Sample records for resource economics essais

  1. Economics of exhaustible resources

    Rabhan, S.A.


    This dissertation deals with various issues of resource depletion, beginning with a rather comprehensive review of the literature. The resource scarcity is the first issue dealt with, where differentiation is made between Ricardian and Pure scarcities of exhaustible resources. While the Ricardian scarcity is properly acknowledged and modeled in the resource literature, the fact that the resource stocks are always decreasing with extraction (i.e., the pure scarcity) is overlooked. One important conclusion of the scarcity analysis is that the steady-state point defining the equilibrium values for the nonresource output to capital and the resource flow to resource stock ratios, is found to be a moving one, as a result of the increasing scarcity mechanism. Another observation about the literature is that there is a marked bias in favor of long run, developed economies' problems and resource inputs as opposed to the problems of developing economies and resource exports. Thus, a theoretical framework is developed where not only resource inputs and exports are analyzed but resource exports are advanced as a vehicle for development. Within the context of this theoretical framework, it is concluded that optimality dictates that the resource inputs and exports, expressed per unit of the capital stock, be declining over time. Furthermore, the resource exports are proposed as the domestic substitute for foreign aid.

  2. Human resources, physical resources and economic development: A foundation of human resource economics

    Furuoka, Fumitaka


    Despite numerous studies on production inputs, such labour and capital, there is still a lack of systematic analysis on the crucial interaction between the human resources (HR) and physical resources (PR) in the process of economic development. Thus, the current paper aims to describe how these production resources would jointly determine the dynamics process of economic development. This holistic role of the HR in the economic development can be a foundation for the human resource economics.

  3. Economic Values and Resource Use

    Jan Mikael Malmaeus


    Full Text Available Absolute decoupling of GDP growth from resource use implies that economic output can be increased without simultaneously increasing input. The essential meaning of this proposition is that the economic values that represent the GDP can be realized by increasing resource efficiency. Given that the GDP is first and foremost a measure of economic activity rather than welfare the possibility of absolute decoupling is theoretically limited. This paper demonstrates theoretically and empirically that economic values at the macroeconomic level are fundamentally determined by the use of production factors, primarily labor and physical capital. Technical innovations or efficiency gains increasing utility without raising the costs of production do not add to the GDP unless they stimulate investments in physical capital. Hence the neoclassical notion of productivity is only found to be relevant as a microeconomic concept. In practice, GDP growth is mostly explained by capital accumulation and a key question is whether or not capital accumulation can be decoupled from the use of materials and energy. This will determine the possibility of decoupling of GDP growth from resource use and environmental impact. Alternative measures of progress focusing on welfare rather than economic activity are more likely to achieve absolute decoupling.

  4. Personnel economics: An economic approach to human resource management

    Backes-Gellner, Uschi


    The theoretical idea of personnel economics is to apply simple economic principles to the field of human resources management. Personnel economics as a research field has grown rapidly since the first text book on 'Personnel Economics' was published in 1998. The development is driven by new theoretical insights based on institutional and behavioural economics and new empirical methods and data sets. Those new theoretical insights are very fruitful to analyze reasons and consequences of variou...

  5. Wives' Economic Resources and Risk of Divorce

    Teachman, Jay


    Using longitudinal data covering 25 years from 1979 to 2004, the author examines the relationship between wives' economic resources and the risk of marital dissolution. The author considers the effects of labor force participation, income, and relative income while accounting for potential endogeneity of wives' economic resources. The extent to…

  6. The Economics of Open Educational Resources

    Casserly, Catherine M.


    This article examines from an economic perspective the ways in which Open Educational Resources (OER) can be linked to economic growth, equality of access to knowledge, and the improvement of teaching and learning. In leading economies, technology and knowledge are the critical factors of economic growth, which is a significant shift from the…

  7. Renewable Resources, Capital Accumulation, and Economic Growth

    Wei-Bin Zhang


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with physical capital and renewable resources. Different from most of the neoclassical growth models with renewable resources which are based on microeconomic foundation and neglect physical capital accumulation, this study proposes a growth model with dynamics of renewable resources and physical capital accumulation. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory and the traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alternative approach to household behavior. The model describes a dynamic interdependence among physical accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. Because of its refined economic structure, our study enables some interactions among economic variables which are not found in the existing literature on economic growth with renewable resources. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. Our comparative dynamic analysis shows, for instance, that a rise in the propensity to consume the renewable resource increases the interest rate and reduces the national and production sector’s capital stocks, wage rate and level of the consumption good. Moreover, it initially reduces and then increases the capital stocks of the resource sector and the consumption and price of the renewable resource. The stock of the renewable resource is initially increased and then reduced. Finally, labor is redistributed from the production to the resource sector.

  8. Concentration of Resources and Economic Growth

    David Castells-Quintana


    Full Text Available In this letter I summarise the main results and contributions from my Ph.D. thesis on concentration of resources and economic development. The empirical analysis performed in the thesis, and summarised here, focuses on two mayor world trends in modern economic development, namely increasing agglomeration and rising inequalities within countries. In particular, the impact of both trends on long-run economic growth is studied, and results are discussed in light of relevant policy debate.

  9. Economics and Human Resource Development: A Rejoinder

    Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.


    This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…

  10. Economics and Human Resource Development: A Rejoinder

    Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.


    This article focuses on the areas agreement between two recent and seemingly disparate Human Resource Development Review articles by Wang and Swanson (2008) and McLean, Lynham, Azevedo, Lawrence, and Nafukho (2008). The foundational roles of economics in human resource development theory and practice are highlighted as well as the need for…

  11. Water Resources Research supports water economics submissions

    Griffin, Ronald C.


    AGU's international interdisciplinary journal Water Resources Research (WRR) publishes original contributions in hydrology; the physical, chemical, and biological sciences; and the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. With the rising relevance of water economics and related social sciences, the editors of WRR continue to encourage submissions on economics and policy. WRR was originally founded in the mid 1960s by Walter Langbein and economist Allen Kneese. Several former WRR editors have been economists—including David Brookshire, Ron Cummings, and Chuck Howe—and many landmark articles in water economics have been published in WRR.

  12. Optimal control of renewable economic resources

    Adelani, L.A.


    Two main problems are studied: economic optimization, and determination of the optimal age of harvest for an initially immature population which follows a Bertalanffy-type growth law. Conditions are derived on the economic parameters that make maximization of economic rent biologically superior to maximization of sustainable yield. A general equation is derived for the optimal equilibrium biomass size when maximization of present value is the control objective. Also, it is shown that under perfectly elastic demand for the resource, a critical price level exists beyond which economic optimization has to be sacrificed in order to enhance conservation of the resource. An equation is derived whose solution represents the optimal age of harvest for an initially immature population stock. In certain circumstances, analytic forms are obtained for the optimal age of harvest. Some properties of the optimal age of harvest are also investigated.

  13. Economics of natural gas resources and supply

    O' Neill, R.P.; Shambaugh, P.; Wood, J.


    The relative availability and cost of finding and producing natural gas fields of varying size, located in regions of the US at various depth intervals, are examined under different economic assumptions. First, historical trends related to the discovery and availability of natural gas are identified and discussed. These include trends in drilling activity, reserves production, and field-size distributions. Exploration, drilling, and production costs are presented and analyzed. This information is integrated, along with other data, as part of an economic evaluation of the natural gas discovery and production process in the US. Finally, possible future discoveries of natural gas are projected based on varying assumptions related to the underlying distribution of natural gas resources.

  14. Essays in political economy and resource economic : A macroeconomic approach

    Rodriguez Acosta, Mauricio


    This dissertation consists of four chapters in Political Economy and Resource Economics from a macroeconomic perspective. This collection of works emphasizes the endogenous nature of institutions and their importance for economic development. The four chapters revolve around two central questions:

  15. Managing Economic Transition. Dimensions of Human Resource Development in Hungary.

    Benedek, Andras; Klekner, Peter


    Outlines the state of economic transition in Hungary, the status of human resource development, economic and legal reforms, and the social partnership (education, business, government) in vocational training. (SK)

  16. The research of economic development law in resourceful city

    LU Shi-chang


    The resource advantage of resourceful region has made the region devel op very fast. However because the resource is of exhausting character, this mean s that the region has hidden troubles of economic depression. The paper analyzes the formation of resourceful region and the law of resourceful regions econom i c development, and then the paper brings forward that the resourceful region has a potential danger of economic depression. Considering Chinas economic develo p ment practice, the paper puts forward a basic way of thinking. That is: we must attach importance to the problem of industrial structure when we pay attention t o existing resource advantage in order to avoid the simplification of regional i ndustrial structure and to avoid entering a vicious cycle.

  17. The research of economic development law in resourceful city



    The resource advantage of resourceful region has made the region develop very fast. However because the resource is of exhausting character, this means that the region has hidden troubles of economic depression. The paper analyzes the formation of resourceful region and the law of resourceful region's economic development, and then the paper brings forward that the resourceful region has a potential danger of economic depression. Considering China's economic development practice, the paper puts forward a basic way of thinking. That is: we must attach importance to the problem of industrial structure when we pay attention to existing resource advantage in order to avoid the simplification of regional industrial structure and to avoid entering a vicious cycle.

  18. Changing Roles of Parental Economic Resources in Children's Educational Attainment

    Nam, Yunju; Huang, Jin


    The authors investigated whether the relationship between parents' economic resources and children's educational attainment had changed over time by comparing two cohorts from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Using probit regressions and Chow tests, they examined multiple measures of economic resources, including income, net worth, liquid…

  19. The economic value of coffee (Coffea arabica) genetic resources

    Hein, L.G.; Gatzweiler, F.


    Whereas the economic value of genetic diversity is widely recognized there are, to date, relatively few experiences with the actual valuation of genetic resources. This paper presents an analysis of the economic value of Coffea arabica genetic resources contained in Ethiopian highland forests. The v

  20. Control of Resources for Economic Development in Food Networks

    Brink, Tove


    of preferences on the control of resources, the significant benefit of oral instructions and the significant negative impact from supervising product quality on economic development in the context of the food networking SMEs. Previous level of knowledge has no significant influence on their economic development...... to control resources for innovation to add value and economic development. This paper reveals how crossing dynamic composite underlying boundaries can have an impact on control of resources for economic development in food networking SMEs .The analyses in this paper shows the broad and significant impact...

  1. Resource Sharing in Higher Education: Home Economics Administrators' Report.

    Ley, Connie; Webb-Lupo, Anita


    A total of 117 members of the National Council of Administrators of Home Economics completed the Resource Sharing Inventory. Forty-five percent provide some examples of how their department shared resources with other departments. Administrator attitude was the factor identified as most likely to encourage resource sharing. (CH)

  2. Note on the economics of exhaustible resources

    Aivazian, V.A.; Callen, J.L.


    The nature of a firm's structure and its production policies are shown to be a factor in whether the company achieves an optimal resource extraction rate. A Cournot oligopoly model is used to illustrate the divergence between the oligopolist and the monopolist response to competition in resource extraction. A decreasing sensitivity to resource exhaustion is evident with a corresponding increase in competition. Social welfare, from the point of view of resource conservation, will be enhanced by the monopolistic structure. 6 references.

  3. Mineral resources and constraints on China’s economic growth

    李钢; 陈志; 崔云


    This article conducts an empirical study of how access to mineral resources can constrain China’s economic growth.The authors reckon that due to the relatively low price elasticity of supply and demand in relation to mineral resources over the short run,access to mineral resources places pronounced constraints on economic growth in the short run,but only marginal constraints on economic growth in the long run.This split is the result of alternate resource substitution and technological progress.In this article,the authors have calculated the actual effects of access to mineral resources on China’s economic growth using 2001-2006 mineral resource import and export data.The results of these calculations show that,in the short run,access to mineral resources is increasingly placing constraints on China’s economic growth.The value of these constraints rose from 4.96% of GDP in 2006 to 5.74% of GDP in 2007 (estimated).Contrastingly,in the long run,the constraints that access to mineral resources place on China’s economic growth are quite limited at approximately 0.23% of GDP.

  4. Nigerian Wood Waste: A Potential Resource for Economic ...

    Nigerian Wood Waste: A Potential Resource for Economic Development. ... industries and increased demand for wood and its products in the country. ... public health and the environment in Nigeria due to its indiscriminate disposal practices.


    T. Oleshko


    Full Text Available The essence of the economic mechanism of resource savings and the reasons of the relationships between them are defined in this article. Also the place and the role of each of the blocks are analyzed.

  6. An assessement of global energy resource economic potentials

    Mercure, J F


    This paper presents an assessment of global economic energy potentials for all major natural energy resources. This work is based on both an extensive literature review and calculations using natural resource assessment data. Economic potentials are presented in the form of cost-supply curves, in terms of energy flows for renewable energy sources, or fixed amounts for fossil and nuclear resources, with strong emphasis on uncertainty, using a consistent methodology that allow direct comparisons to be made. In order to interpolate through available resource assessment data and associated uncertainty, a theoretical framework and a computational methodology are given based on statistical properties of different types of resources, justified empirically by the data, and used throughout. This work aims to provide a global database for natural energy resources ready to integrate into models of energy systems, enabling to introduce at the same time uncertainty over natural resource assessments. The supplementary mate...

  7. The Economic Resource Receipt of New Mothers

    Nichols, Laura; Elman, Cheryl; Feltey, Kathryn M.


    U.S. federal policies do not provide a universal social safety net of economic support for women during pregnancy or the immediate postpartum period but assume that employment and/or marriage will protect families from poverty. Yet even mothers with considerable human and marital capital may experience disruptions in employment, earnings, and…

  8. Essays in political economy and resource economic : A macroeconomic approach

    Rodriguez Acosta, Mauricio


    This dissertation consists of four chapters in Political Economy and Resource Economics from a macroeconomic perspective. This collection of works emphasizes the endogenous nature of institutions and their importance for economic development. The four chapters revolve around two central questions: 1

  9. Economics research supporting water resource stewardship in the Pacific Northwest.

    Laurie L. Houston; Jeffrey D. Kline; Ralph J. Alig


    The use of water increasingly involves complex tradeoffs among biophysical, economic, ecological, and societal values. Knowledge about the value of water to different users and methods with which to evaluate biophysical, economic, ecological, and social tradeoffs associated with allocating limited water resources among competing uses is vital to devising appropriate...

  10. Resources and energy: an economic analysis

    Banks, F.E.


    Two long core chapters on oil and on nonfuel minerals, along with an exposition of the econometrics of primary commodities, give the reader a basic insight into the economic techniques and their uses. There are also chapters on coal, gas, and uranium, which include an overview of the Soviet energy sector and the Australian coal industry. The book introduces oil refining, petrochemicals, futures markets, inventories, capital costs, tin, stock-flow models, and other topics not usually handled in most economics text and reference books. There is also a short survey of iron and steel. The book concludes with the note that attempts to check inflation by monetary means in the presence of the kind of consumer and corporate debt that exists today is begging for catastrophe. Monetarism, like champagne, is good for pleasure, but very bad for business. 210 references, 47 figures, 41 tables.

  11. Using STELLA Simulation Models to Teach Natural Resource Economics

    Dissanayake, Sahan T. M.


    In this article, the author discusses how graphical simulation models created using STELLA software can be used to present natural resource systems in an intuitive way in undergraduate natural resource economics classes based on his experiences at a leading research university, a state university, and a leading liberal arts college in the United…

  12. Using STELLA Simulation Models to Teach Natural Resource Economics

    Dissanayake, Sahan T. M.


    In this article, the author discusses how graphical simulation models created using STELLA software can be used to present natural resource systems in an intuitive way in undergraduate natural resource economics classes based on his experiences at a leading research university, a state university, and a leading liberal arts college in the United…

  13. Stochastic Optimal Economic Growth Model with Natural Resources

    ZHOU Shaobo; HU Shigeng; WANG Maofa


    The paper examines an economic growth problem how social planners reasonably open up and retain natural resources. The objective is to maximize the total expected discounted utility of comsumption. Social planners ' optimal decision and optimal expected rates at the steady state are derived. At last, how productivity and productivity shock affect on the expected growth rate, consumption-resources ratio and the fraction of exploited resources, are analyzed.

  14. Oil Prices, Exhaustible Resources, and Economic Growth

    Hamilton, J. D.


    This talk explores details behind the phenomenal increase in global crude oil production over the last century and a half and the implications if that trend should be reversed. I document that a key feature of the growth in production has been exploitation of new geographic areas rather than application of better technology to existing sources, and suggest that the end of that era could come soon. The economic dislocations that historically followed temporary oil supply disruptions are reviewed, and the possible implications of that experience for what the transition era could look like are explored.nnual crude oil production (in thousands of barrels per year) from the states of Pennsylvania and New York combined, 1860-2010. ashed line: actual value for real GDP, 2007-2009. Red line: dynamic conditional forecast as of 2007:Q3 (1- to 5-quarters ahead) based on oil prices using equation (3.8) in Hamilton (2003)


    A. Zalievska-Shyshak


    Full Text Available The nature and value of natural resources payments under sustainable economic development are revealed. Mechanisms of using of natural resources potential of Ukraine are examined. Payments for use of natural resources is one of the most important components of an economic mechanism of nature management are established. Features of current legislation as to the setting fees for nature management are studied and the necessity of creating an effective institutional support in controlling of tax authorities for the collection of payments for natural resources and their evaluation is proved.

  16. Understanding the Drivers of Economic Growth: Grounding Endogenous Economic Growth Models in Resource-Advantage Theory

    Shelby D. Hunt


    Full Text Available Foss (2012 provides an informed and informative comment on my article “Trust, Personal Moral Codes, and the Resource-Advantage Theory of Competition: Explaining Productivity, Economic Growth, and Wealth Creation” (Hunt, 2012. In general, his comment is highly supportive of both the theory and the arguments developed in my article. He does, however, raise certain issues that need to be addressed. These issues relate to the concept of total factor productivity, the role of institutions in promoting economic growth, and the importance of understanding how transaction costs impact entrepreneurship and economic growth. This reply focuses on his discussion of growth economics and endogenous economic growth models.

  17. Resource integration of regional economic development in northwest China


    Northwestern area is the most arid and underdeveloped area in China. Lots of researches have been done to find the approaches to alleviate poverty. But there are some problems, for example, how to invest, how to use capital,and why the utilization rate is ambiguous. Water, capital and human resources are analyzed in this paper to be compared with their Utilization rates. As a result, according to the dependences of economic growth on those resources, a new approach has been selected to organize the integration ways among these resources for economic development in northwestern China. The efficient ways to develop northwestern China are: firstly, use the wanting resources most effectively to make an efficient integration model of multiple resources. For example, enhance the utilization rate of water to raise the value of other resources. Secondly, invest more in basic factors for economic development to upgrade the competitiveness in the western China. For example, invest more in primary education and sustainable development of basic natural resources in order to have more power for sustainable development.

  18. Land Resources for Crop Production. Agricultural Economic Report Number 572.

    Hexem, Roger; Krupa, Kenneth S.

    About 35 million acres not being cultivated have high potential for crop use and 117 million more have medium potential, according to the 1982 National Resources Inventory (NRI) conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. USDA committees evaluated the economic potential for converting land based on physical characteristics of the soil; size…

  19. Methodological Approaches To Economic Evaluation Of Forest Resources

    Igor Lytsur


    The article formed the complex process of economic assessment of forest resources and given it's definition. A new approach to determining costs for locking the main types of forest. Allocated forestry (in Keywords: forest) and forest harvesting (in forest exploitation) rents.

  20. Economic Behavior in the Face of Resource Variability and Uncertainty

    Iain J. Gordon


    Full Text Available Policy design is largely informed by the traditional economic viewpoint that humans behave rationally in the pursuit of their own economic welfare, with little consideration of other regarding behavior or reciprocal altruism. New paradigms of economic behavior theory are emerging that build an empirical basis for understanding how humans respond to specific contexts. Our interest is in the role of human relationships in managing natural resources (forage and livestock in semiarid systems, where spatial and temporal variability and uncertainty in resource availability are fundamental system drivers. In this paper we present the results of an economic experiment designed to explore how reciprocity interacts with variability and uncertainty. This behavior underpins the Australian tradable grazing rights, or agistment, market, which facilitates livestock mobility as a human response to a situation where rainfall is so variable in time and space that it is difficult to maintain an economically viable livestock herd on a single management unit. Contrary to expectations, we found that variability and uncertainty significantly increased transfers and gains from trade within our experiment. When participants faced variability and uncertainty, trust and reciprocity took time to build. When variability and uncertainty were part of the experiment trust was evident from the onset. Given resource variability and uncertainty are key drivers in semiarid systems, new paradigms for understanding how variability shapes behavior have special importance.

  1. Strategic Factor Markets Scale Free Resources and Economic Performance

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian


    This paper analyzes how scale free resources, which can be acquired by multiple firms simultaneously and deployed against one another in product market competition, will be priced in strategic factor markets, and what the consequences are for the acquiring firms' performance. Based on a game......-theoretic model, it shows how the impact of strategic factor markets on economic profits is influenced by product market rivalry, preexisting competitive (dis)advantages, and the interaction of acquired resources with those preexisting asymmetries. New insights include the result that resource suppliers will aim...... at (and largely succeed in) setting resource prices so that the acquiring firms earn negative strategic factor market profits—sacrificing some of their preexisting market power rents—by acquiring resources that they know to be overpriced....

  2. Resource constraint, sustainable economic growth pattern and transformation of economic system in China

    Wang Yafei; Huang Xiaojun


    Over the past 20 years, China has made spectacular achievements in economic growth as well as in the transformation of economic growth pattern. Industrial structure is being updated, and technology is playing a more and more important role in economic development. The energy and resource consumption in many industries and enterprises are reducing. However, we should realize that there are still many problems in changing the economic growth pattern,such as high input, high consumption, high discharge, inharmony, recycling difficulty, and low efficiency, which have greatly impaired and restrict Chinese economic development. Therefore, the fundamental change of the economic growth pattern is inevitable. Based on the analysis on the status quo and the exploit of resources, this paper suggests that the transformation from unsustainable to sustainable growth is the only choice in changing the economic growth pattern. In addition, the transformation should not completely rely on the fundamental effects of market mechanism. We should make full use of the power of governments to speed up the transformation of economic system.

  3. The economics of resource recovery from municipal solid waste.

    Abert, J G; Alter, H; Bernheisel, J F


    A prototypical operating statement similar to that used by business firms has been shown to be a useful decision-making tool for a community choosing a solid waste management system. When applied to resource recovery, it highlights the economics of recovery and the values of the input parameters necessary to achieve economic viability, whether in the case of public or private ownership (23). In most communities, refuse processing to recover material resources must be based on more than one source of revenue. In addition to the revenues from the sale of by-products, there must be revenues from processing the incoming refuse and from a user, or dump, fee. In the first case discussed, that of materials recovery by a front end system, resource recovery is shown to be economically feasible for those communities in which the present cost of disposal is relatively high. The indifferent community was one having a current cost of $7.72 per ton; more accurately, this would be the cost for the near-term future. It is not necessary that current costs be used, since many communities are merely "dumping" their refuse. The indifference decision should be based on the cost of an environmentally sound alternative. Energy recovery from municipal solid waste can increase the number of communities in which resource recovery will be an economic adjunct to a solid waste management system. The analysis presented here was based on the assumption that the value of the fuel recovered exactly offset the additional capital and operating costs of the utility which burns it. There could be costs above and beyond this; similarly, there could be a saving by taking into account the economic value of the organic fraction as fuel. However, it is believed that the assumption under which the materials-plus-energy case was analyzed seems to be realistic at this time.

  4. Version 3.0 of EMINERS - Economic Mineral Resource Simulator

    Duval, Joseph S.


    Quantitative mineral resource assessment, as developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), consists of three parts: (1) development of grade and tonnage mineral deposit models; (2) delineation of tracts permissive for each deposit type; and (3) probabilistic estimation of the numbers of undiscovered deposits for each deposit type. The estimate of the number of undiscovered deposits at different levels of probability is the input to the EMINERS (Economic Mineral Resource Simulator) program. EMINERS uses a Monte Carlo statistical process to combine probabilistic estimates of undiscovered mineral deposits with models of mineral deposit grade and tonnage to estimate mineral resources. Version 3.0 of the EMINERS program is available as this USGS Open-File Report 2004-1344. Changes from version 2.0 include updating 87 grade and tonnage models, designing new templates to produce graphs showing cumulative distribution and summary tables, and disabling economic filters. The economic filters were disabled because embedded data for costs of labor and materials, mining techniques, and beneficiation methods are out of date. However, the cost algorithms used in the disabled economic filters are still in the program and available for reference for mining methods and milling techniques. The release notes included with this report give more details on changes in EMINERS over the years. EMINERS is written in C++ and depends upon the Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 programming environment. The code depends heavily on the use of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) for implementation of the Windows interface. The program works only on Microsoft Windows XP or newer personal computers. It does not work on Macintosh computers. For help in using the program in this report, see the "Quick-Start Guide for Version 3.0 of EMINERS-Economic Mineral Resource Simulator" (W.J. Bawiec and G.T. Spanski, 2012, USGS Open-File Report 2009-1057, linked at right). It demonstrates how to execute EMINERS software

  5. [Inventories of the Earth. Mineral resource appraisals and the rise of resource economics].

    Westermann, Andrea


    How do the earth sciences mediate between the natural and social world? This paper explores the question by focusing on the history of nonfuel mineral resource appraisal from the late nineteenth to the mid twentieth century. It argues that earth sciences early on embraced social scientific knowledge, i.e. economic knowledge, in particular, when it came to determining or deposits and estimating the magnitude of mineral reserves. After 1900, assessing national and global mineral reserves and their "life span" or years of supply became ever more important, scaling up and complementing traditional appraisal practices on the level of individual mines or mining and trading companies. As a consequence, economic methods gained new weight for mineral resource estimation. Natural resource economics as an own field of research grew out of these efforts. By way of example, the mineral resource appraisal assigned to the U.S. Materials Policy Commission by President Harry S. Truman in 1951 is analyzed in more detail. Natural resource economics and environmental economics might be interpreted as a strategy to bring down the vast and holistically conceived object of geological and ecological research, the earth, to human scale, and assimilate it into social matters.

  6. Natural resources as a factor of economic growth in Kosovo

    Haki Shatri


    Full Text Available In the history of the economic growth, there are numerous examples of countries that have developed based on their available natural resources. Especially, these assets have been the propulsion of the development in the initial period. But we also find some cases where countries with limited natural resources have experienced dynamic economic development. Kosovo is the last federal unit dismembered from former Yugoslavia after a decade under Milosevic’s Serbian regime and a two years’ war. International intervention and the inclusion of the country under an international protectorate created the conditions for the development of devastated economy by war and the robbery to be recovered together with the creation of institutional and economic infrastructure (Lidhja e Ekonomistëve të Kosovës, 1996. Under these conditions, everything had to start from scratch. The only development factor that Kosovo possessed was the human factor - age structure and the abundant natural resources, especially in key sectors such as the energy and in mining and minerals, agriculture and tourism. Thus it is sustainable the conclusion that “The rapid and sustainable economic and social development of Kosovo depends substantially from the implementation of the appropriate policies and suitable economic reforms that enable more rational use of its natural and human resources”. The list of the available resources of Kosovo is long. Kosovo possesses significant amount of all mineral raw materials in both quality and quantity terms. Among the most important raw materials have been ranked the power-lignite mining that is stretched into three basins and it is estimated to be around 9 billion exploitable tons (Kelmendi, 2012. Kosovo also owns mineral resources which are found in the Trepca’s Metals basin. The geological researches show favorable conditions of exploitation and high quality of the ore. Mainly one can found the lead, zinc, silver and other


    Ewa Mazanowska


    Full Text Available Behaviourists believe human capital is seen as the potential in people. They believe that the human resource in the organization are intangible assets embodied in the employees, not the people themselves. Behavioral economics emphasizes that people aren’t owned by the company, only their abilities and skills made available to the employer on the basis of certain legal relations which holds it to manage these assets in a rational way. Recognition of behavioral economics also highlights the aspects of development and human capital perspective, which appear in the may resource Staff in the future. These may be limited to: raise, awareness of capacity, internal aspirations, motives. Human capital management is nothing but a recognition of the relevant characteristics of the potential held within the company Staff and correct its use. As a consequence, it can bring tangible benefits to the organization.

  8. Essays on Water Resource Economics and Agricultural Extension

    Buck, Steven Charles


    This dissertation discusses topics in the microeconomics of water resource economics and agricultural extension. In one chapter I use a hedonic model to explain the price of land transactions, and from this an implied value of irrigation water is inferred. In a separate chapter I develop measures of willingness-to-pay for water supply reliability measures, and estimate how consumers respond to changes in the price of residential water. My final chapter develops a model of a farmer's decision ...

  9. Water Resource Management in Thailand: An Economic Perspective

    Kaosa-ard, Mingsarn


    In Thailand, water is life. Recently however, water has been more associated with conflict and problems, both natural and manmade, from drought to floods to dams to pollution. This paper investigates two major problems related to the management of water resources, dry-season allocation and water quality. In Thailand, water allocation has been considered an administrative problem and solutions have largely been supply- oriented. Economic instruments have not been used to solve them. In dealing...

  10. Enviro-Economic Evaluation of Natural Water Resources: A Retrospect



    Full Text Available Today, the threat to the environment is high on industrial agenda in many countries and there is every reason to believe that it will stay there for a long time to come, although local issues may still temporarily overshadow the long term impact on the environment as a result of human activity. The World Commission on Environment and Development (WECD foresaw the possibility for new areas of economic growth, based on policies that sustain the environmental resource base. A central finding of all country studies confirm that economic policies and environmental trends are closely linked but often in the ways that have not been widely recognized. Since economic policies must be designed increasingly in terms of their sustainability.

  11. Economic analysis of needs the training of human resources

    Buha Vesna V.


    Full Text Available The issue of lifelong learning is linked to the voluntary and motivated to seek knowledge from personal or organizational reasons. The fact that an individual learns driven by personal career goals, desire for self improvement and motivation refers to the importance of lifelong learning for the entire social inclusion, sustainability, and competitiveness and employment. The common denominator of all the problems of investment in education is an issue of increasing allocations to the social issues, the pace that in this area manifest needs. Relative resource constraints requires that the investment in professional development taking place in accordance with the expected contribution to the creation of new value, increase productivity and social development of society as a whole. Respecting this request, in general, should provide maximum socio-economic effects with minimal investment. Precise measurement is achieved by tools of economic analysis: cost & benefit, economic sensitivity analysis, risk assessment.




    Full Text Available The present research aims to establish and configurate human resources development strategies for the employees of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs that activate in the tourism field of activity (hotels and other accomodation establishments, restaurants, passenger trasnport, travel agencies, cultural turism agencies. As knowledge role in the contemporany economy is increasing and defining the economical and social context as knowledge-based ones, we shall consider the research frame as the knowledge-based economy. Moreover, in order to better highlight weaknesses and strenghts of the human resources management approaches and to define recommendations, our research theme is developped as comparative study: similarities and differences within SMEs human resources management practices in Romania and other European Union's country members (the example of Spain was considered.

  13. Hotelling's economics of exhaustible resources

    Levhari, D.; Liviatan, N.


    This paper provides some extensions of Hotelling's fundamental paper (Journal of Political Economy, 39: 137-75 (1931)) on the economic theory of exhaustible resources. One of the main modifications introduced concerns the assumption of complete versus incomplete exhaustion of the resource. Under complete exhaustion the concept of 'full marginal cost' must include a term that reflects the alternative cost of producing an extra unit at the terminal time; under incomplete exhaustion this term vanishes. To derive these results, the authors present a formula for the ''full marginal cost'' of extracting exhaustible resources. The principle that marginal profit has to increase over time exponentially at a rate equal to the rate of interest (r percent rule) is shown to be valid only under special conditions. The modifications to this rule are discussed.

  14. Essais en Finance d'Entreprise

    Sraer, David


    Performance and Behavior pf Family Firms : Evidence from the French Stock Market Bottom-Up Corporate Governence Optimal independence in Organizations The Corporate Wealth effect : From the Real Estate Schoks to Corporate Investments; Cette thèse comporte quatre essais en finance d'entreprise. Le premier chapitre porte sur le lien entre comportement de l'entreprise et structure de son actionnariat et de son management. L'attention est plus particulièrement portée sur les différents styles de m...

  15. Modeling resource basis for social and economic development strategies: Water resource case

    Kosolapova, Natalia A.; Matveeva, Ludmila G.; Nikitaeva, Anastasia Y.; Molapisi, Lesego


    The article substantiates that the effectiveness of implementing socio-economic development strategies is to a large extent determined by the adequate provision of basic resources. The key role of water resources in economic strategic development is empirically illustrated. The article demonstrates the practicability of strategic management of water resources based on the principle of a combination of river basin management approaches and the consideration of regional development strategies. The Game Theory technique was used to develop economic and mathematical tools for supporting decision-making in meeting the needs of regional consumers under water balance deficit conditions. The choice of methods was determined from two positions: the methods should allow for the possibility of multi-variant solutions for the selection of optimal options for the distribution of limited water resources between different consumers; the methods should be orientated on the maximum possible harmonization of multidirectional and multi-scale interests of the subjects in the water management system of the different regions (including the state) in order to achieve a balance. The approbation of developing a toolkit for the example of the regions located in the Don and Kuban river basins resulted in the appropriate selection of priority regions for the allocation of water resources in terms of strategic management as well as the determination of measures of ensuring the sustainable use of the river basins under consideration. The proposed tools can be used for coordinating decisions on the water supply of regional economic systems with actual and projected indicators of socio-economic development of the respective regions for a strategic perspective.

  16. [Medical ethics and economics in the era of insufficient resources].

    Bin Nun, Gabi; Afek, Arnon


    During the Golden Age of Medicine (20th Century), scientific and technological breakthroughs enabled physicians to cure people's illnesses. The idealist, romantic approach of medical practice believed in the right of every human being to receive the best treatment possible, regardless of cost. However, the rise in health care expenditure at the end of the 20th Century made this impossible, therefore other approaches were adopted. The aim of this study is to investigate the causes of the change in medical approaches while distinguishing between the different methods practiced by nations in order to deal with the disparity created by ethical dilemmas caused by scare resources and delivery of medical treatment. This study is based on the evaluation of macro economic data and the comparison of international health data. Special emphasis was given to the evaluation of Israeli health economics since the National Health Insurance Act (1995). The study shows two different approaches to the problem of scarce resources: the liberal approach, as practiced in the USA, and the Social Democratic approach which is common in many European countries, including Israel. The Social Democratic ideology believes in public financing of defined health care services to all citizens. This method implies rationing and managed care in order to absorb medical expenses. The ethical dilemmas arising from the necessity to add economic considerations to a physician's care of his patient, demand that any given healthcare system find the right equilibrium. This balance between clinical, social, and economical considerations is not easily achieved. Only dialogue within the health care system itself, and with the public, can achieve the best possible balance.

  17. Sustainable energy resources and economics in Iceland and Greenland

    Kristjánsdóttir, Helga


    This book provides fascinating examples of the ways renewable and sustainable energy can support economic growth, which will be illuminating for academic researchers and students, as well as those interested in green investment opportunities. The distinctive glacial, volcanic and oceanic environments of Iceland and Greenland supply abundant renewable energy resources in the form of hydropower and geothermal energy. As one of the few nations in the world with 100% renewable electricity production, Iceland is a compelling case study of a sustainable energy driven economy. Consideration of Green

  18. Peculiarities of resources maintenance organisational economical mechanism formation under the condition of social economical transformation of enterprises

    Vovk, Iryna Petrivna


    Full Text Available Resources maintenance organizational economical mechanism formation preconditionscharacteristic is showed on the example of a machine building enterprise. The necessityof resources maintenance measures objective function usage for the choice of effective resourcesmanagement optimal strategy under the condition of social economical transformation ofenterprises. The very management can be effective for an account of resources economy leversusage as a new science. In the context of resources economy an innovational chain of resourcesmaintenance management problems research is proposed.The most optimal ways of resources maintenance organizational economical mechanismformation on the basis of resources usage qualitative and quantitative indexes are highlighted,using the levers of resources economy and taking to consideration the providing an enterprise withequipment, technologies, personnel, management system and the influence of each inner and outerfactors on an enterprise under the condition of social economical transformation.

  19. Essays on Applied Resource Economics Using Bioeconomic Optimization Models

    Affuso, Ermanno

    With rising demographic growth, there is increasing interest in analytical studies that assess alternative policies to provide an optimal allocation of scarce natural resources while ensuring environmental sustainability. This dissertation consists of three essays in applied resource economics that are interconnected methodologically within the agricultural production sector of Economics. The first chapter examines the sustainability of biofuels by simulating and evaluating an agricultural voluntary program that aims to increase the land use efficiency in the production of biofuels of first generation in the state of Alabama. The results show that participatory decisions may increase the net energy value of biofuels by 208% and reduce emissions by 26%; significantly contributing to the state energy goals. The second chapter tests the hypothesis of overuse of fertilizers and pesticides in U.S. peanut farming with respect to other inputs and address genetic research to reduce the use of the most overused chemical input. The findings suggest that peanut producers overuse fungicide with respect to any other input and that fungi resistant genetically engineered peanuts may increase the producer welfare up to 36.2%. The third chapter implements a bioeconomic model, which consists of a biophysical model and a stochastic dynamic recursive model that is used to measure potential economic and environmental welfare of cotton farmers derived from a rotation scheme that uses peanut as a complementary crop. The results show that the rotation scenario would lower farming costs by 14% due to nitrogen credits from prior peanut land use and reduce non-point source pollution from nitrogen runoff by 6.13% compared to continuous cotton farming.

  20. Financial Systems: Essays on the Cultural Determinants and the Relevance for Economic Development/Les Systèmes Financiers: Essais sur les Déterminants Culturels et l'Importance pour le Développement Economique

    Gheeraert, Laurent


    The thesis analyzes macro-economic determinants and roles of financial sector development. The literature argues that the size and efficiency of both banking systems and financial markets - the two major components of a financial system - matter for economic development. In the same vein, the quality of financial institutions and regulations are instrumental in the construction of a strong financial system. We study several aspects of financial sector development in relation to three re...

  1. Evolutionary determinants of economic category «financial resources»


    The evolution of views on economic category «financial resources» is presented in the article. Interpretations of financial resources under administration economy, transformation period and for market economic relations are analyzed. The interrelation interpretation of financial resources from the financial relations in society is presented. There is identified the role and importance of financial resources in socio-economic development and in the management of enterprises. Found that the cha...

  2. 31 CFR 537.410 - Contracts and subcontracts regarding economic development of resources in Burma.


    ... supervision and guarantee of another person's performance of a contract that includes the economic development... royalties, earnings or profits of, the economic development of resources located in Burma. ... economic development of resources in Burma. 537.410 Section 537.410 Money and Finance: Treasury...

  3. Developing Economic Arrangements for Water Resources Management : The potential of stakeholder oriented Water Valuation

    Hermans, L.M.; Halsema, van G.E.; Renault, D.


    As water is increasingly recognized as a scarce resource, the use of economic arrangements for water resources management seems increasingly promising. Experiences show that economic arrangements can contribute to a more efficient use of water resources but only if specific conditions are met, relat

  4. Essais inter-laboratoires : Résultats des essais par analyse thermique 2003



    Dans le cadre d'une campagne d'essais inter-laboratoires, un ciment et un béton calcaire ont été analysés par thermogravimétrie (ATG) et analyse thermique différentielle (ATD). Les résultats proviennent de 5 laboratoires différents, tous équipés d'analyseurs thermiques Netzsch. Une analyse des résultats (moyenne arithmétique, variance, écart-type, coefficient de variation) est donnée. Les résultats obéissent à une distribution normale.

  5. Essais inter-laboratoires : Résultats des essais par analyse thermique 2002



    Dans le cadre d'une campagne d'essais inter-laboratoires, un ciment et un béton calcaire ont été analysés par thermogravimétrie (ATG) et analyse thermique différentielle (ATD). Les résultats proviennent de 6 laboratoires différents, tous équipés d'analyseurs thermiques Netzsch. Une analyse des résultats (moyenne arithmétique, variance, écart-type, coefficient de variation) est donnée. Les résultats obéisse à une distribution normale.

  6. Analysis of Improvement on Human Resource Management within Chinese Enterprises in Economic Globalization

    Lihui Xie


    Full Text Available In this study, we analysis of improvement on human resource management within Chinese enterprises in economic globalization. China’s entry into WTO has accelerated the economic globalization pace of Chinese enterprises and Chinese economy is further integrated with the global economy in a global scope. Human resource is what economic globalization of Chinese enterprises relies on, the first resource for China to participate in the international competition and is also the key to make effective use of other resources. Nevertheless, under the background of economic globalization, human resource management in Chinese enterprises is still faced up with quite a lot of challenges and problems. In order to establish a human resource management concept of globalization and set up a human resource management mechanism to respond to the economic globalization, this study makes a discussion and proposes management method and improvement measures for reference.

  7. Evaluation of water resource economics within the Pasco Basin, Washington

    Leaming, G F


    The Columbia River basalt beneath the Hanford Site in south-central Washington is being considered for possible use as a terminal repository medium for high-level nuclear waste. Such underground storage would require that the facility be contiguous to at least a portion of the ambient groundwater system of the Pasco Basin. This report attempts to evaluate the economic factors and conditions related to the water resources of the Pasco Basin and the probable economic effects associated with selected hypothetical changes in local water demand and supply as a basis for eventual selection of credible water supply alternatives and more detailed analyses of the consequences of such alternative selection. It is most likely that total demand for water for consumptive uses in the Pasco Basin will increase from nearly 2.0 million acre-feet per year in 1980 to almost 2.8 million acre-feet in 2010, with total demand slightly more than 3.6 million acre-feet per year in 2080. The Columbia River and other surface streams constitute the source of more than 99 percent of the water available each year for all uses, both consumptive and non-consumptive, in the Pasco Basin. It is estimated that pumped groundwater accounted for 3 percent of the value of all water supplied to consumers of water in the Pasco Basin in 1980. Groundwater's share of the total cost is proportionately higher than groundwater's share of total use because it is generally more costly to acquire than is surface water and the value of water is considered equivalent to its cost of acquisition. Because groundwater represents such a small part of the total water supply and demand within the Pasco Basin, it is concluded that if the development of a nuclear waste repository on the Hanford Site were to result in changes in the groundwater supply during the next 100 years, the economic impact on the overall water supply picture for the entire basin would be insignificant.

  8. Economic Impact of CDM Implementation through Alternate Energy Resource Substitution

    K.J. Sreekanth


    Full Text Available Since the Kyoto protocol agreement, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM hasgarnered large emphasis in terms of certified emission reductions (CER not only amidst the globalcarbon market but also in India. This paper attempts to assess the impact of CDM towardssustainable development particularly in rural domestic utility sector that mainly includes lightingand cooking applications, with electricity as the source of energy. A detailed survey has undertakenin the state of Kerala, in southern part of India to study the rural domestic energy consumptionpattern. The data collected was analyzed that throws insight into the interrelationships of thevarious parameters that influence domestic utility sector pertaining to energy consumption byusing electricity as the source of energy. The interrelationships between the different parameterswere modeled that optimizes the contribution of electricity on domestic utility sector. The resultswere used to estimate the feasible extent of CO2 emission reduction through use of electricity as theenergy resources, vis-à-vis its economic viability through cost effectiveness. The analysis alsoprovides a platform for implementing CDM projects in the sector and related prospects withrespects to the Indian scenario.

  9. Economic vulnerability of timber resources to forest fires

    Francisco Rodriguez y Silva; Juan Ramon Molina; Armando Gonzalez-Caban; Miguel Angel Herrera Machuca


    The temporal-spatial planning of activities for a territorial fire management program requires knowing the value of forest ecosystems. In this paper we extend to and apply the economic valuation principle to the concept of economic vulnerability and present a methodology for the economic valuation of the forest production ecosystems. The forest vulnerability is...

  10. Institutional Problems and Development Perspectives Innovative Entrepreneurship in Resource Economics

    Rutskiy Vladislav, N.


    Full Text Available The paper justifies the necessity to transit towards the mobilization model "triple helix" (strategic partnership of science and education organizations, business and government, the public. Innovation as a product of entrepreneurship permeate the system of relations from top to bottom – from more efficient ways of doing home Ho households, and to design mechanisms of state regulation of the economy. However, at the theoretical level, the relationship remains poorly studied in-novations as a function of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship as social phenomenon in the system of institutional relations "business-authorities-society". Modern Russian economy has features of "dual enclave economy" with isolated more productive export-oriented resource sector. Innovative entrepreneurs do not become actors of change because of weak protection of property rights, manipulated state, weak sanctions for rent-seeking. The transition from innovative system "technology push" (fundamental knowledge on demand of state towards innovation system "market pull" (innovations on demand of business is complicated within Y-matrix of competitive institutional environment. It could turn out to be more effective to transit to the mobilization model "triple helix" (strategic partnership of science and education organizations, business and government, the public in compliance with X-matrix of cooperative institutional environment of redistribution. This will allow to create the necessary mechanisms for the exchange of missing codified knowledge (for those who imitate innovations and tacit knowledge (for pure innovators in the cross-sectoral technological chains. The design of institutional change in compliance with real needs of participants of innovative processes requires formal analysis of the region economic development type through assessing its key spheres, revealing and modeling prevailing type of entrepreneurship as well as identifying the relationship between

  11. Utilization of Spent Resources in Support of Eco-Economic Decoupling in Central Java

    Nuril Fikri Aulia


    Full Text Available Implementation of the development is often cause adverse environmental impacts. Adverse effects are environmental degradation and decreasing availability of resources. To overcome this, it is necessary that the development can still continue, the environment is not damaged, and the availability of resources is maintained. One effort is through eco - economic decoupling activities with the use of spent resources. The aim of study to determine the potential of spent resources in Central Java, knows the problems in the utilization of spent resources in Central Java, and to determine the impact of the utilization of spent resources in Central Java by a qualitative descriptive method. The results show that in the study have the potential of eco-economic decoupling indicated by the availability of spent resources and had done utilization of spent resources. However, this potential has not been optimally developed, because there are still some problems in its utilization. Problems in the use of spent resources are the lack of knowledge about eco-economic decoupling and spent resources among stakeholder, there is no specific policy on eco - economic decoupling, the lack of Local Government 's role in the utilization of spent resource, and the lack of synergy programs and activities in supporting the utilization of spent resources. Utilization of spent resources have positive impact to reduce pressure on the environment and natural resources, create a new job, and increase incomes for society.

  12. Essai pratique de performance des masques auto-sauveteurs SAVOX

    CERN DGS/GS/PT; N. Dupont-Sagorin


    Cette vidéo présente l'essai pratique de performance (EPP) des masques auto-sauveteurs Savox (MSA) par 10 volontaires. Répartis en groupes effectuant différents niveaux d'activité physique, ils ont porté le masque pendant 23 à 51 minutes et ont parcouru de 2,4 à 3,6 km. Des paramètres physiques et subjectifs ont été relevés durant l'essai.

  13. A Learning Perspective On The Role Of Natural Resources In Economic Development

    Andersen, Allan Dahl


    Natural resource-based industries are in economics often is understood as being unable to stimulate growth and development. The latter point has been put forward in the form of the ‘resource curse’ and is epitomised by inter alia Reinert (2007) who sees natural resource-based industries...... as detrimental to growth and development. Still, it will be argued here that Reinert’s approach is unsuitable for grasping the full role of natural resources in economic development because important aspects of industrial dynamics are ignored. In pursuit of the latter research aim two topics in economic research...... will be integrated: (i) the area of learning, innovation, capability building and economic development; (ii) with the area of natural resources and economic development. Such integration will be a contribution to both topics. Hence, this paper seeks to address the question: how can we understand the role of natural...

  14. Neoclassical and Institutional Economics as Foundations for Human Resource Development Theory

    Wang, Greg G.; Holton, Elwood F., III


    In an effort to more comprehensively understand economics as a foundation of human resource development (HRD), this article reviews economic theories and models pertinent to HRD research and theory building. By examining neoclassical and neoinstitutional schools of contemporary economics, especially the screening model and the internal labor…

  15. Neoclassical and Institutional Economics as Foundations for Human Resource Development Theory

    Wang, Greg G.; Holton, Elwood F., III


    In an effort to more comprehensively understand economics as a foundation of human resource development (HRD), this article reviews economic theories and models pertinent to HRD research and theory building. By examining neoclassical and neoinstitutional schools of contemporary economics, especially the screening model and the internal labor…

  16. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water and Related Land Resources...


    ... QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water and Related Land Resources... Principles and Requirements. SUMMARY: Section 2031 of the Water Resources Development Act of 2007 (Pub. L... Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation Studies'' (Principles and Guidelines),...

  17. Natural Non-Renewable Resources in Economic Theory

    Constantin Alexandra Mihaela


    Non-renewable resources can doubtlessly be regarded as the backbone of our modern society. However, most of economists have ignored the impact of non-renewable resources on the environment by dissociating the economy from the ecological network it is fundamentally linked to. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to highlight a literature overview of the most important opinions regarding non-renewable natural resources.

  18. Population Growth, Available Resources, and Quality of Life: China's Post-Reform Economic Development

    Tim Futing Liao; Hua Qin


    Two opposing intellectual traditions and their contem- porary developments regarding the relations among population, available resources, and quality of life as reflected in economic growth are reviewed. What is at issue is whether population growth is detrimental to or beneficial for economic development. Neither of the extreme views gives a complete picture of the interplay among population, resources, and quality of life. Following previ- ous literature on the topic, this paper establishes a more balanced approach that considers the function linking population and quality of life not constant but variable and regards the limitedness of resources as not absolute but relative to regions and societies. The proposed approach is more flexible in better explaining the relation between population and economic growth. China is examined as a case in point to shed light on the interaction of population growth, economic development, and available resources, and its recent post-economic reform experiences showcase the appropriateness of the synthetic approach.

  19. translating the extractive resources to economic growth and ...


    Following this brief introduction, the rest of the article is organized as follows: first is a .... The degree of NOCs' exposure depends on the contract signed with their private ... that countries with a large share of natural resource exports in GDP ..... a model where rent seeking associated with natural resources abundance ...

  20. Socio–economic benefits and pollution levels of water resources ...


    Assessment of socio–economic activities and pollution levels of domestic water sources in Gulu Municipality, Pece ... The communities should be sensitized to treat water before drinking. ..... primarily related to the poor maintenance of sanitary.

  1. Sustaining the natural and economical resources of the Lac Courte Oreilles, Leslie Isham; Jason Weaver

    Isham, Leslie; Weaver, Jason


    The Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, located in northwest Wisconsin has developed a project, entitled Sustaining the Natural and Economic Resources of the LCO Ojibwe. This technical report is a summary of the project.

  2. Trends in economic scarcity of U. S. timber commodities. Forest Service Resource Bulletin

    Skog, K.; Risbrudt, C.


    Scarcity of natural resources has been of concern to industrial societies since Malthus developed his theory of population growth and resource use in the late 18th century. Barnett and Morse, in 1963, tested the widely held premise that natural resource commodities are becoming more economically scarce. They concluded that of all major natural resource commodities-agricultural, mineral, and timber-only timber commodities were increasing in economic scarcity. In particular, sawlogs have shown consistent increases in economic scarcity since the late 1800's. Data were prepared for the Barnett and Morse study by Potter and Christy and subsequently updated by Potter and Christy and subsequently updated by Manthy to 1973. This paper extends and expands these data series on timber commodities. Specifically, information will be presented on one indicator of economic scarcity-trends in real prices (prices deflated by the general producer price index).

  3. Structural change and economic growth in modern Russia: The role of “resource-type” regions

    Levin, SN; Kislitsyn, DV; Sablin, KS


    Authors carry out comparative analysis of economic growth of the subjects of the Russian Federation and highlight their three types: predominance of manufacturing, predominance of services and predominance of mining industries. Based on the results of the research authors make a number of assumptions about the potential of the resource sector and “resource-type” subjects of the Federation as the engines of economic growth.

  4. Organizational and economic parameters of resource provision of medical organizations

    Aranovich L.M


    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to determine the main patterns of activity of in-patient medical organizations according to the resource provision of medical and diagnostic process. Material and methods. 20 medical organizations, including regional organizations, central regional hospitals, Saratov municipal health care organizations, non-private and private medical organizations have been surveyed. The survey of 60 chemists of hospital pharmacies has been conducted. Results. The analysis of the survey has showed the resource provision of medical and diagnostic process by medical products, the degree of technological provision in hospitals of various types and stated the main problems of activity on resource provision. Conclusion. It has been found out that the current medical provision with medical products is connected with the action of considerable number of objective and subjective factors and it defines the efficiency of medical social activity.

  5. Assessment of raw-mineral resources exploration influence on economic security of russia

    Andrey Gennad’evich Shelomentsev


    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the impact of development of mineral resources on the economic security of Russia. The main branch of the national economy, to which mineral resources have a significant impact, are reviewed. The authors examine the economic security in terms of strategictypes of mineralresources of the nationaleconomy and thecompetitiveness of mineralresources and theirreproduction in thelong term, as well as theimpact of mineral resources development on theregionaleconomy. It isconcluded that the primary socioeconomic development of the regions demands, on the one hand, rapid reproduction and development of mineral resources, and on the other hand, infrastructure of thereclaimed subsoil. The paper presents the activities of the state and recommendations on the formation of public policy in the sphere of economic security at the federal, sectoral and regional levels. The findings are based on the evaluation of the role of mineral resources in the leading economies, developing countries and Russia

  6. Preliminary Accounting on Economic Value of Bamboo Resource in China


    The current area of bamboo resource in China is 7.21 million ha, 4.21 million ha of which is the pure bamboo forest The stock value of the bamboo resource is 30.312 billion Renminbi (RMB) yuan, the present value of actual output from bamboo wood and shoot is 149.062 billion RMB yuan. The bamboo forest land is valuated as much as 8.133 billion RMB yuan. It is raised to improve the production and management conditions of the 2nd and 3rd type bamboo forests to raise production capacity of wood and shoot an...

  7. Natural resource economic implications of geothermal area use

    Darby, d' E Charles


    Large-scale use of geothermal energy is likely to result in depletion of natural resources that support both biodiversity and other human uses. Most of the problems could be averted with competent planning and adherence to agreed conditions, but they commonly develop because they are not perceived to be directly geothermal in origin and hence are not taken into account adequately. Some of the implications of such issues are discussed below, with particular reference to countries where all or most resources are held under traditional principals of custom ownership.

  8. Economic Transition and Natural Resource Management in East and Southeast Asia

    Beckmann, V.; Dung, N.H.; Shi, X.; Spoor, M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.


    Economic and institutional reforms in East and Southeast Asia have caused impressive economic growth and improved the livelihood of millions of people. In several regions, however, this growth has been obtained at the expense of land quality or to the detriment of other natural resources. As a

  9. Socio-economic consequences of large scale resource development; cases of mining in Greenland

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole


    Parallel to the attempts to look for new means of economic independence for Greenland, there is still a growing awareness of the possible problems and potential negative consequences of such a development. The contribution has its focus on the short and long term socio-economic consequences of re...... of resource development experienced in Greenland in connection with mining acitivities....

  10. Resource for Evaluating the Economic Impact of Local Food System Initiatives

    Jablonski, Becca B. R.; O'Hara, Jeffrey K.; McFadden, Dawn Thilmany; Tropp, Debra


    Local food system stakeholders are confronted with challenges when attempting to ascertain the economic impacts of food system investments. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service commissioned a team of economists to develop a resource to provide support to stakeholders interested in understanding the economic impacts of…




    The current economic environment is of high complexity and it requires a different approach to the concept of economic-financial management, namely to have a preventive, proactive character, under the conditions of an unpredictable future, which should promptly respond to the challenges caused by planning and smart use of financial resources, more and more volatile.

  12. Analyzing Crime and Crime Control: A Resource Guide. Economics-Political Science Series.

    Butterfield, Ruth I.; And Others

    This document, the fourth in a series of resource guides emphasizing economic-political analysis of contemporary public policies and issues, focuses on crime control. Designed as a three-week unit for secondary school students, the guide is presented in three sections. The introduction presents an economic and a political science framework for…

  13. Economics of poverty, environment and natural-resource use

    Dellink, R.B.; Ruijs, A.J.W.


    Reduction of poverty is a tremendous and persistent challenge for the global community. Given that the livelihood of millions is at stake, there is an urgent need to reconsider the causes of and the remedies for poverty. Poverty and its reduction are closely linked to the natural-resources base. The

  14. Economics of poverty, environment and natural-resource use

    Dellink, R.B.; Ruijs, A.J.W.


    Reduction of poverty is a tremendous and persistent challenge for the global community. Given that the livelihood of millions is at stake, there is an urgent need to reconsider the causes of and the remedies for poverty. Poverty and its reduction are closely linked to the natural-resources base. The


    Matei Alexandru APAVALOAEI


    Full Text Available The present paper is going to build upon the Misesian theory of interventionism by presenting it in the light of property economics. We will argue that all forms of government interfere with the workings of the market can be counterfactually analysed by contrasting them with the voluntary order of laissez-faire capitalism. Interventionism is presented as a partial order, situated on the continuum between laissez-faire capitalism and socialism. The article argues that the limits of interventionism can be understood as a direct consequence of its functioning under the aegis of fiat property. Because the state can unilaterally decide the extent to which an individual is entitled to his private property (involuntary co-ownership, interventionism replaces the rational entrepreneurial order of the free market, which is constrained by the price structure and is directed by economic calculation, with the arbitrary value judgments of a single entity. This more general re-statement of the Misesian theory of interventionism from the point of view of property economics has the benefit of covering all possible policy measures while deducing the implications from an a priori perspective. From a methodological standpoint, this approach provides a more realist account of the implications of government involvement in the workings of the market as it does not require any unrealistic assumptions like: perfect information, equilibrium and dead weight loss comparison, or postulate a certain type of behaviour - benevolence, narrow self-interest or ideological error.

  16. Economic vulnerability among low-educated Europeans: Resource, composition, labour market and welfare state influences

    Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Scheepers, P.L.H.


    In this article, we pose the question: To what extent does a lack of individual resources and of access to high quality resources in one's core social network explain why low-educated people are likely to experience economic vulnerability? Additionally, we explain cross-national differences in the

  17. Estimating the Economic Impacts of Recreation Response to Resource Management Alternatives

    Donald B.K. English; J. Michael Bowker; John C. Bergstrom; H. Ken Cordell


    Managing forest resources involves tradeoffs and making decisions among resource management alternatives. Some alternatives will lead to changes in the level of recreation visitation and the amount of associated visitor spending. Thus, the alternatives can affect local economies. This paper reports a method that can be used to estimate the economic impacts of such...

  18. Economic vulnerability among low-educated Europeans: Resource, composition, labour market and welfare state influences

    Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Scheepers, P.L.H.


    In this article, we pose the question: To what extent does a lack of individual resources and of access to high quality resources in one's core social network explain why low-educated people are likely to experience economic vulnerability? Additionally, we explain cross-national differences in the r

  19. Energy reserves. [Summary of reserve estimates and economic supply models for exhaustible resources

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.; Carhart, S.C.; Marcuse, W.


    There is an increasing concern about scarcity of the world's remaining natural energy resources and, in particular, the future supply of oil and natural gas. This paper summarizes recent estimates of energy reserves and economic supply models for exhaustible resources. The basic economic theory of resource exhaustion is reviewed, and recent estimates of both discovered and undiscovered energy resources are presented and compared. Domestic and world-wide reserve estimates are presented for crude oil and natural gas liquids, natural gas, coal, and uranium. Economic models projecting supply of these energy forms, given reserve estimates and other pertinent information, are discussed. Finally, a set of recent models which project world oil prices are summarized and their published results compared. The impact of energy conservation efforts on energy supply is also briefly discussed. 53 references.

  20. Effect of total resource allocation effect and economic growth:Chinese experience of 1978-2004


    The analytical method of total resource reallocation effet is an evolution of the analytical method of the factors of economic growth.Since the marketization reform in China in 1978,market mechanism has played a more and moreimportant role in resource allocation,and Chinese economy has developed greatly,which is called"the Chinese Miracle".This paper arialVzes the economic growth in China from 1978 to 2004 with the analytical method of total resource reallocation effect.The result shows that the annual growth Fate of total resource reallocation effect was 0.2%,which was 5.1% of the comprehensive productivity and 0.21%of the grass output growth,i.e. the total resource allocation played a weak role in the economic growth in China.When analyzing it in Chenets's multinational model,we find that Chinese comprehensive productivity growth rate was bigher than that in all the income phases of the model,but the total resource allocation effect was obviously lower than that in all the income phases of the model.It indicates that the total resource allocation in China has a great potential,and that to accelerate marketization reform is one of the important issues for Chinese economic development.

  1. Ecosystems, ecological restoration, and economics: does habitat or resource equivalency analysis mean other economic valuation methods are not needed?

    Shaw, W Douglass; Wlodarz, Marta


    Coastal and other area resources such as tidal wetlands, seagrasses, coral reefs, wetlands, and other ecosystems are often harmed by environmental damage that might be inflicted by human actions, or could occur from natural hazards such as hurricanes. Society may wish to restore resources to offset the harm, or receive compensation if this is not possible, but faces difficult choices among potential compensation projects. The optimal amount of restoration efforts can be determined by non-market valuation methods, service-to-service, or resource-to-resource approaches such as habitat equivalency analysis (HEA). HEA scales injured resources and lost services on a one-to-one trade-off basis. Here, we present the main differences between the HEA approach and other non-market valuation approaches. Particular focus is on the role of the social discount rate, which appears in the HEA equation and underlies calculations of the present value of future damages. We argue that while HEA involves elements of economic analysis, the assumption of a one-to-one trade-off between lost and restored services sometimes does not hold, and then other non-market economic valuation approaches may help in restoration scaling or in damage determination.

  2. Analysis of High Plains Resource Risk and Economic Impacts

    Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vargas, Vanessa N [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Shannon M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dealy, Bern Caudill [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shaneyfelt, Calvin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Braeton James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moreland, Barbara Denise [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The importance of the High Plains Aquifer is broadly recognized as is its vulnerability to continued overuse. T his study e xplore s how continued depletions of the High Plains Aquifer might impact both critical infrastructure and the economy at the local, r egional , and national scale. This analysis is conducted at the county level over a broad geographic region within the states of Kansas and Nebraska. In total , 140 counties that overlie the High Plains Aquifer in these two states are analyzed. The analysis utilizes future climate projections to estimate crop production. Current water use and management practices are projected into the future to explore their related impact on the High Plains Aquifer , barring any changes in water management practices, regulat ion, or policy. Finally, the impact of declining water levels and even exhaustion of groundwater resources are projected for specific sectors of the economy as well as particular elements of the region's critical infrastructure.

  3. Essays on environmental, energy, and natural resource economics

    Zhang, Fan

    My dissertation focuses on examining the interrelationship among the environment, energy and economic development. In the first essay, I explore the effects of increased uncertainty over future output prices, input costs and productivity levels on intertemporal emission permits trading. In a dynamic programming setting, a permit price is a convex function of each of these three sources of uncertainty. Increased uncertainty about future market conditions increases the expected permit price and causes risk-neutral firms to reduce ex ante emissions to smooth marginal abatement costs over time. Empirical analysis shows that increased price volatility induced by electricity market restructuring could explain 8-11% of the allowances banked during Phase I of the U.S. sulfur dioxide trading program. Numerical simulation suggests that high uncertainty may generate substantial initial compliance costs, thereby deterring new entrants and reducing efficiency; sharp emission spikes are also more likely to occur under industry-wide uncertainty shocks. In the second essay, I examine whether electricity restructuring improves the efficiency of U.S. nuclear power generation. Based on the full sample of 73 investor-owned nuclear plants in the United States from 1992 to 1998, I estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal efficiency changes associated with restructuring, at the plant level. Various modeling strategies are presented to deal with the policy endogeneity bias that high cost plants are more likely to be restructured. Overall, I find a strikingly positive relationship between the multiple steps of restructuring and plant operating efficiency. In the third essay, I estimate the economic impact of China's national land conversion program on local farm-dependent economies. The impact of the program on 14 industrial sectors in Gansu provinces are investigated using an input-output model. Due to regulatory restrictions, the agricultural sector cannot automatically expand or shrink

  4. Values of Land and Renewable Resources in a Three-Sector Economic Growth Model

    Zhang Wei-Bin


    Full Text Available This paper studies dynamic interdependence of capital, land and resource values in a three sector growth model with endogenous wealth and renewable resources. The model is based on the neoclassical growth theory, Ricardian theory and growth theory with renewable resources. The household’s decision is modeled with an alternative approach proposed by Zhang two decades ago. The economic system consists of the households, industrial, agricultural, and resource sectors. The model describes a dynamic interdependence between wealth accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of a unique stable equilibrium point and plot the motion of the dynamic system. The study conducts comparative dynamic analysis with regard to changes in the propensity to consume resources, the propensity to consume housing, the propensity to consume agricultural goods, the propensity to consume industrial goods, the propensity to save, the population, and the output elasticity of capital of the resource sector.

  5. Characteristic Training Modes of Land Resources Management Major in Universities of Finance and Economics

    Dan; CHEN; Xiaoyuan; ZHANG; Qian; CHEN; Fuhai; WANG


    With the development of the society,the undergraduates training modes of land resources management major have diversified developed.The land resources management majors in universities with different background have various features in China.Chongqing Technology and Business University was taken as a typical finance and economics university in this study.And the features,including training mode,feature training scheme and training effect of land resources management major,were discussed systematically.The results provide reference for the building of land resources management major in other colleges.

  6. Resources

    ... resources Alzheimer's - resources Anorexia nervosa - resources Arthritis - resources Asthma and allergy - resources Autism - resources Blindness - resources BPH - resources Breastfeeding - resources Bulimia - resources Burns - resources Cancer - resources Cerebral ...

  7. Modelling of the innovative organizational and economic mechanism in the agricultural resource management

    Yuliya Roshchina


    Full Text Available The structure, composition of innovative organizational and economic mechanism in the agricultural resource management, which is a part of the overall management of the economy of the country as a whole and which target function is the innovative development of Ukraine are substantiated. A model of innovative economic mechanism of agricultural natural resources is a promising system for organizational and economic measures that permit to increase the production of agricultural products and improve its quality at the highest possible restoration of soil fertility and the environment on the basis of advanced technology. It is the model of the inter-organizational environmental management and economic measures in the agricultural sector. The concept of the model in the innovation of organizational-economic mechanism allows increasing the production of agricultural products that improves living standards of the population and export capacity of the country. It requires involving new land and water resources, radically improving their use under a strict control at the restoration of the consumed resources. In close connection with the organizational and administrative methods of environmental management in agriculture and natural resources an economic mechanism is used. It includes: improvement of tax policy; grants and concessional lending activities to enhance soil fertility; fines for land damages to the fund of the recovery of soil fertility; penalties for violations of the technology to the expenditures organic and mineral fertilizers and other measures provided the technological plan; payments for pollution from water resources without their purification while irrigating; environmental audit; environmental insurance in which value of rent value received from the biological assets is taken as the base

  8. Economics and the appraisal of conventional oil and gas resources in the western Gulf of Mexico

    Attanasi, E.D.; Haynes, J.L.


    Although firms in the petroleum industry systematically perform regional appraisals of undiscovered oil and gas to determine the desirability of initiating or continuing exploration programs, these resource appraisals are of little value unless they are considered within the context of economic limitations, that is, the costs of finding and producing the resources. In this paper, the authors present a planning model for estimating the currently undiscovered economic (conventional) oil and gas resources offshore in the western Gulf of Mexico. With the appraisal is included an analysis of the sensitivity of the appraisal to alternative assumptions of the values of critical cost and physical parameters. The results indicate the level of the appraisal to be relatively robust to changes in these assumptions. The appraisal indicates that at $35.00 per barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) and 15-percent required rate of return, economic oil and gas resources amount to about 16 percent of the resources discovered in the study area through December 1976 (about 25.19 billion BOE). The hydrocarbons of future discoveries are expected to be 70 percent nonassociated gas, 17 percent crude oil, and 13 percent other hydrocarbons. Moreover, it will continue to be economically optimal to drill two or three wildcat wells in the Miocene-Pliocene trend for every well drilled in the Pleistocene trend.

  9. Transitional Forces in a Resource Based Economy: Phases of Economic and Institutional Development in Hawaii

    Kaiser, Brooks; Roumasset, James


    -evolution of production systems, organizational forms and authority structures in a resource dependent economy. We model the resource dependency as a multi-trophic ecologically based system. Productivity is a dynamic function of the available resource, human populations of laborers and wealth (capital) accumulation......We illuminate several important aspects of the nature and causes of growth and institutional change. To do this, we focus on the role resource pressures have played in the historic development of Hawaii’s institutions. We discuss the Hawaiian story in the context of the natural co....... Decentralization occurs after Western contact (1778), though not immediately. Unlike many existing analyses of primitive economic development, there does not exist a monotonic relationship between population and resource pressure. In a model of second-best resource management, optimal governance changes...


    B. K. Mikhailov


    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to geological exploration planning. The author assesses the current state of such planning, marks its internal inconsistency and inefficiency. The author proves the system of phased zoning as the basis for the targeted planning of mineral resource development, gives a characteristic of the selected geological and economic areas and mineral centers of economic development in Russia as a result of zoning. The author substantiates a proposition that concentration of the Federal budget and private investments within the centers of economic development contribute to achieving the goals in question.

  11. Economic models for management of resources in peer-to-peer and grid computing

    Buyya, Rajkumar; Stockinger, Heinz; Giddy, Jonathan; Abramson, David


    The accelerated development in Peer-to-Peer (P2P) and Grid computing has positioned them as promising next generation computing platforms. They enable the creation of Virtual Enterprises (VE) for sharing resources distributed across the world. However, resource management, application development and usage models in these environments is a complex undertaking. This is due to the geographic distribution of resources that are owned by different organizations or peers. The resource owners of each of these resources have different usage or access policies and cost models, and varying loads and availability. In order to address complex resource management issues, we have proposed a computational economy framework for resource allocation and for regulating supply and demand in Grid computing environments. The framework provides mechanisms for optimizing resource provider and consumer objective functions through trading and brokering services. In a real world market, there exist various economic models for setting the price for goods based on supply-and-demand and their value to the user. They include commodity market, posted price, tenders and auctions. In this paper, we discuss the use of these models for interaction between Grid components in deciding resource value and the necessary infrastructure to realize them. In addition to normal services offered by Grid computing systems, we need an infrastructure to support interaction protocols, allocation mechanisms, currency, secure banking, and enforcement services. Furthermore, we demonstrate the usage of some of these economic models in resource brokering through Nimrod/G deadline and cost-based scheduling for two different optimization strategies on the World Wide Grid (WWG) testbed that contains peer-to-peer resources located on five continents: Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America.

  12. Competition and Constraint : Economic Globalization and Human Resource Practices in 23 European Countries

    Koster, Ferry; Wittek, Rafael


    Economic globalization is often considered to be one of the main causes of recent changes in the workplace and the way in which organizations manage their human resources. Nevertheless, an empirical study putting this claim to the test by relating the internationalization of the economy to the use o

  13. Economic Valuation of Air Force Environmental Resources: A Contingent Valuation Case Study.


    and others, 1980; Greenley and others, 1981). Regardless of the method of provision or payment vehicle, a "budget constraint" bias may occur in a...Measures and the Evaluation of Resources," Land Economics: 1-10 (Vol. 55, 1979). Greenley , Douglas A., Richard G. Walsh, and Robert A. Young. "Option

  14. Human Resources development and research capacity and their impact on economic growth

    Zoran Ježić


    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to provide an analysis of the development of the Republic of Croatia and 110 selected countries in terms of human resource development index components and the components of the Technological Achievement Index. Developmental lags of the Republic of Croatia were determined by the bird’s eye view method in terms of the observed developmental indicators, and suggestions were provided for their development. The impact of the analysed indicators and their components on the economic growth of the Republic of Croatia and the selected countries was established by regression analysis. The paper provides possible developmental guidelines for certain components. The results of the research proved that the Human Resources Development Index is insufficient in the analysis of economic development, as well as the existence of the expected correlation between trained human resources, which enable technological progress, and economic growth of a country. Taking into consideration the correlation between the growth of the Human Resources Development Index, Research Capacity Index, Technology and Innovation Index, and the Ability to Absorb Knowledge and Technology Index and economic growth, which was determined by the application of a model, Croatia has to make additional investments in the growth of human capital and labour productivity in order to reduce developmental lags.

  15. Competition and Constraint : Economic Globalization and Human Resource Practices in 23 European Countries

    Koster, Ferry; Wittek, Rafael


    Economic globalization is often considered to be one of the main causes of recent changes in the workplace and the way in which organizations manage their human resources. Nevertheless, an empirical study putting this claim to the test by relating the internationalization of the economy to the use

  16. Resourceful Thinking about Printing and Related Industries: Economic Considerations and Environmental Sustainability

    Wikina, Suanu Bliss; Thompson, Cynthia Carlton; Blackwell, Elinor


    Increasing population, total economic volume, and human consumption levels have resulted in problems of resource shortages, climate change, ozone layer depletion, land regression, and deteriorating environmental pollution. Printing and related industries constitute one of the major sources of environmental pollution due to heavy energy and…

  17. Competition and Constraint : Economic Globalization and Human Resource Practices in 23 European Countries

    Koster, Ferry; Wittek, Rafael


    Economic globalization is often considered to be one of the main causes of recent changes in the workplace and the way in which organizations manage their human resources. Nevertheless, an empirical study putting this claim to the test by relating the internationalization of the economy to the use o

  18. Resource and environmental factors should be included in economic analytical framework



    In the economic analysis framework,natural resources and environmental factors are included in the category of capital or land.Hence,the explanatory variables of the production function only include capital,labor and the residue term technology.Such framework may be designed for methodological reasons,but it is determined

  19. Making the Connection: Disarmament, Development and Economic Conversion. A Resource Guide.

    Gold, Howard, Ed.

    This nine-part guide provides resources on various topics and issues related disarmament, development, and economic conversion. They include: (1) recent publications (with their tables of contents provided, when applicable); (2) research institutes; (3) non-governmental organizations with primary contacts for information; (4) research and…

  20. Theoretical and methodological foundations of resourcing of innovative capacity of domestic economic enterprises in globalizing conditions

    O.A. Ovechkina


    Full Text Available The problem of resource supply for the domestic enterprises innovative potential in aspect of growth of new possibilities under the influence of globalization processes is considered. The author's approach to definition of expediency of harmonization of communications with economic subjects external innovative potentials of the countries with a different level of development is presented.

  1. Biological productivity and potential resources of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of India

    Goswami, S.C.

    An assessment of the biological production and the potential fishery resources has been made based on the data collected over a period of 15 years (1976-1991). The entire Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), measuring 2.02 million km sup(2) was divided...

  2. Impact of the economic crisis on human resources development in Greek health system



    Full Text Available Once with the recession manifesting and the society development slowing, in the European economy has taken place a series of major and irreversible economic and social changes. The influence of these changes has been reflected upon all the activity fields, more or less.Evidently, the major influence was and still is the one of the expenses reduction, expenses that are implying financial, human and material resources necessary for the current activities development.The reduction of the expenses, especially the one with human resources, leads to the future approach from the development perspective of this resource, fact that has to consider the obtaining of the same effects (results but with more reduced efforts (costs.The main challenge is the one of reducing the efforts specific to the human resources (formation, permanent instruction, motivation and development in a substantial degree, but to avoid the manifestation of the quality reduction of the human resources and of their labor results.

  3. Linguistic confusion in economics: utility, causality, product differentiation, and the supply of natural resources.

    Simon, J L


    Lack of careful attention to the language used in the discussion of economic concepts has resulted in considerable confusion and error. 2 frequent sources of confusion include tautology and the absence of operational definitions of concepts. This paper outlines a more effective scientific practice through reference to 2 economic examples: 1) the concept of utility, where it is demonstrated that choice of an operational definition of the concept facilitates interpersonal comparisons; and 2) causality, where a multidimensional operational definition is needed to discriminate among the various meanings of the term in theoretical, empirical, and policy contexts. The paper further discusses the example of natural resource scarcity, where application of the term "finite" reveals that there is no empirical evidence of physical limits to growth in the use of resources. A more appropriate measure of scarcity is the economic concept of price.

  4. The economic effects of a natural resource discovery: a theoretical and simulation exercise

    Harvie, C. (Wollongong Univ. (Australia))

    The economic effect of a natural resource discovery is an important and contentious issue, and clearly of particular relevance to economies such as Australia and the UK with booming mineral sectors. Such a discovery may have adverse or beneficial effects on other sectors of the economy such as manufacturing, and on the economy as a whole, which would require an appropriate macroeconomic policy response by the government. The conceptual framework adopted is that developed by Dornbusch (1976), which specifically analysed the macroeconomic effects of changes in the money supply. In this model financial markets are efficient and forward looking, but nonfinancial markets are inefficient and backward looking. The extensions to this framework, to capture the economic effects of natural resource production, are identified, as well as the conflicting economic and policy conclusions derivable from alternative amendments and assumptions of the model. (author).

  5. Global water resources modeling with an integrated model of the social-economic-environmental system

    Davies, Evan G. R.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.


    Awareness of increasing water scarcity has driven efforts to model global water resources for improved insight into water resources infrastructure and management strategies. Most water resources models focus explicitly on water systems and represent socio-economic and environmental change as external drivers. In contrast, the system dynamics-based integrated assessment model employed here, ANEMI, incorporates dynamic representations of these systems, so that their broader changes affect and are affected by water resources systems through feedbacks. Sectors in ANEMI therefore include the global climate system, carbon cycle, economy, population, land use and agriculture, and novel versions of the hydrological cycle, global water use and water quality. Since the model focus is on their interconnections through explicit nonlinear feedbacks, simulations with ANEMI provide insight into the nature and structure of connections between water resources and socio-economic and environmental change. Of particular interest to water resources researchers and modelers will be the simulated effects of a new water stress definition that incorporates both water quality and water quantity effects into the measurement of water scarcity. Five simulation runs demonstrate the value of wastewater treatment and reuse programs and the feedback-effects of irrigated agriculture and greater consumption of animal products.

  6. The model of localized business community economic development under limited financial resources: computer model and experiment

    Berg Dmitry


    Full Text Available Globalization processes now affect and are affected by most of organizations, different type resources, and the natural environment. One of the main restrictions initiated by these processes is the financial one: money turnover in global markets leads to its concentration in the certain financial centers, and local business communities suffer from the money lack. This work discusses the advantages of complementary currency introduction into a local economics. By the computer simulation with the engineered program model and the real economic experiment it was proved that the complementary currency does not compete with the traditional currency, furthermore, it acts in compliance with it, providing conditions for the sustainable business community development.

  7. Harm to the Resources of Traditional Nature Management and Its Economic Evaluation

    Vladimir Grigoryevich Loginov


    Full Text Available The Yamal region occupies the fifth part of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District. Therefore it is one of the territories where traditional natural resource management is mainly developing. Its key branches are reindeer herding and fisheries. The major problems in the development of industries are due to an active industrial and transport exploitation of the tundra zone; the situation in reindeer husbandry caused by pasture overgrazing because of uncontrolled increase in livestock; poaching fish. Two following anthropogenic factors have a negative impact on soil and vegetation in the Yamal region: reindeer herding as the main traditional form of natural resource management of Small Indigenous People of the North (SIPN and the intensive industryrelated development of the territory (geological exploration, industry, transport, construction. Since grazing is practiced throughout the whole Yamal Peninsula, which is not occupied by industrial zones, it is the most widespread form of natural resource use and the leading factor of anthropogenic impact on Yamal’s natural territorial complexes. The primary reason for the decline in fish resources is the violation of the ecosystemic reproduction of fish resources due to their excessive catch. One of the main reasons of this is poaching. In turn, the annual increase of surplus catch is caused by the population growth, including SIPN, and the growing density of the road network providing the access to fishing grounds. The article offers the guidelines for economic damage assessment determined by the harm to the pasture resources. The authors justify the amount of compensation that repairs losses arising from their damage, which takes into account the decline in the productivity of land and the period of restoration of the economic and biological potential of pastures for the corresponding periods of years (compensation for economic damage. The economic damage assessment of the fish resources supposes

  8. Essai de caractérisation sous pression de panneaux en composites pour structures marines

    Reichard, R


    Les essais traditionnels sur panneaux sandwich FRP utilisant une charge uniaxiale fournissent des données intéressantes pour les concepteurs de structure, mais ces essais ne conviennent pas bien pour les stratifiés renforcés multiaxiaux ou sandwichs. Les stratifiés sandwichs sont en général utilisés pour accroître les propriétés en flexion d'un panneau. Les essais en flexion des poutres sandwichs ne prennent pas en compte les effets de membrane de panneau qui peuvent être importants. Un certa...

  9. Geothermal resource, engineering and economic feasibility study for the City of Ouray, Colorado. Final report

    Meyer, R.T.; Raskin, R.; Zocholl, J.R.


    A geothermal energy feasibility study has been performed for the City of Ouray, Colorado, to determine the potential economic development opportunities to the City. The resource assessment indicates the resource to be associated with the Ouray fault zone, the Leadville limestone formation, the high thermal gradient in the area of the San Juan mountains, and the recharge from precipitation in the adjacent mountains. Four engineering designs of alternative sizes, costs, applications, and years of start-up have been defined to offer the City a range of development scales. Life cycle cost analyses have been conducted for cases of both public and private ownership. All systems are found to be feasible on both economic and technical grounds. 49 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Impact of human resources on wine supply chain flexibility, quality, and economic performance

    J. L. García-Alcaraz


    Full Text Available This article assesses the impact of human resources skills on production quality, flexibility, and economic performance of La Rioja’s wine supply chain. These four elements were integrated as latent variables composed of 15 observed variables and associated through six hypotheses. Data were gathered from 64 wineries located in La Rioja, Spain, and hypotheses were validated in a structural equation model using WarpPLS v.5 software. Results indicate that human resources skills have a positive direct impact on SC flexibility and quality, but not on economic performance; however, these variables are indirectly associated through SC quality and SC flexibility.

  11. L’essai littéraire, devant le temps

    Marielle Macé


    Full Text Available Le style de vérité accessible à l’essai est perceptible dans son mode de circulation, les souvenirs que l’on en garde, la façon dont on le résume, bref, l’usage que l’on en fait. Ce mémorable de l’essai tient à une pratique généralisée de la citation ; les essayistes partent de formes « citables », comme d’autant de pensées héritées et de savoirs doxaux ou paradoxaux qu’ils exploitent, développent ou fragilisent ; et ils en produisent à leur tour, offrant non pas des modèles applicables mais des cas remobilisables, des pensées désormais disponibles. Cette disponibilité identifie une pratique intellectuelle, les objets qu’elle fait naître (cette forme sensible que prennent dans un essai les opérations de l’esprit, un rythme propre à toute individualité pensante, bref une façon qu’a la prose d’idées de se situer devant le temps. Elle explique aussi la colère suscitée dans le monde du savoir contemporain par un genre profondément temporel, c’est-à-dire rythmé, situé, mais aussi précaire et soupçonnable à cet égard d’anachronisme.Lo stile di verità accessibile al saggio è percettibile nel modo in cui il testo circola, nei ricordi che ne abbiamo, nella maniera in cui ne facciamo riassunto, cioè nell’uso che possiamo averne. Questo aspetto “memorabile” del saggio è legato ad una prattica generalizzata della citazione. I saggisti partono di forme “citabili”, pensieri ereditati, saperi comuni o paradossali che loro mettono a prova, sviluppano, o fragilizzano; e ne producono a sua volta, non per offrire modelli da applicare, ma casi da mobilizzare, pensieri ormai disponibili. Questà disponibilità definisce una pratica intellettuale, gli oggetti che essa fa nascere (questa forma sensibile che prendono nel saggio le operazioni mentali, un ritmo legato ad ogni individualità nell’atto di pensare, un modo di porsi davanti al tempo. Spiega anche l’irritazione suscitata nel

  12. Natural Resources and Local Economic Development: Evidence from a Peruvian Gold Mine

    Aragon, Fernando M.; Juan Pablo Rud


    This paper uses the case of Yanacocha, a large gold mine in Peru, to examine the link between natural resources and local economic development. We find evidence of a positive and sizeable effect of the mine on real income, household consumption and poverty reduction. The effects are driven by the mine's demand of local inputs, not by the expansion of local public spending or by compensating differentials for negative spillovers. Using a spatial general equilibrium model, we interpret these re...


    Tatarov A. A.


    The article explores shift of emphasis in the Third Reich policy in the North Caucasus when agricultural resources of the region became the main object of economic exploitation and one of the most important source of Germany's food supply. Firstly the author shows the place the North Caucasus had in agriculture of the Soviet Union on the eve of the Great Patriotic War. Despite a relatively small area and population, the region played an important role in the production of wheat, corn, sunflow...

  14. The theological responses to the socio-economic activities that undermine water as a resource

    Thomas Resane


    This article focuses, from a theological perspective, on both the ecological crisis and the politico-economic dealings in relation to water – especially with regard to the unsound ways in which governments deal with this resource. Texts are read from an anthropogenic perspective, as opposed to an anthropocentric one. Such a reading scenario calls for responses from theology with regard to the human position in creation. Humans are not a grand master plan of creation, but the completion and fu...

  15. Economic Importance, Environmental and Supply Risks on Imported Resources in Lithuanian Industry

    Milda Knašytė


    Full Text Available Secure raw material supply is one of the most important topics for industry. Growing economies such as China, India, Brazil and others increase the global demand and in the same time the competition for resources. In order to undertake appropriate actions the most important raw materials should be identified. The aim of this study was to identify the most important raw materials for Lithuanian economy in terms of economic importance, supply and environmental risks. The methodology used in the study relies on three sustainability dimensions accordingly expressed by three indicators: Economic Importance (Economic dimension; Supply Risk (Social dimension; Environmental Country Risk (Environmental dimension. The methodology used to define these indicators on imported resources for Lithuanian industry was adapted from report on critical raw materials for European Union (Report of the Ad-hoc Working Group on defining critical raw materials 2010 published by European Commission in June 2010. Critical raw materials are considered to be economically important and the subject to a higher risk of supply interruption. All materials investigated in this study were combined into five groups: chemicals, metals, building materials, paper, paperboard and wood, other materials. Only the imported raw materials were selected for further analysis. The significance of raw material import was considered as important according to the ratio of production and consumption of certain material. After the analysis of statistical information about raw materials import in Lithuania and the actual countries of origin of these resources twenty one raw material was selected for further investigation. According to the results of assessment the list of critical raw materials for Lithuania was indentified. Results of the investigation showed that top five materials in terms of economic importance, supply and environmental country risks for Lithuanian economy are: crude oil, natural

  16. Dispositional optimism: a psychological resource for Mexican-origin mothers experiencing economic stress.

    Taylor, Zoe E; Widaman, Keith F; Robins, Richard W; Jochem, Rachel; Early, Dawnte R; Conger, Rand D


    Dispositional optimism is believed to be an important psychological resource that buffers families against the deleterious consequences of economic adversity. Using data from a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin families (N = 674), we tested a family stress model specifying that maternal dispositional optimism and economic pressure affect maternal internalizing symptoms, which, in turn, affects parenting behaviors and children's social adjustment. As predicted, maternal optimism and economic pressure had both independent and interactive effects on maternal internalizing symptoms, and the effects of these variables on changes over time in child social adjustment were mediated by nurturant and involved parenting. The findings replicate and extend previous research on single-parent African American families (Taylor, Larsen-Rife, Conger, Widaman, & Cutrona, 2010), and demonstrate the generalizability of the positive benefits of dispositional optimism in another ethnic group and type of family structure.

  17. CIM-EARTH: Community integrated model of economic and resource trajectories for humankind.

    Elliott, J.; Foster, I.; Judd, K.; Moyer, E.; Munson, T.; Univ. of Chicago; Hoover Inst.


    Climate change is a global problem with local climatic and economic impacts. Mitigation policies can be applied on large geographic scales, such as a carbon cap-and-trade program for the entire U.S., on medium geographic scales, such as the NOx program for the northeastern U.S., or on smaller scales, such as statewide renewable portfolio standards and local gasoline taxes. To enable study of the environmental benefits, transition costs, capitalization effects, and other consequences of mitigation policies, we are developing dynamic general equilibrium models capable of incorporating important climate impacts. This report describes the economic framework we have developed and the current Community Integrated Model of Economic and Resource Trajectories for Humankind (CIM-EARTH) instance.

  18. Economic analysis of HIV prevention interventions in Andhra Pradesh state of India to inform resource allocation.

    Dandona, Lalit; Kumar, S G Prem; Kumar, G Anil; Dandona, Rakhi


    To conduct composite economic analysis of HIV prevention interventions to inform efficient utilization of resources in India. We obtained output and economic cost data for the 2005-2006 fiscal year from a representative sample of 128 public-funded HIV prevention programmes of 14 types in Andhra Pradesh state of India. Using data from various sources, we developed a model to estimate the number of HIV infections averted. We estimated the additional HIV infections that could be averted if each intervention reached optimal coverage and the associated cost. In a year, 9688 HIV infections were averted by public-funded HIV prevention interventions in Andhra Pradesh. Scaling-up interventions to the optimal level would require US$38.8 million annually, 2.8 times the US$13.8 million economic cost in 2005-2006. This could increase the number of HIV infections averted by 2.4-fold, if with higher resources there were many-fold increases in the proportional allocation for programmes for migrant labourers, men who have sex with men and voluntary counselling and testing, and reduction of the high proportion for mass media campaigns to one-third of the 2005-2006 proportion of resource utilization. If the proportions of resource allocation for interventions remained similar to 2005-2006, the higher resources would avert 54% of the additional avertable HIV infections. The recent four-fold increase in public funding for HIV/AIDS control in India should be adequate to scale-up HIV prevention interventions to an optimal level in Andhra Pradesh, but the prevention would be suboptimal if additional investments were not preferentially directed to some particular interventions.

  19. Natural Resource Conditions and Economic Development in the Uttaranchal Himalaya, India

    Vishwambhar Prasad Sati


    Uttaranchal is bestowed with numerous rivers, huge forest resources ranging from tropical to temperate, tourists' places, pilgrimages and feasible climatic conditions for growing fruits, vegetables,food grains, livestock rearing, tea garden practices, etc.The economic development, on the other hand, could not take place partly due to lack of modern technology with innovation in agricultural system and also unwillingness of the people towards using it.Furthermore, due to its harsh climatic conditions,rigorous terrain and distinct identity, as a part of Uttar Pradesh state, the development could not take place and today the state is believed to be one of the poorer states. Infrastructurally, this region is lagged behind due to its inaccessibility. The ideal geographical and agrarian conditions might be used evenly for the developmental processes. Ecologically,the whole region is fragile. The diverse socio-economic activities, harsh traditional beliefs and hard working potentials further change the entire scenario of the state. Only the need of the hours is to frame and implementation of the rational policies and planning for sustainable development of the state.What had appeared during the past, pertaining to the economic development, needs radical changes in policies, planning and beliefs. This paper aims to evaluate the present conditions of resources as a form of natural vegetation, agricultural crops, horticultural farming, herbs, tea garden practices, livestock rearing,hydropower projects and economic development of the Uttaranchal Himalaya.

  20. Analyse du frottement dans les essais de compression sur barres d'Hopkinson

    Lichtenberger, A.; Lach, E.; Bohmann, A.


    Une étude a été menée sur l'influence du frottement sur les résultats d'essais de compressions statique et dynamique. Un relevé du profil après déformation plastique d'éprouvettes cylindriques a été effectué afin d'évaluer l'importance du frottement dans les essais. Une simulation numérique de cet essai permet avec un coefficient de frottement adapté de retrouver la forme de l'échantillon déformé. Par ailleurs, le coefficient de frottement a été déterminé à partir d'essais de compressions d'a...

  1. Problems of software financial resources agrarian sector in the current economic conditions of management

    Grischuk Nadiya Viktorivna


    Full Text Available Research of financial science on questions providing of financial resources does not exhaust and needs a further study that acquires new descriptions and vectors of development constantly, what costing illuminations in the conditions of present time. Research of the state of provision of financial resources agrarian to the sector of economy with allocating of main segment – loan and attracted financial resources, today topically. In the article the essence funds are considered sources of agricultural enterprises financial resources and problems associated with the formation and use of financial resources in the modern world. Also the problems arising in improving the process of raising funds agricultural enterprises. Revealed that an effective tool to attract financial resources is the issue of convertible bonds and the introduction of agricultural receipts. It is well-proven that in the conditions of unstable environment forward development of the system of agrarian relations must be carried out on the basis of the government programs, and normatively-legal adjusting that take into account not only the existent state of affairs at the market of agroindustrial products but also economic provision of enterprises national agrarian to the sector.

  2. Proceedings of the economic renewal forum report on working partnerships : Aboriginal People, the private sector and resource development



    Aboriginal Economic Renewal Initiative (AERI) has the mandate to develop partnerships and identify both barriers and solutions as they relate to sustainable economic development. This forum provided an opportunity for First Nation economic developers, representatives from government and other organizations in Ontario to develop business relationships beneficial to all parties. The participants discussed a wide range of topics, such as the creation of partnerships in the resource sector, the politics of resource development, and business models and funding agents. At the end of the forum, two trends were identified. Mainstream economic stakeholders are recognizing the increased strength of First Nations in major decision making regarding the development of resources in Canada. Future relationships between First Nations and the economic mainstream will determine in large part the landscape for resource development in Canada. tabs., figs.

  3. Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions

    D. R. Archer


    Full Text Available Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita water availability, Pakistan's water resources are already highly stressed and will become increasingly so with projected population changes. Potential changes to supply through declining reservoir storage, the impact of waterlogging and salinity or over-abstraction of groundwater, or reallocations for environmental remediation of the Indus Delta or to meet domestic demands, will reduce water availability for irrigation.

    The impact of climate change on resources in the Upper Indus is considered in terms of three hydrological regimes – a nival regime dependent on melting of winter snow, a glacial regime, and a rainfall regime dependent on concurrent rainfall. On the basis of historic trends in climate, most notably the decline in summer temperatures, there is no strong evidence in favour of marked reductions in water resources from any of the three regimes. Evidence for changes in trans-Himalayan glacier mass balance is mixed. Sustainability of water resources appears more threatened by socio-economic changes than by climatic trends. Nevertheless, analysis and the understanding of the linkage of climate, glaciology and runoff is still far from complete; recent past climate experience may not provide a reliable guide to the future.

  4. Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions

    D. R. Archer


    Full Text Available Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita water availability, Pakistan's water resources are already highly stressed and will become increasingly so with projected population changes. Potential changes to supply through declining reservoir storage, the impact of waterlogging and salinity or over-abstraction of groundwater, or reallocations for environmental remediation of the Indus Delta or to meet domestic demands, will reduce water availability for irrigation.

    The impact of climate change on resources in the Upper Indus is considered in terms of three hydrological regimes – a nival regime dependent on melting of winter snow, a glacial regime, and a rainfall regime dependent on concurrent rainfall. On the basis of historic trends in climate, most notably the decline in summer temperatures, there is no strong evidence in favour of marked reductions in water resources from any of the three regimes. Evidence for changes in trans-Himalayan glacier mass balance is mixed. Sustainability of water resources appears more threatened by socio-economic changes than by climatic trends. Nevertheless, analysis and the understanding of the linkage of climate, glaciology and runoff is still far from complete; recent past climate experience may not provide a reliable guide to the future.

  5. An economic analysis of the electricity generation potential from biogas resources in the state of Indiana

    Giraldo, Juan S.

    Anaerobic digestion is a process that is a common part of organic waste management systems and is used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The process produces biogas, which contains methane, and it can be burned to generate electricity. Previous reports have indicated that based on the availability of feedstocks there is a large potential for biogas production and use for electricity generation in the state of Indiana. However, these reports varied in their consideration of important factors that affect the technical and economic feasibility of being able to develop the resources available. The goal of this thesis is to make a more targeted assessment of the electricity generation potential from biogas resources at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills in Indiana. A capital budgeting model is used to estimate the net present value (NPV) of biogas electricity projects at facilities that are identified as technically suitable. A statewide estimate of the potential generation capacity is made by estimating the number of facilities that could profitably undertake a biogas electricity project. In addition this thesis explored the impact that different incentive policies would have on the economic viability of these projects. The results indicated that the electricity generation potential is much smaller when technical and economic factors are taken into account in addition to feedstock availability. In particular it was found that projects at hog farms are unlikely to be economically feasible in the present even when financial incentives are considered. In total, 47.94 MW of potential generating capacity is estimated from biogas production at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills. Though results indicated that 37.10 MW of capacity are economically feasible under current operating conditions, sensitivity analysis reveals that these projects are very sensitive to capital cost assumptions

  6. How much will be economic impact of climate change on water resources? A Meta-Analytic Review of previous literature

    Yoshikawa, S.; Iseri, Y.; Kanae, S.


    Water resources is vital in social and economic activities. Total global water use is increasing, mainly due to economic and population growth in developing countries. It has one of risk with high agreement and robust evidence that freshwater-related risks of climate change increase significantly with increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. It is difficult to compare the risk with other field risk (e.g. agriculture, forestry, sea level rise) for considering both adaptation and mitigation policy with the level of decision makers and public servants. Economic impacts of climate change on water scarcity has been estimated by economic researchers. We have no certainty at all about integration between hydrological and economical fields on global scale. In this study, we highlight key concerns about conventional estimations of economic impact on water resources through meta-analysis. The economic impact on water resource in same base year using consumer price index is shown with increase in the global mean temperature. We clarified four concerns which are involved in 1) classification of economic mechanism, 2) estimated items of economic impact, 3) difference in estimating equations, and 4) definition of parameters related with economic impact of climate change. This study would be essential to next challenge as transdisciplinary research between hydrologic and economic fields.

  7. Economic Instruments and the Environment: Can Natural Resources be Maneged Exclusively by the Market?

    João Júlio Vitral Amaro


    Full Text Available The advent of industrial economies coincides with the emergence of the economy as an autonomous discipline and with the question, not hitherto placed on the “value of nature”. As the basis of any theory of the first economists was the statement that every "value" is the work of man, was a fragile theoretical nature of the classics, since this is not the result of human labor. So, to circumvent the problem of fixing the "values​​" intrinsic to nature, environmental economics, in its most widespread version, part of the statement that assigns what is "value" is not exactly the environment or environmental resources but people's preferences in relation to changes in quality or quantity supplied of natural resource. The idea of ​​transaction rights on the environment (in fact, the right to pollute found resonance in the United States with "certified environmental" measures to better control pollution. They are traded for several polluting companies that can, in turn, trade them in the market for environmental permits. Remember that in any arrangement in which disputing parties settle in reaction conditions supposedly equal, makes a big difference the presence of those more able to lobby and power to influence public opinion. It is seen, even with the refinement that achieves economic analysis by incorporating as legitimate rights of non pollution, yet there is no guarantee the order of environmental damage if the whole issue be restricted to the context of the economic approach simply.

  8. Forest economics and policy in a changing environment: how market, policy, and climate transformations affect forests -- Proceedings of the 2016 Meeting of the International Society of Forest Resource Economics

    Gregory E. Frey; Prakash Nepal


    Economics can affect decisions about forest resource management and utilization, and in turn, the ecosystem benefits received. In a time of market, policy, and climate transformations, economic analyses are critical to help policy-makers and resource managers make appropriate decisions. At the 2016 Meeting of the International Society of Forest Resource Economics (...

  9. Economic, social and resource management factors influencing groundwater trade: Evidence from Victoria, Australia

    Gill, Bruce; Webb, John; Stott, Kerry; Cheng, Xiang; Wilkinson, Roger; Cossens, Brendan


    In Victoria, Australia, most groundwater resources are now fully allocated and opportunities for new groundwater development can only occur through trading of license entitlements. Groundwater usage has rarely exceeded 50% of the available licensed volume, even in the 2008/9 drought year, and 50 to 70% of individual license holders use less than 5% of their allocation each year. However, little groundwater trading is occurring at present. Interviews were conducted with groundwater license holders and water brokers to investigate why the Victorian groundwater trade market is underdeveloped. Responses show there is a complex mix of social, economic, institutional and technical reasons. Barriers to trade are influenced by the circumstances of each groundwater user, administrative process and resource management rules. Water brokers deal with few trades at low margins and noted unrealistic selling prices and administrative difficulties. Irrigators who have successfully traded identify that there are few participants in trading, technical appraisals are expensive and administrative requirements and fees are burdensome, especially when compared to surface water trading. Opportunities to facilitate trade include groundwater management plan refinement and improved information provision. Simplifying transaction processes and costs, demonstrating good resource stewardship and preventing third party impacts from trade could address some concerns raised by market participants. There are, however, numerous individual circumstances that inhibit groundwater trading, so it is unlikely that policy and process changes alone could increase usage rates without greater demand for groundwater or more favourable farming economic circumstances.

  10. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment

    Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Menzie, W. David


    An analysis of the amount and location of undiscovered mineral resources that are likely to be economically recoverable is important for assessing the long-term adequacy and availability of mineral supplies. This requires an economic evaluation of estimates of undiscovered resources generated by traditional resource assessments (Singer and Menzie, 2010). In this study, simplified engineering cost models were used to estimate the economic fraction of resources contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, predicted in a global assessment of copper resources. The cost models of Camm (1991) were updated with a cost index to reflect increases in mining and milling costs since 1989. The updated cost models were used to perform an economic analysis of undiscovered resources estimated in porphyry copper deposits in six tracts located in North America. The assessment estimated undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the land surface in three depth intervals.

  11. Managing resources in NHS dentistry: using health economics to inform commissioning decisions.

    Holmes, Richard D; Steele, Jimmy; Exley, Catherine E; Donaldson, Cam


    The aim of this study is to develop, apply and evaluate an economics-based framework to assist commissioners in their management of finite resources for local dental services. In April 2006, Primary Care Trusts in England were charged with managing finite dental budgets for the first time, yet several independent reports have since criticised the variability in commissioning skills within these organisations. The study will explore the views of stakeholders (dentists, patients and commissioners) regarding priority setting and the criteria used for decision-making and resource allocation. Two inter-related case studies will explore the dental commissioning and resource allocation processes through the application of a pragmatic economics-based framework known as Programme Budgeting and Marginal Analysis. The study will adopt an action research approach. Qualitative methods including semi-structured interviews, focus groups, field notes and document analysis will record the views of participants and their involvement in the research process. The first case study will be based within a Primary Care Trust where mixed methods will record the views of dentists, patients and dental commissioners on issues, priorities and processes associated with managing local dental services. A Programme Budgeting and Marginal Analysis framework will be applied to determine the potential value of economic principles to the decision-making process. A further case study will be conducted in a secondary care dental teaching hospital using the same approach. Qualitative data will be analysed using thematic analysis and managed using a framework approach. The recent announcement by government regarding the proposed abolition of Primary Care Trusts may pose challenges for the research team regarding their engagement with the research study. However, whichever commissioning organisations are responsible for resource allocation for dental services in the future; resource scarcity is highly

  12. Economic advantages of applying model predictive control to distributed energy resources: The case of micro-CHP systems

    Houwing, M.; Negenborn, R.R.; De Schutter, B.


    The increasing presence of distributed energy resources, information and intelligence in the electricity infrastructure increases the possibilities for larger economic efficiency of power systems. This work shows the possible cost advantages of applying a model predictive control (MPC) strategy to

  13. Regional studies program. Forecasting the local economic impacts of energy resource development: a methodological approach

    Stenehjem, E.J.


    Emphasis is placed on the nature and magnitude of socio-economic impacts of fossil-fuel development. A model is described that identifies and estimates the magnitude of the economic impacts of anticipated energy resource development in site-specific areas and geographically contiguous areas of unspecified size. The modeling methodology was designed to assist industries and government agencies complying with recent federal and state legislation requiring subregional impact analyses for individual facilities. The model was designed in light of the requirements for accuracy, expandability, and exportability. The methodology forecasts absolute increments in local and regional growth on an annual or biennial basis and transforms these parameters into estimates of the affected area's ability to accommodate growth-induced demands, especially demands for public services. (HLW)

  14. Interpretive schemata of human resource management during economic crisis: Case of producers for automotive industry

    Ana Arzenšek


    Full Text Available This qualitative research investigates interpretive schemata by producers for automotive industry during the economic crisis in Slovenia. Specifically, the interest was in their Human resource management (HRM schemata in current crisis. We explained the dynamics of schema change on the basis of Piaget's theory of adaptation. In-depth interviews with CEOs, directors of HRM and leaders of trade unions served as a primary data source. In addition, comparative analysis of social responsibility as reported in companies' annual reports in 2007 and 2008 was made. Firstly, results demonstrate strategic role of HRM in chosen companies. Secondly, present economic crisis does not serve as a factor of schema change. In conclusion, participants mostly assimilate new information from environment to fit their HRM schemata. Results show the major factor for both assimilation and lack of schema change is occurrence of crisis in Slovenian companies that produce for automotive industry in the nineties.

  15. Economics of large-scale thorium oxide production: assessment of domestic resources

    Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.; Enderlin, W.I.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Drost, M.K.; Weakley, S.A.


    The supply curve illustrates that sufficient amounts of thorium exist supply a domestic thorium-reactor economy. Most likely costs of production range from $3 to $60/lb ThO/sub 2/. Near-term thorium oxide resources include the stockpiles in Ohio, Maryland, and Tennessee and the thorite deposits at Hall Mountain, Idaho. Costs are under $10/lb thorium oxide. Longer term economic deposits include Wet Mountain, Colorado; Lemhi Pass, Idaho; and Palmer, Michigan. Most likely costs are under $20/lb thorium oxide. Long-term deposits include Bald Mountain, Wyoming; Bear Lodge, Wyoming; and Conway, New Hampshire. Costs approximately equal or exceed $50/lb thorium oxide.

  16. Economic principles for resource allocation decisions at national level to mitigate the effects of disease in farm animal populations.

    Howe, K S; Häsler, B; Stärk, K D C


    This paper originated in a project to develop a practical, generic tool for the economic evaluation of surveillance for farm animal diseases at national level by a state veterinary service. Fundamental to that process is integration of epidemiological and economic perspectives. Using a generalized example of epidemic disease, we show that an epidemic curve maps into its economic equivalent, a disease mitigation function, that traces the relationship between value losses avoided and mitigation resources expended. Crucially, elementary economic principles show that mitigation, defined as loss reduction achieved by surveillance and intervention, must be explicitly conceptualized as a three-variable process, and the relative contributions of surveillance and intervention resources investigated with regard to the substitution possibilities between them. Modelling the resultant mitigation surfaces for different diseases should become a standard approach to animal health policy analysis for economic efficiency, a contribution to the evolving agenda for animal health economics research.

  17. Assessing climate change and socio-economic uncertainties in long term management of water resources

    Jahanshahi, Golnaz; Dawson, Richard; Walsh, Claire; Birkinshaw, Stephen; Glenis, Vassilis


    Long term management of water resources is challenging for decision makers given the range of uncertainties that exist. Such uncertainties are a function of long term drivers of change, such as climate, environmental loadings, demography, land use and other socio economic drivers. Impacts of climate change on frequency of extreme events such as drought make it a serious threat to water resources and water security. The release of probabilistic climate information, such as the UKCP09 scenarios, provides improved understanding of some uncertainties in climate models. This has motivated a more rigorous approach to dealing with other uncertainties in order to understand the sensitivity of investment decisions to future uncertainty and identify adaptation options that are as far as possible robust. We have developed and coupled a system of models that includes a weather generator, simulations of catchment hydrology, demand for water and the water resource system. This integrated model has been applied in the Thames catchment which supplies the city of London, UK. This region is one of the driest in the UK and hence sensitive to water availability. In addition, it is one of the fastest growing parts of the UK and plays an important economic role. Key uncertainties in long term water resources in the Thames catchment, many of which result from earth system processes, are identified and quantified. The implications of these uncertainties are explored using a combination of uncertainty analysis and sensitivity testing. The analysis shows considerable uncertainty in future rainfall, river flow and consequently water resource. For example, results indicate that by the 2050s, low flow (Q95) in the Thames catchment will range from -44 to +9% compared with the control scenario (1970s). Consequently, by the 2050s the average number of drought days are expected to increase 4-6 times relative to the 1970s. Uncertainties associated with urban growth increase these risks further

  18. Economic vulnerability among low educated Europeans : the impact of resources, the group's position, labour market conditions and welfare state arrangements

    Gesthuizen, M.; Scheepers, P.


    In this article, we pose the question: To what extent does a lack of individual resources and of access to high quality resources in one’s core social network explain why low-educated people are likely to experience economic vulnerability? Additionally, we explain cross-national differences in the

  19. Use of Online Information Resources by RMIT University Economics, Finance, and Marketing Students Participating in a Cooperative Education Program

    Costa, Cathy


    This paper examines the use of online information resources by Economics, Finance, and Marketing 3rd year students in a cooperative education program and explores some possible factors and issues that influence how students use these resources. The nature of Work Integrated Learning (WIL) programs, the business information environment, and the…

  20. Economic vulnerability among low educated Europeans : the impact of resources, the group's position, labour market conditions and welfare state arrangements

    Gesthuizen, M.; Scheepers, P.


    In this article, we pose the question: To what extent does a lack of individual resources and of access to high quality resources in one’s core social network explain why low-educated people are likely to experience economic vulnerability? Additionally, we explain cross-national differences in the r

  1. Trends and corresponding policies related to population, resources, environment and economic development in northwest China.

    Zhang, Z; Zhu, L


    A model is presented of the interaction between population, resources, environment, and the economic system in the northwest region of China. Population pressure is yielding important impacts on the environment. Development should be guided by effective population control and continuous agricultural development. Alternative strategies include: 1) Identify effective ways to curb population growth, e.g., investment in social and economic development, and formation of a social environment with social security assurances conducive to population control. Public campaigns need to address the links between poverty and population, to awaken people's sense of responsibility, and to change people's desire for more children. 2) Give education a priority as a means of upgrading the quality of rural labor. Mass media must popularize elementary school education and nine years of education. 3) Encourage migration out of the northwest. 4) Use technology to protect and correct land resources. Local regulations are needed on land management to guarantee proper planning, use, protection, and conservation of land. 5) Upgrade agricultural structures, develop forestry and grasslands, protect water and soil, and improve the ecological conditions. 6) Invest capital in such farm constructions as irrigation systems. 7) Increase investments in agriculture in order to assure productivity and reserves and to speed the transition to modern agricultural practices. 8) Raise land efficiency by increasing imports of grain and cereals from outside the region. 9) Develop township enterprises and the rural economy.

  2. Fair reckoning: a qualitative investigation of responses to an economic health resource allocation survey.

    Giacomini, Mita; Hurley, Jeremiah; DeJean, Deirdre


    To investigate how participants in an economic resource allocation survey construct notions of fairness. Qualitative interview study guided by interpretive grounded theory methods. Qualitative interviews were conducted with volunteer university- (n=39) and community-based (n =7) economic survey participants. INTERVENTION OR MAIN VARIABLES STUDIED: We explored how participants constructed meanings to guide or explain fair survey choices, focusing on rationales, imagery and additional desired information not provided in the survey scenarios. Data were transcribed and coded into qualitative categories. Analysis iterated with data collection iterated through three waves of interviews. Participants compared the survey dilemmas to domains outside the health system. Most compared them with other micro-level, inter-personal sharing tasks. Participants raised several fairness-relevant factors beyond need or capacity to benefit. These included age, weight, poverty, access to other options and personal responsibility for illness; illness duration, curability or seriousness; life expectancy; possibilities for sharing; awareness of other's needs; and ability to explain allocations to those affected. They also articulated a fairness principle little considered by equity theories: that everybody must get something and nobody should get nothing. Lay criteria for judging fairness are myriad. Simple scenarios may be used to investigate lay commitments to abstract principles. Although principles are the focus of analysis and inference, participants may solve simplified dilemmas by imputing extraneous features to the problem or applying unanticipated principles. These possibilities should be taken into account in the design of resource allocation surveys eliciting the views of the public. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A social-economic-engineering combined framework for decision making in water resources planning

    E. S. Chung


    Full Text Available This study develops a social-economic-engineering combined framework for decision making in water resources planning. This framework consists of four parts which are to spatially identify the grades on hydrological vulnerability (potential streamflow depletion and potential water quality deterioration, to evaluate the monetary values of improvements on hydrological vulnerability grades using the choice experiment method, to derive an alternative evaluation index (AEI to quantify the effectiveness of all alternatives, and to combine the derived willingness-to-pays (WTPs with the AEI and do the cost-benefit analysis of feasible alternatives. This framework includes the stakeholder participation in order to quantify the preferences with regard to management objectives (water quantity and quality and WTPs of alternatives. Finally, the economic values of each alternative can be estimated by this study which combines the WTPs for improvements on hydrologic vulnerability grades with the AEI. The proposed procedure is applied in the Anyangcheon watershed which has been highly urbanized for past thirty years. As a result, WTPs are $0.24~$10.08/month-household for water quantity and $0.80~$8.60/month-household for water quality and residents of the five regions among six have higher WTPs for water quality improvement. Finally, since three of ten alternatives have BC>0, they can be proposed to the decision makers. This systematic screening procedure will provide decision makers with the flexibility to obtain stakeholders' consensus for water resources planning.

  4. The water-energy-food-climate-economics nexus: solving hunger and resource scarcity

    Lall, U.


    A nexus refers to the core or to interconnectivity across issues. Addressing the boundary interactions of traditional sectors in an interconnected world as human activities change the physical boundaries of land and climate is an emerging academic and governance discourse. Through contrasting examples from the US and India, I shed light on the descriptive aspects of these connections and feedbacks that define potential impacts or traps for societies, and ponder whether a massive conceptual or numerical Earth System Model can help inform outcomes, or whether there are dominant links at particular scales (physical, social, economic or biological) that characterize the emergent dynamics and define critical equilibrium or transient solutions in certain places. However, the real question is what next given the definition of the nexus? Here, I argue that given the current valuation and management structure of different resource sectors and the associated information flows and sensitivities, the interlinked energy-climate issues can emerge as useful drivers of improved productivity in water-food systems, thus promoting resource and environmental sustainability while promoting economic development. Thus, levers can be found that help steer the course of these complex interacting systems towards desirable sectoral outcomes.

  5. Quick-start guide for version 3.0 of EMINERS - Economic Mineral Resource Simulator

    Bawiec, Walter J.; Spanski, Gregory T.


    Quantitative mineral resource assessment, as developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), consists of three parts: (1) development of grade and tonnage mineral deposit models; (2) delineation of tracts permissive for each deposit type; and (3) probabilistic estimation of the numbers of undiscovered deposits for each deposit type (Singer and Menzie, 2010). The estimate of the number of undiscovered deposits at different levels of probability is the input to the EMINERS (Economic Mineral Resource Simulator) program. EMINERS uses a Monte Carlo statistical process to combine probabilistic estimates of undiscovered mineral deposits with models of mineral deposit grade and tonnage to estimate mineral resources. It is based upon a simulation program developed by Root and others (1992), who discussed many of the methods and algorithms of the program. Various versions of the original program (called "MARK3" and developed by David H. Root, William A. Scott, and Lawrence J. Drew of the USGS) have been published (Root, Scott, and Selner, 1996; Duval, 2000, 2012). The current version (3.0) of the EMINERS program is available as USGS Open-File Report 2004-1344 (Duval, 2012). Changes from version 2.0 include updating 87 grade and tonnage models, designing new templates to produce graphs showing cumulative distribution and summary tables, and disabling economic filters. The economic filters were disabled because embedded data for costs of labor and materials, mining techniques, and beneficiation methods are out of date. However, the cost algorithms used in the disabled economic filters are still in the program and available for reference for mining methods and milling techniques included in Camm (1991). EMINERS is written in C++ and depends upon the Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 programming environment. The code depends heavily on the use of Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) for implementation of the Windows interface. The program works only on Microsoft Windows XP or newer

  6. A bio-economic application to the Cape Rock Lobster resource using a delay difference modelling approach

    E Roos


    Full Text Available In many species, like the Cape Rock Lobster (Jasus lalandii, the life cycles of males and females differ. This may motivate the use of two-sex models in a stock-assessment analysis. It is also true for this resource, that juveniles do not reach sexual maturity immediately. Therefore a delay-difference model is appropriate. In this study we follow a bio-economic approach and use a two-sex delay-difference model to determine a maximum economic yield strategy. Thus we determine an economic optimum steady state solution at which to harvest this resource subject to the biological constraints of the species.

  7. Socio-economic development with regard to the availability of resources in Benin, West Africa

    Mbarek, R.; Behle, C.; Doevenspeck, M.; Mulindabigwi, V.; Schopp, M.; Singer, U.; Henrichsmeyer, W.; Janssens, M.; Schug, W.


    The socio-economic part within the IMPETUS-Project analyses interdependencies between resource availability and socio-economic development in Benin. The results of various research activities of natural and social sciences are integrated in a modelling system, in order to calculate development scenarios of resource utilisation and food security in Benin for the next two decades. Missing data concerning water usage and economic parameters are collected in field surveys, in co-operation with other disciplines and stakeholders on site, investigating the upper Ouémé-catchment in particular. The demand of water is analysed by water frequency observation, household analysis and interviews with experts and shows the effects of changing socio-economic parameters on demand growth. The analysis of water availability investigates the question, how the gap between water demand and water availability, due to demographic, social and natural conditions, may be closed by improved management systems and improved technical equipment. A further field of interest is to measure the influence of land use systems and rain variability on carbon balance and food security. Rain variability associated with inadequate land use systems has become the most important factor for determining food insecurity and emission of (global )greenhouse gases in Benin. Therefore, farmers in Benin need efficient water management systems, otherwise they are obliged to extend their agricultural areas or to migrate towards less occupied regions. The results of the above mentioned research activities are introduced in the modelling system BenIMPACT (Benin Integrated Modelling System for Policy Analysis, Climate and Technology Change). It consists of an agricultural sector model (spatial, synthetic, non-linear), a tool to calculate water balances and a basic data system, which provides data and results in a mapping tool (BenMap). Establishing BenIMPACT as a decision support system in corresponding institutions

  8. The future of India's economic growth: the natural resources and energy dimension

    Pachauri, R.K. [Energy and Resources Inst., New Delhi (India)


    The continuation of widespread poverty apart, the biggest danger that India faces is the wanton destruction and degradation of all the country's natural resources and a growing, unsustainable, dependence on the use of hydrocarbon fuels. We are losing ten percent of our GDP as a result of the damage to and degradation of our natural resources. But environmental decision-making has not yet been merged with mainstream economic decision making. In the developed countries, environmental protection followed a path defined by the Environmental Kuznets curve, involving significant increases in income and pollution levels to a point where the trend changed. A developing country like India cannot pursue the same path, and would need to set up a governance structure and policy regime that allow the turning point to take place at substantially lower levels of income. The internalization of social and environmental externalities would ensure that resources are used in a sustainable and responsible manner. In the matter of energy use, for instance, proactive policies - such as stress on renewable sources and the rationalisation of subsidies - are needed to decrease the dependence on unsustainable imports and to create the conditions under which the dispossessed and poor sections of society are able to meet their basic energy needs. Blindly aping the consumerist approach of the developed world, and neglecting the ecological footprint of lifestyles, could prove disastrous for our populous country. (author)

  9. The integral indicator of socio-economic assessment in regard to resource-oriented territories development in Russia

    Chuvashova, M. N.; Avramchikova, N. T.; Zelenkov, P. V.; Petrosyan, M. O.


    Economic peculiarity of Russian resource-oriented territories are based on a focal type of industrial complex, differentiation of economies within a principle of mining and processing of natural resources. To improve the economic condition and integrate into the world innovative process is essential to solve the problem of eliminating the prevalence of resourse focus in the industrial economic structure that could ensure the overcoming of the existing spa- cial dissociation and market mechanisms development in innovative promotion. The monitoring system, involving the integral indicator of socioeconomic and territorial potential assessment, has suggested by the authors. The integral indicator could guarantee the objective evaluation of economic condition within a territory that is vital for the governmental authorities to design strategies providing the economic development of administrative territories.

  10. Resource requirements and economics of the coal-mining process: a comparative analysis of mines in selected countries

    Astakhov, A.; Gruebler, A.


    This report examines the natural resource requirements and economics of the resource extraction process, taking coal-mining activities as an example. Coal was chosen for the study because it is receiving growing attention as the fossile energy resource with the largest potential to contribute to the world's long-term energy supply. The computerized description of the extraction process is stored in the Coal Mines Data Base (CMDB) which was developed within the framework of this study. The data base currently holds information on 70 mines located in different countries. The analytic approach used is the first of its kind to compare resource requirements and economics of coal mines under such a broad range of geological and socioeconomic conditions. A general model of the factors influencing resource inputs and impacts of the coal-mining process is presented. Then for each of the main mining methods (opencast, conventional underground, and hydraulic underground) the principal geological and technological factors influencing the resource requirements, economics, and environmental impacts, as well as the comparative advantages and disadvantages of each mining method, are discussed. For the three main mining methods the resource requirements (including manpower, energy, materials, and land) and the economics (including construction investments and operating costs) are then quantified and their cost structures (i.e. requirements for the different operations at a mine) are examined in detail using data from coal mines in the USA, the USSR, and other selected coal-producing countries (Australia, Austria, and France).

  11. Integrative assessment of hydrological, ecological, and economic systems for water resources management at river basin scale

    Xianglian LI; Xiusheng YANG; Qiong GAO; Yu LI; Suocheng DONG


    This study presents a basin-scale integrative hydrological, ecological, and economic (HEE) modeling system, aimed at evaluating the impact of resources management, especially agricultural water resources management, on the sustainability of regional water resources. The hydrological model in the modeling system was adapted from SWAT, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, to simulate the water balance in terms of soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and streamflow. An ecologi-cal model was integrated into the hydrological model to compute the ecosystem production of biomass production and yield for different land use types. The economic model estimated the monetary values of crop production and water productivity over irrigated areas. The modeling system was primarily integrated and run on a Windows platform and was able to produce simulation results at daily time steps with a spatial resolution of hydrological response unit (HRU). The modeling system was then calibrated over the period from 1983 to 1991 for the upper and middle parts of the Yellow River basin, China.Calibration results showed that the efficiencies of the modeling system in simulating monthly streamflow over 5hydrological stations were from 0.54 to 0.68 with an average of 0.64, indicating an acceptable calibration.Preliminary simulation results from 1986 to 1995 revealed that water use in the study region has largely reduced the streamflow in many parts of the area except for that in the riverhead. Spatial distribution of biomass production, and crop yield showed a strong impact of irrigation on agricultural production. Water productivity over irrigated cropland ranged from 1 to 1640 USD/( 1), indicat-ing a wide variation of the production conditions within the study region and a great potential in promoting water use efficiency in low water productivity areas. Generally,simulation results from this study indicated that the modeling system was capable of tracking the temporal and spatial

  12. Exploring the association between women's access to economic resources and intimate partner violence in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania.

    Vyas, Seema; Jansen, Henrica Afm; Heise, Lori; Mbwambo, Jessie


    The relationship between women's access to economic resources, e.g. employment or access to micro-credit, and experience of intimate partner violence is complex. Empirical evidence documents that in some settings women's employment is associated with higher risk of partner violence but in other settings with lower risk. Evidence also shows that these conflicting associations exist not only between countries but also within different country settings. Using two population-based data sets gathered in 2002 in contrasting Tanzania settings-Dar es Salaam and Mbeya-, we used multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationship between women's access to economic resources and partner violence. Two indicators of economic resources were examined: whether women earned money and whether women owned a business either with someone or exclusively. In Dar es Salaam we found evidence of a higher risk association among women who earned money and who owned a business exclusively by themselves and a lower risk association among women who owned a business with someone. We found no relationship between either indicator of economic resources and partner violence in Mbeya. Other factors were similarly associated with partner violence in both settings and the strongest associations found were related to the respondents' partners: refusal to give money; alcohol use and relationships with other women. The findings support the assertion that women's access to economic resources operate differently in different country settings, thus highlighting the need for targeted prevention efforts that are relevant for the context.

  13. Using economic valuation techniques to inform water resources management: a survey and critical appraisal of available techniques and an application.

    Birol, Ekin; Karousakis, Katia; Koundouri, Phoebe


    The need for economic analysis for the design and implementation of efficient water resources management policies is well documented in the economics literature. This need is also emphasised in the European Union's recent Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), and is relevant to the objectives of Euro-limpacs, an EU funded project which inter alia, aims to provide a decision-support system for valuing the effects of future global change on Europe's freshwater ecosystems. The purpose of this paper is to define the role of economic valuation techniques in assisting in the design of efficient, equitable and sustainable policies for water resources management in the face of environmental problems such as pollution, intensive land use in agriculture and climate change. The paper begins with a discussion of the conceptual economic framework that can be used to inform water policy-making. An inventory of the available economic valuation methods is presented and the scope and suitability of each for studying various aspects of water resources are critically discussed. Recent studies that apply these methods to water resources are reviewed. Finally, an application of one of the economic valuation methods, namely the contingent valuation method, is presented using a case study of the Cheimaditida wetland in Greece.

  14. A Possible Jeopardy of Water Resources in Terms of Turkey's Economic and Political Context: Water Conflicts

    M. Levent YILMAZ


    Full Text Available Water is a resource that is a prominent requirement for human life, however, especially in recent years, availability decreases to dangerous levels due to the climate change. Certainly another factor that makes water vital is that water became an economical input for both industry and energy generation. While the World's rising population, increasing production potential and other factors raise the need for water constantly, climate change, global warming and other kinds of pollution reduce the level of availability of freshwater which makes water more important than ever. In our study, some information about the importance of water are given and then the possible risks for Turkey in Middle East are examined.

  15. The theological responses to the socio-economic activities that undermine water as a resource

    Thomas Resane


    Full Text Available This article focuses, from a theological perspective, on both the ecological crisis and the politico-economic dealings in relation to water – especially with regard to the unsound ways in which governments deal with this resource. Texts are read from an anthropogenic perspective, as opposed to an anthropocentric one. Such a reading scenario calls for responses from theology with regard to the human position in creation. Humans are not a grand master plan of creation, but the completion and fulfilment of it, given an enormous sense of responsibility for the earth. The article argues that the human–earth relation should be understood from the point of responsibility based on solidarity, interdependency and stewardship. Theologians are challenged to embrace eco-ethics.

  16. Environmental and resource economics in South Africa: Status quo and lessons for developing countries

    R. Wise


    Full Text Available We review the potential contributions of environmental and resource economics (ERE to the achievement of sustainable development in developing countries; and highlight the limitations associated with applying ERE within a developing-country context, using examples from South Africa. We fInd that ERE has much to offer in helping to overcome the challenges associated with sustainable development in developing countries, but that the developing-country context needs to be taken into account before applying tools and methods that were designed with the developedcountry context in mind. In particular, the unique and often complex socioecological context of developing countries needs to be considered and integrated into policy and management prescriptions.


    Tatarov A. A.


    Full Text Available The article explores shift of emphasis in the Third Reich policy in the North Caucasus when agricultural resources of the region became the main object of economic exploitation and one of the most important source of Germany's food supply. Firstly the author shows the place the North Caucasus had in agriculture of the Soviet Union on the eve of the Great Patriotic War. Despite a relatively small area and population, the region played an important role in the production of wheat, corn, sunflower, meat and other products. It is emphasized that the region was of special interest to Germany primarily for its oil fields which allowed solving the fuel problems. But with the failure of Hitler’s "oil plans" the agricultural products became the most important revenue source for the German economy in the North Caucasus in 1942-1943. The author shows that for stable agricultural exploitation the occupation regime not only refused the collective farms’ accelerated elimination but also adapted them to harvesting crops and saving huge livestock. Using the pro-Nazi newspapers and archival documents, the author reveals the occupier’s methodology of action and propaganda by local supporters of the regime for a timely crops harvest. In conclusion, the results of agrarian policy of Germany in the North Caucasus are shown. This article is intended for specialists in the field of history and economics as well as a wide range of readers

  18. Mars Colony in situ resource utilization: An integrated architecture and economics model

    Shishko, Robert; Fradet, René; Do, Sydney; Saydam, Serkan; Tapia-Cortez, Carlos; Dempster, Andrew G.; Coulton, Jeff


    This paper reports on our effort to develop an ensemble of specialized models to explore the commercial potential of mining water/ice on Mars in support of a Mars Colony. This ensemble starts with a formal systems architecting framework to describe a Mars Colony and capture its artifacts' parameters and technical attributes. The resulting database is then linked to a variety of ;downstream; analytic models. In particular, we integrated an extraction process (i.e., ;mining;) model, a simulation of the colony's environmental control and life support infrastructure known as HabNet, and a risk-based economics model. The mining model focuses on the technologies associated with in situ resource extraction, processing, storage and handling, and delivery. This model computes the production rate as a function of the systems' technical parameters and the local Mars environment. HabNet simulates the fundamental sustainability relationships associated with establishing and maintaining the colony's population. The economics model brings together market information, investment and operating costs, along with measures of market uncertainty and Monte Carlo techniques, with the objective of determining the profitability of commercial water/ice in situ mining operations. All told, over 50 market and technical parameters can be varied in order to address ;what-if; questions, including colony location.

  19. Food consumption patterns and economic growth. Increasing affluence and the use of natural resources.

    Gerbens-Leenes, P W; Nonhebel, S; Krol, M S


    This study analyzes relationships between food supply, consumption and income, taking supply, meat and dairy, and consumption composition (in macronutrients) as indicators, with annual per capita GDP as indicator for income. It compares food consumption patterns for 57 countries (2001) and gives time trends for western and southern Europe. Cross-sectional and time series relationships show similar patterns of change. For low income countries, GDP increase is accompanied by changes towards food consumption patterns with large gaps between supply and actual consumption. Total supply differs by a factor of two between low and high income countries. People in low income countries derive nutritional energy mainly from carbohydrates; the contribution of fats is small, that of protein the same as for high income countries and that of meat and dairy negligible. People in high income countries derive nutritional energy mainly from carbohydrates and fat, with substantial contribution of meat and dairy. Whenever and wherever economic growth occurs, food consumption shows similar change in direction. The European nutrition transition happened gradually, enabling agriculture and trade to keep pace with demand growth. Continuation of present economic trends might cause significant pressure on natural resources, because changes in food demand occur much faster than in the past, especially in Asia.

  20. Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource

    Tham, M.K.; Burchfield, T.; Chung, Ting-Horng; Lorenz, P.; Bryant, R.; Sarathi, P.; Chang, Ming Ming; Jackson, S.; Tomutsa, L. (National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)); Dauben, D.L. (K and A Energy Consultants, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States))


    NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs.

  1. Engineering and Economics of the USGS Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal (CARA) Project

    Verma, Mahendra K.; White, Loring P.; Gautier, Donald L.


    This Open-File report contains illustrative materials, in the form of PowerPoint slides, used for an oral presentation given at the Fourth U.S. Geological Survey Workshop on Reserve Growth of petroleum resources held on March 10-11, 2008. The presentation focused on engineering and economic aspects of the Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal (CARA) project, with a special emphasis on the costs related to the development of hypothetical oil and gas fields of different sizes and reservoir characteristics in the North Danmarkshavn Basin off the northeast coast of Greenland. The individual PowerPoint slides highlight the topics being addressed in an abbreviated format; they are discussed below, and are amplified with additional text as appropriate. Also included in this report are the summary results of a typical ?run? to generate the necessary capital and operating costs for the development of an offshore oil field off the northeast coast of Greenland; the data are displayed in MS Excel format generated using Questor software (IHS Energy, Inc.). U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acknowledges that this report includes data supplied by IHS Energy, Inc.; Copyright (2008) all rights reserved. IHS Energy has granted USGS the permission to publish this report.

  2. Quantification of spatially differentiated resource footprints for products and services through a macro-economic and thermodynamic approach.

    Huysman, Sofie; Schaubroeck, Thomas; Dewulf, Jo


    Although natural resources form the basis of our economy, they are not always used in a sustainable way. To achieve a more sustainable economic growth, resource consumption needs to be measured. Therefore, resource footprint frameworks (RFF) are being developed. To easily provide results, these RFF integrate inventory methodologies, at macrolevel mostly input-output (IO) models, with resource accounting methodologies, of which the Ecological Footprint is probably the best known one. The objective of this work is the development of a new RFF, in which a world IO-model (Exiobase), providing a global perspective, is integrated with the CEENE methodology (Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment), offering a more complete resource range: fossil fuels, metals, minerals, nuclear resources, water resources, land resources, abiotic renewable resources, and atmospheric resources. This RFF, called IO-CEENE, allows one to calculate resource footprints for products or services consumed in different countries as the exergy extracted from nature. The way the framework is constructed makes it possible to show which resources and countries contribute to the total footprint. This was illustrated by a case study, presenting the benefits of the framework's worldwide perspective. Additionally, a software file is provided to easily calculate results.


    Kosnikov S. N.


    Full Text Available Land resources are the basis of agricultural production, the issue of increasing the efficiency of their use is always relevant. The purpose of this article is to estimate the economic use of land resources in the agricultural organizations of the Krasnodar region. Cost-effectiveness analysis was carried out in two stages: an initial set of agricultural organizations with the help of cluster analysis is divided into homogeneous groups; for each cluster we have constructed a production function, which reflects the relationship between the value of the gross output of the agricultural land area, the average annual number of employees, the average annual value of fixed and current assets. The analysis has allowed identifying homogeneous groups of five agricultural companies. The analysis of the production function has shown that the companies of the first cluster of agricultural land use lands with maximum efficiency, the gross output value of 1 hectare of agricultural land was 70,1 thousand rubles, and the degree of influence of agricultural land on the value of gross output reaches its maximum value and is 83%. Agricultural organizations included in clusters of three and five, have a minimum efficiency of agricultural lands use – 20,3 and 21,2 thousand rubles respectively. Based on the analysis, we have made recommendations that improve the efficiency of land: to use the best varieties that are resistant to a range of diseases and pests in the production; to observe the optimum time of harvesting, cultivation and protection of plants; to use smart energy and resource saving technologies, as well as soil conservation technologies; to improve and maintain soil fertility

  4. Evaluation of resources and environment carrying capacity and socio-economic pressure in typical ecological regions, China

    Qiusen, Huang; Xinyi, Xu


    Since the reform and opening up, the socio-economic pressures have led to increasingly tight resource constraints and serious environmental pollution problems in China, especially for typical ecological regions. The ecological system is under a severe situation and resource and environmental issues have become the bottleneck of economic development. Taking the Chen Barag Banner which has been considered as typical ecological regions as an example, the evaluation indexes system of resources and environment carrying capacity was divided into three subsystems: natural driving force, socio-economic pressure and ecological health. On the basis of the indexes system and related data of Chen Barag Banner in 2014, the evaluation model of resources and environment carrying capacity based on spring model were proposed to analysis the state of resources and environment carrying, and an assessment of influence of socio-economic pressure on the resources and environment system has been conducted by using the discretization method of socio-economic data. The results showed that:(1) The resources and environment system of Baorixile Town, Huhenuoer Town and Bayankuren Town were overloaded among the ten towns, the values of Resources and Environment Carrying Capacity(RECC) / Resources and Environment Carrying State(RECS) were 9.86, 1.37 and 1.22, respectively;(2) The natural driving force index of Xiwuzhuer Town, Hadatu state-owned farm and Bayanhada Town were 0.40, 0.42 and 0.43, respectively, which were lower than others and indicated that the natural conditions in these areas were better than others;(3) The situation of ecological environment Ewenke Town, Hadatu state-owned farm and Tenihe state-owned farm were the best due to the result that the ecological health index of these three towns were 0.21, 0.22 and 0.26, respectively, which were lower than others;(4) The influence of socio-economic pressure on the system of resources and environment in Baorixile Town, Hadatu state

  5. Intellectual Property Rights on Plant Genetic Resources: Perspective from Economics%Intellectual Property Rights on Plant Genetic Resources: Perspective from Economics

    Zhang Caixia; Zhou Yanping


    Given the existence of transaction costs, the location of property rights is an important factor in determining the incentives for efficient levels of investment at various levels of the industry. This paper applies some of the economic theories of property rights and industrial structure to the issues concerning the con- servation of biodiversity. Although the expansion of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) systems into the area of genetic resources has increased private investment in R&D process of the agricul- ture, it does not generate enough incentives for in situ conservation of biodiversity. To solve this economic inefficiency, farmers' rights and other design of incentives and institutional arrangement should be reconsidered.

  6. L’esercizio e gli Essais. La retorica filosofica di Montaigne

    Emanuele Ronchetti


    Full Text Available La scrittura degli Essais crea una forma di discorso filosofico pirroniano originale, adatto a esprimere la varietà infinita del mondo. Apre così  la strada a un metodo senza fine di indagine: la zetetica.

  7. Globalization, neoliberalism and the imperatives of economic rationality in the use of water resources in México

    Davison Gustavo Mazabel Domínguez


    Full Text Available In this paper we want to develop the idea that the accumulation by dispossession, in the perspective of D. Harvey, also extends to the way natural resources are exploited, in the case of water, through the privatization of this resource through political and economic strategies that are increasingly refined, with the help of supranational institutions the World Bank and the IMF, but also, with the essential collaboration of the State, which plays a key role in water policies aimed at the privatization of water resources globally, and in particular for the Mexican case.

  8. Economics and resources analysis of the potential use of reprocessing options by the current Spanish nuclear reactor park

    Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Merino Rodriguez, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.


    Reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel serves multiple purposes, from Pu separation and recovery for MOX fuel fabrication to reduction of high level waste volume, and is nowadays being implemented in several countries like France, Japan, Russia or United Kingdom. This work is aimed at exploring the possibility (in resources and economic terms) of implementing reprocessing for MOX fabrication in Spain. (Author)

  9. The Economics of Information, Studiously Ignored in the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing

    Joseph Henry Vogel et. al.


    Full Text Available The economics of information has been studiously ignored in the ten Conferences of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Nevertheless, an academic literature exists which recognises genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge as natural and artificial information. Its unambiguous prescriptions would widen the scope of the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing (ABS and resolve almost all of the contentious issues identified by Kamau et al. One begins with retroactivity: because biological resources exhibit tangible and intangible aspects, the latter can be conceptualised as a set of natural information where value currently added in a patent is access to a subset not previously accessed. The economics quickly leads to a justification for a biodiversity cartel among countries of origin, wholly analogous to monopoly intellectual property rights. To achieve such a sea change in policymaking, the justification must be accompanied by a narrative that can penetrate the social sphere, much as Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights achieved through the World Intellectual Property Organisation. Several examples of bio-discoveries drawn from a popular medium are analysed in terms of the contentious issues of the Protocol and the distinct ABS that would eventuate under cartelisation. History also offers an analogy. The Parties’ eighteen years of resistance (1993-2011 to applying the economics of information to genetic resources is reminiscent to the twenty-seven years that the British Parliament rebuffed David Ricardo’s economic analysis of the Corn Laws (1815-1842.

  10. Does Rapid and Sustained Economic Growth Lead to Convergence in Health Resources: The Case of China From 1980 to 2010.

    Liang, Di; Zhang, Donglan; Huang, Jiayan; Schweitzer, Stuart


    China's rapid and sustained economic growth offers an opportunity to ask whether the advantages of growth diffuse throughout an economy, or remain localized in areas where the growth has been the greatest. A critical policy area in China has been the health system, and health inequality has become an issue that has led the government to broaden national health insurance programs. This study investigates whether health system resources and performance have converged over the past 30 years across China's 31 provinces. To examine geographic variation of health system resources and performance at the provincial level, we measure the degree of sigma convergence and beta convergence in indicators of health system resources (structure), health services utilization (process), and outcome. All data are from officially published sources: the China Health Statistics Year Book and the China Statistics Year Book. Sigma convergence is found for resource indicators, whereas it is not observed for either process or outcome indicators, indicating that disparities only narrowed in health system resources. Beta convergence is found in most indicators, except for 2 procedure indicators, reflecting that provinces with poorer resources were catching up. Convergence found in this study probably reflects the mixed outcome of government input, and market forces. Thus, left alone, the equitable distribution of health care resources may not occur naturally during a period of economic growth. Governmental and societal efforts are needed to reduce geographic health variation and promote health equity.

  11. Can we do better? Economic analysis of human resource investment to improve home care service for the elderly in Serbia.

    Mihic, Marko M; Todorovic, Marija Lj; Obradovic, Vladimir Lj; Mitrovic, Zorica M


    Social services aimed at the elderly are facing great challenges caused by progressive aging of the global population but also by the constant pressure to spend funds in a rational manner. This paper focuses on analyzing the investments into human resources aimed at enhancing home care for the elderly since many countries have recorded progress in the area over the past years. The goal of this paper is to stress the significance of performing an economic analysis of the investment. This paper combines statistical analysis methods such as correlation and regression analysis, methods of economic analysis, and scenario method. The economic analysis of investing in human resources for home care service in Serbia showed that the both scenarios of investing in either additional home care hours or more beneficiaries are cost-efficient. However, the optimal solution with the positive (and the highest) value of economic net present value criterion is to invest in human resources to boost the number of home care hours from 6 to 8 hours per week and increase the number of the beneficiaries to 33%. This paper shows how the statistical and economic analysis results can be used to evaluate different scenarios and enable quality decision-making based on exact data in order to improve health and quality of life of the elderly and spend funds in a rational manner.

  12. International Legal Regime for the Shared Water Resources Protection in the Context of the Eurasian Economic Integration

    Darya S. Boklan


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the international legal regime of the shared water resources of the states of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU and justified point of view, according to which, within the framework of the EAEU is necessary to conduct a common policy in the field of protection and use of shared water resources. Between the States EAEU has a number of agreements aimed at protecting the regime and the establishment of the use of shared water resources. However, a considerable number of the provisions of these agreements require further specification, standardization and systematization. Author concludes that the system in which first accepted norm framework, then creates additional thereto specifying the rules for the regulation of relations in the sphere of protection and maintenance of the shared water resources. It is proposed that a special section in the EAEU Treaty, the contents of the general principles of the protection and utilization of shared natural resources EAEU.

  13. Economics.

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E


    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  14. Water resource quality as related to economic activity and health patterns in Sonora, Mexico

    Jose Luis Manzanares Rivera


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the spatial distribution of potential pollution pathways of water resources given the economic activity in the Mexican border state of Sonora and propose a regional distribution in relation to cancer mortality rates across the state. The methodology is based in an exploratory and inferential data analysis using two sources of primary data: wastewater discharge concessions registered in the Public Registry on Water Rights [Registro Público de Derechos de Agua] (REPDA and the records generated by the National Health Information System [Sistema Nacional de Información en Salud] (SINAIS in the period 1998-2011 based on the International Classification of Disease (ICD-10. The spatial concentration analysis allows for the identification of specific cancer mortality causes at the regional level. Results indicate that the projected adjustments to the regulation NOM-250-SSA1-2014, which controls a subset of pollutants common in mining activity surroundings, is a matter of regional concern.

  15. The resource economics of chemical and structural defenses across nitrogen supply gradients.

    Craine, Joseph; Bond, William; Lee, William G; Reich, Peter B; Ollinger, Scott


    In order to better understand the role of nutrient supplies in determining the prevalence of plant defense types, we investigated the theoretical relationships between ecosystem N supply and the net C gain of shoots that were undefended or defended in one of three ways: (1) by N-free chemical compounds, (2) by N-containing chemical compounds, or (3) by structural defenses. By extending economic models of shoot resource balance to include the relative value of C and N, depreciation, and amortization, we were able to show that the relative net C gain of the three defense types were similar to changes in their generally understood abundance along an N supply gradient. At low N supply, the additional C acquired when investing C in defense is much higher than investing N in defenses. Only at high N supply is it better to invest large quantities of N in defense rather than additional photosynthesis. In a sensitivity analysis, net C gain of shoots was most sensitive to factors that affect the relative value of C and N and the rate of herbivory. Although there is support for the relative value of C and N influencing defense strategies, more research is necessary to understand why tannins are not more prevalent at high N supply and why moderate amounts of N-based defenses are not used at low N supply.

  16. Economic resources and the first child in Italy: A focus on income and job stability

    Elisabetta Santarelli


    Full Text Available At the turn of the twentieth century Italy registered a lowest-low fertility level, i.e., a total fertility rate of 1.26 children per woman in 2000. In this paper we investigate whether and how in that period economic resources and, in particular, income and job stability were linked with couples' decisions to enter parenthood. With this aim, we use data from ECHP and carry out a longitudinal analysis on a sample of childless married couples to study the transition to their first child. Results show that the couples' employment arrangement played some role in first child rates, with the single earner arrangement experiencing the highest first birth rates. We also find that employed women with labour income have much lower first birth rates than non-working women, while no evidence is found for male earnings and other sources of income. As concerns job instability, we find evidence that it was not significantly linked with the transition to first time parenthood during the investigated period.

  17. A method to evaluate coordination between regional economic, social development and water resources

    Zhou, S. B.; Qi, W. T.; Du, A. M.; He, H.


    Coordination between regional economic, social development and water resources is the key factor for the sustainable development of regions. Scientific evaluation of the coordination and analysis of similar reasons will improve the management level of decision-makers. The Coupling Coordination Degree model (CCD) developed on synergistic theory is now considered as a better method to evaluate coordination between systems. But, there are still some deficiencies. This paper attempts to improve the method in two aspects,: (1) introduce Full Permutation Polygon Synthesis Illustration method (FPPSI) to replace the two key steps of the present CCD model. To realize the data standardization and the comprehensive evaluation of system state, and to achieve the analysis of corresponding reasons. And (2) calculate the coupling coordination degrees of systems’ evolution speeds instead of comprehensive evaluation indexes, which will fully reflect the dynamic interaction between systems. To verify the feasibility of the method, Taihu Basin is taken as a case study. Results demonstrate that the improved CCD model is not only able to reflect the dynamic interaction between systems adequately, but also visually presents the specific reasons through geometrical illustration.

  18. A Factor Analytic Model of Economic Growth Basing on Domestic and Foreign Resource and a Positive Study of Korean Economy

    伍青生; 蔡来兴; 李湛


    The most popular and traditional method to analyze the source of economic growth is created by Robert. M.Solow, but it has some localizations and is not very precise in some sense. In this paper, we will classify all sources of economic growth into domestic part and foreign part. Gross domestic products (GDP) growth is decomposed into labor input, domestic capital formation, imported foreign capital formation, and total factor productivity (TFP) growth. TFP growth is again divided into scale economies, capital utilization, human capital, domestic research and development (R&D)effort, and imported foreign technology. In this way,foreign resources include imported foreign capital formation and foreign technology. By model and demonstration, we analyze the impact of foreign resource to an economy, and the contribution of each factor (especially technological progress) to economic growth.

  19. Some implications of applying the theory of the economics of exhaustible resources to oil and gas pricing

    Inyang, E.D.; Stultz-Karim, S.P.; Thackeray, F.


    The theory of the economics of exhaustible resources is reviewed and discussed in terms of its applicability to the complex structure of the international petroleum industry. Particular attention is given to the implications of uncertainty in reserves estimations for corporate, public, and financial institutions which have the responsibilities of oil and gas pricing and depletion policy formulation. A modification of the model of the economics of exhaustible resources under a freely competitive market structure is analyzed to determine the effect of uncertainty in reserves estimations on the optimal net price and on depletion profiles. The uncertainty in the resultant time until economic exhaustion and the discount present value is found to be directly proportional to the uncertainty in the reserves estimations. These results should be carefully considered in the difficult conflicts between short-term profit maximization and long-term social objectives in the formulation of public and private pricing and depletion policies.


    K. Dianta A. Sebayang


    Full Text Available Development of local economic resources, a new trend in the effort to increase the income of the community and the region. Local factors that determine both in terms of natural resources (raw materials and human resources (labor. This paper attempts to present how small and medium enterprises "Kerajinan Payung Geulis" try to improve economic development based on the development of local economic resources in Tasikmalaya. This study aims to illustrate the potential of entrepreneurs that include the competence and commitment of entrepreneurs in small business business, and to illustrate the strength of business / competitive position, business profile and entrepreneur influenced by environmental condition of external and internal environment, seen from the positive and negative side. The research was conducted on umbrella industry of handicraft business in Tasikmalaya. The method used in this research is descriptive analysis by using SWOT analysis. The results show many problems encountered and very complex, such as: low quality of human resources, limited business capital, low access to markets, access to financial institutions / banks are absent, administrative procedures ignorance, sustainability and limited capacity production; Coupled with the business climate is not conducive to the development of SMEs and entrepreneurship.

  1. Analysis of the impact of economic growth factors to resources and environment in Jiangsu Province – Based on Commoner model

    Zhang Min


    Full Text Available In order to response to the increasingly polluted environment, maintain sustainable economic and social development in Jiangsu province, the author calculated the index of the resource environment in Jiangsu, using LMDI(logarithmic-mean Divisia index decomposition method based on the Commoner model(we can see from formula(2,(5,(6&(7, to reflect the three major influencing factors of cumulative effects. In table 2 and figure 3, the research results show the expansion of the size of economy and growth of population make resources consumption increase and environmental pollution aggravate, while technological progress reduce the pressure of resources and environment. According to the findings, the paper proposes the policy recommendations, such as develop circular economy, promote technological innovation and strengthen regional cooperation mechanism and so on to reduce the environmental pollution while economic developing. These will be useful to the policymakers.

  2. Can we do better? Economic analysis of human resource investment to improve home care service for the elderly in Serbia

    Mihic MM


    Full Text Available Marko M Mihic, Marija Lj Todorovic, Vladimir Lj Obradovic, Zorica M Mitrovic Department for Management and Specialised Management Disciplines, Faculty of Organisational Sciences, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia Background: Social services aimed at the elderly are facing great challenges caused by progressive aging of the global population but also by the constant pressure to spend funds in a rational manner.Purpose: This paper focuses on analyzing the investments into human resources aimed at enhancing home care for the elderly since many countries have recorded progress in the area over the past years. The goal of this paper is to stress the significance of performing an economic analysis of the investment.Methods: This paper combines statistical analysis methods such as correlation and regression analysis, methods of economic analysis, and scenario method.Results: The economic analysis of investing in human resources for home care service in Serbia showed that the both scenarios of investing in either additional home care hours or more beneficiaries are cost-efficient. However, the optimal solution with the positive (and the highest value of economic net present value criterion is to invest in human resources to boost the number of home care hours from 6 to 8 hours per week and increase the number of the beneficiaries to 33%.Conclusion: This paper shows how the statistical and economic analysis results can be used to evaluate different scenarios and enable quality decision-making based on exact data in order to improve health and quality of life of the elderly and spend funds in a rational manner. Keywords: home care, social investment, human resources, economic analysis, elderly

  3. Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 3: Applied and direct uses, resource feasibility, economics

    John, C.J.; Maciasz, G.; Harder, B.J.


    The US Department of Energy established a geopressured-geothermal energy program in the mid 1970`s as one response to America`s need to develop alternate energy resources in view of the increasing dependence on imported fossil fuel energy. This program continued for 17 years and approximately two hundred million dollars were expended for various types of research and well testing to thoroughly investigate this alternative energy source. This volume describes the following studies: Geopressured-geothermal hybrid cycle power plant: design, testing, and operation summary; Feasibility of hydraulic energy recovery from geopressured-geothermal resources: economic analysis of the Pelton turbine; Brine production as an exploration tool for water drive gas reservoirs; Study of supercritical Rankine cycles; Application of the geopressured-geothermal resource to pyrolytic conversion or decomposition/detoxification processes; Conclusions on wet air oxidation, pyrolytic conversion, decomposition/detoxification process; Co-location of medium to heavy oil reservoirs with geopressured-geothermal resources and the feasibility of oil recovery using geopressured-geothermal fluids; Economic analysis; Application of geopressured-geothermal resources to direct uses; Industrial consortium for the utilization of the geopressured-geothermal resource; Power generation; Industrial desalination, gas use and sales, pollutant removal, thermal EOR, sulfur frasching, oil and natural gas pipelining, coal desulfurization and preparation, lumber and concrete products kilning; Agriculture and aquaculture applications; Paper and cane sugar industries; Chemical processing; Environmental considerations for geopressured-geothermal development. 27 figs., 25 tabs.

  4. Resource efficiency and economic implications of alternatives to surgical castration without anaesthesia

    Roest, de K.; Montanari, C.; Fowler, T.; Baltussen, W.H.M.


    This paper presents an analysis of the economic implications of alternative methods to surgical castration without anaesthesia. Detailed research results on the economic implications of four different alternatives are reported. castration with local anaesthesia, castration with general anaesthesia,

  5. Economism

    P. Simons


    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  6. Applications of non-standard maximum likelihood techniques in energy and resource economics

    Moeltner, Klaus

    Two important types of non-standard maximum likelihood techniques, Simulated Maximum Likelihood (SML) and Pseudo-Maximum Likelihood (PML), have only recently found consideration in the applied economic literature. The objective of this thesis is to demonstrate how these methods can be successfully employed in the analysis of energy and resource models. Chapter I focuses on SML. It constitutes the first application of this technique in the field of energy economics. The framework is as follows: Surveys on the cost of power outages to commercial and industrial customers usually capture multiple observations on the dependent variable for a given firm. The resulting pooled data set is censored and exhibits cross-sectional heterogeneity. We propose a model that addresses these issues by allowing regression coefficients to vary randomly across respondents and by using the Geweke-Hajivassiliou-Keane simulator and Halton sequences to estimate high-order cumulative distribution terms. This adjustment requires the use of SML in the estimation process. Our framework allows for a more comprehensive analysis of outage costs than existing models, which rely on the assumptions of parameter constancy and cross-sectional homogeneity. Our results strongly reject both of these restrictions. The central topic of the second Chapter is the use of PML, a robust estimation technique, in count data analysis of visitor demand for a system of recreation sites. PML has been popular with researchers in this context, since it guards against many types of mis-specification errors. We demonstrate, however, that estimation results will generally be biased even if derived through PML if the recreation model is based on aggregate, or zonal data. To countervail this problem, we propose a zonal model of recreation that captures some of the underlying heterogeneity of individual visitors by incorporating distributional information on per-capita income into the aggregate demand function. This adjustment

  7. Analyzing Inflation and Its Control: A Resource Guide. Economics-Political Science Series.

    Salemi, Michael K.; Leak, Sarah

    Background information for teachers on inflation and self-contained learning activities to help students view inflation from both economic and political perspectives are provided. The introduction contains economics and political science frameworks for analyzing policy issues. How to integrate economics and political science is also discussed.…


    Šabršula, Jan


    NEWS: ROSTISLAV KOCOUREK, ESSAIS DE LINGUISTIQUE FRANÇAISE ET ANGLAISE. MOTS ET TERMES, SENS ET TEXTES. Essays in French and English Linguistics. Words and Terms, Meanings and Texts. Louvain – Paris – Sterling, Virginia; Editions Peeters, 2001, 441 pages.

  9. Analysis of Resource and Emission Impacts: An Emergy-Based Multiple Spatial Scale Framework for Urban Ecological and Economic Evaluation

    Lixiao Zhang


    Full Text Available The development of the complex and multi-dimensional urban socio-economic system creates impacts on natural capital and human capital, which range from a local to a global scale. An emergy-based multiple spatial scale analysis framework and a rigorous accounting method that can quantify the values of human-made and natural capital losses were proposed in this study. With the intent of comparing the trajectory of Beijing over time, the characteristics of the interface between different scales are considered to explain the resource trade and the impacts of emissions. In addition, our improved determination of emergy analysis and acceptable management options that are in agreement with Beijing’s overall sustainability strategy were examined. The results showed that Beijing’s economy was closely correlated with the consumption of nonrenewable resources and exerted rising pressure on the environment. Of the total emergy use by the economic system, the imported nonrenewable resources from other provinces contribute the most, and the multi‑scale environmental impacts of waterborne and airborne pollution continued to increase from 1999 to 2006. Given the inputs structure, Beijing was chiefly making greater profits by shifting resources from other provinces in China and transferring the emissions outside. The results of our study should enable urban policy planners to better understand the multi-scale policy planning and development design of an urban ecological economic system.

  10. Perceptions of youth about the integration of natural resource economics through environmental education in schools: a realist social perspective

    Sikhulile Bonginkosi Msezane


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to delineate the perceptions of grade 12 students about the integration of environmental economics through environmental education into the South African Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS. Margaret Archer’s (1995 Realist social theory (RST: the morphogenetic approach provides the meta-theoretical framework that informs this study. RST deals with the concepts of structure, culture, agency, pre-existing structures, position-practice systems and mechanisms that have impact on the economic growth and welfare of the society. Data was collected through focus-group interviews with ten students who were purposefully selected from a classroom of 80 students. In addition, a qualitative research approach was used in this study to describe perception of youth about proper utilisation of scarce natural resources. The inductive analysis approach was used to interpret raw data sourced from the participants.The results of this paper revealed that even though youth have been taught principles of environmental education which consist of natural resource economics as a cross-curricular topic, some do not appreciate the importance of efficient use of natural resources in the reduction of poverty and welfare of future generation. Further, the youth believe that environmental issues such as land degradation, water and air pollution, and improper solid waste disposal can be alleviated through activities that can be done outside the classroom. However, some participants noted that the local government has to provide financial support for programmes that encourage natural resource sustainability in the schools.

  11. The economic value of drought information: Application to water resources management decisions in Spain

    Garrote, Luis; Sordo, Alvaro; Iglesias, Ana


    Information is valuable when it improves decision-making (e.g., actions can be adjusted to better suit the situation at hand) and enables the mitigation of damage. However, quantifying the value of information is often difficult. Here we explore a general approach to understand the economic value of drought information for water managers framing our approach in the precautionary principle that reminds us that uncertainty is not a reason to postpone or avoid action. We explore how decision making can disregard uncertain effects, taking a short-term approach and focusing instead on the certain costs and benefits of taking action. Two main questions arise: How do we know that advanced drought information is actually helping decisions?; and What is the value of information in the decision process? The approach is applied to several regulated water resources systems in Spain. It first views drought information as a factor in the decision process which can be used by water managers to reduce uncertainty. Second, the value of drought information is the expected gain in a decision outcome (utility) from using additional information. Finally, the gains of improved information are compared with the information collection costs. Here we estimate the value by taking into account the accuracy of the drought information, the subjective probabilities about the value, analyzed as Bayesian probabilities, and the ability or skill of the stakeholders to apply the drought information to modify their actions. Since information may be considered a public good (non-rivalry and non-excludability), it may justify public policy in the provision of information, considering social costs and benefits. The application of the framework to the Spanish case studies shows that information benefits exceeds to costs when drought frequency is 20-40% above normal values; below these values uncertainty in the decisions dominate the results; above these values, the management decisions are limited even

  12. Legal System for China’s Forest Resource Protection:A Case Study of Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone


    Taking Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone as an example,we analyzed existing problems in China’forest resource protection from the perspective of legal system.The problems include unclear property right system of forest resource,imperfect compensation mechanism for forest ecology,forest cutting quota scheme not resolutely put into practice,legal supervision of forest protection not implemented,and lack of integration in forest protection laws.Based on these problems,we put forward countermeasures and suggestions:establish clear forest resource property system;improve ecological benefit compensation mechanism in legal form;strictly implement forest cutting quota scheme;strengthen legal supervision of forest protection;and keep legal system integral for forest resource protection.

  13. Comment: The Economics of Interdependent Renewable and Non-renewable Resources revisited.

    Viktoria Kahui; Armstrong, Claire W.


    This work expands upon Swallow's theoretical analysis of interactions between renewable and non-renewable resources. In this comment the interaction is such that the renewable resource prefers the non-renewable environment, as opposed to SwallowÕs (op cit) case of the non-renewable environment being essential to the renewable resource. We find that this difference strongly affects the results, and makes the resources change from being complements to being substitutes, i.e. in the essential ca...

  14. 社会经济地位与网络资源%Social Economic Status and Social Network Resources



    Based on the 1999 survey data in Xiamen, this paper takes the lead in Chinese literature to explore the relationship between social economic status and social network resources comprehensively. The research finds that sex, age, income, education, and household registration status are the main variables influencing individual's social network resource, while the Party membership, ownership of labor by the work unit ( danwei suoyouzhi ) , and government jurisdiction ( zhenfu zhuguan bumen ) have no statistical significant influence on social resources. The author argues that the findings reflect characteristics of Chinese society in the transition period. On the one hand, more and more importance is attached to economic factor and human capital such as education in the accumulation process of social resources, while factors, such as political background ( zhengzhi mianmu), ownership of labor by the work unit, and government jurisdiction are fading away, which indicates the obvious trend of marketization in our society. On the other hand, household registration status is the important symbol of status and still plays an important role in accumulation of one's social resources, which shows that the imprint of the duality of our society from planed economy has not disappeared.

  15. 信息资源经济论%On the Economics of Information Resources

    陈三毛; 张联民; 邓勤


    At present, world economy is advancing towasrds information economy. Information resources are playingthe most important part in production, overweighting the factors like material and energy resources. Social economy is de-veloping along with the production, allocation and utilization of information resources, therefore, this new type of economyis demonstrating the characteristics in sharp contrast with those of the traditional economy.


    V.P. Pakhomov


    Full Text Available The article brings forth the geological-economic analysis of the mineral resource in the area of the transport corridor "Urals industrial – Urals Polar". Given is the analysis of the potential finding of coal on the territory, chromate and other important excavations, the whereabouts of which are more easily approachable for the acquiring with the condition of building a railroad with the path of station Polunochnoye-Obskaya. Given are the possible masses of the delivery of the products accordingly. Distinguished is the size of the investments, that are needed for the mineral resources of the given territory.


    Pershin S. P.


    Full Text Available Economic actors in the implementation of economic relations face the problem of solving the emerging contradictions and complexities. This leads to the delay of implementation of economic projects, require additional costs and, as a rule, leads to a reduction of mutual benefits. In modern conditions of globalization of economic relations, a significant role is reserved to the authorities empowered in the field of administration of industries and activities in a particular area. The authors have found and investigated the processes occurring within a single economic system. We have established the principles of implementing administrative regulations based on the proposed unified automated accounting system. We have justified the order in which the movement of assets economic entity and the sources of their formation fixed in a single user space indirectly with the information of Contracting parties. This allows us to ensure consistency of information, meeting the same requirements for their formation, processing, summarizing and presenting the administrative authorities. Attention is paid to the issues of preservation of information, to limit the powers of members of the space. The proposed operation of the single accounting system will significantly simplify the reporting procedure of economic entities, the procedure for the control and management of economic processes, will provide the administrative authority with information necessary for region management, the implementation of measures to ensure economic growth

  18. Economic-based Distributed Resource Management and Scheduling for Grid Computing

    Buyya, R


    Computational Grids, emerging as an infrastructure for next generation computing, enable the sharing, selection, and aggregation of geographically distributed resources for solving large-scale problems in science, engineering, and commerce. As the resources in the Grid are heterogeneous and geographically distributed with varying availability and a variety of usage and cost policies for diverse users at different times and, priorities as well as goals that vary with time. The management of resources and application scheduling in such a large and distributed environment is a complex task. This thesis proposes a distributed computational economy as an effective metaphor for the management of resources and application scheduling. It proposes an architectural framework that supports resource trading and quality of services based scheduling. It enables the regulation of supply and demand for resources and provides an incentive for resource owners for participating in the Grid and motives the users to trade-off bet...

  19. Fundamentals of accounting support for economic mechanism for protection and sustainable use of land resources in Ukraine

    Ostapchuk T.P.


    Full Text Available The problems of agricultural land accounting are investigated with the aim of developing methodological approaches for reliable accounting of land resources transactions that will become the basis for improving control procedures for land conservation and protection. One of the most important priorities of state policy, the condition for stability and development of the country’s national economy is a scientifically grounded land use policy, which serves as an economic indicator of the development of the state and one of the ways to overcome the financial and economic crisis in the country when it occurs. World practice has shown that the only universal exchange equivalent in the way of overcoming the economic crisis of any state is natural resources, and one of the significant, practically reproducible resources is land. Depending on the categories of lands, they may be subject to both ownership rights and full ownership. However, this property right remains inadequate, as owners of land plots cannot use them freely (sell, transfer, inherit, give, etc.. This refers to the agricultural land, for sale of which a moratorium has been established banning alienation and changing the purpose of agricultural land up to 2017, inclusive.

  20. Simulation numérique de l'essai de rayure


    International audience; Dans le but de faciliter l'analyse de l'essai de rayure par une approche éléments finis, nous avons développé deux outils numériques que nous présentons ici. Le premier est un algorithme de remaillage origine capable de traiter les problèmes bicouches. Le second est un algorithme d'association en série deux modèles de comportement.

  1. Roadmap of Federal Reserve Resources for Teaching Economics and Personal Finance

    Messina, Sara; Hennessy, Amy; Rossiter, Caryn


    Many textbooks define economics as the social science that studies how people make choices when faced with scarcity; or how a society decides what to produce, how to produce, and for whom to produce. Regardless of the definition, students' economic understanding is fundamental to their financial well-being and their ability to build successful…

  2. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 5. Social and economic impacts of geothermal development in Hawaii

    Canon, P.


    The overview statement of the socio-economic effects of developing geothermal energy in the State of Hawaii is presented. The following functions are presented: (1) identification of key social and economic issues, (2) inventory of all available pertinent data, (3) analysis and assessment of available data, and (4) identification of what additional information is required for adequate assessment.

  3. Personnel economics: Strengths, weaknesses and its place in human resource management

    Dilger, Alexander


    Personnel economics is a rather young academic (sub-)discipline that applies (micro) economic methodology and insights to the personnel function of companies. It is scientifically fertile and complementary to other disciplinary approaches to personnel issues. Instead of that, an approach without a grounding discipline seems dubious and a self-contained personnel science does not exist.

  4. Economic Efficiency Modelling of Water Resources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Bassam Hamdar; Hussin Hejase; Tamar Sayed


    Water is one of the most precious and valuable resources in the world generally and in Saudi Arabia specially. Situated in the tropical and sub-tropical desert region with arid climate, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is exposed to dry winds and limited water resources .Therefore, the scarcity of fresh water resources poses a major challenge and affects the Saudi development plans since they realized that their supply of freshwater cannot be taken for granted. Moreover, the demand for fresh...

  5. Economic planning and equilibrium growth of human resources and capital in health-care sector: Case study of Iran

    Mahboobi-Ardakan, Payman; Kazemian, Mahmood; Mehraban, Sattar


    CONTEXT: During different planning periods, human resources factor has been considerably increased in the health-care sector. AIMS: The main goal is to determine economic planning conditions and equilibrium growth for services level and specialized workforce resources in health-care sector and also to determine the gap between levels of health-care services and specialized workforce resources in the equilibrium growth conditions and their available levels during the periods of the first to fourth development plansin Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the study after data collection, econometric methods and EViews version 8.0 were used for data processing. The used model was based on neoclassical economic growth model. RESULTS: The results indicated that during the former planning periods, although specialized workforce has been increased significantly in health-care sector, lack of attention to equilibrium growth conditions caused imbalance conditions for product level and specialized workforce in health-care sector. CONCLUSIONS: In the past development plans for health services, equilibrium conditions based on the full employment in the capital stock, and specialized labor are not considered. The government could act by choosing policies determined by the growth model to achieve equilibrium level in the field of human resources and services during the next planning periods. PMID:28616419

  6. Economic planning and equilibrium growth of human resources and capital in health-care sector: Case study of Iran.

    Mahboobi-Ardakan, Payman; Kazemian, Mahmood; Mehraban, Sattar


    During different planning periods, human resources factor has been considerably increased in the health-care sector. The main goal is to determine economic planning conditions and equilibrium growth for services level and specialized workforce resources in health-care sector and also to determine the gap between levels of health-care services and specialized workforce resources in the equilibrium growth conditions and their available levels during the periods of the first to fourth development plansin Iran. In the study after data collection, econometric methods and EViews version 8.0 were used for data processing. The used model was based on neoclassical economic growth model. The results indicated that during the former planning periods, although specialized workforce has been increased significantly in health-care sector, lack of attention to equilibrium growth conditions caused imbalance conditions for product level and specialized workforce in health-care sector. In the past development plans for health services, equilibrium conditions based on the full employment in the capital stock, and specialized labor are not considered. The government could act by choosing policies determined by the growth model to achieve equilibrium level in the field of human resources and services during the next planning periods.

  7. Economic principles and fundamental model of the sustainable utilization of ecological resources

    Du Jinpei; Li Lin


    By analyzing the basic rules and measurement principles of the sustainable utilization of ecological resources and constructing its mathematical model, this paper points out that the sustainable utilization of ecological resources is in nature to use the double-period model thousands of times for the dynamic distribution of ecological resources effectively. And it points out that in order to realize the sustainable utilization of ecological resources we must follow the basic principle - non-decreasing ecological capital and put forward corresponding standards, measures, policies and proposals.

  8. Climate change and socio-economic scenarios, land use modelling implications on water resources in an inner alpine area, Switzerland

    Rey, Emmanuel; Schneider, Flurina; Liniger, Hanspeter; Weingartner, Rolf; Herweg, Karl


    The MontanAqua project aims to study the water resources management in the region Sierre-Montana (Valais, Switzerland). Land use is known to have an influence on the water resources (soil moisture dynamic, soil sealing, surface runoff and deep percolation). Thus land use modelling is of importance for the water resources management. An actual land use map was produced using infrared imagery (Niklaus 2012, Fig.1). Land use changes are known to be mainly drived by socio-economic factors as well as climatic factors (Dolman et al. 2003). Potential future Land uses was separatly predicted according to 1-. socio-economic and 2-. climatic/abiotic drivers : 1. 4 socio-economic scenarios were developped with stakeholders (Schneider et al. 2013) between 2010 and 2012. We modeled those socio-economic scenarios into a GIS application using Python programming (ModelBuilder in ArcGIS 10) to get a cartographic transcription of the wishes of the stakeholders for their region in 2050. 2. Uncorrelated climatic and abiotic drivers were used in a BIOMOD2 (Georges et al. 2013) framework. 4 models were used: Maximum Entropy (MAXENT), Multiple Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), Classification Tree Analysis (CTA) and the Flexible Discriminant Analysis (FDA) to predict grassland, alpine pasture, vineyards and forest in our study region. Climatic scenarios were then introduced into the models to predict potential land use in 2050 driven only by climatic and abiotic factors The comparison of all the outputs demonstrates that the socio-economic drivers will have a more important impact in the region than the climatic drivers (e.g. -70% grassland surface for the worst socio-economic scenario vs. -40% of grassland surface for the worst climatic models). Further analysis also brings out the sensitivity of the grassland/alpine pasture system to the climate change and to socio-economic changes. Future work will be to cross the different land use maps obtained by the two model types and to use

  9. Analysis of survival in HIV-infected subjects according to socio-economic resources in the HAART era.

    Liotta, G; Caleo, G M; Mancinelli, S


    Availability of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Treatment (HAART) has modified the natural history of HIV infection, resulting in increase of seropositive subjects survival. The aim of the study was to assess patients' survival in relation to socio-economic status in HAART era using Functional Multidimensional Evaluation questionnaire. A three-level Socio-Economic Index (SEI) combining results from self-perception of unmet needs and objective data from the assessment of the two dimensions has been set up by the authors. Of the 382 subjects interviewed, 102 had been lost to follow-up. SEI showed that 66.4% of the sample faced unmet social or economic needs and 17.1% had unmet needs in both areas. There was a significant relationship between the self-sufficiency in performing Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Clinical Staging, CD4 cell count, SEI and risk of death. The lowest level of SEI was associated with a doubled risk of death compared to SEI upper level. Availability of social and economics support have a positive effect upon survival in patients with HIV infection, also in case of availability of HAART. The combination of subjective and objective assessment of socio-economic resources allows a better understanding of their impact on survival.

  10. Developments in economic valuation of environmental resources in centrally planned economies.

    Mol, A.P.J.; Opschoor, J.B.


    Environmental policy in centrally planned economies is nowadays based mainly on administrative measures, such as licences and standards. The realisation of environmental targets by physical planning, management, and regulation alone, however, is falling short of expectations. For that reason, econom

  11. Troubled times, troubled relationships: how economic resources, gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence intimate partner violence.

    Golden, Shelley D; Perreira, Krista M; Durrance, Christine Piette


    We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N = 1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mothers' reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age 3, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women's risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women's economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV.

  12. The Nourishing Sea: Partnered Guardianship of Fishery and Seabed Mineral Resources for the Economic Viability of Small Pacific Island Nations

    Paul D'Arcy


    Full Text Available While island biogeography and modern economics portray Pacific island nations as isolated, ecologically fragile, resource poor and barely viable economies forever dependent on foreign aid, Pacific island history and culture conceives of their islands as intimately inter-linked to the surrounding ocean and of that ocean as an avenue to expanded resource bases, both terrestrial and aquatic. Pacific Islanders live in the most aquatic human zone on Earth, with the highest territorial ratios of sea to land. Recent studies are revealing the continuity and success of traditional near-shore guardianship of maritime resources in a number of Pacific islands. Sustainable development of seabed minerals and pelagic fisheries may offer enhanced income potential for small island nations with limited terrestrial resources. As offshore ecosystems are poorly policed, sustainable development is best realized through comprehensive planning centred on partnerships between local communities, their governments, marine scientists and commercial enterprises. The success or failure of Pacific Islanders in reasserting their maritime guardianship is now a matter of global significance given the decimation of most fisheries beyond the Pacific and the vast, but uncertain, medicinal, mineral and food resource potential of this huge area of the planet.

  13. The Economic Evaluation Model of the Use of the Intangible Resources Potential on the Example of Russian Regions

    Elena V. Mikhalkina


    Full Text Available The paper presents the problem of assessing the potential use of intangible resources. The relevance of the research is determined by the necessity of innovation-based economy, the growing role of intangible resources (human, social, organizational, intellectual and other kinds of capital in promoting economic development of individual regions and the country as a whole. The paper proposes a verification method of the factors that characterize the potential use of intangible resources, affecting productivity. For a description of dependencies linear regression model was selected, also there was carried out an assessment of its parameters and performed Quality check of model. In the course of a capacity assessment intangible resource model constructing at the regional level was used regression analysis (the choice of indicator system, data collection and analysis, the calculation of the correlation coefficient, the choice of models and numerical estimation of its parameters, quality control model, assessment of the certain factors impact on the basis of the model. Also the factor analysis is used (matrix of factor loadings, and the classification on the basis of the factors selected regions is carried out. The regional clusterization of the intangible resources capacity will allow to make correct management decisions in the future.

  14. Technical and economic viability of electric power plants on the basis of renewable energy resources regarding hierarchical structure

    Balzannikov Mikhail


    Full Text Available The article deals with power stations working on the basis of non-renewable energy resources and finite resources which will inevitably come to depletion in the future. These installations produce considerable negative impact on the environment, including air pollution. It is noted that considerable amounts of emissions of harmful substances accounts for the share of small thermal installations which aren’t always considered in calculations of pollution. The author specifies that emission reduction of harmful substances should be achieved due to wider use of environmentally friendly renewable energy resources. It is recommended to use hierarchical structure with the priority of ecological and social conditions of the region for technical and economic viability of consumers’ power supply systems and installations, based on renewable energy resources use. At the same time the author suggests considering federal, regional and object levels of viability. It is recommended to consider the main stages of lifecycle of an object for object level: designing, construction, operation, reconstruction of an object and its preservation. The author shows the example of calculation of power plant efficiency, based on renewable energy resources during its reconstruction, followed by power generation increase.

  15. How the Economic and Financial Situation of the Community Affects Sport Clubs’ Resources: Evidence from Multi-Level Models

    Pamela Wicker


    Full Text Available In many Western countries, local community sport clubs are important providers of leisure, sport, and social programs. These sport clubs are nonprofit organizations, which operate in an increasingly challenging environment. This study considers a club’s direct local environment, i.e., the community the club is located in. The open systems model and the resource dependence represent the theoretical framework. The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of the financial and economic environment in the community on the resource situation of sport clubs (human, infrastructure, and financial resources. The empirical evaluation is undertaken using data from a nationwide survey of non-profit sport clubs in Germany (organizational level; n = 19,345, which are combined with secondary data on community characteristics (community level; n = 3153. Given the hierarchical data structure, multi-level analyses are applied. The results show that volunteer problems are smaller among clubs in communities with high unemployment. Facility and financial problems are greater in large communities. Sport clubs located in communities that could break even were also more likely to break even themselves. The findings show that resource problems are not necessarily due to poor club management, since higher-level (community factors significantly affect the resource situation of sport clubs too.


    Pavel Tcvetkov


    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to find ecologically and economically reasonable method of biomass processing to produce electricity and thermal energy. The major causes of the annual increase in the volume of consumed electricity and thermal energy are the current pace of scientific and technological progress, the overcrowding of cities and industrial agglomeration. Traditional energy sources (coal, oil, gas have a significant negative impact on the environment, which leads to the deterioration of sanitary-hygienic indicators of the human environment. Besides, prices for traditional energy resources are increasing due to the decline of easy produced stocks. The goal of this article is the investigation and evaluation of environmental and economic efficiency of biomass fast pyrolysis methods for as modern energy resources. The result of the review is the choice of biomass fast pyrolysis as the most environmentally reasonable and economically viable local method of producing electricity and thermal energy in Russia. This method is more eco-friendly, compared to other alternative energy sources, for example using peat as solid fuel.

  17. Assessing the Total Economic Value of Improving Water Quality to Inform Water Resources Management: Evidence and Challenges from Southeast Asia

    Jalilov, S.; Fukushi, K.


    Population growth, high rates of economic development and rapid urbanization in the developing countries of Southeast Asia (SEA) have resulted in degradation and depletion of natural resources, including water resources and related ecosystem services. Many urban rivers in the region are highly polluted with domestic, industrial and agricultural wastes. Policymakers are often aware of the direct value of water resources for domestic and industrial consumption, but they often underestimate the indirect value of these functions, since they are not exchanged in the market and do not appear in national income accounts. Underestimation of pollution and over-exploitation of water resources result in a loss of these benefits and have adverse impacts on nearby residents, threatening the long-term sustainable development of natural resources in the region. Behind these constraints lies a lack of knowledge (ignorance) from governments that a clean water environment could bring significant economic benefits. This study has been initiated to tackle this issue and to foster a more rational approach for sustainable urban development in Metro Manila in the Philippines. We applied a Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) based on Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) technique. Results show that users are willing to pay up to PHP 102.42 (2.18) monthly to improve quality of urban waterbodies whereas nonusers are willing to pay up to PHP 366.53 (7.80) as one-time payment towards water quality improvement. The estimated monetary value of water quality improvements would be a useful variable in cost-benefit analyses of various water quality-related policies, in both public and private sectors in Metro Manila. This survey design could serve as a useful template for similar water quality studies in other SEA countries.

  18. Regional Approaches to the Development of Human and Economic Resources: Asia.

    Profeta, Lydia; Davie, Robert S.


    This examination of human resource development in Asia focuses on the role of education in the development plans of the Philippines, and the contributions of Australia to the growth of developing countries in Southeast Asia. (SK)


    Silka Dmitriy Nikolaevich


    Full Text Available Monitoring of production resources is a large-scale and complicated measure, the results of which are necessary for the state and for private entrepreneurs. There are many approaches to conducting such a monitoring, which firstly base on the information request from the suppliers of the resources by governmental bodies. The authors offer a new approach to data collection, which takes into account the technical achievements of the Russian economy. The main instrument of this approach is geoinformation technologies.

  20. The Identification of Filters and Interdependencies for Effective Resource Allocation: Coupling the Mitigation of Natural Hazards to Economic Development.

    Agar, S. M.; Kunreuther, H.


    Policy formulation for the mitigation and management of risks posed by natural hazards requires that governments confront difficult decisions for resource allocation and be able to justify their spending. Governments also need to recognize when spending offers little improvement and the circumstances in which relatively small amounts of spending can make substantial differences. Because natural hazards can have detrimental impacts on local and regional economies, patterns of economic development can also be affected by spending decisions for disaster mitigation. This paper argues that by mapping interdependencies among physical, social and economic factors, governments can improve resource allocation to mitigate the risks of natural hazards while improving economic development on local and regional scales. Case studies of natural hazards in Turkey have been used to explore specific "filters" that act to modify short- and long-term outcomes. Pre-event filters can prevent an event from becoming a natural disaster or change a routine event into a disaster. Post-event filters affect both short and long-term recovery and development. Some filters cannot be easily modified by spending (e.g., rural-urban migration) but others (e.g., land-use practices) provide realistic spending targets. Net social benefits derived from spending, however, will also depend on the ways by which filters are linked, or so-called "interdependencies". A single weak link in an interdependent system, such as a power grid, can trigger a cascade of failures. Similarly, weak links in social and commercial networks can send waves of disruption through communities. Conversely, by understanding the positive impacts of interdependencies, spending can be targeted to maximize net social benefits while mitigating risks and improving economic development. Detailed information on public spending was not available for this study but case studies illustrate how networks of interdependent filters can modify

  1. Parkia biglobosa as an economic resource for rural women in south-western Burkina Faso

    Andersen, Mette-Helene Kronborg; Lykke, Anne Mette; Ilboudo, Jean-Baptiste


    An approach for commercialising a product from Parkia biglobosa in order to improve the economic situation of rural women in south-western Burkina Faso was explored. Income is generated from sales of a derivative from the fermented seeds called soumbala. About one fifth of the women (18%) were in...... a potential to improve the economic situation of women through increased production and sale of soumbala.......An approach for commercialising a product from Parkia biglobosa in order to improve the economic situation of rural women in south-western Burkina Faso was explored. Income is generated from sales of a derivative from the fermented seeds called soumbala. About one fifth of the women (18%) were...... involved in the sale of soumbala, and 34% of those not participating in soumbala sales were interested in getting involved, suggesting that there is a basis for expanding the soumbala trade. Possible factors that could motivate more women to participate in soumbala sales were sustainability, sowing...

  2. Information as an Economic Resource: The Role of Public Libraries in Nigeria

    Adebayo Oyeronke


    Full Text Available The development of a country depends greatly on how much information its citizenry are exposed to. Information is so crucial that it has been recognized as the fifth factor of production. Information has no substitute when it comes to the national development because it has been identified as the driver of economic growth and productivity. The paper discussed the roles of public libraries in Nigeria and also examined various ways in which public libraries can help curb unemployment among youths by providing them with timely and accurate information. It concluded that public libraries should identify themselves with the aspiration of economic development of the country.

  3. The Socio-Economic Impacts on Water Resources in the Răut River Basin

    Petru Bacal


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research consists in the elucidation of spatial and economic aspects of the water use in the Răut river basin. The main topics presented in this paper are: 1 the dynamics of volume of wastewater discharged into the river Raut basin and its sections; 2 wastewater discharge by the degree of treatment; 3 spatial and branch profile of wastewater discharged: 4 existing problems in evaluation and monitoring of waste water. To achieve these objectives were used traditional methods of geographical and economic research.

  4. Reduction in Healthcare and Societal Resource Utilization Associated with Cladribine Tablets in Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: Analysis of Economic Data from the CLARITY Study

    Ali, Shehzad; Paracha, Noman; Cook, Stuart


    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common, chronic, neurodegenerative condition associated with substantial healthcare and societal economic burden. Disease-modifying MS treatments have the potential to reduce health resource utilization (HRU), thereby reducing the attendant socioeconomic b...

  5. A socio-economic evaluation of the lunar environment and resources. I. Principles and overall system strategy

    Ehricke, Krafft A.

    This first of several study papers, based on a fundamental paper presented in 1972, provides an independent conceptual analysis and evaluation of the lunar environment as industrial base and habitat. A selenosphere system strategy is outlined. The underlying concept is that of one or several lunar industrial zones for resource extraction and on-surface processing, integrated with a circumlunar zero-g processing capability, serving markets in geolunar space. A classification of lunar elements by utilization category is presented. Lunar oxygen is a prime candidate for being an initial economic "drawing card", because of its value for fast transportation in geolunar space, requiring significantly fewer ships for equal transfer capability per unit time than electric transports which, however, have value, especially between geosynchronous and lunar orbit. The reduced development difficulties of controlled fusion outside the atmosphere and its advantages for extracting oxygen and other elements in quantity are summarized. Examples of lunar cycle management as fundamental exoindustrial requirement for economic resource enhancement are presented. The principal initial socio-economic value of lunar industry lies in the use of lunar resources for exoindustrial products and operations designed to accelerate, intensify and diversify Earth-related benefits. In the longer run, lunar settlements are a highly suitable proving ground for studying and testing the complex matrix of technological, biological, cultural, social and psychological aspects that must be understood and manageable before large settlements beyond Earth can have a realistic basis for viability. The lunar environment is more suitable for experimentation and comparatively more "forgiving" in case of failures than is orbital space.

  6. Strain selection, biomass to biofuel conversion, and resource colocation have strong impacts on the economic performance of algae cultivation sites

    Erik R. Venteris


    Full Text Available Decisions involving strain selection, biomass to biofuel technology, and the location of cultivation facilities can strongly influence the economic viability of an algae-based biofuel enterprise. We summarize our past results in a new analysis to explore the relative economic impact of these design choices. Our growth model is used to predict average biomass production for two saline strains (Nannocloropsis salina, Arthrospira sp., one fresh to brackish strain (Chlorella sp., DOE strain 1412, and one freshwater strain (order Sphaeropleales. Biomass to biofuel conversion is compared between lipid extraction (LE and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL technologies. National-scale models of water, CO2 (as flue gas, land acquisition, site leveling, construction of connecting roads, and transport of HTL oil to existing refineries are used in conjunction with estimates of fuel value (from HTL to prioritize and select from 88,692 unit farms (UF, 405 ha in pond area, a number sufficient to produce 136E+9 L yr-1 of renewable diesel (36 billion gallons yr-1. Strain selection and choice of conversion technology have large economic impacts, with differences between combinations of strains and biomass to biofuel technologies being up to $10 million dollars yr-1 UF-1. Results based on the most productive strain, HTL-based fuel conversion, and resource costs show that the economic potential between geographic locations within the selection can differ by up to $4 million yr-1 UF-1, with 1.8 BGY of production possible from the most cost-effective sites. The local spatial variability in site rank is extreme, with very high and low sites within 10s of km of each other. Colocation with flue gas sources has a strong influence on rank, but the most costly resource component varies from site to site. The highest rank UFs are located predominantly in Florida and Texas, but most states south of 37°N latitude contain promising locations.

  7. Economic impacts of climate change on water resources in the coterminous United States

    A national-scale simulation-optimization model was created to generate estimates of economic impacts associated with changes in water supply and demand as influenced by climate change. Water balances were modeled for the 99 assessment sub-regions, and are presented for 18 water r...

  8. Optimal conservation resource allocation under variable economic and ecological time discounting rates in boreal forest

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Montesino Pouzols, Federico; Mönkkönen, Mikko;


    standard forest management rules, setting aside of mature stands, or setting aside of clear-cuts. We first estimated how habitat availability for focal indicator species and economic returns from timber harvesting develop through time as a function of forest type and action chosen. We then developed...

  9. Resources for Economic Educators from the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

    Suiter, Mary C.; Taylor, Keith G.


    The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis has a long history of providing economic and financial information to the public that continues today, although the format, delivery, and amount of information have changed over the years. Today, the St. Louis Fed provides Web-based data and information services, including FRED® and FRASER®, and publications,…

  10. Social Capital: A Neglected Resource to Create Viable and Sustainable Youth Economic Groups in Urban Tanzania

    Manyerere, David J.


    There has been an alarming increase in the rate of unemployment among active urban population in Tanzania whereby the youth are severely affected. In this regard Youth Economic Groups (YEGs) program was formed as one among the best alternative strategies to address this perennial problem. Membership in YEGs act as a means to complement youth…

  11. Remote Sensing and Economic Indicators for Supporting Water Resources Management Decisions

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Soppe, R.; Perry, C.J.


    This paper demonstrates that combining spatial land surface data with socio-economic analysis provides a number of indicators to strengthen decision making in integrated water and environmental management. It provides a basis to: track current water consumption in the Inkomati Basin in South-Africa;

  12. Remote Sensing and Economic Indicators for Supporting Water Resources Management Decisions

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Soppe, R.; perry, C.J.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.


    This paper demonstrates that combining spatial land surface data with socio-economic analysis provides a number of indicators to strengthen decision making in integrated water and environmental management. It provides a basis to: track current water consumption in the Inkomati Basin in South-Africa;

  13. Social, economic and political factors associated with earth resources observation and information analyses.

    Hall, J. J.


    Discussion of some of the interest conflicts between ecology and economics that arise, particularly in riparian environments, when a population-increase entailed growth in public service requirements is met by indiscriminate technology applications. Reviewed instances of such conflicts include the aborted cross-Florida barge canal project and the Florida Power and Light Company facility at Turkey point.

  14. Remote Sensing and Economic Indicators for Supporting Water Resources Management Decisions

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Soppe, R.; perry, C.J.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.


    This paper demonstrates that combining spatial land surface data with socio-economic analysis provides a number of indicators to strengthen decision making in integrated water and environmental management. It provides a basis to: track current water consumption in the Inkomati Basin in South-Africa;

  15. Culture loss and sense of place in resource valuation: Economics, anthropology and indigenous cultures

    Robert Snyder; Daniel R. Williams; George Peterson


    The Exxon-Valdez oil tanker ran aground on Bligh Reef outside the Valdez Arm of Prince William Sound, Alaska on March 24th 1989. Aside from attracting enormous media attention, this disaster focused a great deal of research and analysis on the ecological (Brown et al. 1993), political (Piper 1997), economic (Cohen 1993), and social (Jorgensen 1995; Gill and Picou 1997...

  16. Remote Sensing and Economic Indicators for Supporting Water Resources Management Decisions

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Soppe, R.; Perry, C.J.


    This paper demonstrates that combining spatial land surface data with socio-economic analysis provides a number of indicators to strengthen decision making in integrated water and environmental management. It provides a basis to: track current water consumption in the Inkomati Basin in South-Africa;

  17. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 10: Industry

    Lietzke, K. R.


    The economic benefits of an ERS system in the area of industrial resources are discussed. Contributions of ERTS imagery to the improvement of shipping routes, detection of previously unknown and potentially active faults in construction areas, and monitoring industrial pollution are described. Due to lack of economic research concerning the subject of ERS applications in this resource area the benefit estimations reported are regarded as tentative and preliminary.

  18. Characterizing China's energy consumption with selective economic factors and energy-resource endowment: a spatial econometric approach

    Jiang, Lei; Ji, Minhe; Bai, Ling


    Coupled with intricate regional interactions, the provincial disparity of energy-resource endowment and other economic conditions in China have created spatially complex energy consumption patterns that require analyses beyond the traditional ones. To distill the spatial effect out of the resource and economic factors on China's energy consumption, this study recast the traditional econometric model in a spatial context. Several analytic steps were taken to reveal different aspects of the issue. Per capita energy consumption (AVEC) at the provincial level was first mapped to reveal spatial clusters of high energy consumption being located in either well developed or energy resourceful regions. This visual spatial autocorrelation pattern of AVEC was quantitatively tested to confirm its existence among Chinese provinces. A Moran scatterplot was employed to further display a relatively centralized trend occurring in those provinces that had parallel AVEC, revealing a spatial structure with attraction among high-high or low-low regions and repellency among high-low or low-high regions. By a comparison between the ordinary least square (OLS) model and its spatial econometric counterparts, a spatial error model (SEM) was selected to analyze the impact of major economic determinants on AVEC. While the analytic results revealed a significant positive correlation between AVEC and economic development, other determinants showed some intricate influential patterns. The provinces endowed with rich energy reserves were inclined to consume much more energy than those otherwise, whereas changing the economic structure by increasing the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries also tended to consume more energy. Both situations seem to underpin the fact that these provinces were largely trapped in the economies that were supported by technologies of low energy efficiency during the period, while other parts of the country were rapidly modernized by adopting advanced

  19. Strain selection, biomass to biofuel conversion, and resource colocation have strong impacts on the economic performance of algae cultivation sites

    Venteris, Erik R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard


    Decisions involving strain selection, biomass to biofuel technology, and the location of cultivation facilities can strongly influence the economic viability of an algae-based biofuel enterprise. In this contribution we summarize our past results in a new analysis to explore the relative economic impact of these design choices. We present strain-specific growth model results from two saline strains (Nannocloropsis salina, Arthrospira sp.), a fresh to brackish strain (Chlorella sp., DOE strain 1412), and a freshwater strain of the order Sphaeropleales. Biomass to biofuel conversion is compared between lipid extraction (LE) and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) technologies. National-scale models of water, CO2 (as flue gas), land acquisition, site leveling, construction of connecting roads, and transport of HTL oil to existing refineries are used in conjunction with estimates of fuel value (from HTL) to prioritize and select from 88,692 unit farms (UF, 405 ha in pond area), a number sufficient to produce 136E+9 L yr-1 of renewable diesel (36 billion gallons yr-1, BGY). Strain selection and choice of conversion technology have large economic impacts, with differences between combinations of strains and biomass to biofuel technologies being up to $10 million dollars yr-1 UF-1. Results based on the most productive species, HTL-based fuel conversion, and resource costs show that the economic potential between geographic locations within the selection can differ by up to $4 million yr-1 UF-1, with 2.0 BGY of production possible from the most cost-effective sites. The local spatial variability in site rank is extreme, with very high and low rank sites within 10s of km of each other. Colocation with flue gas sources has a strong influence on site rank, but the most costly resource component varies from site to site. The highest rank sites are located predominantly in Florida and Texas, but most states south of 37°N latitude contain promising locations. Keywords: algae

  20. Agro-Economic Design of Cropping Pattern in Hendijan Irrigation and Drainage Network with Emphasis on Water Resources

    A Madeh Khaksar


    Full Text Available Recently, design of cropping pattern based on water resources is getting a high priority. This scheme is complicated, and affected by multiple factors. For investigation, designer must gather a huge data, and classify them. The method of processing and analyzing of the information is important. The method of linear programming based on Lingo software for Hendijan irrigation and drainage network was used. On the basis of water resources situation, physical limitations, ecology and economical parameters, hydromodule was determined. The model with initial data for crop pattern is performed by software to produce projected hydromodule. In this survey, sensitivity analysis on water cost was conducted. Result showed that by increasing water cost and rotation intensity, revenue for each consumption water unit was decreased. The maximum benefit for all available conditions of water on the case of non intensity would be 140 percent, for 3% of crops. The maximum benefit was 133346682 Rls per hectare based on water availability for 2006.


    TANG; Hui-jun


    [1]Guangdong Province Statistics Bureau, 2000. The Statistic Annual of Agricultural Economy of Guangdong[Z] ) Beijing:Chinese Statistic Press, 39-40, 203-222. (in Chinese)[2]Guangdong Province Construction Committee, 1996. The Planning of Zhujiang Delta Cities[Z]. Beijing: Chinese Architecture Technology Press. (in Chinese)[3]WANG Ying-cai, ZHANG Miao-ling, 1994. Research on the Population Carrying Potentiality of the Land Resource in Jiangsu Province [M]. Beijing: Chinese Agricultural Technology Press. 288-303. (in Chinese)[4]TANG Hui-jun, 1997. Research on the population carrying capacity of the land resources in the economic area of Zhujiang Delta[J]. Journal of Guangdong University of Technology.14(3): 44. (in Chinese)

  2. Engineering and Economic Analysis of Non-Electric Applications for Geothermal Heat Resources at Desert Hot Sprlngs, Califormia



    A study will be conducted to evaluate non-electric applications of an identifiable geothermal energy resource in terms of engineering, economic, and institutional considerations and to formulate the preliminary design and implementation plan of the most promising demonstration or industrial development project. The purpose of this study is to determine potential options that the Energy Research and Development Administration may exercise in developing low- and moderate-temperature hydrothermal resources as an economically and environmentally acceptable alternate energy source and in enhancing the development of a coherent geothermal industry. The study will focus upon a reservoir-specific, multiple use application of hydrothermal resources underlying the City of Desert Hot Springs. Potential applications to be considered include a space conditioning utility network for commercial and residential buildings and an aquacultural and agricultural installation in individual as well as energy cascading systems. To extend the utility of the study findings, the evaluation of potential applications will be conducted within the wider context of satisfying broad regional needs. The study will also be conducted in the framework of a moving baseline to account for emerging technologies and possible future cost escalations and availability of alternate energy sources. The progress of this study will be monitored by an Advisory Board comprised of a representative cross-section of the geothermal community. Results of the study will be disseminated through reports and a workshop to maximize information exchange with the geothermal community. In addition, a self-start manual will be prepared and distributed so that interested communities having similar geothermal resources can readily evaluate appropriate nonelectric applications to meet their specific needs and gain added insight into how best to implement these applications.

  3. Advanced Burner Reactor with Breed-and-Burn Thorium Blankets for Improved Economics and Resource Utilization

    Greenspan, Ehud [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This study assesses the feasibility of designing Seed and Blanket (S&B) Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) to generate a significant fraction of the core power from radial thorium fueled blankets that operate on the Breed-and-Burn (B&B) mode without exceeding the radiation damage constraint of presently verified cladding materials. The S&B core is designed to maximize the fraction of neutrons that radially leak from the seed (or “driver”) into the subcritical blanket and reduce neutron loss via axial leakage. The blanket in the S&B core makes beneficial use of the leaking neutrons for improved economics and resource utilization. A specific objective of this study is to maximize the fraction of core power that can be generated by the blanket without violating the thermal hydraulic and material constraints. Since the blanket fuel requires no reprocessing along with remote fuel fabrication, a larger fraction of power from the blanket will result in a smaller fuel recycling capacity and lower fuel cycle cost per unit of electricity generated. A unique synergism is found between a low conversion ratio (CR) seed and a B&B blanket fueled by thorium. Among several benefits, this synergism enables the very low leakage S&B cores to have small positive coolant voiding reactivity coefficient and large enough negative Doppler coefficient even when using inert matrix fuel for the seed. The benefits of this synergism are maximized when using an annular seed surrounded by an inner and outer thorium blankets. Among the high-performance S&B cores designed to benefit from this unique synergism are: (1) the ultra-long cycle core that features a cycle length of ~7 years; (2) the high-transmutation rate core where the seed fuel features a TRU CR of 0.0. Its TRU transmutation rate is comparable to that of the reference Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) with CR of 0.5 and the thorium blanket can generate close to 60% of the core power; but requires only one sixth of the reprocessing and



    A regional multiple-objectiv e water-resource and economic optimization model wasdevelopednsingaqnantita-five method of systematic analysis. Input to the model includes indexes of economic structure and development, wa-ter-resource utilization, wastewater and pollutant discharge, and investment in wastewater treatment. The model, whichconsists of production-structure and industrial-structure optimization modules, was applied to the Guanzhong region in themiddle reaches of the Huanghe (Yellow) River basin in China. By evaluating several alternative production and industrializa-tion schemes, the modal indicate that water pollution will get worsen though wastewater treatment improves if the economycontinues to develop at the planned speed without structural adjustment. However, the results also show that not only econom-ic goals but also water-resource protection and pollution-control targets can be achieved under an alternative, recommend-ed production and industrial structure. This example illustrates that economic development and environmental protectioncan be improved coordinately by the regional multiple-objective water-resource and economic optimization model. It pro-vides an operable approach to the simultaneous sustained development of water resources and economic growth.

  5. The End of Flat Earth Economics & the Transition to Renewable Resource Societies.

    Henderson, Hazel


    A post-industrial revolution is predicted for the future with an accompanying shift of focus from simple, brute force technolgies, based on cheap, accessible resources and energy, to a second generation of more subtle, refined technologies grounded in a much deeper understanding of biological and ecological realities. (Author/BB)

  6. Economic viability of distributed energy resources relative to substation and feeder facilities expansion

    Akorede, M. F.; Hizam, H.; Aris, I.


    Distributed energy resources have numerous benefits, of which is transmission network upgrade deferral. This application is particularly important where there are constraints in upgrading of the existing or construction of new generation units and transmission circuits. This paper presents a cost...... of DG when compared with upgrading the existing substation and feeder facilities, especially when incremental load is considered....

  7. Radiocarbon dating of elk (Alces alces), an economic and symbolic resource in prehistory

    Philippsen, Bente

    The European elk, “moose” in American English, was an important resource in the prehistory of Northern Europe. On some sites, it was the most important species in the economy. Furthermore, numerous examples of mobile and non-mobile art show the importance of the elk as a symbolic or ritualistic...

  8. The End of Flat Earth Economics & the Transition to Renewable Resource Societies.

    Henderson, Hazel


    A post-industrial revolution is predicted for the future with an accompanying shift of focus from simple, brute force technolgies, based on cheap, accessible resources and energy, to a second generation of more subtle, refined technologies grounded in a much deeper understanding of biological and ecological realities. (Author/BB)

  9. Economic viability of distributed energy resources relative to substation and feeder facilities expansion

    Akorede, M. F.; Hizam, H.; Aris, I.


    Distributed energy resources have numerous benefits, of which is transmission network upgrade deferral. This application is particularly important where there are constraints in upgrading of the existing or construction of new generation units and transmission circuits. This paper presents a cost...... of DG when compared with upgrading the existing substation and feeder facilities, especially when incremental load is considered. ©2010 IEEE....

  10. Bioenergy resources in forest. Economic potential survey; Bioenergiressurser i skog. Kartlegging av oekonomisk potensial

    Bergseng, Even; Eid, Tron; Roerstad, Per Kristian; Troemborg, Erik


    Forests constitute the largest resource potential for bioenergy in Norway. Based on simulations of forest development in Norway forward costs in the industry and other specified conditions, this study gives analysis and cost curves for increased recovery of bioenergy from Norwegian forests. (Author)

  11. Implications of climate change for economic development in northern Canada: energy, resource, and transportation sectors.

    Prowse, Terry D; Furgal, Chris; Chouinard, Rebecca; Melling, Humfrey; Milburn, David; Smith, Sharon L


    Northern Canada is projected to experience major changes to its climate, which will have major implications for northern economic development. Some of these, such as mining and oil and gas development, have experienced rapid expansion in recent years and are likely to expand further, partly as the result of indirect effects of changing climate. This article reviews how a changing climate will affect several economic sectors including the hydroelectric, oil and gas, and mining industries as well as infrastructure and transportation, both marine and freshwater. Of particular importance to all sectors are projected changes in the cryosphere, which will create both problems and opportunities. Potential adaptation strategies that could be used to minimize the negative impacts created by a climate change are also reviewed.

  12. Impact of Fiscal Decentralization on Non-Oil Economic Growth in a ResourceRich Economy

    Fakhri HASANOV


    Full Text Available The paper investigates effects of fiscal decentralization on non-oil sector development in case of Azerbaijan for the quarterly period of 2002 through 2013. Results obtained from Autoregressive Distributed Lag Bounds Testing approach show that share of local expenditures and revenues in total, measures of fiscal decentralization, have negative impact on non-oil GDP. This finding is consistent with other studies outcomes and can be considered adequate for the Azerbaijani economy due to the number of institutional constraints. The results of the research would provide a good insight for policy makers in implementing economic reforms to develop institutional aspects of decentralization and thus make it supportive for non-oil economic growth

  13. The Impact of Resource Wealth On Economic Growth, Governance, and Conflict in Afghanistan


    Center, August 2013, 1. 91 Lane, “Economics,” 23. 39 empty or used for unintended purposes, including one that functioned as a large chicken coop...government to formalize the illicit and unofficial mining sector. In his piece, “Does Lootable Wealth Breed Disorder? A Political Economy of...Afghanistan 136 Richard Snyder, “Does Lootable Wealth Breed Disorder? A Political Economy of Extraction

  14. Social, economic, and resource predictors of variability in household air pollution from cookstove emissions.

    Gautam N Yadama

    Full Text Available We examine if social and economic factors, fuelwood availability, market and media access are associated with owning a modified stove and variation in household emissions from biomass combustion, a significant environmental and health concern in rural India. We analyze cross-sectional household socio-economic data, and PM(2.5 and particulate surface area concentration in household emissions from cookstoves (n=100. This data set combines household social and economic variables with particle emissions indexes associated with the household stove. The data are from the Foundation for Ecological Society, India, from a field study of household emissions. In our analysis, we find that less access to ready and free fuelwood and higher wealth are associated with owning a replacement/modified stove. We also find that additional kitchen ventilation is associated with a 12% reduction in particulate emissions concentration (p<0.05, after we account for the type of stove used. We did not find a significant association between replacement/modified stove on household emissions when controlling for additional ventilation. Higher wealth and education are associated with having additional ventilation. Social caste, market and media access did not have any effect on the presence of replacement or modified stoves or additional ventilation. While the data available to us does not allow an examination of direct health outcomes from emissions variations, adverse environmental and health impacts of toxic household emissions are well established elsewhere in the literature. The value of this study is in its further examination of the role of social and economic factors and available fuelwood from commons in type of stove use, and additional ventilation, and their effect on household emissions. These associations are important since the two direct routes to improving household air quality among the poor are stove type and better ventilation.

  15. Rural and agricultural value of groundwater as an economic resource in the Limpopo region

    Mahumani, BK


    Full Text Available of effective groundwater pricing policy for better groundwater demand management in both domestic and agricultural use. Such policies could contribute to meeting the societal goals of economic efficiency and social equity. iv... ook die belangrikste bron van water, behalwe gedurende sekere tye wanneer besproeiingsdamme met vloedwater gevul word. Dan word grondwater om ekonomiese redes gedeeltelik met oppervlakwater vervang. In hierdie studie is die ekonomiese waarde...

  16. Outmigration, economic dislocation, and reassessment of the labor resource in the Russian far north.

    Bond, A R


    Location in Russia's economic space plays a major role in the development paths taken by its diverse regions. For example, certain regions on the former Union's periphery may eventually prosper as a result of evolving transborder economic ties. Other peripheries of Russia may well languish. This paper examines what economic transition could mean for one of these latter regions, Kraynyy Sever, the Far North. Kraynyy Sever was an administrative construct during the Soviet period used to delineate an area in which wage increments and costs of living bonuses were applied as part of a program to recruit workers for tours of northern service. These incentives were paid to attract workers to this extremely cold area. The region stretches from the Kola Peninsula in the northwest, across the Nenets okrug and Komi republic, then broadens in Siberia and the Far East to encompass everything north of the 60th parallel. There is a subregion along its southern margin, known as Regions Equivalent to the Far North, in which slightly lower increments and bonuses were paid. There is now an unjustifiably large population in the region and net out-migration appears likely, definitely from areas failing to boast mineral development of world significance.

  17. Resource efficiency and economic implications of alternatives to surgical castration without anaesthesia.

    de Roest, K; Montanari, C; Fowler, T; Baltussen, W


    This paper presents an analysis of the economic implications of alternative methods to surgical castration without anaesthesia. Detailed research results on the economic implications of four different alternatives are reported: castration with local anaesthesia, castration with general anaesthesia, immunocastration and raising entire males. The first three alternatives have been assessed for their impact on pig production costs in the most important pig-producing Member States of the EU. The findings on castration with anaesthesia show that cost differences among farms increase if the anaesthesia cannot be administered by farmers and when the veterinarian has to be called to perform it. The cost of veterinarian service largely affects the total average costs, making this solution economically less feasible in small-scale pig farms. In all other farms, the impact on production costs of local anaesthesia is however limited and does not exceed 1 €ct per kg. General anaesthesia administered by inhalation or injection of Ketamin in combination with a sedative (Azaperone, Midazolan) is more expensive. These costs depend heavily on farm size, as the inhalation equipment has to be depreciated on the largest number of pigs possible. The overall costs of immunocastration - including the cost of the work load for the farmer - has to be evaluated against the potential benefits derived from higher daily weight gain and feed efficiency in comparison with surgical castrates. The economic feasibility of this practice will finally depend on the price of the vaccine and on consumer acceptance of immunocastration. The improvement in feed efficiency may compensate almost entirely for the cost of vaccination. The main advantages linked to raising entire males are due to the higher efficiency of feed conversion, to the better growth rate and to the higher leanness of carcass. A higher risk of boar taint on the slaughter line has to be accounted for. Raising entire males should not

  18. Combined Impacts of Medium Term Socio-Economic Changes and Climate Change on Water Resources in a Managed Mediterranean Catchment

    Anastassi Stefanova


    Full Text Available Climate projections agree on a dryer and warmer future for the Mediterranean. Consequently, the region is likely to face serious problems regarding water availability and quality in the future. We investigated potential climate change impacts, alone (for three scenario periods and in combination with four socio-economic scenarios (for the near future on water resources in a Mediterranean catchment, whose economy relies on irrigated agriculture and tourism. For that, the Soil and Water Integrated Model (SWIM was applied to the drainage area of the Mar Menor coastal lagoon, using a set of 15 climate scenarios and different land use maps and management settings. We assessed the long-term average seasonal and annual changes in generated runoff, groundwater recharge and actual evapotranspiration in the catchment, as well as on water inflow and nutrients input to the lagoon. The projected average annual changes in precipitation are small for the first scenario period, and so are the simulated impacts on all investigated components, on average. The negative trend of potential climate change impacts on water resources (i.e., decrease in all analyzed components becomes pronounced in the second and third scenario periods. The applied socio-economic scenarios intensify, reduce or even reverse the climate-induced impacts, depending on the assumed land use and management changes.

  19. Economic valuation of sheep genetic resources: implications for sustainable utilization in the Kenyan semi-arid tropics.

    Omondi, I; Baltenweck, I; Drucker, A G; Obare, G; Zander, K K


    Sheep, recognised as one of the important livestock species especially in the semi-arid tropics with high genetic resource potentials, can be exploited through sustainable utilization in order to improve livestock keepers' livelihoods. This study presents the evaluation of the economic values of sheep genetic resources (SGR) in terms of the important non-market traits embedded in sheep and how this information can be utilised to improve livelihoods in semi-arid regions. The results obtained from mixed logit models results derived from stated choice data collected from 157 respondents in the semi-arid Marsabit district of Kenya reveal that disease resistance is the most highly valued trait whose resultant increment results into a welfare improvement of up to KShs.1537. Drought tolerance and fat deposition traits were found to be implicitly valued at KShs.694 and 738 respectively. The results further point out that for livestock stakeholders to effectively improve the livelihoods of poor livestock-keepers, development strategies for improving the management and/or utilisation of SGR in terms of drought tolerance, should not only be tailor made to target regions that are frequently devastated by drought but should also succeed other strategies or efforts that would first lead to the improvement of producers' economic status.

  20. From economics to resources: Teaching environmental sustainability in Peru's public education

    Adriazola-Rodriguez, Ana

    This dissertation examines the teaching of environmental awareness in Peru's public educational system and how it needs to be consciously taught and improved in order to overcome contamination and pollution of resources and decrease poverty. This is a situation afflicting a significant percentage of Peruvians, who face difficulty in surviving and living well because the scarcity of clean air and water, unpolluted land, and affordable energy, which are basic environmental resources. The teaching of environmental awareness, as mandated by Educational Peruvian Laws and curriculum, should be redesigned to promote environmental ethical awareness and sustainability to guard Peru's natural and cultural resources, bounty and beauty before it is too late. In this way, education will promote a better level of life for the majority of Peruvians. Peruvian public education is presently in a state of emergency, as has been recognized by the former minister of education Javier Sota Nadal (2004-2006). Only 10% of students leaving high school understand what they read and only 4% do well in mathematics. A number of reasons contribute to this tragedy. Among them is principally the low quality of teaching and the inadequate budget available for public education. Peru's laws, echoing the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and mandate good and free education and guarantee the right to live well. The reality is that none of these rights are properly given to the majority of poor Peruvians. This dissertation offers a course of action to teach and spread out not only environmental awareness, but also environmental ethics and sustainability from a personal perspective. This rounded concept, if applied, will form citizens able to guard, protect, and preserve natural and cultural resources. The needed environmental ethics and sustainability education will gradually guarantee, from early in life, a truthful way to love, care, protect and preserve the ecosystem. Also encompassed within

  1. Essai de modélisation de l'espace gabonais

    Boukossou MOULEINGUI


    Full Text Available Un milieu physique exubérant et de penetration difficile, des potentialités économiques énormes s'opposant à un sous-peuplement accentué à l'intérieur du pays par un exode rural massif, tels sont, au premier abord, les aspects saillants de l'espace gabonais. A partir de ces quelques éléments de hase, nous aboutissons à un essai de modèle graphique tourné vers le littoral atlantique nord.

  2. Protection biologique contre ravageurs aériens sur tomate sous abris : compte-rendu d'essai 2005

    Mazollier, Catherine; Lambion, Jérôme; Ranc, Nicolas


    En agriculture biologique, les moyens de protection contre les ravageurs aériens sont coûteux et leur efficacité est parfois insuffisante. La pratique des brumisations sous abris réduit les températures et augmente l’hygrométrie, et peut améliorer la protection contre l’acarien Tetranychus urticae, comme l'ont montré les essais du GRAB conduits de 2002 à 2004 sur melon, aubergine et concombre. Cet essai a pour objectif d’étudier l’intérêt de la brumisation et de la lutte biologique contre l'e...

  3. Results of a modeling workshop concerning economic and environmental trends and concomitant resource management issues in the Mobile Bay area

    Hamilton, David B.; Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.; Ellison, Richard A.; Johnson, Richard A.; Roelle, James E.; Staley, Michael J.


    During the past decade, the southern regions of the U.S. have experienced rapid change which is expected to continue into the foreseeable future. Growth in population, industry, and resource development has been attributed to a variety of advantages such as an abundant and inexpensive labor force, a mild climate, and the availability of energy, water, land, and other natural resources. While this growth has many benefits for the region, it also creates the potential for increased air, water, and solid waste pollution, and modification of natural habitats. A workshop was convened to consider the Mobile Bay area as a site-specific case of growth and its environmental consequences in the southern region. The objectives of the modeling workshop were to: (1) identify major factors of economic development as they relate to growth in the area over the immediate and longer term; (2) identify major environmental and resource management issues associated with this expected growth; and (3) identify and characterize the complex interrelationships among economic and environmental factors. This report summarizes the activities and results of a modeling workshop concerning economic growth and concomitant resource management issues in the Mobile Bay area. The workshop was organized around construction of a simulation model representing the relationships between a series of actions and indicators identified by participants. The workshop model had five major components. An Industry Submodel generated scenarios of growth in several industrial and transportation sectors. A Human Population/Economy Submodel calculated human population and economic variables in response to employment opportunities. A Land Use/Air Quality Submodel tabulated changes in land use, shoreline use, and air quality. A Water Submodel calculated indicators of water quality and quantity for fresh surface water, ground water, and Mobile Bay based on discharge information provided by the Industry and Human

  4. Optimal conservation resource allocation under variable economic and ecological time discounting rates in boreal forest

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Montesino Pouzols, Federico; Mönkkönen, Mikko


    that in boreal forest set-aside followed by protection of clear-cuts can become a winning cost-effective strategy when accounting for habitat requirements of multiple species, long planning horizon, and limited budget. It is particularly effective when adopting a long-term sustainability perspective......, and accounting for present revenues from timber harvesting. The present analysis assesses the cost-effective conditions to allocate resources into an inexpensive conservation strategy that nevertheless has potential to produce high ecological values in the future.......Resource allocation to multiple alternative conservation actions is a complex task. A common trade-off occurs between protection of smaller, expensive, high-quality areas versus larger, cheaper, partially degraded areas. We investigate optimal allocation into three actions in boreal forest: current...

  5. Bioconversion of renewable resources into ethanol: An economic evaluation of selected hydrolysis, fermentation, and membrane technologies

    Qureshi, N. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; Manderson, G.J. [Massey Univ., Palmerston North (New Zealand). Dept. of Process and Environmental Technology


    Four renewable agricultural resources were considered in a process design analysis for the industrial production of ethanol. Raw materials considered were wood, molasses, whey permeate, and starch. Final fermentation substrates were diluted and/or concentrated to give equivalent sugar concentrations for each case. Renewable resource costs were expressed as $/kg of sugar rather than /kg of the raw material. Molasses sugars were cheaper than sugars derived from the other raw materials. Various fermentation technologies were considered, including continuous culture and cell recycle. Ethanol recovery was examined using pervaporation and costs compared with distillation. The effects on ethanol prices of raw material costs, fermentation technology, product recovery, tax, plant size, and Lang factor are presented. Cultures of Candida shehatae, Zymomonas mobilis, Kluyveromyces marxianus var. lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (with Zymomonas mobilis) were used, depending on the substrate. The report identifies the most appropriate technologies in terms of final ethanol price.

  6. Policies of natural Resources Management and Environmental Economic Advantages - Attractions in Kosovo

    Afrim Selimaj


    Full Text Available Ecosystem management is a recent alternative policy proposed by the Kosovo government to address a new generation of environmental issues. All Kosovo agency managements are currently exploring the concept of ecosystem management and their implications. Their activities are focused in the management of land and natural resources, by developing policy guidelines regarding the management of the ecosystem and the efforts undertaken that are only one layer of a larger phenomenon nationwide. Similar activities occur at the state and local levels, as well as within the NGO sector. In this sense, this paper addresses two questions: What is the policy of ecosystem management? Would Ecosystem management remain only a land management policy and resource?

  7. Human Resources development and research capacity and their impact on economic growth

    Zoran Ježić; Nada Karaman Aksentijević


    The goal of this research is to provide an analysis of the development of the Republic of Croatia and 110 selected countries in terms of human resource development index components and the components of the Technological Achievement Index. Developmental lags of the Republic of Croatia were determined by the bird’s eye view method in terms of the observed developmental indicators, and suggestions were provided for their development. The impact of the analyzed indicators and their components on...

  8. Sustainable Utilization and Economic Development of Some Plant Resources in Northern Pakistan

    Hassan Sher; M Ajaz; Hazrat Sher


    Overshadowed by the vast impact that habitat loss has on targeted plant species survival, it is easy to overlook the fact that utilization and harvesting of species can often result in their genetic depletion and in an often rapid downward trend of their population status. In this regard an ethnobotanical study on the medicinal plants of Shawar valley, District Swat was conducted with the aims to document medicinal plants and to examine the current status of the medicinal plants trade as well as the market chain starting from collectors to consumers. The survey reported 50 species of plants belonging to 33 families as ethnomedicinally important. These species were used as crud drugs by the local people and folk-lore for treating diseases in traditional system of medicine. The detailed local uses, recipe preparation along with their local names and diseases treated were recorded for each species.Market survey revealed that the structure of medicinal plant trade is complex and heterogeneous, involving many players. The collectors are often not aware of the high market prices and medicinal values, and most of the collected material is sold to local middlemen at a very low price. There was an increase of 3 to 5 folds in prices from collectors to the national market.Recommendations were given in the spheres of training sustainable harvesting and post harvesting of wild medicinal plant resources, trade monitoring, equitable sharing of benefits of wild resources, improved control on harvesting and trade for the conservation of resources, enhancement of cultivation efforts, future research into trade in wild harvested plants, community participation in natural resource management and value addition in the herbal products to maximize the benefits.

  9. The Resource Curse in Mongolia: Mineral Wealth, Institutional Quality, and Economic Performance


    Development Planning in Mongolia: Failure and Potential,” planning -in-mongolia-failure-and-potential/. 4...46. 33 Naazneen H. Barma, “Petroleum, Governance and Fragility: The Micro-Politics of Petroleum in Postconflict States,” in Beyond the responsible for the state and local budget planning and expenditure, as well as customs, taxation, and insurance policies.47 Mongolia has made

  10. Assessment of Groundwater Resources of Dauphin Island and its Connection to Urban Sprawl and Economic Growth

    Petty, K. S.


    Dauphin Island is a barrier island about 28 miles south of Mobile, Alabama. The island relies heavily on the shallow aquifer underlying the barrier island. Worldwide, the largest volume of water used for human consumption and use comes from groundwater resources. On barrier islands such as Dauphin Island, the proportion of water used by humans coming from groundwater resources is even higher. Additionally, tourism is very important to the economy of Dauphin Island, and the hotels and tourist attractions rely on groundwater. Because of the large influx of people there are peaks in water demand during tourist season. The goal of this project is to quantify the impacts of urban growth on the aquifer and provide an estimate for sustainable withdrawal rates. The project will be carried out in two main phases. In the first phase a water resource assessment and analysis will be conducted using the SEAWAT model. SEAWAT simulates three-dimensional variable-density ground-water flow coupled with multi-species solute and heat transport. In the second phase the calibrated groundwater model for the island will be used to perform a scenario analysis which would help link groundwater availability with urban sprawl. In this paper we will describe the research methodology and procedures that will be used in the project.

  11. Does the Budget Expenditure Composition Matter for Long-Run Economic Growth in a Resource Rich Country? Evidence from Azerbaijan

    Khatai Aliyev


    Full Text Available This study investigates the role of budget expenditure composition over Azerbaijan’s non-oil economic growth in the long-run by classifying public spending as capital, social and other expenditures. Authors’ employ ARDLBT approach to co-integration for the period of 2000Q1-2014Q4 to estimate long-run contribution of each spending category before-and-after the oil boom while controlling for oilrelated factors. Empirical results endorse the validity of long-run association among variables. Results concluded insignificant negative impact of capital expenditures, and significant negative impact of other expenditures. However, social spending has statistically and economically strong positive impact over the non-oil output growth. Therefore, research findings confirm that public expenditure composition significantly matters for long-run non-oil economic growth, and social expenditures have the greater positive impact in a resource-rich economy, Azerbaijan. Research results are highly useful for the government officials to consider while planning the expenditures in order to minimize negative response of non-oil sector to the fiscal contraction.

  12. Modeling the Impacts of Urbanization and Industrial Transformation on Water Resources in China: An Integrated Hydro-Economic CGE Analysis

    Li Jiang


    Full Text Available Pressure on existing water resources in China is expected to increase with undergoing rapid demographic transformation, economic development, and global climate changes. We investigate the economy-wide impacts of projected urban population growth and economic structural change on water use and allocation in China. Using a multi-regional CGE (Computable General Equilibrium model, TERM (The Enormous Regional Model, we explore the implications of selected future water scenarios for China’s nine watershed regions. Our results indicate that urbanization and industrial transformation in China will raise the opportunity cost of water use and increase the competition for water between non-agricultural users and irrigation water users. The growth in water demand for domestic and industrial uses reduces the amount of water allocated to agriculture, particularly lower-value and water-intensive field crops. As a response, farmers have the incentive to shift their agricultural operations from traditional field crop production to higher-value livestock or intensive crop production. In addition, our results suggest that growing water demand due to urbanization and industrial transformation will raise the shadow price of water in all nine river basins. Finally, we find that national economic growth is largely attributable to urbanization and non-agricultural productivity growth.


    WANGXi-qin; LIUChang-ming; 等


    A regional multiple-objective water-resource and economic optimization model was developed using a quantitative method of systematic analysis.Input to the model includes indexes of economic structure and development,water-resource utilization,wastewater and pollutant discharge,and investment in wastewater treatment.The model,which consists of producton-structure and industrial-structure optimization modules,was applied to the Guanzhong region in the middle reaches of the Huanghe(Yellow) River basin in China.By evaluating several alternative production and industrialization schemes,the modal indicate that water pollution will get worsen though wastewater treatment improves if the economy continues to develop at the planned speed without structural adjustment.However,the results also show that not only economic goals but also water-resource protection and pollution-control targets can be achieved under an alternative,recommended production and industrial structure.This example illustrates that economic development and environmental protection can be improved coordinately by the regional multiple-objective water-resource and economic optimization model.It provides an operable approach to the simultaneous sustained development of water resources and economic growth.

  14. Economic Specialisation, Resource Variability, and the Origins of Intensive Agriculture in Eastern Africa

    Matthew I J Davies


    Full Text Available In Eastern Africa contrasting ecological zones within relatively short distances encourage economic specialisations which are reliant upon one another. Connections between different economic groups are facilitated by a variety of institutionalised networks that encourage the movement of both goods and people across boundaries. The role of livestock as essential capital ensures a strong impetus to increase agricultural production for exchange while, at the same time, the need to acquire livestock through ties to the pastoral community ensures that certain agriculturalists are confined to relatively limited areas at the margins of pastoral zones. In contrast to traditional models of agricultural development, the shift to intensive techniques may not be a radical departure from earlier practices, but rather much less labour intensive and gradually developed, aimed at expanding and improving natural zones of high productivity. This situation may have been exasperated by climatic fluctuations while lineage systems of social organisation encourage the localised marginalisation of politically unified descent groups and the development and expansion of large-scale agricultural works.

  15. The hydrogen resource. Productive, technical and economic analysis; La risorsa idrogeno: analisi produttiva tecnica ed economica

    De Fronzo, G. [Lecce Univ., Lecce (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Economiche, Matematico-Statistiche, Economici-Aziendali


    Diffusion of hydrogen as an energetic vector meets with a lot of obstacles that don't depend on available raw material, but on hydrogen combination with other elements. It is necessary, therefore, to separate hydrogen picking out the available different technologies to have different pure hydrogen of variable quantities. Besides, its diffusion as fuel is limited because of the great production cost compared to fuels sprung from petroleum. Hydrogen used on a large scale could have advantages on the environment and occupation, but there are economic and politic obstacles to limit its diffusion. Future of economic system, based on hydrogen as the main energetic vector, will depend on the programme that national and international qualified governing bodies will be able to do. [Italian] L'articolo analizza l'uso dell'idrogeno come risorsa dal punto di vista tecnico ed economico. Si discute la relazione con i programmi che governi nazionali sapranno mettere in campo per il suo sfruttamento.

  16. An energy/emissions/economic analysis resource for north Moravia, upper Silesia, and Kisuca

    Walder, V.


    The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is sponsoring the Technology Transfer Network (TTN) which is centered in Ostrava, Czech Republic. The primary objective of the TTN is to provide a resource for municipalities, industries, and companies interested in reducing air pollution, improving energy efficiency, and implementing projects in North Moravia, Upper Silesia, and Kisuca. The TTN is providing a communications network (newsletters, mailings, and other media), seminars, workshops, software, access to past and ongoing studies, and a database of U.S. vendors supporting the region. Seminars and major communication material of the TTN will be provided in Czech/Slovak, Polish, and English as appropriate.

  17. Medical Resource Utilizations and Economic Burden in Chinese Cancer Patients with Chemotherapy-induced Anemia:A Populational Database Study

    Chieh-Yu LIU; Tsang-Wu LIU; Jih-Shin LIU; Chin-Fu HSIAO; Li-Tzong CHEN


    Objective:Most of published studies emphasized the medical cost of treating chemotherapy-induced anemia(CIA)by using specific agents,for example,epoetin α,epoetin β,darbepoetin α or combined with red blood cell transfusions,however,the investigation of the overall medical resources utilizations and economic burden of CIA is still limited.Besides,such studies which emphasized Chinese population still lack.The aim of this study is to investigate the medical resource utilization and the economic burden of Chinese cancer patients with CIA by using a populational representative claim database. Methods:The data for this study are from the 2000-2003 Population Health Insurance Research Database(PHIRD)in Taiwan.On the basis of issuing catastrophic illness cards in the enrollment data files,a total of 26,053 beneficiaries were identified from the PHIRD,who were newly diagnosed with these four cancers in 2001 and 2002(2001:n=12,954;2002:n=13099).A generalized linear model(GLM)was employed for analyzing the differences of medical resource utilization and economic burden between the anemic and non-anemic groups. Results:Analyses showed that the anemic patients were significantly more likely to have longer length of hospital stay than non-anemic patients(P<0.05)across all these four cancers and in two study periods(except women breast cancer in 2002/03).As regards the health care expenditures,the average one-year total medical cost was USD$8,982(2001/02)and USD$8,990(2002/03)for anemic patients among these four cancers,and USD$7,769(2001/02)and USD$7713(2002/03)for non-anemic patients(P<0.0001).As for ambulatory costs,anemic patients'was significantly higher than non-anemic patients' for lung cancer(in 2001/02),women breast cancer(in 2001/02 and 2002/03)and the summarized data(in 2001/02).As for inpatient costs,anemic patients' was significantly higher than non-anemic patients'for gastric cancer(in 2002/03),colon and rectal cancer(in 2001/02 and 2002/03),lung cancer

  18. Assessment of the Economics and Resource-Use Efficiency of Rice Production in Ogun State, Nigeria

    A. Muhammad-Lawal


    Full Text Available Nigeria is a major importer of rice in the world with over 756 million USD annual expenditure on rice importation. This is probably due to insufficient domestic production occasioned by inefficient utilization of resources and other farm inputs. This study is therefore designed to estimate the costs and returns to rice production; and analyze resource use efficiency in rice production in Ogun State, Nigeria. A three-stage sampling technique was used to select a total of 120 rice farmers. Gross margin and regression analyses were used to analyse the data for the study. The study revealed that an average small scale rice farmer realizes a gross margin of N 90, 634.35 per hectare. While farm size, labour and crop production systems account for 80.5% (coefficient of multiple determination, R2 of the changes in rice production, the study revealed that farm size, labour and seeds were grossly underutilized in rice production. The study therefore recommends the need for policy that would enhance increase in the allocation of land, seeds and labour in the production of rice.

  19. CIM-EARTH: Community Integrated Model of Economic and Resource Trajectories for Humankind

    Foster, I.; Elliott, J.; Munson, T.; Judd, K.; Moyer, E. J.; Sanstad, A. H.


    We report here on the development of an open source software framework termed CIM-EARTH that is intended to aid decision-making in climate and energy policy. Numerical modeling in support of evaluating policies to address climate change is difficult not only because of inherent uncertainties but because of the differences in scale and modeling approach required for various subcomponents of the system. Economic and climate models are structured quite differently, and while climate forcing can be assumed to be roughly global, climate impacts and the human response to them occur on small spatial scales. Mitigation policies likewise can be applied on scales ranging from the better part of a continent (e.g. a carbon cap-and-trade program for the entire U.S.) to a few hundred km (e.g. statewide renewable portfolio standards and local gasoline taxes). Both spatial and time resolution requirements can be challenging for global economic models. CIM-EARTH is a modular framework based around dynamic general equilibrium models. It is designed as a community tool that will enable study of the environmental benefits, transition costs, capitalization effects, and other consequences of both mitigation policies and unchecked climate change. Modularity enables both integration of highly resolved component sub-models for energy and other key systems and also user-directed choice of tradeoffs between e.g. spatial, sectoral, and time resolution. This poster describes the framework architecture, the current realized version, and plans for future releases. As with other open-source models familiar to the climate community (e.g. CCSM), deliverables will be made publicly available on a regular schedule, and community input is solicited for development of new features and modules.

  20. A social-economic-engineering combined framework for decision making in water resources planning

    E. S. Chung


    Full Text Available This study presents a new methodology not only to evaluate willingness to pays (WTPs for the improvement of hydrological vulnerability using a choice experiment (CE method but also to do a cost-benefit analysis (CBA of some feasible alternatives combing the derived WTPs with an alternative evaluation index (AEI. The hydrological vulnerability consists of potential streamflow depletion (PSD, and potential water quality deterioration (PWQD and can be quantified using a multi-criteria decision making technique and pressure-state-response (PSR framework. PSD and PWQD not only provide survey respondents with sufficient site-specific information to avoid scope sensitivity in a choice experiment but also support the standard of dividing the study watershed into six sub-regions for site-fitted management. Therefore CE was applied to six regions one after the other, in order to determine WTPs for improvements on hydrological vulnerability considering the characteristics which are vulnerability, location, and preferences with regard to management objectives. The AEI was developed to prioritize the feasible alternatives using a continuous water quantity/quality simulation model as well as multi-criteria decision making techniques. All criteria for alternative performance were selected based on a driver-pressures-state-impact-response (DPSIR framework, and their weights were estimated using an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. In addition, the AEI that reflects on residents' preference with regard to management objectives was proposed in order to incite the stakeholder to participate in the decision making process. Finally, the economic values of each alternative are estimated by a newly developed method which combines the WTPs for improvements on hydrologic vulnerability with the AEI. This social-economic-engineering combined framework can provide the decision makers with more specific information as well as decrease the uncertainty of the CBA.

  1. The Effects of Wheat Guarantee Price on the Economic Value of Groundwater Resources; the Case Study of Orzoiye Region, Kerman

    S.H. Mosavi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Agriculture as one of main axis of development in Iran is heavily depend on irrigation water. on the other hand, water resources have been under heavy pressure due to rising demand with different uses. Hence, water resources management and optimal water allocation have become increasingly important Undoubtedly, one of the most important tools for optimal allocation of water resources, is the economic valuation of the long-term development strategy of the country. However, the main question is whether the various agricultural policies of the government are to achieve self-sufficiency in the production decisions, in line with the management of water resources? Materials and Methods: To develop an analytical context for responding to above question, in this study, the effect of guaranteed purchase policy of wheat as one of the most supporting government policies, on the economic value of water resources in Orzoiyeh plain of Kerman province was studied. In order to achieve our goals, a dynamic mathematical programming model was used. A number of key questions are involved with the modeling of dynamic situations. Fundamentally, one must ask whether an explicit multiple time period representation is necessary. If so, a number of other questions are relevant. First, the length of the total time period and the starting date must be determined. Second, the length of the time intervals explicitly represented within the total time period must be determined. Third, initial and final inventory conditions must be specified. Fourth, one must decide on activity life, i.e., when a particular activity is begun and how long it lasts. Fifth, the rate of time preference must be determined, i.e., one needs the discount rate at which future returns are considered when compared with current returns. Sixth and finally, one must decide whether to include uncertainty. The sections below present discussion on each of these topics. Dynamic situations may not

  2. Methods and tools to simulate the effect of economic instruments in complex water resources systems. Application to the Jucar river basin.

    Lopez-Nicolas, Antonio; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel


    The main challenge of the BLUEPRINT to safeguard Europe's water resources (EC, 2012) is to guarantee that enough good quality water is available for people's needs, the economy and the environment. In this sense, economic policy instruments such as water pricing policies and water markets can be applied to enhance efficient use of water. This paper presents a method based on hydro-economic tools to assess the effect of economic instruments on water resource systems. Hydro-economic models allow integrated analysis of water supply, demand and infrastructure operation at the river basin scale, by simultaneously combining engineering, hydrologic and economic aspects of water resources management. The method made use of the simulation and optimization hydroeconomic tools SIMGAMS and OPTIGAMS. The simulation tool SIMGAMS allocates water resources among the users according to priorities and operating rules, and evaluate economic scarcity costs of the system by using economic demand functions. The model's objective function is designed so that the system aims to meet the operational targets (ranked according to priorities) at each month while following the system operating rules. The optimization tool OPTIGAMS allocates water resources based on an economic efficiency criterion: maximize net benefits, or alternatively, minimizing the total water scarcity and operating cost of water use. SIMGAS allows to simulate incentive water pricing policies based on marginal resource opportunity costs (MROC; Pulido-Velazquez et al., 2013). Storage-dependent step pricing functions are derived from the time series of MROC values at a certain reservoir in the system. These water pricing policies are defined based on water availability in the system (scarcity pricing), so that when water storage is high, the MROC is low, while low storage (drought periods) will be associated to high MROC and therefore, high prices. We also illustrate the use of OPTIGAMS to simulate the effect of ideal water

  3. Poverty and Economic Decision-Making: Evidence from Changes in Financial Resources at Payday

    Carvalho, Leandro S.; Meier, Stephan; Wang, Stephanie W.


    We study the effect of financial resources on decision-making. Low-income U.S. households are randomly assigned to receive an online survey before or after payday. The survey collects measures of cognitive function and administers risk and intertemporal choice tasks. The study design generates variation in cash, checking and savings balances, and expenditures. Before-payday participants behave as if they are more present-biased when making intertemporal choices about monetary rewards but not when making intertemporal choices about non-monetary real-effort tasks. Nor do we find before-after differences in risk-taking, the quality of decision-making, the performance in cognitive function tasks, or in heuristic judgments. PMID:28003681

  4. Poverty and Economic Decision-Making: Evidence from Changes in Financial Resources at Payday.

    Carvalho, Leandro S; Meier, Stephan; Wang, Stephanie W


    We study the effect of financial resources on decision-making. Low-income U.S. households are randomly assigned to receive an online survey before or after payday. The survey collects measures of cognitive function and administers risk and intertemporal choice tasks. The study design generates variation in cash, checking and savings balances, and expenditures. Before-payday participants behave as if they are more present-biased when making intertemporal choices about monetary rewards but not when making intertemporal choices about non-monetary real-effort tasks. Nor do we find before-after differences in risk-taking, the quality of decision-making, the performance in cognitive function tasks, or in heuristic judgments.

  5. Economic Adjustment, Education and Human Resource Development in Africa: The Case of Nigeria

    Geo-Jaja, Macleans A.; Mangum, Garth


    On the basis of the Nigerian experience, this article argues that the structural adjustment programs of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, when misapplied, can have a devastating effect on the educational systems that are essential to human resource development. The paper considers how the objectives of structural adjustment might have been accomplished without harming education, and recommends an outcomes-based educational policy for Nigeria which could serve equally well in other developing nations. The key message of the paper is that the ongoing austerity programs have been secured at excessively high human cost, and that it is time for a policy redirection that reaffirms education as the essential tool of all development.



    The authors once made a preliminary research on population carrying capacity of the land in the Economic Area of Zhujiang Delta (EAZD for short) in 1995, and reckoned that the ultimate population in this region will be 23 550 thousand by year of 2000. While the population in being in EAZD was 22.62 million in 1999. This accords with the prefigured result in the rough from the point of view of development. According to the data of plow land resources from the 2000 Statistical Yearbook of EAZD and the study on the population-foodstuff-plow land relationship, this paper calculates the productive potential of plow land and the population carrying capacity of land by year of 2010, and puts forward the countermeasures for improving the population carrying capacity of land in this region.

  7. Information Design for “Weak Signal” detection and processing in Economic Intelligence: A case study on Health resources

    Sahbi Sidhom


    Full Text Available The topics of this research cover all phases of “Information Design” applied to detect and profit from weak signals in economic intelligence (EI or business intelligence (BI. The field of the information design (ID applies to the process of translating complex, unorganized or unstructured data into valuable and meaningful information. ID practice requires an interdisciplinary approach, which combines skills in graphic design (writing, analysis processing and editing, human performances technology and human factors. Applied in the context of information system, it allows end-users to easily detect implicit topics known as “weak signals” (WS. In our approach to implement the ID, the processes cover the development of a knowledge management (KM process in the context of EI. A case study concerning information monitoring health resources is presented using ID processes to outline weak signals. Both French and American bibliographic databases were applied to make the connection to multilingual concepts in the health watch process.

  8. Trust, Personal Moral Codes, and the Resource-Advantage Theory of Competition: Explaining Productivity, Economic Growth, and Wealth Creation

    Shelby D. Hunt


    Full Text Available Scholars agree that societal-level moral codes that promote social trust also promote wealth creation.  However, what specific kinds of societal-level moral codes promote social trust?  Also, by what specific kind of competitive process does social trust promote wealth creation?  Because societal-level moral codes are composed of or formed from peoples’ personal moral codes, this article explores a theory of ethics, known as the “Hunt-Vitell” theory of ethics, that illuminates the concept of personal moral codes and uses the theory to discuss which types of personal moral codes foster trust and distrust in society.  This article then uses resource-advantage (R-A theory, one of the most completely articulated dynamic theories of competition, to show the process by which trust-promoting, societal-level moral codes promote productivity and economic growth.  That is, they promote wealth creation.

  9. Management of Advanced Heart Failure in the Elderly: Ethics, Economics, and Resource Allocation in the Technological Era

    Keith M. Swetz


    Full Text Available Significant strides have been made in the durability, portability, and safety of mechanical circulatory support devices (MCS. Although transplant is considered the standard treatment for advanced heart failure, limits in organ availability leave a much larger pool of recipients in need versus donors. MCS is used as bridge to transplantation and as destination therapy (DT for patients who will have MCS as their final invasive therapy with transplant not being an option. Despite improvements in quality of life (QOL and survival, defining the optimal candidate for DT may raise questions regarding the economics of this approach as well as ethical concerns regarding just distribution of goods and services. This paper highlights some of the key ethical issues related to justice and the costs of life-prolonging therapies with respect to resource allocations. Available literature, current debates, and future directions are discussed herein.

  10. Values as a Resource for the Innovation Development of Economic Entity

    Shvydanenko Henefa O.


    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the process of transformation and interaction of enterprise’s values, as well as impact of this process on the efficiency of innovation development of company. Essence of the definition of value has been analyzed by two components: the moral-ethic (important, meaningful, right, normal, etc. and the economic (benefit, usefulness, use value. The necessity of allocating the core of the network of values of company, which contributes to formating a platform for the development of an efficient model of the value-oriented management of enterprise, has been substantiated. A model of the formation of company’s values with a view to an efficient innovative development has been proposed. The range of advantages of innovative development of enterprise has been considered through the prism of network of values. Both the alternative and the complementary options for the formation of company values in the process of innovative development of enterprise have been determined. The article provides some examples of experience by the leading companies that have increased the effectiveness of development on the basis of the value-oriented management. It has been found that development of any company according to the innovation vector should be based on an effective network of values, accepted both by separate individuals and the staff in general.

  11. Navajo Generating Station and Federal Resource Planning; Volume 1: Sectoral, Technical, and Economic Trends

    Hurlbut, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barrows, Clayton [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cook, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Day, Megan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Diakov, Victor [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hale, Elaine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lopez, Anthony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Reiter, Emerson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stoll, Brady [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Harvey [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Bain, Dominique [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Acker, Tom [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)


    This study for the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation examines conditions in the electricity sector that are likely to affect federal decisions with respect to Navajo Generating Station (NGS), the largest coal-fired power plant operating in the western United States. The federal government owns 24.3% of the 2.25-gigawatt plant, which amounts to 547 megawatts (MW) of capacity. By focusing on the unique public interests that depend on the federal share of NGS, this baseline study can help the federal government develop a road map for meeting all of its goals with respect to water delivery, clean energy, emission reduction, and economic development. There is no recommendation for action in this report. Rather, its aim is to provide a credible, thorough description of baseline conditions that might affect federal decisions regarding NGS. It describes facts and trends embedded in current data, but there are no conclusions about how Reclamation or DOI should respond to the trends. The interdependencies among the many sectoral trends and federal goals are complex, and the aim of this study is to provide a foundation from which options can be tested in a deliberate manner.

  12. Shared Urban Greywater Recycling Systems: Water Resource Savings and Economic Investment

    Dexter V.L. Hunt


    Full Text Available The water industry is becoming increasingly aware of the risks associated with urban supplies not meeting demands by 2050. Greywater (GW recycling for non-potable uses (e.g., urinal and toilet flushing provides an urban water management strategy to help alleviate this risk by reducing main water demands. This paper proposes an innovative cross connected system that collects GW from residential buildings and recycles it for toilet/urinal flushing in both residential and office buildings. The capital cost (CAPEX, operational cost (OPEX and water saving potential are calculated for individual and shared residential and office buildings in an urban mixed-use regeneration area in the UK, assuming two different treatment processes; a membrane bioreactor (MBR and a vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW. The Net Present Value (NPV method was used to compare the financial performance of each considered scenario, from where it was found that a shared GW recycling system (MBR was the most economically viable option. The sensitivity of this financial model was assessed, considering four parameters (i.e., water supply and sewerage charges, discount rate(s, service life and improved technological efficiency, e.g., low flush toilets, low shower heads, etc., from where it was found that shared GW systems performed best in the long-term.

  13. Exploring parameter effects on the economic outcomes of groundwater-based developments in remote, low-resource settings

    Abramson, Adam; Adar, Eilon; Lazarovitch, Naftali


    Groundwater is often the most or only feasible safe drinking water source in remote, low-resource areas, yet the economics of its development have not been systematically outlined. We applied AWARE (Assessing Water Alternatives in Remote Economies), a recently developed Decision Support System, to investigate the costs and benefits of groundwater access and abstraction for non-networked, rural supplies. Synthetic profiles of community water services (n = 17,962), defined across 13 parameters' values and ranges relevant to remote areas, were applied to the decision framework, and the parameter effects on economic outcomes were investigated. Regressions and analysis of output distributions indicate that the most important factors determining the cost of water improvements include the technological approach, the water service target, hydrological parameters, and population density. New source construction is less cost-effective than the use or improvement of existing wells, but necessary for expanding access to isolated households. We also explored three financing approaches - willingness-to-pay, -borrow, and -work - and found that they significantly impact the prospects of achieving demand-driven cost recovery. The net benefit under willingness to work, in which water infrastructure is coupled to community irrigation and cash payments replaced by labor commitments, is impacted most strongly by groundwater yield and managerial factors. These findings suggest that the cost-benefit dynamics of groundwater-based water supply improvements vary considerably by many parameters, and that the relative strengths of different development strategies may be leveraged for achieving optimal outcomes.

  14. An economic evaluation of incremental resources to road safety programmes in New Zealand.

    Guria, J


    Road crashes are related to the level of traffic, road and weather conditions, and most importantly, road user behaviour, which is a function of the level of enforcement, education and advertising campaigns. Safety programmes such as enforcement and advertising campaigns against drink-driving, speeding or seatbelt wearing aim to improve road user behaviour, and thereby to reduce the number and severity of crashes. This paper estimates incremental safety outcomes of these programmes over time and compares them with their resource costs. Due to the common outcome of several programmes, it is difficult to identify the effects of individual programmes. This paper tries to separate out the effects of non-roading safety programmes as a group from roading improvements. The analysis shows that safety programmes in New Zealand produce high incremental returns. Given that the crash risks in New Zealand are high in comparison with most other OECD countries, there is considerable scope for improvements to be made. The high incremental benefit/cost ratio over time supports this view and indicates that the investment in safety programmes is well below the optimal level.

  15. Resource engineering and economic studies for direct application of geothermal energy. Draft final report


    The feasibility of utilizing geothermal energy at a selected plant in New York State was studied. Existing oil and gas records suggests that geothermal fluid is available in the target area and based on this potential. Friendship Dairies, Inc., Friendship, NY, was selected as a potential user of geothermal energy. Currently natural gas and electricity are used as its primary energy sources. Six geothermal system configurations were analyzed based on replacement of gas or oil-fired systems for producing process heat. Each system was evaluated in terms of Internal Rate of Return on Investment (IRR), and simple payback. Six system configurations and two replaced fuels, representative of a range of situations found in the state, are analyzed. Based on the potential geothermal reserves at Friendship, each of the six system configurations are shown to be economically viable, compared to continued gas or oil-firing. The Computed IRR's are all far in excess of projected average interest rates for long term borrowings: approximately 15% for guarantee backed loans or as high as 20% for conventional financing. IRR is computed based on the total investment (equity plus debt) and cash flows before financing costs, i.e., before interest expense, but after the tax benefit of the interest deduction. The base case application for the Friendship analysis is case B/20 yr-gas which produces an IRR of 28.5% and payback of 3.4 years. Even better returns could be realized in the cases of oil-avoidance and where greater use of geothermal energy can be made as shown in the other cases considered.

  16. Economic feasibility of a new method to estimate mortality in crisis-affected and resource-poor settings.

    Bayard Roberts

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mortality data provide essential evidence on the health status of populations in crisis-affected and resource-poor settings and to guide and assess relief operations. Retrospective surveys are commonly used to collect mortality data in such populations, but require substantial resources and have important methodological limitations. We evaluated the feasibility of an alternative method for rapidly quantifying mortality (the informant method. The study objective was to assess the economic feasibility of the informant method. METHODS: The informant method captures deaths through an exhaustive search for all deaths occurring in a population over a defined and recent recall period, using key community informants and next-of-kin of decedents. Between July and October 2008, we implemented and evaluated the informant method in: Kabul, Afghanistan; Mae La camp for Karen refugees, Thai-Burma border; Chiradzulu District, Malawi; and Lugufu and Mtabila refugee camps, Tanzania. We documented the time and cost inputs for the informant method in each site, and compared these with projections for hypothetical retrospective mortality surveys implemented in the same site with a 6 month recall period and with a 30 day recall period. FINDINGS: The informant method was estimated to require an average of 29% less time inputs and 33% less monetary inputs across all four study sites when compared with retrospective surveys with a 6 month recall period, and 88% less time inputs and 86% less monetary inputs when compared with retrospective surveys with a 1 month recall period. Verbal autopsy questionnaires were feasible and efficient, constituting only 4% of total person-time for the informant method's implementation in Chiradzulu District. CONCLUSIONS: The informant method requires fewer resources and incurs less respondent burden. The method's generally impressive feasibility and the near real-time mortality data it provides warrant further work to

  17. Natural Resources Endowment, Economic Rights Endowment and Regional Economic Growth%自然资源禀赋、经济权利禀赋与区域经济增长

    林勇; 朱忠杰; 张瑞


    This paper takes the panel data from 2000 to 2011 in 31 provinces of China to build spatial econometric model , and incorporates the economic rights endowment into the analytical framework of natural resources endowment and regional economic growth by spatial panel method , to analyze the effects of natural resources endowment and economic rights endow -ment on regional economic growth .The research results show that natural resources endowment is positive correlations with regional economic growth , and the abundance of natural resources can promote regional economic growth to a certain , but has little effect; besides, in the economic rights endowment , both of physical capital rights and the right to use the labor are positive correlations with the economic growth , and has more effect; human capital rights is negative correlations with regional economic growth , but is not significant; the institutional change rights is positive correlation with regional econom-ic growth, the system supply rights is positive correlations with regional economic growth , but is not significant .%本文选取2000-2011年中国31个省级单元的面板数据构建空间计量模型,采用空间面板方法将经济权利禀赋纳入自然资源禀赋与区域经济增长的分析框架,探讨自然资源禀赋、经济权利禀赋对区域经济增长的影响。研究发现自然资源禀赋与区域经济增长显著正相关,自然资源丰裕在一定程度上能促进地区经济增长,但作用力较小;在经济权利禀赋中,物质资本权利、劳动力使用权利与区域经济增长显著正相关,且作用力度较大;人力资本权利与区域经济增长负相关,但不显著;制度变迁权利与区域经济增长显著正相关,而制度供给权利与区域经济增长虽正相关,但不显著。

  18. Resources



    @@ Spending the hot summer in big Chinese cities is quite an experience. It is not just the heat, the heavy monsoon-rain or the thunderstorms; above all, it is pollution that hurts. Usually, the focus of our economic outlook is rather short-term. But pollution in our mind and our lungs is a long-term concern. As we have explained many times in this column, the medium and long-term outlook of China's GDP-growth-potential is enormous. However, at this point any serious economist has to attach some caveats.

  19. Options for decoupling economic growth from water use and water pollution: A report of the Water Working Group of the International Resource Panel Options for decoupling economic growth from water use and water pollution

    Global trends have pointed to a relative decoupling of water – that is, the rate of water resource use is increasing at a rate slower than that of economic growth. Despite this progress at the global level, it is projected that by 2030 there will be a 40% gap between water supply and water demand if...

  20. Assessment of the petroleum, coal and geothermal resources of the economic community of West African States (ECOWAS) Region

    Mattick, Robert E. [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States); Spencer, Frank D. [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States); Zihlman, Frederick N. [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States)


    Approximately 85 percent of the land area of the ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States) region is covered by basement rocks (igneous and highly metamorphosed rocks) or relatively thin layers of Paleozoic, Upper Precambrian, and Continental Intercalaire sedimentary rocks. These areas have little or no petroleum potential. The ECOWAS region can be divided into 13 sedimentary basins on the basis of analysis of the geologic framework of Africa. These 13 basins can be further grouped into 8 categories on the basis of similarities in stratigraphy, geologic history, and probable hydrocarbon potential. The author has attempted to summarize the petroleum potential within the geologic framework of the region. The coal discoveries can be summarized as follows: the Carboniferous section in the Niger Basin; the Paleocene-Maestrichtian, Maestrichtian, and Eocene sections in the Niger Delta and Benin; the Maestrichtian section in the Senegal Basin; and the Pleistocene section in Sierra Leone. The only proved commercial deposits are the Paleocene-Maestrichtian and Maestrichtian subbituminous coal beds of the Niger Delta. Some of the lignite deposits of the Niger Delta and Senegal Basin, however, may be exploitable in the future. Published literature contains limited data on heat-flow values in the ECOWAS region. It is inferred, however, from the few values available and the regional geology that the development of geothermal resources, in general, would be uneconomical. Exceptions may include a geopressured zone in the Niger Delta and areas of recent tectonic activity in the Benue Trough and Cameroon. Development of the latter areas under present economic conditions is not feasible.

  1. Fiber resources

    P. J. Ince


    In economics, primary inputs or factors of production define the term ‘resources.’ Resources include land resources (plants, animals, and minerals), labor, capital, and entrepreneurship. Almost all pulp and paper fiber resources are plant materials obtained from trees or agricultural crops. These resources encompass plant materials harvested directly from the land (...

  2. The role of natural resource and environmental economics in determining the trade-offs in consumption and production of energy inputs: The case of biomass energy crops

    Downing, M.; Graham, R.L.


    Natural resource economics issues deal with flows and funds of renewable and nonrenewable resources over time. These issues include topics concerned with management of fisheries, forests, mineral, energy resources, the extinction of species and the irreversibility of development over time. Environmental economics issues deal with regulation of polluting activities and the valuation of environmental amenities. In this study we outline a framework for studying both natural resource and environmental economics issues for any renewable or nonrenewable resource. Valuation from both the cost and benefit sides are addressed as they relate to the valuation of environmental programs or policies. By using this top-down approach to analyze and determine the costs and benefits of using renewable or nonrenewable resources, policy-makers on the global, national and local scales may be better informed as to the probable nonmarket and market ramifications of their natural resource and environmental policy decisions. This general framework for analysis is then focused to address biomass energy crops and their usage as inputs to energy production. As with any energy technology, a complete analysis must include an examination of the entire fuel cycle; specifically both production and consumption sides. From a production standpoint, market valuation issues such as crop management techniques, inputs to production, and community economics issues must be addressed as well as nonmarket valuation issues such as soil erosion, ground water effects and carbon sequestration. On the consumption side, market valuation considerations such as energy fuel efficiency and quality, cost of conversion and employment of labor are important factors while the critical nonmarket valuation factors are ambient air visibility, greenhouse gas release, and disposal of the by-products of conversion and combustion.

  3. Physical, technical, and economic accessibility of resources and reserves need to be distinguished by grade: Application to the case of phosphorus.

    Springer, Nathaniel P


    The amount of phosphorus in the total environment is finite, yet recent estimates suggest that more than enough phosphate ore resources exist in the lithosphere to meet future increases in demand during the next century. Still, it remains unclear how the accessibility of this resource stock - which is heterogeneous in terms of grade and location - will change as currently accessible resources are utilized, as extraction and processing technologies develop, and as the relative economic costs vary. This study uses an economic framework, the World Trade Model with Rectangular Choice-of-Technology, to link estimates of known geological resources of various grades with the technically and economically accessible reserves. Using the most recent public data on phosphate ore stocks and mining and technological capacity, this study estimates that the ~400,000teragrams (Tg) of known apatite ore (>1% P2O5 content) equate to ~110,000Tg when converted to potential reserves (~30% P2O5) using existing technologies, with over half of these remaining potential reserves converted from resources with grades below 20% P2O5. Corresponding global reserves are estimated at ~70,000Tg using the Rectangular Choice-of-Technology model, but since any reserve estimate is contingent on the state of the world economy, a set of five illustrative scenarios are constructed to show how this estimate can vary between ~67,000 and ~98,000Tg with only a small number of changes to the economic and technical parameters and variables. Calculating accessibility using consistent definitions for resources and reserves while distinguishing between grades not only creates a clearer picture of remaining non-renewable resources, but creates a framework that can be used to explore future geopolitical scenarios about ore availability, extraction technologies, supply networks, and global commodity prices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Household Living Arrangements and Economic Resources among Mexican Immigrant Families with Children. University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series, DP2010-10

    Leach, Mark A.


    Using data from the 2000 Census, this study examines the relationship between household living arrangements and economic resources among Mexican immigrant families with children. I model separately the relationships between family income and household structure and proportion of total household income contributed and household structure. The…

  5. Remuneration of Graduates, as at 1 July 1994. Human Resources, Financial, and Economic Occupations = Vergoeding van Gegradueerdes, soos op 1 Julie 1994. Menslike Hulpbronne, Finansiele en Ekonomiese Beroepe.

    Jacobs, Johan

    This report, in both English and Afrikaans, is based on data gathered during a September 1994 mail survey of 215,284 South African graduates that elicited a total response rate of 18.3%. It details the remuneration of graduates (as of July 1, 1994) in a wide range of human resources, accounting and financial, economic, and sales occupations in the…

  6. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 8: Atmosphere

    Miles, R.; Fawkes, G.


    The economic value of an ERS system in the resource area of atmosphere is determined. Benefits which arise from air pollution and cloud observations correlated to ground stations are discussed along with cost savings associated with air pollution monitoring by satellite. Social benefits due to more precise knowledge of the effects of pollution are presented.

  7. Impact of Economic Development Model on the Fitting Effect of the Mathematical Model of Changes in Cultivated Land Resources

    Xin; YAO; Min; ZHANG


    The mathematical model is often used for fitting the trend of changes in cultivated land resources in the land use planning,but the fitting effect is different in different study areas. In this paper,we take two geographically adjacent cities with great differences in the economic development model,Xinghua City and Jingjiang City,as the research object. Using logarithmic model( M1),Kuznets model( M2),logistic model( M3) and multivariate linear model( M4),we fit the process of changes in cultivated land resources during the period 1980- 2009,and compare the differences in the fitting effect between different models. In terms of the model fitting effect in Xinghua City,it is in the order of M3 > M4 > M1 > M2,which is related to the fact that the local areas lay great emphasis on agricultural development,and pay close attention to ensuring the cultivated land area; in terms of the model fitting effect in Jingjiang City,it is in the order of M1 > M3 > M4 > M2,and the deep-seated cause is that its development model is dominated by extended trade expansion,and the level of intensive land use is constantly improved. In addition,we discuss the multi-stage characteristics of changes in cultivated land resources,and propose a solution of using the same model to simulate in various phases. The research results in Jingjiang City show that the coefficient of determination in the first phase( R2=0. 958) and the standard error( SE = 0. 261) are both better than those of the original model( R2= 0. 945,SE = 0. 312); the coefficient of determination in the second phase is slightly low( R2= 0. 851),but the standard error is greatly improved( SE = 0. 137). Compared with the research conclusions of other scholars,it can be believed that this method can better solve the problems that the scatter plot of logistic model presents wave-shape and the scatter plot of Kuznets model presents " M"-shape,in order to improve the applicability of mathematical models.

  8. The Economic Returns of Network Resources to the Urban Informal Economy: Evidence from Street Vendors in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Getahun Fenta Kebede


    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that social capital constitutes an important form of social regulation in informal sector and it is the major component of the asset portfolios of the urban poor.Nevertheless, the potential contribution of social capital in the informal sector remains under-investigated in African cities. Applying the network approach, this study examinedthe economic returns of social capital to microenterprises in the informal sector. To do so, the personal networks of street vendors in Addis Ababa were examined. Multi-stagesampling procedures involving purposive and systematic random-walk techniques were applied to draw samples. Data were collected through position generator surveys. The datawere analyzed using OLS and Instrumental Variable Estimators. By controlling the potential endogeneity, the estimation results revealed that network resources are positive and significant predictors of enterprise profit. But their benefit is less for married vendors than unmarried ones. The human capital measures such as education, vocational training, and business experience are not significant predictors of enterprise profit.Key Words: Social Capital, Social Networks, Informal Sector, Ethiopia, Addis Ababa

  9. [The optimization of the use of economic resources for vaccination against hepatitis B in professionals in the health area].

    Ferraz, M L; de Oliveira, P M; Figueiredo, V M; Kemp, V L; Castelo Filho, A; Silva, A E


    In order to optimize the employment of financial resources to be allocated for hepatitis B vaccination programs involving health care workers, two different aspects were studied: the need of a pre-vaccination screening and the efficacy of low-doses schedules of HBV vaccine by the intradermal (ID) route. The economical analysis (a cost-minimization study) showed that when the prevalence of immune individuals is higher than 11% it is more cost-effective to perform pre-vaccination screening. This situation was observed in the employees group. For students and doctors vaccination without screening was the best approach. Regarding the schedules, 3 doses of HBV vaccine by the intramuscular (IM) route (group A) were compared to first dose by the ID route and second and third doses by the IM route (group B) and to first and second doses by the ID route and the last dose by the IM route (group C). After the third dose, soroconversion rates in groups A and B (92% and 93%, respectively) and geometric mean titers of antiHBs (1278 UI/L and 789.6 UI/L) were similar, and both were different from group A (p < 0.05), showing that alternative vaccination schedules may be cost-effective.

  10. Out-patient management and non-attendance in the current economic climate. How best to manage our resources?

    Hennessy, D


    Outpatient non-attendance is a considerable source of inefficiency in the health service, wasting time, resources and potentially lengthening waiting lists, Given the current economic climate, methods need to be employed to reduce non-attendance. The aim was to analyse outpatient non-attendance and determine what factors influence attendance. A prospective audit over a two-month period to a tertiary-referral Urological service was performed to determine the clinical and demographic profile of non-attendees. Of 737 appointments, 148 (20%) patients did not attend (DNA). A benign urological condition was evident in 116 cases (78%). This group of patients also accounted for the majority of new patients not attending 40\\/47, returning patients not attending 101\\/148 and the majority of patients who missed multiple appointments 43\\/49. Patients with benign conditions make up the majority of clinic non-attendance. Consideration may be given to discharging such patients back to their general practitioner after one unexplained non-attendance until other alternatives of follow up are available.

  11. Scale Issues in Modeling the Water Resources Sector in National Economic Models: A Case study of China

    Strzepek, K. M.; Kirshen, P.; Yohe, G.


    The fundamental theme of this research was to investigate tradeoffs in model resolution for modeling water resources in the context of national economic development and capital investment decisions.. Based on a case study of China, the research team has developed water resource models at relatively fine scales, then investigated how they can be aggregated to regional or national scales and for use in national level planning decisions or global scale integrated assessment models of food and/or environmental change issues. The team has developed regional water supply and water demand functions.. Simplifying and aggregating the supply and demand functions will allow reduced form functions of the water sector for inclusion in large scale national economic models. Water Supply Cost functions were developed looking at both surface and groundwater supplies. Surface Water: Long time series of flows at the mouths of the 36 major river sub-basins in China are used in conjunction with different basin reservoir storage quantities to obtain storage-yield curves. These are then combined with reservoir and transmission cost data to obtain yield-cost or surface water demand curves. The methodology to obtain the long time series of flows for each basin is to fit a simple abcd water balance model to each basin. The costs of reservoir storage have been estimated by using a methodology developed in the USA that relates marginal storage costs to existing storage, slope and geological conditions. USA costs functions have then been adjusted to Chinese costs. The costs of some actual dams in China were used to "ground-truth" the methodology. Groundwater: The purpose of the groundwater work is to estimate the recharge in each basin, and the depths and quality of water of aquifers. A byproduct of the application of the abcd water balance model is the recharge. Depths and quality of aquifers are being taken from many separate reports on groundwater in different parts of China; we have been

  12. Public economics

    James M. Poterba


    The International Handbook on Teaching and Learning Economics provides a comprehensive resource for instructors and researchers in economics, both new and experienced. This wide-ranging collection is designed to enhance student learning by helping economic educators learn more about course content, pedagogic techniques, and the scholarship of the teaching enterprise.

  13. Health resource utilization and the economic burden of patients with wet age-related macular degeneration in Thailand

    Piyameth Dilokthornsakul


    Full Text Available AIM:To determine healthcare resource utilization and the economic burden associated with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD in ThailandMETHODS:This study included patients diagnosed with wet AMD that were 60 years old or older, and had best corrected visual acuity (BCVA measured at least two times during the follow-up period. We excluded patients having other eye diseases. Two separate sub-studies were conducted. The first sub-study was a retrospective cohort study; electronic medical charts were reviewed to estimate the direct medical costs. The second sub-study was a cross-sectional survey estimating the direct non-medical costs based on face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. For the first sub-study, direct medical costs, including the cost of drugs, laboratory, procedures, and other treatments were obtained. For the second sub-study, direct non-medical costs, e.g. transportation, food, accessories, home renovation, and caregiver costs, were obtained from face-to-face interviews with patients and/or caregivers.RESULTS: For the first sub-study, sixty-four medical records were reviewed. The annual average number of medical visits was 11.1±6.0. The average direct medical costs were $3 604±4 530 per year. No statistically-significant differences of the average direct medical costs among the BCVA groups were detected (P=0.98. Drug costs accounted for 77% of total direct medical costs. For direct non-medical costs, 67 patients were included. Forty-eight patients (71.6% required the accompaniment of a person during the out-patient visit. Seventeen patients (25.4% required a caregiver at home. The average direct non-medical cost was $2 927±6 560 per year. There were no statistically-significant differences in the average costs among the BCVA groups (P=0.74. Care-giver cost accounted for 87% of direct non-medical costs.CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that wet AMD is associated with a substantial economic burden, especially

  14. The potentials and challenges of algae based biofuels: a review of the techno-economic, life cycle, and resource assessment modeling.

    Quinn, Jason C; Davis, Ryan


    Microalgae biofuel production has been extensively evaluated through resource, economic and life cycle assessments. Resource assessments consistently identify land as non-limiting and highlight the need to consider siting based on combined geographical constraints of land and other critical resources such as water and carbon dioxide. Economic assessments report a selling cost of fuel that ranges between $1.64 and over $30 gal(-1) consistent with large variability reported in the life cycle literature, -75 to 534 gCO2-eq MJ(-1). Large drivers behind such variability stem from differences in productivity assumptions, pathway technologies, and system boundaries. Productivity represents foundational units in these assessments with current assumed yields in various assessments varying by a factor of 60. A review of the literature in these areas highlights the need for harmonized assessments such that direct comparisons of alternative processing technologies can be made on the metrics of resource requirements, economic feasibility, and environmental impact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Challenging assumptions about women's empowerment: social and economic resources and domestic violence among young married women in urban South India.

    Rocca, Corinne H; Rathod, Sujit; Falle, Tina; Pande, Rohini P; Krishnan, Suneeta


    Although considerable research has documented the widespread prevalence of spousal violence in India, little is known about specific risk or protective factors. This study examines the relationships between factors that are often considered to be social and economic resources for women and recent occurrence of domestic violence. Data were collected from 744 young married women in slum areas of Bangalore, India. Unadjusted and adjusted multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine factors associated with having been hit, kicked or beaten by one's husband in the past 6 months. Over half (56%) of the study participants reported having ever experienced physical domestic violence; about a quarter (27%) reported violence in the past 6 months. In a full multivariable model, women in 'love' marriages (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.5) and those whose families were asked for additional dowry after marriage (OR=2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.4) were more likely to report domestic violence. Women who participated in social groups (OR=1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.4) and vocational training (OR=3.1, 95% CI 1.7-5.8) were also at higher risk. Efforts to help women empower themselves through vocational training, employment opportunities and social groups need to consider the potential unintended consequences for these women, such as an increased risk of domestic violence. The study findings suggest that the effectiveness of anti-dowry laws may be limited without additional strategies that mobilize women, families and communities to challenge the widespread acceptance of dowry and to promote gender equity. Longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the complex causal relationships between 'love' marriages and domestic violence.

  16. Do economic evaluation studies inform effective healthcare resource allocation in Iran? A critical review of the literature.

    Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene


    To aid informed health sector decision-making, data from sufficient high quality economic evaluations must be available to policy makers. To date, no known study has analysed the quantity and quality of available Iranian economic evaluation studies. This study aimed to assess the quantity, quality and targeting of economic evaluation studies conducted in the Iranian context. The study systematically reviewed full economic evaluation studies (n = 30) published between 1999 and 2012 in international and local journals. The findings of the review indicate that although the literature on economic evaluation in Iran is growing, these evaluations were of poor quality and suffer from several major methodological flaws. Furthermore, the review reveals that economic evaluation studies have not addressed the major health problems in Iran. While the availability of evidence is no guarantee that it will be used to aid decision-making, the absence of evidence will certainly preclude its use. Considering the deficiencies in the data identified by this review, current economic evaluations cannot be a useful source of information for decision makers in Iran. To improve the quality and overall usefulness of economic evaluations we would recommend; 1) developing clear national guidelines for the conduct of economic evaluations, 2) highlighting priority areas where information from such studies would be most useful and 3) training researchers and policy makers in the calculation and use of economic evaluation data.

  17. Feasibility study for a 10 MM GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume II. Geothermal resource, agricultural feedstock, markets and economic viability


    The issues of the geothermal resource at Brady's Hot Springs are dealt with: the prospective supply of feedstocks to the ethanol plant, the markets for the spent grain by-products of the plant, the storage, handling and transshipment requirements for the feedstocks and by-products from a rail siding facility at Fernley, the probable market for fuel ethanol in the region, and an assessment of the economic viability of the entire undertaking.

  18. Feasibility study for a 10 MM GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume II. Geothermal resource, agricultural feedstock, markets and economic viability


    The issues of the geothermal resource at Brady's Hot Springs are dealt with: the prospective supply of feedstocks to the ethanol plant, the markets for the spent grain by-products of the plant, the storage, handling and transshipment requirements for the feedstocks and by-products from a rail siding facility at Fernley, the probable market for fuel ethanol in the region, and an assessment of the economic viability of the entire undertaking.

  19. 上海人口、人力资源与经济发展转型%Shanghai's Population, Human Resources and Transformation of Economic Development



    “十二五”时期是上海经济发展转型的关键时期。人口、人力资源是上海经济发展转型的重要因素,其规模、质量、结构和趋势对上海经济发展方式选择和产业结构调整有重大的影响。上海要积极推进十七大提出的“三个转变”,加快经济增长由主要依靠增加物质资源消耗向主要依靠科技进步、劳动者素质提高、管理创新转变,进一步提高人口和人力资源的宏观管理能力和绩效,为上海经济发展转型创造有利的核心条件。%The period of "12nd five-year plan" is the key stage of Shanghai's transformation of economic development. Population and human resource is an important factor for Shanghai's economic development. The size, quality, structure and development trend of population will significantly impact Shanghai's economic development mode selection and adjustment of industrial structure. Shanghai should actively promote the congress's "three changes" to speed up economic growth from mainly relying on increased consumption of material resources to mainly relying on scientific and technological progress, promotion of the quality of workers and innovation in management. We should further improve the macro-management and performance of population and human resources to promote thetransformation of Shanghai's economic development.

  20. When Marcel Mauss's Essai sur le Don becomes The Gift: variations on the theme of solidarity.

    Bateman, Simone


    Since the early 1970s, Marcel Mauss's Essai sur le Don (1923), translated into English as The Gift in 1954, has been a standard reference in the social science and bioethical literature on the use of human body parts and substances for medical and research purposes. At that time, three social scientists-political scientist Richard Titmuss in the United Kingdom and sociologist Renée C. Fox working with historian Judith Swazey in the United States-had the idea of using this concept to highlight the fundamental structure of the biomedical practices they were studying, respectively, blood donation, and hemodialysis and organ transplantation. The fact that these first applications of Mauss's essay should emerge in English- rather than in French-speaking countries raises the question of what the translation of the essay, and notably of the word don as gift, may have to do with this fact. Reading Mauss in translation undoubtedly inspired a seminal approach to interpreting medical and research practices based on bodily giving. This article posits that something may have also been lost: a much broader concept of giving with unquestionable links to the Durkheimian concept of solidarity, which Mauss conceptualizes not only as an obligation but also as a liberty to give.

  1. A Systematic Review of Economic Evaluation Methodologies Between Resource-Limited and Resource-Rich Countries: A Case of Rotavirus Vaccines.

    Thiboonboon, Kittiphong; Santatiwongchai, Benjarin; Chantarastapornchit, Varit; Rattanavipapong, Waranya; Teerawattananon, Yot


    For more than three decades, the number and influence of economic evaluations of healthcare interventions have been increasing and gaining attention from a policy level. However, concerns about the credibility of these studies exist, particularly in studies from low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). This analysis was performed to explore economic evaluations conducted in LMICs in terms of methodological variations, quality of reporting and evidence used for the analyses. These results were compared with those studies conducted in high-income countries (HICs). Rotavirus vaccine was selected as a case study, as it is one of the interventions that many studies in both settings have explored. The search to identify individual studies on rotavirus vaccines was performed in March 2014 using MEDLINE and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database. Only full economic evaluations, comparing cost and outcomes of at least two alternatives, were included for review. Selected criteria were applied to assess methodological variation, quality of reporting and quality of evidence used. Eighty-five studies were included, consisting of 45 studies in HICs and 40 studies in LMICs. Seventy-five percent of the studies in LMICs were published by researchers from HICs. Compared with studies in HICs, the LMIC studies showed less methodological variety. In terms of the quality of reporting, LMICs had a high adherence to technical criteria, but HICs ultimately proved to be better. The same trend applied for the quality of evidence used. Although the quality of economic evaluations in LMICs was not as high as those from HICs, it is of an acceptable level given several limitations that exist in these settings. However, the results of this study may not reflect the fact that LMICs have developed a better research capacity in the domain of health economics, given that most of the studies were in theory led by researchers from HICs. Putting more effort into fostering the

  2. 普洱市矿产资源经济管理系统设计%Design of the Mineral Resources Economic Management System for Puer



      矿产资源经济在如今的国民经济生产总值中占有极大比重。如何有效的存储矿产资源经济数据,如何对经济数据有效分析利用成为一项有实际意义的研究内容。本文结合地理信息系统(GIS)的最新成果,以普洱市为例叙述了矿产资源经济管理系统的设计背景、设计思路和技术路线,系统设计的软件和系统结构与功能模块。%Mineral resources economy in today's GDP occupies a great proportion in the national economy. It had became a significant research content that how to effectively store the mineral resources economic data and how to analyze economic data effectively. Based on the latest achievements of geographic information system (GIS). For example Puer city, it describe the mineral resources economic management system' design background, design thinking and technical route, system design of software and the system structure and function module.

  3. 人力资源管理对地质经济发展的作用%The Role of Human Resource Management on Geological Economic Development



    The twenty-first century is an era of rapid economic development, the competitiveness among enterprises becomes fiercer under the development of science and technology. Talent is the core of enterprise competition, in order to meet the needs of economic development in the new era, enterprises pay more and more attention to human resource management, and human resource plays an important role in all walks of life. The demand of geological industry for worker's technical operation ability is increasingly high because of the economic and social impact. The speed of business development has a direct relationship with human resources quality. This paper expounds the current situation of human resource management of geological industry, and analyses the role of human resource management of geological economy.%21世纪是经济快速发展的时代,科技的发展使企业之间的竞争力越来越大。人才是企业竞争的核心,为了适应新时代经济发展的需要,企业越来越重视人力资源管理工作,人力资源在各行各业中都发挥着重大的作用。地质行业对职工的技术操作能力要求随着经济社会的影响越来越高,企业发展的速度与人力资源素质的高低有着直接的关系。本文从地质行业人力资源管理的现状入手,对人力资源管理对地质经济的作用作了简单分析。

  4. Relationship Between Family Economic Resources, Psychosocial Well-being, and Educational Preferences of AIDS-Orphaned Children in Southern Uganda: Baseline Findings.

    Ssewamala, Fred M; Nabunya, Proscovia; Ilic, Vilma; Mukasa, Miriam N; Ddamulira, Christopher


    This study examines the relationship between economic resources, psychosocial well-being, and educational preferences of AIDS-orphaned children in southern Uganda. We use baseline data from a sample of 1410 AIDS-orphaned children (defined as children who have lost one or both biological parents to AIDS) enrolled in the Bridges to the Future study, a National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) funded study. Analyses from both bivariate and multiple regression analyses indicate the following: 1) despite the well-documented economic and psychosocial challenges AIDS-orphaned children face, many of these children have high educational plans and aspirations; 2) educational aspirations differ by orphanhood status (double orphan vs. single orphan); 3) regardless of orphanhood status, children report similar levels of psychosocial well-being; 4) high levels of family cohesion, positive perceptions of the future, school satisfaction, and lower levels of hopelessness (hopefulness) are associated with high educational aspirations; and 5) reported family economic resources at baseline, all seem to play a role in predicting children's educational preferences and psychosocial well-being. These findings suggest that the focus for care and support of orphaned children should not be limited to addressing their psychosocial needs. Addressing the economic needs of the households in which orphaned children live is equally important. Indeed, in the context of extreme poverty-in which most of the children represented in this study live-addressing structural factors, including poverty, may be a key driver in addressing their psychosocial functioning.

  5. Economic crisis and levels of political participation in Europe (2002-2010): the role of resources and grievances

    Kern, A.; Marien, S.; Hooghe, M.


    This article examines the effect of the recent economic crisis on political participation levels in Europe. As the civic voluntarism model and grievances theory predict different effects of economic downturn on political participation, the crisis provides a unique context to evaluate the explanatory

  6. Water resource bearing capacity study for Xijiang River economic belt in Guangxi%广西西江经济带水资源承载力研究



    分析西江经济带现状供用水情况,计算西江经济带可利用水资源潜力并进行评价;按照实行最严格水资源管理制度要求,分析西江经济带水资源承载力,并提出合理调整经济布局、加快产业结构调整、转变用水方式,以及加强水资源管理等建议。%For the Xijiang River economic belt in Guangxi,the author analyzed the current status of water supply and demands;calculated and appraised the potential of water resources;predicted the bearing capacity of water re-sources in accordance with requirements of the most strict water resources administration system;and proposed to properly adjust the economic layout,accelerate adjustment of industrial structure,change water use mode,and strengthen administration of water resources.

  7. 资源禀赋、区位条件与区域经济发展%Resource Endowment, Location and Regional Economic Growth

    陈耀; 陈钰


    资源禀赋和区位条件对区域经济的发展路径有着重要的影响。本文在相关理论回顾的基础上,运用统计学的显著性差异检验方法对中国省域经济发展进行了经验检验,结合中国区域发展战略布局的历史演变分析,并利用省级面板数据建立计量模型展开实证研究。结果发现,在控制各省份初始经济发展水平的情况下,中国总体上存在着能源资源型的“资源诅咒”现象,矿产资源则不明显。同时,能源资源富集地区的经济发展受到市场经营环境和出口贸易影响,虽然有较高的教育经费投入比,但是教育投入和人力资本对本地经济的发展却没有显著的作用,应着力改善市场经营环境,引入外部产业进驻来发挥后发优势。地处沿海的省份,引进外资和市场经营环境变革的边际效应已经较小,而人力资本的相对影响开始突出,已经到了需要推动传统比较优势转型的关键期。在经济现代化发展过程中,中国国内区域经济由东至西正呈现类似国际间的“雁阵”发展形态。%Resource endowment and location have great impacts on the path of regional economm growth. This paper used statistical T test method for Chinese provincial economic development test combined with China's regional development strategy analysis after a brief theoretical review, and finally it established a Chinese provincial panel data econometric model for empirical study. This paper also uses different estimation methods, including Pooled OLS, GLS estimates and GMM, to estimate the model and found that variation of coefficient of the OLS estimation and the GMM estimation are small, this implies that the model has a good stability and the estimation results are reliable. Had the initial economic level controlled, it founded that China had the "resource curse" phenomenon based on the energy resources but not on mineral resources. This

  8. Can too few and too many climato-economic resources elevate blood pressure? : A 120-nation study

    De Jongste, Mike J L; Gans, Reinold O B; Van de Vliert, Evert


    Elevated blood pressure as a major indicator of higher health risks varies considerably around the globe. We examine whether the livability of the environment can account for part of this variation. Overly resource-poor and overly resource-rich countries are expected to be less livable, with elevate

  9. Does Rapid and Sustained Economic Growth Lead to Convergence in Health Resources: The Case of China From 1980 to 2010

    Liang, Di; Zhang, Donglan; Huang, Jiayan; Schweitzer, Stuart


    China’s rapid and sustained economic growth offers an opportunity to ask whether the advantages of growth diffuse throughout an economy, or remain localized in areas where the growth has been the greatest...

  10. Genesis of economic relevant fresh groundwater resources in Pleistocene/ Neogene aquifers in Nam Dinh (Red River Delta, Vietnam).

    Wagner, F.; Ludwig, R. R.; Noell, U.; Hoang, H. V.; Pham, N. Q.; Larsen, F.; Lindenmaier, F.


    In the Southern Red River Delta (Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam), a local lens of low saline pore water of high quality has been identified in unconsolidated Pleistocene and Neogene aquifers, which are regionally known to contain brackish and saline pore waters. Since the 1990ies, ongoing overexploitation of the fresh groundwater results in decreasing GW heads up to 0.6 m/a and the development of a regional abstraction cone. The presented study focuses on distribution and genesis of fresh and saline pore waters and reflects the results in frame of the regional hydrogeological context. Observations of the geological structure and groundwater dynamics combined with hydrochemical and isotopic studies suggest adjacent Triassic hard rock aquifers as the major source for fresh Pleistocene and Neogene groundwater. Salinization status in the economically most relevant Pleistocene aquifer has been studied based on archive and new hydrochemical and geophysical data. Own hydrochemical field studies as well as laboratory measurements of the specific resistivity of dry sediment samples allow the translation of induction logging data from existing monitoring wells into vertical pore water salinity profiles. This approach suggests the regional occurrence of saline pore water in shallow Holocene sediments in the working area, as confirmed by pore water studies in Hoan et al. (2010). Interpretation of induction logging and stable isotope data suggest vertical diffusion of saline pore water in shallow Holocene sediments as a source for high saline pore water in deeper aquifers. Analytical diffusion modeling for a period of 3000 years confirms that vertical diffusion of Holocene paleo-sea water can explain saline pore water in Pleistocene and Neogene aquifers in a stagnant environment. The constant influx of fresh groundwater from adjacent Triassic hard rocks results in flushing of the primary Pleistocene and Neogene pore water and inhibits the infiltration of saline water from marine

  11. System Identification for Integrated Aircraft Development and Flight Testing (l’Identification des systemes pour le developpement integre des aeronefs et les essais en vol)


    Netherlands HOST NATION COORDINATOR Prof. Jose-Luis LOPEZ-RUIZ SENER, Ingenieria y Sistema , S.A. Parque Tecnologico de Madrid Calle Severo Ochoa s/n 28760...assure la gestion , la tragabilit6 et la p~rennit6 des mesures. Les recalages produits doivent 6tre 4. BESOINS POUR L’IDENTIFICATION compatibles avec...decomposition par essais et par axe. Ceci lui permet de 1’algorithme et gestion . des recalages, d6tecter des essais atypiques (erreurs de mesure, excursions 3

  12. Economic Analysis

    Underhill, Gary K.; Carlson, Ronald A.; Clendinning, William A.; Erdos, Jozsef; Gault, John; Hall, James W.; Jones, Robert L.; Michael, Herbert K.; Powell, Paul H.; Riemann, Carl F.; Rios-Castellon, Lorenzo; Shepherd, Burchard P.; Wilson, John S.


    The purpose of this chapter is to present an economic evaluation of electric power production from geopressured geothermal resources in Texas. An effort has been made to obtain the most realistic data concerning the investment and production costs of a geothermal power generation system, sited on a model geopressured geothermal resource.

  13. Study on Correction Theory of Government Audit for Mismatched Economic Resources%政府审计的经济资源错配修正论研究



    The central problem of economy is to meet people product demands which beyond the existing resources product ability. Social production can be seen as the optimal combining process of labor resources , material resources and services resource which can effectively combines above resources under the background of Socialized labor division. To realize dynamic general equilibrium of prod-uction and demand by maximizing output of scarce economic resources. Resources often are mismatched or low efficiency which deviate from the will of the State when as the resources owner to commissioning power central of resources. The function of government audit is based on the will of the State to identify and correct mismatching resources and propose audit opinion of resources optimizing allocation. As the most superior social system, China government audit faces significant challenge to rectify and optimize mismatched resources. It needs to improve resource mismatch correction capability and promote optimal allocation of economic resources by empower government audit for audit supervision, and optimize policies and regulations, build national audit governance system involved diversified audit su-bjects, and improve the techniques of auditing supervision and evaluation.%经济的中心问题在于满足人类不断超越现存生产要素能力的社会产品需求。在社会化分工背景下的社会生产可以看作由劳动资源、产品原材料资源和促进二者有效结合的服务资源的要素组合优化过程。通过稀缺经济资源的最大化产出,实现社会生产与产品需求之间动态一般均衡。当国家作为经济资源所有者委托各类权力中心配置资源时,往往会造成资源配置偏离国家意志的错配或低效率问题。政府审计的功能在于根据国家意志,识别和修正经济资源错配问题,并提出优化资源配置的审计意见。作为人类社会最优越的社会制度,中国政府审计

  14. The station of modeling the mine resources in economical geology investigations and determination of mineral deposits genes & reserves

    Sharif, J.A.


    Full Text Available In recent days, computer is becoming one of the most essential instruments in advanced countries for the researchers and the domain of its application is going to be increased every day. Using the 3D modeling of the earth, its mine resources and the brilliant details which are given by the models, the researching and exploring groups will find out the inconspicuous and attractive aspects of the genetic structure and the geological history of these resources. In this paper which is a result of the researches done as the case study on a group of aragonite deposits in West Azarbaijan province, modeling of under study mineral deposits and the genetic approaches obtained from the models lead into explore and discover some other resources of the same minerals which is widely accepted recently in the market of decorative rocks in Iran. In modeling procedure of these resources which is a product of the geysers, the profile of these lime generating springs and their directional order on some specific hidden fracture is determined and approximate location of the new resources for the next explorations is assigned. At the moment, these assigned locations as new resources are being explored and even exploited.

  15. Information system «History, geographical and social-economic parallel XIX–XXI age on archive information of the removal A. I. Mende» on base internet-technology as complex innovacionnyh educational resource

    Shekotilov V. G.


    Full Text Available Information system «History, geographical and social-economic parallel XIX–XXI age on archive information of the removal A. I. Mende» on base internet-technology as complex innovacionnyh educational resource.

  16. Evaluation of geological and economic conditions for the exploitation of hydrogeothermal resources; Evaluierung geowissenschaftlicher und wirtschaftlicher Bedingungen fuer die Nutzung hydrogeothermaler Ressourcen

    Erbas, K.; Hoth, P.; Huenges, E.; Schallenberg, K.; Seibt, A. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany)


    The main aspects of the project: `Evaluation of geologic and economic conditions for utilizing low-enthalpy hydrogeothermal resources` are outlined. In this interdisciplinary project the social, economic, technological and geoscientific aspects are analyzed in terms of their complexity and their interrelations. The project will provide a basis for political decision making in the process of promoting and installing of geothermal heating plants. (orig.) [Deutsch] In dem auf drei Jahre angelegten und vom BMBF mit rund 3,6 Mio. DM gefoerderten Projekt werden die Moeglichkeiten der Nutzung niedrigthermaler Tiefenwaesser untersucht. Dadurch sollen die Voraussetzungen fuer eine breitere Umsetzung des vorhandenen Potentials an geothermischer Energie geschaffen werden. Es werden die Projektziele, die Projektstruktur, uebergeordnete Arbeitsschwerpunkte und erste Schlussfolgerungen nach einem Jahr Projektlaufzeit dargestellt. (orig.)

  17. Empirical Analysis of Population Scale, Resources Endowment and Economic Growth%人口规模、资源禀赋与经济增长实证分析

    王智新; 梁翠


    虽然在学界“入口规模”假说和“资源诅咒”假说至今还没有取得共识,但在当今人口危机和资源危机的大背景下,重新审视人口规模与资源禀赋在经济增长中的作用显得尤为紧迫.我国是否存在“人口规模”假说和“资源诅咒”假说?本文构建了新兴古典经济学模型和面板数据模型,得出以下结论:两种假说在中国根本不存在;无论人口规模或资源禀赋状况如何,不同地区均可通过交易效率传导机制实现经济增长.具体来说,不同人口规模或资源禀赋的地区可以积极探索制度改革,提高社会分工水平,大幅改善交易效率,诱导不同类型的社会实验和组织创新,就有可能创造出新的生产力,实现区域经济增长.这些结论一定程度上解决了学界存在的争论,具有重要的理论价值.在政策层面上,由于人口规模、资源禀赋仅是经济增长的两种要素,交易效率才是经济增长的支撑点和动力源,所以政府应该更加重视如何扩大市场容量、促进分工深化和提高交易效率.%Although "population scale" hypothesis and "resource curse" hypothesis have yet to be admitted in academia, it is especially urgent to have another look at the roles that population size and resources endowment play in economic growth at the background of population crisis and resources crisis today. Are there "population scale" hypothesis and "resource curse" hypothesis in China? By building and analyzing new classical economics models, we draw conclusions that two hypotheses do not exist in China, and it is possible for different districts to achieve economic growth by transaction efficiency transmission mechanism, no matter how population scale and resource endowment are. Specifically, different districts which have different population size or resources endowment situation can create new productive forces and promote the economy fast growth by actively exploring system

  18. Management of Higher Education in a Period of Economic Recession: Alternate Revenue Resourcing for Higher Education in Nigeria.

    Aderinto, J. A.

    Higher education in Nigeria, until recently, has been one of the economic sectors that was accorded top priority funding. In the last few years, however, government support has been reduced. Data show that higher education in Nigeria has progressively suffered cuts in the allocation of funds. The roles of public finance (government) and that of…

  19. Constraints: greenhouse gases, resource, supply reliability, economic aspects; Les contraintes: gaz a effet de serre, ressources, securite d'approvisionnement, aspects economiques

    Devezeaux De Lavergne, J.G. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Institut de tecchnico-economie des systemes energetiques I-tese, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Braconnot, P. [CEA Saclay, Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, LSCE/IPSL, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    The constraints to which renewable energies and nuclear energy have to comply are reviewed. The most important are: -) the reduction of greenhouse gases releases, -) the depletion of fossil energies and of uranium resource, -) economic competitiveness, -) reliability of the energy supply, -) security (accidents, terrorism, natural disasters...), and -) the acceptance by the public. The most impacting constraint appears to be also the most unpredictable: the acceptance by the public. The answer to limit these constraints is a better knowledge of them, for instance by increasing accuracy in climate predictions or resource assessment, or by a better understanding of the choice criteria used by our modern societies. The study shows that no energy is the best solution and that an optimized mix composed of renewable energies and nuclear energy is the solution by playing the advantages of one energy against the disadvantages of another. (A.C.)

  20. A well-based cost function and the economics of exhaustible resources: The case of natural gas

    Chermak, J.M. [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States); Patrick, R.H. [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States)


    A cost function for natural gas production is estimated, using a pool of data from 29 wells. Statistically exact tests are performed for parameter stability across locations, formations, wells, and producing firms. Costs are determined to be inversely related to remaining recoverable reserves, and marginal costs of production are decreasing in all cases. Theoretical implications of these cost characteristics on optimal exhaustible resource extraction are analyzed. Although marginal cost is decreasing, production effects on the resource stock imply that an interior production path may be optimal. Conditions under which production optimally occurs at the capacity bound are delineated, and optimal interior production paths are characterized. 21 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. The economic metabolism

    Heijman, W.J.M.


    Students in Technical and Agricultural faculties spend only a limited amount of time on general economics, environmental economics and resource economics. However, while their knowledge of economics may be limited, they often have adequate mathematical skills. The objective of The Economic

  2. The economic value of conjoint local management in water resources: Results from a contingent valuation in the Boquerón aquifer (Albacete, SE Spain).

    Rupérez-Moreno, Carmen; Pérez-Sánchez, Julio; Senent-Aparicio, Javier; del Pilar Flores-Asenjo, Maria


    In the field of water resources management, the Water Framework Directive is the first directive to adopt an ecosystem approach, establishing principles and economic tools for an integrated management of water resources to protect, conserve and restore all water bodies. The incorporation of local authorities in this management involves quality benefits that are perceived by users in an effective and lasting way. The purpose of this paper is to present the economic value of the environmental recovery of the overexploited Boquerón aquifer in Hellín (Albacete, SE Spain) and all of its associated ecosystems. This aquifer operates as a regulating reservoir for the surface waters of the Hellín Canal. The contingent valuation method (CVM) applied in this environmental assessment of the aquifer showed that its non-use value was €147,470 per year, due to the high environmental awareness of the Hellín people, which is enough to ensure the survival of the ecosystems linked to the aquifer.

  3. A techno-economic analysis of using mobile distributed pyrolysis facilities to deliver a forest residue resource.

    Brown, Duncan; Rowe, Andrew; Wild, Peter


    Distributed mobile conversion facilities using either fast pyrolysis or torrefaction processes can be used to convert forest residues to more energy dense substances (bio-oil, bio-slurry or torrefied wood) that can be transported as feedstock for bio-fuel facilities. Results show that the levelised delivered cost of a forest residue resource using mobile facility networks can be lower than using conventional woodchip delivery methods under appropriate conditions. Torrefied wood is the lowest cost pathway of delivering a forest residue resource when using mobile facilities. Cost savings occur against woodchip delivery for annual forest residue harvests above 2.5 million m(3) or when transport distances greater than 300 km are required. Important parameters that influence levelised delivered costs are transport distances (forest residue spatial density), haul cost factors, and initial moisture content of forest residues. Relocating mobile facilities can be optimised for lowest cost delivery as transport distances of raw biomass are reduced.

  4. Behavioral externalities in natural resource production possibility frontiers: integrating biology and economics to model human-wildlife interactions.

    McCoy, N H


    Production possibility modeling has been applied to a variety of wildlife management issues. Although it has seen only limited employment in modeling human-wildlife output decisions, it can be expected that the theory's use in this area will increase as human interactions with and impacts on wildlife become more frequent. At present, most models applying production possibility theory to wildlife production can be characterized in that wildlife output quantities are determined by physically quantifiable functions representing rivalrous resources. When the theory is applied to human-wildlife interactions, it may not be sufficient to model the production tradeoffs using only physical constraints. As wildlife are known to respond to human presence, it could be expected that human activity may appear in wildlife production functions as an externality. Behavioral externalities are revealed by an output's response to the presence of another output and can result in a loss of concavity of the production possibilities frontier. Ignoring the potential of a behavioral externality can result in an unexpected and inefficient output allocation that may compromise a wildlife population's well-being. Behavioral externalities can be included in PPF models in a number of ways, including the use of data or cumulative effects modeling. While identifying that behavioral externalities exist and incorporating them into a model is important, correctly interpreting their implications will be critical to improve the efficiency of natural resource management. Behavioral externalities may cause a loss of concavity anywhere along a PPF that may compel managerial decisions that are inconsistent with multiple use doctrines. Convex PPFs may result when wildlife species are extremely sensitive to any level of human activity. It may be possible to improve the PPF's concavity by reducing the strength of the behavioral effect. Any change in the PPF that increases the convexity of the production set

  5. Understanding the economic burden of nonsevere nocturnal hypoglycemic events: impact on work productivity, disease management, and resource utilization.

    Brod, Meryl; Wolden, Michael; Christensen, Torsten; Bushnell, Donald M


    Nonsevere hypoglycemic events are common and may occur in one-third of persons with diabetes as often as several times a week. This study's objective was to examine the economic burden of nonsevere nocturnal hypoglycemic events (NSNHEs). A 20-minute Web-based survey, with items derived from the literature, expert input, and patient interviews, assessing the impact of NSNHEs was administered in nine countries to 18 years and older patients with self-reported diabetes having an NSNHE in the past month. A total of 20,212 persons were screened, with 2,108 respondents meeting criteria and included in the analysis sample. The cost of lost work productivity per NSNHE was estimated to be between $10.21 (Germany) and $28.13 (the United Kingdom), representing 3.3 to 7.5 hours of lost work time per event. A reduction in work productivity (presenteeism) was also reported. Compared with respondents' usual blood sugar monitoring practice, on average, 3.6 ± 6.6 extra tests were conducted in the week following the event at a cost of approximately $87.1 per year. Additional costs were also incurred for doctor visits as well as medical care required because of falls or injuries incurred during the NSNHE for an annual cost of $2,111.3 per person per year. When taking into consideration the multiple impacts of NSNHEs for the total sample and the frequency that these events occur, the resulting total annual economic burden was $288,000 or $127 per person per event. NSNHEs have serious consequences for patients. Greater attention to treatments that reduce NSNHEs can have a major impact on reducing the economic burden of diabetes. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Multi-Objective Input–Output Linear Model for Water Supply, Economic Growth and Environmental Planning in Resource-Based Cities

    Wenlan Ke


    Full Text Available Water resource and environment capacity have become two of the most important restrictions for sustainable development in resource-based cities whose leading industries are the exploitation and processing of resources. Taking Ordos in China as an example, this article constructs an integrated model combining a multi-objective optimization model with input–output analysis to achieve the tradeoffs between economic growth, water utilization and environmental protection. This dynamic model includes socioeconomic, water supply–demand, water quality control, air quality control, energy consumption control and integrated policy sub-models. These six sub-models interact with each other. After simulation, this article proposes efficient solutions on industrial restructuring by maximizing the Gross Regional Product of Ordos from 394.3 in 2012 to 785.1 billion RMB in 2025 with a growth rate of 6.4% annually; and presents a water supply plan by maximizing the proportion of reclaimed water from 2% to 6.3% through sewage treatment technology selection and introduction, and effective water allocation. Meanwhile, the environmental impacts are all in line with the planning targets. This study illustrates that the integrated modeling is generic and can be applied to any region suffering uncoordinated development issues and can serve as a pre-evaluation approach for conducting early warning research to offer suggestions for government decision-making.

  7. Innovative use of resources and diversification of the economic structure of rural areas on the basis of local action group MROGA experience

    Ewelina Dzikowska


    Full Text Available One of the tasks of local action groups is to support diversification of the economic structure of rural areas. Projects which make use of local resources in unique, non-standard ways (with reference to the achievements of the French school of Economie de la Proximie may be called innovative. Analysis was applied to one of the local action groups from the Łódź voivodeship – MROGA Association for the Local Community Development. The aim of this analysis was to estimate the potential of this structure as regards innovative use of local resources in diversification of the local economy by creating non-agricultural jobs. The case study method was applied; analysis of secondary materials was carried out (the local development strategy and competition documentation regarding to the development of local economy in the area supported by this organization. The selected association (realising own projects contributes to the innovative development of rural economy. Moreover, in supported area, new non-agricultural workplaces are created in which local resources are also used in a non-standard way.

  8. Effects of mothers' socio-economic status on the management of febrile conditions in their under five children in a resource limited setting

    Ayandiran Olufemi E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health research is shifting focus to the role of socioeconomic indicators in the promotion of health. As such an understanding of the roles that socio-economic factors play in improving health and health-seeking behaviour is important for public health policy. This is because the share of resources devoted to different policy options should depend on their relative effectiveness. Objective To measure the effect of socio-economic status (age, education, occupation, income, religion and family structure of mothers on the management of febrile conditions in under-fives children Method Two hundred mothers who brought their febrile under-five children to a health facility were interviewed on the treatment they gave to their children before reporting at health facility. Data collected were entered and analyzed using the SPSS software. Binary logistic regression was adopted for the quantitative analysis of the effect of socio-economic variables on the mothers' actions prior to utilizing the health facility. Results Results showed that while mothers' age was negatively correlated (-0.13, occupation was positively correlated (0.17 with under-fives mothers' action. Education, religion, income and family structure were however insignificant at 5% level Conclusion This poses a lot of challenges to policy makers in the developing nations where women's education and earning capacity is low. There is therefore a need to increase the number of women benefiting from micro credit. This will ensure that more women are engaged in a form of occupation that is profitable and can sustain the economic and health needs of the family.

  9. 资源税改革中的经济行为和政府决策分析%Government's Decision and Economic Behaviors in Resource Tax Reform



    资源是人类社会赖以存在的物质基础,也是社会经济发展的前提和必要条件,随着我国经济的快速发展,资源逐渐成为制约经济发展的"瓶颈",如何有效配置资源成为当前我国社会发展和经济转型的重要议题.国外经验证明可以通过资源税杠杆有效调节代际内和代际间的资源配置,提高资源使用效率.经济主体的行为和政府决策直接影响资源税改革的进程,本文构建世代交叠模型,通过资源税改革前后生产者和消费者的效用函数,分析并比较经济系统中主体不同济行为变化,在此基础上以资本和劳动动态变化来探讨资源税改革后的经济稳定性,并通过存在风险和政府声誉约束条件下的政府效用函数,分析和研究资源税改革中影响政府决策行为的主要因素,研究表明:资源税改革会对生产、消费产生影响,使经济主体的行为发生相应变化,但适当的资源税政策将保证经济稳定增长;同时改革成本、改革对产出的影响程度、政府风险态度和政府声誉等将影响政府决策行为,最后针对以上影响因素本文提出相应政策建议.%Resources are the basis of human society, and also an important guarantee for economic development. With the rapid development of China' s economiy, resources have become a "bottleneck" of social and economic development. How to allocate resources effectively is an important issue for sustainable development. Researches have shown that the government can use the tax tool to allocate rosources between generations effectively. In the paper, the anthos use an overlapping generations model to analyze the process of change in eeonomic agents' behaviors through the utility function of producers and consumers; and on this basis, the paper tries to explore the stability of economic growth through the dynamic equilibrium of capital and labor after the reform of resource tax.Then the paper analyzes the


    Alexandra TĂTARU


    Full Text Available Vrancea territory is one with the most attractive and various touristic resources in Romania, both natural and anthropic. The Evaluation of the touristic potential concerning both the main territorial administrative regions in Romania and those in Vrancea county but also the area hereby analyzed was made in conformity with PATN section 6, that is Areas with touristic resources, the identification of the main parts in order to delimit the touristic areas taking into account the following: the natural touristic potential, the cultural patrimony, the general infrastructure, the mainly touristic infrastructure and the quality of the environment. The development of the tourism is not achievable without a good touristic infrastructure, great accommodatian, a proper food administration, recreation and last but not the least a communication network that would provide full access to all touristic points. We should also add and take into account the quality of the technical infrastructure (water supply, power, sewerage, telecommunications and others which is strongly related to providing confort in the accommodation base, food and recreation as well. The localities whose anthropic and natural potential can be included into the touristic circuit, where the degree of urban and touristic equipping is improvable in order to operate various forms of tourism, can be organized into touristic villages, and the afferent income can become or turn into alternative investment funds to improve the life standard of the local communities on both medium and long term.

  11. Techno-economic evaluation of a complete bioprocess for 2,3-butanediol production from renewable resources.

    Koutinas, Apostolis A; Yepez, Bernardo; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Freire, Denise M G; de Castro, Aline Machado; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kookos, Ioannis K


    This study presents the techno-economic evaluation of 2,3-butanediol (BDO) production via fermentation using glycerol, sucrose and sugarcane molasses as carbon sources. Literature-cited experimental data were used to design the fermentation stage, whereas downstream separation of BDO was based on reactive extraction of BDO employing an aldehyde to convert BDO into an acetal that is immiscible with water. The selected downstream process can be used in all fermentations employed. Sensitivity analysis was carried out targeting the estimation of the minimum selling price (MSP) of BDO at different plant capacities and raw material purchase costs. In all cases, the MSP of BDO is higher than 1 $/kg that is considered as the target in order to characterize a fermentation product as platform chemical. The complex nutrient supplements, the raw material market price and the fermentation efficiency were identified as the major reasons for the relatively high MSP observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Wind energy prospecting: socio-economic value of a new wind resource assessment technique based on a NASA Earth science dataset

    Vanvyve, E.; Magontier, P.; Vandenberghe, F. C.; Delle Monache, L.; Dickinson, K.


    Wind energy is amongst the fastest growing sources of renewable energy in the U.S. and could supply up to 20 % of the U.S power production by 2030. An accurate and reliable wind resource assessment for prospective wind farm sites is a challenging task, yet is crucial for evaluating the long-term profitability and feasibility of a potential development. We have developed an accurate and computationally efficient wind resource assessment technique for prospective wind farm sites, which incorporates innovative statistical techniques and the new NASA Earth science dataset MERRA. This technique produces a wind resource estimate that is more accurate than that obtained by the wind energy industry's standard technique, while providing a reliable quantification of its uncertainty. The focus now is on evaluating the socio-economic value of this new technique upon using the industry's standard technique. Would it yield lower financing costs? Could it result in lower electricity prices? Are there further down-the-line positive consequences, e.g. job creation, time saved, greenhouse gas decrease? Ultimately, we expect our results will inform efforts to refine and disseminate the new technique to support the development of the U.S. renewable energy infrastructure. In order to address the above questions, we are carrying out a cost-benefit analysis based on the net present worth of the technique. We will describe this approach, including the cash-flow process of wind farm financing, how the wind resource assessment factors in, and will present current results for various hypothetical candidate wind farm sites.

  13. « Sur la phonologie de la phrase » de Serge Karcevski. Essai de relecture

    D’Ottavi Giuseppe


    Full Text Available La place liminale, à la frontière entre Cercle pragois, École de Genève et Cercle de Moscou, que l'historiographie linguistique réserve à la figure de Serge Karcevski (1884-1955 a fini par laisser dans l’ombre l’apport spécifique de son oeuvre et ses traits d’originalité. Une tension épistémologique très précise et très marquée ressort de l’ensemble de ses recherches : on y retrouve les questions de base de la linguistique théorique de son temps, qui portent sur la nature des unités minimes de la langue, sur le statut de la phrase et son rapport avec la notion de mot. D’un côté, le programme de recherche de Karcevski sont vigoureusement et explicitement généralistes (en témoigne le choix de rédiger en français ses travaux les plus accomplis, sa langue maternelle n’étant que le tout premier appui pour le développement d’une réflexion plus ample. De l’autre, son oeuvre, traversée par plusieurs pôles d’intérêt (sémiologie, grammaire, syntaxe, non moins que la didactique, est régie pour autant par une batterie de notions-clés très caractéristiques : le langage comme lieu d’interaction de forces opposées se produisant dans un « équilibre instable », la langue comme lieu de la productivité ayant le dialogue comme centre. En dépit de son présumé rôle d’intermédiaire, Karcevski fait preuve d’une attitude remarquablement cohérente et novatrice : moins intéressé que les autres « russes » du Cercle de Prague à la recherche strictement phonologique, il s’engage dans le développement d’une phonologie à lui, d’inspiration typologique, portant sur la definition des schémas intonatifs comme invariants linguistiques. La méthodologie et les outils conceptuels mis en oeuvre au cours de cette entreprise phonologique toute particulière font l’objet du présent essai. Notamment, notre propos majeur est de mettre en lumière les articulations principales de « Sur la phonologie de

  14. Schütz Alfred, préface et traduction de Th. Blin, Essais sur le monde ordinaire

    Nicolas Marquis


    Full Text Available Alfred Schütz (1899-1959 a consacré une bonne partie de ses travaux à démontrer la plus-value pour les sciences sociales de l’approche phénoménologique développée par Husserl, dont il était proche. Ce faisant, il nous a rendu l’incomparable service de nous rendre lisibles les propos parfois obscurs et fort techniques du philosophe alle­mand. Les cinq articles compilés dans cet ouvrage, traduit et préfacé par Th. Blin, of­frent une bonne introduction aux préoccupations de Schütz. Essais sur l...

  15. Outils mathématiques utiles à la simulation d'un essai de choc de véhicule

    Mizzi, J. P.


    Subvention de la région Rhône Alpes notifiée le 6/12/91 n INRETS 9218-013; Rapport de recherche; Afin de minimiser les coûts d'expérimentation de chocs des véhicules et des systèmes, une recherche a été engagée sur la modélisation mathématique du véhicule lors d'un choc frontal. Ce rapport décrit d'une part les principes de cette modélisation et d'autre part la mécanique du modèle générateur d'équations. Mots clés libres : modèle mathématique, simulation, essai de choc, VEH, véhicule, méthodo...

  16. Bilan des essais d'élevage de pectinides en Méditerranée 1987-1991

    Coatanea, Denis; Paquotte, Philippe; Buestel, Dominique; Defossez, Jérôme; Moriceau, Jacques


    L'objectif de ce programme était de mettre au point une technique d'élevage pour les Pectinidés en Méditerranée afin de diversifier la conchyliculture en mer ouverte limitée jusqu'à présent à la mytiliculture. C'est pourquoi des essais ont été conduits pour évaluer les possibilités de croissance des trois espéces Pecten maximus, Pecten jacobaeus et Patinopecten yessoensis à partir de naissain d'écloserie. Ce programme a permis de réaliser une structure d'élevage pour fonds non protégés qui ré...

  17. Socio-economic resources, young child feeding practices, consumption of highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages: a population-based survey in rural northwestern Nicaragua.

    Contreras, Mariela; Blandón, Elmer Zelaya; Persson, Lars-Åke; Hjern, Anders; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte


    Socio-economic resources may be associated with infant feeding in complex patterns in societies undergoing a nutrition transition. This study evaluates associations of housing quality, food security and maternal education to the World Health Organization (WHO) feeding recommendations and to consumption of highly processed snacks (HP snacks) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in rural Nicaragua. Data were collected from May to November 2009, with mothers of 0- to 35-month-olds being asked about young child feeding using a food frequency questionnaire. A validated questionnaire was used to assess household food insecurity and data were collected on maternal education and housing quality. Pearson's chi-squared test was used to compare proportions and determine associations between the resources and young child feeding. The three socio-economic resources and other confounders were introduced to multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the independent contribution of the resources to the feeding practices and consumption of HP snacks and SSBs. Mothers with the lowest education level were more likely to be exclusively breastfeeding (EBF) their infants (OR not EBF: 0.19; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.51), whilst mothers of 6- to 35-month-olds in the lowest education category had more inadequate dietary diversity (DD) (OR for not meet DD: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.36, 3.08), were less likely to consume HP snacks (OR for HP snacks: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.68) and SSBs (OR for SSBs: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.98), compared to mothers with the highest level of education. Similarly, children residing in households with the highest food insecurity were also more prone to have inadequate dietary diversity (OR for not meet DD: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.05). The odds for double burden of suboptimal feeding (concurrent inadequate diet and consumption of HP snacks/SSBs) were significantly lower in children of least educated mothers (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.92). Higher level of education was associated

  18. 实施人力资源培训工程,增强景颇族经济发展内生动力%To Implement Human Resource Training Project, Enhance Endogenous Power of Jingpo's Economic Development

    郑颖; 高延芳


    人力资源是经济发展中最具活力和弹性的因素,是经济发展的原生经济资源之一,是国民财富的最终基础,是实现经济可持续发展的关键要素.景颇族作为德宏州的主体民族之一,人力资源的数量比较充裕,但人力资源的质量不高,影响了自然、能量、信息等经济资源向经济发展优势和区域财政优势的转化.实施人力资源培训工程,提高景颇人民的知识、技能和健康素质,对于提升景颇族经济发展内生动力,构建民族团结进步边疆繁荣稳定示范区有着重大的现实意义.%The human resource is the most dynamic and flexible factor in economic development, is one of the primary economic resources of economic development, is the ultimate foundation of national wealth, is the key element to achieve sustainable economic development. Jingpo As one of the main ethnics of Dehong, the number of human resources in Jingpo nationality is relatively abundant, but the quality of human resources is not high, affecting the conversion to economic development advantage and regional financial advantage from economic resources, such as nature, energy, information etc. To implement human resource training project, the Jingpo people's knowledge, skills and quality of health has great practical significance for enhancing endogenous power of Jingpo's economic development and building demonstration area of national unity and progress and frontier prosperity and stability.

  19. River fishing as an economic resource in Late Iberian times: an example from the site of Los Castellones de Céal (Hinojares, Jaén

    Mayoral Herrera, Victorino


    Full Text Available This paper describes the finding of a group of folded lead sheets in the Ibero-roman level at Castellones de Céal. As they have been traditionally used as weights for fishing nets, the practice at the site of river fishing as an economic resource is inferred. Some other archaeological examples of this activity are also examined.

    En este trabajo se describen una serie de láminas enrolladas de plomo aparecidas en el nivel iberorromano de Castellones de Céal y que habitualmente son empleadas como lastres en redes de pesca. Se deduce de ello el empleo de la pesca fluvial como recurso económico, revisándose los ejemplos conocidos de esta actividad en el registro arqueológico.

  20. Economic Valuation As a Basis for Sustainable Mangrove Resource Management: A Case in East Sinjai, South Sulawesi

    Sri Suharti


    Full Text Available Diversity of mangrove function generates both tangible and intangible benefits and services causing its overall value is not easily recognized hence often overlooked in coastal areas development. The study used the total economic value as a framework for estimating the values of the different uses of mangroves in East Sinjai Sub District, South Sulawesi. Survey method was carried out from September 2014 February 2015. The results showed that − total value of mangrove ecosystems in East Sinjai with total area of ​​758 ha is IDR37,535,809,496 year . Those v -1 alues were derived from direct benefits (polyculture fish pond, catching aquatic biota such as fish, shrimp, crab and milkfish, collecting fuelwood and bats catching and from indirect benefits i.e. its function to evade abrasion and sea water intrusion, its function as carbon sink and sequestration, its biodiversity values ​​and its existence benefits. The problem that should be anticipated is potential expansion of polyculture fishpond which drives clearing intact mangrove forests as it contributes quick and direct income to local people. The research results are expected could be used as a consideration in formulating for sustainable for local government recommendations mangrove management in East Sinjai.

  1. Economic Observation in 3Q E-business Fight - According to Analysis of Resource Allocation and Contract

    Kuang, Ruihu; Chen, Zeming; Kuang, Juchi

    Based on relation of resource allocation and marginal benefit of e-commence provider, both of origin and essence of the 3Q e-business fight were analyzed; and then contents of the contract between e-business company and users were elaborated. Moreover, liability for Qihoo's breach of the contract in 3Q e-business fight was discussed. Analysis of the contract indicated that blame of infringing on privacy of users from public, media or even a law professor for Tengxun Company is not exactly justicial. Some controversial rules which are not fit for usual practices in the QQ contract such as narrow definition of privacy were found out, whose reason lies in no relevant e-business standards or rules in our country. In the end, this passage points out that actions of government who intervened in market operations of Tengxun Company and QQ Company are inappropriate and unnecessary. Thus, responsibility for facing up to incomplete market rules of e-commence lies with government and government should strengthen market supervision by legislation so as to guide healthy development of e-business market, which is a key lesson we learn from the 3Q e-business fight.

  2. The Chinese perspective on pastoral resource economics: a vision of the future in a context of socio-ecological vulnerability.

    Yu, L; Farrell, K N


    This paper reviews institutional changes in pastureland use in China over the last 30 years and discusses their impacts on pastoral communities, drawing evidence from case studies of two agro-pastoralist and two pastoralist communities. Those who rely directly on pastureland for their livelihood are vulnerable to the joint effects of pastureland degradation and climate change. The authors argue that a 'top-down' governance structure with no participation from local communities and a 'one size fits all' institutional solution are a poor fit for pastoralism management. The authors conclude that the current institutional environment in China may be leading to decreasing populations, reduced livestock rearing, impoverishment and increasing inequality within pastoral communities. Bearing in mind that pastoral systems have characteristics that are specific to their areas and tailored to their local context, the authors recommend paying greater attention to 'bottom-up', locally specified strategies which can be combined with long-term institutional arrangements that have historically provided pastoralists and agro-pastoralists with the resources to adapt to change.

  3. BEA数字图书馆:洞悉美国经济的窗口%BEA Digital Library, a Path to America's Economic Resources

    刘燕权; 南文秀


    Lunched in 2006, the BEA digital library provides "the most timely, relevant, and accurate economic accounts data in an objective and cost-effective manner" free for public to access. Its collection pulls together primarily historic data and articles on the U.S. economic accounts from the Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census and other US government divisions, allows users to explore the economic history of the United States along with the national income and product accounts and general macroceonomic situation. While this paper indicates its well-organized rich resources, technological and services features, author's comments and suggestion for the library's improvements are also given.%BEA (Bureau of Economy Analysis,美国国家经济分析局)在线图书馆建立于2006年,服务于美国从事经济数据统计工作的政府机构,同时面向社会公众提供免费的包括宏观和微观层面几乎所有经济活动的指标数据.其主要目的是发布美国历史及当前最新经济统计资料和评估调查报告,为不同的用户群体了解、研究美国经济提供良好的服务平台,包括搜索、浏览及下载服务.其资源涵盖范围广泛,有很高的科研及实际参考意义.文章从其数字资源、技术特征、服务特点等方面进行了概要的评述,并给出作者的评价和建议.

  4. Tree resources Of Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, India with especial emphasis on conservation status, phenology and economic values

    Lal Babu Chaudhary


    Full Text Available Uttar Pradesh, one of the most populated states of India along international border of Nepal, contributes only about 3% of total forest & tree cover of the country as the major parts of the area is covered by agriculture lands and human populations. The forests are quite fragmented and facing severe anthropogenic pressure in many parts. To protect the existing biodiversity, several forest covers have been declared as National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries. In the present study, Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary (KWS has been selected to assess tree diversity, their phenology and economic values as the trees are the major constituent of any forest and more fascinating among all plant groups. The sanctuary consists of tropical moist deciduous type of vegetation and situated along the Indo-Nepal boarder in Bahraich district of Uttar Pradesh, India. After, thorough assessment of the area, a list of 141 tree species belonging to 101 genera and 38 families have been prepared. The family Fabaceae exhibits highest generic and species diversity with 14 genera and 23 species. The genus Ficus of Moraceae has been found the largest with 11 species. Maximum trees with about 51 species have been found to flower in post winter season (February to March in the forest. About 62 trees are used as medicinal for various purposes, 50 as ornamental & avenue trees, 37 as timber wood, 36 as edible, 16 as fire wood and 12 as fodder. Since the sanctuary area has been surrounded by several villages and facing anthropogenic pressure, the public awareness program related with biodiversity conservation and sustainable uses is highly needed to protect the forest covers. DOI: International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1 2014: 122-133

  5. Forecast model for the evaluation of economic resources employed in the health care of patients with HIV infection

    Sacchi P


    Full Text Available Paolo Sacchi1, Savino FA Patruno1, Raffaele Bruno1, Serena Maria Benedetta Cima1, Pietro Previtali2, Alessia Franchini2, Luca Nicolini3, Carla Rognoni4, Lucia Sacchi5, Riccardo Bellazzi4, Gaetano Filice11Divisione di Malattie Infettive e Tropicali - Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy; 2Università degli Studi di Pavia – Facoltà di Economia, Pavia, Italy; 3Controllo di Gestione Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo di Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 4Dipartimento di Informatica e Sistemistica, Universita' degli Studi di Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 5Department of Information Systems and Computing, Brunel University, London, UKBackground and aims: The total health care cost for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV patients has constantly grown in recent years. To date, there is no information about how this trend will behave over the next few years. The aim of the present study is to define a pharmacoeconomic model for the forecast of the costs of a group of chronically treated patients followed over the period 2004–2009.Methods: A pharmacoeconomics model was built to describe the probability of transition among different health states and to modify the therapy over time. A Markov model was applied to evaluate the temporal evolution of the average cost. The health care resources exploited during hospitalization were analyzed by using an “activity-based costing” method.Results: The Markov model showed that the mean total cost, after an initial increase, tended to remain stable. A total of 20 clinical records were examined. The average daily cost for each patient was EUR 484.42, with a cost for admission of EUR 6781.88.Conclusion: The treatment of HIV infection in compliance with the guidelines is also effective from the payer perspective, as it allows a good health condition to be maintained and reduces the need and the costs of hospitalizations.Keywords: health care cost, HIV, Markov model, activity-based costing

  6. Micro-economic impact of congenital heart surgery: results of a prospective study from a limited-resource setting.

    Manu Raj

    Full Text Available The microeconomic impact of surgery for congenital heart disease is unexplored, particularly in resource limited environments. We sought to understand the direct and indirect costs related to congenital heart surgery and its impact on Indian households from a family perspective.Baseline and first follow-up data of 644 consecutive children admitted for surgery for congenital heart disease (March 2013 - July 2014 in a tertiary referral hospital in Central Kerala, South India was collected prospectivelyfrom parents through questionnaires using a semi-structured interview schedule.The median age was 8.2 months (IQR: 3.0- 36.0 months. Most families belonged to upper middle (43.0% and lower middle (35.7% socioeconomic class. Only 3.9% of families had some form of health insurance. The median expense for the admission and surgery was INR 201898 (IQR: 163287-266139 [I$ 11989 (IQR: 9696-15804], which was 0.93 (IQR: 0.52-1.49 times the annual family income of affected patients. Median loss of man-days was 35 (IQR: 24-50 and job-days was 15 (IQR: 11-24. Surgical risk category and hospital stay duration significantly predicted higher costs. One in two families reported overwhelming to high financial stress during admission period for surgery. Approximately half of the families borrowed money during the follow up period after surgery.Surgery for congenital heart disease results in significant financial burden for majority of families studied. Efforts should be directed at further reductions in treatment costs without compromising the quality of care together with generating financial support for affected families.

  7. Micro-economic impact of congenital heart surgery: results of a prospective study from a limited-resource setting.

    Raj, Manu; Paul, Mary; Sudhakar, Abish; Varghese, Anu Alphonse; Haridas, Aareesh Chittulliparamb; Kabali, Conrad; Kumar, Raman Krishna


    The microeconomic impact of surgery for congenital heart disease is unexplored, particularly in resource limited environments. We sought to understand the direct and indirect costs related to congenital heart surgery and its impact on Indian households from a family perspective. Baseline and first follow-up data of 644 consecutive children admitted for surgery for congenital heart disease (March 2013 - July 2014) in a tertiary referral hospital in Central Kerala, South India was collected prospectivelyfrom parents through questionnaires using a semi-structured interview schedule. The median age was 8.2 months (IQR: 3.0- 36.0 months). Most families belonged to upper middle (43.0%) and lower middle (35.7%) socioeconomic class. Only 3.9% of families had some form of health insurance. The median expense for the admission and surgery was INR 201898 (IQR: 163287-266139) [I$ 11989 (IQR: 9696-15804)], which was 0.93 (IQR: 0.52-1.49) times the annual family income of affected patients. Median loss of man-days was 35 (IQR: 24-50) and job-days was 15 (IQR: 11-24). Surgical risk category and hospital stay duration significantly predicted higher costs. One in two families reported overwhelming to high financial stress during admission period for surgery. Approximately half of the families borrowed money during the follow up period after surgery. Surgery for congenital heart disease results in significant financial burden for majority of families studied. Efforts should be directed at further reductions in treatment costs without compromising the quality of care together with generating financial support for affected families.

  8. A statistical human resources costing and accounting model for analysing the economic effects of an intervention at a workplace.

    Landstad, Bodil J; Gelin, Gunnar; Malmquist, Claes; Vinberg, Stig


    The study had two primary aims. The first aim was to combine a human resources costing and accounting approach (HRCA) with a quantitative statistical approach in order to get an integrated model. The second aim was to apply this integrated model in a quasi-experimental study in order to investigate whether preventive intervention affected sickness absence costs at the company level. The intervention studied contained occupational organizational measures, competence development, physical and psychosocial working environmental measures and individual and rehabilitation measures on both an individual and a group basis. The study is a quasi-experimental design with a non-randomized control group. Both groups involved cleaning jobs at predominantly female workplaces. The study plan involved carrying out before and after studies on both groups. The study included only those who were at the same workplace during the whole of the study period. In the HRCA model used here, the cost of sickness absence is the net difference between the costs, in the form of the value of the loss of production and the administrative cost, and the benefits in the form of lower labour costs. According to the HRCA model, the intervention used counteracted a rise in sickness absence costs at the company level, giving an average net effect of 266.5 Euros per person (full-time working) during an 8-month period. Using an analogue statistical analysis on the whole of the material, the contribution of the intervention counteracted a rise in sickness absence costs at the company level giving an average net effect of 283.2 Euros. Using a statistical method it was possible to study the regression coefficients in sub-groups and calculate the p-values for these coefficients; in the younger group the intervention gave a calculated net contribution of 605.6 Euros with a p-value of 0.073, while the intervention net contribution in the older group had a very high p-value. Using the statistical model it was

  9. Circulation economics

    Ingebrigtsen, Stig; Jakobsen, Ove


    Purpose - This paper is an attempt to advance the critical discussion regarding environmental and societal responsibility in economics and business. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents and discusses as a holistic, organic perspective enabling innovative solutions to challenges...... concerning the responsible and efficient use of natural resources and the constructive interplay with culture. To reach the goal of sustainable development, the paper argues that it is necessary to make changes in several dimensions in mainstream economics. This change of perspective is called a turn towards...... presupposes a perspective integrating economic, natural and cultural values. Third, to organize the interplay between all stakeholders we introduce an arena for communicative cooperation. Originality/value - The paper concludes that circulation economics presupposes a change in paradigm, from a mechanistic...

  10. The Simulation to Coupling Development Between Water Resource&Environment and Socio-economic System:Dongting Lake Ecological Economic Zone as an Example%水资源环境与社会经济系统耦合发展的仿真模拟——以洞庭湖生态经济区为例

    杜湘红; 张涛


    Water resource is the vital foundation of the national economy and social development, lake ecologi-cal economic system is an essential water resource&environment and socio-economic coupling system based on water-related activities. Reducing the disorders and ensuring the coordination and common development of system can be solved effectively by the analysis of the coupling relationship between water resource&environ-ment and socio-economy. The coupling degree and the evolutionary trend of water resource & environment and socio-economic system of the Dongting Lake Ecological Economic Zone are calculated and simulated by the gray correlation algorithm together with the GM(1,1) model. The results demonstrate that 1) water resource&environment was superior to socio-economic development of the ecological economic zone in 2004-2013;2) The role of water resource constraints on the rapid growth of socio-economic development is obvious, the coordinated development of the entire system is about to enter the threshold stage, water resource and ecologi-cal crisis are entering the latency period; 3) The further simulating results in 2014-2023 show that the so-cio-economic development in the ecological economic zone is beyond what the water resource can sustain. The sustainable development is in the presence of bottleneck of water resource;while the coupling degree is in the range of 0.578 to 0.641, the system is in the period of running-in, and the coordinated development of sys-tem can be achieved. The forecasting coupling degree in 2014-2023 is in the range of 0.500 to 0.800 that means it is a long running-in stage. The simulating coupling degree trend curve of the entire ecological eco-nomic zone, Changde District and Yueyang District appear to fall down after rapid rise in the period of 2004 to 2013, which shows that the rich water resource&environment can support the rapid economic development and social progress. The downward trend started from 2010 shows the stress

  11. 资源性产品价格改革对经济转型升级作用的再认识%Recognition of the Effect of Price Reform for Resource Products on Economic Transformation and Upgrading



    This paper points out that resource products have important foundational effect on the strategy formulation concerning the optimization of economic structure, the spatial layout optimization, the direction of development and transformation and upgrading, national (regions) economic transformation and upgrading. The economic structure that is overly dependent on high-involvement of resource products is caused by low marketing degree, which restrains resource-based industrial economic structure, and processing industrial economic structure. So we must make further understanding about the important effect of price reform for resource products on economic transformation and upgrading, these are:resource products price reform has become a weak link in the process of the economic transformation and upgrading;resource products price reform is the urgent needs for correcting the distortion of factor price mechanism; and improving the price formation mechanism of resources products has become the basis of the transformation and upgrading of economic structure.%资源性产品对经济结构优化升级、空间优化布局、发展和转型升级方向、国家(地区)经济转型升级战略的制定具有重要的基础性影响。资源性产品市场化程度不高造成过度依赖资源性产品高投入的经济结构,对资源型产业经济结构、加工型产业经济结构造成约束。必须再认识资源性产品价格改革对经济转型升级的重大作用:第一,资源性产品价格改革已成为经济转型升级进程中的薄弱环节;第二,资源性产品价格改革是矫正要素价格机制扭曲的迫切需要;第三,完善资源性产品价格形成机制已成为经济结构转型升级的基础条件。

  12. Entrepreneurs' Social Relation Networks, Resource Exchange and Firm Economic Performance%企业家社会关系网络、资源交换与企业经济业绩

    智勇; 倪得兵; 曾勇


    This study attempts to answer two major questions from the source exchange and reproduction process theories: How do entrepreneurs obtain preferred resources from social networks? How do the actions of obtaining resources can affect a company's profit?In order to address these questions, we propose a resource exchange model that can better explain an entrepreneur's preference to resources and the resource reproduction process. The model incorporates the horizontal economic and vertically hierarchical resources in social relation networks. This model can help analyze the effects of social relation networks, status quo resources, and an entrepreneur's individual characteristics on firm's economic performance. Understanding these effects allows us to discuss the relationship between an entrepreneur's individual characteristics and the direction of profit growth.First, this model represents an entrepreneur's social relation network as a two-dimensional vector (i. e. horizontal economic and vertical relations ). Second, this model defines an entrepreneur's preference to resources to be allocated, and represents an entrepreneur's individual characteristics as a two-dimensional vector ( i. e. the ability of economic resource reproduction and the ability of hierarchical resource reproduction ). Lastly, this model describes an entrepreneur's behavior as exchanging economic and/or hierarchical resources in the social relation network, reproducing the resources resulting from resource exchanges, and then influencing firm's economic performance. Based on these characterizations, this model builds a three-stage model as follows: At Stage 0, the entrepreneur collects information in his social relation network. At Stage 1, an entrepreneur makes resource exchange decision according to the Edgeworth-box framework. At Stage 3, an entrepreneur reproduces the resources after resource exchange.There are three main findings in this study. First, information cost (an entrepreneur

  13. Fisheries and aquaculture testing and experimentation program: Canada-Québec subsidiary agreement on the economic development of Québec regions : Eastern Québec, North Shore, Northern Québec : project submission guidelines = Programme d'essai et d'expérimentation halieutiques et aquicoles : entente auxiliaire Canada-Québec sur le développement économique des régions du Québec : Est-du-Québec, Côte-Nord, Nord-du-Québec : guide de présentation de projets


    The goal of the Fisheries and Aquaculture Testing and Experimentation Program is to promote the development and rational harvesting of marine resources in Eastern Quebec, the North Shore and Northern...

  14. Аudit of enterprise expenses for protection and rational use of natural resources in process of economic activity of enterprise

    Yu.Yu. Moroz


    Full Text Available Implementing an effective environmental policy is complicated by the absence of proper provision of reliable information on the environmental activities of participants of an economic activity. In such circumstances, there is an increase of the role of business transactions audit related to the formation of expenses for protection and rational use of natural resources in order to express an independent opinion on their reliability, appropriateness, legality, efficiency in all material aspects in accordance with the requirements of users. The lack of comprehensive methodology and tools for practical audit of costs and its results during the formation of environmental measures in the workplace remains as an unresolved issue. To solve this problem the author has investigated the methods of forming environmental costs of an enterprise in areas of environmental activities in terms of their consideration as the object of audit. The system of tasks for auditing transactions forming environmental costs is formulated. The objects of the audit of environmental costs are identified; their essence is revealed and the approach to the mechanism of their formation is considered. The narrow spaces are revealed, and the problematic issues while forming environmental costs in the accounting system of the company are systematized. The author proposes a set of analytical indicators which can be used in environmental audits of the company and its responsibilities related to environmental protection. The directions for further research on finding ways of harmonizing bookkeeping, statistical accounting and tax calculations of environmental costs are determined.

  15. Performance-based ratemaking for electric utilities: Review of plans and analysis of economic and resource-planning issues. Volume 1

    Comnes, G.A.; Stoft, S.; Greene, N. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Hill, L.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.


    Performance-Based Ratemaking (PBR) is a form of utility regulation that strengthens the financial incentives to lower rates, lower costs, or improve nonprice performance relative traditional regulation, which the authors call cost-of-service, rate-of-return (COS/ROR) regulation. Although the electric utility industry has considerable experience with incentive mechanisms that target specific areas of performance, implementation of mechanisms that cover a comprehensive set of utility costs or services is relatively rare. In recent years, interest in PBR has increased as a result of growing dissatisfaction with COS/ROR and as a result of economic and technological trends that are leading to more competition in certain segments of the electricity industry. In addition, incentive regulation has been used with some success in other public utility industries, most notably telecommunications in the US and telecommunications, energy, and water in the United Kingdom. In this report, the authors analyze comprehensive PBR mechanisms for electric utilities in four ways: (1) they describe different types of PBR mechanisms, (2) they review a sample of actual PBR plans, (3) they consider the interaction of PBR and utility-funded energy efficiency programs, and (4) they examine how PBR interacts with electric utility resource planning and industry restructuring. The report should be of interest to technical staff of utilities and regulatory commissions that are actively considering or designing PBR mechanisms. 16 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. 广西北部湾人力资源开发力度分析%On the Development Dimension of the Human Resources in Guangxi Beibu Gulf Economic Zone

    胡建平; 李梅


    The development of human resources has played an important role in enhancing the competi- tiveness of regional economic development. The development of Guangxi Beibu Gulf Economic Zone is inseparable'from the intelligence support of the regional human resources. The paper, working out a measurement index system of human resources development dimension, tries to evaluate the level of human resources in quantity development, quality development, structure development, and flow development in Guangxi Beibu Gulf Economic Zone, to discover the problems existing in the regional human resources development, so as to provide important scientific basis in hope of realizing the regional strategic target.%人力资源开发对增强区域经济发展竞争力有着非常重要的作用。广西北部湾经济区的发展离不开区域人力资源的智力支持。构建人力资源开发力度指标体系来评价广西北部湾人力资源数量开发、素质开发、结构开发、流动开发的开发程度,从而发现区域人力资源开发中存在的问题,为区域战略目标的实现提供重要的科学依据。

  17. Economic Analysis of the Effects of Climate Change Induced by Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Agricultural Productions and Available Water Resources (Case Study: Down Lands of the Taleghan Dam

    M.M. Mozaffari


    Full Text Available Introduction: Greenhouse gases absorb the radiation reflected from the earth surface which would otherwise be sent back into space. The composition and mixture of these gases make life on earth possible. In recent years, human activity has affected both the composition and mixture of the atmosphere, modifying the climate. When climate changes, crop production is affected. There are many studies that consider the type and amount of production changes for particular crops, places and scenarios. Others attempt to expand knowledge about production changes and their impacts on economy and regional welfare. Climate change affects agriculture through direct and indirect affects i.e. temperature, and precipitation changes in the biological and physical environment. Restriction in water availability is one of the most dramatic consequences of climate change for the agricultural sector. Water availability is expected to be even more limited in the future. Scarcity of water is due to potential evapotranspiration increase. It is related to increase in air and earth surface temperatures. This phenomenon is important in low-precipitation seasons, and is even more severe in dry areas. The number of regions with loss of soil moisture is expected to increase, resulting in direct economic consequences on the production capacity. Considering the above decisions, the main objective of this paper is to integrate climate change into agricultural decision-making by using an Economic Modeling System to identify the impacts of climate change induced by greenhouse gas emissions on agricultural sector productions and available water resources in the down lands of the Taleghan Dam. Materials and Methods: In this study, the effects of greenhouse gases on climate variables of temperature and precipitation under emission scenarios A1B, A2 and B1 were evaluated using time series data from 1981- 2008 and General Circulation Models (GCM. Then Ordinary Least Squares (OLS was used

  18. Energy, Economics & Environment

    David James


    Energy-economic-environment (EEE) interactions can be expected to play a crucial role in the development process. Energy is a critical resourced underpinning economic growth. Countries in SE Asia have reached different levels of economic welfare, and this is reflected in their energy use patterns. Some of the countries are well endowed with energy resources - to the extent of being major exporters of energy. Others face serious poverty, accompanied by low levels of energy use. To achieve impr...

  19. Net Resource Assessment (NetRA): A Collaborative Effort Between USGS Science and Decisions Center, the Science Impact Laboratory for Policy and Economics (University of New Mexico) and Sandia National Laboratory

    Brookshire, D.; Bernknopf, R.; Adhikari, D. R.; Babis, C.; Broadbent, C. D.; Tidwell, V. C.


    Department of Interior Secretarial Order No. 3330, "… establishes a Department-wide mitigation strategy that will ensure consistency and efficiency in the review and permitting of infrastructure development projects and in conserving our Nation's valuable natural and cultural resources." The USGS Organic Act authorizes resource assessments to estimate the in-place potential capacity of energy, mineral, hydrologic, and biologic resources (20 Stat. 394; 43 U.S.C. 31) and later amendments. These two statements form the basis for the development of the Net Resources Assessment (NetRA) framework. NetRA is a policy-relevant, interdisciplinary approach to assessing natural resources availability in examining the regional-scale interrelationships between energy or mineral extraction and impact on ecosystem services. The systems dynamics approach (SD) emphasizes the interdependence of natural resource development and its effect on collocated ecosystem services over space and time. The example of the NetRA that will be presented focuses on tradeoffs associated with land management decisions in the West. The Piceance Basin, CO example that will be discussed involves development of a continuous gas deposit and its impact on Mule Deer and water quality. The SD is the hub for generating a range of simulated landscape outcomes. The probabilistic model provides an economic indicator as to the expected net societal benefit of economic development and biophysical indicators for ecosystem services affected in the region. Both natural and economic indicators are associated with each outcome via a tradeoff analysis the can be used for risk analysis. The NetRA also retains map attributes for before and after map comparisons to specific alternatives for an existing baseline. The model has three stages: map-based scenario development with slider bars (choice variables), side-by-side extraction and ecosystem services sub-models, and integrated multiple resource trade-off outcomes.

  20. Nosocomial pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus treated with linezolid or vancomycin: A secondary economic analysis of resource use from a Spanish perspective.

    Rello, J; Nieto, M; Solé-Violán, J; Wan, Y; Gao, X; Solem, C T; De Salas-Cansado, M; Mesa, F; Charbonneau, C; Chastre, J


    Adopting a unique Spanish perspective, this study aims to assess healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and the costs of treating nosocomial pneumonia (NP) produced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitalized adults using linezolid or vancomycin. An evaluation is also made of the renal failure rate and related economic outcomes between study groups. An economic post hoc evaluation of a randomized, double-blind, multicenter phase 4 study was carried out. Nosocomial pneumonia due to MRSA in hospitalized adults. The modified intent to treat (mITT) population comprised 224 linezolid- and 224 vancomycin-treated patients. Costs and HCRU were evaluated between patients administered either linezolid or vancomycin, and between patients who developed renal failure and those who did not. Analysis of HCRU outcomes and costs. Total costs were similar between the linezolid- (€17,782±€9,615) and vancomycin-treated patients (€17,423±€9,460) (P=.69). The renal failure rate was significantly lower in the linezolid-treated patients (4% vs. 15%; P<.001). The total costs tended to be higher in patients who developed renal failure (€19,626±€10,840 vs. €17,388±€9,369; P=.14). Among the patients who developed renal failure, HCRU (days on mechanical ventilation: 13.2±10.7 vs. 7.6±3.6 days; P=.21; ICU stay: 14.4±10.5 vs. 9.9±6.6 days; P=.30; hospital stay: 19.5±9.5 vs. 16.1±11.0 days; P=.26) and cost (€17,219±€8,792 vs. €20,263±€11,350; P=.51) tended to be lower in the linezolid- vs. vancomycin-treated patients. There were no statistically significant differences in costs per patient-day between cohorts after correcting for mortality (€1000 vs. €1,010; P=.98). From a Spanish perspective, there were no statistically significant differences in total costs between the linezolid and vancomycin pneumonia cohorts. The drug cost corresponding to linezolid was partially offset by fewer renal failure adverse events. Copyright © 2016

  1. Evaluation of Economic Value of Gulangyu Tourism Resource Based on CVM%基于CVM的鼓浪屿旅游资源经济价值的评估



    本文运用条件价值评估法,通过对游客的门票支付意愿调查,对鼓浪屿旅游资源的经济价值进行评估。评估运用SPSS17.0软件,采用卡方列联表相关度分析对支付意愿及支付意愿值的影响因素进行相关分析,结果表明:被调查者的年龄、受教育程度与支付意愿显著相关,而性别、月收入和职业等因素与支付意愿相关不显著;年龄、职业、受教育程度和性别与支付意愿值显著相关,月收入与支付意愿值关系不大。%Applying the method of condition value evaluation,and through the survey of the tourists' intend pay for tickets,the article gives an evaluation of the economic value of Gulangyu island tourism resources.The evaluation uses SPSS17.0 software,and applying a chi-square contingency table analysis to give a correlated analysis of the influence factors on willingness to pay intend.The results show that:the age of the respondents,the education degree and willingness to pay has significant correlation,and gender,monthly income and occupational factors and willingness to pay is not significant;age,occupation,education degree and gender and willingness to pay has significant correlation,the correlation between month income and willingness to pay is not big.

  2. The clinical and economic impact of point-of-care CD4 testing in mozambique and other resource-limited settings: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Emily P Hyle


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Point-of-care CD4 tests at HIV diagnosis could improve linkage to care in resource-limited settings. Our objective is to evaluate the clinical and economic impact of point-of-care CD4 tests compared to laboratory-based tests in Mozambique. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use a validated model of HIV testing, linkage, and treatment (CEPAC-International to examine two strategies of immunological staging in Mozambique: (1 laboratory-based CD4 testing (LAB-CD4 and (2 point-of-care CD4 testing (POC-CD4. Model outcomes include 5-y survival, life expectancy, lifetime costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs. Input parameters include linkage to care (LAB-CD4, 34%; POC-CD4, 61%, probability of correctly detecting antiretroviral therapy (ART eligibility (sensitivity: LAB-CD4, 100%; POC-CD4, 90% or ART ineligibility (specificity: LAB-CD4, 100%; POC-CD4, 85%, and test cost (LAB-CD4, US$10; POC-CD4, US$24. In sensitivity analyses, we vary POC-CD4-specific parameters, as well as cohort and setting parameters to reflect a range of scenarios in sub-Saharan Africa. We consider ICERs less than three times the per capita gross domestic product in Mozambique (US$570 to be cost-effective, and ICERs less than one times the per capita gross domestic product in Mozambique to be very cost-effective. Projected 5-y survival in HIV-infected persons with LAB-CD4 is 60.9% (95% CI, 60.9%-61.0%, increasing to 65.0% (95% CI, 64.9%-65.1% with POC-CD4. Discounted life expectancy and per person lifetime costs with LAB-CD4 are 9.6 y (95% CI, 9.6-9.6 y and US$2,440 (95% CI, US$2,440-US$2,450 and increase with POC-CD4 to 10.3 y (95% CI, 10.3-10.3 y and US$2,800 (95% CI, US$2,790-US$2,800; the ICER of POC-CD4 compared to LAB-CD4 is US$500/year of life saved (YLS (95% CI, US$480-US$520/YLS. POC-CD4 improves clinical outcomes and remains near the very cost-effective threshold in sensitivity analyses, even if point-of-care CD4 tests have lower sensitivity

  3. "A epopeia da decadência": um estudo sobre o Essai sur l'inégalité des races humaines (1853-1855, de Arthur de Gobineau

    Helga da Cunha Gahyva


    Full Text Available O presente artigo discute a concepção racial de Arthur de Gobineau a partir de sua mais famosa obra, o Essai sur l'inégalité des races humaines. Se comumente este tratado é associado à discussão racialista que toma corpo nas últimas décadas do século XIX, pretendo relacioná-lo a uma polêmica característica da virada do século XVII para o XVIII, a Querela das duas raças. Neste sentido, o objetivo do artigo é revelar, em primeiro lugar, como a reflexão de Gobineau é tributária de um conceito de linhagem tornado paulatinamente anacrônico no mundo pós-revolucionário. Em segundo, demonstrar a hipótese segundo a qual o Essai, menos do que um estudo sobre raças pretensamente "biológicas", representa fundamentalmente uma recusa à nova ordem igualitária que se impõe na era moderna.The present article discusses the racial concepts of Arthur de Gobineau based on his most famous work, Essai sur l'inegalité des races humaines. Instead of associating these with the racialist debate of the last decades of the XIX the century, I relate them to a polemical text characteristic of the late XVII and early XVIII century: The Quarrel of the Two Races. In this sense, my main objective is to show that, in the first place, the Gobineau's work owes significant debts to the concept of the "bloodline", an idea which gradually became anachronistic after the French Revolution. In addition, I argue that, rather than being a study of supposedly "biological" races, Gobineau's "Essay" should be regarded as a refusal of the new egalitarian order of modern times.

  4. Les capteurs de transport de neige par le vent au banc d'essai Intercomparaison between drifting snow sensors

    Hervé Bellot et Florence Naaim-Bouvet


    Full Text Available Le transport de la neige par le vent entraîne la formation de congères, augmente le risque d'avalanches et limite la visibilité. Afin d’améliorer la prévision du phénomène et de développer une ingénierie de protection, les acteurs locaux de la prévention ont besoin d’informations précises sur les quantités de neige transportée par le vent. Cet article fait le point sur les différentes technologies de mesure disponibles en comparant des essais réalisés in situ et en soufflerie avec plusieurs types de capteurs.Wind-transported snow is a common phenomenon in cold windy areas such as mountainous and polar regions. The resulting snowdrifts often cause problems for infrastructure and road maintenance and contribute significantly to the loading of the avalanche release area. It also reduces visibility. It is very important to better determine drifting snow fluxes in the framework of forecast or mitigation. Therefore this article reviews the different available technologies such as mechanical traps, acoustic or optical sensors. It bases its conclusion on essays carried out in wind-tunnel and on in situ experimental site at Col du Lac Blanc which is dedicated to the study of drifting snow. If acoustic sensors are not so promising as expected, optical sensors give accurate results. Nevertheless the measurement area is small-sized. That is why the coupling with a theoretical approach is still indispensable.

  5. Flying Qualities Flight Testing of Digital Flight Control Systems. Flight Test Techniques Series - Volume 21 (les Essais en vol des performances des systemes de ommande de vol numeriques)


    et leur sécurité. Note de traduction : l’auteur insiste lourdement dans le 2ème paragraphe sur la préparation des essais et l’analyse loop is readily apparent. As an example, a roll-rate feedback to the aileron is a good indication that the roll mode required augmentation. The...impacts of roll-rate feedback to the aileron on this mode are well understood from the classical design theory. Newer or so-called modern design

  6. Genetic structure of the rattan Calamus thwaitesii in core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in centralWestern Ghats, India: do protected areas serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants?

    B. T. Ramesha; G. Ravikanth; M. Nageswara Rao; K. N. Ganeshaiah; R. Uma Shaanker


    Given the increasing anthropogenic pressures on forests, the various protected areas—national parks, sanctuaries, and biosphere reserves—serve as the last footholds for conserving biological diversity. However, because protected areas are often targeted for the conservation of selected species, particularly charismatic animals, concerns have been raised about their effectiveness in conserving nontarget taxa and their genetic resources. In this paper, we evaluate whether protected areas can serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants that are threatened due to extraction pressures. We examine the population structure and genetic diversity of an economically important rattan, Calamus thwaitesii, in the core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in the central Western Ghats, southern India. Our results indicate that in all the three protected areas, the core and buffer regions maintain a better population structure, as well as higher genetic diversity, than the peripheral regions of the protected area. Thus, despite the escalating pressures of extraction, the protected areas are effective in conserving the genetic resources of rattan. These results underscore the importance of protected areas in conservation of nontarget species and emphasize the need to further strengthen the protected-area network to offer refugia for economically important plant species.

  7. Research on Social and Economic Development and Natural Resource Cost Accounting of Guanzhong Area%关中地区社会经济发展与自然资源成本核算研究



    为了衡量关中地区近几年的社会经济发展成效,在深入研究国内外绿色国民经济核算体系的基础上,结合关中地区自然资源状况,建立了以自然资源耗减价值核算和资源环境退化价值核算为主体框架的资源成本核算体系,并对关中地区2001~2010年的资源成本进行了核算.结果表明:关中地区近10年矿产资源耗减价值的年平均值在自然资源耗减价值总量的历年平均值所占的比例在逐年增大.说明关中地区的社会经济发展形势仍然是以资源消耗为主.此外,通过定量分析发现资源耗竭型的经济增长方式正在逐步改善.%In order to correctly measure the social and economic developmental efficiency of Guanzhong area in recent years, based cm deeply studying the green national economic accounting system in China and abroad, the resource cost accounting system was established, which mainly consisted of natural resource depletion value accounting and environmental degradation value accounting. This system was used to account the resource cost of Guanzhong area from 2001 to 2010. The results showed that: in Guanzhong area, the proportion of average annual value of mineral resource depletion in the average annual value of natural resource depletion was increased year by year, indicating that the social and economic development in Guanzhong area still mainly depended on resource consumption. The result of quantitative analysis revealed that the resource depletion type of economic growth pattern was being improved gradually.

  8. Medication use patterns, health care resource utilization, and economic burden for patients with major depressive disorder in Beijing, People’s Republic of China

    Zhang L


    medications were prescribed for 76.8% of patients. Only 0.42% of patients experienced ≥1 MDD-related hospitalization(s during the 1-year follow-up, and the average annual number of hospitalization was 1.2 for those hospitalized. The mean length of stay was 33.4 days per hospitalization. All patients had ≥1 MDD-related outpatient visit(s. The mean annual number of outpatient visits per patient was 3.1. The mean annual direct medical costs per patient with MDD was RMB ¥1,694.1 (48.5% for antidepressant medications, and that for hospitalized patients was RMB ¥21,291.0 (15.0% for antidepressant medications.Conclusion: In Beijing, the majority of patients with MDD were treated in the outpatient setting only and they received antidepressants. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were the most commonly used antidepressants. However, the duration to antidepressant medication was short, and persistence was low. The economic burden of MDD-related hospitalization was considerable.Keywords: depression, People’s Republic of China, antidepressants, health care resource, persistence

  9. Geo-spatial analysis of land-water resource degradation in two economically contrasting agricultural regions adjoining national capital territory (Delhi).

    Kaur, Ravinder; Minhas, P S; Jain, P C; Singh, P; Dubey, D S


    The present study was aimed at characterizing the soil-water resource degradation in the rural areas of Gurgaon and Mewat districts, the two economically contrasting areas in policy zones-II and III of the National Capital Region (NCR), and assessing the impact of the study area's local conditions on the type and extent of resource degradation. This involved generation of detailed spatial information on the land use, cropping pattern, farming practices, soils and surface/ground waters of Gurgaon and Mewat districts through actual resource surveys, standard laboratory methods and GIS/remote sensing techniques. The study showed that in contrast to just 2.54% (in rabi season) to 4.87% (in kharif season) of agricultural lands in Gurgaon district, about 11.77% (in rabi season) to 24.23% (in kharif season) of agricultural lands in Mewat district were irrigated with saline to marginally saline canal water. Further, about 10.69% of agricultural lands in the Gurgaon district and 42.15% of agricultural lands in the Mewat district were drain water irrigated. A large part of this surface water irrigated area, particularly in Nuh (48.7%), Nagina (33.5%), and Punhana (24.1%) blocks of Mewat district, was either waterlogged (7.4% area with water depth) or at risk of being waterlogged (17.1% area with 2-3 m ground water depth). Local resource inventory showed prevalence of several illegal private channels in Mewat district. These private channels divert degraded canal waters into the nearby intersecting drains and thereby increase extent of surface irrigated agricultural lands in the Mewat district. Geo-spatial analysis showed that due to seepage of these degraded waters from unlined drains and canals, ground waters of about 39.6% of Mewat district were salt affected (EC(m)ean = 7.05 dS/m and SAR(m)ean = 7.71). Besides, sub-surface drinking waters of almost the entire Mewat district were contaminated with undesirable concentrations of chromium (Cr 2.0-3.23 ppm), manganese (Mn: 0

  10. Airport Economy-The New Economic Transformation Path for Resource-based Cities in Heilongjiang Province%临空经济--黑龙江省资源型城市经济转型的新路径

    王剑; 张凤岩


      In recent years,with the rapid development of China's aviation industry,the influence of airports upon economic development has become stronger,and airport economy is becoming a new engine which promotes regional economic development. Heilongjiang province has established new regional airports in a number of resource-based cities successively for the past few years, which will promote the economic transformation of these cities and regional economic development. The government should start from a strategic perspective, take the airport economy as the new impetus to develop economic society,and give full play to the role of airport economy to the economic transformation of the resource-based cities,so as to achieve coordinated development of the airport economy and the regional economy.%  近年来,随着我国航空业的迅猛发展,机场对经济发展的影响力愈来愈强,临空经济正成为推动地区经济发展的新引擎。黑龙江省近几年先后在省内一些资源型城市建立了新的支线机场,这将对黑龙江省资源型城市的经济转型和区域经济发展起到助推器的作用。黑龙江省政府应从战略高度出发,以发展临空经济作为资源型城市经济社会发展的新动力,充分发挥临空经济对资源型城市经济转型的作用,实现临空经济与区域经济的协调发展。

  11. AVM branch vibration test equipment; Moyens d`essais vibratoires au sein du departement AMV

    Anne, J.P.


    An inventory of the test equipment of the AVM Branch ``Acoustic and Vibratory Mechanics Analysis Methods`` group has been undertaken. The purpose of this inventory is to enable better acquaintance with the technical characteristics of the equipment, providing an accurate definition of their functionalities, ad to inform potential users of the possibilities and equipment available in this field. The report first summarizes the various experimental surveys conduced. Then, using the AVM equipment database to draw up an exhaustive list of available equipment, it provides a full-scope picture of the vibration measurement systems (sensors, conditioners and exciters) and data processing resources commonly used on industrial sites and in laboratories. A definition is also given of a mobile test unit, called `shelter`, and a test bench used for the testing and performance rating of the experimental analysis methods developed by the group. The report concludes with a description of two fixed installations: - the calibration bench ensuring the requisite quality level for the vibration measurement systems ; - the training bench, whereby know-how acquired in the field in the field of measurement and experimental analysis processes is made available to others. (author). 27 refs., 15 figs., 2 appends.

  12. La fabrique du savoir Essai sur les carnets de voyage d'Alexander von Humboldt

    Marie-Noëlle Bourguet


    Full Text Available Article in French, Abstract in English.Whilst the notebook belongs to the imagery of the enlightened scientist's persona (an auxiliary tool kept by his side to be hastily scribbled with data, when at the bench or in the field, it has been given little attention by historians of science, who are used to consider its manuscript pages as a documentary resource to complement the printed text, but rarely take the notebook as a material and cultural object by itself, the history and epistemology of which is to be explored. Only recently have new trends in the historiography, by historians of printed books and reading practices, and by social and cultural historians of knowledge, called for a fresh look and opened the way for new approaches. Taking Alexander von Humboldt as a paramount example, who expressly devoted his life to "observing and recording" the world, pen in hand, this paper explores the note-taking practices at work in his travel diaries and notebooks from the perspective of the history of scientific observation and cognitive practices. Four themes are successively considered : the question of method and apprenticeship ; the timing of note-taking practices ; the nature and status of the data jotted down on the page ; finally, their uses in the production of scientific knowledge. In the back and forth movement between the observation of the world and the writing of science, the notebook stood as a crucial intellectual step and cognitive tool.

  13. Evaluation of coordination between water resources and economic and social development in Xinjiang in context of Silk Road Economic Belt%丝绸之路经济带背景下新疆水资源与经济社会协调性评价

    吴业鹏; 袁汝华


    丝绸之路经济带战略实施,必将给沿线我国各省区经济社会带来新的发展机遇,分别从4个方面构建水资源与经济社会协调发展指标体系,运用变异系数法客观确定评价指标权重,基于距离协调度对2005—2013年新疆水资源与经济社会协调发展度进行定量分析。结果表明:新疆水资源与经济社会系统处于上升趋势,2005—2013年期间经济社会系统发展速度快于水资源发展;根据水资源与经济社会的协调发展度分为2个阶段:2005—2011年为第一阶段,水资源与经济社会系统的协调发展度一直处于上升阶段;2011—2013年为第二阶段,水资源与经济社会的协调发展度出现下降趋势,但是总体仍然处于中级协调水平。最后,对新疆在丝绸之路经济带建设中水资源与经济社会协调发展提出建议和对策。%The Silk Road Economic Belt strategy will bring new opportunities for economic and social development in many provinces and districts along the route. In this study, an indicator system of coordination between water resources and economic and social development was built considering four aspects. The coefficient of variation method was used to determine the evaluation index weight objectively. The degree of coordination between water resources and economic and social development in Xinjiang during the period from 2005 to 2013 was analyzed quantitatively based on the distance coordination model. The results show that the water resources and indicators of the socio-economic system of Xinjiang were in an uptrend. The growth rate of the socio-economic system was higher than that of the water resources during the study period. According to the degree of coordination, the coordinated development was divided into two periods: the first period from 2005 to 2011 , during which the degree of coordination between water resources and economic and social development showed an upward trend, and the

  14. Land Resources

    Young, Anthony


    Unless action is taken, the developing world will face recurrent problems of food security and conflict. This volume provides a summary and perspective of the field of land resources and suggests improvements needed to conserve resources for future generations. Coverage provides an authoritative review of the resources of soils, water, climate, forests and pastures on which agriculture depends. It assesses the interactions between land resources and wider aspects of development, including population and poverty. It provides a strong critique of current methods of assessing land degradation and placing an economic value on land. It should be read by all involved in rural development, including scientists, economists, geographers, sociologists, planners, and students of development studies.

  15. principles of international economic law, and the right to economic ...


    The Legislative and Institutional Framework of Environmental Protection in the Oil … ... Sovereignty over the non-natural resources or economic activities within its ..... Maximization of the use of renewable resources and re-cycling of depleted.

  16. Numerical methods for acquisition and analysis of vibration tests; Methodes numeriques d'acquisition et de depouillement d'essais aux vibrations

    Badel, D.; Cocchi, G.; Oules, H. [Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The S.I.D.E.X. is a digital computer assisted facility for Data acquisition and Data processing. It is designed for sine wave or random environment tests, mechanical or acoustical vibrations, shock waves. The mathematical principles and the system configuration have been described in the CEA file nb R-3666. The present one describes the numerical methods and the programs available up to now. Some examples of results obtained are shown at the end. (authors) [French] Le systeme integre de depouillement pour l'experimentation S.I.D.E.X., a pour but d'effectuer les calibration, les acquisitions et les depouillements des essais aux vibrations sinusoidales ou aleatoires, mecaniques ou acoustiques et des essais de chocs. Les methodes mathematiques correspondantes et la configuration digitale employee ont ete decrites dans le rapport CEA nb CEA-R-3666. Le present rapport indique les methodes numeriques en vigueur et les programmes actuellement disponibles. Des exemples de resultats obtenus sont egalement presentes. (auteurs)

  17. The Pattern of Economic Development Research on the Influence of Resource Saving and Environment Protection%经济发展方式对资源节约和环境保护的影响研究



    我国经济虽然一直保持着强劲势头增长,但为了经济的持续稳定增长,我们需要改变原先以牺牲资源和环境质量为代价的增长。在“十二五”规划指引下,我们迫切需要改变经济发展方式,在进行经济发展方式改革时,我们要坚持科学发展观,坚持节约资源和保护环境的原则。面对经济发展方式改变中出现的资源问题和环境问题,我们需要认真分析和研究,并找出解决这些问题的方法和措施。%Although our country's economy has maintained a strong momentum of growth, but for the sake of the steady economic growth, we need to change the former at the expense of resources and environmental quality at the expense of gro-wth. In the 12th five-year plan, we urgently need to change the pattern of economic development, the pattern of economic de-velopment in the reform, we should adhere to the scientific concept of development, adhere to the principle of resource saving and environment protection. In the face of economic development mode change in resource and environmental problems, we need careful analysis and research, and find out the methods and measures to solve these problems.

  18. Dimensions of Economic Law on Market Plays a Decisive Role in the Alocation of Resources%市场在资源配置中起决定性作用的经济法维度



    It’s the reform goal for Market in the allocation of resources to play a decisive role in China’s economic transition,Resource allocation depends on the design of economic legal system. Market and government are two ways of resource allocation, market plays a decisive role in allocating resources is to correctly handle the relationship between government and market. In negative inventory management mode, the market in the allocation of resources plays a decisive role in the economic law path that: In the competitive field, the principle of free market allocation of resources in accordance with the negative list“is not prohibited by law to”, and make sure not to damage the public interests. In the field of non competitive, the government in accordance with the positive list to strictly abide by “the law without authorization is prohibited”principle of the allocation of resources, and to respect the autonomy of private law and maintaining the social and public interests.%市场在资源配置中起决定性作用是我国经济转型期的改革目标,资源的配置有赖于经济法律制度的设计。市场和政府是资源配置的两种方式,市场在资源配置中起决定性作用的关键在于正确处理好市场与政府的关系。在负面清单管理模式下,市场在资源配置中起取决定性作用的经济法路径即:在竞争性领域,市场依负面清单之“法不禁止即可为”的原则自由配置资源,并确保不损害公共利益。在非竞争性领域,政府依正面清单严格遵守“法不授权即禁止”原则进行资源的配置,并尊重私权自治和维护好社会公共利益。

  19. Foster Children of Economics

    Hubbard, Ivan


    The two major branches of economics, micro and macro, are developing conflicting theories on pollution and environmental quality which rest upon very different assumptions concerning the use of natural resources in our economic system. Consequently, economists have focused upon the symptoms of the pollution problem rather than its causes. (BT)

  20. 榆林市能源资源开发与经济增长的实证研究%Empirical Study on Energy Resource Exploitation and Economic Growth about Yulin City



    选取新型资源城市、国家级能源化工基地榆林市1995—2013年的统计数据,运用统计计量方法,就资源富集区榆林市主要能源资源开发与经济增长的数量关系与运行状况进行定量研究与评价分析。研究认为:榆林市主要能源煤炭和石油开发与经济增长之间具有长期均衡的协整关系且互为因果;主要能源资源中,煤炭资源开发利用对经济增长贡献显著。此外,煤炭资源和石油资源开发之间亦双向因果,相互影响和共同促进,但煤炭和石油资源开发较初级粗放,就地转化利用的质量和效益不高。最后,根据研究结论,给出相关对策建议。%Based on the data of the Yulin City of the National Base about Energy and Chemical Industry from 1995 to 2013,econometric theories and methods are used to study the numerical relationship and running situations on main energy resources exploitation and economic growth. The findings reveal that there exists a long run equilibrium and co-integration relationship between main energy resources exploitation and economic growth ,and there is a two-way causal relationship between them. The coal resources has a significant contribution to economic growth among main energy resources. There also exists two-way causal relationship between coal and petroleum exploitation. They affect and promote each other. Whereas,due to the extensive and primary exploitation,the quality and economic efficiency of transformation and utilization of main energy resources is low in Yulin. Accordingly some relevant counter measures and suggestions are provided to resolve it.

  1. Smaller Communities Program: Grant and Wheeler Counties, Oregon. Combined Economic Base Report and Applicant Potential Report; An Evaluation of the Economic and Human Resources of a Rural Oregon County.

    Oregon State Dept. of Employment, Salem.

    Prepared by the Smaller Communities Services Program of the Oregon Department of Employment, this 1968 report summarizes the program findings with relation to Grant and Wheeler counties, Oregon. As stated, the overall objective of the program was promotion of the economic adjustment of specific rural, low-income areas--including the occupational…

  2. The Relationship between Youthful Human Resource and Economic Growth of Sichuan Province%四川省青年人力资源与经济增长的关系

    徐玖平; 张勇; 王洪振; 王楠


    In this article, we analyze the present situation of human resource in Sichuan province and take 94 youthful scientists who are supported by Sichuan Youth Science and Technology Foundation as example to calculate the contribution rate of youthful human resource to Sichuan economic growth according to C-D productive function. Thus we discover that the increase of human resource investment has great effect on the economic development that of Sichuan province.%本文分析了四川省人力资源的状况,并以四川省青年科技基金会资助的四批共94位优秀青年科技工作者为样本,利用柯布--道格拉斯生产函数,通过计算得到了青年人力资源对四川省经济发展的贡献率,从而揭示了人力资本的投资增长对四川省经济发展的巨大推动作用。

  3. Knowledge and Natural Resources

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo


    Arctic economies are generally natural resource based economies, whether they are indigenous economies largely dependent on living on the land or industrialized economies depending on marine resources, mineral resources or fossil or renewable energy resources. However, the central role of knowledge...... on the Icelandic and Faroese experiences with marine resources and renewable energy resources in geothermal, hydro, tidal and wind power. Iceland and the Faroe Islands are selected because they are examples of very small Arctic societies, which particularly well illustrate how the combination of human capital...... and marine resources and renewable energy can contribute to socio-economic and political-constitutional development....

  4. Hydrology and water resources management in East Anglia and North West England in the context of climate and socio-economic change

    Henriques, Catarina


    Future water resource management is of primary importance to society, economy and the environment. Planning for climate change and adapting to those changes, which requires an understanding of the complex consequences of climate change for the hydrology and human and environmental uses of water, is important for a sustainable future. This research study holistically explored possible implications of global climate change and regional socioeconomic change on water resource manag...

  5. Analysis and Thinking of the Construction of Western Language Economic Literature Resources%西文经济类文献资源建设分析和发展思考



    Through the investigation into the acquisition of western language economic literatures during 2008-2010 in Shanghai Library,it shows that the subdivision subject of western language economic literatures is not reasonable enough,the identification of core presses haven't geared to core presses recommended by famous magazines for choosing books,and the method for determining the academic value of economic books should be perfected.Therefore,the construction of western language economic literature resources should combine with the future collection development thoughts,refine key words of each subdivision subject of economic literatures,adjust the determination range and method of core presses,and build the database of core authors in economic field,in order to draw up more scientific acquisition strategies and construct characteristic collection system.%通过对上海图书馆2008—2010年采选的西文经济类文献的调研可知,西文经济类文献的各细分学科构成不够合理,核心出版社的认定与国际著名选书杂志推荐的核心出版社还没有完全接轨,图书学术价值的确定方法有待完善。为此,结合未来馆藏建设发展思路,西文经济类文献资源建设应重新提炼各细分学科的重点关键词,调整核心出版社的确定范围与方法,建立核心作者数据库,从而更科学地制定采选决策,建立特色藏书体系。

  6. Pratique de l’oubli et reconquête du présent dans Don Quichotte de Cervantès et les Essais de Montaigne

    Isabelle Benguigui


    Full Text Available Victime de sa mémoire livresque, don Quichotte apparaît incapable de vivre son époque. Aussi Cervantès lui oppose-t-il une écriture romanesque du présent, distincte des stéréotypes anciens. Les Essais de Montaigne aident à examiner ce besoin de rupture, où l’écrivain espagnol puise une énergie créatrice. Pour l’essayiste français, la pratique ciblée de l’oubli constituait déjà une hygiène mentale, face au règne tout-puissant de la mémoire européenne. Avec Cervantès, cette aspiration retrouve sa pertinence grâce à une poétique inédite de l’oubli, inscrite dans les ruses et les stratégies de la narration, et qu’une démarche comparatiste permettra d’identifier, à l’appui de Montaigne.A victim of his literary memory, Don Quixote seems out of tune with his own time. Thus, Cervantes pits him against a modern form of novelistic writing that refuses old stereotypes. Montaigne’s Essais help us examine this need for a radical break, from which the Spanish author derives his creative energy. For the French essay writer, the practice of voluntary oblivion constitutes a healthy mental habit in the face of the almighty sovereignty of European memory. With Cervantes, this aspiration is taken up in the form of a poetics of oblivion inscribed in clever narrative strategies, which a comparative study helps untangle, with the help of Montaigne.Víctima de su memoria libresca, Don Quijote aparece incapaz de vivir su época. Asimismo, Cervantes le opone una escritura novelesca del presente, diferente de los estereotipos antiguos. Los Essais de Montaigne ayudan a examinar esta necesidad de ruptura de la que el escritor español saca una energía creadora. Para el ensayista francés, la práctica de un olvido selectivo constituía ya una higiene mental frente al reinado todopoderoso de la memoria europea. Con Cervantes, esta aspiración vuelve a encontrar su pertinencia gracias a una poética inédita del olvido, inscrita

  7. 河北省资源型县域经济转型升级调查研究%Research on Resource-based County Economic Transformation and Upgrade on Hebei Province



    Resource-based county economics has been an important supporting force of the economic rapid growth of Hebei Province.Im-proving the industrial structure transformation and development mode changing of resource-based county economics which is the startpoint,focus and breach to achieve scientific development of Hebei,is of great significance for the sustainable use and conservation of the mineral resources,optimization and upgrade of the industrial structure,healthy development of the low-carbon economy,fundamental improvement of the environ-ment.Therefore,it should to do overall plan from the strategic height,strengthen policy support,adopt high technology,optimize the investment environment.%资源型县域经济已经成为河北省经济快速发展的重要支撑力量。推进资源型县域经济结构转型、发展方式转变,对于矿产资源可持续利用和保护、产业结构优化升级、低碳经济健康发展、生态环境根本改善具有重要意义,是河北省实现科学发展的立足点、着力点和突破口。为此,需要从战略高度进行总体部署,强化政策支持,加强资源管理,采用高新技术,优化投资环境。

  8. Natural Gas Resources of the Greater Green River and Wind River Basins of Wyoming (Assessing the Technology Needs of Sub-economic Resources, Phase I: Greater Green River and Wind river Basins, Fall 2002)

    Boswell, Ray; Douds, Ashley; Pratt, Skip; Rose, Kelly; Pancake, Jim; Bruner, Kathy (EG& G Services); Kuuskraa, Vello; Billingsley, Randy (Advanced Resources International)


    In 2000, NETL conducted a review of the adequacy of the resource characterization databases used in its Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM). This review indicated that the most striking deficiency in GSAM’s databases was the poor representation of the vast resource believed to exist in low-permeability sandstone accumulations in western U.S. basins. The model’s databases, which are built primarily around the United States Geological Survey (USGS) 1995 National Assessment (for undiscovered resources), reflected an estimate of the original-gas-inplace (OGIP) only in accumulations designated “technically-recoverable” by the USGS –roughly 3% to 4% of the total estimated OGIP of the region. As these vast remaining resources are a prime target of NETL programs, NETL immediately launched an effort to upgrade its resource characterizations. Upon review of existing data, NETL concluded that no existing data were appropriate sources for its modeling needs, and a decision was made to conduct new, detailed log-based, gas-in-place assessments.

  9. Expanding and Updating the Knowledge and Skills in Clothing-Related Services of Home Economics Trained Persons by Means of Inservice Training Utilizing Community Resources. Final Report.

    Pittsburgh Univ., PA. School of Education.

    The project was designed to acquaint home economics teachers with the textile and power sewing industry's history, job possibilities, and student (including disadvantaged and handicapped) needs and interests. Teachers were taught industrial machine operation, basic maintenance, and safety tips. Four objectives related to gainful clothing services…

  10. 广西北部湾经济区水资源管理对策研究%Study of water resource administration policy for Guangxi Beibu Gulf Economic Zone



      分析了广西北部湾经济区水资源开发利用的现状,对未来20年的需水态势进行了预测,针对经济区水资源开发利用和管理工作中存在问题,提出了相应的对策,为政府决策提供参考。%Based on analysis of the current status of water resource development and utilization in Guangxi Beibu Gulf Economic Zone,the author predicted the water demands of the next 20 years,put forward countermeasures for the problems existing in development,utilization and administration of water resources,aiming to provide refer⁃ence for government to draft policy.

  11. Strengthen Urban and Rural Water Resources Management to Ensure Sustainable Economic Development%加强城乡水资源统一管理保证经济可持续发展

    段占魁; 张岩; 王欢; 郝静; 白玉华


    How to deepen the water management system, decentralized management of water resources in the state, will directly affect the social and economic sustainable development. Integrated water management system established to meet the strategic requirements of sustainable utilization of water resources, and create a good environment for people and water is the only way for sustainable development of society.%如何深化水务管理体制改革,改变水资源处于分散管理的状态,将直接影响到社会经济可持续发展。水务一体化管理体制的建立,适应水资源可持续利用战略要求,营造了人水和谐的良好环境,是社会可持续发展的必经之路。

  12. 我国旅游资源经济转化率及其省际差异分析%On Analysis of Tourism Resources Economic Conversion Rate and Inter-Provincial Variance in China

    白洋; 杨晓霞; 樊昊


    旅游资源经济转化率是衡量旅游资源开发利用水平的重要指标。在对旅游资源丰裕度、旅游经济综合发展水平量化估值的基础上,尝试建立旅游资源经济转化率模型,以2012年的截面数据对全国各省级行政区的旅游资源经济转化率进行定量测算与分析,结果表明:①我国旅游资源经济转化率总体水平偏低且省际差异明显;②我国省级行政区旅游资源经济转化率可划分为高、中、低3个等级,其中高等级包含2个省级行政区,中等级包含10个省级行政区,低等级包含19个省级行政区;③东北、西北地区只拥有低转化率等级的省级行政区;华北、西南地区拥有中、低转化率等级的省级行政区;华东、中南地区同时拥有高、中、低转化率等级的省级行政区。%Tourism resources economic conversion rate is an important indicator to measure tourism re‐sources development and utilization level .T his study on the basis of the quantitative valuation of tourism resources abundance and tourism economy comprehensive development level attempts to establish the tourism resources of economic conversion model ,quantitatively estimates the 2012 China's provincial ad‐ministrative region tourism resources economic conversion rate and analyzes the difference .Results show that 1) The overall level of tourism resources economic conversion rate of China is low ,and difference to be markedly ;2)T he provincial administrative region tourism resources economic conversion can be divided into high ,medium and low three grades ,high‐grade contains two provincial administrative region ,mid‐range contains 10 provincial administrative region ,lower level contains 19 provincial administrative region , which contains high grade 2 provincial level administrative region ,the intermediate contains 10 provincial‐level administrative region ,lower level contains 19 provincial administrative region

  13. essai de modelisation


    très importante de l'entreprise, représentée par la gestion des chaines logistiques. Il s'agit aussi de .... déterminent l'image de l'avenir (. ،. 1997. ). ... processus responsable de la gestion et du développement du système logistique total de ...

  14. Essais de prégrossissement de l'huître plate (Ostrea edulis) à partir de naissain capté en Méditerranée

    Dupuy, Blandine


    La maîtrise du prégrossissement d'huîtres plates s'avère indispensable pour valoriser sur le littoral Languedocien le naissain capté en mer ouverte. Cet essai effectue la comparaison de trois sites : - en mer ouverte à - 20 mètres à Gruissan sur une concession mytilicole. - en étang à proximité d'une zone d'élevage de palourdes à Port-la-Nouvelle. - en bassin aménagé pour l'élevage de crevettes dans les marais de Campignol. A partir de naissain de 0,5 cm en mai-juin, on a obtenu d...

  15. First National Report on Forest Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture,The Netherlands : country report for the FAO first state of the world's forest genetic resources for food and agriculture, Ministry of Economic Affairs, The Hague, November 2012

    Buiteveld, J.


    The Dutch national report is designed to contribute to a regional and global sysnthesis of the state of forest genetic resources and in particular to examine trends over the past ten years. After a general introduction to the Dutch forest sector and the historical background of today's forests, it

  16. Policies to support economic and environmental goals at farm and regional scales: Outcomes for rice farmers in Southern India depend on their resource endowment

    Senthilkumar, K.; Lubbers, M.T.M.H.; Ridder, de N.; Bindraban, P.S.; Thiyagarajan, T.M.; Giller, K.E.


    Improving water use and nitrogen efficiencies is of overall importance to society at large - to conserve scarce water resources and prevent environmental pollution. Efficient cultivation practices for rice which had no yield penalty were not adopted by farmers because of the open access to water fre

  17. Resource Endowments and Responses to Regulatory Pressure: Publications of Economics, Management, and Political Science Departments of Turkish Universities in Indexed Journals, 2000-2008

    Onder, Cetin; Kasapoglu-Onder, Rana


    This paper investigates how differences in resource endowments of universities shape variation in their response to regulatory pressures. Earlier research on higher education institutions tends to conceive regulatory rules as the primary basis of action and does not attend to differences in the salient characteristics of universities. This paper…

  18. Alternatives and Consequences: Proceedings of the Home Economics-Community Resource Development Regional Conference on Public Policy (Windsor Locks, Connecticut, October. 23-25, 1979).

    Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development, Ithaca, NY.

    Issues clarification, skills and techniques, and methods and strategy in Extension public policy education were the themes of the conference. The first keynote speaker, R.J. Hildreth, justified public policy education by home economist and community resource development educators. The second keynote speaker, J.B. Wyckoff, described the function of…

  19. Improvement of Human Resources Quality through Vocational Training in Tourism in Karimunjawa Islands (Central Java, Indonesia): A Pro-Economical Tourism Approach

    Putro, S. Eko; Sukirno; Budi, S.; Didik, W.


    The effort to improve human resource quality is not easy to be implemented. This effort becomes more complicated to do when implemented to the group of poor community, especially in this case marginal community of small island. This research analyzes the characteristic of poor household in small island as well as the strategy of poverty…

  20. Participation in medical research as a resource-seeking strategy in socio-economically vulnerable communities: call for research and action.

    Ravinetto, Raffaella M; Afolabi, Muhammed O; Okebe, Joseph; Van Nuil, Jennifer Ilo; Lutumba, Pascal; Mavoko, Hypolite Muhindo; Nahum, Alain; Tinto, Halidou; Addissie, Adamu; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Grietens, Koen Peeters


    The freedom to consent to participate in medical research is a complex subject, particularly in socio-economically vulnerable communities, where numerous factors may limit the efficacy of the informed consent process. Informal consultation among members of the Switching the Poles Clinical Research Network coming from various sub-Saharan African countries, that is Burkina Faso, The Gambia, Rwanda, Ethiopia, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Benin, seems to support the hypothesis that in socio-economical vulnerable communities with inadequate access to health care, the decision to participate in research is often taken irrespectively of the contents of the informed consent interview, and it is largely driven by the opportunity to access free or better quality care and other indirect benefits. Populations' vulnerability due to poverty and/or social exclusion should obviously not lead to exclusion from medical research, which is most often crucially needed to address their health problems. Nonetheless, to reduce the possibility of exploitation, there is the need to further investigate the complex links between socio-economical vulnerability, access to health care and individual freedom to decide on participation in medical research. This needs bringing together clinical researchers, social scientists and bioethicists in transdisciplinary collaborative research efforts that require the collective input from researchers, research sponsors and funders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Resources and Transaction Costs

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul


    AbstractThe economics of property rights furthers the resource-based view in a number ofways. Resource analysis is refined by conceptualizing resources as composed ofmultiple attributes to which property rights may be held. A resource owner's abilityto create, appropriate and sustain value from...... resources depends on the propertyrights that she holds to those resources and on the transaction costs of exchanging,defining and protecting the relevant property rights. While transaction costs aremajor sources of value dissipation, value may be created by reducing suchdissipation. Implications for the RBV...

  2. Review of tourism resources valuation

    Shao Xiaoye; Cheng Shengkui; Chen Yuansheng


    Tourism resources valuation is now a hot issue of the science of tourism resources, resources economics and environmental economics. This paper reviews research progress on tourism resources valuation, introduces its theoretic basis, and elaborates two classical valuation methods: TCM and CVM. And two existing problems are discussed.Firstly, tourism resources value constitution system is still under dispute. This paper puts forward the value constitution system based on present value categories. Secondly, tourism resources valuation methods need further studies because both TCM and CVM have deficiencies. Finally, the paper points out the development direction of tourism resources valuation.

  3. A Spatial Decision Support System to incorporate hydro-economic modeling results in the management of water resources under decentralized institutional arrangements in a semiarid reservoir region in Brazil

    Alcoforado de Moraes, Márcia; Silva, Gerald; Siegmund-Schultze, Marianna


    The integration of economic and hydrological components in models, aimed to support evaluating alternatives of water allocation policies, is promising, though, challenging. Worldwide, these models have been used primarily in academia, and so far seldom by water managers for practical purposes. Ideally, the models should be available through a Decision Support System. The São Francisco River Basin in Northeast of Brazil has around 48% of its area in a semi-arid region. Irrigation and public water supply are the primary water use sectors, along with hydropower utilization. The water for electricity generation is stored in two large reservoirs, built 30 to 50 years ago under the premise of regulating flows for hydropower and controlling floods. Since 20 years, however, the law stipulates the multiple uses paradigm in a participatory and decentralized way. So far, only few rules laid down. Studies revealed that most of the respective institutions still needed to update their routines to the new paradigm. A hydro-economic model was developed and applied in order to determine the economically optimal water allocation of main users in that semiarid reservoir region. In order to make this model available to the decision makers, a minimum required is some form of manipulating data entry and output as well as some graphical interfaces. We propose and present the first features of a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) with dedicated hydro-economic modules in a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) environment for integrated water resource management. The open model platform should include geoprocessing tasks and water user related data management. The hydro-economic geoprocessing will link to generic optimization modeling systems, such as EXCEL Solver, GAMS and MATLAB. The institutions are deliberating or deciding over water allocation at different scales could use the generated information on potential economic benefits as a transparent basis for discussion. In

  4. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 7: Nonreplenishable natural resources: Minerals, fossil fuels and geothermal energy sources

    Lietzke, K. R.


    The application of remotely-sensed information to the mineral, fossil fuel, and geothermal energy extraction industry is investigated. Public and private cost savings are documented in geologic mapping activities. Benefits and capabilities accruing to the ERS system are assessed. It is shown that remote sensing aids in resource extraction, as well as the monitoring of several dynamic phenomena, including disturbed lands, reclamation, erosion, glaciation, and volcanic and seismic activity.

  5. Economic impact of healthcare resource utilisation patterns among patients diagnosed with advanced melanoma in the United Kingdom, Italy, and France: results from a retrospective, longitudinal survey (MELODY study).

    Johnston, K; Levy, A R; Lorigan, P; Maio, M; Lebbe, C; Middleton, M; Testori, A; Bédane, C; Konto, C; Dueymes, A; Sbarigia, U; van Baardewijk, M


    To describe patterns of healthcare resource utilisation and associated costs for patients with advanced melanoma in the United Kingdom (UK), Italy, and France. For patients receiving systemic treatment, or supportive care, data describing hospitalisations, hospice care, and outpatient visits were retrieved retrospectively from advanced disease diagnosis as part of a multicountry observational study. Costs were estimated by multiplying utilisation level by unit cost. In an exploratory analysis, costs were compared between individuals who died within one year of initiating first-line treatment (short-term survivors) and those with ≥ 1 year follow-up (long-term survivors). Hospitalisation costs were highest in France (€6262 per-person compared with €3225 in the UK and €2486 in Italy), reflecting higher rates of hospitalisation. In contrast, outpatient costs were highest in the UK (€782 per-person, compared with €115 in France and €72 in Italy), reflecting the highest rate and frequency of outpatient visits and the highest cost per visit. Hospitalisation rates were consistently higher during supportive care compared with systemic therapy. Roughly one-third of patients entered clinical trials and were not included in the analysis. In exploratory analysis, total costs were generally higher for long-term survivors, but monthly per-patient costs were generally lower for long-term survivors, consistent with a hypothesis that resource utilisation and costs do not necessarily increase proportionally with extended survival. Total costs associated with resource utilisation for advanced melanoma patients varied across countries. Overall cost differences were due to differences in frequency and intensity of utilisation patterns and variation in unit costs of health resources. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Development of an Open-GIS decision aid system for ecological and economical management of surface and groundwater resources in the Bistrita River Basin (Romania

    M. C. Trifu


    Full Text Available The Bistrita River Basin (a length of 283 km, a surface of 7039 km2, a mean discharge of 65 m3/s is one of the most important tributary of the Siret River, which is the second major affluent of the Danube River. Heavily influenced by hydraulic management and highly polluted by agricultural and urban activities in some stretches, the Bistrita river has been studied in the framework of the Diminish Project (LIFE03 ENV/ RO/000539, funded by the Life Environment Program. The project aims to support the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive and to combat the nutrient pollution by developing an integrated, on-line, GIS-based support system for the management of the water quality in relation with human activities, using socio-economical analysis, at the scale of the river catchments. Based on modeling approaches the decisional system allows to predict which strategy will lead to the most effective reduction of nutrient concentrations within the Bistrita hydrological network and of nutrient loads transported by the Siret River into the Danube.

    The consequences of the nutrient pollution are discussed for two basin areas, from two points of view: i the effects of point and diffuse pollution for surface and groundwater, on the basis of the basin response to the changing pressures over the river catchments (industrial, rural, urban, agricultural changes, ii the economical valuation of environmental costs and cost-effectiveness of the measures, that can be proposed from socio-economic scenarios, for reaching the "good ecological status" of this river.

  7. Study of relationship between water resources protection of Yangtze River and basin economic-social development%长江水资源保护与流域经济社会发展关系研究



    Yangtze River, the longest river in China, plays a crucial role in the economic-social development of Yangtze Riv-er Basin. Protecting the water resources of Yangtze River concerns the welfare of 400 million people living in the basin, and the sustainable development of Yangtze River Basin or even the whole country. Based on analysis of the relationship between the wa-ter environment change and economic-social development of Yangtze River Basin in the past 30 years, the problems and chal-lenges in water resources protection of Yangtze River are discussed, and suggestions to improve the protection of water resources of Yangtze River are put forward.%长江是中国第一大河,是长江流域经济社会发展的重要命脉,保护好长江水资源,不仅是长江流域4亿多人民的福祉所系,也关系到长江流域乃至全国经济社会可持续发展的大局。在分析近30 a来长江流域经济社会发展与水环境变化关系的基础上,讨论了长江流域水资源保护面临的问题,并提出了加强长江流域水资源保护的思路和对策。

  8. Analysis of Optimal Economic Growth under Constraints of Natural Resource, Environment Pollution and Institution%自然资源、环境和制度约束下的最优经济增长分析

    赵子壮; 周毅


    通过建立自然资源、环境质量和制度约束下的最优经济增长模型,对自然资源、环境、人力资本积累、制度变迁、技术进步(“水平创新”模式)与经济增长的关系进行研究.模型分析了各变量的稳态增长率及各模型技术参教的影响,得出通过提高人力资本的积累效率,协调资源、环境与经济的可持续发展,实施科教兴国战略,可以克服自然资源短缺的约束,实现经济的长期稳定增长.%Trough establishing the optimum economic growth model under constraints of natural resource, environment pollution and institution, the relationships between natural resource, environment, human capital accumulation, institutional change, technological progress ("level of innovation " style) were studied. The stability growth rate of variables and effects of each model technology parameters were analyzed, it was found that economy may achieve sustainable growth by increasing the accumulation of human capital and institutional innovation under constraints of shortage of natural resources and environmental pollution

  9. Review department programs related to intellectual property and technology transfer to ensure department resources are leveraged to the economic benefit of the US

    Martin, S.W.


    Review domestic and international policy, US Intellectual Property (IP) and Technology Transfer (TT) legislation, and related Department of Energy (DOE) programs to ensure Department resources are leveraged to the benefit of the US economy. Mapping such processes should determine if/how foreign governments and/or foreign owned or controlled enterprises, specifically Japanese and to a lessor extent other Pacific Rim nations, are able to access and at times leverage US technology to their benefit. This process will also generate lessons learned that should be useful to government and industry alike in the area of TT. The review will concentrate on technology innovations developed or funded by the Department.

  10. Organized Communities and Potable Water Public Utilities in Colombia: Advocacy for the Third Economic Option Based on the Common-pool Resources Theory

    Jhonny Moncada Mesa


    Full Text Available Based on the theory and institutional principles proposed by Elinor Ostrom, this paper explores whether Colombian organized communities are able to provide potable water public utility in a sustainable manner and manage it as a common-pool resource (CPR. For this purpose, a set of Colombian community aqueducts is selected and compared against the eight principles proposed by this theory. The results have shown that, in general it complies with institutional principles but it also highlights difficulties, particularly in regards to the "minimal recognition of organization rights" principle.

  11. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 3: Intensive use of living resources, agriculture. Part 3: The integrated impact of improved (ERS) information on US agricultural commodities

    Seidel, A. D.


    The economic value of information produced by an assumed operational version of an earth resources survey satellite of the ERTS class is assessed. The theoretical capability of an ERTS system to provide improved agricultural forecasts is analyzed and this analysis is used as a reasonable input to the econometric methods derived by ECON. An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scopes, and architecture of the analysis, and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. Several promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  12. Des essais de la monnaie à la recherche et à la certification des métaux : un laboratoire modèle au service de la guerre et de l’industrie (1775-1830)

    Bret, Patrice


    Présenté comme un modèle dès sa création au début du règne de Louis XVI, le laboratoire des essais de la Monnaie est un des rares lieux où se croisent la science académique et les techniques proto-industrielles. Son étude durant ses premières décennies d’existence rend compte de l’évolution des modes d’expertise, de certification et de recherche conduites par l’État. Hormis le travail ordinaire pour la Monnaie, il abrite les recherches systématiques sur l’essai des métaux précieux entreprises...

  13. Local Officials Guide to Defense Economic Adjustment


    Financial Planning "* Small Business Partnerships "* Family Day Care Zoning "* Community Traffic Safety Programs "* Public Real Estate Asset Management...and existing data - economic overview, economic resources, higher education, financial resources, physical infrastructure, real estate , and economic...Local Readiness Plan to determine emer- gency strategies, a SWOT Analysis is needed to determine longer term optiors and realities. A SWOT analysis

  14. Analysis on Eco-Economic Problems Caused by Exploitation of Mineral Resources in Pastoral Areas%牧区矿产资源开发引起的生态经济问题探析

    王关区; 陈晓燕


    The pastoral area is a special economic region. For the pastoral area grassland is the main ecological landscape, and grassland animal husbandry is the basic industry. At present the pastoral areas in our country are mainly located in the central and western economic regions and minority frontier areas, and the pastoral areas mainly include 268 counties in 13 provinces, which are pastoral areas counties or semi-pastoral areas counties. Because of natural, geographical and historical reasons, etc., the pastoral areas still belong to the underdeveloped areas, weak zones about improvement of people's livelihood and eco-environmental fragile areas. Irrational exploitation and utilization of mineral resources have led to resource destruction and environment pollution in pastoral areas. This paper takes Inner Mongolia as an example, and analyzed eco-economic problems which were caused by exploitation of mineral resources in pastoral areas. And the suggestions and countermeasures were raised to resolve the existing problems and to promote the harmonious and sustainable development of ecological economy in pastoral areas.%牧区是以绿色草原为主体生态景观、草原畜牧业为基础产业的特殊经济区域.目前,我国牧区主要包括13个省(区)的268个牧区半牧区县(旗、市),主要集中分布于中西部经济地带和边疆少数民族地区.由于自然、地理、历史等原因,牧区仍然是全国经济发展的滞后区、民生改善的薄弱区、生态环境的脆弱区.特别是欠合理的开发利用矿产资源,已对牧区造成一定程度的资源破坏与环境污染.文章以内蒙古为例,主要对牧区矿产资源开发引起的生态经济问题进行分析,同时尝试提出解决现存问题、推进牧区生态经济协调持续发展的对策建议.

  15. The German lignite industry. Historical development, resources, technology, economic structures and environmental impact. Study; Die deutsche Braunkohlenwirtschaft. Historische Entwicklungen, Ressourcen, Technik, wirtschaftliche Strukturen und Umweltauswirkungen. Studie



    Lignite has a key role to play in the transformation of the energy system due to its specific structural features in terms of industry, company history, policy, economics, the environment and regional structures. Understanding these structural features of the German lignite industry is an important requirement for classifying the significance of the lignite industry up to now and for the redesigning of this industrial sector. From these environmental, economic and regulatory structural characteristics, which are interwoven in a variety of ways, the incentives arise for the mining and power plant operators to react to energy price signals or energy policy steering. The aim of this research study is to define these structural features, to compile comprehensively the basic data and information that is not always transparently available, to understand the interactions, to enable the navigation of issues that are partly very complex, and to classify into the long-term developments that are especially important for political and social processes. In 2016 approx. 12 percent of German primary energy consumption was met using lignite. At the same time, lignite has the highest carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of the fossil fuels; it currently accounts for approx. 19 percent of Germany's total greenhouse gas emissions as well as approx. 46 percent of the total CO2 emissions of the electricity sector. As a result of the mining of lignite and its conversion into electricity, substantial adverse impacts beyond the entry of greenhouse gases into the Earth's atmosphere arise for other environmental media. These impacts include half of Germany's mercury emissions, approx. a third of its sulfur dioxide emissions and approx. a tenth of its nitrogen oxide emissions. Lignite mining in open-cast mines takes up a substantial amount of landscape and soil and requires huge interventions in the water balance. Relatively high costs arise for the recultivation and rehabilitation

  16. 基于水质的水资源模型与水质经济学初探%Water Quality-oriented Water Resources Model and Water Quality Economics Frame

    陈吉宁; 傅涛


    of Water Quality Economics which modifies and expands the idea of the existed Water Resources Economics. Furthermore, water service pricing under Water Quality Economics is discussed. Moreover, the development strategy of reclaimed water is re-considered and a new conception of water scarcity grading is raised based on the sum of purification cost and artificial recovery cost for water body.

  17. Quantum Economics

    Vukotić Veselin


    The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalizat...

  18. Forest Resources: An Overview

    Bethel, J. S.; Schreuder, G. F.


    Concern for long-term availability of nonrenewable resources has fostered proposals for substitution with renewable resources. Forest products could become the basis for materials substitution and production. Further feasibility studies are needed to determine the technical, economic, energy, and environmental aspects of substitution. (MR)

  19. The Economics of Starvation

    Stahl, Rune Møller


    Stahl investigates the role of liberal economics in the formulation of the disastrous famine policy of the British colonial administration in nineteenth-century India, where millions of Indians starved to death in a series of famines. The chapter examines the influential debates around the Great....... The hegemonic position of free trade ideas and economic liberalism allowed for proponents of a hard laissez-faire line to mobilize considerable intellectual resources, from Adam Smith to Ricardo, to overcome humanitarian critiques....

  20. The Economics of Starvation

    Stahl, Rune Møller


    Stahl investigates the role of liberal economics in the formulation of the disastrous famine policy of the British colonial administration in nineteenth-century India, where millions of Indians starved to death in a series of famines. The chapter examines the influential debates around the Great ....... The hegemonic position of free trade ideas and economic liberalism allowed for proponents of a hard laissez-faire line to mobilize considerable intellectual resources, from Adam Smith to Ricardo, to overcome humanitarian critiques....




    Cognitive economics is the economics of what is in people’s minds. It is a vibrant area of research (much of it within behavioural economics, labour economics and the economics of education) that brings into play novel types of data, especially novel types of survey data. Such data highlight the importance of heterogeneity across individuals and highlight thorny issues for welfare economics. A key theme of cognitive economics is finite cognition (often misleadingly called “bounded rationality”), which poses theoretical challenges that call for versatile approaches. Cognitive economics brings a rich toolbox to the task of understanding a complex world. PMID:28149186

  2. Water Resources Security and Its Countermeasure Suggestions in Building Silk Road Economic Belt%丝绸之路经济带建设中的水资源安全问题及对策

    郭利丹; 周海炜; 夏自强; 黄峰; 鄢波


    The strategy of Silk Road Economic Belt brings about both opportunities of social-economic development and regional cooperation for countries along this belt, and many potential constraints and challenges. Water resources safety is one of strategic and prospective issues in promoting the economic belt construction, which should be paid high attention to. In this study, some key regions involved in the economic belt, including Northwest China, Central Asia and West Asia, were selected as the cases. And in-depth analyses of water resources security problems, including water distribution, water demand and environmental conditions, and transboundary water disputes and cooperation practices of these tranboundary basins had been conducted. To solve these water problems in the construction process of economic belt, and on the basis of experiences and lessons learned from transboundary river management in Central Asia and West Asia regions, countermeasure suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of strategic layout for Chinese government and policy-making sectors. The territorial scope linked to the Silk Road Economic Belt extends far beyond the scope of a specific tranboundary river basin, and so countries along the belt are facing with more complex and multiple constraints of water security problem. China should develop a strategic framework of water resources to coordinate development with neighboring countries in Central Asia, which should be followed with a propose to build water cooperation corridor in the economic belt along the Silk Road, in order to improve transboundary water cooperation mechanism to strengthen regional cooperation in water resources. Besides, the support system of the water resources security should be improved by focusing on strengthening critical technology research and information monitoring of regional co-development of water resources and protection.%“丝绸之路经济带”的战略构想既为沿线国家带来了经济社

  3. Material need insecurities, control of diabetes mellitus, and use of health care resources: results of the Measuring Economic Insecurity in Diabetes study.

    Berkowitz, Seth A; Meigs, James B; DeWalt, Darren; Seligman, Hilary K; Barnard, Lily S; Bright, Oliver-John M; Schow, Marie; Atlas, Steven J; Wexler, Deborah J


    Increasing access to care may be insufficient to improve the health of patients with diabetes mellitus and unmet basic needs (hereinafter referred to as material need insecurities). How specific material need insecurities relate to clinical outcomes and the use of health care resources in a setting of near-universal access to health care is unclear. To determine the association of food insecurity, cost-related medication underuse, housing instability, and energy insecurity with control of diabetes mellitus and the use of health care resources. Cross-sectional data were collected from June 1, 2012, through October 31, 2013, at 1 academic primary care clinic, 2 community health centers, and 1 specialty center for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Massachusetts. A random sample of 411 patients, stratified by clinic, consisted of adults (aged ≥21 years) with diabetes mellitus (response rate, 62.3%). The prespecified primary outcome was a composite indicator of poor diabetes control (hemoglobin A1c level, >9.0%; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, >100 mg/dL; or blood pressure, >140/90 mm Hg). Prespecified secondary outcomes included outpatient visits and a composite of emergency department (ED) visits and acute care hospitalizations (ED/inpatient visits). Overall, 19.1% of respondents reported food insecurity; 27.6%, cost-related medication underuse; 10.7%, housing instability; 14.1%, energy insecurity; and 39.1%, at least 1 material need insecurity. Poor diabetes control was observed in 46.0% of respondents. In multivariable models, food insecurity was associated with a greater odds of poor diabetes control (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.97 [95% CI, 1.58-2.47]) and increased outpatient visits (adjusted incident rate ratio [IRR], 1.19 [95% CI, 1.05-1.36]) but not increased ED/inpatient visits (IRR, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.51-1.97]). Cost-related medication underuse was associated with poor diabetes control (OR, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.35-2.70]) and increased ED

  4. The economics of ageing: on the attitude of Swedish people to the distribution of health care resources between the young and the old.

    Johannesson, M; Johansson, P O


    The Swedish Priorities Investigation [1] proposes that no account should be taken of a patient's age when allocating health care resources. Measures to save an old person's life are to be given the same priority as measures to save a young person's life. In the present study it is shown that the attitude of the Swedish population to this age-related problem is dramatically different from that laid down in the priorities investigation. On average, people are willing to sacrifice thirty-five 70-year-olds to save one 30-year-old. It is also shown that a measure which increases life-expectancy by 1 year, conditional on having survived until the age of 75 years, is given a low weighting. The (maximum) insurance premium the average Swede is willing to pay for such a programme is about 700 pounds.

  5. Research on Economics and Management%The Relationship Between Organizational Trust and Knowledge Sharing-Roles of Organizational Identification and High Commitment Human Resource Practices

    刘宗华; 李燕萍; 郭昱琅; 郑馨怡


    From the perspective of self-concept,this study explores the effects of organizational trust on employees'knowledge sharing behavior,and examines the relationship between organizational trust and knowledge sharing based on multiple regression analysis of 288 subordinate-supervisors from 7 companies.The results indicate that organizational trust has significantly positive effect on knowledge sharing and organizational identification;organizational identification has significantly positive effect on knowledge sharing;organizational identification partially plays a mediating role in the relationship between organizational trust and knowledge sharing;high commitment human resource practices(HCHRPs) play a positive moderating role in the relationship between organizational identification and knowledge sharing;and high commitment human resource practices(HCHRPs)also moderate the indirect relationship between organizational trust and knowledge sharing via organizational identification.%本文基于自我概念的视角引入组织信任探讨员工的知识分享行为。以来自7家企业的288份直接主管-下属配对样本,探讨组织信任与知识分享的关系。研究发现,组织信任对知识分享、组织认同有显著正向影响,组织认同对知识分享有显著正向影响,组织认同部分中介组织信任对知识分享的作用;高承诺人力资源实践在组织认同与知识分享的关系中起正向调节作用;高承诺人力资源实践调节组织信任对知识分享影响的间接效应。

  6. Quantum economics

    Vukotić Veselin


    Full Text Available The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalization reveals the need to change dominant economic paradigm - from traditional economic theory (mainstream with macroeconomic stability as the goal of economic policy, to the “quantum economics“, which is based on “economic quantum” and immanent to the increase of wealth (material and non-material of every individual in society and promoting set of values immanent to the wealth increase as the goal of economic policy. Practically the question is how we can use global market for our development!

  7. Research into the relationship between domestic mineral resources exploitation and regional economic development%我国矿产资源开发与区域经济发展的关系研究

    吴琪; 陈从喜


    This thesis quoted relevant data from National Non-petroleum Mineral Resources Exploitation and Utilization Statistical Yearbook of 2013 from three aspects as abundance,exploitation strength of mineral resources,and dependence on mineral resources.It can be seen that basic reserves of coal in the Eastern,the Central,and the Western region accounted for 7.2%,49.4% and 43.4%,the exploitation and utilization strength of mineral resources is 20.5 1%,42.12% and 37.38%,mineral resource dependence is 0.99%,5.88% and 5.94% respectively.It drew a conclusion that the Western region has relatively the most abundant,as well as the exploitation strength of mineral resources comparing to the Eastern and the Central region.But the economic development is relatively slow in Western region due to simple economic structure,irrational industrial structure,lack of human resources and technological innovation,unsound regulatory system,sinister geographical conditions,poor infrastructure and so on.The Western region may improve or reverse the status by optimizing the industrial structure,increasing investment in technological innovation,and optimizing the environment for enterprises development.%矿产资源丰裕度、矿产资源开发强度和矿产资源依赖度是研究矿产资源开发利用与区域经济发展分析的重要参数。本文利用2013年度全国非油气矿产资源开发利用统计数据研究这3个参数发现,全国煤炭基础储量东、中、西部占比为7.2%、49.4%和43.4%,矿产资源开发利用强度为20.51%、42.12%和37.38%,矿产资源依赖度为分别为0.99%、5.88%和5.94%。可以看出,西部地区矿产资源相对最为丰富,且矿产资源开发强度也远领先于东、中部地区,但其经济增长速度却相对缓慢。这主要是由于西部地区矿产资源产业布局不合理、人力资源与技术创新不足、资源开发利用监管制度不健全、地理条件险恶和基础设施落后等原因造成

  8. Alexander von Humboldt’s Footnotes: “Networks of Knowledge” in the Sources of the 1826 Essai politique sur l’île de Cuba

    Anja Werner


    Full Text Available Zusammenfassung Alexander von Humboldts Fußnoten waren ihrer Zeit weit voraus, obwohl sie kaum den heutigen akademischen Standards entsprechen. Dieser Artikel untersucht die Fußnoten in Humboldts Essai politique sur l’île de Cuba (1826. Zwar ist es nicht immer leicht, die manchmal recht geheimnisvollen Verweise zu entschlüsseln, dennoch lohnt sich der Versuch: Humboldts Fußnoten geben nicht nur Auskunft über seine umfassenden Netzwerke des Wissens. Sie verweisen auch auf Auseinandersetzungen verschiedener Gelehrter über Humboldts Schriften. Schließlich beinhalten sie Humboldts Reaktionen auf solche Auseinandersetzungen. Eine Untersuchung von Humboldts Fußnoten erlaubt es folglich dem Leser, mehr über Humboldt den Wissenschaftler aber auch Humboldt den Mensch zu erfahren. Abstract When it comes to footnotes, Alexander von Humboldt was ahead of his times even though his references leave much to be desired by today’s academic standards. This article examines the footnotes of Humboldt’s Essai politique sur l’île de Cuba (1826. While it is not always easy to decipher his sometimes cryptic references, the undertaking is worthwhile: Humboldt’s footnotes do not only reveal his vast networks of knowledge. They also provide glimpses of ongoing, contemporary disputes among different scholars that involve Humboldt’s writings. They also present Humboldt’s reactions to such disputes. Exploring Humboldt’s footnotes consequently allows the reader to access both Humboldt the scholar and Humboldt the human being. Résumé Quand il s’agit de notes, Alexandre de Humboldt était en avance sur son temps, même si ses références laissent beaucoup à désirer par rapport aux normes universitaires d’aujourd’hui. Cet article examine les notes de l’Essai politique sur l’île de Cuba (1826. Même s’il n’est pas toujours facile de déchiffrer ses références parfois cryptiques, l’entreprise vaut la peine: les notes de Humboldt

  9. Economic analysis of production bottlenecks

    Lawrence Stephen R.


    Full Text Available The management of bottlenecks has become a central topic in the planning and control of production systems. In this paper, we critically analyze bottlenecks from an economic perspective. Using a queueing network model, we demonstrate that bottlenecks are inevitable when there are differences in job arrival rates, processing rates, or costs of productive resources. These differences naturally lead to the creation of bottlenecks both for facilities design and demand planning problems. To evaluate bottlenecks from an economic perspective, we develop the notion of an “economic bottleneck,” which defines resources as bottlenecks based on economic, rather than physical, characteristics.

  10. 中国资源消耗与经济增长动态关系的检验与分析%Tests and Analysis of Dynamic Relationships between China's Resource Consumption and Economic Growth



    With continuing growth of population, accelerating urbanization processes, and the rapid transition of the economic structure, maintaining steadily and rapidly economic development at provincial levels in China would result in a greater demand for natural resources. This gives lots of pressures on the environment. Analysis of regional input and consumption is therefore of a great significance to an improved understanding of the status of resources utilization and to appropriately adjust the direction of sustainable development policies in the context of international financial crisis and climate change. The author applied the panel cointegration and error correction models to investigate co-movement and the causal relationships between resources consumption and real per capita GDP for China' s 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities during the period 1990-2008. This might be the first attempt to combine the panel cointegration and error correction models with the economy-wide material flow accounting (EW-MFA) framework using generalized least square estimations. Based on the input accounting of EW-MFA, the author derived the direct material input (DMI) indicator characterizing resource consumption, which means that material flows coming into the economic system are required by economic production and consumption activities. Annual data were mainly from a variety of statistical yearbooks at national and regional levels. A few of data were obtained by various estimations. Data of GDP at current prices were transformed into the GDP at constant prices for which the price base year was 2005. Empirical results show that there is long-nm bidirectional causality between resource consumption and real per capita GDP, the same as fossil consumption and real per capita GDP. In addition, mineral consumption and real per capita GDP seem to lack short-run causality. There is unidirectional causality transferring from biomass consumption to the real per capita GDP in

  11. Purposeful engineering economics

    Chadderton, Ronald A


    This textbook/course supplement stands as a unique and highly original complement to the traditional engineering economics curriculum. Its primarily narrative approach conveys the essence of an “Austrian" economic perspective on cash flow analysis and decision making in engineering, without extensive tables and graphs, and requires very little mathematics. The book’s objective is to add a new perspective to the usual study of cash flow analysis and solely econometric engineering decision making. The author draws on the methodology of the Austrian Economists—a school of economic thought that bases its study of economic phenomena on the interpretation and analysis of the purposeful actions of individuals. The book includes an array of illustrative case studies examined in detail by the author and emphasizes the importance of market processes and price signals to coordinate engineering plans. Purposeful Engineering Economics is an ideal resource for students, teaching faculty, and practicing professional ...




    Full Text Available Ce travail a pour but de montrer qu'il est possible d’apprécier la température et de développer un modèle simple de calcul de la recrudescence de la température en cours de déformation pour un acier XC 42 à une température d'essai  de 700°C et pour deux vitesses de déformation généralisées différentes de 5s-1 et 30s-1.                 Cette étude prend en considération, d'une part l'enthalpie  du changement de phase a®g  qui se libère au cours de la déformation dans l'intervalle de température A1-A3, et d'autre part, des mécanismes thermiquement activées (restauration et recristallisation dynamique mis en jeu lors de la déformation du matériau. Comme nos essais étaient pratiqués à la température de 700°C, proche de celle du point de transformation A1, les structures obtenues après trempe rapide montrent bien que pendant la déformation le matériau a subi la transformation de phase a®g, provoquée par l'auto échauffement de l'acier XC42. Le degré d'austénitisation est donc fonction de l'auto échauffement du matériau qui, à grande vitesse de déformation (227°C, est plus important qu'à faible vitesse (142°C.

  13. Behavioral economics.

    Camerer, Colin F


    Behavioral economics uses evidence from psychology and other social sciences to create a precise and fruitful alternative to traditional economic theories, which are based on optimization. Behavioral economics may interest some biologists, as it shifts the basis for theories of economic choice away from logical calculation and maximization and toward biologically plausible mechanisms.

  14. Capacity Building Resource Management Of Coastal Areas To Improve The Local Economic Based By Cross-Cutting Partnerships: Case Study on Panjang Beach Bengkulu City

    Darmi, Titi


    The western part of Bengkulu city is a coastal region approximately 525 km, along the coast lies the tourism object which become the flagship of Bengkulu province. Coastal tourism is made as the pre-eminent is Panjang beach. Management of two beaches has not been managed optimally, so that is not yet on the economy have implications for communities, the people majority are fishermen, the highest poverty levels of Bengkulu city. The purpose of this research is to examine the development capacity of resource management and coastal areas of Panjang beach should be able to increase income community along the coast. Research method is using qualitative research types with approach case studies, which can investigate and phenomena identify that occur, and explain how and why about the income community arround the beaches, using the instrumental case study. Determination of samples is done based on the purposes and research problems, primary data sources are collected by in-depth interviews, FGD, and secondary data source are collected by observation and documentation. Data relating to be interpreted set forth in proposition because the result of the organized with matching pattern competition. The study results indicate there has been no integrated and suitability management between province and the city; stakeholders participation in community empowerment on the coast has been optimal; leadership commitment related to enhance institutional capacity is too weak, and there has not been a policy of managing the Panjang beach Bengkulu based on information technology.

  15. 铀资源技术经济评价专家系统的开发%Development of the Expert System of Technical and Economic Evaluation for Uranium Resource

    陈建宏; 周汉陵; 尹关华; 邓伟夏


    文章从需求分析、系统设计和系统主要功能等方面介绍了铀资源技术经济评价专家系统的开发过程,建立了基于C/B/S混合模式以及ASP.NET技术,由铀资源数据库提供数据支持,具有决策分析、铀资源数据库管理、资料管理与综合查询等基本功能的技术经济评价辅助管理系统.%This paper introduced the developing process of an expert system of technical and economic evaluation for uranium resource in the aspects of requirement analysis,system design,function structure and etc.The system has been constructed on.Net framework platform with the function of decisionmaking,database management of uranium resource,document management and integrated querying.



    <正>20112330 Liu Xifang (Key Laboratory of Saline Lake Resources and Environment, Ministry of Land and Resources,Institute of Mineral Resources, Beijing 100037, China);Zheng Mianping Geological Features

  17. Empirical Study on the Impacts of Human Resource on City Economic Growth%人力资本对城市经济增长的影响实证研究

    陶宇; 马涛


    人力资本对城市经济发展至关重要,通过利用扩展的 Solow 模型,对2006-2011年中国286个城市进行实证分析。实证结果表明,中国的发展模式已从劳动密集型的发展模式过渡到资本密集型的发展模式。但是,城市之间的人力资本发展并不均衡。一方面,对于城市群,基础人力资本对其的影响较大,而对于非城市群,知识人力资本对其的影响较大;另一方面,对城市群的实证研究表明,沿海城市群应发展人力资本数量,中部城市群应提高劳动者的医疗水平,西部城市群应提高劳动者的受教育水平。%Human resource plays an important role in the city economic development.We use the extended Solow model to analyze 286 cities in China from 2006 to 2011,and results show that the de-velopment model of China has transformed from labor intensive to capital intensive.However,the de-velopment of human resource is unbalanced among cities.Basic human resource has more effects on cities in the urban agglomeration,while knowledge human resource has more effects on cities out the urban agglomeration.Moreover,the empirical study of urban agglomeration shows that coastal cities should develop the number of human resource;cities in the middle region should improve the medical condition of laborers;and cities in the west should improve the educational level of laborers.

  18. 17. Dialogue on waste management MV. Current developments in waste and resources economics. Proceedings; 17. DIALOG Abfallwirtschaft MV. Aktuelle Entwicklungen in der Abfall- und Ressourcenwirtschaft. Tagungsband

    Nelles, Michael (ed.)


    This proceedings of 17th DIALOG Waste Management Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania contains 13 lectures. The topics were: Phosphorus recycling of wastewater and sewage sludge (Robert Ristow); Current waste legislation developments (Wolfgang Siederer); Further development of the recycling industry (Andreas Bruckschen); Resource-efficient recycling business - a challenge for municipalities (Holger Thaerichen); Brick Recycling (Anette Mueller); Who has the buck? competence and responsibility in collection, transportation and recycling of waste electrical equipment (Hans-Bernhard Rhein); Recovery of biogenic waste - Development, status and prospects (Martin Kranert); Experience in the bio-waste collection in the district of Western Pomerania-Ruegen (Torsten Ewert); Biowaste concept of OVVD GmbH (Stephan Schuett); Quo vadis BAWA Schwerinum? Biowaste treatment facility Schwerin - first operation experience (Andreas Lange); Future marketing opportunities for compost (Anke Boisch); Status and prospects of waste and substance flow management (Michael Nelles); Development of separate collection of biowaste quantities in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. [German] Dieser Tagungsband von der 17. DIALOG Abfallwirtschaft Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in Rostock enthaelt 13 Vortraege. Die Themen waren: Phosphor-Recycling aus Abwasser und Klaerschlamm (Robert Ristow); Aktuelle abfallrechtliche Entwicklungen (Wolfgang Siederer); Weiterentwicklung der Recyclingwirtschaft (Andreas Bruckschen); Ressourceneffiziente Wertstoffwirtschaft ? eine Herausforderung fuer die Kommunen (Holger Thaerichen); Ziegelrecycling (Anette Mueller et. al.); Wer hat den schwarzen Peter? Zustaendigkeiten und Verantwortlichkeiten bei Sammlung, Transport und Verwertung von Elektroaltgeraeten (Hans-Bernhard Rhein); Verwertung biogener Abfaelle - Entwicklung, Stand und Perspektiven (Martin Kranert); Erfahrungen bei der Bioabfallerfassung im Landkreis Vorpommern-Ruegen (Torsten Ewert); Bioabfallkonzept der OVVD GmbH (Stephan

  19. Resources,Power and the Blind Spot of Institution with Financial Corruption of the State-owned Enterprise Executives%Research on Economics and Management

    范合君; 吕雨露


    At present,there is little research on the financial corruption behavior of the state-owned enterprise executives in China.By using the Magazine of 21 3 corporate crime cases from 201 1 to 201 5 ,this paper makes a description of statistical analysis.The results show that:geographical location,position and the way of financial corruption have significant effect on the executives of financial corruption.At the same time,according to the important characteristics of the state-owned enterprise executives,this paper puts forward the mechanism of financial corruption:resources,power,the blind spot of institution and the financial corruption of state-owned enterprises are formed to be a circulatory system.%目前,国内对于国有企业高管的财务腐败行为较少进行详细研究。本文利用2011—2015年《法人》杂志的企业犯罪案例追踪统计213个案例数据,进行描述性统计分析,发现地域、职位、财务腐败的方式对国企高管财务腐败具有重要影响,同时针对得出的重要影响因素本文提出了国企高管进行财务腐败的机制,得出资源、权力、制度盲点与国企高管财务腐败的系统论。

  20. Government Expenditure, Efficiency and Economic Growth: A Panel ...

    Fiscal policy makers in Sub Saharan African low income region should consider the ... Department of Economics, Faculty of Business and Finance, UTAR, Malaysia. .... resources bring on new economic resources and trim down crowding-out ...

  1. Prévision de la corrosion des coussinets et corrélation avec l'essai sur moteur Petter W1 L Predicting Bearing Wear and Correlation with the Petter W1 L Engine Test

    Desvard A.


    Full Text Available Parmi les essais exigés par les spécifications européennes et américaines pour huiles de moteurs, il existe un essai de résistance à la corrosion des coussinets de bielles en cuivre-plomb (tableau 1. Ces essais sont effectués sur moteurs monocylindre Petter W1 L ou Labeco CLR (tableau 2. Des résultats de corrosion obtenus sur le moteur Petter W1 L, avec des huiles de calibrage, sont donnés (tableau 4 et les courbes de corrosion en fonction du temps d'essai sont représentées figure 1. En utilisant ces mêmes huiles, un groupe de travail du GFC*, chargé de développer des méthodes d'essai laboratoire de présélection, a mis au point un test basé sur le suivi de la corrosion d'une éprouvette de plomb, en présence de cuivre, immergée dans le lubrifiant à évaluer, lorsque celui-ci est soumis à des conditions d'oxydation sévères, en présence d'air, à haute température (fig. 2. Les résultats obtenus sont en parfaite concordance avec les résultats sur moteurs (tableau 5 et fig. 3. Par ailleurs, ces essais mettent en évidence une excellente répétabilité (fig. 4,et une excellente reproductibilité (fig. 5 et 6 de la méthode de laboratoire. * GFC : Groupement Français de Coordination, pour le développement des essais de performance des combustibles, des lubrifiants pour moteurs et autres fluides utilisés dans les transports. Among the tests required by European and American specifications for motor oils, there is a test of the corrosion resistance of copper-lead bearings (Table 1. These tests are performed in single-cylinder Petter W1 L engines or Labeco CLR engines (Table 2. The corrosion results obtained with the Petter W1 L engine, for calibration oils, are given (Table 4, and the corrosion curves as a function of time are shown in Fig. 1. By using the same oils, a GFC working group responsible for developing laboratory preselection test methods has developed a test based on the determining of the corrosion of a lead

  2. Elasticity Ratio of Resource Consumption and the Resource Consumption

    Meng Weihua; Zhu Dajian; Zhou Xinhong


    Today the resources are becoming scarcer,which should not be regarded as unexhausted any more.Correspondingly,the production would be constrained by the scarcity of resources clearly.Then the economic researchers would pay much more attention to reducing the consumption of natural resources in the future.Therefore this paper brings foreword the conception of elasticity ratio of resource consumption based on the concept of elasticity and analyzes the relationship between the parameters.For the certain relationships between the elasticity ratio of resource consumption and resource consumption,this-paper will try to reveal,to keep economy growing while resource consumption reducing,what conditions should be met as to the relationships among resource productivity,its growth rate,energy saving efficiency,economic growth rate and elasticity ratio of resource consumption.This paper proves the relationship between the China's energy consumption and economy growth using statistic data from 1978 to 2003

  3. Economics of Water Management

    Zhu, X.


    Water is a scarce natural resource. It is not only used as an input to economic activity such as irrigation, household and industrial water use, and hydropower generation, but also provides ecosystem services such as the maintenance of wetlands, wildlife support, and river flows for aquatic

  4. Economic geology, Mexico

    Salas, Guillermo P


    .... The various elements of Mexico's economic geology are discussed in the chapters of this volume by outstanding Mexican geologists, whose expertise vouches for the high quality of this presentation. Their efforts are a valuable contribution to the knowledge of Mexico's nonrenewable resources.

  5. Advanced Economic Analysis

    Greenberg, Marc W.; Laing, William


    An Economic Analysis (EA) is a systematic approach to the problem of choosing the best method of allocating scarce resources to achieve a given objective. An EA helps guide decisions on the "worth" of pursuing an action that departs from status quo ... an EA is the crux of decision-support.

  6. Contesting Resources - Rent Seeking, Conflict and the Natural Resource

    Wick, A.K.; Bulte, E.H.


    A growing empirical literature links natural resource abundance and "pointiness" to impeded economic growth and civil strife. We develop rent seeking and conflict models that capture the most salient features of contests for resource rents, and show how both resource abundance and geographical

  7. [Economic theory and the environment].

    Yachir, F


    The environment, on the eve of a new century, has become a major theme for reflection and action in both developed and developing countries. Economists and economic theory have until recently neglected the environment and have implicitly assumed that nature offers unlimited space for expansion and an inexhaustible supply of resources. Among natural resources, economists have always distinguished between those whose supply is in no way related to human labor and which are therefore common property, such as air and water, and those whose effective supply depends on labor and for which the appropriation can be private, such as the products of the soil and subsoil. The founders of the discipline of economics defined economic goods as those resulting from the application of labor to nature and which formally belong to a specific individual or group. It has become increasingly clear, however, that economic activity can reduce the effective availability of resources not considered "economic." The growing scarcity of these common goods may then induce their privatization. The inability of economic science to conceive of the exhaustibility of natural resources or the possibility of their permanent reduction in quality through human activity reflects the specific historic and philosophic context of the development of economics as a science. England in the late 18th and 19th centuries, where economics largely originated, was a colonial power able to expand outward in its quest for resources. Industrial requirements for nonrenewable resources remained relatively limited in the early years of industrialization. Most significantly, the growing technological capability was accompanied by a new belief that human beings could be in control of nature. A critique of economic theory from an environmental perspective must therefore begin with a critique of its philosophical assumptions. A new vision of interaction between the economy and nature must be developed which acknowledges the

  8. Blue Growth and Economics

    Phoebe eKoundouri


    Full Text Available Oceans and seas represent over 70% of the earth's surface. Furthermore, living aquatic resources can provide a significant contribution to food, energy and bio-based products. However, marine ecosystems are subject to increasing pressures and competing usages, resulting from resources over-exploitation and pollution. In order to produce efficient marine management plans, it is essential to consider the total economic value provided by the marine ecosystems. In this review, we are focusing on the Marine Framework Strategy Directive and the European Marine Spatial Planning that are established for the protection and efficient use of the marine area. We present the ecosystem services approach with regards to the marine ecosystem and propose economic methods that capture the marine ecosystem’s total economic value in relation to the opportunity cost of marine space. Values should be used to guide policy makers following the European directives and initiatives.

  9. Interest Organizations across Economic Sectors

    Berkhout, Joost; Carroll, Brendan; Braun, Caelesta


    on the basis of political and economic institutional factors. Focusing on business interest representation, we show that economic institutions structure the ‘supply’ of interest organizations by affecting the number of potential constituents, the resources available for lobbying and the geographical level....... The European Union interest system is (partially) shaped by economic factors, relatively independent from public policy or institutions.......The number of interest organizations (density) varies across policy domains, political issues and economic sectors. This shapes the nature and outcomes of interest representation. In this contribution, we explain the density of interest organizations per economic sector in the European Union...

  10. Resource Structuring and Ambidexterity

    Ma, Yucheng; Li, Peter Ping

    -shaped effect on organizational ambidexterity in new ventures. Further, because of the traditional culture and economic transition characteristics, new ventures actively leverage managerial ties as key social relations to obtain special resources or nurture business transactions. We propose that ties with other......Focusing on how resource structuring mechanisms and managerial ties influence organizational ambidexterity of new ventures in emerging economy, this study explores the effects of resource structuring mechanisms (i.e., resource acquiring and resource accumulating) on organizational ambidexterity....... It further examines the moderating effects of managerial ties, (i.e., ties with other firms and ties with the government) on the above relationships. Survey data from China¡¯s 202 new ventures demonstrates that the resource acquiring has an inverted U-shaped effect whereas the resource accumulating has a U...

  11. Depletable resources and the economy.

    Heijman, W.J.M.


    The subject of this thesis is the depletion of scarce resources. The main question to be answered is how to avoid future resource crises. After dealing with the complex relation between nature and economics, three important concepts in relation with resource depletion are discussed: steady state, ti

  12. Efficiency and equality in the utilisation of natural resources. Perspectives of the raw materials, energy and water management industries from the view of economic ethics and moral economics; Effizienz und Gerechtigkeit bei der Nutzung natuerlicher Ressourcen. Wirtschaftsethische und moraloekonomische Perspektiven der Rohstoff-, Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft

    Aufderheide, Detlef; Dabrowski, Martin (eds.)


    Water, raw materials, petroleum and natural gas are resources that may be in short supply in the not-so-far future. This will result in national and global distribution conflicts. Here, unlike in the case of other commodities, the market mechanisms will not be able to solve the conflicts, either because of finite exploitability or extremely long planning horizons, or because market processes are influenced or overpowered by strategic interests of states. This book comprises the results of an interdisciplinary conference held in December 2009 at Franz Hitze Haus academy at Muenster, Germany. Current research findings in selected subject areas are presented in five contributions and discussed in two discussions each. The focus is on the effectiveness of modern economic solutions in a dialogue with practical experts from industry, administration and NGOs, as well as with theologians, philosophers and law specialists.

  13. World energy resources

    Clerici, A.; Alimonti, G.


    As energy is the main "fuel" for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC) has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER) 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  14. World energy resources

    Clerici A.


    Full Text Available As energy is the main “fuel” for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  15. Economic Theory, Economic Reality And Economic Policy

    Dmitry Evgenievich Sorokin


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the opposition between the «liberals» and «statists» in the Russian political and economic thought. It demonstrates that the economic liberalization is an absolute prerequisite for the transition to sustainable socio-economic development. Such development must rely on investment activities of the state, which in the current circumstances is a necessary but not sufficient measure for reversing the negative trends. The negative developments can be prevented only through implementation, along with the institutional changes in the economic area that form a strata of economically independent entrepreneurs-innovators, of no less profound transformation in political institutions aimed at democratization of public life

  16. Internet economics

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik; Øst, Alexander Gorm


    A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect.......A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect....

  17. Urban Economics

    Quigley, John M.


    Urban economics emphasizes: the spatial arrangements of households, firms, and capital in metropolitan areas; the externalities which arise from the proximity of households and land uses; and the public policy issues which arise from the interplay of these economic forces.

  18. Internet economics

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik; Øst, Alexander Gorm


    A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect.......A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect....

  19. Structural Economics

    ten Raa, T.


    This book aims to make the nature of input-output analysis in economics clearly accessible and, contrary to the opinion of many commentators, shows that this type of analysis can be compatible with the doctrines of neoclassical economics.

  20. Les Droits de Propriete et la Privatisation en Roumanie de 1989 a 1998. Essai de Synthese I

    Flore POP


    Full Text Available After the fail of the communist model in the east European countries a powerful movement toward a new system of allocating resources did appear, based on the market instruments and the respect for the property right. We are analyzing here the main stages in rebuilding the property right and promoting privatization between 1989-1998; in a future study we will try to analyze the last evolutions of this phenomenon.