconception types could be formed. The 'isolated pieces of knowledge' type of learners, who have very little or no previous knowledge about the greenhouse effect, build new mental models that are close to the target model. 'Reduced heat output' type of learners, who have previous knowledge that indicates compliances with central ideas of the normative model, reconstruct their knowledge by reorganising and interpreting their existing knowledge structures. 'Increasing heat input' type of learners, whose previous knowledge consists of subjective worldly knowledge, which has a greater personal explanatory value than the information from the learning environment, have more difficulties changing their mental models. They have to fundamentally reconstruct their mental models.

  4. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources in the Kunhar River Basin, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is one of the most highly water-stressed countries in the world and its water resources are greatly vulnerable to changing climatic conditions. The present study investigates the possible impacts of climate change on the water resources of the Kunhar River basin, Pakistan, under A2 and B2 scenarios of HadCM3, a global climate model. After successful development of the hydrological modeling system (HEC-HMS for the basin, streamflow was simulated for three future periods (2011–2040, 2041–2070, and 2071–2099 and compared with the baseline period (1961–1990 to explore the changes in different flow indicators such as mean flow, low flow, median flow, high flow, flow duration curves, temporal shift in peaks, and temporal shifts in center-of-volume dates. From the results obtained, an overall increase in mean annual flow was projected in the basin under both A2 and B2 scenarios. However, while summer and autumn showed a noticeable increase in streamflow, spring and winter showed decreased streamflow. High and median flows were predicted to increase, but low flow was projected to decrease in the future under both scenarios. Flow duration curves showed that the probability of occurrence of flow is likely to be more in the future. It was also noted that peaks were predicted to shift from June to July in the future, and the center-of-volume date—the date at which half of the annual flow passes—will be delayed by about 9–17 days in the basin, under both A2 and B2 scenarios. On the whole, the Kunhar basin will face more floods and droughts in the future due to the projected increase in high flow and decrease in low flow and greater temporal and magnitudinal variations in peak flows. These results highlight how important it is to take cognizance of the impact of climate change on water resources in the basin and to formulate suitable policies for the proper utilization and management of these resources.

  5. Regional integrated modelling of climate change impacts on natural resources and resource usage in semi-arid Norhteast Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, Martinus S.; Bronstert, Axel

    2007-01-01

    Semi-arid regions are characterised by a high vulnerability of natural resources to climate change, pronounced climatic variability and often by water scarcity and related social stress. The analysis of the dynamics of natural conditions and the assessment of possible strategies to cope with

  6. The impact of climate change on agriculture and related resources in the Great Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterling, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on water resources and agriculture in the four Great Plains states Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas (MINK), using the anomalously hot and dry weather of the 1930s as a model for climate in the year 2030 and a mechanistic crop simulation model known as the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC), are described. EPIC was modified for climate impact analysis by compiling data sets providing detailed descriptions of farms representative of the MINK region, representing the effect of increased carbon dioxide on crop water use and photosynthetic efficiency, and incorporating daily temperature and precipitation data, monthly solar radiation and humidity levels. Technologies assumed to become available include advances in breeding and biotechnology to increase harvest index, boosting of photosynthetic efficiency, and advances in pest management. If no technological adjustment was incorporated, corn yielded 20% less than baseline, soybeans 15% less and sorghum 8% less. Wheat and alfalfa yielded slightly higher. Incorporation of technological advances greatly reduced negative effects of climate change, with yields raised above baseline for every crop but corn

  7. Impact of the resource conservation and recovery act on energy facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevepaugh, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 is a multifaceted approach to the management of both solid and hazardous waste. The focus of this research is on the RCRA mandated proposed regulations for the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities. This research is an analysis of the interactions among hazardous waste disposal facilities, energy supply technologies and land use issues. This study addresses the impact of RCRA hazardous waste regulations in a descriptive and exploratory manner. A literature and legislative review, interviews and letters of inquiry were synthesized to identify the relationship between RCRA hazardous waste regulations and the siting of selected energy supply technologies. The results of this synthesis were used to determine if and how RCRA influences national land use issues. It was found that the interaction between RCRA and the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities required by energy supply technologies will impact national land use issues. All energy supply technologies reviewed generate hazardous waste. The siting of industrial functions such as energy supply facilities and hazardous waste disposal facilities will influence future development patterns. The micro-level impacts from the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities will produce a ripple effect on land use with successive buffer zones developing around the facilities due to the interactive growth of the land use sectors

  8. Climate Change Impacts for the Conterminous USA. An Integrated Assessment. Part 4. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, A.M.; Rosenberg, N.J.; Izaurralde, R.C.; Brown, R.A.; Srinivasan, R.

    2005-01-01

    Global climate change will impact the hydrologic cycle by increasing the capacity of the atmosphere to hold moisture. Anticipated impacts are generally increased evaporation at low latitudes and increased precipitation at middle and high latitudes. General Circulation Models (GCMs) used to simulate climate disagree on whether the U.S. as a whole and its constituent regions will receive more or less precipitation as global warming occurs. The impacts on specific regions will depend on changes in weather patterns and are certain to be complex. Here we apply the suite of 12 potential climate change scenarios, previously described in Part 1, to the Hydrologic Unit Model of the United States (HUMUS) to simulate water supply in the conterminous United States in reference to a baseline scenario. We examine the sufficiency of this water supply to meet changing demands of irrigated agriculture. The changes in water supply driven by changes in climate will likely be most consequential in the semi-arid western parts of the country where water yield is currently scarce and the resource is intensively managed. Changes of greater than ±50% with respect to present day water yield are projected in parts of the Midwest and Southwest U.S. Interannual variability in the water supply is likely to increase where conditions become drier and to decrease under wetter conditions

  9. Selection of appropriate greenhouse gas mitigation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan, R. [Indira Ghandi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai (India)

    1999-10-01

    Greenhouse gas mitigation options help in reducing greenhouse gas emissions so as to avoid the adverse environmental impacts due to global warming/climate change. They have different characteristics when evaluated using different criteria. For example, some options may be very cost effective, while some may have an additional advantage of reducing local pollution. Hence, selection of these options, for consideration by a national government or by a funding agency, has to incorporate multiple criteria. In this paper, some important criteria relevant to the selection are discussed, and a multi-criteria methodology is suggested for making appropriate selection. The methodology, called the Analytic Hierarchy Process, is described using two illustrations. (author)

  10. The Impact of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources and Groundwater Quality in the Patcham Catchment, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R. J.; Smith, M.; Pope, D. J.; Gumm, L.

    2012-04-01

    The CLIMAWAT project is an EU-Regional Development Fund Interreg IV funded research programme to study the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources and groundwater quality from the Chalk aquifer of SE England. The use of partially treated wastewater for artificial recharge will also be extensively studied in both the field and laboratory. The Chalk is a major aquifer and regionally supplies 70% of potable water supplies. The long term sustainable use of this resource is of paramount importance and the outcomes of this project will better inform and enhance long term management strategies for this. Project partners include water companies, regulatory bodies and industry consultancies. The four main objectives of the CLIMAWAT project are: i) better improve the prediction of the impact of climate change on this groundwater resource; ii) better understand and quantify how recharge mechanisms will vary due to the uncertainty associated with climate change; iii) better understand the storage mechanisms and fate of contaminants (e.g. nitrates and pesticides) in this aquifer and iv) investigate the impact of using partially treated wastewater for artificial recharge. An extensive field monitoring and data collection programme is underway in the Patcham Catchment (SE of England). Simultaneous monitoring of climatic, unsaturated zone potentiometric, groundwater level and chemistry data will allow for a better understanding of how changes in recharge patterns will effect groundwater quality and quantity. Isoptopic analysis of sampled groundwaters has allowed for interpretations and a better understanding of the storage and movement of water through this aquifer. The laboratory experimental programme is also underway and the results from this will compliment the field based studies to further enhance the understanding of contaminant behaviour in the both unsaturated and saturated zones. Core experiments are being used to investigate how nutrient and other

  11. Smarter greenhouse climate control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhoff, E.M.; Houter, G.

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse operators strive to be as economic as possible with energy. However, investing in fancy energy-saving equipment is often not cost-effective for smaller operations and in climate zones with mild winters. It is possible, though, for many growers to save energy without buying special

  12. Bioregional Assessments: Determining the Impacts of Coal Resource Development on Water Resources in Australia through Groundwater, Surface Water and Ecological Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, L. J.; Post, D. A.; Crosbie, R.; Holland, K.

    2017-12-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States, in Australia extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed `coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus to date. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics including the potential requirement for hydraulic fracturing. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction on surface and groundwater resources may be of even greater concern. The Australian Federal Government commissioned a multi-disciplinary programme of bioregional assessments to improve understanding of the potential impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining activities on water resources and water-dependent assets across six bioregions Australia. A bioregional assessment is a transparent scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. The first step in the analysis is to establish the most likely scenario for coal development in each region and establish a causal pathway linking coal development to impacts to the social, economic and ecological functioning of water resources. This forms the basis for a sequence of probabilistic geological, hydrogeological, hydrological and ecological models to quantify the probability of potential impacts. This suite of models is developed independent of the proponents and regulators of coal resource developments and so can provide unbiased information to all stakeholders. To demonstrate transparency of the modelling, all inputs, outputs and executables will be available from http://www.bioregionalassessments.gov.au. The analysis delineated a zone of potential hydrological change for each region, outside of which impacts

  13. A Hydro-Economic Approach to Representing Water Resources Impacts in Integrated Assessment Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirshen, Paul H.; Strzepek, Kenneth, M.

    2004-01-14

    Grant Number DE-FG02-98ER62665 Office of Energy Research of the U.S. Department of Energy Abstract Many Integrated Assessment Models (IAM) divide the world into a small number of highly aggregated regions. Non-OECD countries are aggregated geographically into continental and multiple-continental regions or economically by development level. Current research suggests that these large scale aggregations cannot accurately represent potential water resources-related climate change impacts. In addition, IAMs do not explicitly model the flow regulation impacts of reservoir and ground water systems, the economics of water supply, or the demand for water in economic activities. Using the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT) model of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) as a case study, this research implemented a set of methodologies to provide accurate representation of water resource climate change impacts in Integrated Assessment Models. There were also detailed examinations of key issues related to aggregated modeling including: modeling water consumption versus water withdrawals; ground and surface water interactions; development of reservoir cost curves; modeling of surface areas of aggregated reservoirs for estimating evaporation losses; and evaluating the importance of spatial scale in river basin modeling. The major findings include: - Continental or national or even large scale river basin aggregation of water supplies and demands do not accurately capture the impacts of climate change in the water and agricultural sector in IAMs. - Fortunately, there now exist gridden approaches (0.5 X 0.5 degrees) to model streamflows in a global analysis. The gridded approach to hydrologic modeling allows flexibility in aligning basin boundaries with national boundaries. This combined with GIS tools, high speed computers, and the growing availability of socio-economic gridded data bases allows assignment of

  14. Spatialization of the impacts of the economic regulation of the greenhouse in the agricultural sector; Spatialisation des impacts de la regulation economique de l'effet de serre d'origine agricole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayet, P.A

    2004-02-15

    This report addresses the issue of the spatialization of the impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation policies in the agricultural sector. Generally speaking, the objective is to reach a compromise between large-scale macro-economic modelling approaches - which often overlook the spatial variability of emissions and abatement costs - and field-scale biophysical modelling approaches. The studies carried out in the course of this project rely for the most part on a supply-side oriented economic model of the EU agriculture based on micro-economic concepts, mathematical programming and optimization. The analysis of spatial implications of GHG mitigation polices relies on the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which allows for spatial integration of the results provided by the economic model. We first carry out a comprehensive assessment of the emission sources of methane and nitrous oxide for the EU agriculture at a regional scale (FADN regions, scale at which data that feed the economic model are available). The abatement supply from the agricultural sector is derived from this assessment by simulating the impact of a first-best instrument (namely an emission tax). We therefore estimate the marginal abatement cost curves for all sources and at the farm-type level. The heterogeneity of abatement costs is discussed both at the regional scale (spatially defined) and at the farm-type level (non spatially-defined). Our results show that the spatial heterogeneity of abatement costs is of crucial importance in the design of GHG mitigation policies. The greater is the heterogeneity of abatement costs, the larger is the efficiency loss associated with non incentive-based instruments. We estimate this efficiency loss in the case of uniform quotas. Down-scaling the economic and environmental results from the FADN-region scale to a finer scale requires the linking of the simulation results with geo-referenced databases and GIS tools. This has been carried out for a test

  15. Greenhouse cooling using a rainwater basin under the greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the technical and economical aspects of additional applications for a rainwater basin installed under a greenhouse. The installation for cooling the greenhouse can be placed under the greenhouse. Part of the installation consists of a short-term heat store

  16. Greenhouse effect in double-skin facade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratia, E.; Herde, A. de [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Architecture et Climat, Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium)

    2007-02-15

    In these last years, a great deal of interest has been devoted to double-skin facades due to the advantages claimed by this technology (in terms of energy saving in the cold season, high-tech image, protection from external noise and wind loads). One of the great characteristics of the double-skin facade is the greenhouse effect. We identify the factors that influence the greenhouse effect. The identified parameters are solar radiation level, orientation and shading devices use, opaque wall/window proportion of the interior facade, wind speed, colour of shading devices and of interior facade, depth of the cavity of the double-skin, glazing type in the interior facade and openings in the double-skin. We analyze the impact of these parameters on the mean air temperature evolution in the cavity. After that analyse, the article answers the question: is greenhouse effect favourable? The answer is moderate according to the double-skin orientation. (author)

  17. Impact of human resource practices on the organizational performance in nestle pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayyaba, A.; Fiaz, M.; Shoaib, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses the contribution effect of HRM (Human Resource Management) practices such as T and D (Training and Development), R and S (Recruitment and Selection), PA (Performance Appraisal System), CPD (Career Planning and Development), CMP (Compensation) and EP (Employee Participation) on the employee performance in Nestle Pakistan. It also elaborates the impact of employee performance on the OP (Organizational Performance). The results conclude the significantly positive relationship of the HRM Practices with the OP with a considerable influence on employee performance as a mediator.300 respondents are selected for the analysis from target population of all the professionals, working on 1st and 2nd level management through random sampling. We proposed that the conceptual results of the study are highly significant for the practitioners and researchers for future research. (author)

  18. Modeling the 2016-2017 Yemen Cholera Outbreak with the Impact of Limited Medical Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Daihai; Wang, Xueying; Gao, Daozhou; Wang, Jin

    2018-05-01

    We present a mathematical model to investigate the transmission dynamics of the 2016-2017 Yemen Cholera Outbreak. Our model describes the interaction between the human hosts and the pathogenic bacteria, under the impact of limited medical resources. We fit our model to Yemen epidemic data published by the World Health Organization, at both the country and regional levels. We find that the Yemen cholera outbreak is shaped by the interplay of environmental, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. Our results suggest that improvement of the public health system and strategic implementation of control measures with respect to time and location are key to future cholera prevention and intervention in Yemen. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Impacts of climate change on wind energy resources in France: a regionalization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najac, J.

    2008-11-01

    In this work, we study the impact of climate change on surface winds in France and draw conclusions concerning wind energy resources. Because of their coarse spatial resolution, climate models cannot properly reproduce the spatial variability of surface winds. Thus, 2 down-scaling methods are developed in order to regionalize an ensemble of climate scenarios: a statistical method based on weather typing and a statistic-dynamical method that resorts to high resolution mesoscale modelling. By 2050, significant but relatively small changes are depicted with, in particular, a decrease of the wind speed in the southern and an increase in the northern regions of France. The use of other down-scaling methods enables us to study several uncertainty sources: it appears that most of the uncertainty is due to the climate models. (author)

  20. Control Centre operations as the focus for building station teamwork - issues and resource impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, G.; Lane, L.; Davey, E.

    2006-01-01

    Effective teamwork among station work groups is essential for plant production and safety in all phases of plant operation. To achieve effective teamwork, all contributing work groups must have ongoing access to and share a common perspective on station work priorities, and recognize how their individual contributions fit with and support the contributions of other groups in support of the larger station goals. Achieving and maintaining this alignment in perspective across all workgroups can be a challenge in large organizations. This paper discusses the experience at Darlington in building and maintaining station teamwork among the station workgroups in support of day-to-day plant operations. The issues encountered and the resource impacts of specific teamwork supporting practices adopted are outlined. (author)

  1. Technology assessment of solar-energy systems. Materials resource and hazardous materials impacts of solar deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Y. M.; Tahami, J. E.

    1982-04-01

    The materials-resource and hazardous-materials impacts were determined by examining the type and quantity of materials used in the manufacture, construction, installation, operation and maintenance of solar systems. The materials requirements were compared with US materials supply and demand data to determine if potential problems exist in terms of future availability of domestic supply and increased dependence on foreign sources of supply. Hazardous materials were evaluated in terms of public and occupational health hazards and explosive and fire hazards. It is concluded that: although large amounts of materials would be required, the US had sufficient industrial capacity to produce those materials; (2) postulated growth in solar technology deployment during the period 1995-2000 could cause some production shortfalls in the steel and copper industry; the U.S. could increase its import reliance for certain materials such as silver, iron ore, and copper; however, shifts to other materials such as aluminum and polyvinylchloride could alleviate some of these problems.

  2. Impact of Human Resource Practices on the Organizational Performance in Nestle Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Tayyaba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the contribution effect of HRM (Human Resource Management practices such as T&D (Training and Development, R&S (Recruitment and Selection, PA (Performance Appraisal System, CPD (Career Planning and Development, CMP (Compensation and EP (Employee Participation on the employee performance in Nestle Pakistan. It also elaborates the impact of employee performance on the OP (Organizational Performance. The results conclude the significantly positive relationship of the HRM Practices with the OP with a considerable influence on employee performance as a mediator.300 respondents are selected for the analysis from target population of all the professionals, working on 1st and 2nd level management through random sampling. We proposed that the conceptual results of the study are highly significant for the practitioners and researchers for future research

  3. Energy and economic analysis of greenhouse strawberry production in Tehran province of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banaeian, Narges; Omid, Mahmoud; Ahmadi, Hojat

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine energy use pattern, to investigate the energy use efficiency, and to make an economical analysis in greenhouse strawberry production in Iran. Data used in this study were obtained from 25 greenhouse strawberry growers using a face to face questionnaire method. The results indicate that greenhouse strawberry production consumed a total energy of 121891.33 MJ ha -1 . About 78% of this was generated by diesel fuel, 10% from chemical fertilizers, and 4.5% from electricity. Energy ratio, specific energy, net energy and energy intensiveness of greenhouse strawberry production were 0.15, 12.55 MJ kg -1 , -683488.37 MJ ha -1 and 8.18 MJ $ -1 , respectively. Determination of the efficient allocation of energy resources were modeled by Cobb-Douglas production function. Econometric model evaluation showed the impact of human labor, fertilizers, installation of equipment and transportation costs for strawberry production were all significant at 1% level. The elasticity estimates indicated that among the cost inputs, transportation is the most important input (-0.75) that influences total cost of production, followed by labor (0.31), fertilizers (0.18) and installation of equipments (0.22). The benefit-cost ratio and net return were obtained as 1.74 and 151907.91 $ ha -1 , respectively.

  4. Transformative Reduction of Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Opportunities for Change in Technologies and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brown, Austin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schroeder, Alex [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chipman, Peter [U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (United States); Johnson, Shawn [U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The transportation sector is changing, influenced by concurrent, ongoing, dynamic trends that could dramatically affect the future energy landscape, including effects on the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Battery cost reductions and improved performance coupled with a growing number of electric vehicle model offerings are enabling greater battery electric vehicle market penetration, and advances in fuel cell technology and decreases in hydrogen production costs are leading to initial fuel cell vehicle offerings. Radically more efficient vehicles based on both conventional and new drivetrain technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle-mile. Net impacts also depend on the energy sources used for propulsion, and these are changing with increased use of renewable energy and unconventional fossil fuel resources. Connected and automated vehicles are emerging for personal and freight transportation systems and could increase use of low- or non-emitting technologies and systems; however, the net effects of automation on greenhouse gas emissions are uncertain. The longstanding trend of an annual increase in transportation demand has reversed for personal vehicle miles traveled in recent years, demonstrating the possibility of lower-travel future scenarios. Finally, advanced biofuel pathways have continued to develop, highlighting low-carbon and in some cases carbon-negative fuel pathways. We discuss the potential for transformative reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions through these emerging transportation-sector technologies and trends and present a Clean Transportation Sector Initiative scenario for such reductions, which are summarized in Table ES-1.

  5. Modeling climate change impact in hospitality sector, using building resources consumption signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Armando; Bernardino, Mariana; Silva Santos, António; Pimpão Silva, Álvaro; Espírito Santo, Fátima

    2016-04-01

    Hotels are one of building types that consumes more energy and water per person and are vulnerable to climate change because in the occurrence of extreme events (heat waves, water stress) same failures could compromise the hotel services (comfort) and increase energy cost or compromise the landscape and amenities due to water use restrictions. Climate impact assessments and the development of adaptation strategies require the knowledge about critical climatic variables and also the behaviour of building. To study the risk and vulnerability of buildings and hotels to climate change regarding resources consumption (energy and water), previous studies used building energy modelling simulation (BEMS) tools to study the variation in energy and water consumption. In general, the climate change impact in building is evaluated studying the energy and water demand of the building for future climate scenarios. But, hotels are complex buildings, quite different from each other and assumption done in simplified BEMS aren't calibrated and usually neglect some important hotel features leading to projected estimates that do not usually match hotel sector understanding and practice. Taking account all uncertainties, the use of building signature (statistical method) could be helpful to assess, in a more clear way, the impact of Climate Change in t