Sample records for resorcinol formaldehyde media

  1. 40 CFR 721.9480 - Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin (generic). (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9480 Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted... chemical substance identified generically as resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin (PMN...

  2. Hydraulic Permeability of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

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    Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL


    An ion exchange process using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin is the baseline process for removing cesium from the dissolved salt solution in the high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site, using large scale columns as part of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The RF resin is also being evaluated for use in the proposed small column ion exchange (SCIX) system, which is an alternative treatment option at Hanford and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A recirculating test loop with a small ion exchange column was used to measure the effect of oxygen uptake and radiation exposure on the permeability of a packed bed of the RF resin. The lab-scale column was designed to be prototypic of the proposed Hanford columns at the WTP. Although the test equipment was designed to model the Hanford ion exchange columns, the data on changes in the hydraulic permeability of the resin will also be valuable for determining potential pressure drops through the proposed SCIX system. The superficial fluid velocity in the lab-scale test (3.4-5.7 cm/s) was much higher than is planned for the full-scale Hanford columns to generate the maximum pressure drop expected in those columns (9.7 psig). The frictional drag from this high velocity produced forces on the resin in the lab-scale tests that matched the design basis of the full-scale Hanford column. Any changes in the resin caused by the radiation exposure and oxygen uptake were monitored by measuring the pressure drop through the lab-scale column and the physical properties of the resin. Three hydraulic test runs were completed, the first using fresh RF resin at 25 C, the second using irradiated resin at 25 C, and the third using irradiated resin at 45 C. A Hanford AP-101 simulant solution was recirculated through a test column containing 500 mL of Na-form RF resin. Known amounts of oxygen were introduced into the primary recirculation loop by saturating measured volumes of the simulant solution with oxygen and reintroducing

  3. Study on efficient removal of clopyralid from water using resorcinol-formaldehyde carbon cryogel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Momčilović Milan Z; Ranđelović Marjan S; Onjia Antonije E; Zarubica Aleksandra; Babić Biljana M; Matović Branko Z


    Resorcinol-formaldehyde carbon cryogel has been prepared, characterized and used for the removal of commonly used herbicide clopyralid from the aqueous solutions under varying experimental conditions...

  4. An Engineering Evaluation of Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin

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    Birdwell Jr, Joseph F [ORNL; Lee, Denise L [ORNL; Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL; Collins, Robert T [ORNL; Hunt, Rodney Dale [ORNL


    A small column ion exchange (SCIX) system has been proposed for removal of cesium from caustic, supernatant, and dissolved salt solutions stored or generated from high-level tank wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site and Savannah River Sites. In both instances, deployment of SCIX systems, either in-tank or near-tank, is a means of expediting waste pretreatment and dispositioning with minimal or no new infrastructure requirements. Conceptually, the treatment approach can utilize a range of ion exchange media. Previously, both crystalline silicotitanate (CST), an inorganic, nonelutable sorbent, and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), an organic, elutable resin, have been considered for cesium removal from tank waste. More recently, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated use of SuperLig{reg_sign} 644, an elutable ion exchange medium, for the subject application. Results of testing indicate hydraulic limitations of the SuperLig{reg_sign} resin, specifically a high pressure drop through packed ion exchange columns. This limitation is likely the result of swelling and shrinkage of the irregularly shaped (granular) resin during repeated conversions between sodium and hydrogen forms as the resin is first loaded then eluted. It is anticipated that a similar flow limitation would exist in columns packed with conventional, granular RF resin. However, use of spherical RF resin is a likely means of mitigating processing limitations due to excessive pressure drop. Although size changes occur as the spherical resin is cycled through loading and elution operations, the geometry of the resin is expected to effectively mitigate the close packing that leads to high pressure drops across ion exchange columns. Multiple evaluations have been performed to determine the feasibility of using spherical RF resin and to obtain data necessary for design of an SCIX process. The work performed consisted of examination of radiation effects on resin performance

  5. Bimodal activated carbons derived from resorcinol-formaldehyde cryogels

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    Szczurek, Andrzej; Amaral-Labat, Gisele; Fierro, Vanessa; Celzard, Alain [Institut Jean Lamour-UMR CNRS 7198, CNRS-Nancy-Universite-UPV-Metz, Departement Chimie et Physique des Solides et des Surfaces. ENSTIB, 27 rue Philippe Seguin, BP 1041, 88051 Epinal cedex 9 (France); Pizzi, Antonio, E-mail: [ENSTIB-LERMAB, Nancy-Universite, 27 rue Philippe Seguin, BP1041, 88051 Epinal cedex 9 (France)


    Resorcinol-formaldehyde cryogels prepared at different dilution ratios have been activated with phosphoric acid at 450 deg. C and compared with their carbonaceous counterparts obtained by pyrolysis at 900 deg. C. Whereas the latter were, as expected, highly mesoporous carbons, the former cryogels had very different pore textures. Highly diluted cryogels allowed preparation of microporous materials with high surface areas, but activation of initially dense cryogels led to almost non-porous carbons, with much lower surface areas than those obtained by pyrolysis. The optimal acid concentration for activation, corresponding to stoichiometry between molecules of acid and hydroxyl groups, was 2 M l{sup -1}, and the acid-cryogel contact time also had an optimal value. Such optimization allowed us to achieve surface areas and micropore volumes among the highest ever obtained by activation with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, close to 2200 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and 0.7 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}, respectively. Activation of diluted cryogels with a lower acid concentration of 1.2 M l{sup -1} led to authentic bimodal activated carbons, having a surface area as high as 1780 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and 0.6 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1} of microporous volume easily accessible through a widely developed macroporosity.

  6. Bimodal activated carbons derived from resorcinol-formaldehyde cryogels

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    Andrzej Szczurek, Gisele Amaral-Labat, Vanessa Fierro, Antonio Pizzi and Alain Celzard


    Full Text Available Resorcinol-formaldehyde cryogels prepared at different dilution ratios have been activated with phosphoric acid at 450 °C and compared with their carbonaceous counterparts obtained by pyrolysis at 900 °C. Whereas the latter were, as expected, highly mesoporous carbons, the former cryogels had very different pore textures. Highly diluted cryogels allowed preparation of microporous materials with high surface areas, but activation of initially dense cryogels led to almost non-porous carbons, with much lower surface areas than those obtained by pyrolysis. The optimal acid concentration for activation, corresponding to stoichiometry between molecules of acid and hydroxyl groups, was 2 M l−1, and the acid–cryogel contact time also had an optimal value. Such optimization allowed us to achieve surface areas and micropore volumes among the highest ever obtained by activation with H3PO4, close to 2200 m2 g−1 and 0.7 cm3 g−1, respectively. Activation of diluted cryogels with a lower acid concentration of 1.2 M l−1 led to authentic bimodal activated carbons, having a surface area as high as 1780 m2 g−1 and 0.6 cm3 g−1 of microporous volume easily accessible through a widely developed macroporosity.

  7. Study of Mechanical Properties of Waste Biomass Reinforced Urea-Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Composites

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    A. S. SINGHA


    Full Text Available Natural fibers play an important role in developing high performing fully biodegradable composites which will be a key material to solve the current ecological and environmental problems. Due to enormous advantages of composites reinforced with natural fibers, a study on pine needles reinforced urea-resorcinol-formaldehyde composites has been made. Present investigation has revealed that urea-formaldehyde resin in 1.0: 2.5 ratio exhibits optimum mechanical behavior whereas in case urea-resorcinol- formaldehyde resin, the best mechanical behavior was shown by 1.0: 1.0: 2.5 ratios. However, reinforcing of this resin with pine-needles of 1 cm size and evaluation of their mechanical properties showed that mechanical properties increase with reinforcement. These results were further supported by the SEM and thermal studies.

  8. Chemical derivatization to enhance chemical/oxidative stability of resorcinol-formaldehyde resin

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    Hubler, T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)


    The purpose of this work is to develop modified resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin with enhanced chemical/oxidative stability in conditions typically encountered in the remediation of radioactive waste tanks. R-F resin is a regenerable organic ion-exchanger developed at Savannah River Technology Center that is being considered for use in the selective removal of radioactive cesium from alkaline waste tank supernates at both the Hanford and Savannah River sites.

  9. Lawps ion exchange column gravity drain of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde resin

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    Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Herman, D. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Restivo, M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Experiments at several different scales were performed to understand the removal of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) ion exchange resin using a gravity drain system with a valve located above the resin screen in the ion exchange column (IXC). This is being considered as part of the design for the Low Activity Waste Pretreatment System (LAWPS) to be constructed at the DOE Hanford Site.

  10. Decontamination of spent ion-exchangers contaminated with cesium radionuclides using resorcinol-formaldehyde resins

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    Palamarchuk, Marina, E-mail:; Egorin, Andrey; Tokar, Eduard; Tutov, Mikhail; Marinin, Dmitry; Avramenko, Valentin


    Highlights: • Cesium radionuclides not removable by regeneration are bound to silicate deposits. • Application of RFR substantially increases cesium desorption from an ion-exchanger. • The radwaste volume was reduced at least 2-fold for zeolites and 10-fold for SIER. • The distribution coefficient values for RFR were high (K{sub d} > 10{sup 4}) after 6 regenerations. • The volume of secondary waste formed after regeneration of RFR was reduced 600-fold. - Abstract: The origin of the emergence of radioactive contamination not removable in the process of acid-base regeneration of ion-exchange resins used in treatment of technological media and liquid radioactive waste streams has been determined. It has been shown that a majority of cesium radionuclides not removable by regeneration are bound to inorganic deposits on the surface and inside the ion-exchange resin beads. The nature of the above inorganic inclusions has been investigated by means of the methods of electron microscopy, IR spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The method of decontamination of spent ion-exchange resins and zeolites contaminated with cesium radionuclides employing selective resorcinol-formaldehyde resins has been suggested. Good prospects of such an approach in deep decontamination of spent ion exchangers have been demonstrated.

  11. Chemical derivatization to enhance chemical/oxidative stability of resorcinol-formaldehyde resin

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    Hubler, T.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    The goal of this task is to develop modified resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin to improve the chemical/oxidative stability of the resin. R-F resin is a regenerable organic ion-exchange resin that is selective for cesium ion in highly alkaline, high ionic-strength solutions. R-F resin tends to undergo chemical degradation, reducing its ability to remove cesium ion from waste solutions; the mechanistic details of these decomposition reactions are currently unknown. The approach used for this task is chemical modification of the resin structure, particularly the resorcinol ring unit of the polymer resin. This approach is based on prior characterization studies conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that indicated the facile chemical degradation of the resin is oxidation of the resorcinol ring to the para-quinone structure, with subsequent loss of ion-exchange sites for cesium ion. R-F resin represents an important alternative to current radiocesium remediation technology for tank wastes at both the Hanford and Savannah River sites, particularly if regenerable resins are needed.

  12. Concentrating cesium-137 from seawater using resorcinol-formaldehyde resin for radioecological monitoring

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    Egorin, Andrei; Tokar, Eduard; Tutov, Mikhail; Avramenko, Valentin [Institute of Chemistry FEBRAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Palamarchuk, Marina; Marinin, Dmitry [Institute of Chemistry FEBRAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)


    A method of preconcentrating cesium-137 from seawater using a resorcinol-formaldehyde resin, which enables one to optimize the ecological monitoring procedure, has been suggested. Studies of sorption of cesium-137 from seawater by resorcinol-formaldehyde resin have been performed, and it has been demonstrated that the cation exchanger is characterized by high selectivity with respect to cesium-137. It was found that the selectivity depended on the temperature of resin solidification and the seawater pH value. The maximal value of the cesium-137 distribution coefficient is equal to 4.1-4.5 x 10{sup 3} cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}. Under dynamic conditions, the ion-exchange resin capacity is 310-910 bed volumes depending on the seawater pH, whereas the efficiency of cesium removal exceeds 95%. The removal of more than 95% of cesium-137 has been attained using 1-3 M solutions of nitric acid: here, the eluate volume was 8-8.4 bed volumes. Application of 3 M solution of nitric acid results in resin degradation with the release of gaseous products.

  13. Cesium Isotherm Testing with Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin at High Sodium Concentrations

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    Russell, Renee L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smoot, Margaret R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rinehart, Donald E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing a Low-Activity Waste Pretreatment System (LAWPS) to provide low-activity waste (LAW) directly to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low-Activity Waste Facility for immobilization. The pretreatment that will be conducted on tank waste supernate at the LAWPS facility entails filtration to remove entrained solids and cesium (Cs) ion exchange to remove Cs from the product sent to the WTP. Currently, spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin (Microbeads AS, Skedsmokorset, Norway) is the Cs ion exchange resin of choice. Most work on Cs ion exchange efficacy in Hanford tank waste has been conducted at nominally 5 M sodium (Na). WRPS is examining the possibility of processing supernatant at high Na concentrations—up to 8 M Na—to maximize processing efficiency through the LAWPS. Minimal Cs ion exchange work has been conducted at 6 M and 8 M Na concentrations..

  14. Electrical Properties of Partial Carbonized Nanoporous Resin Based on Resorcinol-Formaldehyde

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    Imededdine NAJEH


    Full Text Available Organic xerogel compounds were prepared by sol-gel method from resorcinol- formaldehyde mixtures in acetone using picric acid as catalyst. The electrical properties of the obtained nanoporous carbon structures were explored by changing the pyrolysis temperature. In this study the electrical conductivity σ can be expressed as σ =/σ0exp(-Eσ/kT, where Eσ depends on the carbonized temperature. The dc and ac conductivities of the obtained amorphous carbon have been investigated from 80 to 300 °C and in the frequency range between 40 and 106 Hz for samples pyrolysed at different temperatures in the insulator-metal transition range. The temperature dependence of samples pyrolysed at low temperatures (Tp=600–675 °C follows a Mott law, whereas samples pyrolysed at high temperature (Tp=1000 °C show an Arrhenius dependence.

  15. Evaluations of Mechanisms for Pu Uptake and Retention within Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin Columns

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    Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The unexpected uptake and retention of plutonium (Pu) onto columns containing spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin during ion exchange testing of Cs (Cs) removal from alkaline tank waste was observed in experiments at both the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These observations have raised concern regarding the criticality safety of the Cs removal unit operation within the low-activity waste pretreatment system (LAWPS). Accordingly, studies have been initiated at Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), who manages the operations of the Hanford Site tank farms, including the LAWPS, PNNL, and elsewhere to investigate these findings. As part of these efforts, PNNL has prepared the present report to summarize the laboratory testing observations, evaluate these phenomena in light of published and unpublished technical information, and outline future laboratory testing, as deemed appropriate based on the literature studies, with the goal to elucidate the mechanisms for the observed Pu uptake and retention.

  16. Characterization of pure and composite resorcinol formaldehyde aerogels doped with silver (United States)

    Attia, S. M.; Abdelfatah, M. S.; Mossad, M. M.


    A series of Resorcinol Formaldehyde (RF) aerogels composites with nanoparticles of sliver were prepared by the sol-gel method at different concentrations doped silver. FTIR spectra of pure and composite RF aerogels show six absorption bands attributed to -OH groups bonded to the benzene ring, stretching of -CH2- bonds and aromatic ring stretching. FTIR results ensured that sliver particles do not interact with aerogel network. UV-visible spectrum of pure silver show an absorbance peak at 420 nm attributed to the surface plasmon excitation of sliver Nano spheres. UV-visible spectral of pure and composite RF aerogels shows a steep decrease of absorption with wavelength after 500 nm, making sample’s color reddish brown. TEM and SEM images of pure and composite RF aerogels revealed that the textural arrangement of RF aerogels can be described as densely packed small nodules.

  17. Study on efficient removal of clopyralid from water using resorcinol-formaldehyde carbon cryogel

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    Momčilović Milan Z.


    Full Text Available Resorcinol-formaldehyde carbon cryogel has been prepared, characterized and used for the removal of commonly used herbicide clopyralid from the aqueous solutions under varying experimental conditions. Carbon has shown a relatively high specific surface area, significant mesoporosity and an amorphous structure. A set of the following isotherm models has been used to interpret the equilibrium data: Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Jovanović, Hurkins-Jura, and Helsey model. Several models have fitted well although the calculated values for qmax poorly correlate with the data obtained experimentally. The kinetic models of the pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order, the models of Elovich, Bangham and the intraparticle diffusion model have been used for fitting the kinetic data. The rate of the process is fast in the beginning while adsorption equilibrium is attained not until 24 hours. Adsorption was found to be pH dependent and favored in acidic solutions.

  18. Perbandingan Sifat Mekanik Fisik Vulkanisat Sbr Dan Sbr/nr Menggunakan Bahan Pengisi Pati Termodifikasi Resorcinol Formaldehyde


    Susanto, Tri


    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbandingan karakteristik vulkanisat komposit Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) dan campuran Styrene Butadiene Rubber dan Natural Rubber (SBR/NR) yang keduanya menggunakan bahan pengisi starch (pati) termodifikasi Resorcinol Formaldehyde (SRF) sebagai bahan substituen Carbon Black (CB). Rasio CB/SRF untuk tiap vulkanisat yang digunakan berturut-turut 60/0; 55/5; 50/10; 45/15; 40/20 phr. Pengamatan dilakukan dengan menguji sifat physco-mechanic vulkanisa...

  19. On-Chip Facile Preparation of Monodisperse Resorcinol Formaldehyde (RF Resin Microspheres

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    Jianmei Wang


    Full Text Available Monodisperse resorcinol formaldehyde resin (RF microspheres are an important polymeric material because of their rich surface functional group and uniform structural characteristics and have been increasingly applied as an electrode material, catalyst support, absorbent, and carbon microsphere precursor. The polymerization conditions, such as the gelation/solidification temperature and the residence time, can largely influence the physical properties and the formation of the 3D polymeric network of the RF microspheres as well as the carbon microspheres. However, few studies have reported on the complexity of the gelation and solidification processes of resol. In this work, we developed a new RF microsphere preparation device that contains three units: a droplet generation unit, a curing unit, and a collection unit. In this system, we controlled the gelation and solidification processes of the resol and observed its curing behavior, which helped us to uncover the curing mechanism of resol. Finally, we obtained the optimized polymerization parameters, obtaining uniform RF microspheres with a variation coefficient of 4.94%. The prepared porous RF microspheres presented a high absorption ability, reaching ~90% at 10 min. Thus, our method demonstrated the practicality of on-chip monodisperse microspheres synthesis. The product was useful in drug delivery and adsorbing large poisonous molecules.

  20. Graphene oxide as an anti-shrinkage additive for resorcinol-formaldehyde composite aerogels. (United States)

    Guo, Kang; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong; Du, Xian; Zhong, Liang


    In order to strengthen the nanostructure and suppress the collapse of nanopores of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels during the drying process, graphene oxide (GO) was incorporated into the RF matrix to prepare GO-RF composite aerogels by sol-gel polymerization. The influences of GO content on the sol-gel process, structure, and physical properties of RF aerogels were investigated. The morphologies of composite aerogels were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and it was found that GO was well dispersed in the RF matrix. In addition, GO can obviously accelerate the gelation of the RF solution and reduce both the drying shrinkage and aerogel density. As the content of GO increased from 0 to 2 wt%, both the linear shrinkage and density of composite aerogels decreased progressively from 28.3% to 2.0% and 506 to 195 kg m(-3), respectively, implying that GO is an effective additive for inhibiting the volume shrinkage of aerogels during the drying process.


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    OAK-B135 New high gain designs for direct drive ignition on NIF require foam shells. Scaled down versions of these designs are needed for near term experiments on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory Laser Energetics (LLE). These shells need to be about 1 mm in diameter and 50-100 {micro}m wall thickness and densities of 100-250 mg/cc. In addition, a full density permeation seal needs to be deposited for retention of the fill gas at room temperature or the ice at cryogenic temperatures. They have fabricated such shells using Resorcinol-formaldehyde (R/F) as the selected foam material due to its transparency in the optical region. Extensive characterization of the wall uniformity of these shells has been performed. The foam shells have {approx} 5%-6% non-concentricities on the average. A full density permeation seal has been deposited on the R/F shells using two different techniques. In the first technique R/F shells are coated directly with plasma polymer to thicknesses of 3-4 {micro}m. In the second technique, R/F shells are coated with polyvinylphenol, using a chemical interfacial polymerization technique. Data on surface finish and gas retention for R/F shells coated by both methods are provided.

  2. Gas Generation Testing of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF) Resin

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    Colburn, Heather A.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Adami, Susan R.


    This report describes gas generation testing of the spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin that was conducted to support the technology maturation of the LAWPS facility. The current safety basis for the LAWPS facility is based primarily on two studies that had limited or inconclusive data sets. The two studies indicated a 40% increase in hydrogen generation rate of water (as predicted by the Hu model) with sRF resin over water alone. However, the previous studies did not test the range of conditions (process fluids and temperatures) that are expected in the LAWPS facility. Additionally, the previous studies did not obtain replicate test results or comparable liquid-only control samples. All of the testing described in this report, conducted with water, 0.45M nitric acid, and waste simulants with and without sRF resin, returned hydrogen generation rates that are within the current safety basis for the facility of 1.4 times the Hu model output for water.

  3. Ion Exchange Modeling Of Cesium Removal From Hanford Waste Using Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

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    Aleman, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    This report discusses the expected performance of spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange resin for the removal of cesium from alkaline Hanford radioactive waste. Predictions of full scale column performance in a carousel mode are made for the Hot Commissioning, Envelope B, and Subsequent Operations waste compositions under nominal operating conditions and for perturbations from the nominal. Only the loading phase of the process cycle is addressed in this report. Pertinent bench-scale column tests, kinetic experiments, and batch equilibrium experiments are used to estimate model parameters and to benchmark the ion-exchange model. The methodology and application presented in this report reflect the expected behavior of spherical RF resin manufactured at the intermediate-scale (i.e., approximately 100 gallon batch size; batch 5E-370/641). It is generally believed that scale-up to production-scale in resin manufacturing will result in similarly behaving resin batches whose chemical selectivity is unaffected while total capacity per gram of resin may vary some. As such, the full-scale facility predictions provided within this report should provide reasonable estimates of production-scale column performance.

  4. Conduction mechanism and dielectric properties of pure and composite resorcinol formaldehyde aerogels doped with silver (United States)

    Attia, S. M.; Abdelfatah, M. S.; Mossad, M. M.


    Pure and composite Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) aerogel samples were prepared by sol-gel process using KOH as a catalyst and doped with silver nanoparticles at different concentrations (1.2×10-4, 2.4×10-4, 3.6×10-4, and 4.8×10-4 wt.% at catalyst ratio 0.024 wt.%). DC electrical conductivity σdc, AC electrical conductivity σ‧, and the dielectric properties of the prepared samples have been measured at different frequencies and temperatures. The results show that σ‧ increases with increasing frequency. The values of σ‧ range from ˜10-4 Ω-1m-1 to around unity at room temperature. The analysis of the results of σ‧(ω, T) reveals that the large overlapping polaron (OLP) is the most favorable mechanism to describe the conduction mechanism in these samples. The behavior of the dielectric constant with the frequency of these samples is normal, where it decreases with increasing frequency, while the behavior of dielectric loss tangent tanδ exhibits a peaking behavior at relatively higher temperature.

  5. Mixture Design Approach on the Physical Properties of Lignin-Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Xerogels

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    Chris D. Castro


    Full Text Available Organic xerogels were functionalized by incorporating sugarcane bagasse lignin from soda pulping black liquor, not used so far in this materials, with the aim of introducing new functional groups on traditional gels that could improve its adsorptive capacity. Two mixing designs were applied to identify the reactive combinations that allow a well gel formation and to adjust models that predict physical properties. The designs study five components: resorcinol (R, 0.04–0.3, lignin (L, 0.004–0.14, formaldehyde (F, 0.08–0.17, water (W, 0.45–0.8, and NaOH (C, 0.0003–0.0035. The first experimental design was an extreme vertices design and its results showed shrinkage between 4.3 and 59.7 and a bulk density from 0.54 to 1.3; a mass ratio LR/F near 1.5 was required for gel formation. In the second design a D-Optimal was used to achieve better adjusted coefficients and incorporate the largest possible amount of lignin in the gels. Bulk density varies from 0.42 to 0.9, shrinkage varies from 3.42 to 25.35, and specific surface area reaches values of 451.86 m2/g with 13% lignin and 270 m2/g with 27% lignin. High catalyst content improves lignin dissolution and increase shrinkage and bulk density of xerogels and bulk density. Lignin contributes to reducing shrinkage and specific surface area due to his compact and rigid structure.

  6. Alternate Methods for Eluting Cesium from Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

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    Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL; Johnson, Heather Lauren [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)


    A small-column ion exchange (SCIX) system has been proposed for removing cesium from the supernate and dissolved salt solutions in the high-level-waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SCIX system could use either crystalline silicotitanate (CST), an inorganic, non-regenerable sorbent, or spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), a new regenerable resin, to remove cesium from the waste solutions. The baseline method for eluting the cesium from the RF resin uses 15 bed volumes (BV) of 0.5 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). The nitric acid eluate, containing the radioactive cesium, would be combined with the sludge from the waste tanks and would be converted into glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS. The amount of nitric acid that would be used to elute the RF resin, using the current elution protocol, exceeds the capacity of DWPF to destroy the nitrate ions and maintain the required chemical reducing environment in the glass melt. Installing a denitration evaporator at SRS is technically feasible but would add considerable cost to the project. Alternate methods for eluting the resin have been tested, including using lower concentrations of nitric acid, other acids, and changing the flow regimes. About 4 BV of 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} are required to remove the sodium (titrate the resin) and most of the cesium from the resin, so the bulk of the acid used for the baseline elution method removes a very small quantity of cesium from the resin. A summary of the elution methods that have been tested are listed.

  7. Thermal decomposition of energetic materials 85: Cryogels of nanoscale hydrazinium diperchlorate in resorcinol-formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tappan, Bryce C.; Brill, Thomas B. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)


    The objective of this work was to try to desensitize an energetic material by using sol-gel processing and freeze drying to incorporate the energetic material into the fuel matrix on the nano (or at least submicron) particle size scale. Hydrazinium diperchlorate ([N{sub 2}H{sub 6}][ClO{sub 4}]{sub 2} or HP{sub 2}) and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) were chosen as the oxidizer and fuel, respectively. Solid loading up to 88% HP{sub 2} was achieved by using the sol gel-to-cryogel method. Various weight percentages of HP{sub 2} in RF were characterized by elemental analysis, scanning electron (SEM) and optical microscopy, T-jump/FTIR spectroscopy, DSC, and drop-weight impact. SEM indicated that 20-50 nm diameter HP{sub 2} plates aggregated into porous 400-800 nm size clusters. Below 80% HP{sub 2} the cryogels are less sensitive to impact than physical mixtures having the same ratios of HP{sub 2} and RF. The decomposition temperatures of the cryogels are higher than that of pure HP{sub 2}, which is consistent with their lower impact sensitivity. The heat of decomposition as measured at a low heating rate increases with increasing percentage of HP{sub 2}. The cryogels and physical mixtures release similar amounts of energy, but the cryogels exhibit mainly a single exotherm by DSC whereas the physical mixtures showed a two-step energy release. Flash pyrolysis revealed gaseous product ratios suggestive of more energy being released from the cryogels than the physical mixtures. Cryogels also burn faster by visual observation. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.


    A principal goal at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is to safely dispose of the large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. In-tank ion exchange (IX) columns are being considered for cesium removal. The spherical form of resorcinol formaldehyde ion exchange resin (sRF) is being evaluated for decontamination of dissolved saltcake waste at SRS, which is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste. The sRF performance with SRS waste was evaluated in two phases: resin batch contacts and IX column testing with both simulated and actual dissolved salt waste. The tests, equipment, and results are discussed.

  9. Preliminary flowsheet: Ion exchange for separation of cesium from Hanford tank waste using resorcinol-formaldehyde resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penwell, D.L.


    This preliminary flowsheet document describes an ion exchange process which uses resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin to remove cesium from Hanford tank waste. The flowsheet describes one possible equipment configuration, and contains mass balances based on that configuration with feeds of Neutralized Current Acid Waste, and Double Shell Slurry Feed. The flowsheet also discusses process alternatives, unresolved issues, and development needs associated with the ion exchange process. It is expected that this flowsheet will evolve as open issues are resolved and progress is made on development needs. This is part of the Tank Waste Remediation Program at Hanford. 26 refs, 6 figs, 25 tabs.

  10. On the synthesis and structure of resorcinol-formaldehyde polymeric networks – Precursors to 3D-carbon macroassemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewicki, James P.; Fox, Christina A.; Worsley, Marcus A.


    With the new impetus towards the development of hierarchical graphene and CNT macro-assemblies for application in fields such as advanced energy storage, catalysis and electronics; there is much renewed interest in organic carbon-based sol–gel processes as a synthetically convenient and versatile means of forming three dimensional, covalently bonded organic/inorganic networks. Such matrices can act as highly effective precursors, scaffolds or molecular ‘glues’ for the assembly of a wide variety of functional carbon macro-assemblies. However, despite the utility and broad use of organic sol–gel processes – such as the ubiquitous resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) reaction, there are details of the reaction chemistries of these important sol–gel processes that remain poorly understood at present. It is therefore both timely and necessary to examine these reactions in more detail using modern analytical techniques in order to gain a more rigorous understanding of the mechanisms by which these organic networks form. The goal of such studies is to obtain improved and rational control over the organic network structure, in order to better direct and tailor the architecture of the final inorganic carbon matrix. In this study we have investigated in detail, the mechanism of the organic sol–gel network forming reaction of resorcinol and formaldehyde from a structural and kinetic standpoint, by using a combination of real-time high field solution state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), low field NMR relaxometry and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). These investigations have allowed us to track the network formation processes in real-time, gain both detailed structural information on the mechanisms of the RF sol–gel process and a quantitative assessment of the kinetics of the global network formation process. It has been shown that the mechanism, by which the RF organic network forms, proceeds via an initial exothermic step correlated to the formation of a


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.; Duignan, M.


    This report presents data on batch contact and column testing tasks for spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin. The testing used a non-radioactive simulant of SRS Tank 2F dissolved salt, as well as an actual radioactive waste sample of similar composition, which are both notably high in sodium (6 M). The resin was Microbeads batch 5E-370/641 which had been made on the hundred gallon scale. Equilibrium batch contact work focused on cesium at a temperature of 25 C due to the lack of such data to better benchmark existing isotherm models. Two campaigns were performed with small-scale ion exchange columns, first with Tank 2F simulant, then with actual dissolved salt in the Shielded Cells. An extrapolation of the batch contact results with radioactive waste over-predicted the cesium loaded onto the IX sRF resin bed by approximately 11%. This difference is not unexpected considering uncertainties from measurement and extrapolation and because the ion exchange that occurs when waste flows through a resin bed probably cannot reach the same level of equilibrium as when waste and resin are joined in a long term batch contact. Resin was also characterized to better understand basic chemistry issues such as holdup of trace transition metals present in the waste feed streams. The column tests involved using two beds of sRF resin in series, with the first bed referred to as the Lead column and the second bed as the Lag column. The test matrix included two complete IX cycles for both the simulant and actual waste phases. A cycle involves cesium adsorption, until the resin in the Lead column reaches saturation, and then regenerating the sRF resin, which includes eluting the cesium. Both the simulated and the actual wastes were treated with two cycles of operation, and the resin beds that were used in the Lead and Lag columns of simulant test phase were regenerated and reused in the actual waste test phase. This task is the first to demonstrate the treatment of SRS waste

  12. Synthesis, structural characterization, and performance evaluation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) ion-exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubler, T.L.; Franz, J.A.; Shaw, W.J.; Bryan, S.A.; Hallen, R.T.; Brown, G.N.; Bray, L.A.; Linehan, J.C.


    The 177 underground storage tanks at the DOE`s Hanford Site contain an estimated 180 million tons of high-level radioactive wastes. It is desirable to remove and concentrate the highly radioactive fraction of the tank wastes for vitrification. Resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin, an organic ion-exchange resin with high selectivity and capacity for the cesium ion, which is a candidate ion-exchange material for use in remediation of tank wastes. The report includes information on the structure/function analysis of R-F resin and the synthetic factors that affect performance of the resin. CS-100, a commercially available phenol-formaldehyde (P-F) resin, and currently the baseline ion-exchanger for removal of cesium ion at Hanford, is compared with the R-F resin. The primary structural unit of the R-F resin was determined to consist of a 1,2,3,4-tetrasubstituted resorcinol ring unit while CS-100, was composed mainly of a 1,2,4-trisubstituted ring. CS-100 shows the presence of phenoxy-ether groups, and this may account for the much lower decontamination factor of CS-100 for cesium ion. Curing temperatures for the R-F resin were found to be optimal at 105--130C. At lower temperatures, insufficient curing, hence crosslinking, of the polymer resin occurs and selectivity for cesium drops. Curing at elevated temperatures leads to chemical degradation. Optimal particle size for R-F resin is in the range of 20--50 mesh-sized particles. R-F resin undergoes chemical degradation or oxidation which destroys ion-exchange sites. The ion-exchange sites (hydroxyl groups) are converted to quinones and ketones. CS-100, though it has much lower performance for cesium ion-exchange, is significantly more chemically stable than R-F resin. To gamma radiation, CS-100 is more radiolytically stable than R-F resin.

  13. Structure/function studies of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) and phenol-formaldehyde (P-F) copolymer ion-exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubler, T.L.; Franz, J.A.; Shaw, W.J.; Hogan, M.O.; Hallen, R.T.; Brown, G.N.; Linehan, J.C.


    he U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site was established to produce plutonium for the U.S. defense mission. Over the course of decades, hazardous, toxic, and radioactive chemical wastes were generated and disposed of in a variety of ways including storage in underground tanks. An estimated 180 million tons of high-level radioactive wastes are stored in 177 underground storage tanks. During production of fissile plutonium, large quantities of 90Sr and 137CS were produced. The high abundance and intermediate length half- lives of these fission products are the reason that effort is directed toward selective removal of these radionuclides from the bulk waste stream before final tank waste disposal is effected. Economically, it is desirable to remove the highly radioactive fraction of the tank waste for vitrification. Ion-exchange technology is being evaluated for removing cesium from Hanford Site waste tanks. This report summarizes data and analysis performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for both resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) and phenol-formaldehyde (P-F) resins and relates their observed differences in performance and chemical stability to their structure. The experimental approach used to characterize the resins was conducted using primarily two types of data: batch distribution coefficients (Kds) and solid-state 13C NMR. Comparison of these data for a particular resin allowed correlation of resin performance to resin structure. Additional characterization techniques included solid-state 19F NMR, and elemental analyses.

  14. High-Yield Synthesis of Janus Dendritic Mesoporous Silica@Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Nanoparticles: A Competing Growth Mechanism. (United States)

    Qu, Lili; Hu, Huicheng; Yu, Jiaqi; Yu, Xiaoya; Liu, Jian; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Qiao


    Recently, Janus nanostructures that possess two or more different surface functions have attracted enormous attention because of their unique structures and promising applications in diverse fields. In this work, we present that Janus structured dendritic mesoporous silica@resorcinol-formaldehyde (DMS@RF) nanoparticles can be prepared through a simple one-pot colloidal method. The Janus DMS@RF nanoparticle shows a bonsai-like morphology which consists of a dendritic mesoporous silica part and a spherical RF part. After a systematic study on the growth process, we proposed a competing growth mechanism that accounts for the formation of Janus nanostructures. It is believed that suitable polymerization rate of silica and RF resin is critical. Based on the competing growth mechanism, eccentric and concentric core-shell nanostructures have been successfully prepared by tuning the polymerization rates of silica and RF, respectively. Metal-contained ternary Janus nanoparticles that might be used for catalysis have also been prepared. This research may pave the way for the practical applications of delicate nanomaterials with desired structures and properties.

  15. Precisely controlled resorcinol-formaldehyde resin coating for fabricating core-shell, hollow, and yolk-shell carbon nanostructures (United States)

    Fang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Shengjie; Zang, Jun; Xu, Chaofa; Zheng, Ming-Sen; Dong, Quan-Feng; Sun, Daohua; Zheng, Nanfeng


    This work provides a facile one-step sol-gel route to synthesize high-quality resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin coated nanocomposites that can be further used to fabricate desired carbon nanostructures. Colloidal particles with different morphologies and sizes can be coated with high-quality RF resin shells by the proposed cationic surfactant assisted RF resin coating strategy. The as-synthesized RF resin coated nanocomposites are ideal candidates for selective synthesis of core-shell, hollow, and yolk-shell carbon nanostructures. Based on the carboxylic functional RF resin coating, graphitic carbon nanostructures can also be synthesized by employing the graphitization catalyst. The as-synthesized carbon nanostructures show the advantageous performances in several applications. Hollow carbon spheres are potential electrode materials for lithium-sulfur batteries. Hollow graphitic spheres are promising catalyst supports for oxygen reduction reaction. And yolk-shell structured Au@HCS nanoreactors with ultrathin shells exhibit high catalytic activity and recyclability in confined catalysis.This work provides a facile one-step sol-gel route to synthesize high-quality resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin coated nanocomposites that can be further used to fabricate desired carbon nanostructures. Colloidal particles with different morphologies and sizes can be coated with high-quality RF resin shells by the proposed cationic surfactant assisted RF resin coating strategy. The as-synthesized RF resin coated nanocomposites are ideal candidates for selective synthesis of core-shell, hollow, and yolk-shell carbon nanostructures. Based on the carboxylic functional RF resin coating, graphitic carbon nanostructures can also be synthesized by employing the graphitization catalyst. The as-synthesized carbon nanostructures show the advantageous performances in several applications. Hollow carbon spheres are potential electrode materials for lithium-sulfur batteries. Hollow graphitic

  16. Synthesis of morphology-controlled carbon hollow particles by carbonization of resorcinol-formaldehyde precursor microspheres and applications in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Haijiao, E-mail: [Modern Manufacture Engineering Center, Heilongjiang Institute of Science and Technology, 150027 (China); Xu Huifang, E-mail: [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, 150001 (China); Zhao Can [Modern Manufacture Engineering Center, Heilongjiang Institute of Science and Technology, 150027 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resorcinol-formaldehyde hollow particles could be obtained by inverse suspension method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphologies of RF carbon precursor particles could be controlled by adjusting the pH values of the RF precursor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prepared carbon hollow particles, which derived from resorcinol-formaldehyde, exhibited microporous properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The RF carbon microcapsules displayed excellent power property and cycle durability. - Abstract: The morphology-controlled carbon hollow particles, derived from resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) particles, were prepared by using an (oil phase) O/(water phase) W/(oil phase) O inverse-emulsion system which was formed by adding RF precursor (water phase) to n-hexane (oil phase) with Span-80 as surfactant and the following carbonization. This simple method led to the formation of various morphologies of RF carbon precursor particles such as hollow spheres, bowl-like hollow structures, microcapsules, or solid microspheres by adjusting the pH values of the RF precursor. The synthesized carbon particles exhibited porous characters with the surface area of 659 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and the total pore volume of 0.44 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}. Additionally, the electrochemical behavior of the typical RF carbon particles in lithium-ion batteries revealed that the RF carbon microcapsules displayed a high initial discharge capacity of 1059 mAh g{sup -1} and stabilized at about 330 mAh g{sup -1}, indicating its excellent power property and cycle durability.

  17. Carbon xerogel microspheres and monoliths from resorcinol-formaldehyde mixtures with varying dilution ratios: preparation, surface characteristics, and electrochemical double-layer capacitances. (United States)

    Zapata-Benabithe, Zulamita; Carrasco-Marín, Francisco; de Vicente, Juan; Moreno-Castilla, Carlos


    Carbon xerogels in the form of microspheres and monoliths were obtained from the sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol and formaldehyde in the presence of potassium carbonate as catalyst, using water as solvent and two different molar dilution ratios. The objectives of this study were as follows: to investigate the effect of the dilution ratio, polymerization reaction time, and temperature on the rheological properties of the sols used to prepare the carbon xerogel microspheres and monoliths; and to determine the influence of their preparation methods and shapes on their surface characteristics and electrochemical double-layer (EDL) capacitance. An increase in the molar dilution ratio produced a decrease in the apparent activation energy of the sol-gel transition. Carbon xerogel microspheres were steam-activated at different burnoff percentages. The morphology, surface area, porosity, and surface chemistry of samples were determined. The main difference between the carbon xerogel microspheres and monoliths was that the latter are largely mesoporous. Better electrochemical behavior was shown by carbon xerogels in monolith than in microsphere form, but higher gravimetric and volumetric capacitances were found in activated carbon xerogel microspheres than in carbon xerogel monoliths.

  18. Formaldehyde (United States)

    Information on formaldehyde and the regulation of formaldehyde emissions from composite wood products under the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products Act in the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).

  19. A New Inhibition Kinetic Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Resorcinol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Keyvanfard


    Full Text Available A new, simple, inexpensive and fast kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of trace amounts of resorcinol over the range of 0.02-0.80 μg/mL. The method is based on the inhibitory effect of resorcinol on the formaldehyde catalyzed oxidation reaction of of cresyl violet by bromate in acidic media is reported. The reaction was monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in absorbance of cresyl violet at 596 nm with a fixed-time 0.5–2.5 min from initiation of the reaction.The detection limit is 0.017 μg/mL and relative standard deviation of 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mL resorcinol for six replicate measurements was 2.6 and 2.9 %, respectively. The method was applied to the determination of resorcinol in water samples.

  20. Solution-state NMR analysis of hydroxymethylated resorcinol cured in the presence of crude milled-wood lignin from Acer saccharum (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle


    Resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesives can reinforce stress fractures that appear from wood surface preparation. Researchers have found that applying the resorcinol-formaldehyde prepolymer, hydroxymethylated resorcinol is thought to plasticize lignin components and stabilize stress fractures through reactions with lignin subunits and hemicelluloses in wood. In this study, a...

  1. Formaldehyde removal by common indoor plant species and various growing media (United States)

    Aydogan, Ahu; Montoya, Lupita D.


    Three porous materials (growstone, expanded clay and activated carbon) were evaluated as hydroponic growing media and for their individual ability to remove the indoor volatile organic compound formaldehyde under three conditions: growing medium alone, dry medium in a pot, and wet medium in a pot. The total percent-reduction of formaldehyde by each growing media was evaluated over a 10-h period. In all cases, activated carbon achieved the highest removal under the three conditions studied with average percent reductions measured at about 98%. Four common interior plants: Hedera helix (English ivy), Chrysanthemum morifolium (pot mum), Dieffenbachia compacta (dump cane) and Epipremnum aureum (golden pathos) growing in growstone were then tested for their ability to remove formaldehyde. The removal capacity of the aerial plant parts (AP), the root zone (RZ) and the entire plant (EP) growing in growstone were determined by exposing the relevant parts to gaseous formaldehyde (˜2000 μg m -3) in a closed chamber over a 24-h period. The removal efficiency between species and plant parts were compared by determining the time interval required to decrease about 2/3 of the total formaldehyde concentration reduction, T 2/3. The T 2/3 measured were 23, 30, 34 and 56 min for EP of C. morifolium, E. aureum, D. compacta and H. helix, respectively. The formaldehyde removal by the root zone was found to be more rapid than the removal by the aerial plant parts.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    At-tank supplemental pretreatment including both filtration and small column ion exchange is currently under evaluation to facilitate salt waste retrieval and processing in the Hanford tank farms. Spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) resin is the baseline ion exchange resin for use in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). This document provides background and technical rationale to assist in determining whether spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) is also the appropriate ion exchange resin for supplemental LAW pretreatment processes and compares sRF with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) as potential supplemental pretreatment ion exchange media.

  3. Aqueous chlorination of resorcinol (United States)

    Heasley, V.L.; Burns, M.D.; Kemalyan, N.A.; Mckee, T.C.; Schroeter, H.; Teegarden, B.R.; Whitney, S.E.; Wershaw, R. L.


    An investigation of the aqueous chlorination (NaOCl) of resorcinol is reported. The following intermediates were detected in moderate to high yield at different pH values and varying percentages of chlorination: 2-chloro-, 4-chloro-, 2,4-dichloro-, 4,6-dichloro- and 2,4,6-trichlororesorcinol. Only trace amounts of the intermediates were detected when the chlorination was conducted in the presence of phosphate buffer. This result has significant implications since resorcinol in phosphate buffer has been used as a model compound in several recent studies on the formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons during chlorination of drinking water. Relative rates of chlorination were determined for resorcinol and several of the chlorinated resorcinols. Resorcinol was found to chlorinate only three times faster than 2,4,6-trichlororesorcinol. The structure 2,4,6-trichlororesorcinol was established as a monohydrate even after sublimation. A tetrachloro or pentachloro intermediate was not detected, suggesting that the ring-opening step of such an intermediate must be rapid. ?? 1989.

  4. Resorcinol–formaldehyde based carbon nanospheres by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbon nanospheres were synthesized using sol–gel processing of organic and aqueous resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) sols combined with electrospraying technique. RF sol was electrosprayed to form nanodroplets which were collected on a Si wafer. After oven drying at 60°C for 12 h, RF nano-droplets were pyrolyzed at ...

  5. Resorcinol?triethyl?enediamine (1/1)


    Gao, Yi-hong


    The title co-crystal, C6H12N2?C6H6O2, is composed of neutral resorcinol and triethyl?enediamine mol?ecules in which the resorcinol mol?ecules came from the in situ deca?rboxylation of 2,4-dihy?droxy?benzoic acid. In the crystal, the components are connected by O?H?N hydrogen bonds, forming a chain in the b-axis direction.

  6. The Preparation and Characterization of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil-Resorcinol-Aldehyde Resin Cold-Set Adhesives for Wood Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyong Ren


    Full Text Available Resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF resin is a kind of excellent exterior-grade wood structural adhesive, which can be conveniently cold-set for various applications. In order to decrease the production cost, pyrolysis bio-oil from renewable bioresources was used to replace resorcinol to synthesize the bio-oil-resorcinol-aldehyde (BRF resin. The effect of replacing resorcinol with bio-oil on the properties, bonding performance, and characterization of resorcinol-aldehyde resin was comparatively investigated. A higher solid content and viscosity, albeit a lower shear strength, was found when the replacement ratio of bio-oil increased. The bonding performance of BRF with 10 and 20 wt % bio-oil was close to that of the pure RF resin. However, the trends of being less cross-linked, more easily decomposed, but more porous were found when the substitution ratio of bio-oil was higher than 20 wt %. Interestingly, it was found that the wood failure values of the BRF resins with bio-oil of no more than 20 wt % were slightly higher than that of the pure RF resin. On the whole, BRF resins with 20 wt % bio-oil is recommended as a wood structural adhesive, comprehensively considering the bio-oil substitution ratio and resin properties. The results obtained here showed that pyrolysis bio-oil is a promising green raw material for the production of RF resin with lower cost.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4-(2-Pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR) is one of the most popular analytical reagents. It forms colored complexes with many metal ions and can be used for their spectrophotometric determination. A well-known disadvantage of this reagent is its insufficient selectivity [1]. Commonly used approaches for increasing the selectivity ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita S. Taiariol


    Full Text Available Resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF organic gels have been extensively used to produce carbon aerogels. The organic gel synthesis parameters greatly affect the structure of the resulting aerogel. In this study, the influence of the catalyst quantity on the polymeric solution sol-gel process was investigated. Sodium carbonate was used as a basic catalyst. RF gels were synthesized with a resorcinol to formaldehyde molar ratio of 0.5, a resorcinol to catalyst (R/C molar ratio equal to 50 or 300, and a resorcinol to solvent ratio of 0.1 g mL-1. The sol-gel process was evaluated in situ by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a universal attenuated total reflectance sensor and measurements of the kinematic viscosity. The techniques showed the evolution of the sol-gel process, and the results showed that the lower catalyst quantity induced a higher gel point, with a lower viscosity at the gel point. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the thermal behavior of the RF dried gel, and results showed that the exothermic event related to the curing process was shifted to higher temperatures for solutions containing higher R/C ratios.

  9. Chromotropic acid-formaldehyde reaction in strongly acidic media. The role of dissolved oxygen and replacement of concentrated sulphuric acid. (United States)

    Fagnani, E; Melios, C B; Pezza, L; Pezza, H R


    The procedure for formaldehyde analysis recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the Chromotropic acid spectrophotometric method, which is the one that uses concentrated sulphuric acid. In the present study the oxidation step associated with the aforementioned method for formaldehyde determination was investigated. Experimental evidence has been obtained indicating that when concentrated H(2)SO(4) (18 mol l(-1)) is used (as in the NIOSH procedure) that acid is the oxidizing agent. On the other hand, oxidation through dissolved oxygen takes place when concentrated H(2)SO(4) is replaced by concentrated hydrochloric (12 mol l(-1)) and phosphoric (14.7 mol l(-1)) acids as well as by diluted H(2)SO(4) (9.4 mol l(-1)). Based on investigations concerning the oxidation step, a modified procedure was devised, in which the use of the potentially hazardous and corrosive concentrated H(2)SO(4) was eliminated and advantageously replaced by a less harmful mixture of HCl and H(2)O(2).

  10. Condensed tannin-resorcinol adducts in laminating adhesives (United States)

    Richard W. Hemingway; Roland E. Kreibich


    A condensed tannin-resorcinol adduct made by co-reaction of an extract from southern pine bark with resorcinol at a 2 to 1 weight ratio was used to prepare a laminating resin in which the entire amount of resorcinol normally used was replaced by this adduct. The resin was formulated into a room temperature setting adhesive that meets the basic criteria of product...


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ORDINARILY, resorcinol and its derivatives are known to react in the 8-posi- tion. Orcinol which is 5-methyl-resorcinol, however, manifests a marked tendency for substitution in the y-position.” Thus, while 8-substitution occurs on bromination,” Gattermann reaction” or Pechmann condensation with malic acid”; on ...

  12. Condensed tannin-resorcinol adducts and their use in wood-laminating adhesives: An exploratory study (United States)

    Richard W. Hemingway; R.E. Kreibich


    The reaction of a tannin extract (containing about 30% carbohydrate) from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) bark (two parts) and resorcinol (one part) at 120°C for 24 h with acetic acid catalyst gave a product containing predominantly oligomeric procyanidin-4-resorcinol adducts (39%), unreacted resorcinol (22%), carbohydrate (20%). the resorcinol adduct...

  13. Formaldehyde exposure and patterns of concomitant contact allergy to formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael D; Johansen, Jeanne D; Carlsen, Berit C


    Formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers are widely used in consumer products and may often cause contact allergy.......Formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers are widely used in consumer products and may often cause contact allergy....

  14. Disturb or Stabilize? A Molecular Dynamics Study of the Effects of Resorcinolic Lipids on Phospholipid Bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siwko, Magdalena E.; de Vries, Alex H.; Mark, Alan E.; Kozubek, Arkadiusz; Marrink, Siewert J.


    Resorcinolic lipids, or resorcinols, are commonly found in plant membranes. They consist of a substituted benzene ring forming the hydrophilic lipid head, attached to an alkyl chain forming the hydrophobic tail. Experimental results show alternative effects of resorcinols on lipid membranes.

  15. Microfabricated Formaldehyde Gas Sensors


    Cheung, Karen C.; Ko, Frank K.; Jonas Flueckiger


    Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound that is widely used in textiles, paper, wood composites, and household materials. Formaldehyde will continuously outgas from manufactured wood products such as furniture, with adverse health effects resulting from prolonged low-level exposure. New, microfabricated sensors for formaldehyde have been developed to meet the need for portable, low-power gas detection. This paper reviews recent work including silicon microhotplates for metal oxide-based d...

  16. Literature Review of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde for Cesium Ion Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Garrett N.


    The current report summarizes work performed throughout the scientific community and DOE complex as reported in the open literature and DOE-sponsored reports to evaluate the Cs+ ion exchange (CIX) characteristics of SRF resin. King (2007) completed a similar literature review in support of material selection for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project. Josephson et al. (2010) and Sams et al. (2009) provided a similar brief review of SRF CIX for the near-tank Cs+ removal (NTCR) project. Thorson (2008a) documented the basis for recommending SRF over SuperLigTM 644 as the primary CIX resin in the WTP. The current review expands on previous work, summarizes additional work completed to date, and provides a broad view of the literature without focusing on a specific column system. Although the focus of the current review is the SRF resin, many cited references include multiple materials such as the non-spherical GGRF and SuperLigTM 644 organic resins and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) IONSIVTM IE-911, a non-elutable inorganic material. This report summarizes relevant information provided in the literature.

  17. Characteristics of the wood adhesion bonding mechanism using hydroxymethyl resorcinol (United States)

    Douglas J. Gardner; Charles E. Frazier; Alfred W. Christiansen


    A recent collaborative effort among the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory, Virginia Tech, and the University of Maine has explored the possible bonding mechanisms contributing to durable wood adhesive bonding using hydroxymethyl resorcinol (HMR) surface treatment. Current adhesive bonding mechanisms include: mechanical interlocking, electronic or electrostatic theory,...

  18. Page 1 Acetylation of Phenols Using Acetic Acid 351 Resorcinol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and 12g of glacial acetic acid, only 15g. of diacetyl resorcinol, boiling at. 278° C., was obtained. Since there was the chance for mono-acetylation also to take place, the alkaline extract from the ethereal Solution containing the reaction products was diluted with water to 200 c.c., acidified with hydrochloric acid and then.

  19. resorcinol for flotation-spectrophotometric determination of iron

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR) based on a 1:2 FeII-PAR complex were found to be as follows: flotation solvent (chloroform), shaking time (2 min), pH (4.5±0.5), concentration of PAR (2.0×10–4 mol L–1), reducing agent (hydroxylamine ...

  20. Adsorption characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from non-aqueous media using activated carbon derived from phenol formaldehyde resin: kinetics and thermodynamic study. (United States)

    El-Shahawi, M S; Bashammakh, A S; Alwael, H; Alsibaai, A A; Dowaidar, A M


    Porous carbons were prepared by carbonization and activation of phenol formaldehyde resin by gasification with CO2 at 900 °C. Prepared activated carbon from phenol formaldehyde was characterized by measuring thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), pH, surface area, porosity, and pore size distribution. The specific surface area (SSA) of these carbons ranges from 562 to 1904 m(2)/g, while their point of zero charge (pHPZC) varies from 2.6 to 8.8. The ability of the prepared activated carbon by gasification with CO2 at 900 °C from phenol formaldehyde resin (PFAC) to remove a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), e.g., naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and fluoranthene, from mixtures of organic solvents with different polarities and chemical structures was tested. The adsorption capacity increases with the increasing the SSA and pHPZC of the carbons, confirming the roles of dispersive interactions. The kinetics and thermodynamics of the adsorption of phenanthrene as a model compound of PAH on PFAC in the organic solvent were studied. The adsorption capacity became notably greater with an increase in contact time and initial phenanthrene concentration.

  1. Effect of Fiber Treatment and Fiber Loading on Mechanical Properties of Luffa-Resorcinol Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhatrapati Parida


    Full Text Available Tensile and compressive behaviour of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF matrix and its composites reinforced with fibers of Luffa cylindrica (LC have been studied. LC fibers were subjected to chemical treatments such as alkali activation by NaOH followed by bleaching and acid hydrolysis in order to improve fiber-matrix adhesion. Both treated and untreated LC fibers are modified with calcium phosphate. The presence of hydroxy apatite, a polymorph of calcium phosphate and a major constituent of vertebrate bone and teeth, was confirmed from XRD peak of treated LC fiber. XRD analysis of the treated LC fiber has confirmed the crystalline nature of the chemically treated LC fiber by its crystallinity index. The effects of fiber loading of chemically treated and untreated LC fiber on ultimate stress, yield strength, breaking stress, and modulus of the composites were analyzed. The tensile and compressive modulus of the composites were increased with incorporation of both treated and untreated LC fibers into the RF matrix. The modulus of composites with treated LC fiber was enhanced compared to that of the untreated fiber composites. Furthermore the values of ultimate stress, yield stress, and breaking stress were increased with the incorporation of treated LC fiber in the composites.

  2. Formaldehyde in Our Environment. (United States)

    Ojanlatva, Ansa; Weeks, Charlie A.

    During the energy crisis of the early 1970s, there was a drive to conserve energy in every segment of society. Citizens were encouraged to insulate their homes and tighten them up to avoid loss of energy. One of the products to emerge from this crisis was urea formaldehyde foam insulation. (Urea formaldehyde is a well-known agent for preserving…

  3. Optical Detection of Formaldehyde (United States)

    Patty, Kira D.; Gregory, Don A.


    The potential for buildup .of formaldehyde in closed space environments poses a direct health hazard to personnel. The National Aeronautic Space Agency (NASA) has established a maximum permitted concentration of 0.04 ppm for 7 to 180 days for all space craft. Early detection is critical to ensure that formaldehyde levels do not accumulate. above these limits. New sensor technologies are needed to enable real time,in situ detection in a compact and reusable form factor. Addressing this need,research into the use of reactive fluorescent dyes which reversibly bind to formaldehyde (liquid or gas) has been conducted to support the development of a formaldehyde.sensor. In the presence of formaldehyde the dyes' characteristic fluorescence peaks shift providing the basis for an optical detection. Dye responses to formaldehyde exposure were characterized; demonstrating the optical detection of formaldehyde in under 10 seconds and down to concentrations of 0.5 ppm. To .incorporate the dye optical sensor device requires. a means of containing and manipulating the dye. Multiple form factors using two dissimilar sbstrates were considered to determine a suitable configuration. A prototype sensor was demonstrated and considerations for a field able sensor were presented. This research provides a necessary first step toward the development of a compact, reusable; real time optical formaldehyde sensor suitable for use in the U.S. space program,

  4. The formaldehyde dilemma. (United States)

    Salthammer, Tunga


    The IARC's 2004 classification of formaldehyde as a human carcinogen has led to intensive discussion on scientific and regulatory levels. In June 2014, the European Union followed and classified formaldehyde as a cause of cancer. This automatically triggers consequences in terms of emission minimization and the health-related assessment of building and consumer products. On the other hand, authorities are demanding and authorizing technologies and products which can release significant quantities of formaldehyde into the atmosphere. In the outdoor environment, this particularly applies to combusting fuels. The formation of formaldehyde through photochemical smog has also been a recognized problem for years. Indoors there are various processes which can contribute to increased formaldehyde concentrations. Overall, legislation faces a dilemma: primary sources are often over-regulated while a lack of consideration of secondary sources negates the regulations' effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Formaldehyde-releasers : relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Contact allergy to formaldehyde and inventory of formaldehyde-releasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton C.; Flyvholm, Mari-ann; Lensen, Gerda; Menne, Torkil; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan


    This is one of series of review articles on formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers (others: formaldehyde in cosmetics, in clothes and in metalworking fluids and miscellaneous). Thirty-five chemicals were identified as being formaldehyde-releasers. Although a further seven are listed in the

  6. Occupational contact allergy to formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers. (United States)

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Kuuliala, O; Suuronen, K; Alanko, K


    Formaldehyde allergy is common and usually derives from formaldehyde-releasing biocides in cosmetic and other products. To analyse patterns of patch test reactions to formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasing compounds and the sources of sensitization. At the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, we screened the patch test files for allergic reactions to formaldehyde and 12 formaldehyde-releasing compounds. All patients with contact allergy to any of the substances were included, and their records were reviewed. Between January 2001 and May 2007, we had patch tested 81 patients with formaldehyde allergy and 18 with independent allergy to some formaldehyde releaser. Of the formaldehyde allergies, 60 were new sensitizations, 25 of which were considered to be occupational. The most common source of occupational sensitization was metalworking fluids followed by creams and related products. Exposure to formaldehyde-releasing preservatives in liquid soaps and other rinse-off products was common in both occupational and non-occupational cases. Reactions to formaldehyde-releasing compounds were seen in 79% of the formaldehyde-allergic patients. Occupational formaldehyde allergy was common and occurred in metalworkers, hairdressers, masseurs, and workers using protective creams, detergents, and liquid soaps. When compared with studies on general dermatological patients, contact allergy to formaldehyde releasers without formaldehyde allergy was rare.

  7. Formaldehyde-releasers: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Contact allergy to formaldehyde and inventory of formaldehyde-releasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Anton C; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda


    This is one of series of review articles on formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers (others: formaldehyde in cosmetics, in clothes and in metalworking fluids and miscellaneous). Thirty-five chemicals were identified as being formaldehyde-releasers. Although a further seven are listed in the liter...... reactions is often challenging. What concentration of formaldehyde is safe for sensitive patients remains unknown. Levels of 200-300 p.p.m. free formaldehyde in cosmetic products have been shown to induce dermatitis from short-term use on normal skin.......This is one of series of review articles on formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers (others: formaldehyde in cosmetics, in clothes and in metalworking fluids and miscellaneous). Thirty-five chemicals were identified as being formaldehyde-releasers. Although a further seven are listed...

  8. Membrane perturbing properties of natural phenolic and resorcinolic lipids. (United States)

    Stasiuk, Maria; Kozubek, Arkadiusz


    The effects induced by natural phenolic and resorcinolic lipids on membrane permeability were investigated. All of the compounds tested perturbed the phospholipid bilayer and stabilized erythrocytes against hypoosmotically induced hemolysis. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine liposomes with two preincorporated fluorescent dyes (1-(4-trimethylammoniumphenyl)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatrien p-toluenesulfonate (TMA-DPH) and N-(-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoetanolamine triethylammonium salt (NBD-PE)) were used to determine the effects of tested compounds on the core and surface of the bilayer. Resorcinolic lipids from rye and cardol increased the polarization of TMA-DPH fluorescence more than that of NBD-PE, but anacardic acid, methylocardol, and alkylphenol increased NBD-PE dye fluorescence.

  9. Formaldehyde Workshop Agenda (United States)

    This is the agenda for the Formaldehyde Workshop hosted by the Office of Research and Development's National Center for Environmental Assessments in cooperation with the IRIS Program. The workshop was held in April 2014

  10. Summary of pilot-scale activities with resorcinol ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicero, C.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bickford, D.F.; Sargent, T.N.; Andrews, M.K.; Bibler, J.P.; Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.


    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating vitrification technology for treatment of low level mixed wastes (LLMW). They have chartered the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to study vitrification of the wastes through an Office of Technology Development (OTD) Technical Task Plan (TTP). SRTC`s efforts have included crucible-scale studies and pilot scale testing on simulated LLMW sludges, resins, soils, and other solid wastes. Results from the crucible-scale studies have been used as the basis for the pilot-scale demonstrations. As part of the fiscal year (FY) 1995 activities, SRTC performed crucible-scale studies with organic resins. This waste stream was selected because of the large number of DOE sites, as well as commercial industries, that use resins for treatment of liquid wastes. Pilot-scale studies were to be completed in FY 1995, but could not be due to a reduction in funding. Instead, a compilation of pilot-scale tests with organic resins performed under the guidance of SRTC was provided in this report. The studies which will be discussed used a resorcinol- formaldehyde resin loaded with non-radioactive cesium, which was fed with simulated wastewater treatment sludge feed. The first study was performed at the SRTC in the mini-melter, 1/100th scale of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter, and also involved limited crucible-scale studies to determine the resin loading obtainable. The other study was performed at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research (Center) and involved both crucible and pilot-scale testing in the Stir-Melter stirred-melter. Both studies were successful in vitrifying the resin in simulated radioactive sludge and glass additive feeds.

  11. Eerste inventarisatie alternatieven voor biociden met formaldehyde of formaldehyde releasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezenbeek JJ; Janssen MPM; Scheepmaker JWA; MSP; M&V


    Formaldehyde is de werkzame stof in veel desinfecteer- en conserveringsmiddelen, maar deze stof is kankerverwekkend. Daarom zal formaldehyde naar verwachting per 1 januari 2016 op Europees niveau als zodanig worden geclassificeerd (carcinogeen 1B). Dit kan betekenen dat formaldehyde-houdende

  12. Synthesis of resorcinolic lipids bearing structural similarities to cytosporone A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson dos Anjos dos Santos


    Full Text Available Inspired by the structure and biological activities of resorcinolic lipids and, particularly cytosporone A- a potent inhibitor of plantule germination and growth, we have performed the synthesis of the analogs 3-heptyl-3-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxy-2-benzofuran-1(3H-one (1 and 3-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxy-2-benzofuran-1(3H-one (2. The intermediates and products were submitted to allelopathic test using Lactuca sativa L. seeds. Target compound 1 showed an inhibitory effect on germination and growth of hypocotyl and radicle in milimolar range.

  13. Synthesis of resorcinolic lipids bearing structural similarities to cytosporone A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Edson dos Anjos dos; Beatriz, Adilson; Lima, Denis Pires de [Universidade Federal Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia. Dept. de Quimica], e-mail:; Marques, Maria Rita; Leite, Carla Braga [Universidade Federal Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Morfofisiologia


    Inspired by the structure and biological activities of resorcinolic lipids and, particularly cytosporone A- a potent inhibitor of plantule germination and growth, we have performed the synthesis of the analogs 3-heptyl-3-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxy-2-benzofuran-1(3H)-one (1) and 3-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxy-2-benzofuran-1(3H)-one (2). The intermediates and products were submitted to allelopathic test using Lactuca sativa L. seeds. Target compound 1 showed an inhibitory effect on germination and growth of hypocotyl and radicle in millimolar range. (author)

  14. Formaldehyde oxime - nitrosomethane tautomerism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, J.A.; Harris, N.J.; Lammertsma, K.


    Formaldehyde oxime ⇌ nitrosomethane tautomerism, isomeric nitrone, and their common cations and anions are studied with Gaussian-2 theory using MP2(full)/6-31G* geometries and with density functional theory using B3LYP/6-311+G**. Geometrical parameters, harmonic vibrational frequencies, relative

  15. Emission of formaldehyde from furniture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Klinke, Helene B.; Funch, Lis Winther


    The emission of formaldehyde from a variety of furniture was measured in climate chambers. Most tests show low emission of formaldehyde; however, there are a few exceptions. One product emitted significant amounts of formaldehyde, but according to the Danish Indoor Climate Labelling Criteria...... for furniture the impact on the formaldehyde concentration was low due to a small surface area in the standard room. One product led to a high concentration of formaldehyde in the standard room since both emission and material load were high. Even with a moderate area-specific emission rate of formaldehyde......, furniture with high material load in the standard room, such as bookcases, can have a significant impact on the indoor air. The results showed that furniture on the Danish market may have an emission of formaldehyde resulting in indoor concentrations above the WHO recommended limit of 0.1 mg m-3. Therefore...

  16. Emission of formaldehyde from furniture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Klinke, Helene B.; Funch, Lis Winther

    The emission of formaldehyde from 20 pieces of furniture, representing a variety of types, was measured in climate chambers. Most tests show low emissions but certain scenarios of furnishing, including furniture with large surface areas in relation to room volume can emit formaldehyde resulting...

  17. 78 FR 34795 - Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite... (United States)


    ... June 10, 2013 Part IV Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 770 Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products; Formaldehyde Emissions... Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products...

  18. 21 CFR 573.460 - Formaldehyde. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formaldehyde. 573.460 Section 573.460 Food and... Listing § 573.460 Formaldehyde. The food additive formaldehyde may be safely used in the manufacture of.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (ii) Formaldehyde (37 percent solution...

  19. Adsorbent for resorcinol removal based on cellulose functionalized with magnetic poly(dopamine). (United States)

    Ding, Chaofan; Sun, Yuanling; Wang, Yanhui; Li, Jianbo; Lin, Yanna; Sun, Weiyan; Luo, Chuannan


    A simple chemical bonding method to synthesize magnetic cellulose-poly(dopamine) (Fe3O4@CMC@PDA) was reported. The adsorption behaviors of resorcinol in aqueous solution on Fe3O4@CMC@PDA were systematically investigated. As the results shown that, with the advantage of high surface area, abundant hydroxyl and amino groups of Fe3O4@CMC@PDA, and the magnetic property of Fe3O4, the resorcinol can be easily and rapidly extracted from the water by magnetic attraction under investigation. The adsorption equilibrium of Fe3O4@CMC@PDA for resorcinol corresponded with Freundlich isotherm, and the novel adsorbent exhibited better resorcinol removal efficiency in solutions with low pH. It was found that the resorcinol adsorption performance of Fe3O4@CMC@PDA strongly depends on their surface charge concentration and specific surface area. These results provide evidences for estimating and optimizing the removal of phenols from the wastewater by using of Fe3O4@CMC@PDA composites in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Catalytic process for formaldehyde oxidation (United States)

    Kielin, Erik J. (Inventor); Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); D'Ambrosia, Christine M. (Inventor)


    Disclosed is a process for oxidizing formaldehyde to carbon dioxide and water without the addition of energy. A mixture of formaldehyde and an oxidizing agent (e.g., ambient air containing formaldehyde) is exposed to a catalyst which includes a noble metal dispersed on a metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state. Especially good results are obtained when the noble metal is platinum, and the metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state is tin oxide. A promoter (i.e., a small amount of an oxide of a transition series metal) may be used in association with the tin oxide to provide very beneficial results.

  1. Formaldehyde Gas Sensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yen Lee


    Full Text Available Many methods based on spectrophotometric, fluorometric, piezoresistive, amperometric or conductive measurements have been proposed for detecting the concentration of formaldehyde in air. However, conventional formaldehyde measurement systems are bulky and expensive and require the services of highly-trained operators. Accordingly, the emergence of sophisticated technologies in recent years has prompted the development of many microscale gaseous formaldehyde detection systems. Besides their compact size, such devices have many other advantages over their macroscale counterparts, including a real-time response, a more straightforward operation, lower power consumption, and the potential for low-cost batch production. This paper commences by providing a high level overview of the formaldehyde gas sensing field and then describes some of the more significant real-time sensors presented in the literature over the past 10 years or so.

  2. Protect Against Exposure on Formaldehyde (United States)

    Formaldehyde is an important chemical used widely by industry to manufacture building materials and numerous household products. It is also a by-product of combustion and certain other natural processes.

  3. Absorption of formaldehyde in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkelman, Jozef Gerhardus Maria


    Deze dissertatie beschrijft theoretisch en experimenteel werk aan de absorptie van formaldehyde in water. Met resultaten hiervan zijn chemisch-technische modellen ontwikkeld voor de beschrijving en optimalisatie van industriële formaldehydeabsorbeurs. Deze samenvatting geeft eerst algemene

  4. Compact, Ultrasensitive Formaldehyde Monitor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop an ultrasensitive, laser-based formaldehyde gas sensor system for airborne and ground-based...

  5. [Determination of resorcinol and salicylic acid in piyanning tincture by high performance liquid chromatography]. (United States)

    Guo, X; Zhou, M


    A method for the simultaneous determination of resorcinol and salicylic acid in Piyanning tincture by HPLC has been proposed. Operating conditions were Hyppersil ODS column, 4.6 mm x 200 mm, V (methanol): V(water): V(acetic acid) = 50:50:0.9 mobile phase and UV detection at 285 nm. The linear ranges of the method were 0.05-0.25 g/L(r = 1.000) for resorcinol and 0.025-0.127 g/L(r = 1.000) for salicylic acid. The limits of detection were both 0.2 mg/L at a signal-to-noise of 3. The assay method was capable to resolve resorcinol and salicylic acid from their impurities.

  6. Induction of formaldehyde contact sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Boman, A; Vølund, A


    The sensitizing potential of aqueous formaldehyde was evaluated with the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) in two laboratories (Copenhagen and Stockholm) using different guinea pig strains. Six intradermal (0.01%-3%), and 6 topical (0.5%-20%) concentrations were used for induction, and formalde......The sensitizing potential of aqueous formaldehyde was evaluated with the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) in two laboratories (Copenhagen and Stockholm) using different guinea pig strains. Six intradermal (0.01%-3%), and 6 topical (0.5%-20%) concentrations were used for induction......, and formaldehyde 1% and 0.1% was used for challenge. The incidence of contact sensitivity depended on the intradermal, but not on the topical induction dose. Statistical analyses showed a non-monotonous (non-linear) dose response relationship. The estimated maximal sensitization rate in Copenhagen was 80% after...... intradermal induction with 0.65% formaldehyde; in Stockholm it was 84% after induction with 0.34%. The data from the two laboratories could be described by parallel displaced dose response curves suggesting that the guinea pig strain used in Stockholm was significantly more susceptible to formaldehyde than...

  7. Improvements to hydroxymethylated resorcinol coupling agent for durable bonding to wood (United States)

    Alfred W. Christiansen; E. Arnold Okkonen


    Improving the exterior quality bonding of wood to epoxy adhesive resins is important for bonding glass-fiber-reinforced vinyl ester resin laminae to glulam structural members, as well as for repairing glulam members in exterior applications on site. The coupling agent for these applications, hydroxymethylated resorcinol (HMR), was recently improved by using a novolak...

  8. Dual Studies on a Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange of Resorcinol and the Subsequent Kinetic Isotope Effect (United States)

    Giles, Richard; Kim, Iris; Chao, Weyjuin Eric; Moore, Jennifer; Jung, Kyung Woon


    An efficient laboratory experiment has been developed for undergraduate students to conduct hydrogen-deuterium (H-D) exchange of resorcinol by electrophilic aromatic substitution using D[subscript 2]O and a catalytic amount of H[subscript 2]SO[subscript 4]. The resulting labeled product is characterized by [superscript 1]H NMR. Students also…

  9. Formaldehyde - An Assessment of its Health Effects. (United States)


    formaldehyde mutagenesis has not been resolved. Formaldehyde may cause mutations by reacting directly with DNA ; by forming mutagenic products on...reaction with amino groups on simple amines, amino acids, nucleic acids, or proteins; or by oxidizing to peroxides that can react directly with DNA or...species of grasshoppers , formaldehyde caused chromosomal damage (Manna and Parida, 1967). Germinating barley seeds soaked in formaldehyde solutions did not

  10. Quantitative determination of formaldehyde by spectrophotometry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formaldehyde is a vastly used material in industry. Nowadays, it is proven that formaldehyde is toxic and carcinogenic. Thus providing a reliable method for its quantitative determination is very important. This study proposes a UV-Vis spectrophotometric based method for determination of formaldehyde. The method is ...

  11. short communication quantitative determination of formaldehyde

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    INTRODUCTION. Formaldehyde is known as a very toxic, mutant and carcinogen causing chemical which affects ... Formaldehyde has been classified as one of the major pollutants due to its toxicity. It tends to .... The laboratory of the factory declared the concentration of the formaldehyde in wastewater equal to 1 mg/L.

  12. Formaldehyde in cosmetics in patch tested dermatitis patients with and without contact allergy to formaldehyde. (United States)

    Hauksson, Inese; Pontén, Ann; Isaksson, Marléne; Hamada, Haneen; Engfeldt, Malin; Bruze, Magnus


    Formaldehyde is a well-known contact sensitizer. Formaldehyde releasers are widely used preservatives in cosmetics. To survey the release of formaldehyde in cosmetics brought by patients investigated because of suspected allergic contact dermatitis, to compare it with information given by the manufacturers on the packages, and to investigate whether formaldehyde-allergic patients are potentially exposed to more cosmetics releasing formaldehyde than dermatitis patients without contact allergy to formaldehyde. Cosmetics from 10 formaldehyde-allergic and 30 non-allergic patients (controls) matched for age and sex were investigated with the chromotropic acid spot test, which is a semiquantitative method measuring the release of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde was found in 58 of 245 (23.7%) products. Twenty-six of 126 (20.6%) leave-on products released formaldehyde, and 17 of 26 (65.4%) of these were not declared to contain formaldehyde or formaldehyde releasers. Among the rinse-off products, there were 32 of 119 (26.8%) formaldehyde-releasing products, and nine of 32 (28.0%) of these were not labelled as containing formaldehyde or formaldehyde releasers. Five of 10 formaldehyde-allergic patients brought leave-on products with ≥ 40 ppm formaldehyde, as compared with 4 of 30 in the control group (p = 0.029). Cosmetic products used by formaldehyde-allergic patients that are not declared to contain formaldehyde or formaldehyde-releasing preservatives should be analysed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effect of urea formaldehyde viscosity on urea formaldehyde and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The melting point, refractive index, density and formaldehyde emission were found to increase with increase in UF viscosity while the dry time, moisture uptake and elongation at break were found to decrease with increase in viscosity. UF viscosity below 10.82 mPa.s was found to produce UF/UP copolymer composite which ...

  14. Media

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emily Wexler


    .... Tradigital allows us to use online behaviour to track the effectiveness of online and offline media, not simply the correlation of TV airings with search activity, but also by employing a bevy...

  15. Graphene oxide as efficient high-concentration formaldehyde scavenger and reutilization in supercapacitor. (United States)

    Liang, Hongyu; Bu, Yongfeng; Zhang, Yutian; Zhang, Junyan


    Graphene oxide (GO) was investigated as a low-cost and high-efficient scavenger for high-concentration formaldehyde in alkali media. It showed very high removal capacity, 411 mg of formaldehyde per milligram of GO, and strong resistant to temperature changes. Additionally, the used GO can be easily renewed by a simple electrochemical method. By analyzing the componential and electrochemical characterizations of GO before and after use, the results showed that the degradation mechanism of formaldehyde is a collaborative process of chemical oxidation and physical adsorption, and the former dominates the degradation process. With the aid of oxygen-containing groups in GO, most formaldehyde can be easily oxidized by GO in alkaline media (this is equivalent to GO was reduced by formaldehyde). On the other hand, the used GO (reduced GO, noted as rGO) exhibits more ideal electronic double-layer capacitor (EDLC) feature than GO, along with higher rate capacitance (up to 136 F g(-1) at 50 A g(-1)). In short, GO is not only an efficient formaldehyde scavenger, but the used GO (rGO) can serve as promising electrical energy storage material. This study provides new insights for us to reutilize the discarded adsorbents generated from the environmental protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [5-Alkyl(C19-C25) resorcinols as regulators of succinate and NAD-dependent substrate oxidation by mitochondria]. (United States)

    Nenashev, V A; Pridachina, N N; Pronevich, L A; Batrakov, S G


    The effect of 5-n-alkyl(C19-C25) resorcinols isolated from Azotobacter chroococcum on the oxidation of succinate and NAD-dependent substrates (glutamate, alpha-ketoglutarate, malate, pyruvate) by rat liver mitochondria was studied, using the polarographic technique. With succinate, the above resorcinol lipids activated to some extent the 2,4-dinitrophenol-decoupled mitochondrial respiration, but markedly suppressed it (up to 95%) in the presence of NAD-dependent substrates. The activating and inhibiting effects correlated with the resorcinol lipid/mitochondrial proteins ratio and were observed, when the lipid concentration in the incubation mixture ranged from 2.4.10(-4) to 6.0.10(-4) M. The most striking inhibiting effect was observed with alpha-ketoglutarate as substrate. The results obtained suggest that 5-n-alkyl(C19-C25) resorcinols should be regarded as rotenone type regulators of cell respiration.

  17. Potato aphid salivary proteome: enhanced salivation using resorcinol and identification of aphid phosphoproteins. (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ritu; Atamian, Hagop S; Shen, Zhouxin; Briggs, Steven P; Kaloshian, Isgouhi


    Aphids deliver saliva into plants and acquire plant sap for their nourishment using a specialized mouthpart or stylets. Aphid saliva is of great importance because it contains effectors that are involved in modulating host defense and metabolism. Although profiling aphid salivary glands and identifying secreted proteins have been successfully used, success in direct profiling of aphid saliva have been limited due to scarcity of saliva collected in artificial diets. Here we present the use of a neurostimulant, resorcinol, for inducing aphid salivation. Saliva of potato aphids (Macrosiphum euphorbiae), maintained on tomato, was collected in resorcinol diet. Salivary proteins were identified using mass spectrometry and compared with the existing M. euphorbiae salivary proteome collected in water. Comparative analysis was also performed with existing salivary proteomes from additional aphid species. Most of the proteins identified in the resorcinol diet were also present in the water diet and represented proteins with a plethora of functions in addition to a large number of unknowns. About half of the salivary proteins were not predicted for secretion or had canonical secretion signal peptides. We also analyzed the phosphorylation states of M. euphorbiae salivary proteins and identified three known aphid effectors, Me_WB01635/Mp1, Me10/Mp58, and Me23 that carry phosphorylation marks. In addition to insect proteins, tomato host proteins were also identified in aphid saliva. Our results indicate that aphid saliva is complex and provides a rich resource for functional characterization of effectors.

  18. Adsorptive removal of aniline by granular activated carbon from aqueous solutions with catechol and resorcinol. (United States)

    Suresh, S; Srivastava, V C; Mishrab, I M


    In the present paper, the removal of aniline by adsorption process onto granular activated carbon (GAC) is reported from aqueous solutions containing catechol and resorcinol separately. The Taguchi experimental design was applied to study the effect of such parameters as the initial component concentrations (C(0,i)) of two solutes (aniline and catechol or aniline and resorcinol) in the solution, temperature (T), adsorbent dosage (m) and contact time (t). The L27 orthogonal array consisting of five parameters each with three levels was used to determine the total amount of solutes adsorbed on GAC (q(tot), mmol/g) and the signal-to-noise ratio. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the optimum conditions. Under these conditions, the ANOVA shows that m is the most important parameter in the adsorption process. The most favourable levels of process parameters were T = 303 K, m = 10 g/l and t = 660 min for both the systems, qtot values in the confirmation experiments carried out at optimum conditions were 0.73 and 0.95 mmol/g for aniline-catechol and aniline-resorcinol systems, respectively.

  19. Co-degradation of resorcinol and catechol in an UASB reactor. (United States)

    Subramanyam, Revanuru; Mishra, I M


    Co-degradation of resorcinol and catechol was studied in a catechol acclimated up flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Synthetic binary aqueous solution having a total concentration of 1000 mg/L with the resorcinol/catechol (R/C) ratio of 1/19, 1/9, 3/17, 1/4, 1/3, 3/7, 2/3 and then 1/3 was fed at various time intervals to the UASB reactor with a fixed organic loading rate of 5.7 kg COD/m(3) d and hydraulic retention time of 8h. The reactor was operated over a period of 145 days after its acclimation with catechol bearing synthetic wastewater at a constant feed rate of 1.2 L/h. When the resorcinol concentration was increased to have a R/C ratio of 1/4, the COD removal efficiency and the biogas production increased to the maximum levels. Pseudo steady state condition for COD removal was achieved at each of the stepped-up loading condition. An increase in the R/C ratio above 1/4 in the binary feed solution led to a decrease in the COD removal efficiency and the biogas production rate.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Lyapina


    Full Text Available Formaldehyde is a ubiquitous chemical agent, a part of our outdoor and indoor working and residential environment. Healthcare workers in difficult occupations are among the most affected by formaldehyde exposure. Formaldehyde is an ingredient of some dental materials. Formaldehyde is well-known mucous membrane irritant and a primary skin sensitizing agent associated with both contact dermatitis (Type IV allergy, and immediate, anaphylactic reactions (Type I allergy. Inhalation exposure to formaldehyde was identified as a potential cause of asthma. Quite a few investigations are available concerning health issues for dental students following formaldehyde exposure. Such studies would be beneficial for early diagnosis of hypersensitivity, adequate prophylactic, risk assessment and management of their work.

  1. Heat stability of cured urea-formaldehyde resins by measuring formaldehyde emission (United States)

    Shin-ichiro Tohmura; Chung-Yun Hse; Mitsuo Higuchi


    A test method for measuring formaldehyde from urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins at high tempera­tures was developed and used to assess the influence of the reaction pH at synthesis on the formaldehyde emission during cure and heat stability of the cured resins without water. Additionally, 13C-CP/MAS solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)...

  2. 78 FR 51696 - Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite... (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 770 RIN 2070-AJ44 Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental... formaldehyde standards for composite wood products. After receiving requests for an extension, EPA extended the...

  3. 78 FR 44090 - Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite... (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 770 RIN 2070-AJ44 Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental... formaldehyde standards for composite wood products. This document extends the comment period from August 9...

  4. Initial inventory of alternatives to biocidal products containing formaldehyde of formaldehyde releasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezenbeek JM; Janssen MPM; Scheepmaker JWA; MSP; M&V


    Formaldehyde is de werkzame stof in veel desinfecteer- en conserveringsmiddelen, maar deze stof is kankerverwekkend. Daarom zal formaldehyde naar verwachting per 1 januari 2016 op Europees niveau als zodanig worden geclassificeerd (carcinogeen 1B). Dit kan betekenen dat formaldehyde-houdende

  5. Formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Part 2. Patch test relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy, experimental provocation tests, amount of formaldehyde released, and assessment of risk to consumers allergic to formaldehyde. (United States)

    de Groot, Anton; White, Ian R; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan


    This is the second part of an article on formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics. The patch test relationship between the releasers in cosmetics to formaldehyde contact allergy is reviewed and it is assessed whether products preserved with formaldehyde-releasers may contain enough free formaldehyde to pose a threat to individuals with contact allergy to formaldehyde. There is a clear relationship between positive patch test reactions to formaldehyde-releasers and formaldehyde contact allergy: 15% of all reactions to 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and 40-60% of the reactions to the other releasers are caused by a reaction to the formaldehyde in the test material. There is only fragmented data on the amount of free formaldehyde in cosmetics preserved with formaldehyde donors. However, all releasers (with the exception of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, for which adequate data are lacking) can, in the right circumstances of concentration and product composition, release >200 p.p.m. formaldehyde, which may result in allergic contact dermatitis. Whether this is actually the case in any particular product cannot be determined from the ingredient labelling. Therefore, we recommend advising patients allergic to formaldehyde to avoid leave-on cosmetics preserved with quaternium-15, diazolidinyl urea, DMDM hydantoin, or imidazolidinyl urea, acknowledging that many would tolerate some products.

  6. Formaldehyde Emissions from Urea-Formaldehyde- and no-added-formaldehyde-Bonded particleboard as Influenced by Temperature and Relative Humidity (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; James M. Wescott; Timothy L. Chaffee; Kyle M. Gonner


    It is well documented that temperature and humidity can influence formaldehyde emissions from composite panels that are produced using urea-formaldehyde (UF)–type adhesives. This work investigates the effect of temperature and humidity on newer commercial California Air Resources Board (CARB) phase II–compliant particleboard produced with UF-type adhesives. These...

  7. Measurement of formaldehyde concentrations in a subatmospheric steam-formaldehyde autoclave. (United States)

    Marcos, D; Wiseman, D


    A method has been developed for measuring formaldehyde concentrations in a subatmospheric steam-formaldehyde autoclave. Data obtained using this method indicate that the concentration of formaldehyde in the chamber atmosphere is not homogeneous and that it decreases rapidly with time. The penetration of formaldehyde vapour into narrow tubes has also been investigated and was shown to be dependent on the length-to-bore ratio of the tubes. The formaldehyde concentration within the tubes could be increased by using a lower vacuum in the air removal stage at the beginning of the cycle. PMID:572833


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 3, 2013 ... populace of the area of study. The chromotropic acid method described by the. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was adopted for the determination of formaldehyde in the rain waters. Results indicated that the concentration range of the formaldehyde in the rain waters varied ...

  9. 29 CFR 1915.1048 - Formaldehyde. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde. 1915.1048 Section 1915.1048 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... Formaldehyde. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical to...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1148 - Formaldehyde. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde. 1926.1148 Section 1926.1148 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1148 Formaldehyde...

  11. Formaldehyde concentration in diagnostic patch testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trattner, A; Johansen, J D; Menné, T


    Exposure to formaldehyde is common from both consumer products and industry. The reliability of the patch test is essential for the diagnosis of formaldehyde allergy as it is difficult to suspect from the patient's history. The recommended formaldehyde patch test concentration has been reduced over...... the last decades from 4-5% to 2% and is currently 1%. The changes have not been based upon formal studies, but driven by an intention to reduce irritancy and false-positive results. The aim of the present study was prospectively to compare the outcome of simultaneous testing with formaldehyde 1% and 2......% in consecutively patch-tested patients, with respect to frequency of positive patch test reactions, strength of patch test reactions to different formaldehyde test concentrations, irritancy and relevance. The study included 3734 consecutively patch tested patients. 121 gave a positive reaction to 1% and/or 2...

  12. Effects of free formaldehyde emission reduction by ammonia fuming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Particleboards made using formaldehyde adhesives cause substantial emission of free formaldehyde over time. Free formaldehyde is harmful to the user's health and it also weakens internal bonds of particleboards in use. Emissions levels of formaldehyde lie between 0.8 to 2.2 g/m3 of indoor air in particleboards ...

  13. The Effect of Formaldehyde Fixation on RNA (United States)

    Evers, David L.; Fowler, Carol B.; Cunningham, Brady R.; Mason, Jeffrey T.; O'Leary, Timothy J.


    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues generally provide low yields of extractable RNA that exhibit both covalent modification of nucleic acid bases and strand cleavage. This frustrates efforts to perform retrospective analyses of gene expression using archival tissue specimens. A variety of conditions have been reported to demodify formaldehyde-fixed RNA in different model systems. We studied the reversal of formaldehyde fixation of RNA using a 50 base RNA oligonucleotide and total cellular RNA. Formaldehyde-adducted, native, and hydrolyzed RNA species were identified by their bioanalyzer electrophoretic migration patterns and RT–quantitative PCR. Demodification conditions included temperature, time, buffer, and pH. The reversal of formaldehyde-fixed RNA to native species without apparent RNA hydrolysis was most successfully performed in dilute Tris, phosphate, or similar buffers (pH 8) at 70°C for 30 minutes. Amines were not required for efficient formaldehyde demodification. Formaldehyde-fixed RNA was more labile than native RNA to treatment with heat and buffer, suggesting that antigen retrieval methods for proteins may impede RNA hybridization or RNA extraction. Taken together, the data indicate that reliable conditions may be used to remove formaldehyde adducts from RNA to improve the quality of RNA available for molecular studies. PMID:21497290

  14. Reduction of the formaldehyde content in leathers treated with formaldehyde resins by means of plant polyphenols


    Marsal Monge, Agustín; Manich Bou, Albert M.; Cuadros Domènech, Sara; Font Vallès, Joaquim


    Formaldehyde has applications in many industrial processes, including synthesis of resins and syntans to be used in the retanning process of leather. When resins are employed, they can hydrolyse, releasing formaldehyde. Due to the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde, its presence in leather should be avoided or kept below allowable limits. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of polyphenols contained in vegetable compounds (mimosa, quebracho and tara) in the reduction of the forma...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced... (United States)


    ...-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced & Cooled) A Appendix A to Subpart HHHH of Part... Appendix A to Subpart HHHH of Part 63—Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins... Development method of determining free-formaldehyde in urea-formaldehyde resins. This method applies to...

  16. Wet air oxidation of resorcinol as a model treatment for refractory organics in wastewaters from the wood processing industry. (United States)

    Weber, Bernd; Chavez, Alma; Morales-Mejia, Julio; Eichenauer, Sabrina; Stadlbauer, Ernst A; Almanza, Rafael


    Wastewater treatment systems are important tools to enhance sustainability in terms of reducing environmental impact and complying with sanitary requirements. This work addresses the wet air oxidation (WAO) process for pre-treatment of phenolic wastewater effluents. The aim was to increase biodegradability prior to a subsequent anaerobic stage. In WAO laboratory experiments using a micro-autoclave, the model compound resorcinol was degraded under different oxygen availability regims within the temperature range 150 °C-270 °C. The activation energy was determined to be 51.5 kJ/mol. Analysis of the products revealed that after 3 h of reaction at 230 °C, 97.5% degradation of resorcinol was achieved. At 250 °C and the same reaction time complete removal of resorcinol was observed. In this case the total organic carbon content was reduced down to 29%, from 118.0 mg/L down to 34.4 mg/L. Under these process conditions, the pollutant was only partially mineralized and the ratio of the biological oxygen demand relative to the chemical oxygen demand, which is 0.07 for resorcinol, was increased to a value exceeding 0.5. The main by-product acetic acid, which is a preferred compound for methanogenic bacteria, was found to account for 33% of the total organic carbon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Artificial neural network modeling in competitive adsorption of phenol and resorcinol from water environment using some carbonaceous adsorbents. (United States)

    Aghav, R M; Kumar, Sunil; Mukherjee, S N


    This paper illustrates the application of artificial neural network (ANN) for prediction of performances in competitive adsorption of phenol and resorcinol from aqueous solution by conventional and low cost carbonaceous adsorbent materials, such as activated carbon (AC), wood charcoal (WC) and rice husk ash (RHA). The three layer's feed forward neural network with back propagation algorithm in MATLAB environment was used for estimation of removal efficiencies of phenol and resorcinol in bi-solute water environment based on 29 sets of laboratory batch study results. The input parameters used for training of the neural network include amount of adsorbent (g/L), initial concentrations of phenol (mg/L) and resorcinol (mg/L), contact time (h), and pH. The removal efficiencies of phenol and resorcinol were considered as an output of the neural network. The performances of the developed ANN models were also measured using statistical parameters, such as mean error, mean square error, root mean square error, and linear regression. The comparison of the removal efficiencies of pollutants using ANN model and experimental results showed that ANN modeling in competitive adsorption of phenolic compounds reasonably corroborated with the experimental results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Formaldehyde's Impact on Indoor Air Quality (United States)

    Formaldehyde is an important chemical used widely by industry to manufacture building materials and numerous household products. It is also a by-product of combustion and certain other natural processes.

  19. Formaldehyde biodegradation by immobilized Methylobacterium sp. XJLW cells in a three-phase fluidized bed reactor. (United States)

    Qiu, Lequn; Chen, Wenwen; Zhong, Li; Wu, Wanxin; Wu, Shijin; Chen, Jianmen; Zhang, Fuming; Zhong, Weihong


    In the present study, the ability of a newly isolated strain, Methylobacterium sp. XJLW to degrade formaldehyde was investigated in shake flasks and in a bioreactor. The resting cells of Methylobacterium sp. XJLW showed high formaldehyde tolerance (60 g L(-1)) and high degradation rate (1,687.5 mg L(-1) h(-1)) in shake flasks. This biodegradation was initiated by a dismutation reaction since formic acid was formed and caused significant dropping of pH in the media. The addition of CaCO(3) to the media was found as an effective strategy to control the pH and keep the cells in high degradation bioactivity. A three-phase fluidized bed reactor (TPFBR) was designed to test the formaldehyde-biodegrading ability of immobilized Methylobacterium sp. XJLW. Using a repeated-batch degradation mode, the immobilized cells were able to degrade 5 g L(-1) formaldehyde (with a maximal degradation rate of 464.5 mg L(-1) h(-1) under the optimum conditions) and showed stable bioactivity after 20 batches of reuse in the TPFBR.

  20. Formaldehyde-releasers : relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Metalworking fluids and remainder. Part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, A.C.; Le Coz, C.J.; Lensen, G.J.; Flyvholm, M.A.; Maibach, H.I.; Coenraads, P.J.


    This is the second part of a review article on formaldehyde-releasers used as durable press chemical finishes (DPCF) in textiles. The early finishes contained large amounts of free formaldehyde, which led to many cases of allergic contact dermatitis to clothes in the 1950s and 1960s. Currently, most

  1. Preservatives in cosmetics: reactivity of allergenic formaldehyde-releasers towards amino acids through breakdown products other than formaldehyde. (United States)

    Kireche, Mustapha; Gimenez-Arnau, Elena; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre


    Compounds slowly releasing formaldehyde, the so-called formaldehyde-releasers, are commonly employed as preservatives in cosmetics instead of free formaldehyde, which is a strong skin sensitizer. It has been long accepted that formaldehyde-releaser sensitization is attributable to released formaldehyde. However, clinical studies show the existence of patients allergic to formaldehyde-releasers but not to formaldehyde itself. To prove that, for certain formaldehyde-releasers, reactive intermediates other than formaldehyde could be involved in the formation of the hapten-protein antigenic complex, a key step of the sensitization process, thus explaining their sensitizing potential. DMDM hydantoin, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and methenamine were synthesized, (13) C-labelled at the position(s) precursor of formaldehyde. Their reactivity towards amino acids was followed by one-dimensional and two-dimensional (13) C-nuclear magnetic resonance. Many adducts formed by reacting formaldehyde-releasers with amino acids resulted from a direct interaction of the releaser or from reaction of a breakdown product, and not from a reaction involving simply released formaldehyde. DMDM hydantoin was reactive per se, and 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and methenamine decomposed in water, producing bromoethanol and diaminomethane, respectively, which were reactive towards some of the amino acids tested. The reactivity of distinctive formaldehyde-releasers towards amino acids is not limited to formaldehyde release. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Evaluation and comparison of SuperLig{reg_sign} 644, resorcinol-formaldehyde and CS-100 ion exchange materials for the removal of cesium from simulated alkaline supernate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.N.; Bray, L.A.; Eloviche, R.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bruening, R.L.; Decker, R.M. [IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., Provo, UT (United States); Kafka, T.M.; White, L.R. [3M Co., St. Paul, MN (United States)


    PNL evaluated three polymeric materials for Cs removal efficiency from a simulated Hanford Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW) supernatant liquid using 200 mL ion exchange columns. Cs loadings (mmole Cs/g resin) were 0.20, 0.18, and 0.039 for Super Lig 644, R-F, and CS-100 (0.045, 0.070, 0.011 mmole Cs/mL resin). Elution of each resin material with 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} required 3.5, 7.0, and 3.2 cv to reach 0.1 C/C{sub 0} for the respective materials, resulting in volume compressions of 27, 20, and 6.9. Peak Cs concentrations during elution was 185, 38.5, and 27.8 C/C{sub 0}. SuperLig 644 had the highest Cs loading per gram in NCAW and the greatest volume compression on aci elution. Because of high density and poor elution, R-F had the highest Cs loading per unit volume and lower volume compression. CS-100, the baseline material for Cs removal at Hanford, was inferior to both SuperLig 644 and R-F in terms of Cs loading and selectivity over sodium.

  3. Evidence for chemical and cellular reactivities of the formaldehyde releaser bronopol, independent of formaldehyde release. (United States)

    Kireche, Mustapha; Peiffer, Jean-Luc; Antonios, Diane; Fabre, Isabelle; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Pallardy, Marc; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Ourlin, Jean-Claude


    Formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers are widely used preservatives and represent an important group of skin sensitizers. Formaldehyde is very often suspected to be the sensitizing agent of formaldehyde-releasers; however, many reported clinical cases of contact allergy to these molecules such as bronopol (2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol) indicate negative skin reactions to formaldehyde suggesting a more complex mechanism. The aim of this study was to compare the chemical reactivity and biological activity of formaldehyde with those of two formaldehyde releasers: 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and 1,3-dimethylol-5,5-dimethylhydantoin. A key step in the sensitization to chemicals is the formation of the hapten-protein antigenic complex via covalent binding between the chemical sensitizer and amino acids in proteins. The chemical reactivity of the three compounds was thus addressed using (13)C NMR analysis of adduct formation upon incubation with a set of nucleophilic amino acids. The biological activity was measured in two in vitro models based on dendritic cells and a monocytic cell line (CD34-DC and THP-1 model) through monitoring of a panel of biomarkers. The results obtained show that 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol produces low amount of free formaldehyde in physiological buffers but that its degradation generates various molecules including 2-bromoethanol. In addition, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol also generates adducts with amino acids, not observed with formaldehyde alone, that could be explained by the reactivity of 2-bromoethanol. In parallel, in a cellular approach using the human monocytic THP-1 cell line, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol activates THP-1 cells at concentrations that are not correlated to simple formaldehyde release. This observation is confirmed in the more physiological model CD34-DC. Moreover, in the THP-1 model, the expression profiles of several biomarkers are specific to 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol. Finally, the use in the

  4. In vitro study on cytotoxicity and intracellular formaldehyde concentration changes after exposure to formaldehyde and its derivatives. (United States)

    Ke, Y J; Qin, X D; Zhang, Y C; Li, H; Li, R; Yuan, J L; Yang, X; Ding, S M


    HeLa cells were exposed to formaldehyde and its metabolic derivatives, methanol, formic acid, and acetaldehyde, to investigate that the toxicity of formaldehyde is not caused by the chemical group. After 1 h of treatment with formaldehyde, mitochondrial assays showed that low concentrations (e.g. 10 μmol/L) of formaldehyde promoted growth of the HeLa cells, while higher concentrations (e.g. ≥62.5 μmol/L) inhibited cell growth; while all four chemicals at a concentration of 125 μmol/L affected cell growth, formaldehyde affected the largest. Reactive oxygen species concentration increased with the concentration of the exposure chemical. The endogenous formaldehyde content increased the most in the formaldehyde group, but in other three groups, it did not increase as the exposure concentration increased. Expression of dehydrogenase (formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH)) in the formaldehyde (10.40) and methanol (10.60) groups increased significantly compared with the control (1), while it was similar to the control in formic acid (0.90) and acetaldehyde (1.10) groups. Our results suggest that formaldehyde could affect cell activity and even enter cells. Exposure to formaldehyde changes the endogenous formaldehyde concentration in cells within 24 h, and this induces expression of FDH for formaldehyde degradation to maintain the formaldehyde balance. The toxicity of formaldehyde is not caused by the carbon atoms in the aldehyde, hydroxyl, or carboxyl groups. Formaldehyde is hypothesized to be an important signaling molecule in the regulation of cell growth and maintenance of the endogenous formaldehyde level. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. the histological effects of formaldehyde vapour on the lungs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 31, 2012 ... lung injury, pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiolar epithelia degeneration, acute purulent bronchitis, cellular pyknosis and chronic lungs injury. Thus, 40% formaldehyde inhalation can induce lungs injury and possibly lung tumors. Keywords: Formaldehyde, Inhalation, Pulmonary histology, Lung injury.

  6. Electrochemical Oxidation of Resorcinol in Aqueous Medium Using Boron-Doped Diamond Anode: Reaction Kinetics and Process Optimization with Response Surface Methodology. (United States)

    Körbahti, Bahadır K; Demirbüken, Pelin


    Electrochemical oxidation of resorcinol in aqueous medium using boron-doped diamond anode (BDD) was investigated in a batch electrochemical reactor in the presence of Na 2 SO 4 supporting electrolyte. The effect of process parameters such as resorcinol concentration (100-500 g/L), current density (2-10 mA/cm 2 ), Na 2 SO 4 concentration (0-20 g/L), and reaction temperature (25-45°C) was analyzed on electrochemical oxidation using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum operating conditions were determined as 300 mg/L resorcinol concentration, 8 mA/cm 2 current density, 12 g/L Na 2 SO 4 concentration, and 34°C reaction temperature. One hundred percent of resorcinol removal and 89% COD removal were obtained in 120 min reaction time at response surface optimized conditions. These results confirmed that the electrochemical mineralization of resorcinol was successfully accomplished using BDD anode depending on the process conditions, however the formation of intermediates and by-products were further oxidized at much lower rate. The reaction kinetics were evaluated at optimum conditions and the reaction order of electrochemical oxidation of resorcinol in aqueous medium using BDD anode was determined as 1 based on COD concentration with the activation energy of 5.32 kJ/mol that was supported a diffusion-controlled reaction.

  7. Porous Nickel Oxide Film Sensor for Formaldehyde (United States)

    Cindemir, U.; Topalian, Z.; Österlund, L.; Granqvist, C. G.; Niklasson, G. A.


    Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound and a harmful indoor pollutant contributing to the "sick building syndrome". We used advanced gas deposition to fabricate highly porous nickel oxide (NiO) thin films for formaldehyde sensing. The films were deposited on Al2O3 substrates with prefabricated comb-structured electrodes and a resistive heater at the opposite face. The morphology and structure of the films were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Porosity was determined by nitrogen adsorption isotherms with the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. Gas sensing measurements were performed to demonstrate the resistive response of the sensors with respect to different concentrations of formaldehyde at 150 °C.

  8. Single-step conversion of synthesis gas into formaldehyde


    Bahmanpour, Alimohammad


    Formaldehyde is known as the building block in many industries including resins, polymers, paints and adhesives. It is widely used in furniture and wood processing. The annual production rate of formaldehyde is in the range of 30 million tons globally and the demand of formaldehyde has grown by 2-3 % per year over the past two decades. Industrially, formaldehyde is produced via methanol partial oxidation. Methanol in turn is produced from synthesis gas which is produced via steam reforming of...

  9. Regulation of intracellular formaldehyde toxicity during methanol metabolism of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia methanolica. (United States)

    Wakayama, Keishi; Yamaguchi, Sakiko; Takeuchi, Akihito; Mizumura, Tasuku; Ozawa, Shotaro; Tomizuka, Noboru; Hayakawa, Takashi; Nakagawa, Tomoyuki


    In this study we found that the methylotrophic yeast Pichia methanolica showed impaired growth on high methanol medium (>5%, or 1.56 M, methanol). In contrast, P. methanolica grew well on glucose medium containing 5% methanol, but the growth defects reappeared on glucose medium supplemented with 5 mM formaldehyde. During methanol growth of P. methanolica, formaldehyde accumulated in the medium up to 0.3 mM before it was consumed rapidly based on cell growth. These findings indicate that the growth defect of P. methanolica on high methanol media is not caused directly by methanol toxicity, but rather by formaldehyde, which is a key toxic intermediate of methanol metabolism. Moreover, during methanol growth of P. methanolica, expression of enzymes in the methanol-oxidation pathway were induced before the alcohol oxidase isozymes Mod1p and Mod2p, and Mod1p expression was induced before Mod2p. These results suggest that to avoid excess accumulation of formaldehyde-the toxic intermediate of methanol metabolism-P. methanolica grown on methanol strictly regulates the order in which methanol-metabolizing enzymes are expressed. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of clothing care activities on textile formaldehyde content. (United States)

    Novick, Rachel M; Nelson, Mindy L; McKinley, Meg A; Anderson, Grace L; Keenan, James J


    Textiles are commonly treated with formaldehyde-based residues that may potentially induce allergic contact dermatitis in sensitive individuals. This study examined the initial formaldehyde content in clothing and resulting changes due to care activities. Twenty clothing articles were examined and 17 of them did not have detectable levels of formaldehyde. One shirt contained a formaldehyde concentration of 3172 ppm, and two pairs of pants had formaldehyde concentrations of 1391 ppm and 86 ppm. The two highest results represent formaldehyde levels that are up to 40-fold greater than international textile regulations. The two items with the greatest formaldehyde content were washed and dried in a manner similar to that used by consumers, including hand and machine washing in hot or cold water followed by air or machine drying. The washing and drying procedures reduced formaldehyde levels to between 26 and 72% of untreated controls. Differences in the temperature or type of washing and drying did not result in a clear trend in the subsequent formaldehyde content. In addition, samples were hot ironed, which did not affect the formaldehyde content as significantly. Understanding the formaldehyde content in clothing and its potential reduction through care activities may be useful for manufacturers and formaldehyde-sensitive individuals.

  11. 78 FR 34820 - Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 770 RIN 2070-AJ92 Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products AGENCY... the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products Act, or Title VI of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). These proposed requirements are designed to implement the statutory formaldehyde...

  12. 24 CFR 3280.309 - Health Notice on formaldehyde emissions. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health Notice on formaldehyde... Construction Requirements § 3280.309 Health Notice on formaldehyde emissions. (a) Each manufactured home shall have a Health Notice on formaldehyde emissions prominently displayed in a temporary manner in the...

  13. Conversion and toxicity characteristics of formaldehyde in acetoclastic methanogenic sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Gil, G.; Kleerebezem, R.; Lettinga, G.


    An unadapted mixed methanogenic sludge transformed formaldehyde into methanol and formate. The methanol to formate ratio obtained was 1:1. Formaldehyde conversion proceeded without any lag phase, suggesting the constitutive character of the formaldehyde conversion enzymes involved. Because the rate

  14. Preparation of alpha-bisabolol and phenylethyl resorcinol/TiO2 hybrid composites for potential applications in cosmetics. (United States)

    Leong, H J; Jang, I; Hyun, K-S; Jung, S-K; Hong, G-H; Jeong, H-A; Oh, S-G


    Bifunctional alpha-bisabolol and phenylethyl resorcinol/TiO2 hybrids were prepared to apply in cosmetic fields, particularly in anti-ageing and hyperpigmentation treatment. The synergistic effect of combined antioxidant and UV filtering properties was achieved through functionalization of TiO2 particles with skin-lightening materials such as alpha-bisabolol and phenylethyl resorcinol. TiO2 microspheres with a diameter of about 1 μm were synthesized through surfactant-assisted sol-gel method for use as supporting materials in the formation of hybrid composites. Carboxylation treatment was performed for surface modification of the TiO2 surface with carboxyl groups as chemical binders. Esterification reaction between carboxyl groups of carboxylated TiO2 and hydroxyl groups of alpha-bisabolol or phenylethyl resorcinol was performed. The hybrids were characterized using various techniques such as FE-SEM, DLS, EDS, ATR-FTIR, XPS and TGA. For application of prepared TiO2 composites in the field of cosmetics, the anti-radicular antioxidant abilities were evaluated using ABTS and DPPH colorimetric antioxidant assay. Organic/inorganic hybrid composites were successfully formed using esterification reaction between the carboxyl groups at TiO2 surface and the hydroxyl groups of the skin-lightening materials. The results demonstrate that both functionalized microspheres show scavenging ability towards the ABTS(•) and DPPH(•) radicals. Specifically, the phenylethyl resorcinol/TiO2 composites exhibited the highest antioxidant ability among the prepared samples owing to the presence of phenolic groups to scavenge free radicals. Using this strategy, it could be possible to prepare not only inorganic UV filter but also hybrid organic/inorganic materials with multifunctions and advantages which would be in a great demand for cosmetic applications. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  15. Problems associated with the use of urea-formaldehyde foam for residential insulation. Part I. The effects of temperature and humidity on formaldehyde release from urea-formaldehyde foam insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, K.R.; Pierson, D.A.; Brennan, S.T.; Frank, C.W.; Hahne, R.A.


    The study is concerned primarily with those properties related to formaldehyde and its application as an ingredient in urea-formaldehyde resins. In particular the effects of temperature and humidity on urea-formaldehyde foam are discussed.

  16. Carbohydrate modified phenol-formaldehyde resins (United States)

    Anthony H. Conner; Linda F. Lorenz


    For adhesive self-sufficiency, the wood industry needs new adhesive systems in which all or part of the petroleum-derived phenolic component is replaced by a renewable material without sacrificing high durability or ease of bonding. We tested the bonding of wood veneers, using phenolic resins in which part of the phenol-formaldehyde was replaced with carbohydrates. Our...

  17. Electrospinning formaldehyde cross-linked zein solutions (United States)

    In order to develop zein fibers with improved physical properties and solvent resistance, formaldehyde was used as the cross-linking reagent before spinning. The cross-linking reaction was carried out in either acetic acid or ethanolic-HCl where the amount of cross-linking reagent was between 1 and...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The industrially important process of formaldehyde absorption in water constitutes a case of multicomponent mass transfer with multiple reactions and considerable heat effects. A stable solution algorithm is developed to simulate the performance of industrial absorbers for this process using a

  19. Spectrophotometric Determination of Gallium(III with 4-(2-Pyridylazo-resorcinol and Nitron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petya Vassileva Racheva


    Full Text Available The formation and liquid-liquid extraction of ion-association complex between gallium(III − 4-(2-pyridylazo-resorcinol (PAR – 1,4-diphenyl-3-(phenylamino-1H-1,2,4-triazole (nitron, Nt, water and chloroform were studied. The optimum conditions for gallium(III extraction as an ion-association complex, (NtH+[Ga3+(PAR2]-, were found: pH, concentration of the reagents and shaking time. The following key constants were calculated: constant of extraction (logKex = 6.28 ± 0.07, constant of association (logβ = 4.98 ± 0.05, constant of distribution (logKD = 1.30 ± 0.02 and recovery factor (R / % = 95.17 ± 0.02. Beerʼs law is obeyed for Ga(III concentration up to 0.8 μg cm-3 with apparent molar absorptivity of (10.3 ± 0.4×104 dm-3 mol-1 cm-1 at λmax = 510 nm. Some additional characteristics, such as limit of detection (LOD = 0.072 μg cm-3, limit of quantification (LOQ = 0.24 μg cm-3 and Sandellʼs sensitivity (SS = 0.000675 ng cm-2 were estimated as well.

  20. Ethosomes of Phenylethyl Resorcinol as Vesicular Delivery System for Skin Lightening Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunyaluk Limsuwan


    Full Text Available Ethosome formulations containing phenylethyl resorcinol (PR were developed. The formulation was produced from 0.5% w/v PR, 0.5% w/v cholesterol from lanolin, 3% w/v L-α-phosphatidylcholine from soybean, 30% v/v absolute ethanol, and water up to 100% v/v. It was characterized by a vesicular size of 389 nm, low polydispersity index of 0.266, zeta potential of −34.19±0.44 mV, high PR entrapment efficiency of 71%, and good stability on storage at 4 and 30°C at 75% RH for 4 months. In vitro studies using pig skin revealed that permeation coefficient of PR from ethosomes was significantly higher than that from liposomes. In vitro retention profiles showed that PR accumulation in pig skin following application of ethosome formulations was 7.4-, 3.3-, and 1.8-fold higher than that achieved using liposomes, 20% propylene glycol solution, and 30% hydroethanolic solution, respectively. An inhibition value of around 80% was measured for antityrosinase activity of PR in pig skin. Consistently, ethosomes exhibited higher tyrosinase inhibition activity and melanin content reduction when compared to other formulations in B16 melanoma cells. Ethosomes did not cause acute dermal irritation in albino rabbits. These findings demonstrate that ethosomes are capable of delivering PR into the skin efficiently and hold promise for topical application of skin lightening products.

  1. Ethosomes of Phenylethyl Resorcinol as Vesicular Delivery System for Skin Lightening Applications. (United States)

    Limsuwan, Tunyaluk; Boonme, Prapaporn; Khongkow, Pasarat; Amnuaikit, Thanaporn


    Ethosome formulations containing phenylethyl resorcinol (PR) were developed. The formulation was produced from 0.5% w/v PR, 0.5% w/v cholesterol from lanolin, 3% w/v L-α-phosphatidylcholine from soybean, 30% v/v absolute ethanol, and water up to 100% v/v. It was characterized by a vesicular size of 389 nm, low polydispersity index of 0.266, zeta potential of -34.19 ± 0.44 mV, high PR entrapment efficiency of 71%, and good stability on storage at 4 and 30°C at 75% RH for 4 months. In vitro studies using pig skin revealed that permeation coefficient of PR from ethosomes was significantly higher than that from liposomes. In vitro retention profiles showed that PR accumulation in pig skin following application of ethosome formulations was 7.4-, 3.3-, and 1.8-fold higher than that achieved using liposomes, 20% propylene glycol solution, and 30% hydroethanolic solution, respectively. An inhibition value of around 80% was measured for antityrosinase activity of PR in pig skin. Consistently, ethosomes exhibited higher tyrosinase inhibition activity and melanin content reduction when compared to other formulations in B16 melanoma cells. Ethosomes did not cause acute dermal irritation in albino rabbits. These findings demonstrate that ethosomes are capable of delivering PR into the skin efficiently and hold promise for topical application of skin lightening products.

  2. Simultaneous Determination of Hydroquinone, Catechol and Resorcinol at Graphene Doped Carbon Ionic Liquid Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma


    Full Text Available A new composite electrode has been prepared with doping graphene into the paste consisting graphite and ionic liquid, n-octyl-pyridinum hexafluorophosphate (OPFP. This electrode shows an excellent electrochemical activity for the redox of hydroquinone (HQ, catechol (CC, and resorcinol (RS. In comparison with bare paste electrode, the redox peaks of three isomers of dihydroxybenzene can be obviously, simultaneously observed at graphene doping paste electrode. Under the optimized condition, the simultaneous determination of HQ, CC, and RS in their ternary mixture can be carried out with a differential pulse voltammetric technique. The peak currents are linear to the concentration of HQ, CC, and RS in the range form 1×10−5 to 4×10−4, 1×10−5 to 3×10−4, and 1×10−6 to 1.7×10−4 mol L−1, respectively. The limits of detection are 1.8×10−6 mol L−1 for HQ, 7.4×10−7 mol L−1 for CC, and 3.6×10−7 M for RS, respectively.

  3. Comparative Enactment of Formaldehyde-free and Formaldehyde-based Cross-linkers on Cotton Woven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawshin Farzana


    Full Text Available The performances of formaldehyde-based and non-formaldehyde cross-linkers on pretreated cotton woven fabric were assessed and compared in this research. Fixapret CL was considered as the formaldehyde-based resin and Fixapret NF as the formaldehyde-free resin. Dry cross-linking method was adopted for the application of cross-linkers. Different properties of resin treated fabrics investigated and compared were as follows: DP (durable press rating, wrinkle recovery, stiff ness, tensile strength, tear strength, shrinkage, skewness, hydrophobicity, whiteness and yellowness index. Marginally low performances in smoothness appearance and dimensional stability on fabric were exhibited with formaldehyde-free cross-linkers although indicating lower amount of the strength loss percentage. The formaldehyde-based compounds imparted more yellowing tendency to the treated fabric. The formaldehyde-free resins may be a good choice of replacements considering the overall eff ectiveness on fabric

  4. Skincare products containing low concentrations of formaldehyde detected by the chromotropic acid method cannot be safely used in formaldehyde-allergic patients. (United States)

    Hauksson, I; Pontén, A; Gruvberger, B; Isaksson, M; Engfeldt, M; Bruze, M


    Formaldehyde is a well-known contact sensitizer. Formaldehyde releasers are widely used preservatives in skincare products. It has been found that formaldehyde at concentrations allowed by the European Cosmetics Directive can cause allergic contact dermatitis. However, we still lack information on whether formaldehyde at low concentrations affects dermatitis in formaldehyde-allergic individuals. To study the effects of low concentrations of formaldehyde on irritant contact dermatitis in formaldehyde-allergic individuals. Fifteen formaldehyde-allergic individuals and a control group of 12 individuals without contact allergy to formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers were included in the study. The individuals performed the repeated open application test (ROAT) during 4 weeks with four different moisturizers releasing formaldehyde in concentrations that had been determined as > 40, 20-40, 2·5-10 and 0 p.p.m. by the chromotropic acid (CA) spot test. Dimethyloldimethylhydantoin was used as a formaldehyde releaser in the moisturizers. The ROAT was performed on areas of experimentally induced sodium lauryl sulfate dermatitis. The study was double blind, controlled and randomized. Nine of the 15 formaldehyde-allergic individuals had reappearance or worsening of dermatitis on the areas that were treated with moisturizers containing formaldehyde. No such reactions were observed in the control group (P formaldehyde in the formaldehyde-allergic individuals (P formaldehyde often found in skincare products by the CA method are sufficient to worsen an existing dermatitis in formaldehyde-allergic individuals. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone reduce production of melanin in melanoma cells by tyrosinase activity inhibition and decreasing tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression. (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yi-Shyan; Lin, Chih-Chien; Chen, Kuan-Hung


    Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone) are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone can reduce the production of melanin. The results also confirmed that resorcinol and lawsone inhibit mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities in vitro. Resorcinol and lawsone can also downregulate the protein levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in B16-F10 cells. Thus, we suggest that frequent use of hair dyes may have the risk of reducing natural melanin production in hair follicles. Moreover, resorcinol and lawsone may also be used as hypopigmenting agents to food, agricultural and cosmetic industry in the future.

  6. Hair Dyes Resorcinol and Lawsone Reduce Production of Melanin in Melanoma Cells by Tyrosinase Activity Inhibition and Decreasing Tyrosinase and Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Mei Lee


    Full Text Available Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone can reduce the production of melanin. The results also confirmed that resorcinol and lawsone inhibit mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities in vitro. Resorcinol and lawsone can also downregulate the protein levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF in B16-F10 cells. Thus, we suggest that frequent use of hair dyes may have the risk of reducing natural melanin production in hair follicles. Moreover, resorcinol and lawsone may also be used as hypopigmenting agents to food, agricultural and cosmetic industry in the future.

  7. Investigation on formaldehyde release from preservatives in cosmetics. (United States)

    Lv, C; Hou, J; Xie, W; Cheng, H


    To understand formaldehyde residue in cosmetics, an investigation on formaldehyde release from eight preservatives (methenamine - MA, paraformaldehyde - PF, poly(p-toluenesulfonamide-co-formaldehyde) -PTSAF, quaternium-15 - QU, imidazolidinyl urea - IU, diazolidinyl urea - DU, dimethyloldimethyl hydantoin - DMDM and bronopol - BP) under various conditions was performed. The concentration of released formaldehyde was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The amounts of formaldehyde release were in the order of PF > DU > DMDM ≈ QU ≈ IU > MA > BP > PTSAF. The releasing amounts of formaldehyde were the highest in the presence of aqueous matrices for the releasers except QU and IU, and the releasing effect was also relative to pH. More formaldehyde was released with longer storage time and higher temperature. Furthermore, all preservatives in cosmetic matrices released fewer amounts of formaldehyde than in pure aqueous or organic matrices, and the formaldehyde-releasing amounts were also cosmetic specific. Formaldehyde release was dependent on the matrix, pH, time and mainly temperature, and the releasing effect was also cosmetic specific. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songul Acar VAIZOÐLU


    Full Text Available This study is a descriptive research performed in order to measure formaldehyde levels in 46 random selected coffee shops in from central districts of Ankara. Formaldemeter 400 was used for formaldehyde measures. Simultaneous measures were applied in coffee shops. Mean of formaldehyde levels was 0,20 ppm. There was artificial ventilation in all of the coffee shops. It was used aspirator as ventilation device in 69,6% of the coffee shops. But in 81,0% of these, the formaldehyde levels were above 0,10 ppm. In 51,0% of the shops stoves were used for warming and 95,7% of these formaldehyde levels were above 0,10 ppm. There were statistically significant difference between warming-up method and formaldehyde levels of coffee shops ( p<0,05, chi square = 6,4. It was used liquid fuel in 51,1% of them as heating fuel. In 69,6% of them formaldehyde levels were above 0,10 ppm. There were statistically significant difference between fuel type and formaldehyde levels of coffee shops ( p<0,05, chi square = 5,7. As a result; in 91,3% of the coffee shops formaldehyde levels were above the 0,03 ppm which is permitted limit for indoors, and in 82,6% of them formaldehyde levels were above the 0,1 ppm which is symptom producing level. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(3.000: 129-135

  9. Effectiveness of various methods of formaldehyde neutralization using monoethanolamine. (United States)

    Coskey, Andrew; Gest, Thomas R


    Formaldehyde is the most commonly used fixative chemical for the preservation of human cadavers used for educational purposes in the United States. Formaldehyde is also a known carcinogenic agent whose exposure level is regulated by guidelines of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Various methods for formaldehyde neutralization exist, yet many donations programs do not take any steps to neutralize the formaldehyde in embalmed donor bodies. The effectiveness of monoethanolamine (MEA) in neutralizing formaldehyde is well documented when used as a final injection during embalming. The purpose of this study is to report the effectiveness of several post-embalming techniques of formaldehyde neutralization. Twenty-four donor bodies were assigned to four experimental groups of six. For the three experimental groups, the techniques tested involve delivery of a 20:1 dilution of deionized water:MEA via recannulization and gravity flow infusion, compartment injection, and alternate wetting solution containing four percent MEA. Our results indicated that spray bottle delivery was not effective in neutralization of formaldehyde compared to the control group, but that formaldehyde levels decreased when recannulization or compartment injection were used. The most effective method of formaldehyde neutralization was compartment injection of MEA solution (P < 0.01). The results of this study indicate that, in situations where MEA is not used as a final infusion during embalming, compartment injection of MEA solution is an effective method of formaldehyde neutralization. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The microcapsule-type formaldehyde scavenger: the preparation and the application in urea-formaldehyde adhesives. (United States)

    Duan, Hongyun; Qiu, Teng; Guo, Longhai; Ye, Jun; Li, Xiaoyu


    The limitation and regulation of formaldehyde emissions (FE) now shows great importance in wood-based materials such as plywood and particle board manufactured for building and furnishing materials. The widely used formaldehyde-based adhesives are one of the main sources of FE from the wood products. In this work, a new kind of long-term effective formaldehyde scavenger in the microcapsule form was prepared by using an intra-liquid desiccation method. The characterizations of the capsule (UC) were performed including the morphologies, the yields, the loading efficiency as well as its sustained-release of urea in aqueous conditions. The prepared UC could be integrated in urea-formaldehyde resins by simply physical blending, and the mixtures were available to be applied as the adhesives for the manufacture of plywood. The bonding strength (BS) and the FE of the bonded plywood in both short (3h) and long (12 week) period were evaluated in detail. It was found that the FE profile of the plywood behaved following a duple exponential law within 12 week. The addition of UC in the adhesive can effectively depress the FE of the plywood not only in a short period after preparation but also in a long-term period during its practical application. The slow released urea would continuously suppress the emission of toxic formaldehyde in a sustained manner without obviously deteriorating on the BS of the adhesives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Afgivelse af formaldehyd fra byggevarer og forbrugerprodukter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Gunnarsen, Lars; Funch, Llis Winther

    Rapporten præsenterer resultatet af en undersøgelse af formaldehydafgivelse fra 22 mulige kilder i indeklimaet. Undersøgelsen er gennemført for om muligt at finde årsagen til de høje koncentrationer af formaldehyd i indeluften, der blev fundet i enkelte danske boliger under en foregående undersøg......Rapporten præsenterer resultatet af en undersøgelse af formaldehydafgivelse fra 22 mulige kilder i indeklimaet. Undersøgelsen er gennemført for om muligt at finde årsagen til de høje koncentrationer af formaldehyd i indeluften, der blev fundet i enkelte danske boliger under en foregående...

  12. Importance of formaldehyde in cloud chemistry (United States)

    Adewuyi, Y. G.; Cho, S.-Y.; Tsay, R.-P.; Carmichael, G. R.


    A physical-chemical model which is an extension of that of Hong and Carmichael (1983) is used to investigate the role of formaldehyde in cloud chemistry. This model takes into account the mass transfer of SO2, O3, NH3, HNO3, H2O2, CO2, HCl, HCHO, O2, OH and HO2 into cloud droplets and their subsequent chemical reactions. The model is used to assess the importance of S(IV)-HCHO adduct formation, the reduction of H2O2 by HCHO, HCHO-free radical interactions, and the formation of HCOOH in the presence of HCHO in cloud droplets. Illustrative calculations indicate that the presence of HCHO inhibits sulfate production rate in cloud droplets. The direct inhibition of sulfate production rate in cloudwater due to nucleophilic addition of HSO3(-) to HCHO(aq) to form hydroxymethanesulfonate is generally low for concentrations of HCHO typical of ambient air. However, inhibition of sulfate production due to formaldehyde-free radical interactions in solution can be important. These formaldehyde-free radical reactions can also generate appreciable quantities of formic acid.

  13. A rapid liquid chromatography determination of free formaldehyde in cod. (United States)

    Storey, Joseph M; Andersen, Wendy C; Heise, Andrea; Turnipseed, Sherri B; Lohne, Jack; Thomas, Terri; Madson, Mark


    A rapid method for the determination of free formaldehyde in cod is described. It uses a simple water extraction of formaldehyde which is then derivatised with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) to form a sensitive and specific chromophore for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) detection. Although this formaldehyde derivative has been widely used in past tissue analysis, this paper describes an improved derivatisation procedure. The formation of the DNPH formaldehyde derivative has been shortened to 2 min and a stabilising buffer has been added to the derivative to increase its stability. The average recovery of free formaldehyde in spiked cod was 63% with an RSD of 15% over the range of 25-200 mg kg(-1) (n = 48). The HPLC procedure described here was also compared to a commercial qualitative procedure - a swab test for the determination of free formaldehyde in fish. Several positive samples were compared by both methods.

  14. Problems associated with the use of urea-formaldehyde foam for residential insulation. Part II. The effects of temperature and humidity on free formaldehyde, extractable formaldehyde, formaldehyde emission, and physical characteristics of the foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schutte, W.C.; Cole, R.S.; Frank, C.W.; Long, K.R.


    Results of testing with two products of urea-formaldehyde based foams are described. Results of three products have previously been reported. Methods for detection and quantitative determination of formaldehyde, design of the experimental chambers, and the procedures are described. Samples of Product D were monitored for about 29 days and samples of Product E were monitored for 60 days in chambers and results are tabulated for formaldehyde emission. Additional tests performed on the two products are: extractable formaldehyde (high and low temperature conditions); free formaldehyde (high and low temperature conditions); comparison of free formaldehyde concentration; density (high and low temperature conditions); shrinkage (high and low temperature conditions). Control panels were constructed to simulate a wall in a home and observations were made and compared with results of the experimental products.

  15. Determination of trace amounts of copper with 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol by solid phase spectrophotometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-de Cordova, M.L. (Dept. of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Jaen Univ. (Spain)); Molina-Diaz, A. (Dept. of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Jaen Univ. (Spain)); Pascual-Reguera, M.I. (Dept. of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Jaen Univ. (Spain)); Capitan-Vallvey, L.F. (Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Granada Univ. (Spain))


    A determination method for traces of copper by Solid-Phase Spectrophotometry (SPS) has been developed. It is based on the fixation of copper(II) as 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol complex on a styrene-divinylbenzene anion-exchange resin. The resin phase absorbances at 525 and 800 nm are measured directly, and the determination of copper (with a RSD of 1.8%) is possible in the range of 0.3-4.5 [mu]g L[sup -1]. The method has been applied to the determination of copper in different samples, i.e. mushrooms, tea, drugs and waters. (orig.)

  16. Determination of lead in solution by solid phase extraction, elution, and spectrophotometric detection using 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol


    Rahman, Ismail M. M.; Furusho, Yoshiaki; Begum, Zinnat A.; Sato, Rika; Okumura, Hiroshi; Honda, Hiroko; Hasegawa, Hiroshi


    Lead (+2) was selectively adsorbed on a solid phase extraction (SPE) gel (molecular recognition technology, MRT), quantitatively extracted, and spectrophotometrically determined as the Pb(II)-PAR (4-(2-pyridylazo)- resorcinol) complex. The linear range was 0.01 to 0.75 mg L-1 and the detection limit was 6.4 μg L-1. The MRT-SPE allows selective Pb(II) extraction from complex ion-rich matrices, which is difficult with other techniques. Interference from common matrix ions such as Fe2+, Ni2+, Cu...

  17. Pressure dependent isotopic fractionation in the photolysis of formaldehyde-d2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, E.J.K.; Schmidt, Johan Albrecht; Johnson, Matthew Stanley


    The isotope effects in formaldehyde photolysis are the key link between the δD of methane emissions and the δD of atmospheric in situ hydrogen production. A few recent studies have suggested that a pressure dependence in the isotopic fractionation can partly explain enrichment of deuterium...... earlier work with HDCO vs. H2CO. The UV lamps used for photolysis emit light at wavelengths that primarily dissociate formaldehyde into molecular products, CO and H2 or D2. The isotope effect k(H2CO)/k(D2CO) Combining double low line 3.16 ± 0.03 at 1000 mbar is in good agreement...... with results from previous studies. Similarly to what was previously shown for k(H2CO)/k(HDCO), the isotope effect decreased as pressure decreased. In addition, a model was constructed using RRKM theory to calculate the lifetime of excited formaldehyde on the S0 surface, to investigate its...

  18. Formaldehyde scavengers function as novel antigen retrieval agents (United States)

    Vollert, Craig T.; Moree, Wilna J.; Gregory, Steven; Bark, Steven J.; Eriksen, Jason L.


    Antigen retrieval agents improve the detection of formaldehyde-fixed proteins, but how they work is not well understood. We demonstrate that formaldehyde scavenging represents a key characteristic associated with effective antigen retrieval; under controlled temperature and pH conditions, scavenging improves the typical antigen retrieval process through reversal of formaldehyde-protein adduct formation. This approach provides a rational framework for the identification and development of more effective antigen retrieval agents. PMID:26612041

  19. BLM protein mitigates formaldehyde-induced genomic instability. (United States)

    Kumari, Anuradha; Owen, Nichole; Juarez, Eleonora; McCullough, Amanda K


    Formaldehyde is a reactive aldehyde that has been classified as a class I human carcinogen by the International Agency for Cancer Research. There are growing concerns over the possible adverse health effects related to the occupational and environmental human exposures to formaldehyde. Although formaldehyde-induced DNA and protein adducts have been identified, the genomic instability mechanisms and the cellular tolerance pathways associated with formaldehyde exposure are not fully characterized. This study specifically examines the role of a genome stability protein, Bloom (BLM) in limiting formaldehyde-induced cellular and genetic abnormalities. Here, we show that in the absence of BLM protein, formaldehyde-treated cells exhibited increased cellular sensitivity, an immediate cell cycle arrest, and an accumulation of chromosome radial structures. In addition, live-cell imaging experiments demonstrated that formaldehyde-treated cells are dependent on BLM for timely segregation of daughter cells. Both wild-type and BLM-deficient formaldehyde-treated cells showed an accumulation of 53BP1 and γH2AX foci indicative of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs); however, relative to wild-type cells, the BLM-deficient cells exhibited delayed repair of formaldehyde-induced DSBs. In response to formaldehyde exposure, we observed co-localization of 53BP1 and BLM foci at the DSB repair site, where ATM-dependent accumulation of formaldehyde-induced BLM foci occurred after the recruitment of 53BP1. Together, these findings highlight the significance of functional interactions among ATM, 53BP1, and BLM proteins as responders associated with the repair and tolerance mechanisms induced by formaldehyde. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Degradation of formaldehyde in anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.S. [Laboratorio de Processos Biologicos (LPB), Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Engenharia Ambiental, Bloco 4-F, Av. Joao Dagnone, 1100 Santa Angelina, 13.563-120 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Zaiat, M. [Laboratorio de Processos Biologicos (LPB), Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Engenharia Ambiental, Bloco 4-F, Av. Joao Dagnone, 1100 Santa Angelina, 13.563-120 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail:


    The present study evaluated the degradation of formaldehyde in a bench-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor, which contained biomass immobilized in polyurethane foam matrices. The reactor was operated for 212 days at 35 deg. C with 8 h sequential cycles, under different affluent formaldehyde concentrations ranging from 31.6 to 1104.4 mg/L (formaldehyde loading rates from 0.08 to 2.78 kg/m{sup 3} day). The results indicate excellent reactor stability and over 99% efficiency in formaldehyde removal, with average effluent formaldehyde concentration of 3.6 {+-} 1.7 mg/L. Formaldehyde degradation rates increased from 204.9 to 698.3 mg/L h as the initial concentration of formaldehyde was increased from around 100 to around 1100 mg/L. However, accumulation of organic matter was observed in the effluent (chemical oxygen demand (COD) values above 500 mg/L) due to the presence of non-degraded organic acids, especially acetic and propionic acids. This observation poses an important question regarding the anaerobic route of formaldehyde degradation, which might differ substantially from that reported in the literature. The anaerobic degradation pathway can be associated with the formation of long-chain oligomers from formaldehyde. Such long- or short-chain polymers are probably the precursors of organic acid formation by means of acidogenic anaerobic microorganisms.

  1. Formaldehyde Crosslinking: A Tool for the Study of Chromatin Complexes* (United States)

    Hoffman, Elizabeth A.; Frey, Brian L.; Smith, Lloyd M.; Auble, David T.


    Formaldehyde has been used for decades to probe macromolecular structure and function and to trap complexes, cells, and tissues for further analysis. Formaldehyde crosslinking is routinely employed for detection and quantification of protein-DNA interactions, interactions between chromatin proteins, and interactions between distal segments of the chromatin fiber. Despite widespread use and a rich biochemical literature, important aspects of formaldehyde behavior in cells have not been well described. Here, we highlight features of formaldehyde chemistry relevant to its use in analyses of chromatin complexes, focusing on how its properties may influence studies of chromatin structure and function. PMID:26354429

  2. Formaldehyde crosslinking: a tool for the study of chromatin complexes. (United States)

    Hoffman, Elizabeth A; Frey, Brian L; Smith, Lloyd M; Auble, David T


    Formaldehyde has been used for decades to probe macromolecular structure and function and to trap complexes, cells, and tissues for further analysis. Formaldehyde crosslinking is routinely employed for detection and quantification of protein-DNA interactions, interactions between chromatin proteins, and interactions between distal segments of the chromatin fiber. Despite widespread use and a rich biochemical literature, important aspects of formaldehyde behavior in cells have not been well described. Here, we highlight features of formaldehyde chemistry relevant to its use in analyses of chromatin complexes, focusing on how its properties may influence studies of chromatin structure and function. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Detection of formaldehyde in textiles by chromotropic acid method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Sanath


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The common causes of textile dermatitis are formaldehyde resins and disperse dyes. There are various methods to detect the presence of formaldehyde in clothing. AIM: To detect the presence of formaldehyde in various types of textiles by the chromotropic acid method and to assess the effect of washing on the formaldehyde content. METHODS: Twenty randomly selected textiles from a local cloth store were tested for formaldehyde by the chromotropic acid method. A purple ring indicated a positive reaction. The intensity of the purple ring was graded from 1+ to 3+ and reassessed after washing the clothes. RESULTS: Eleven out of the 20 textiles tested positive for formaldehyde. The fully synthetic clothes were free from formaldehyde. After the first and second washes the majority did not show a reduction in the formaldehyde content. CONCLUSIONS: This is a simple and rapid test which can be used in the practical management of patients with textile allergy. Washing the clothes may not have an effect on the formaldehyde content.

  4. The TetR-Type Transcriptional Repressor RolR from Corynebacterium glutamicum Regulates Resorcinol Catabolism by Binding to a Unique Operator, rolO


    Li, Tang; Zhao, Kexin; Huang, Yan; Li, Defeng; Jiang, Cheng-Ying; Zhou, Nan; Fan, Zheng; Liu, Shuang-Jiang


    The rol (designated for resorcinol) gene cluster rolRHMD is involved in resorcinol catabolism in Corynebacterium glutamicum, and RolR is the TetR-type regulator. In this study, we investigated how RolR regulated the transcription of the rol genes in C. glutamicum. The transcription start sites and promoters of rolR and rolHMD were identified. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and promoter activity analysis indicated that RolR negatively regulated the transcription of rolHMD and of its ow...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapina Maya


    Full Text Available Introduction: Occupational allergic contact sensitization is common in dental personnel. Some of the most common occupational allergens in dental practice are some formaldehyde-releasers, formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the rate of contact sensitization to formaldehyde, quaternium-15, imidazolidinyl urea, diazolidinyl urea, and to glutaraldehyde in students of dental medicine and dental patients. Material and methods: A total of 50 participants were included in the study: 40 students of dental medicine exposed to formaldehyde-releasers, formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde during the course of their education; 10 dental patients without occupational exposure to the latter substances served as a control group. All of them were patch-tested with the studied allergens. Results: The sensitization rate to formaldehyde was significantly higher in the group of dental patients if compared to the one of dental students (χ2=5.37; p=0.021. Positive skin patch test reactions to quaternium-15 and to imidazolidinyl urea were observed only in the group of dental students. A significantly higher rate of sensitization to diazolidinyl urea, if compared to the one to imidazolidinyl urea (χ2=5.4; p=0.02 and to quaternium-15 (χ2=6.76; p=0.009, as well as to glutaraldehyde, if compared to the one to quaternium-15 (χ2=3.96; p=0.04 for the whole studied population was established. For the whole studied population, significantly increased rate of concomitant sensitization to formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde (χ2=6.18 p=0.013, as well as to diazolidinyl urea and to glutaraldehyde was established (χ2=9.12 p=0.003. Conclusions: We consider the importance of exposure to diazolidinyl urea, quaternium-15, imidazolidinyl urea and glutaraldehyde during the course of practical education in dentistry for the onset of sensitization. The exposure to formaldehyde is ubiquitous and is difficult to distinguish the roles of

  6. Formaldehyde and LeukemiA: Epidemiology, Potential Mechanisms and Implications for Risk Assessment (United States)

    Formaldehyde is widely used in the United States and other countries. Occupational and environmental exposures to formaldehyde may be associated with an increased risk of leukemia in exposed individuals. However, risk assessment of formaldehyde and leukemia has been challenging ...

  7. 78 FR 51695 - Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products; Extension of Comment Period (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 770 RIN 2070-AJ92 Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products..., concerning formaldehyde emissions standards for composite wood products. After receiving requests for an... CFR Part 770 Environmental protection, Formaldehyde, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Toxic...

  8. Concentrations of formaldehyde in rain waters harvested at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formaldehyde has been recognized as one of the most important pollutants and a carcinogen that is present in the air, water, foods, soils, fabrics, cosmetics, cigarette smoke and treated wood. Related health effects and hazards are linked to formaldehyde, depending on mode of exposure which includes: weakness, ...

  9. [Effect of formaldehyde inhalation on allergic rhinitis in mice]. (United States)

    Xiang, Rong; Xu, Yu


    To observe the effect of formaldehyde inhalation on the allergic rhinitis mice model. Forty-eight male BALB/C mice in six experimental group were exposure to (A) saline control; (B) Der p1; (C) formaldehyde (3.0 mg/m3); (D) Derp1 + formaldehyde (1.5 mg/m3); (E) Der p1 + formaldehyde (3.0 mg/M3); (F) Der p1+ formaldehyde (6.0 mg/m3). The concentrations of IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ in the peripheral serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Nasal mucosal inflammation was evaluated by HE staining. Result: Formaldehyde exposure could increase the number of allergic rhinitis mice with sneezing and rubbing nose. The levels of IL-4 and IL-10 in group B, D, E and F were higher than that ingroup A (P formaldehyde exposure allergic rhinitis groups. The study showed that formaldehyde exposure can promote Th2 cytokines and eosinophil infiltration and then aggravate the allergic rhinitis symptoms.

  10. Influence of indoor formaldehyde pollution on respiratory system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The decoration of interior spaces can lead to dangerous levels of indoor formaldehyde pollution. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million deaths per year in developing countries. Objectives To assess the prevalence of indoor formaldehyde pollution caused by decoration and ...

  11. Solution of Azelaic Acid (20%), Resorcinol (10%) and Phytic Acid (6%) Versus Glycolic Acid (50%) Peeling Agent in the Treatment of Female Patients with Facial Melasma. (United States)

    Faghihi, Gita; Taheri, Azam; Shahmoradi, Zabihollah; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali


    Melasma, a common acquired disorder of hyperpigmentation, especially in women, is often resistant to therapy. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of azelaic acid, resorcinol and phytic acid solution in chemical peeling of melasma in comparison to 50% glycolic acid. This clinical trial was performed, on 42 female patients with bilateral melasma. Severity of melasma was assessed by melasma area and severity index (MASI). Combination of (20% azelaic acid + 10% resorcinol + 6% phytic acid) was used as a new peeling agent on the right side of the face and 50% glycolic acid on the left side every 2 weeks for 6 times. Follow-up was carried out for 3 months after the last session. Any decrease in MASI score and unwanted complications following peeling were evaluated and compared during the trial. Patients showed marked improvement as calculated with MASI score before and after treatment in both sides of the face. The efficacy of combination formula (azelaic acid, resorcinol and phytic acid) was similar to glycolic acid, but with fewer complications. There was no statistically difference in improvement between two groups (P > 0.05). However, the patient's discomfort following procedures was significantly lower with azelaic acid, resorcinol and phytic compared with the glycolic acid peels (P glycolic acid peel.

  12. Development of melamine modified urea formaldehyde resins based o nstrong acidic pH catalyzed urea formaldehyde polymer (United States)

    Chung-Yun Hse


    To upgrade the performance of urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin bonded particleboards, melamine modified urea-formaldehyde (MUF) resins based on strong acidic pH catalyzed UF polymers were investigated. The study was conducted in a series of two experiments: 1) formulation of MUF resins based on a UF polymer catalyzed with strong acidic pH and 2) determination of the...

  13. Hardness evaluation of cured urea-formaldehyde resins with different formaldehyde/urea mole ratios using nanoindentation method (United States)

    Byung-Dae Park; Charles R. Frihart; Yan Yu; Adya P. Singh


    To understand the influence of formaldehyde/urea (F/U) mole ratio on the properties of urea–formaldehyde (UF) resins, this study investigated hardness of cured UF resins with different F/U mole ratios using a nanoindentation method. The traditional Brinell hardness (HB) method was also used...

  14. Aβ seeds resist inactivation by formaldehyde. (United States)

    Fritschi, Sarah K; Cintron, Amarallys; Ye, Lan; Mahler, Jasmin; Bühler, Anika; Baumann, Frank; Neumann, Manuela; Nilsson, K Peter R; Hammarström, Per; Walker, Lary C; Jucker, Mathias


    Cerebral β-amyloidosis can be exogenously induced by the intracerebral injection of brain extracts containing aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ) into young, pre-depositing Aβ precursor protein- (APP) transgenic mice. Previous work has shown that the induction involves a prion-like seeding mechanism in which the seeding agent is aggregated Aβ itself. Here we report that the β-amyloid-inducing activity of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain tissue or aged APP-transgenic mouse brain tissue is preserved, albeit with reduced efficacy, after formaldehyde fixation. Moreover, spectral analysis with amyloid conformation-sensitive luminescent conjugated oligothiophene dyes reveals that the strain-like properties of aggregated Aβ are maintained in fixed tissues. The resistance of Aβ seeds to inactivation and structural modification by formaldehyde underscores their remarkable durability, which in turn may contribute to their persistence and spread within the body. The present findings can be exploited to establish the relationship between the molecular structure of Aβ aggregates and the variable clinical features and disease progression of AD even in archived, formalin-fixed autopsy material.

  15. 21 CFR 177.1460 - Melamine-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Melamine-formaldehyde resins in molded articles...-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. Melamine-formaldehyde resins may be safely used as the food-contact...: (a) For the purpose of this section, melamine-formaldehyde resins are those produced when 1 mole of...

  16. 21 CFR 177.1900 - Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. 177...-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. Urea-formaldehyde resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface... conditions: (a) For the purpose of this section, urea-formaldehyde resins are those produced when 1 mole of...

  17. 40 CFR 80.56 - Measurement methods for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurement methods for formaldehyde... Measurement methods for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. (a) Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde will be measured by....140 of this chapter for formaldehyde analysis. Diluted exhaust sample volumes must be at least 15 L...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Lobo

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work the aerobic degradation of phenol (PH, catechol (CA, resorcinol (RE, hydroquinone (HY and of the binary mixtures PH+CA, PH+RE, PH+HY by phenol-acclimated activated sludge was studied. Single substrate experiments show a Haldane-type dependence of the respiration rate on PH, RE and HY, while CA corresponded to the Monod model. Binary substrate experiments demonstrated that the presence of a second substrate only affected the kinetics, but not the stoichiometry of the oxidation of the compounds tested. While CA inhibited the oxidation of PH, PH inhibited the oxidation of RE and HY. A mathematical model was developed to represent the aerobic biodegradation of the phenolic compounds tested. The agreement between the proposed model and the experimental data indicates that the proposed model can be useful for predicting substrate and dissolved oxygen concentrations in bioreactors treating phenolic wastewaters.

  19. Quantification of atmospheric formaldehyde by infrared absorption spectroscopy (United States)

    Hoffnagle, John; Fleck, Derek; Rella, Chris; Kim-Hak, David


    Formaldehyde is a toxic, carcinogenic compound that can contaminate ambient air as a result of combustion or outgassing of commercial products such as adhesives used to fabricate plywood and to affix indoor carpeting. Like many small molecules, formaldehyde has an infrared absorption spectrum exhibiting bands of ro-vibrational transitions that are well resolved at low pressure and therefore well suited for optical analysis of formaldehyde concentration. We describe progress in applying cavity ring-down spectroscopy of the 2v5 band (the first overtone of the asymmetric C-H stretch, origin at 1770 nm) to the quantitative analysis of formaldehyde concentration in ambient air. Preliminary results suggest that a sensitivity of 1-2 ppb in a measurement interval of a few seconds, and 0.1-0.2 ppb in a few minutes, should be achievable with a compact, robust, and field-deployable instrument. Finally, we note that recent satellites monitoring snapshots of formaldehyde columns give insights into global formaldehyde production, migration and lifetime. The ability to monitor formaldehyde with a small and portable analyzer has the potential to aid in validation of these snapshots and to provide complementary data to show vertical dispersions with high spatial accuracy.

  20. Determination of trace amounts of formaldehyde in acetone. (United States)

    Huang, X H Hilda; Ip, H S Simon; Yu, Jian Zhen


    A method to quantify sub-ppm levels of formaldehyde in acetone has been developed and it is reported here. In this method, the different reactivities and stabilities of sulfite with formaldehyde and acetone are used to separate the two carbonyl compounds. Sulfite reacts with formaldehyde to form hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS), the non-volatile and stable nature of which allows its separation from bulk acetone solvent. The resulting HMS is then converted back to formaldehyde under basic conditions, and formaldehyde is derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and quantified in its DNP hydrazone form using high-performance liquid chromatography-UV detection. The method detection limit at the 99% confidence level was 0.051 mg L(-1). A batch of samples can be processed within 4 h. The method has been applied to quantify the amount of formaldehyde in an analytical-grade acetone and in a commercial nail polish remover and the level of formaldehyde was found to be 0.175 and 0.184 mg L(-1), respectively.

  1. By-passing acidification limitations during the biofiltration of high formaldehyde loads via the application of ozone pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Pérez, Teresa [División de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78216 (Mexico); Aizpuru, Aitor [Universidad del Mar, Puerto Ángel, Distrito de San Pedro Pochutla, Oaxaca, México C.P. 70902 (Mexico); Arriaga, Sonia, E-mail: [División de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78216 (Mexico)


    Highlights: • Ozone addition permits to treat higher formaldehyde loads than ever reported. • Ozone addition acts as an indirect in situ pH regulator, minimizing the accumulation of acid byproducts. • Mineralization of formaldehyde occurs, which has never been reported. • Low ozone levels have no negative effects on biological degradation activity. • The use of hybrid processes allows overcoming biofiltration limitations. -- Abstract: A formaldehyde airstream was treated in a biofilter for an extended period of time. During the first 133 days, the reactor was operated without ozone, whereas over the following 82 days ozone was intermittently implemented. The maximum stable elimination capacity obtained without ozone was around 57 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. A greater load could not be treated under these conditions, and no significant formaldehyde removal was maintained for inlet loads greater than 65 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}; the activity of microorganisms was then inhibited by the presence of acidic byproducts, and the media acidified (pH < 4). The implementation of ozone pulses allowed a stable elimination capacity to be obtained, even at greater loads (74 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}). The effect of ozone on the extra cellular polymeric substances detachment from the biofilm could not be confirmed due to the too low biofilter biomass content. Thus, the results suggest that ozone acted as an in situ pH regulator, preventing acidic byproducts accumulation, and allowing the treatment of high loads of formaldehyde.

  2. Formaldehyde: a candidate toxic air contaminant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, B.; Parker, T.


    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a gas widely used in adhesives and resins, textiles, embalming fluids, fungicides, air fresheners, and cosmetics. It is directly emitted into the ambient outdoor air from vehicular and stationary sources, and is also produced in the atmosphere from other substances by photochemical smog processes. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that there is sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity of formaldehyde to animals, and limited evidence for carcinogenicity to humans. EPA classifies formaldehyde as a probable human carcinogen with a one in a million risk concentration of 0.08 ppb.

  3. The emission structure of formaldehyde megamasers (United States)

    Baan, Willem A.; An, Tao; Klöckner, Hans-Rainer; Thomasson, Peter


    The formaldehyde megamaser emission has been mapped for the three host galaxies IC 860, IRAS 15107+0724 and Arp 220. Elongated emission components are found at the nuclear centres of all galaxies with an extent ranging between 30 and 100 pc. These components are superposed on the peaks of the nuclear continuum. Additional isolated emission components are found superposed in the outskirts of the radio continuum structure. The brightness temperatures of the detected features ranges from 0.6 to 13.4 × 104 K, which confirms their masering nature. The masering scenario is interpreted as amplification of the radio continuum by foreground molecular gas that is pumped by far-infrared radiation fields in these starburst environments of the host galaxies.

  4. Formaldehyde Surface Distributions and Variability in the Mexico City Basin (United States)

    Junkermann, W.; Mohr, C.; Steinbrecher, R.; Ruiz Suarez, L.


    Formaldehyde ambient air mole fractions were measured throughout the dry season in March at three different locations in the Mexico City basin. The continuously running instruments were operated at Tenago del Aire, a site located in the Chalco valley in the southern venting area of the basin, at the Intituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP) in the northern part of the city and about 30 km north of the city at the campus of the Universidad Tecnològica de Tecamac (UTTEC). The technique used is the Hantzsch technology with a time resolution of 2 minutes and a detection limit of 100 ppt. Daily maxima peaked at 35 ppb formaldehyde in the city and about 15 to 20 ppb at the other sites. During night formaldehyde levels dropped to about 5 ppb or less. It is evident that the observed spatial and temporal variability in near surface formaldehyde distributions is strongly affected by local and regional advection processes.

  5. Formaldehyde Profiler Using Laser Induced Fluorescence Technique Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Formaldehyde (HCHO) is of great interest to atmospheric scientists in NASA and other research institutions. In this SBIR project, we propose to build an airborne or...

  6. Formaldehyde cross-linking and structural proteomics: Bridging the gap. (United States)

    Srinivasa, Savita; Ding, Xuan; Kast, Juergen


    Proteins are dynamic entities constantly moving and altering their structures based on their functions and interactions inside and outside the cell. Formaldehyde cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry can accurately capture interactions of these rapidly changing biomolecules while maintaining their physiological surroundings. Even with its numerous established uses in biology and compatibility with mass spectrometry, formaldehyde has not yet been applied in structural proteomics. However, formaldehyde cross-linking is moving toward analyzing tertiary structure, which conventional cross-linkers have already accomplished. The purpose of this review is to describe the potential of formaldehyde cross-linking in structural proteomics by highlighting its applications, characteristics and current status in the field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Low-power formaldehyde detector for space applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Trace contamination of the International Space Station (ISS) by formaldehyde?a known carcinogen? is a significant potential threat to crew health. The spacecraft...

  8. Formaldehyde Profiler Using Laser Induced Fluorescence Technique Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a key trace species that is of great interest to atmospheric scientists in NASA and other research institutions. In this SBIR project, we...

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Formaldehyde (Inhalation) (External Review Draft 2010) (United States)

    UPDATE EPA is currently revising its Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of formaldehyde to address the 2011 NAS peer review recommendations. This assessment addresses both noncancer and cancer human health effects that are relevant to assessing ...

  10. Low-Power Formaldehyde Detector for Space Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Trace contamination of the International Space Station (ISS) by formaldehyde -- a known carcinogen -- is a significant threat to crew health. The spacecraft maximum...

  11. Proposed residential indoor air quality guidelines for formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, N.


    This paper proposed a set of revised residential indoor air quality guidelines for formaldehyde. In the earlier guidelines, target and action levels were set at 60 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and 120 {mu}g/. However, epidemiological studies on the effects of chronic formaldehyde exposure have consistently found respiratory and allergic effects at levels below 123 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Formaldehyde levels in home have been associated with increased risk of atopy and have also been associated with the hospitalization of children. Summaries of various epidemiological studies were presented. A summary of critical effects and the derivation of the guidelines was provided. Based on clinical studies and animal experiments, the primary effects of acute exposure to formaldehyde are the irritation of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract and the eyes. The no observable adverse effects level (NOAEL) and lowest observable adverse effects level (LOAEL) for this outcome are 615 and 1,230 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. It was noted that an association between low-level exposure to formaldehyde and the development of allergic sensitization and asthma is biologically plausible as it is consistent with observations in animals. It was concluded that short-term exposure to formaldehyde should be limited to 123{mu}g/m{sup 3}. It was recommended that long term exposure to formaldehyde be limited to 50 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Although formaldehyde is carcinogenic to humans, the cancer risk associated with lifelong exposure at the recommended levels is estimated to be negligible. 73 refs., 9 tabs.

  12. Association between formaldehyde exposure and miscarriage in Chinese women. (United States)

    Xu, Wenjing; Zhang, Weiqiang; Zhang, Xuezhen; Dong, Taowei; Zeng, Huiqian; Fan, Qiyun


    The aim of this study was to assess whether higher plasma formaldehyde concentration existed in women diagnosed with miscarriage and whether it contributed to higher risk of miscarriage in Chinese women.A case-control study was conducted in 118 women with a diagnosed miscarriage at the first trimester and 191 healthy women who delivered at term. Plasma levels of formaldehyde were measured by gas chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry after derivatization of the formaldehyde to the pentafluorophenylhydrazone and characteristics of the subjects including age, education level, occupation, family income, home decoration status, and exposure to second-hand smoke were recorded. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between miscarriage and levels of formaldehyde.Women with miscarriage were comparable to controls in terms of age, education level, occupation, family income, and home decoration status. They were, however, more likely to be exposed to second-hand smoke. Plasma levels of formaldehyde were significantly higher in women with miscarriage (0.0944 ± 0.0105 vs. 0.0239 ± 0.0032 μg/mL, P formaldehyde (odds ratio [OR]: 8.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.96-13.09) and exposure to second-hand smoke (OR: 3.60, 95% CI: 1.58-8.20) were independently and significantly associated with higher risk of miscarriage.Plasma levels of formaldehyde were significantly higher in women who were diagnosed with miscarriage than those who delivered at term and higher levels of formaldehyde was an independent risk factor for miscarriage, with higher levels being associated with higher risk of miscarriage.

  13. Injection Seeded Laser for Formaldehyde Differential Fluorescence Lidar (United States)

    Schwemmer, G.; Yakshin, M.; Prasad, C.; Hanisco, T.; Mylapore, A. R.; Hwang, I. H.; Lee, S.


    We describe the design and development of an injection seeded Nd:YVO4 laser for use in a differential fluorescence lidar for measuring atmospheric formaldehyde profiles. A high repetition rate Q-switched laser is modified to accept injection seed input to spectrally narrow and tune the output. The third harmonic output is used to excite formaldehyde (HCHO) fluorescence when tuned to a HCHO absorption line. Spectral confirmation is made with the use of a photoacoustic cell and grating spectrometer.

  14. Wettability of southern pine veneer by phenol formaldehyde wood adhesives (United States)

    Chung-Yun Hse


    Wettability of southern pine veneers was judged by measuring the contact angles made by 36 phenol formaldehyde resins. Formulation of the resins was by factorial design, the molar ratios of sodium hydroxide to phenol being 0.4, 0.7, and 1.0, the levels of resin solids content in the reaction mixture 37, 40, and 43 percent, and the molar ratios of formaldehyde to phenol...

  15. Association between formaldehyde exposure and miscarriage in Chinese women (United States)

    Xu, Wenjing; Zhang, Weiqiang; Zhang, Xuezhen; Dong, Taowei; Zeng, Huiqian; Fan, Qiyun


    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess whether higher plasma formaldehyde concentration existed in women diagnosed with miscarriage and whether it contributed to higher risk of miscarriage in Chinese women. A case-control study was conducted in 118 women with a diagnosed miscarriage at the first trimester and 191 healthy women who delivered at term. Plasma levels of formaldehyde were measured by gas chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry after derivatization of the formaldehyde to the pentafluorophenylhydrazone and characteristics of the subjects including age, education level, occupation, family income, home decoration status, and exposure to second-hand smoke were recorded. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between miscarriage and levels of formaldehyde. Women with miscarriage were comparable to controls in terms of age, education level, occupation, family income, and home decoration status. They were, however, more likely to be exposed to second-hand smoke. Plasma levels of formaldehyde were significantly higher in women with miscarriage (0.0944 ± 0.0105 vs. 0.0239 ± 0.0032 μg/mL, P < .001). Multivariate logistic regression showed that higher level of formaldehyde (odds ratio [OR]: 8.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.96–13.09) and exposure to second-hand smoke (OR: 3.60, 95% CI: 1.58–8.20) were independently and significantly associated with higher risk of miscarriage. Plasma levels of formaldehyde were significantly higher in women who were diagnosed with miscarriage than those who delivered at term and higher levels of formaldehyde was an independent risk factor for miscarriage, with higher levels being associated with higher risk of miscarriage. PMID:28658105

  16. Common and uncommon reactions to formaldehyde-containing nail hardeners. (United States)

    Norton, L A


    A spectrum of reactions to free formaldehyde containing nail hardeners is presented. These include inflammatory and noninflammatory onycholysis, paronychia, chromonychia, nail plate shedding, and pterygium inversum unguis as well as satellite reactions on the skin and mucous membranes. Primary irritants are more common than allergic reactions. Nail cosmetic products containing free formaldehyde are available to the consumer, but federal guidelines dictate their labeling, acceptable concentration, and usage.

  17. Formaldehyde emissions from ULEF- and NAF-bonded commercial hardwood plywood as influenced by temperature and relative humidity (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; James M. Wescott; Michael J. Birkeland; Kyle M. Gonner


    It is well documented in the literature that temperature and humidity can influence formaldehyde emissions from composite panels that are produced using urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesives. This work investigates the effect of temperature and humidity on newer, ultra-low emitting formaldehyde urea formaldehyde (ULEF-UF) and no-added formaldehyde (NAF) adhesives. A...

  18. Formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics : relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy Part 1. Characterization, frequency and relevance of sensitization, and frequency of use in cosmetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton C.; White, Ian R.; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan


    In this part of a series of review articles on formaldehyde-releasers and their relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy, formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics are discussed. In this first part of the article, key data are presented including frequency of sensitization and of their use in

  19. Investigation of formaldehyde interaction with carbon nanotubes and quartz sand (United States)

    Georgopoulou, Maria P.; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V.


    Assessment of the potential impact of synthetic carbon nanotubes on the fate and transport of common chemical contaminants (pesticides, pharmaceuticals, etc.) in groundwater systems is considered to be an increasingly important aspect of environmental research. This study investigates the interaction of formaldehyde with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and quartz sand under static and dynamic conditions. Due to polarity, formaldehyde, is expected to develop strong adsorptive interactions with carbon nanotubes. Several batch adsorption experiments were conducted in test tubes, under controlled conditions. Various initial formaldehyde solution concentration (2, 5, 8 ppm), contact times, and temperatures (8, 18, 25 °C) were considered. Supernatant liquid samples were collected at regular intervals, and centrifuged. Subsequently, the formaldehyde concentration in the supernatant was quantified indirectly, by derivatization with Nash reagent and subsequent measurement of the resulting complex using spectrophotometry in the visible spectral range. Experimental results suggested that formaldehyde has a low affinity for quartz sand, but an enhanced potential for adsorption onto carbon nanotubes. Formaldehyde adsorption onto both absorbents (quartz sand and MWCNTs) was more pronounced under dynamic than static conditions, probably, because agitation improves the mixing of the absorbent within the solution. Also, it was shown that the adsorption data were adequately described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model, suggesting that the primary adsorption mechanism was chemisorption, where two or more (sequential or parallel) processes (e.g. surface chemisorption, intraparticle diffusion) were taking place. Therefore, MWCNTs could be promising adsorbent materials for groundwater remediation.

  20. Formaldehyde Levels in Traditional and Portable Classrooms: A Pilot Investigation. (United States)

    Ribeiro, Isabela C; Kowalski, Peter J; Callahan, David B; Noonan, Gary P; Moffett, Daphne B; Olson, David R; Malilay, Josephine


    The pilot study discussed in this article assessed formaldehyde levels in portable classrooms (PCs) and traditional classrooms the authors evaluated formaldehyde levels in day and overnight indoor air (TCs) and explored factors influencing indoor air quality (e.g., carbon dioxide, temperature, and relative humidity). In a cross-sectional design, samples from nine PCs renovated within three years previously and three TCs in a school district in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. Formaldehyde levels ranged from 0.0068 to 0.038 parts per million (ppm). In both types of classroom, overnight formaldehyde median levels (PCs = 0.018 ppm; TCs = 0.019 ppm) were higher than day formaldehyde median levels (PCs = 0.011 ppm; TCs = 0.016 ppm). Carbon dioxide levels measured 470-790 ppm at 7:00 a.m. and 470-1800 ppm at 4:00 p.m. Afternoon medians were higher in TCs (1,400 ppm) than in PCs (780 ppm). Consistent with previous studies, formaldehyde levels were similar among PCs and TCs. Reducing carbon dioxide levels by improving ventilation is recommended for classrooms.

  1. Aging-associated excess formaldehyde leads to spatial memory deficits (United States)

    Tong, Zhiqian; Han, Chanshuai; Luo, Wenhong; Li, Hui; Luo, Hongjun; Qiang, Min; Su, Tao; Wu, Beibei; Liu, Ying; Yang, Xu; Wan, You; Cui, Dehua; He, Rongqiao


    Recent studies show that formaldehyde participates in DNA demethylation/methylation cycle. Emerging evidence identifies that neuronal activity induces global DNA demethylation and re-methylation; and DNA methylation is a critical step for memory formation. These data suggest that endogenous formaldehyde may intrinsically link learning-responsive DNA methylation status and memory formation. Here, we report that during spatial memory formation process, spatial training induces an initial global DNA demethylation and subsequent re-methylation associated with hippocampal formaldehyde elevation then decline to baseline level in Sprague Dawley rats. Scavenging this elevated formaldehyde by formaldehyde-degrading enzyme (FDH), or enhancing DNA demethylation by a DNA demethylating agent, both led to spatial memory deficits by blocking DNA re-methylation in rats. Furthermore, we found that the normal adult rats intrahippocampally injected with excess formaldehyde can imitate the aged-related spatial memory deficits and global DNA methylation decline. These findings indicate that aging-associated excess formaldheyde contributes to cognitive decline during aging. PMID:23657727

  2. The Massachusetts program for reducing the risk of formaldehyde exposure. (United States)

    Walker, B; Fox, P; Li, V; Parker, G


    Urea formaldehyde foam insulation in homes has caused increasing concerns about the adverse health effects associated with residential exposure to formaldehyde emissions. These health effects cover a broad spectrum of symptoms, including neurophysiological effects, respiratory irritations, and eye and skin irritations. Recent studies have also suggested a possible correlation between exposure to formaldehyde vapors and cancer. In 1979, following hundreds of complaints of adverse health effects from occupants of dwellings insulated with urea formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI), the Massachusetts Department of Public Health issued regulations banning the new installation of UFFI in Massachusetts. New State legislation was adopted in 1986 which reformulated UFFI policy. The law established a minimum concentration of formaldehyde of 0.1 parts per million (ppm) below which removal of the insulation is not required or encouraged. A trust fund financed by industry was established to pay for air testing and for the removal of UFFI from homes if the formaldehyde level exceeds the statutory minimum of 0.1 ppm or if an occupant experiences adverse health effects attributable to the insulation. Based on the Massachusetts experience, these requirements have been identified: the need for flexibility and midcourse corrections in the development of health policy to allow for the incorporation of new scientific information or changes in the economic or political environment, the need for close coordination with all affected parties, and the need for scientific and technical policy development to be joined with economic and political perspectives to ensure smooth implementation of health policies.

  3. Health risks from indoor formaldehyde exposures in northwest weatherized residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellinger, P.J.; Sever, L.E.


    Conflicting opinions on the potential hazards associated with formaldehyde exposure triggered a national workshop to address the toxicological questions concerning the health effects of formaldehyde. Since quantitative human data are not available to derive a dose-response curve for formaldehyde risk assessment, nonhuman data are used. In the case of formaldehyde, data from animals exposed to high concentrations are used to estimate human risk at much lower concentrations. This study presents the several steps that make up a risk assessment and examines any additional data that might alter significantly the risk estimates presented in the 1984 EIS. Rat inhalation chronic bioassay data from a study sponsored by the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) have been used to develop a risk equation that was subsequently used by BPA in its EIS. The CIIT data base remains the only acceptable animal data that can support the estimation of a dose-response curve. The development of mathematical models continues with a great deal of energy, and the use of different models is largely responsible for the great variability of the formaldehyde risk estimates. While one can calculate different values for carcinogenic risk associated with formaldehyde exposure than were presented earlier in the BPA EIS, they are not likely to be any better.

  4. Extending the Millimeter-Submillimeter Spectrum of Protonated Formaldehyde (United States)

    Roenitz, Kevin; Zou, Luyao; Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.


    Protonated formaldehyde has been detected in the interstellar medium, where it participates in the formation and destruction of methanol. The rotational spectrum for protonated formaldehyde has been previously recorded by Amano and coworkers from 120-385 GHz using a hollow cathode discharge source for ion production. Additionally, protonated formaldehyde was produced in a supersonic expansion discharge source by Duncan and coworkers, but it was detected using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Higher frequency spectra would help to guide additional observational studies of protonated formaldehyde using instruments such as the ALMA and SOFIA observatories. As such, we have used a supersonic expansion discharge source to produce protonated formaldehyde, and recorded its spectrum using millimeter-submillimeter direct absorption spectroscopy. The rotational spectrum was recorded from 350-1000 GHz. Here we will present the experimental design, specifically focusing on the optimization of the source for production of organic ions. We will also present the spectroscopic results for protonated formaldehyde and a spectral analysis with associated prediction that can be extended to frequencies above 1 THz.

  5. Primary Formation Path of Formaldehyde in Hydrothermal Vents (United States)

    Inaba, Satoshi


    Formaldehyde is abundant in the universe and one of the fundamental molecules for life. Hydrothermal vents produce a substantial amount of hydrogen molecules by serpentinization and promote reductive reactions of single carbon compounds. The abundance of formaldehyde is expected to be low due to the high Gibbs free energy in hydrothermal vents. We consider two competing formation pathways of formaldehyde: (1) the reduction of CO by H2 and (2) the reduction of HCOOH by H2 to form a methanediol, followed by the dehydration of the methanediol. We performed a number of quantum chemical simulations to examine the formation of formaldehyde in the gas phase as well as in aqueous solution. The energy barrier is significantly reduced by the catalytic effect of water molecules in aqueous solution and becomes lowest when a water cluster consisted of 5 water molecules catalyzes the reduction. The energy barrier to form a methanediol by the reduction of HCOOH is lower by 17.5 kcal/mol than that to form a formaldehyde by the reduction of CO. Considering the low energy barrier to dehydrate methanediol, the primary pathway to form formaldehyde in hydrothermal vents is concluded to be the reduction of HCOOH by H2, followed by the dehydration of methanediol.

  6. Formaldehyde in dentistry: a review of mutagenic and carcinogenic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.B.; Chestner, S.B.


    For many years there has been controversy over the value of antimicrobial drugs for intracanal dressings in endodontics. Formocresol, a formaldehyde compound, has evolved as the preferred drug for routine endodontic procedures, as well as pediatric endodontics. The increase in the use of formaldehyde has been complicated by the introduction of paraformaldehyde pastes for filling root canals. Neither of these formulas has ever been standardized. The doses are arbitrary, and the common dose of formocresol has been shown to be many times greater than the minimum dose needed for effect. The efficacy of paraformaldehyde pastes is questionable and remains clouded by inconclusive evidence, conflicting research, inadequate terminology, and a lack of convincing statistical evidence. The clinical use and delivery of formocresol and paraformaldehyde pastes remain arbitrary and unscientific. Formaldehyde has a known toxic mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. Many investigations have been conducted to measure the risk of exposure to formaldehyde; it is clear that formaldehyde poses a carcinogenic risk in humans. There is a need to reevaluate the rationale underlying the use of formaldehyde in dentistry particularly in light of its deleterious effects.

  7. Volatile organic compound and formaldehyde emissions from Populus davidiana wood treated with low molecular weight urea-formaldehyde resin. (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Xian; Shen, Jun; Lei, Cheng-Shuai; Feng, Qi


    Populus davidiana wood was usually impregnated with low molecular weight thermosetting resins to improve its physical and mechanical properties. However, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and formaldehyde emitted from treated wood have lead to poor indoor air quality (IAQ). The trends of VOC and formaldehyde emissions as a function of the weight percent gain (WPG) factor were mainly investigated in this work. Aldehydes and alkanes were the predominant compositions indentified in the VOC emissions, although low amount of ketones, terpenes and alcohols were also found. With the increase in WPG, VOC and formaldehyde concentrations improved. However, their concentration began to decrease when WPG was over 44.06% (VOC) and 36.35% (formaldehyde), respectively. The modulus of elasticity (MOE) of untreated and treated wood at different WPG levels was detected. It showed that treatment of wood with UF resin significantly improved the mechanical properties. Therefore, it is probably helpful to comprehensively analyze correlations among environmental performance, mechanical performance and processing costs.

  8. Synthesis of Disperse Dyes from Pyridone and Resorcinol Coupled to Diazotized 2-Amino-4-chloro-5-formylthiazole and Application to Polyester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Y. Lams


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to synthesize disperse dyes in the derivative of 2-amino-4-chloro-5-formylthiazole by conventional diazotization and couplings with pyridone and resorcinol. The dyes were characterized by visible absorption spectroscopy, IR spectral studies, and 1H and 13C NMR. The pyridone and resorcinol substituted dyes exhausted well with good depth on 100% polyester fabrics with a shade of brown and purple colours, respectively. The heteroatom and the intrinsic conjugation in the thiazole structure results in high bathochromic shifts and lead to brightness of shades. The dyed fabrics showed very good to excellent wash fastness and moderate to good light and perspiration fastness properties.

  9. Anti-inflammatory 5-(11'Z-heptadecenyl)- and 5-(8'Z,11'Z-heptadecadienyl)-resorcinols from mango (Mangifera indica L.) peels. (United States)

    Knödler, Matthias; Conrad, Jürgen; Wenzig, Eva M; Bauer, Rudolf; Lacorn, Markus; Beifuss, Uwe; Carle, Reinhold; Schieber, Andreas


    Bioassay directed extraction and purification of mango peels revealed the 5-(11'Z-heptadecenyl)-resorcinol (1) and the known 5-(8'Z,11'Z-heptadecadienyl)-resorcinol (2) previously not described in Mangifera indica L. The structures of both compounds were determined by extensive 1D and 2D NMR studies and MS. Both compounds exhibited potent cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activity with IC(50) values ranging from 1.9 (2) to 3.5 microM (1) and from 3.5 (2) to 4.4 (1) microM, respectively, coming close to the IC(50) values of reference drugs. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) catalyzed leukotriene formation was only slightly inhibited. Structure-activity studies by referring to synthetic saturated homologues indicated that the degree of unsaturation in the alkyl chain plays a key role for COX inhibitory activity, whereas the influence of chain length was less significant.

  10. A review of the effects of formaldehyde release from endodontic materials. (United States)

    Athanassiadis, B; George, G A; Abbott, P V; Wash, L J


    Formaldehyde is present in most living cells and the environment. In dentistry, patients may be exposed to formaldehyde through the use of several endodontic materials (e.g. AH 26) and during formocresol pulpotomies. This review outlines how the human body reacts to formaldehyde exposure, how recent data has relooked at the issue of carcinogenicity and leukaemia associated with formaldehyde, and whether it is possible to quantify the amount of formaldehyde produced by endodontic cements. The review analyses the way formaldehyde is produced from epoxy resins and addresses the question of whether the amount of formaldehyde from endodontic cements is large enough to override the body's ability to deal with its own endogenous levels of formaldehyde and should the amount of formaldehyde produced be a concern. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. In vitro reaction of barbiturates with formaldehyde. (United States)

    Gannett, P M; Daft, J R; James, D; Rybeck, B; Knopp, J B; Tracy, T S


    Barbiturates are widely used as sedatives, hypnotics, and antiepileptics, and, when coupled with their narrow therapeutic index, the probability that their use will result in accidental or intentional death is significant. When barbiturates are implicated in a murder or suicide, analysis for their presence is often required. Under certain conditions, barbiturates are quite stable, but conditions found in vivo immediately after death or after embalming may promote barbiturate decomposition. If extensive decomposition occurs, analysis for them may be difficult or impossible. Here, the stability of three representative barbiturates, under conditions that model those likely to prevail in vivo shortly after death and after embalming, have been studied. Solutions of phenobarbital were found to slowly decompose in water over the pH range of approximately 3.5 to 9.5. More rapid decomposition occurred at higher pH, and 2-phenylbutyric acid was the main decomposition product. Formaldehyde (5-20%) accelerated the decomposition rate 3-10-fold such that phenobarbital decomposition could be complete after 30 days. In contrast, pentobarbital decomposed roughly 10 times more slowly and secobarbital did not detectably decompose under any of the conditions studied. Thus, certain barbiturates may partially or completely decompose in vivo after death, especially after embalming, and thus analysis for them may lead to false negatives. However, this work shows that analysis for the parent barbiturate or its predicted decomposition product may provide data that will reduce the likelihood of false negatives.

  12. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer... (United States)


    ... products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, morpholinepropanamine... Substances § 721.10189 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde... products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, morpholinepropanamine...

  13. Hydrophilic molecularly imprinted melamine-urea-formaldehyde monolithic resin prepared in water for selective recognition of plant growth regulators. (United States)

    Cao, Jiankun; Yan, Hongyuan; Shen, Shigang; Bai, Ligai; Liu, Haiyan; Qiao, Fengxia


    New hydrophilic molecularly imprinted melamine-urea-formaldehyde monolithic resin (MIMR) is synthesized using dopamine hydrochloride as a dummy template via in-situ polymerization directly within pipette tips and it presents special molecular recognition to plant growth regulators in aqueous matrices. Hydrophilic groups (such as hydroxyl groups, imino groups, and amino groups) can be introduced into MIMR by melamine- urea-formaldehyde resin, which make MIMR materials compatible with aqueous media and show their specific molecular recognition in aqueous sample solutions. Meanwhile, monolithic structures avoid the influence of uneven filling on the extraction efficiency. Various parameters affecting the selective recognition of MIMR have been optimized, such as molar ratio of melamine to urea, molar ratio of melamine and urea to formaldehyde, the amount of template and porogen. The prepared MIMR is applied as the sorbents of solid phase extraction (SPE) for sensitive and selective recognition of three plant growth regulators (p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2.4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) in bean sprouts. Considering its excellent hydrophilicity and specificity, MIMR-SPE is promising to be a potential pretreatment strategy in biological, environmental, and clinical fields. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A fate for organic acids, formaldehyde and methanol in cloud water: their biotransformation by micro-organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Amato


    Full Text Available The interactions between microbial and chemical contents of cloud water were investigated. First, we observe that the bulk cloud water solution provides a substantial environment where bacteria can develop significantly. Then, a total number of 60 microbial strains originating from seven distinct samples of cloud water and affiliated to various taxonomic groups were examined for their ability to degrade some of the main atmospheric carboxylic compounds: formate, acetate, lactate, succinate, as well as formaldehyde and methanol. Biodegradation tests show that all these compounds can be transformed when used as single carbonaceous substrates, with activities depending on both the strain and the compound. The highest capacities of biodegradation are observed towards formaldehyde, formate and acetate, which are also the more concentrated compounds typically measured in cloud water. Hence, analyses by 1H NMR permitted to establish for instance that compounds like pyruvate or fumarate can be produced and released in the media in relation to the transformation of lactate or succinate. In addition, utilization of 13C labelled formaldehyde showed that it can be transformed through many metabolic pathways, similar to those induced by photochemistry and leading to the production of formate and/or methanol. These results suggest that microorganisms of cloud water can have various behaviours towards the chemical compounds present in the atmosphere: they can represent either a sink or source for organic carbon, and may have to be considered as actors of cloud chemistry.

  15. Foliar uptake and translocation of formaldehyde with Bracket plants (Chlorophytum comosum). (United States)

    Su, Yuhong; Liang, Yongchao


    The foliar uptake and transport of formaldehyde into Bracket plants from air via leaves and roots to external water was investigated in an air-plant-water system. The results indicated that formaldehyde could be quickly taken up by plant tissues, and that formaldehyde accumulated in leaves could be released rapidly back into air when the formaldehyde level in air was diminished. This rapid reversible translocation of formaldehyde between plant leaves and air resulted in high formaldehyde concentrations in leaf dews, depending upon exposure levels of formaldehyde in air. Meanwhile, formaldehyde could be transported from air to plant rhizosphere solution through downward transport. The concentration of formaldehyde in rhizosphere solutions increased with exposure time and the formaldehyde level in air. The efficiency of the leaf extracts to break down formaldehyde increased, probably because of an increase in oxidative potential of the leaf extracts. Taken together, the main mechanism of formaldehyde loss in air can be attributed to the accumulation by (or breakdown in) plant tissues; the removal rate of formaldehyde from air reached 135 μg h(-1) plant(-1) in the experimental condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Membrane-associated quinoprotein formaldehyde dehydrogenase from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. (United States)

    Zahn, J A; Bergmann, D J; Boyd, J M; Kunz, R C; DiSpirito, A A


    A membrane-associated, dye-linked formaldehyde dehydrogenase (DL-FalDH) was isolated from the obligate methylotroph Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. The enzyme was the major formaldehyde-oxidizing enzyme in cells cultured in high (above 1 micromol of Cu per mg of cell protein) copper medium and expressing the membrane-associated methane monooxygenase. Soluble NAD(P)(+)-linked formaldehyde oxidation was the major activity in cells cultured in low-copper medium and expressing the soluble methane monooxygenase (Tate and Dalton, Microbiology 145:159-167, 1999; Vorholt et al., J. Bacteriol. 180:5351-5356, 1998). The membrane-associated enzyme is a homotetramer with a subunit molecular mass of 49,500 Da. UV-visible absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance, and electrospray mass spectrometry suggest the redox cofactor of the DL-FalDH is pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), with a PQQ-to-subunit stochiometry of approximately 1:1. The enzyme was specific for formaldehyde, oxidizing formaldehyde to formate, and utilized the cytochrome b(559/569) complex as the physiological electron acceptor.

  17. Membrane-Associated Quinoprotein Formaldehyde Dehydrogenase from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath (United States)

    Zahn, James A.; Bergmann, David J.; Boyd, Jeffery M.; Kunz, Ryan C.; DiSpirito, Alan A.


    A membrane-associated, dye-linked formaldehyde dehydrogenase (DL-FalDH) was isolated from the obligate methylotroph Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. The enzyme was the major formaldehyde-oxidizing enzyme in cells cultured in high (above 1 μmol of Cu per mg of cell protein) copper medium and expressing the membrane-associated methane monooxygenase. Soluble NAD(P)+-linked formaldehyde oxidation was the major activity in cells cultured in low-copper medium and expressing the soluble methane monooxygenase (Tate and Dalton, Microbiology 145:159–167, 1999; Vorholt et al., J. Bacteriol. 180:5351–5356, 1998). The membrane-associated enzyme is a homotetramer with a subunit molecular mass of 49,500 Da. UV-visible absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance, and electrospray mass spectrometry suggest the redox cofactor of the DL-FalDH is pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), with a PQQ-to-subunit stochiometry of approximately 1:1. The enzyme was specific for formaldehyde, oxidizing formaldehyde to formate, and utilized the cytochrome b559/569 complex as the physiological electron acceptor. PMID:11698372

  18. Mammals divert endogenous genotoxic formaldehyde into one-carbon metabolism. (United States)

    Burgos-Barragan, Guillermo; Wit, Niek; Meiser, Johannes; Dingler, Felix A; Pietzke, Matthias; Mulderrig, Lee; Pontel, Lucas B; Rosado, Ivan V; Brewer, Thomas F; Cordell, Rebecca L; Monks, Paul S; Chang, Christopher J; Vazquez, Alexei; Patel, Ketan J


    The folate-driven one-carbon (1C) cycle is a fundamental metabolic hub in cells that enables the synthesis of nucleotides and amino acids and epigenetic modifications. This cycle might also release formaldehyde, a potent protein and DNA crosslinking agent that organisms produce in substantial quantities. Here we show that supplementation with tetrahydrofolate, the essential cofactor of this cycle, and other oxidation-prone folate derivatives kills human, mouse and chicken cells that cannot detoxify formaldehyde or that lack DNA crosslink repair. Notably, formaldehyde is generated from oxidative decomposition of the folate backbone. Furthermore, we find that formaldehyde detoxification in human cells generates formate, and thereby promotes nucleotide synthesis. This supply of 1C units is sufficient to sustain the growth of cells that are unable to use serine, which is the predominant source of 1C units. These findings identify an unexpected source of formaldehyde and, more generally, indicate that the detoxification of this ubiquitous endogenous genotoxin creates a benign 1C unit that can sustain essential metabolism.

  19. Formaldehyde as a basis for residential ventilation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, M.H.; Hodgson, A.T.


    Traditionally, houses in the U.S. have been ventilated by passive infiltration in combination with active window opening. However in recent years, the construction quality of residential building envelopes has been improved to reduce infiltration, and the use of windows for ventilation also may have decreased due to a number of factors. Thus, there has been increased interest in engineered ventilation systems for residences. The amount of ventilation provided by an engineered system should be set to protect occupants from unhealthy or objectionable exposures to indoor pollutants, while minimizing energy costs for conditioning incoming air. Determining the correct ventilation rate is a complex task, as there are numerous pollutants of potential concern, each having poorly characterized emission rates, and poorly defined acceptable levels of exposure. One ubiquitous pollutant in residences is formaldehyde. The sources of formaldehyde in new houses are reasonably understood, and there is a large body of literature on human health effects. This report examines the use of formaldehyde as a means of determining ventilation rates and uses existing data on emission rates of formaldehyde in new houses to derive recommended levels. Based on current, widely accepted concentration guidelines for formaldehyde, the minimum and guideline ventilation rates for most new houses are 0.28 and 0.5 air changes per hour, respectively.

  20. Formaldehyde as hypothetical primer of biohomochirality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldanskii, V.I. [N. N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Kosygin Street 4, Moscow, 117334 (Russia)


    One of the most intriguing and crucial problems of the prebiotic evolution and the origin of life is the explanation of the origin of biohomochirality. A scheme of conversions originated by formaldehyde (FA) as hypothetical primer of biohomochirality is proposed. The merit of FA as executor of this function is based -inter alia - on the distinguished role of FA as one of the earliest and simplest molecules in both warm, terrestrial and cold, extraterrestrial scenarios of the origin of life. The confirmation of the role of FA as primer of biohomochirality would support the option of an RNA world as an alternative to the protein world. The suggested hypothesis puts forward for the first time a concrete sequence of chemical reactions which can lead to biohomochirality. The spontaneous breaking of the mirror symmetry is secured by the application of the well-known Frank scheme (combination of autocatalysis and {open_quote}{open_quote}annihilation{close_quote}{close_quote} of L and D enantiomers) to the series of interactions of FA {open_quote}{open_quote}trimers{close_quote}{close_quote} (i.e. C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O{sub 3} compounds) of (aaa), (apa) and (app) types, where the monomeric groups (a) means {open_quote}{open_quote}achirons{close_quote}{close_quote} (a=CH{sub n}, n{ge}2 and C=M, M=C,O) and (p) mean {open_quote}{open_quote}prochirons{close_quote}{close_quote} (p=HC{asterisk}OM, M=H,C). {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Engineering and analysis of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that uses formaldehyde as an auxiliary substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baerends, Richard J. S.; de Hulster, Erik; Geertman, Jan-Maarten A.; Daran, Jean-Marc; van Maris, Antonius J. A.; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.; Pronk, Jack T.

    We demonstrated that formaldehyde can be efficiently coutilized by an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that expresses Hansenula polymorpha genes encoding formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FLD1) and formate dehydrogenase (FMD), in contrast to wild-type strains. Initial chemostat experiments


    Research evaluated the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface material using formaldehyde gas. Spores were dried on seven types of indoor surfaces and exposed to 1100 ppm formaldehyde gas for 10 hr. Fo...

  3. A Short Review on Photocatalytic Degradation of Formaldehyde. (United States)

    Tasbihi, Minoo; Bendyna, Joanna K; Notten, Peter H L; Hintzen, H T


    Nowadays, it is a great challenge to eliminate toxic and harmful organic pollutants from air and water. This paper reviews the role of TiO2 as a photocatalyst, light source and photoreactor in the particular case of removal of formaldehyde using the photocatalytic reaction by titanium dioxide (TiO2) in aqueous and gaseous systems. The reaction mechanisms of the photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous formaldehyde are given. We also present a detailed review of published articles on photocatalytic degradation of formaldehyde by modified titanium dioxide doped with foreign species such as metal and non-metal components. We point out the most prospective developments of the photocatalyst compositions for the future potential commercial applications.

  4. Melamine–Glyoxal–Glutaraldehyde Wood Panel Adhesives without Formaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuedong Xi


    Full Text Available (MGG’ resin adhesives for bonding wood panels were prepared by a single step procedure, namely reacting melamine with glyoxal and simultaneously with a much smaller proportion of glutaraldehyde. No formaldehyde was used. The inherent slow hardening of this resin was overcome by the addition of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone hydrogen sulphate ionic liquid as the adhesive hardener in the glue mix. The plywood strength results obtained were comparable with those obtained with melamine–formaldehyde resins pressed under the same conditions. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight (MALDI ToF and Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR analysis allowed the identification of the main oligomer species obtained and of the different types of linkages formed, as well as to indicate the multifaceted role of the ionic liquid. These resins are proposed as a suitable substitute for equivalent formaldehyde-based resins.

  5. Studies on adsorption of formaldehyde in zirconium phosphate-glyphosates (United States)

    Zhang, Yuejuan; Yi, Jianjun; Xu, Qinghong


    In our previous work [22], a kind of layered compound of zirconium phosphate-glyphosate (ZrGP) was synthesized. Its large surface area (445 m 2/g) indicates this compound has possible application in adsorptions. In this paper, adsorption to formaldehyde in ZrGP and mechanisms of the adsorption were studied carefully. Balance time of adsorption (about 6 h) and largest adsorbed amount (7.8%) were found when adsorption temperature was at 40 °C and pH value of adsorption environment was about 3.0. H-bonds were found existing between molecules of formaldehyde and ZrGP, and formaldehyde molecules could exist in ZrGP stably.

  6. The margin of exposure to formaldehyde in alcoholic beverages. (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Jendral, Julien A; Lachenmeier, Dirk W


    Formaldehyde has been classified as carcinogenic to humans (WHO IARC group 1). It causes leukaemia and nasopharyngeal cancer, and was described to regularly occur in alcoholic beverages. However, its risk associated with consumption of alcohol has not been systematically studied, so this study will provide the first risk assessment of formaldehyde for consumers of alcoholic beverages.Human dietary intake of formaldehyde via alcoholic beverages in the European Union was estimated based on WHO alcohol consumption data and literature on formaldehyde contents of different beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits, and unrecorded alcohol). The risk assessment was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach with benchmark doses (BMD) for 10 % effect obtained from dose-response modelling of animal experiments.For tumours in male rats, a BMD of 30 mg kg(-1) body weight per day and a "BMD lower confidence limit" (BMDL) of 23 mg kg(-1) d(-1) were calculated from available long-term animal experiments. The average human exposure to formaldehyde from alcoholic beverages was estimated at 8·10(-5) mg kg(-1) d(-1). Comparing the human exposure with BMDL, the resulting MOE was above 200,000 for average scenarios. Even in the worst-case scenarios, the MOE was never below 10,000, which is considered to be the threshold for public health concerns.The risk assessment shows that the cancer risk from formaldehyde to the alcohol-consuming population is negligible and the priority for risk management (e.g. to reduce the contamination) is very low. The major risk in alcoholic beverages derives from ethanol and acetaldehyde.

  7. Analysis of cocondensation of melamine and urea through formaldehyde with carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (United States)

    Bunichiro Tomita; Chung-Yun Hse


    The 13C-NMR (carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance) spectra of urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins, melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resins, and melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) cocondensed resins synthesized under various conditions were taken with a frequency of 75 MHz. The main purpose was to investigate whether or not the occurrences of cocondensation...

  8. 40 CFR 721.7220 - Polymer of substituted phenol, formaldehyde, epichlorohydrin, and disubstituted benzene. (United States)


    ..., formaldehyde, epichlorohydrin, and disubstituted benzene. 721.7220 Section 721.7220 Protection of Environment..., formaldehyde, epichlorohydrin, and disubstituted benzene. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., formaldehyde, epichlorohydrin, and disubstituted benzene (PMN P-89-1104) is subject to reporting under this...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3807 - Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated (PMN...

  10. Relationship between formaldehyde and quaternium-15 contact allergy. Influence of strength of patch test reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton C.; Blok, Janine; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan


    Objectives: To test our hypothesis that patients with stronger patch test reactions to formaldehyde are more likely to react to quaternium-15, attesting to the aetiological role for formaldehyde in such co-reactivity. Methods: Retrospective analysis of all patients patch tested with formaldehyde and

  11. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955) is...

  12. 75 FR 37792 - Formaldehyde Gas; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption, Solicitation of Public Comment (United States)


    ... AGENCY Formaldehyde Gas; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption, Solicitation of Public Comment... (OSWER) to use formaldehyde gas (CAS No. 82115-62-6) to decontaminate non-food contact surfaces to... Administrator to issue a quarantine exemption for the use of formaldehyde gas on non-food contact surfaces to...

  13. 78 FR 52567 - Formaldehyde Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of... (United States)


    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Formaldehyde Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and... the information collection requirements specified in the standard on Formaldehyde (29 CFR 1910.1048... effects from occupational exposure to formaldehyde, including an itchy, runny, and stuffy nose; a dry or...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3805 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3-benzenedimethanamine and bisphenol A. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with 1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3805 Formaldehyde, reaction products... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, reaction products with 1,3...

  15. Effect of formaldehyde on the upper respiratory tract _ormal flora of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Formaldehyde is a chemical that is used to fix a tissue after death or removal from the body to prevent autolysis and putrefaction. Exposure to formaldehyde can occur as a result of occupation. Objective: To determine the effect of the formaldehyde on the throat and nasal flora of upper respiratory tract of rabbits ...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene... (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, condensated... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10134 - Formaldehyde, polymer with dialkylphenylamine, dialkylphenol and trimethylhexanediamine (generic). (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10134 Formaldehyde, polymer... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as formaldehyde...

  18. 24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formaldehyde emission controls for... Body and Frame Construction Requirements § 3280.308 Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products. (a) Formaldehyde emission levels. All plywood and particleboard materials bonded with a resin...

  19. 75 FR 17163 - Formaldehyde Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of... (United States)


    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Formaldehyde Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and... specified in the Standard on Formaldehyde (29 CFR 1910.1048). The standard protects workers from the adverse health effects from occupational exposure to Formaldehyde. DATES: Comments must be submitted (postmarked...

  20. 78 FR 44089 - Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products; Extension of Comment Period (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 770 RIN 2070-AJ92 Formaldehyde Emissions Standards for Composite Wood Products..., concerning formaldehyde emissions standards for composite wood products. This document extends the comment..., Formaldehyde, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Toxic substances, Wood. Dated: July 17, 2013. James...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3810 - Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (generic). (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymers with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3810 Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols... identified generically as Formaldehyde, polymers with substituted phenols (PMN P-99-0558) is subject to...

  2. Injection Seeded Laser for Formaldehyde Differential Fluorescence Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwemmer G.


    Full Text Available We describe the design and development of an injection seeded Nd:YVO4 laser for use in a differential fluorescence lidar for measuring atmospheric formaldehyde profiles. A high repetition rate Q-switched laser is modified to accept injection seed input to spectrally narrow and tune the output. The third harmonic output is used to excite formaldehyde (HCHO fluorescence when tuned to a HCHO absorption line. Spectral confirmation is made with the use of a photoacoustic cell and grating spectrometer.

  3. [Cognitive disorders in workers engaged into formaldehyde and methanol production]. (United States)

    Maliutina, N N; Taranenko, L A


    The authors studied cognitive functions state in workers engaged into chemical production under exposure to combination of factors with prevalent methanol and formaldehyde. Study covered 128 examinees of main occupations and 89 individuals of reference group. Through periodic medical examinations, state of cognitive functions was assessed by Montreal scale (MCA). Findings are increased serum levels of methanol and formaldehyde in the main group members. Moderate cognitive disorders of multifunctional type were seen. Associations of these disorders with acting agents were studied, and high degree of their correlations with occupation was revealed.

  4. Evaluation of methods to reduce formaldehyde levels of cadavers in the dissection laboratory. (United States)

    Whitehead, Mark C; Savoia, Maria C


    Dissection of conventionally embalmed cadavers exposes students, staff, and faculty to formaldehyde, a probable carcinogen. Therefore, prudent practices should seek to minimize formaldehyde exposure. In this study, we evaluated two commercially available chemicals, InfuTrace and Perfect Solution, for their effectiveness in reducing ambient formaldehyde levels. Four cadavers embalmed conventionally with formaldehyde and/or with the above agents were compared for their formaldehyde levels under conditions that strictly controlled for air circulation and for locations and methods of testing, and during activities that simulated student dissecting. For InfuTrace, one cadaver was reinfused with InfuTrace after initial standard perfusion with formaldehyde; a second cadaver had InfuTrace injected into the thoracic and abdominal body cavities after formaldehyde perfusion. For Perfect Solution, the product was used for embalming a third cadaver in lieu of formaldehyde. For a control, a fourth cadaver was embalmed with the standard formaldehyde solution. Testing of personal and ambient room air samples and of fluid obtained from the cadavers was performed and analyzed in a blinded fashion. Results indicated that both Perfect Solution, substituted for standard formaldehyde embalming, and InfuTrace infused through the vasculature after formaldehyde embalming, resulted in lower concentrations of formaldehyde than embalming with formaldehyde solution alone or in combination with body cavity injection of InfuTrace. These differences in formaldehyde concentrations are consistent across measuring methods, for example, of room air, of breathing zone air during cadaver handling and dissection, and of liquid samples obtained from the cadavers. Perfect Solution yielded suboptimum fixation and a different texture, color, and smell than the formaldehyde treatments. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Development of a nanostructured lipid carrier formulation for increasing photo-stability and water solubility of Phenylethyl Resorcinol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Hengfeng; Liu, Guoqing; Huang, Yiqing; Li, Yan; Xia, Qiang, E-mail:


    The Phenylethyl Resorcinol loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (PR-NLC) was developed by hot high-pressure homogenization method. The freshly prepared PR-NLC showed a spherical morphology under transmission electron microscope, and the particle size was 218.3 ± 9.2 nm. The value of the zeta potential of PR-NLC decreased from −30.2 ± 1.9 mV to −64.9 ± 1.3 mV when the dilution times reach 10. The loading amount of PR encapsulated in NLC was 2.94 ± 0.03%, and the average entrapment efficiencies of PR-NLC determinated by size exclusion chromatography and ultrafiltration were 90.2 ± 0.6% and 98.3 ± 0.3%. Lyophilization was proved feasible for the storage of NLC dispersion. Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) was exploited to investigate the possible drug–lipid complex formation. Advancements in water solubility of PR were demonstrated by NLC using a contact angle measurement. The hemolysis percentage of the NLC was less than 1.3% in a certain range of concentration. In 90 days’ storage, 88.6 ± 2.8% of PR remained unchanged in PR-NLC under natural daylight. In vitro release studies revealed a sustained drug release, and in vitro penetration studies showed an increase of retention amount of PR in the skin, when applying PR-NLC. Therefore, the NLC might be a potential delivery vehicle in cosmetic dermal products.

  6. Development of a nanostructured lipid carrier formulation for increasing photo-stability and water solubility of Phenylethyl Resorcinol (United States)

    Fan, Hengfeng; Liu, Guoqing; Huang, Yiqing; Li, Yan; Xia, Qiang


    The Phenylethyl Resorcinol loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (PR-NLC) was developed by hot high-pressure homogenization method. The freshly prepared PR-NLC showed a spherical morphology under transmission electron microscope, and the particle size was 218.3 ± 9.2 nm. The value of the zeta potential of PR-NLC decreased from -30.2 ± 1.9 mV to -64.9 ± 1.3 mV when the dilution times reach 10. The loading amount of PR encapsulated in NLC was 2.94 ± 0.03%, and the average entrapment efficiencies of PR-NLC determinated by size exclusion chromatography and ultrafiltration were 90.2 ± 0.6% and 98.3 ± 0.3%. Lyophilization was proved feasible for the storage of NLC dispersion. Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) was exploited to investigate the possible drug-lipid complex formation. Advancements in water solubility of PR were demonstrated by NLC using a contact angle measurement. The hemolysis percentage of the NLC was less than 1.3% in a certain range of concentration. In 90 days' storage, 88.6 ± 2.8% of PR remained unchanged in PR-NLC under natural daylight. In vitro release studies revealed a sustained drug release, and in vitro penetration studies showed an increase of retention amount of PR in the skin, when applying PR-NLC. Therefore, the NLC might be a potential delivery vehicle in cosmetic dermal products.

  7. Impurities of Resorcinol Bis(diphenyl phosphate) in Plastics and Dust Collected on Electric/Electronic Material. (United States)

    Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana; Aragón, Álvaro; Van den Eede, Nele; de Boer, Jacob; Covaci, Adrian


    Resorcinol bis(diphenylphosphate) (RDP) is an organophosphorus flame retardant widely used in electric and electronic equipment. It has been detected in house dust of several European countries according to recent literature. Similar to other flame retardants, RDP formulations and products treated with RDP, such as plastics, can contain RDP impurities, byproducts and breakdown products. In this study, we use screening methods based on wide scope solvent extraction and high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the identification of RDP related compounds in products and in dust. We analyzed both plastics from electrical/electronic equipment that contained RDP and indoor dust collected on and around surfaces of this equipment. A variety of compounds, namely TPHP, hydroxylated TPHP and RDP (meta-HO-TPHP and meta-HO-RDP), dihydroxylated TPHP, RDP with the loss of a phenyl group (RDP-[Phe]) and RDP oligomers were detected in plastics containing high levels of RDP. Regarding dust samples collected on electronics, TPHP meta-HO-TPHP, meta-HO-RDP, RDP-[Phe] and RDP oligomers were detected. High concentrations of meta-HO-TPHP (20-14 227 ng/g), TPHP (222-50 728 ng/g) and RDP (23-29 118 ng/g) were found in many of the dust samples, so that these compounds seem to easily migrate into the environment. These RDP impurities, byproducts and breakdown products are for the first time reported in indoor dust. Meta-HO-TPHP could be relevant for future biomonitoring studies concerning flame retardants.

  8. Spectroscopic studies of micelle-enhanced ligand exchange of gallium (III)/4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol complex by calf thymus DNA. (United States)

    Romeika, Jennifer M; Spurgeon, Charina L; Yan, Fei


    The effect of cationic micelles of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on the interaction of gallium (III) with 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR) under varying conditions has been studied spectrophotometrically. At pH 6.0, CTAB (0.05% w/v) markedly enhanced the absorption intensity of gallium (III)-PAR complex. Furthermore, the introduction of CTAB provided unique selectivity for the ligand exchange of Ga(III)-PAR by calf thymus dsDNA over calf thymus ssDNA. This phenomenon offers a novel spectrophotometric sensing strategy for direct detection of dsDNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhaled formaldehyde: Evaluation of sensory irritation in relation to carcinogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Rennen, M.A.J.; Heer,


    Objectives: The critical health effects of formaldehyde exposure include sensory irritation and the potential to induce tumours in the upper respiratory tract. In literature, a concentration as low as 0.24 ppm has been reported to be irritating to the respiratory tract in humans. Nasal

  10. Organocatalytic removal of formaldehyde adducts from RNA and DNA bases (United States)

    Karmakar, Saswata; Harcourt, Emily M.; Hewings, David S.; Lovejoy, Alexander F.; Kurtz, David M.; Ehrenschwender, Thomas; Barandun, Luzi J.; Roost, Caroline; Alizadeh, Ash A.; Kool, Eric T.


    Formaldehyde is universally used to fix tissue specimens, where it forms hemiaminal and aminal adducts with biomolecules, hindering the ability to retrieve molecular information. Common methods for removing these adducts involve extended heating, which can cause extensive degradation of nucleic acids, particularly RNA. Here, we show that water-soluble bifunctional catalysts (anthranilates and phosphanilates) speed the reversal of formaldehyde adducts of mononucleotides over standard buffers. Studies with formaldehyde-treated RNA oligonucleotides show that the catalysts enhance adduct removal, restoring unmodified RNA at 37 °C even when extensively modified, while avoiding the high temperatures that promote RNA degradation. Experiments with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cell samples show that the catalysis is compatible with common RNA extraction protocols, with detectable RNA yields increased by 1.5-2.4-fold using a catalyst under optimized conditions and by 7-25-fold compared with a commercial kit. Such catalytic strategies show promise for general use in reversing formaldehyde adducts in clinical specimens.

  11. levels of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in selected bottled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. The levels of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in bottled drinking water and the effect of storage time and storage conditions on their levels were determined. A total of 144 samples of six brands of bottled drinking water were purchased from Dar es Salaam, Iringa, Mwanza and Arusha regions in Tanzania.

  12. Study of Antioxidant Status in Morticians Exposed to Formaldehyde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Subacute and subchronic formaldehyde inhalation has been reported to deplete the activities of antioxidant enzymes, stimulate oxidative stress and thus promote genotoxicity, amongst others. AIM: To investigate the toxicity and pathobiology of inhaled chemicals in workers occupationally exposed to ...

  13. Levels of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in selected bottled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in bottled drinking water and the effect of storage time and storage conditions on their levels were determined. A total of 144 samples of six brands of bottled drinking water were purchased from Dar es Salaam, Iringa, Mwanza and Arusha regions in Tanzania. Analysis was ...

  14. Effect of cultivar and formaldehyde treatment of barley grain on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of cultivar and formaldehyde treatment of barley grains on rumen fermentation characteristics using the in vitro gas production technique. Amount of gas produced (mL/g organic matter (OM)) during fermentation was determined after 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of ...

  15. Effect of different catalysts on urea-formaldehyde resin synthesis (United States)

    Qi-Ning Sun; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe


    Four catalysts (H2SO4, HCl, H3PO4, and NaOH/NH4OH) were studied in the preparation of melamine modified urea– formaldehyde (UFM) resins. 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis of the UFM resins at different synthesis stages revealed the...

  16. Studies of Deactivation of Methanol to Formaldehyde Selective Oxidation Catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Kristian Viegaard; Schumann, Max; Høj, Martin

    This work presents a study of the deactivation behavior of Fe-Mo oxide catalyst during selective oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde in a period of 5 days. The structural changes in the catalyst have been investigated in situ for the initial 10 h by Raman spectroscopy, and the structure after 5...

  17. The histological effects of formaldehyde vapour on the lungs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the effects 40% formaldehyde inhalation on the lungs. Twenty adult male albino rats were used for this study and they were subdivided into five groups (A, B, C, D, and E) with each group containing 5 rats. The animals in group A served as control, while groups B, C, D and E served as ...

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review of Formaldehyde (Interagency Science Consultation Draft) (United States)

    On June 2, 2010, the Toxicological Review of Formaldehyde and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices...

  19. An Alternative to Formaldehyde. Avoiding the Carcinogenic Risks. (United States)

    Ealy, Julie B.


    Demonstrations in which glyoxal may be substituted for formaldehyde, a known carcinogen, are presented. An acid-base clock reaction and a copper mirror on the inside of a test tube are described. Directions for the demonstrations and safety precautions are included. (KR)

  20. Harmful Effects of Formaldehyde and Possible Protective Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 22, 2017 ... Formaldehyde (FA) is the simplest member of aldehyde family; it is a chemical with high solubility and an irritant. FA that is found in the natural system of organism and it is used commonly in daily life for many purposes by reason of its chemical properties.[1-3] FA has detrimental effects on the human body, ...

  1. Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Phenol-Formaldehyde Resole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Chandra Bajia


    Full Text Available An efficient synthesis of phenol-formaldehyde resin has been achieved by using conventional as well as microwave irradiation. Resin samples were tested for their physical and chemical properties. The structures of the resins have been supported by their spectral analysis.

  2. Melamine-modified urea formaldehyde resin for bonding particleboards (United States)

    Chung-Yun Hse; Feng Fu; Hui Pan


    For the development of a cost-effective melamine-modified urea formaldehyde resin (MUF), the study evaluated the effects of reaction pH and melamine content on resin properties and bond performance of the MUF resin adhesive systems. Eight resins, each with three replicates, were prepared in a factorial experiment that included two formulation variables: two reaction...

  3. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Formaldehyde: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Duong, Anh; Steinmaus, Craig; McHale, Cliona M.; Vaughan, Charles P.; Zhang, Luoping


    Formaldehyde, the recently classified carcinogen and ubiquitous environmental contaminant, has long been suspected of causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects, but previous reviews were inconclusive, due in part, to limitations in the design of many of the human population studies. In the current review, we systematically evaluated evidence of an association between formaldehyde exposure and adverse reproductive and developmental effects, in human populations and in vivo animal studies, in the peer-reviewed literature. The mostly retrospective human studies provided evidence of an association of maternal exposure with adverse reproductive and developmental effects. Further assessment of this association by meta-analysis revealed an increased risk of spontaneous abortion (1.76, 95% CI 1.20–2.59, p=0.002) and of all adverse pregnancy outcomes combined (1.54, 95% CI 1.27–1.88, pformaldehyde-exposed women, although differential recall, selection bias, or confounding cannot be ruled out. Evaluation of the animal studies including all routes of exposure, doses and dosing regimens studied, suggested positive associations between formaldehyde exposure and reproductive toxicity, mostly in males. Potential mechanisms underlying formaldehyde-induced reproductive and developmental toxicities, including chromosome and DNA damage (genotoxicity), oxidative stress, altered level and/or function of enzymes, hormones and proteins, apoptosis, toxicogenomic and epigenomic effects (such as DNA methylation), were identified. To clarify these associations, well-designed molecular epidemiologic studies, that include quantitative exposure assessment and diminish confounding factors, should examine both reproductive and developmental outcomes associated with exposure in males and females. Together with mechanistic and animal studies, this will allow us to better understand the systemic effect of formaldehyde exposure. PMID:21787879

  4. National Estimates of Exposure to Formaldehyde in Italian Workplaces. (United States)

    Scarselli, Alberto; Corfiati, Marisa; Di Marzio, Davide; Iavicoli, Sergio


    Formaldehyde is classified as human carcinogen and the association with nasopharyngeal cancer has been observed in many epidemiological studies. The aim of this study is to evaluate data about occupational exposure levels to formaldehyde in the Italian working force. Airborne concentrations of formaldehyde were extracted from the Italian database on occupational exposure to carcinogens and refer to the period 1996-2014. Descriptive statistics were calculated for exposure-related variables. The number of workers potentially exposed was estimated for the activity sectors better characterized in the database. An analysis through linear mixed models was performed to determine factors influencing the exposure level. A total of 1610 formaldehyde exposure measurements were selected from the database, having an overall arithmetic mean of 0.12 mg m-3 and a geometric mean of 0.04 mg m-3. The activity sectors with the highest number of measurements were the manufacturing of chemicals and chemicals products (N = 529) in men and the health and social work in women (N = 105). The number of workers potentially exposed in the selected sectors was 49450, and the most predictive independent variables of the exposure level resulted to be the occupational group and the year of measurement. The occupational exposure to formaldehyde occurs in a variety of different sectors, but currently workers at higher risk are those employed in the healthcare sector and in the wood processing industry. Prevention measures have to be targeted to reduce the risk to workers' health, also in a gender perspective. This study confirms the important role of occupational exposure databases as a valuable source of data for the epidemiological assessment of risks in workplaces.

  5. Synthesis, characterization, thermal behavior, and DNA-cleaving studies of cyano-bridged nickel(II)-copper(II) complexes of 4-(pyridin-2-ylazenyl)resorcinol. (United States)

    Karipcin, Fatma; Ozmen, Ismail; Cülü, Burcin; Celikoğlu, Umut


    We present here the syntheses of a mononuclear Cu(II) complex and two polynuclear Cu(II)-Ni(II) complexes of the azenyl ligand, 4-(pyridin-2-ylazenyl)resorcinol (HL; 1). The reaction of HL (1) and copper(II) perchlorate with KCN gave a mononuclear complex [CuL(CN)] (4). Using 4, one pentanuclear complex, [{CuL(NC)}(4) Ni](ClO(4))(2) (5) and one trinuclear complex, [{CuL(CN)}(2) NiL]ClO(4) (6), were prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, IR, and thermal analysis. Stoichiometric and spectral results of the mononuclear Cu(II) complex indicated that the metal/ligand/CN ratio was 1 : 1 : 1, and the ligand behaved as a tridentate ligand forming neutral metal chelates through the pyridinyl and azenyl N-, and resorcinol O-atom. The interaction between the compounds (the ligand 1, its Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes without CN, i.e., 2 and 3, and its complexes with CN, 4-6) and DNA has also been investigated by agarose gel electrophoresis. The pentanuclear Cu(4) Ni complex (5) with H(2) O(2) as a co-oxidant exhibited the strongest DNA-cleaving activity. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  6. Effects of formaldehyde on mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. (United States)

    Zerin, Tamanna; Kim, Jin-Sun; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Song, Ho-Yeon; Hong, Sae-Yong


    Methanol ingestion is neurotoxic in humans due to its metabolites, formaldehyde and formic acid. Here, we compared the cytotoxicity of methanol and its metabolites on different types of cells. While methanol and formic acid did not affect the viability of the cells, formaldehyde (200-800 μg/mL) was strongly cytotoxic in all cell types tested. We investigated the effects of formaldehyde on oxidative stress, mitochondrial respiratory functions, and apoptosis on the sensitive neuronal SK-N-SH cells. Oxidative stress was induced after 2 h of formaldehyde exposure. Formaldehyde at a concentration of 400 μg/mL for 12 h of treatment greatly reduced cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. Confocal microscopy indicated that the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was dose-dependently reduced by formaldehyde. A marked and dose-dependent inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes, viz., NADH dehydrogenase (complex I), cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV), and oxidative stress-sensitive aconitase was also detected following treatment with formaldehyde. Furthermore, formaldehyde caused a concentration-dependent increase in nuclear fragmentation and in the activities of the apoptosis-initiator caspase-9 and apoptosis-effector caspase-3/-7, indicating apoptosis progression. Our data suggests that formaldehyde exerts strong cytotoxicity, at least in part, by inducing oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and eventually apoptosis. Changes in mitochondrial respiratory function and oxidative stress by formaldehyde may therefore be critical in methanol-induced toxicity.

  7. Neurotoxicity effect of formaldehyde on occupational exposure and influence of individual susceptibility to some metabolism parameters. (United States)

    Zendehdel, Rezvan; Fazli, Zohreh; Mazinani, Mohammad


    Over the years, neurotoxicity and cognitive dysfunction have separately been associated with endogenous formaldehyde and reduction of acetylcholine signals. However, a limited number of studies have shown a relationship between cholinergic neurotransmitter and formaldehyde exposure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the neurological effect on workers from melamine-dish preparation workshop, who were exposed to formaldehyde. A total of 35 formaldehyde-exposed workers were compared with 32 control employees from the food industry. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde was conducted using the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health 3500 methods. Using the Ellman method, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as a biomarker for neurotoxicity was analyzed in blood erythrocyte. The effects of alcohol dehydrogenase III (ADH3) and Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) polymorphism were used to survey the level of AChE activity. In this study, it was found that exposure to airborne formaldehyde increased from 0.024 to 0.74 ppm and the median personnel exposure was 0.057. Induction of AChE activity was observed in formaldehyde-exposed workers as compared with the control group (p formaldehyde. Exposed subjects containing ADH32-2 genotype had higher AChE than others. The findings of this study suggest that the neurotoxic effect of formaldehyde depends on the AChE activity, which is affected by metabolism. It can be concluded that cholinergic signal reduction in cases of cognitive dysfunction could be associated with endogenous formaldehyde.

  8. Selenium pretreatment attenuates formaldehyde-induced genotoxicity in A549 cell lines. (United States)

    Shi, Yu-Qin; Chen, Xin; Dai, Juan; Jiang, Zhong-Fa; Li, Ning; Zhang, Ben-Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Bing


    Formaldehyde is a major industrial chemical and has been extensively used in the manufacture of synthetic resins and chemicals. Numerous studies indicate that formaldehyde can induce various genotoxic effects in vitro and in vivo. A recent study indicated that formaldehyde impaired antioxidant cellular defences and enhanced lipid peroxidation. Selenium is an important antioxidant. We hypothesized that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation are involved in formaldehyde-induced genotoxicity in human lung cancer cell line, A549 cell line. To test the hypothesis, we investigated the effects of selenium on formaldehyde-induced genotoxicity in A549 cell lines. The results indicated that exposure to formaldehyde showed the induction of DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs). Formaldehyde significantly increased the malondialdehyde levels and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. In addition, the activations of necrosis factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) were induced by the formaldehyde treatment. The pretreatment with selenium counteracted the formaldehyde-induced oxidative stress, ameliorated DPCs and attenuated the activation of NF-κB and AP-1 in A549 cell lines. All the results suggested that the pretreatment with selenium attenuated the formaldehyde-induced genotoxicity through its ROS scavenging and anti-DPCs effects in A549 cell lines. © The Author(s) 2012.

  9. Regulation of methylamine and formaldehyde metabolism in Arthrobacter P1. Formaldehyde is the inducing signal for the synthesis of the RuMP cycle enzyme hexulose phosphate synthase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, L.M.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    The inducing potential of formaldehyde on the synthesis of hexulose phosphate synthase, a key enzyme of the RuMP cycle in Arthrobacter P1, was investigated in resting cell suspensions. Induction of this enzyme only occurred at formaldehyde concentrations of 0.5 mM and below. No evidence was obtained

  10. Formaldehyde stabilization facilitates lignin monomer production during biomass depolymerization. (United States)

    Shuai, Li; Amiri, Masoud Talebi; Questell-Santiago, Ydna M; Héroguel, Florent; Li, Yanding; Kim, Hoon; Meilan, Richard; Chapple, Clint; Ralph, John; Luterbacher, Jeremy S


    Practical, high-yield lignin depolymerization methods could greatly increase biorefinery productivity and profitability. However, development of these methods is limited by the presence of interunit carbon-carbon bonds within native lignin, and further by formation of such linkages during lignin extraction. We report that adding formaldehyde during biomass pretreatment produces a soluble lignin fraction that can be converted to guaiacyl and syringyl monomers at near theoretical yields during subsequent hydrogenolysis (47 mole % of Klason lignin for beech and 78 mole % for a high-syringyl transgenic poplar). These yields were three to seven times those obtained without formaldehyde, which prevented lignin condensation by forming 1,3-dioxane structures with lignin side-chain hydroxyl groups. By depolymerizing cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin separately, monomer yields were between 76 and 90 mole % for these three major biomass fractions. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Nanocomposite sensors of propylene glycol, dimethylformamide and formaldehyde vapors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Adamyan


    Full Text Available The results of research works related to the study of thick-film multiwall carbon nanotube–tin oxide nanocomposite sensors of propylene glycol (PG, dimethylformamide (DMF and formaldehyde (FA vapors are presented in this paper. These sensors were derived using hydrothermal synthesis and sol–gel methods. Investigations of response–recovery characteristics in the 50–300 °C operating temperature range reveal that the optimal operating temperature for PG, DMF and FA vapor sensors, taking into account both high response and acceptable response and recovery times are about 200 and 220 °C, respectively. The dependence of the sensor response on gas concentration is linear in all cases. Minimal propylene glycol, dimethylformamide and formaldehyde gas concentrations, where the perceptible signal was noticed, were 13, 5 and 115 ppm, respectively.

  12. Studies of Deactivation of Methanol to Formaldehyde Selective Oxidation Catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Kristian Viegaard; Schumann, Max; Høj, Martin

    Formaldehyde (CH2O) may be synthesized industrially by selective oxidation of methanol over an iron-molybdate (Fe-Mo) oxide catalyst according to: CH3OH + ½O2 →CH2O + H2O. The reaction is normally carried out in a multitubular reactor with excess of air at 250-400 °C (yield = 90-95 %), known...... as the Formox process [1]. The average lifetime of the industrial catalyst is only 1–2 years depending on the operating conditions. The catalyst consists of a bulk phase of Fe2(MoO4)3 and a surface layer phase of MoO3. The MoO3 surfaceis selective towards formaldehyde while the iron in the sublayer increases...

  13. Simple, rapid method for the preparation of isotopically labeled formaldehyde (United States)

    Hooker, Jacob Matthew [Port Jefferson, NY; Schonberger, Matthias [Mains, DE; Schieferstein, Hanno [Aabergen, DE; Fowler, Joanna S [Bellport, NY


    Isotopically labeled formaldehyde (*C.sup..sctn.H.sub.2O) is prepared from labeled methyl iodide (*C.sup..sctn.H.sub.3I) by reaction with an oxygen nucleophile having a pendant leaving group. The mild and efficient reaction conditions result in good yields of *C.sup..sctn.H.sub.2O with little or no *C isotopic dilution. The simple, efficient production of .sup.11CH.sub.2O is described. The use of the .sup.11CH.sub.2O for the formation of positron emission tomography tracer compounds is described. The reaction can be incorporated into automated equipment available to radiochemistry laboratories. The isotopically labeled formaldehyde can be used in a variety of reactions to provide radiotracer compounds for imaging studies as well as for scintillation counting and autoradiography.

  14. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Nanoparticles for Formaldehyde Sensing with QCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munawar Hussain


    Full Text Available Herein, we report on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs for detecting formaldehyde vapors in air streams. A copolymer thin film consisting of styrene, methacrylic acid, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM yielded a detection limit of 500 ppb formaldehyde in dry air. Surprisingly, these MIPs showed specific behavior when tested against a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, such as acetaldehyde, methanol, formic acid, and dichloromethane. Despite thus being a suitable receptor in principle, the MIPs were not useful for measurements at 50% humidity due to surface saturation by water. This was overcome by introducing primary amino groups into the polymer via allyl amine and by changing the coating morphology from thin film to nanoparticles. This led to the same limit of detection (500 ppb and selectivity as before, but at the real-life conditions of 50% relative humidity.

  15. Thermodynamics of the formaldehyde-water and formaldehyde-ice systems for atmospheric applications. (United States)

    Barret, Manuel; Houdier, Stephan; Domine, Florent


    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a species involved in numerous key atmospheric chemistry processes that can significantly impact the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. Since gaseous HCHO is soluble in water, the water droplets of clouds and the ice crystals of snow exchange HCHO with the gas phase and the partitioning of HCHO between the air, water, and ice phases must be known to understand its chemistry. This study proposes thermodynamic formulations for the partitioning of HCHO between the gas phase and the ice and liquid water phases. A reanalysis of existing data on the vapor-liquid equilibrium has shown the inadequacy of the Henry's law formulation, and we instead propose the following equation to predict the mole fraction of HCHO in liquid water at equilibrium, X(HCHO,liq), as a function of the partial pressure P(HCHO) (Pa) and temperature T (K): X(HCHO,liq) = 1.700 × 10(-15) e((8014/T))(P(HCHO))(1.105). Given the paucity of data on the gas-ice equilibrium, the solubility of HCHO and the diffusion coefficient (D(HCHO)) in ice were measured by exposing large single ice crystals to low P(HCHO). Our recommended value for D(HCHO) over the temperature range 243-266 K is D(HCHO) = 6 × 10(-12) cm(2) s(-1). The solubility of HCHO in ice follows the relationship X(HCHO,ice) = 9.898 × 10(-13) e((4072/T))(P(HCHO))(0.803). Extrapolation of these data yields the P(HCHO) versus 1/T phase diagram for the H(2)O-HCHO system. The comparison of our results to existing data on the partitioning of HCHO between the snow and the atmosphere in the high arctic highlights the interplay between thermodynamic equilibrium and kinetics processes in natural systems.

  16. Expression, purification, and characterization of formaldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (United States)

    Zhang, Wangluo; Chen, Shuai; Liao, Yuanping; Wang, Dingli; Ding, Jianfeng; Wang, Yingming; Ran, Xiaoyuan; Lu, Daru; Zhu, Huaxing


    As a member of zinc-containing medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family, formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH) can oxidize toxic formaldehyde to less active formate with NAD(+) as a cofactor and exists in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Most FDHs are well known to be glutathione-dependent in the catalysis of formaldehyde oxidation, but the enzyme from Pseudomonas putida is an exception, which is independent of glutathione. To identify novel glutathione-independent FDHs from other bacterial strains and facilitate the corresponding structural and enzymatic studies, high-level soluble expression and efficient purification of these enzymes need to be achieved. Here, we present molecular cloning, expression, and purification of the FDH from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is a Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium causing opportunistic human infection. The FDH of P. aeruginosa shows high sequence identity (87.97%) with that of P. putida. Our results indicated that coexpression with molecular chaperones GroES, GroEL, and Tig has significantly attenuated inclusion body formation and improved the solubility of the recombinant FDH in Escherichiacoli cells. A purification protocol including three chromatographic steps was also established to isolate the recombinant FDH to homogeneity with a yield of ∼3.2 mg from 1L of cell culture. The recombinant P. aeruginosa FDH was properly folded and biologically functional, as demonstrated by the mass spectrometric, crystallographic, and enzymatic characterizations of the purified proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of the detoxification mechanism of formaldehyde-treated tetanus toxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Jørgensen, Sys Borcher; Wilhelmsen, Ellen Sloth


     The tetanus vaccine is based on the extremely potent tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT), which is converted by treatment with formaldehyde and lysine into the non-toxic, but still immunogenic tetanus toxoid (TTd). This formaldehyde-induced detoxification, which to a large extend determines the quality...... and formaldehyde in the detoxification process and (ii) characterisation of the chemically detoxified TTd. (i) We examined a number of TTd components that was produced by varying the concentrations of formaldehyde and lysine during the inactivation. Toxicity tests showed that the detoxification failed when...... the lysine or formaldehyde concentration was formaldehyde-dependent and, furthermore, revealed that inter-chain cross-linking was not the only requirement for the inactivation...

  18. Formaldehyde-Induced Genome Instability is Suppressed by an XPF-dependent Pathway (United States)

    Kumari, Anuradha; Lim, Yun Xin; Newell, Amy Hanlon; Olson, Susan B.; McCullough, Amanda K.


    Formaldehyde is a reactive chemical that is commonly used in the production of industrial, laboratory, household, and cosmetic products. The causal association between formaldehyde exposure and increased incidence of cancer led the International Agency for Research on Cancer to classify formaldehyde as a carcinogen. Formaldehyde-induced DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) elicit responses involving nucleotide excision repair (NER) and homologous recombination (HR) repair pathways; however, little is known about the cellular and genetic changes that subsequently lead to formaldehyde-induced genotoxic and cytotoxic effects. Herein, investigations of genes that modulate the cytotoxic effects of formaldehyde exposure revealed that of five NER-deficient Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines tested, XPF- and ERCC1-deficient cells were most sensitive to formaldehyde treatment as compared to wild-type cells. Cell cycle analyses revealed that formaldehyde-treated XPF-deficient cells exhibited an immediate G2/M arrest that was associated with altered cell ploidy and apoptosis. Additionally, an elevated number of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), chromosomal breaks and radial formation were also observed in XPF-deficient cells following formaldehyde treatment. Formaldehyde-induced DSBs occurred in a replication-dependent, but an XPF-independent manner. However, delayed DSB repair was observed in the absence of XPF function. Collectively, our findings highlight the role of an XPF-dependent pathway in mitigating the sensitivity to formaldehyde-induced DNA damage as evidenced by the increased genomic instability and reduced cell viability in an XPF-deficient background. In addition, centrosome and microtubule abnormalities, as well as enlarged nuclei, caused by formaldehyde exposure are also demonstrated in a repair-proficient cell line. PMID:22186232

  19. Urea-formaldehyde resins: production, application, and testing (United States)

    Nuryawan, A.; Risnasari, I.; Sucipto, T.; Heri Iswanto, A.; Rosmala Dewi, R.


    Urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin, one of the most important formaldehyde resin adhesives, is a polymeric condensation product of formaldehyde with urea, and being widely used for the manufacture of wood-based composite panels, such as plywood, particleboard, and fiberboard. In spite of its benefits such as fast curing, good performance in the panels (colorless), and lower cost; formaldehyde emission (FE) originated from either UF resin itself or composite products bonded by UF resins is considered a critical drawback as it affects human health particularly in indoor environment. In order to reduce the FE, lowering formaldehyde/urea (F/U) mole ratio in the synthesis of the UF resin was done. In this study, synthesis of UF resins was carried out following the conventional alkaline-acid two-step reaction with a second addition of urea, resulting in F/U mole ratio around 1.0, namely 0.95; 1.05, and 1.15. The UF resins produced were used as binder for particleboard making. The board was manufactured in the laboratory using shaving type particle of Gmelina wood, 8% UF resin based on oven dry particle, and 1% NH4Cl (20%wt) as hardener for the resin. The target of the thickness was 10 mm and the dimension was 25 cm x 25 cm. The resulted particleboard then was evaluated the physical and the mechanical properties by Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) A 5908 (2003). Further, the resulted particleboard also was used for the mice cage’s wall in order to mimic the real living environment. After four weeks exposure in the cages, the mice then were evaluated their mucous organs as well as their blood. The experiment results were as follows: 1) It was possible to synthesis UF resins with low F/U mole ratio; 2) However, the particleboard bonded UF resins with low F/U mole ratio showed poor properties, particularly on the thickness swelling and modulus of elasticity; 3) There was no significant differences among the mucous organs of the mice after a month exposure FE originated from

  20. A Formaldehyde Exposure Assessment Tool for Occupants of FEMA Temporary Housing Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Spears, Michael; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L; Apte, Michael G.


    The report outlines the methodology used to develop a web-based tool to assess the formaldehyde exposure of the occupants of Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) temporary housing units (THUs) after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005. Linear regression models were built using available data to retrospectively estimate the indoor temperature and relative humidity, formaldehyde emission factors and concentration, and hence the formaldehyde exposures. The interactive web-tool allows the user to define the inputs to the model to evaluate formaldehyde exposures for different scenarios.

  1. Urine formaldehyde level is inversely correlated to mini mental state examination scores in senile dementia. (United States)

    Tong, Zhiqian; Zhang, Jinling; Luo, Wenhong; Wang, Weishan; Li, Fangxu; Li, Hui; Luo, Hongjun; Lu, Jing; Zhou, Jiangning; Wan, You; He, Rongqiao


    It is widely known that exogenous formaldehyde exposure induces human cognitive impairment and animal memory loss; and recent studies show that formaldehyde at pathological levels induces Aβ deposition and misfolding of tau protein to form globular amyloid-like aggregates. Endogenous formaldehyde may be a marker for progressive senile dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of endogenous formaldehyde in urine of senile dementia and mini mental state examination (MMSE) scores. Formaldehyde level was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (with fluorescence detection) in human urine from dementia patients (n=141), patients with hypertension (n=33) or diabetes (n=16) and healthy individuals (n=38), autopsy hippocampus samples from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and brains of three types of AD animal model: namely, senescence accelerated mice (SAMP8), APP-transgenic mice and APP/PS1-transgenic mice. In a double-blind study, there was marked elevation of urine formaldehyde levels in patients (n=91) with dementia, and a slight increase in patients (n=50) with mild cognitive impairment. Urine formaldehyde level was inversely correlated with mini mental state examination scores (Rs=-0.441, psenile dementia are probably related to endogenous formaldehyde levels; and the mini mental state examination scores referred to the evaluation of urine formaldehyde level in dementia patients may be used as a non-invasive method for the investigation and diagnosis of senile dementia. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Porphinogen Formation from the Co-Oligomerization of Formaldehyde and Pyrrole: Free Energy Pathways. (United States)

    Kua, Jeremy; Loli, Helen


    We have investigated the nonoxidative stepwise co-oligomerization of formaldehyde and pyrrole to form porphinogen using density functional theory calculations that include free energy corrections. While the addition of formaldehyde to the pyrrole nitrogen is kinetically favored, thermodynamics suggest that this reaction is reversible in aqueous solution. The more thermodynamically favorable addition of formaldehyde to the ortho-carbon of pyrrole begins a stepwise process, forming dipyrromethane via an azafulvene intermediate. Subsequent additions of formaldehyde and pyrrole lead to bilanes (linear tetrapyrroles), which favorably cyclize to form porphinogen. Porphinogen is a precursor to porphin, the simplest unsubstituted porphyrin that could have played a role in primitive metabolism at the origin of life.

  3. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether... (United States)


    ... substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and...-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and polyethylenepolyamines (generic). (a) Chemical... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

  4. Domestic Research Progress in Graphene Oxide/ Phenolic Formaldehyde Resin Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIANG Li


    Full Text Available Graphene oxide(GO,an important derivative of graphene,has good compatibility with phenolic formaldehyde resin(PFthanks to the active groups such as hydroxyl,carboxyl and epoxy. Recently,graphene oxide has been applied in the research and development of PF based composites. GO/PF composites show good mechanical,electrical,thermal and frictional properties,as well as dielectric and flame retardant properties. This review reports the domestic research results in PF/GO composites in the recent five years.

  5. Formaldehyde emission from particleboard and plywood paneling : measurement, mechanism, and product standards (United States)

    George E. Myers


    A number of commercial panel products, primarily particleboard and hardwood plywood, were tested for their formaldehyde emission behavior using desiccator, perforator, and dynamic chamber methods. The results were analyzed in terms of the source of formaldehyde observed in the tests (free vs. hydrolytically produced) and the potential utility of the testa as product...

  6. Emission of formaldehyde by particleboard : effect of ventilation rate and loading on air-contamination levels (United States)

    George E. Myers; Muneo Nagaoka


    Dynamic tests for determining the formaldehyde emission behavior of UF-bonded boards involve the measurement of formaldehyde concentration in the air within a vessel which contains a specified board loading L (m2 of board area per m3 of vessel free volume) and is being ventilated at a specified air exchange rate N (hr.-1). Such tests constitute a primary...

  7. Effect of ventilation rate and board loading on formaldehyde concentration : a critical review of the literature (United States)

    George E. Myers


    A critical literature review has been carried out on the influence of ventilation rate (N, hr.-1) and board loading (L, m2/m3) on steady state formaldehyde concentrations (Cs, ppm) resulting from particleboard and plywood emissions. Large differences exist among boards in the extent to which their formaldehyde concentrations change with N or L in laboratory chambers....

  8. CeO2 thin film as a low-temperature formaldehyde sensor in mixed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    a good biomarker for diagnosing lung cancer at an earlier stage (Fuchs et al 2010). Hence, there is a need for formaldehyde detection in diseases diagnosing as well as for environmental monitoring. Different traditional techniques were available to detect formaldehyde such as gas chromatography (Poli et al 2010) ...

  9. Simultaneous bond degradation and bond formation during phenol-formaldehyde curing with wood (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph


    Bonding of wood using phenol–formaldehyde adhesive develops highly durable bonds. Phenol– formaldehyde is believed to form primary bonds with wood cell wall polymers (e.g., lignin). However, it is unclear how this adhesive interacts and bonds to lignin. Through wood solubilisation methodologies, earlywood and latewood bonded assemblies were characterized using two-...

  10. Formaldehyde exposure induces autophagy in testicular tissues of adult male rats. (United States)

    Han, Shui-Ping; Zhou, Dang-Xia; Lin, Pu; Qin, Zhen; An, Lu; Zheng, Lie-Rui; Lei, Li


    Formaldehyde, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has long been suspected of causing adverse male reproductive effects. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain elusive. The overall aim of this study is to clarify the role of autophagy in male reproductive injuries induced by formaldehyde exposure, by which we can further understand the molecular mechanism of spermatogenesis and develop new targets for prevention and treatment of male infertility. In this study, electron microscopy, Western blot, and RT-PCR analysis were used to detect autophagy in testicular tissues. Moreover, testicular weights, histopathology, and morphometry were used to evaluate the reproductive injuries of formaldehyde exposure. We found that formaldehyde exposure-induced autophagy in testicular tissues was dose dependent. Increasing autophagosomes in spermatogenetic cells was observed by electron microscopy in formaldehyde exposure group. In addition, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed the transcription levels of the LC3-II, as well as the conversion from LC3-I to LC3-II, an indicator of autophagy, significantly increased in testicular tissue of formaldehyde exposure group in a dose dependent manner when compared with those in control group. Furthermore, the alterations of autophage were basically consistent with the changes in testicular weight and morphologic findings. In summary, formaldehyde exposure triggered autophagy, and autophagy may be a scathing factor responsible for male reproductive impairment induced by formaldehyde. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. CeO2 thin film as a low-temperature formaldehyde sensor in mixed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The vapour sensing characteristics of the annealed film were studied by chemiresistive method for various concentrations of formaldehyde vapour at room temperature (∼ 30 °C). For 0.5 ppm of formaldehyde vapour, the film shows a response and recovery time of 36 and 1 s, respectively. The vapour sensing properties of ...

  12. Solid phase microextraction method development for measuring Henry's Law constants of formaldehyde in aqueous solutions (United States)

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) has been of special concern as an indoor air pollutant because of its existence in a wide range of products and its adverse health effects. The air-water partitioning behavior of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as formaldehyde is an important process th...

  13. Developing a Reference Material for Diffusion-Controlled Formaldehyde Emissions Testing (United States)

    Emissions of formaldehyde from building materials can contaminate indoor air and create significant risks to human health. The need to control formaldehyde emissions from indoor materials is made more urgent by the prevailing drive to improve building energy by decreasing ventil...

  14. Characterization of novolac type liquefied wood/phenol/formaldehyde (LWPF) resin (United States)

    Hui Pan; Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse


    Novolac type liquefied wood/phenol/formaldehyde (LWPF) resins were synthesized from liquefied wood and formaldehyde. The average molecular weight of the LWPF resin made from the liquefied wood reacted in an atmospheric three neck flask increased with increasing P/W ratio. However, it decreased with increasing phenol/wood ratio when using a sealed Parr reactor. On...

  15. Formaldehyde concentrations in household air of asthma patients determined using colorimetric detector tubes (United States)

    Dannemiller, Karen C.; Murphy, Johnna S.; Dixon, Sherry L.; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric M.; Jacobs, David E.; Sandel, Megan


    Formaldehyde is a colorless, pungent gas commonly found in homes that is a respiratory irritant, sensitizer, carcinogen and asthma trigger. Typical household sources include plywood and particleboard, cleaners, cosmetics, pesticides, and others. Development of a fast and simple measurement technique could facilitate continued research on this important chemical. The goal of this research is to apply an inexpensive short-term measurement method to find correlations between formaldehyde sources and concentration, and formaldehyde concentration and asthma control. Formaldehyde was measured using 30-minute grab samples in length-of-stain detector tubes in homes (n=70) of asthmatics in the Boston, MA area. Clinical status and potential formaldehyde sources were determined. The geometric mean formaldehyde level was 35.1 ppb and ranged from 5–132 ppb. Based on one-way ANOVA, t-tests, and linear regression, predictors of log-transformed formaldehyde concentration included absolute humidity, season, and the presence of decorative laminates, fiberglass, or permanent press fabrics (pformaldehyde concentration was 57% higher in homes of children with very poorly controlled asthma compared to homes of other asthmatic children (p=0.078). This study provides a simple method for measuring household formaldehyde and suggests that exposure is related to poorly controlled asthma. PMID:23278296

  16. Portable formaldehyde monitoring device using porous glass sensor and its applications in indoor air quality studies. (United States)

    Maruo, Yasuko Yamada; Nakamura, Jiro


    We have developed a portable device for formaldehyde monitoring with both high sensitivity and high temporal resolution, and carried out indoor air formaldehyde concentration analysis. The absorbance difference of the sensor element was measured in the monitoring device at regular intervals of, for example, one hour or 30 min, and the result was converted into the formaldehyde concentration. This was possible because we found that the lutidine derivative that was formed as a yellow product of the reaction between 1-phenyl-1,3-butandione and formaldehyde was stable in porous glass for at least six months. We estimated the reaction rate and to be 0.049 min(-1) and the reaction occurred quickly enough for us to monitor hourly changes in the formaldehyde concentration. The detection limit was 5 μg m(-3) h. We achieved hourly formaldehyde monitoring using the developed device under several indoor conditions, and estimated the air exchange rate and formaldehyde adsorption rate, which we adopted as a new term in the mass balance equation for formaldehyde, in one office. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    The paper discusses the measurment and analysis of the patterns of formaldehyde emission from a low volatile organic compound (VOC) latex paint applied to gypsum board, using small environmental chamber tests. The formaldehyde emissions resulted in sharp increase of chamber air...

  18. Investigation of physical, mechanical properties and formaldehyde emission of medium density fiberboard manufactured from urea formaldehyde resin reinforced with nanocrystalline cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khanjanzadeh


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physico-mechanical properties and formaldehyde emission of medium density fiberboard (MDF made from modified urea formaldehyde resin. In this study, nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 percent based on the dry weight of resin was applied to modify urea formaldehyde resin. The results of mechanical properties indicated that MOR and IB of the MDF panels significantly increased as the NCC incorporated into the UF adhesive up to 1%wt. However, further increment in the NCC content (1.5 and 2 wt% decreased the MOR and IB of the panels. Water absorption and thickness swelling after 2 h were significantly increased when the NCC content increased from 1% to 2%, but no significant differences were observed between the panels after 24 h. Also, the formaldehyde emission significantly decreased with increasing the amount of nanocrystalline cellulose.

  19. Determination of formaldehyde in frozen fish with formaldehyde dehydrogenase using a flow injection system with an incorporated gel-filtration chromatrography column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Iben Ell


    A flow injection analysis (FIA) system for determination of formaldehyde in frozen fish products is described. The system provides a rapid and selective determination of formaldehyde in aqueous fish extracts by the combination of a deproteinization procedure and a stopped-now enzymatic approach...... in a FIA system. The FIA system is furnished with a gel-filtration chromatography column for on-line removal of the proteins from the extract before the enzymatic analysis is performed. Compared with the standard methods for determination of formaldehyde in fish products the present method is much faster...... and less affected by interferences. The limit of detection for the proposed method is 2.5 mg/l of formaldehyde. The sampling frequency is about 10 determinations per hour....

  20. Determination of Formaldehyde in Frozen Fish with Formaldehyde Dehydrogenase Using a Flow Injection System with an Incorporated Gel-filtration Chromatography Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Iben Ellegaard


    A flow injection analysis (FIA) system for determination of formaldehyde in frozen fish products is described. The system provides a rapid and selective determination of formaldehyde in aqueous fish extracts by the combination of a deproteinization procedure and a stopped-flow enzymatic approach...... in a FIA system. The FIA system is furnished with a gel-filtration chromatography column for on-line removal of the proteins from the extract before the enzymatic analysis is performed. Compared with the standard methods for determination of formaldehyde in fish products the present method is much faster...... and less affected by interferences. The limit of detection for the proposed method is 2.5 mg/l of formaldehyde. The sampling frequency is about 10 determinations per hour....

  1. Chelation Ion Exchange Properties of 2, 4-Dihydroxyacetophenone-Biuret-Formaldehyde Terpolymer Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiokumar S. Rahangdale


    Full Text Available The terpolymer resin 2, 4-HABF has been synthesized by the condensation of 2, 4-dihydroxyacetophenone (2, 4-HA and biuret (B with formaldehyde (F in 1:1:2 molar ratios in presence of 2 M hydrochloric acid as catalyst. UV-Visible, IR and proton NMR spectral studies have been carried out to elucidate the structure of the resin. A terpolymer (2, 4-HABF proved to be a selective chelating ion exchange polymer for certain metals. Chelating ion-exchange properties of this polymer were studied for Fe3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Zn2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions. A batch equilibrium method was employed in the study of the selectivity of metal ion uptake involving the measurement of the distribution of a given metal ion between the polymer sample and a solution containing the metal ion. The study was carried out over a wide pH range and in media of various ionic strengths. The polymer showed highest selectivity for Fe3+, Cu2+ ions than for Ni2+, Co2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ ions. Study of distribution ratio as a formation of pH indicates that the amount of metal ion taken by resin is increases with the increasing pH of the medium.

  2. Study on binder system of CO2-cured phenol-formaldehyde resin used in phenol-formaldehyde resin used in foundry


    Liu Weihua; Li Yingmin; Qu Xueliang


    A new aqueous alkaline resol phenol-formaldehyde resin has been prepared from phenol and formaldehyde using NaOH as catalyst; the optimum synthetic process has been determined. With addition of some cross-linking agents, after passing carbon dioxide gas through the resin bonded sand, high as-gassed strength and 24 h strength are achieved. The bonding bridge of the resin bonded sand fracture has been analyzed by using SEM.

  3. Analysis of cocondensation of melamine and urea through carbon 13 enriched formaldehyde with C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (United States)

    Bunichiro Tomita; Chung-Yun Hse


    The urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins, melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resins, and melamine-ureaformaldehyde (MUF) cocondensed resins were synthesized using the labeling method with 13C enriched formaldehyde under neutral conditions and their 13C-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectra were analyzed. The remarkable down-field...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10190 - Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2... (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic... Formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (generic... identified generically as formaldehyde, polymer with aliphatic diamine and phenol, reaction products with 4...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5560 - Formaldehyde, polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and phenol, reaction products with 6H-dibenz[c... (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with... Formaldehyde, polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and phenol, reaction products with 6H-dibenz oxaphosphorin-6... identified as formaldehyde, polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and phenol, reaction products with 6H-dibenz...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. (United States)


    ... calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. 86.1320-90 Section 86.1320-90 Protection of... instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation to determine...

  7. 21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4â²... Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. The...) The resins are produced by the condensation of xylene-formaldehyde resin and 4,4...

  8. 24 CFR 3280.406 - Air chamber test method for certification and qualification of formaldehyde emission levels. (United States)


    ... certification and qualification of formaldehyde emission levels. 3280.406 Section 3280.406 Housing and Urban... qualification of formaldehyde emission levels. (a) Preconditioning. Preconditioning of plywood or particleboard... with the Standard Test Method for Determining Formaldehyde Levels from Wood Products Under Defined Test...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3830 - Formaldehyde, reaction products with an alkylated phenol and an aliphatic amine (generic). (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, reaction products with... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3830 Formaldehyde, reaction... new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Formaldehyde...

  10. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (United States)


    ... calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. 86.120-94 Section 86.120-94 Protection of... Procedures § 86.120-94 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas meters...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10054 - Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3-[(2-aminocyclohexyl)amino]-2-hydroxypropyl ethers. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10054 Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3- -2... substance identified generically as a phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3- -2-hydroxypropyl ethers (PMN P...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1183 - How do I comply with the formaldehyde standards for existing, new, and reconstructed curing ovens? (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I comply with the formaldehyde... with the formaldehyde standards for existing, new, and reconstructed curing ovens? To comply with the formaldehyde standards, you must meet all of the following: (a) Install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a...

  13. Formaldehyde concentration in discharge from land based aquaculture facilities in Atlantic Canada. (United States)

    Lalonde, Benoit A; Ernst, William; Garron, Christine


    Formaldehyde is used in freshwater aquaculture facilities in the Maritimes region of Canada to prevent external parasites and is discharged without treatment to freshwater receiving environments. In this study, formaldehyde was measured at effluent outfalls and 100 m downstream of four land based aquaculture facilities at various post-treatment time intervals. Concentrations of formaldehyde ranged from 0.2 to 7.1 mg/L. Based on Environment Canada's environmental no effect value, all of the samples show a potential risk to aquatic life. Furthermore, based on a chronic aquatic life water quality criterion of 1.61 mg/L all but two of the samples had concentrations considered to be toxic to aquatic life. An acute water quality criteria was only exceeded once in all of the environmental measurements of formaldehyde. These results lead us to hypothesize that the discharge of formaldehyde from land-based facilities may cause adverse chronic impacts.

  14. Is it possible to use biomonitoring for the quantitative assessment of formaldehyde occupational exposure? (United States)

    Chiarella, Pieranna; Tranfo, Giovanna; Pigini, Daniela; Carbonari, Damiano


    The European classification, labeling and packaging classified formaldehyde as human carcinogen Group 1B and mutagen 2, fostering the re-evaluation of the exposure risk in occupational settings. Although formaldehyde exposure is traditionally measured in air, many efforts were made to identify specific exposure biomarkers: urinary formaldehyde, formic acid and DNA damage indicators. Though used in combination, none of these seems satisfactory. The influence of the metabolism on exogenous formaldehyde levels, the exposure to other xenobiotics, the difference in genetic background and metabolism efficiency, misled the relationship between genotoxicity and exposure data. Nevertheless, the limitation of adverse effects to the local contact sites hampers biomonitoring. Here we discuss the feasibility of formaldehyde biomonitoring and the use of DNA, DNA-protein cross-links and protein adducts as potential biomarkers.

  15. Migration of formaldehyde and melamine from melaware and other amino resin tableware in real life service. (United States)

    Mannoni, Veruscka; Padula, Giorgio; Panico, Oronzo; Maggio, Antonino; Arena, Claudio; Milana, Maria-Rosaria


    The migration of formaldehyde and melamine monomers has been measured on 90 samples of plastic tableware in three different situations - new articles, already used articles and artificially aged articles - by using simulant, contact times and temperatures prescribed by Commission Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011. Formaldehyde was determined by ultraviolet spectroscopy analysis of the coloured complex obtained by reaction with chromotropic acid. Melamine was measured by an ultra high performance liquid chromatography method. Fourier Transformed - Infrared Analysis was applied to characterise the plastic. The results highlighted the presence of different amino resins based on formaldehyde-melamine, urea-formaldehyde or melamine-urea-formaldehyde with different migration behaviour. The migration of monomers was related to progressive degradation of the resins. Ageing studies demonstrated that the potential degradation of the resins and the consequent migration of the monomers may continue throughout the service life of the product. The specific migration limit (SML) of melamine was exceeded after ageing.

  16. Sinonasal adenoid cystic carcinoma following formaldehyde exposure in the operating theatre. (United States)

    Sandvik, Anniken; Klingen, Tor Audun; Langård, Sverre


    We present a case report of an auxiliary nurse who developed an adenoid cystic carcinoma in her left maxillary sinus following occupational exposure to formaldehyde in the operating theatre. Currently, the epidemiological evidence that formaldehyde can cause cancer in humans is considered to be limited. Previous case-control-studies of formaldehyde and sinonasal cancer have mainly investigated subjects who were concomitantly exposed to wood dust, a known risk factor to the development of sinonasal adenocarcinoma of intestinal type. Our case report presents a patient who has developed an adenoid cystic carcinoma following exposure to formaldehyde. We suggest that the occupational physician remains alert to formaldehyde as an occupational hazard among health care workers.

  17. Airborne In-Situ Measurements of Formaldehyde Over California: First Results from the Compact Formaldehyde Fluorescence Experiment (COFFEE) Instrument (United States)

    Marrero, Josette Elizabeth; Saint Clair, Jason; Yates, Emma L.; Gore, Warren; Swanson, Andrew K.; Iraci, Laura T.; Hanisco, Thomas F.


    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is one of the most abundant oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere, playing a role multiple atmospheric processes. Measurements of HCHO can be used to help quantify convective transport, the abundance of VOCs, and ozone production in urban environments. The Compact Formaldehyde FluorescencE Experiment (COFFEE) instrument uses Non-Resonant Laser Induced Fluorescence (NR-LIF) to detect trace concentrations of HCHO as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) payload. Developed at NASA GSFC, COFFEE is a small, low maintenance instrument with a sensitivity of 100 pptv and a quick response time (1 sec). The COFFEE instrument has been customized to fit in an external wing pod on the Alpha Jet aircraft based at NASA ARC. The instrument can operate over a broad range of altitudes, from boundary layer to lower stratosphere, making it well suited for the Alpha Jet, which can access altitudes from the surface up to 40,000 ft. Results of the first COFFEE science flights preformed over the California's Central Valley will be presented. Boundary layer measurements and vertical profiles in the tropospheric column will both be included. This region is of particular interest, due to its elevated levels of HCHO, revealed in satellite images, as well as its high ozone concentrations. In addition to HCHO, the AJAX payload includes measurements of atmospheric ozone, methane, and carbon dioxide. Formaldehyde is one of the few urban pollutants that can be measured from space. Plans to compare in-situ COFFEE data with satellite-based HCHO observations such as those from OMI (Aura) and OMPS (SuomiNPP) will also be presented.

  18. Media education. (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C


    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (eg, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising) presents health risks for children and adolescents but can provide benefits as well. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media and accentuate the positive effects. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing harmful effects of media on children and adolescents.

  19. Formaldehyde and Epigenetic Alterations: MicroRNA Changes in the Nasal Epithelium of Nonhuman Primates (United States)

    Rager, Julia E.; Moeller, Benjamin C.; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Kracko, Dean; Swenberg, James A.


    Background: Formaldehyde is an air pollutant present in both indoor and outdoor atmospheres. Because of its ubiquitous nature, it is imperative to understand the mechanisms underlying formaldehyde-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can influence disease caused by environmental exposures, yet miRNAs are understudied in relation to formaldehyde. Our previous investigation demonstrated that formaldehyde exposure in human lung cells caused disruptions in miRNA expression profiles in vitro. Objectives: Using an in vivo model, we set out to test the hypothesis that formaldehyde inhalation exposure significantly alters miRNA expression profiles within the nasal epithelium of nonhuman primates. Methods: Cynomolgus macaques were exposed by inhalation to approximately 0, 2, or 6 ppm formaldehyde for 6 hr/day for 2 consecutive days. Small RNAs were extracted from nasal samples and assessed for genome-wide miRNA expression levels. Transcriptional targets of formaldehyde-altered miRNAs were computationally predicted, analyzed at the systems level, and assessed using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Expression analysis revealed that 3 and 13 miRNAs were dysregulated in response to 2 and 6 ppm formaldehyde, respectively. Transcriptional targets of the miRNA with the greatest increase (miR-125b) and decrease (miR-142-3p) in expression were predicted and analyzed at the systems level. Enrichment was identified for miR-125b targeting genes involved in apoptosis signaling. The apoptosis-related targets were functionally tested using RT-PCR, where all targets showed decreased expression in formaldehyde-exposed samples. Conclusions: Formaldehyde exposure significantly disrupts miRNA expression profiles within the nasal epithelium, and these alterations likely influence apoptosis signaling. PMID:23322811

  20. Effects of Sodium Selenite on Formaldehyde Induced Renal Toxicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Mohammadi 1,2 * , Maryam Moghimian 3, Hanieh Torabzadeh 4, Mahla Langari 4, Roghayeh Nazeri 4, Zahra Karimi 4, Elham Sangari 4, Najmeh Jagarmi 5, Alireza Mohammad Zadeh 3, Mehdi Karimi 7, Kamyar Tavakkoli 8, Ali Delshad 9, Fatemeh Mohammadzadeh 3, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan 10


    Full Text Available Background: Formaldehyde is widely used for industrial applications. Renal injury is an adverse effect associated with formaldehyde. Few studies have explored the potential benefits of protective factors on formaldehyde induced renal toxicity. This study evaluated the dose dependent effects of sodium selenite on the biochemical and histopathological effects of formaldehyde on murine kidney. Methods: Forty eight adult Balb/c male mice were randomized into six groups: a control group, a formaldehyde group and experimental III-VI groups. Formaldehyde group was injected with 10 mg/kg formaldehyde and groups III-VI received intraperitoneally doses of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 mg/kg selenium. After two weeks, a stereological study was done in accordance with the principle of Cavalieri and serum concentrations of urea and creatinine were measured. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and SPSS software. Results: Glomerosclerosis, necrosis and vacuolization were observed in the convoluted tubules of animals treated with formaldehyde. The biochemical markers, volume and count of glomeruli in the group treated with formaldehyde was significantly difference compared to the control group (P<0.05. The volume of the glomeruli in the group treated with 0.2 and 0.4 mg selenium and urea level in the group treated with 0.4 and 0.1 mg/kg selenium was significantly difference compared to the control group (P <0.05. The count of glomeruli and creatinine level in the selenium group was significantly difference compared to the control group (P ≤ 0.0001. Conclusions: A dose of 0.2 mg/kg of sodium selenite caused partial protective effect on the renal tissue and function in exposed to formaldehyde.

  1. Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D.P Rengga


    Full Text Available Gas storage is a technology developed with an adsorptive storage method, in which gases are stored as adsorbed components on the certain adsorbent. Formaldehyde is one of the major indoor gaseous pollutants. Depending on its concentration, formaldehyde may cause minor disorder symptoms to a serious injury. Some of the successful applications of technology for the removal of formaldehyde have been reported. However, this paper presents an overview of several studies on the elimination of formaldehyde that has been done by adsorption method because of its simplicity. The adsorption method does not require high energy and the adsorbent used can be obtained from inexpensive materials. Most researchers used activated carbon as an adsorbent for removal of formaldehyde because of its high adsorption capacity. Activated carbons can be produced from many materials such as coals, woods, or agricultural waste. Some of them were prepared by specific activation methods to improve the surface area. Some researchers also used modified activated carbon by adding specific additive to improve its performance in attracting formaldehyde molecules. Proposed modification methods on activation and additive impregnated carbon are thus discussed in this paper for future development and improvement of formaldehyde adsorption on activated carbon. Specifically, a waste agricultural product is chosen for activated carbon raw material because it is renewable and gives an added value to the materials. The study indicates that the performance of the adsorption of formaldehyde might be improved by using modified activated carbon. Bamboo seems to be the most appropriate raw materials to produce activated carbon combined with applying chemical activation method and addition of metal oxidative catalysts such as Cu or Ag in nano size particles. Bamboo activated carbon can be developed in addition to the capture of formaldehyde as well as the storage of adsorptive hydrogen gas that

  2. Deuterated Formaldehyde in the low mass protostar HH212 (United States)

    Sahu, Dipen; Minh, YC; Lee, Chin-Fei; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, SK; Sivaraman, Bhala


    HH212, a nearby (400 pc) object in Orion, is a Class 0 protostellar system with a Keplerian disk and collimated bipolar SiO jets. Deuterated water, HDO and a deuterated complex molecule, methanol (CH2DOH) have been reported in the source. Here, we report the HDCO (deuterated formaldehyde) line observation from ALMA data to probe the inner region of HH212. We compare HDCO line with other molecular lines to understand the possible chemistry and physics of the source. The distribution of HDCO emission suggests it may be associated with the base of the outflow. The emission also shows a rotation but it is not associated with the Keplerian rotation of disk or the rotating infalling envelope, rather it is associated with the outflow as previously seen in C34S. From the possible deuterium fractionation, we speculate that the gas phase formation of deuterated formaldehyde is active in the central hot region of the low-mass protostar system, HH212.

  3. Formaldehyde Inhibits Sexual Behavior and Expression of Steroidogenic Enzymes in the Testes of Mice. (United States)

    Zang, Zhi-Jun; Fang, You-Qiang; Ji, Su-Yun; Gao, Yong; Zhu, Yuan-Qiang; Xia, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Mei-Hua; Zhang, Ya-Nan


    Formaldehyde, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, is used extensively and has been proved to impair male reproduction in mammals. However, no trials have explored whether formaldehyde affects sexual function. To evaluate the effect of long-term formaldehyde exposure on sexual behavior and to investigate the potential mechanism. Forty C57BL/6 male mice were randomly allocated to four equally sized groups. Mice were exposed to formaldehyde at a dose of 0 (control), 0.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/m3 by inhalation for 60 days. Sexual behavior, body and reproductive organ weights, testosterone concentration in serum and testicular tissue, expression of steroidogenic enzymes, quality of sperm, and testicular structure were measured. Formaldehyde inhibited sexual behavior and decreased reproductive organ weights in mice. Serum testosterone levels and intratesticular testosterone concentrations were decreased in the formaldehyde-treated groups. Expression levels of steroidogenic enzymes, including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), also were decreased in the testes of mice exposed to formaldehyde. Moreover, the structure of seminiferous tubules was destroyed and sperm quality decreased after formaldehyde exposure. In addition, the results indicated that the effects of formaldehyde were dose dependent. Efforts should be undertaken to decrease impairment of sexual function caused by formaldehyde exposure. The relatively small sample might have affected the outcomes. Further experiments are needed to study the mechanism of action of formaldehyde. Exposure to formaldehyde gas inhibited sexual behavior, caused reproductive organ atrophy, and impaired spermatogenesis in male mice, which might have been induced by suppressed expression of steroidogenic enzymes in Leydig cells and decreased testosterone synthesis. Zang Z-J, Fang Y-Q, Ji S-Y, et al. Formaldehyde Inhibits Sexual

  4. Multicenter Patch Testing With a Resol Resin Based on Phenol and Formaldehyde Within the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, M.; Ale, I.; Andersen, Klaus Ejner


    Background Contact allergy to phenol-formaldehyde resins (PFRs) based on phenol and formaldehyde is not detected by a p-tertiary-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin included in most baseline patch test series. Objective The aims of this study were to investigate the contact allergy rate to PFR-2.......2%) reacted to PFR-2. Of those 28 individuals, one had a positive reaction to formaldehyde and 2 to p-tertiary-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin. Simultaneous allergic reactions were noted to colophonium in 3, to Myroxylon pereirae in 5, and to fragrance mix I in 8. Conclusions The contact allergy frequency...

  5. Repeated formaldehyde inhalation impaired olfactory function and changed SNAP25 proteins in olfactory bulb. (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Yan, Weiqun; Bai, Yang; Zhu, Yingqiao; Ma, Jie


    Formaldehyde inhalation exposure, which can occur through occupational exposure, can lead to sensory irritation, neurotoxicity, mood disorders, and learning and memory impairment. However, its influence on olfactory function is unclear. To investigate the mechanism and the effect of repeated formaldehyde inhalation exposure on olfactory function. Rats were treated with formaldehyde inhalation (13·5±1·5 ppm, twice 30 minutes/day) for 14 days. Buried food pellet and locomotive activity tests were used to detect olfactory function and locomotion. Western blots were used to evaluate synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25) protein levels in the olfactory bulb (OB) lysate and synaptosome, as well as mature and immature olfactory sensory neuron markers, olfactory marker protein (OMP), and Tuj-1. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect SNAP25 mRNA amounts. Repeated formaldehyde inhalation exposure impaired olfactory function, whereas locomotive activities were unaffected. SNAP25 protein decreased significantly in the OB, but not in the occipital lobe. SNAP25 also decreased in the OB synaptosome when synaptophysin did not change after formaldehyde treatment. mRNA levels of SNAP25A and SNAP25B were unaffected. Mature and immature olfactory sensory neuron marker, OMP, and Tuj-1, did not change after formaldehyde treatment. Repeated formaldehyde exposure impaired olfactory function by disturbing SNAP25 protein in the OB.

  6. Determination of carbonyl compounds (acetaldehyde and formaldehyde in polyethylene terephthalate containers designated for water conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžepović Azra S.


    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET has in the last several years become the main packaging material for many food products, particularly carbonated beverages and bottled water, as well as for products of chemical industry (packaging of various hygiene maintenance agents, pesticides, solvents, etc.. The strength and permeability properties of PET are very good for packaging of beverages, its resistance to chemicals is high and it has a high degree of transparency. Acetaldehyde and formaldehyde are formed during the thermoforming of PET containers. After cooling, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde remain trapped in the walls of a PET bottle and may migrate into the water after filling and storage. Since there are no migration tests in Serbia prescribed for the determination of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde, the purpose of the paper is to test the quantitative contents of carbonyl compounds (acetaldehyde and formaldehyde in PET containers of different volumes, made by various manufacturers of bottled mineral carbonated and noncarbonated water, and exposed to different temperatures. In this study, the migration of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde from PET bottles into mineral carbonated and noncarbonated water was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Taking into consideration that formaldehyde and acetaldehyde have no UV active or fluorescent group, the chromatography shall be preceded by derivatization in a closed system (due to a low boiling point of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde, which shall transform carbonyl compounds into UV active compounds.

  7. Therapeutic role of curcumin in oxidative DNA damage caused by formaldehyde. (United States)

    Ciftci, Gulay; Aksoy, Abdurrahman; Cenesiz, Sena; Sogut, Mehtap Unlu; Yarim, Gul Fatma; Nisbet, Cevat; Guvenc, Dilek; Ertekin, Ali


    Formaldehyde is a common environmental contaminant that causes oxidative DNA damage in cells by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species. The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OhdG), tumor protein 53(TP53), beta-amyloid[Aß(1-42), Aß (1-40)], total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and the therapeutic role of curcumin in rat cells with oxidative DNA damage caused by formaldehyde. The control group was given physiological saline for 15 days (i.p.) and the second group was given 37% formaldehyde (i.p.) at a dose of 9 mg/kg group every other day. The third group was given 9 mg/kg formaldehyde (i.p.) every other day and treated therapeutically with 100 mg/kg curcumin every day by gavage. At the end of the trial period, urine, blood, and brain tissue was collected from the rats. The levels of MDA in sera were increased and the TAC, TP53, and Aß (1-40) levels were reduced in the formaldehyde-treated group with respect to the control group (pformaldehyde-treated group and reduced after treatment with curcumin (P formaldehyde-treated group (P  0.05). In conclusion, the oxidative stress caused by formaldehyde exposure was reduced with the application of curcumin. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Plasma Level Formaldehyde in Children Receiving Pulpotomy Treatment under General Anesthesia. (United States)

    Bagrizan, Majid; Pourgolshani, Pouya; Hosseinpour, Sepanta; Jalalpour, Golnoush; Shahrestani, Mostafa Zahmatkesh

    Formocresol has long been used by dentists for pulpotomy of primary teeth. Due to some concerns regarding its possible carcinogenicity, formocresol has been the topic of numerous studies. This study sought to assess the changes in plasma level of formaldehyde of children after receiving pulpotomy under general anesthesia. Twenty-five children between 2-6 years requiring dental treatments under general anesthesia were studied. Blood samples were taken of children before and after the procedure. Plasma level of formaldehyde was measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A total of 106 pulpotomy treatments were performed in 25 children using 126 cotton pellets dipped in formocresol. An increase and a decrease in plasma level of formaldehyde were noted in 5 (20%) and 20 (80%) children, respectively post-operatively compared to baseline. The t-test showed no significant difference in plasma level of formaldehyde pre- and postoperatively (P=0.12). the plasma level of formaldehyde in children who had higher levels of formaldehyde prior to the operation was also higher than that of others after the operation and this association was statistically significant (P=0.001, r=0.64). The results showed no significant change in the mean plasma level of formaldehyde in children who received pulpotomy under general anesthesia compared to its baseline value.

  9. The Roles of Formaldehyde Exposure and Oxidative Stress in Fetal Growth in the Second Trimester. (United States)

    Amiri, Azita; Turner-Henson, Anne

    To examine the relationship between formaldehyde exposure and fetal growth in the second trimester and the potential mediating role of oxidative stress in this relationship. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The participants were recruited from one university-related clinic and two private obstetrics and gynecology offices in the Southeastern United States. A convenience sample of 140 healthy pregnant women in the second trimester of pregnancy was enrolled from November 2013 through June 2014. Formaldehyde exposure was measured via vapor monitors worn by the participants for 24 hours. One-time urine samples were collected during a routine prenatal visit to measure the level of 15-isoprostane F 2t and cotinine as biomarkers of oxidative stress and tobacco smoking, respectively. Urine creatinine was measured to standardize the cotinine and 15-isoprostane F 2t levels. Eighty-eight participants (63%) returned their formaldehyde monitors. The linear regression model showed that the dichotomized level of formaldehyde exposure (0.03 ppm) was a significant predictor of biparietal diameter percentile after controlling for maternal race (p formaldehyde exposure and biparietal diameter was not confirmed. A relationship was found between formaldehyde exposure and biparietal diameter in the second trimester. Although further research is necessary to confirm the results of this study, nurses may consider advising pregnant women to limit their exposure to formaldehyde during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel silicone-based polymer containing active methylene designed for the removal of indoor formaldehyde. (United States)

    Niu, Song; Yan, Hongxia


    Indoor air pollution is caused inevitably due to complicated home decoration, in which formaldehyde is one of the most typical pollutants. It will be a convenient, economical and effective strategy to remove indoor formaldehyde if imparting a feature of formaldehyde removal to decorative coatings. We have successfully explored a novel silicone-based polymer containing active methylene used as a formaldehyde absorbent in coatings via a straightforward transesterification process using inexpensive and easily available chemicals. The polymer has been characterized by (13)C NMR, FTIR, GC and GPC. Formaldehyde removal capacity of the coating films containing different contents of the polymer has been investigated. The results indicated that coatings incorporating 4wt% of the polymer could make the coating films exhibit significant improvement on formaldehyde removal including purificatory performance (>85%) and durability of purificatory effect (>60%), compared to those consisting of absorbents without any silicon, and improve yellowing resistance performance, while other properties, such as gloss, adhesion, pencil hardness, flexibility and impact resistance, were kept almost unaffected. The chemical absorption process of the silicone-based polymer filled in interior decorative coatings is demonstrated as a promising technology to purify indoor formaldehyde and thus can reduce the harm to individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor and Sequencing Batch Reactor in Biological Degradation of Formaldehyde Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ayati


    Full Text Available Nowadays formaldehyde is used as raw material in many industries. It has also disinfection applications in some public places. Due to its toxicity for microorganisms, chemical or anaerobic biological methods are applied for treating wastewater containing formaldehyde.In this research, formaldehyde removal efficiencies of aerobic biological treatment systems including moving bed biofilm (MMBR and sequencing batch reactors (SBR were investigated. During all experiments, the efficiency of SBR was more than MBBR, but the difference was not significant statistically. According to the results, the best efficiencies were obtained for influent formaldehyde COD of 200 mg/L in MBBR and SBR which were 93% and 99.4%, respectively. The systems were also capable to treat higher formaldehyde concentrations (up to 2500 mg/L with lower removal efficiency. The reaction kinetics followed the Stover-Kincannon second order model. The gram-positive and gram-negative bacillus and coccus as well as the gram-positive binary bacillus were found to be the most dominant species. The results of 13C-NMR analysis have shown that formaldehyde and urea were converted into N-{[(aminocarbonyl amino] methyl}urea and the residual formaldehyde was polymerized at room temperature.

  12. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde, hematotoxicity and leukemia-specific chromosome changes in cultured myeloid progenitor cells (United States)

    Zhang, Luoping; Tang, Xiaojiang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel; Ji, Zhiying; Shen, Min; Qiu, Chuangyi; Guo, Weihong; Liu, Songwang; Reiss, Boris; Laura Beane, Freeman; Ge, Yichen; Hubbard, Alan E.; Hua, Ming; Blair, Aaron; Galvan, Noe; Ruan, Xiaolin; Alter, Blanche P.; Xin, Kerry X.; Li, Senhua; Moore, Lee E.; Kim, Sungkyoon; Xie, Yuxuan; Hayes, Richard B.; Azuma, Mariko; Hauptmann, Michael; Xiong, Jun; Stewart, Patricia; Li, Laiyu; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Huang, Hanlin; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Smith, Martyn T.; Lan, Qing


    There are concerns about the health effects of formaldehyde exposure, including carcinogenicity, in light of elevated indoor air levels in new homes and occupational exposures experienced by workers in health care, embalming, manufacturing and other industries. Epidemiological studies suggest that formaldehyde exposure is associated with an increased risk of leukemia. However, the biological plausibility of these findings has been questioned because limited information is available on formaldehyde’s ability to disrupt hematopoietic function. Our objective was to determine if formaldehyde exposure disrupts hematopoietic function and produces leukemia-related chromosome changes in exposed humans. We examined the ability of formaldehyde to disrupt hematopoiesis in a study of 94 workers in China (43 exposed to formaldehyde and 51 frequency-matched controls) by measuring complete blood counts and peripheral stem/progenitor cell colony formation. Further, myeloid progenitor cells, the target for leukemogenesis, were cultured from the workers to quantify the level of leukemia-specific chromosome changes, including monosomy 7 and trisomy 8, in metaphase spreads of these cells. Among exposed workers, peripheral blood cell counts were significantly lowered in a manner consistent with toxic effects on the bone marrow and leukemia-specific chromosome changes were significantly elevated in myeloid blood progenitor cells. These findings suggest that formaldehyde exposure can have an adverse impact on the hematopoietic system and that leukemia induction by formaldehyde is biologically plausible, which heightens concerns about its leukemogenic potential from occupational and environmental exposures. PMID:20056626

  13. Media Komunitas dan Media Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawito .


    Full Text Available Abstract:This essay deals with community media in relation to media literacy. After a short discussion on a number of community media characters is made the essay goes further with somewhat detail theoretical presumptions of the roles of media community with respect primarily to the development as Amartya Sen mentioned about. The author suggests that community media may play some significant roles in the development including (a disseminating information (from varieties of perspective, (b facilitating public discussion, (c helping to reach solutions of problems, (d encouraging participations, and (e encouraging the development of media literacy. Regarding the last point the author remarks that media community may have a dual-roles i.e facilitating community’s member in media participation and facilitating community’s member in media education.

  14. Observations of Carbon Isotopic Fractionation in Interstellar Formaldehyde (United States)

    Wirstrom, E. S.; Charnley, S. B.; Geppert, W. D.; Persson, C. M.


    Primitive Solar System materials (e.g. chondrites. IDPs, the Stardust sample) show large variations in isotopic composition of the major volatiles (H, C, N, and O ) even within samples, witnessing to various degrees of processing in the protosolar nebula. For ex ample. the very pronounced D enhancements observed in IDPs [I] . are only generated in the cold. dense component of the interstellar medium (ISM), or protoplanetary disks, through ion-molecule reactions in the presence of interstellar dust. If this isotopic anomaly has an interstellar origin, this leaves open the possibility for preservation of other isotopic signatures throughout the form ation of the Solar System. The most common form of carbon in the ISM is CO molecules, and there are two potential sources of C-13 fractionation in this reservoir: low temperature chemistry and selective photodissociation. While gas-phase chemistry in cold interstellar clouds preferentially incorporates C-13 into CO [2], the effect of self-shielding in the presence of UV radiation instead leads to a relative enhancement of the more abundant isotopologue, 12CO. Solar System organic material exhibit rather small fluctuations in delta C-13 as compared to delta N-15 and delta D [3][1], the reason for which is still unclear. However, the fact that both C-13 depleted and enhanced material exists could indicate an interstellar origin where the two fractionation processes have both played a part. Formaldehyde (H2CO) is observed in the gas-phase in a wide range of interstellar environments, as well as in cometary comae. It is proposed as an important reactant in the formation of more complex organic molecules in the heated environments around young stars, and formaldehyde polymers have been suggested as the common origin of chondritic insoluable organic matter (IOM) and cometary refractory organic solids [4]. The relatively high gas-phase abundance of H2CO observed in molecular clouds (10(exp- 9) - 10(exp- 8) relative to H2) makes

  15. Quantification of free formaldehyde in carrageenan and processed Eucheuma seaweed using high-performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Hornshøj, Bettina Høj; Kobbelgaard, Sara; Blakemore, William R; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; Bixler, Harris J; Klinger, Markus


    In 2010 the European Commission placed a limit on the amount of free formaldehyde in carrageenan and processed Eucheuma seaweed (PES) of 5 mg kg(-1). Formaldehyde is not used in carrageenan and PES processing and accordingly one would not expect free formaldehyde to be present in carrageenan and PES. However, surprisingly high levels up to 10 mg kg(-1) have been found using the generally accepted AOAC and Hach tests. These findings are, per proposed reaction pathways, likely due to the formation of formaldehyde when sulphated galactose, the backbone of carrageenan, is hydrolysed with the strong acid used in these conventional tests. In order to minimise the risk of false-positives, which may lead to regulatory non-compliance, a new high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed. Initially, carrageenan or PES is extracted with 2-propanol and subsequently reacted with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) to form the chromophore formaldehyde-DNPH, which is finally quantified by reversed-phase HPLC with ultraviolet light detection at 355 nm. This method has been found to have a limit of detection of 0.05 mg kg(-1) and a limit of quantification of 0.2 mg kg(-1). Recoveries from samples spiked with known quantities of formaldehyde were 95-107%. Using this more specific technique, 20 samples of carrageenan and PES were tested for formaldehyde. Only one sample had a detectable content of formaldehyde (0.40 mg kg(-1)), thus demonstrating that the formaldehyde content of commercial carrageenan and PES products are well below the European Commission maximum limit of 5 mg kg(-1).

  16. The protective effect of geniposide on human neuroblastoma cells in the presence of formaldehyde (United States)


    Background Formaldehyde can induce misfolding and aggregation of Tau protein and β amyloid protein, which are characteristic pathological features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). An increase in endogenous formaldehyde concentration in the brain is closely related to dementia in aging people. Therefore, the discovery of effective drugs to counteract the adverse impact of formaldehyde on neuronal cells is beneficial for the development of appropriate treatments for age-associated cognitive decline. Methods In this study, we assessed the neuroprotective properties of TongLuoJiuNao (TLJN), a traditional Chinese medicine preparation, against formaldehyde stress in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y cell line). The effect of TLJN and its main ingredients (geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1) on cell viability, apoptosis, intracellular antioxidant activity and the expression of apoptotic-related genes in the presence of formaldehyde were monitored. Results Cell counting studies showed that in the presence of TLJN, the viability of formaldehyde-treated SH-SY5Y cells significantly recovered. Laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed that the morphology of formaldehyde-injured cells was rescued by TLJN and geniposide, an effective ingredient of TLJN. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of geniposide on formaldehyde-induced apoptosis was dose-dependent. The activity of intracellular antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) increased, as did mRNA and protein levels of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 after the addition of geniposide. In contrast, the expression of the apoptotic-related gene - P53, apoptotic executer - caspase 3 and apoptotic initiator - caspase 9 were downregulated after geniposide treatment. Conclusions Our results indicate that geniposide can protect SH-SY5Y cells against formaldehyde stress through modulating the expression of Bcl-2, P53, caspase 3 and caspase 9, and by increasing the activity of intracellular superoxide dismutase and glutathione

  17. Tumor Tissue-Derived Formaldehyde and Acidic Microenvironment Synergistically Induce Bone Cancer Pain (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Han, Ying; Li, Hui; Luo, Hongjun; Duan, Bo; Xu, Tianle; Maoying, Qiliang; Tan, Huangying; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Hongmei; Liu, Fengyu; Wan, You


    Background There is current interest in understanding the molecular mechanisms of tumor-induced bone pain. Accumulated evidence shows that endogenous formaldehyde concentrations are elevated in the blood or urine of patients with breast, prostate or bladder cancer. These cancers are frequently associated with cancer pain especially after bone metastasis. It is well known that transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) participates in cancer pain. The present study aims to demonstrate that the tumor tissue-derived endogenous formaldehyde induces bone cancer pain via TRPV1 activation under tumor acidic environment. Methodology/Principal Findings Endogenous formaldehyde concentration increased significantly in the cultured breast cancer cell lines in vitro, in the bone marrow of breast MRMT-1 bone cancer pain model in rats and in tissues from breast cancer and lung cancer patients in vivo. Low concentrations (1∼5 mM) of formaldehyde induced pain responses in rat via TRPV1 and this pain response could be significantly enhanced by pH 6.0 (mimicking the acidic tumor microenvironment). Formaldehyde at low concentrations (1 mM to 100 mM) induced a concentration-dependent increase of [Ca2+]i in the freshly isolated rat dorsal root ganglion neurons and TRPV1-transfected CHO cells. Furthermore, electrophysiological experiments showed that low concentration formaldehyde-elicited TRPV1 currents could be significantly potentiated by low pH (6.0). TRPV1 antagonists and formaldehyde scavengers attenuated bone cancer pain responses. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that cancer tissues directly secrete endogenous formaldehyde, and this formaldehyde at low concentration induces metastatic bone cancer pain through TRPV1 activation especially under tumor acidic environment. PMID:20422007

  18. Media, Gadgets. (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1981


    Summarizes papers presented at the Sixth Biennial Conference on Chemical Education describing new media and gadgets, particularly models, computers, and other media. A bibliography of 15 presented papers on these topics is attached. (CS)

  19. Guinea pig maximization tests with formaldehyde releasers. Results from two laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Boman, A; Hamann, K


    The guinea pig maximization test was used to evaluate the sensitizing potential of formaldehyde and 6 formaldehyde releasers (Forcide 78, Germall 115, Grotan BK, Grotan OX, KM 200 and Preventol D2). The tests were carried out in 2 laboratories (Copenhagen and Stockholm), and although we intended...... the procedures to be the same, discrepancies were observed, possibly due to the use of different animal strains, test concentrations and vehicles. The sensitizing potential was in general found to be stronger in Stockholm compared to Copenhagen: formaldehyde sensitized 50% of the guinea pigs in Copenhagen and 95...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri


    Full Text Available This research was developed aiming to evaluate the effects of board density and melamine-urea-formaldehyde resin onthe properties of particleboard for semi-structural applications. The boards were manufactured with nominal density of 0.65 g/cm³and 0.90 g/cm³ using urea-formaldehyde resin as control and melamine-urea-formaldehyde. The results showed a better dimensionallystability and mechanical properties of the boards manufactured with higher density and MUF resin content. The fine furnish usedfor external layer of particleboard in the industrial process, could be used for high density homogeneous board to semi-strucuturaluses, such as flooring applications.

  1. Preparation of Diatomite Supported Nano Zinc Oxide Composite Photocatalytic Material and Study on its Formaldehyde Degradation (United States)

    Xiao, Liguang; Pang, Bo


    This experiment used zinc nitrate as precursor, ethanol as solvent and polyethylene glycol as dispersant, diatomite as carrier, diatomite loaded nano Zinc Oxide was prepared by sol-gel method, in addition, the formaldehyde degradation was studied by two kinds of experimental methods: preparation and loading, preparation and post loading, The samples were characterized by SEM, XRD, BET and IR. Experimental results showed that: Diatomite based nano Zinc Oxide had a continuous adsorption and degradation of formaldehyde, formaldehyde gas with initial concentration was 0.7mg/m3, after 36h degradation, the concentration reached 0.238mg/m3, the degradation rate reached to 66%.

  2. Lignin Hydrogenolysis: Improving Lignin Disassembly through Formaldehyde Stabilization. (United States)

    Kärkäs, Markus D


    Lignocellulosic biomass is available in large quantities and constitutes an attractive feedstock for the sustainable production of bulk and fine chemicals. Although methods have been established for the conversion of its cellulosic fractions, valorization of lignin has proven to be challenging. The difficulty in disassembling lignin originates from its heterogeneous structure and its propensity to undergo skeletal rearrangements and condensation reactions during biorefinery fractionation or biomass pretreatment processes. A strategy for hindering the generation of these resistive interunit linkages during biomass pretreatment has now been devised using formaldehyde as a stabilizing agent. The developed method when combined with Ru/C-catalyzed hydrogenolysis allows for efficient disassembly of all three biomass fractions: (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) and suggests that lignin upgrading can be integrated into prevailing biorefinery schemes. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  3. Formaldehyde adsorption on carbon nanotubes fragment by density functional theory (United States)

    Chen, D.; Yuan, Yong J.


    The interaction between formaldehyde (HCOH) and pristine single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) fragment was investigated by density functional theory (DFT) to evaluate the detection of HCOH. The simulation results demonstrated less adsorption on surface of SWCNT and doped CNTs, while a HCOH molecule tended to be chemisorbed to the C atom located on SWCNT’s edge positions with larger binding energy of 1.742 eV and smaller binding distance of 1.351 Å. Furthermore, charge transfer and density of states study indicated that the electronic properties changed evidently in the most stable HCOH-SWCNT system, and were mainly around the Fermi level. More importantly, the adsorption of HCOH affected the electronic conductance of SWCNT. It is expected that the results could provide a useful theoretical guidance for the investigation of molecular films interface bonding and design of HCOH sensing devices.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Blanco


    Full Text Available Se estudia la adsorción de resorcinol, sobre carbones activados modificados, obtenidos a partir de un carbón activado comercial CarbochemTM –PS30, CAG, por medio de tratamiento químico con HNO3 7M, CAO y tratamiento térmico bajo flujo de H2, CAR; se analiza la influencia del pH de la solución, la reducción y oxidación de la superficie del carbón y se determina la entalpía de inmersión de los carbones activados en soluciones acuosas de resorcinol.La interacción sólido-solución se caracteriza por el análisis de las isotermas de adsorción a 298 K a los pHs de 7, 9 y 11 con el propósito de evaluar el sistema sobre y por debajo del valor de las pKa del resorcinol. La capacidad de adsorción de los carbones aumenta al disminuir el pH de la solución. La cantidad retenida aumenta en el carbón reducido al pH de máxima adsorción y disminuye en el carbón oxidado. Los resultados experimentales de las isotermas de adsorción se ajustaron a los modelos de Freundlich y Langmuir, obteniendo valores para el parámetro Qmáx del modelo de Langmuir en el CAG de 179, 156 y 44 mgg-1, para valores de pH de 7, 9 y 11 respectivamente. En el caso de los carbones modificados se obtienen valores de 233, 179 y 164 mgg-1, para el CAR, CAG y CAO a pH 7 respectivamente. Como tendencia general la adsorción de resorcinol aumenta en el siguiente orden CAR > CAG > CAO Similares conclusiones se obtienen de las entalpías de inmersión, cuyos valores se incrementan con la cantidad de soluto retenido. En el caso del CAG se obtienen entalpías de inmersión entre 25,8 a 40,9 Jg-1 para soluciones acuosas de resorcinol en un rango de 20 a 1500 mgL-1.

  5. SCIAMACHY formaldehyde observations: constraint for isoprene emission estimates over Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dufour


    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (HCHO is an important intermediate compound in the degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the troposphere. Sources of HCHO are largely dominated by its secondary production from VOC oxidation, methane and isoprene being the main precursors in unpolluted areas. As a result of the moderate lifetime of HCHO, its spatial distribution is determined by reactive hydrocarbon emissions. We focus here on Europe and investigate the influence of the different emissions on HCHO tropospheric columns with the CHIMERE chemical transport model in order to interpret the comparisons between SCIAMACHY and simulated HCHO columns. Europe was never specifically studied before for these purposes using satellite observations. The bias between measurements and model is less than 20% on average. The differences are discussed according to the errors on the model and the observations and remaining discrepancies are attributed to a misrepresentation of biogenic emissions. This study requires the characterisation of: (1 the model errors and performances concerning formaldehyde. The errors on the HCHO columns, mainly related to chemistry and mixed emission types, are evaluated to 2×1015 molecule/cm2 and the model performances evaluated using surface measurements are satisfactory (~13%; (2 the observation errors that define the needs in spatial and temporal averaging for meaningful comparisons. Using SCIAMACHY observations as constraint for biogenic isoprene emissions in an inverse modelling scheme reduces their uncertainties by about a factor of two in region of intense emissions. The retrieved correction factors for the isoprene emissions range from a factor of 0.15 (North Africa to a factor of 2 (Poland, the United Kingdom depending on the regions.

  6. Media Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeheian, Datis


    Media Entrepreneurship has been an ambiguous, unclear and controversial concept and despite of growing academic efforts in the last decade, it is still a poorly defined subject. This paper is an effort to fill this gap by providing a comprehensive definition of media entrepreneurship. Firstly......, a literature review conducted and entrepreneurship, media, opportunity and innovation as building blocks of media entrepreneurship explained. Then by using of a mixed of bibliographic method and a Delphi method with multi-stage analysis process, a consensual definition of media entrepreneurship proposed...... entrepreneurship....

  7. Media Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Gang


    Full Text Available Modern colleges are faced with the dual pressures of university reform and international competition, how to overcome difficulties, to play the role of modern English teaching in colleges and colleges to enhance the core competitiveness of colleges, colleges and colleges modern English teaching problems to be solved. Based on the current situation of modern colleges in the premise of the Modern media platform fully demonstrated the characteristics and viability of the Modern media English teaching, the necessity of modern English teaching of college Modern media. Discusses the Modern media targeting English teaching and important role is in the English teaching to guide the development of modern colleges modern media.

  8. Media Framing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus T.


    The concept of media framing refers to the way in which the news media organize and provide meaning to a news story by emphasizing some parts of reality and disregarding other parts. These patterns of emphasis and exclusion in news coverage create frames that can have considerable effects on news...... consumers’ perceptions and attitudes regarding the given issue or event. This entry briefly elaborates on the concept of media framing, presents key types of media frames, and introduces the research on media framing effects....

  9. Determination of formaldehyde in Romanian cosmetic products using coupled GC/MS system after SPME extraction (United States)

    Feher, I.; Schmutzer, G.; Voica, C.; Moldovan, Z.


    In this study we have made a quick review of some Romanian cosmetic products (shampoo, conditioner, face wash) in order to determine the formaldehyde content as well as other substances called "formaldehyde releasers". The process was performed based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. Prior to SPME extraction we used a derivation step of formaldehyde using pentafluorophenyl hydrazine. The obtained product was adsorbed on SPME devices, then injected and desorbed into the GC/MS injection port. The concentration of formaldehyde (as derived compound) was calculated using calibration curve, having a regression coefficient of 0.9938. The performance parameters of the method were calculated using samples of standard concentration. The method proved to be sensitive, having a quantification limit (LOQ) of 0.15 μg/g.

  10. Histopathological Effects of Formaldehyde (CH2O on Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cafer BULUT


    Full Text Available Formaldehyde is commonly used as a disinfectant and also in a control of fish disease in aquaculture sector. However, this widespread use, can lead to environmental degradation and can cause negative effects on the treated fish with. In this study 250 mg/L (1 hour and 500 mg/L (45 min concentrations of formaldehyde were used. From the results of the histopathological findings degeneration was determined in the epithelial cells and pilar in the gill lamellae, lymphoid infiltration interlamellar necrosis and degeneration of the muscle tissue, dilatation in the liver, congestion in veins, degeneration in hepatocytes, damage in the blood vessels of fish which were treated with formaldehyde. In conclusion; formaldehyde was found to have a negative impact in histological examination in applied rainbow trout. Therefore, it was concluded that it should be used consciously and according the needs in aquaculture.

  11. Localization of formaldehyde production during frozen storage of European hake ( Merluccius merluccius )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rey-Mansilla, M.D.; Sotelo, C.G.; Aubourg, S.P.


    The formation of dimethylamine and formaldehyde from trimethylamine N-oxide by the enzyme trimethylamine N-oxide demethylase in whole hake during frozen storage was studied. The objective was to check if there were parts of the muscle with a higher production of dimethylamine and formaldehyde...... the viscera, and the tail. The second variable was the temperature of storage, -11 degreesC or -18 degreesC. Finally, the influence of kidneys during storage, comparing fish with and without kidneys, was also evaluated. No differences were found in dimethylamine and formaldehyde production between fish...... with and without kidneys stored at -18 degreesC. However at -11 degreesC the amounts of dimethylamine and formaldehyde detected in fish without kidneys were, in some cases, higher than in those with kidneys. Kidney removal does not have a statistically significant influence on DMA and FA production in frozen...

  12. Migration of formaldehyde and melamine monomers from kitchen- and tableware made of melamine plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, K.H.; Petersen, J.H.


    Migration of one or both formaldehyde and/or melamine monomers was found in seven of ten tested melamine samples bought on the Danish market. The samples were a bowl, a jug, a mug, a ladle, and different cups and plates. No violation of the European Union-specific migration limits for melamine (30...... mg kg(-1)) and formaldehyde (15 mg kg(-1)) was found after three successive exposures to the food stimulant 3% acetic acid after 2 h at 70 degrees C. To investigate the effects of long-term use, migration tests were performed with two types of cups from a day nursery. Furthermore, medium-term use...... was studied by ten successive exposures of a plate to 3% acetic acid for 30 min at 95 degrees C. The results indicate that continuous migration of formaldehyde and melamine takes place during the lifetime of these articles. The molar ratio of released formaldehyde to melamine was seen to decrease from 12...

  13. FIAM-pwp-Formaldehyde Indoor Air Model – Pressed Wood Products (United States)

    The Formaldehyde Indoor Air Model-pressed wood products (FIAM-pwp) user guide contains information on the equations and defaults used to estimate exposure from formaldehye emitted from pressed wood products.

  14. The Influence of Environmental Exposure to Formaldehyde in Nasal Mucosa of Medical Students during Cadaver Dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minako Hisamitsu


    Conclusions: Temporary abnormalities in the olfaction test and increased nasal mucosal hypersensitivity to histamine were observed in a few students with preexisting allergic rhinitis after environmental exposure of high concentrations of formaldehyde. These effects appeared to be transient.

  15. Microwave Assisted Solvent Free Synthesis of Azomethines from Aryl Aldehydes on Melamin Formaldehyde as Solid Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Rezaei


    Full Text Available Various aryl aldehydes underwent prompt one pot conversion into the corresponding azomethines in high yields by reacting with hydroxylamine hydrochloride supported on melamine formaldehyde under microwave irradiation.

  16. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde, hematotoxicity, and leukemia-specific chromosome changes in cultured myeloid progenitor cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Tang, X.; Rothman, N.; Vermeulen, R.; Ji, Z.; Shen, M.; Qiu, C.; Guo, W.; Liu, S.; Reiss, B.; Freeman, L.B.; Ge, Y.; Hubbard, A.E.; Hua, M.; Blair, A.; Galvan, N.; Ruan, X.; Alter, B.P.; Xin, K.X.; Li, S.; Moore, L.E.; Kim, S.; Xie, Y.; Hayes, R.B.; Azuma, M.; Hauptmann, M.; Xiong, J.; Stewart, P.; Li, L.; Rappaport, S.M.; Huang, H.; Fraumeni, J.F.; Smith, M.T.; Lan, Q.


    There are concerns about the health effects of formaldehyde exposure, including carcinogenicity, in light of elevated indoor air levels in new homes and occupational exposures experienced by workers in health care, embalming, manufacturing, and other industries. Epidemiologic studies suggest that

  17. Direct Enzymatic Assay for Alcohol Oxidase, Alcohol Dehydrogenase, and Formaldehyde Dehydrogenase in Colonies of Hansenula polymorpha


    Eggeling, L; Sahm, H.


    A procedure is described for the qualitative direct identification of alcohol oxidase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and formaldehyde dehydrogenase in yeast colonies. The method has been applied successfully to isolate mutants of Hansenula polymorpha with altered glucose repression of alcohol oxidase.

  18. A Ppb Formaldehyde Gas Sensor for Fast Indoor Air Quality Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène PAOLACCI


    Full Text Available The development of a very sensitive and selective chemical sensor of formaldehyde is presented. We describe the strategies aimed at improving the trapping and detection of formaldehyde. These strategies are based on the use of nanoporous transparent matrices elaborated via the sol-gel process and doped with a colorimetric reagent, and on a fast detection of the absorption or fluorescence of the reaction product. The properties of the sensor are studied as a function of various parameters such as the concentration of the colorimetric agent, the formaldehyde content in the gas mixtures, the presence of other air contaminants and the mixture relative humidity (0-50%. From these studies, calibration curves have been established, which allow the determination of formaldehyde content in air with a fast response time and a sub-ppb sensitivity. We also show a home-made portable and miniaturized detection system developed for this purpose.

  19. Formaldehyde alters triglyceride synthesis and very low-density lipoprotein secretion in a time-dependent manner. (United States)

    Bai, Jianying; Wang, Pan; Liu, Yanfei; Zhang, Yan; Li, Yaofu; He, Zhen; Hou, Lifang; Liang, Ruifeng


    Formaldehyde is a common indoor air pollutant that is toxic to the liver. This study aimed to investigate the effects of formaldehyde on triglyceride metabolism in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). Cell viability was detected using a MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Following treatment with different concentrations of formaldehyde for 24 and 48h, the intra and extra-hepatocellular triglyceride (TG) content was determined using a chemical-enzymatic method; Western blotting was used to detect the levels of fatty acid synthesis and VLDL-related proteins. Our results showed that cell viability significantly decreased after formaldehyde treatment (0.5-12.5mM, 24/48h). Extracellular TG levels in the hepatocytes increased after formaldehyde treatment at 0.004mM-0.1mM for 24h. SREBP-1c, ACC, FASN, and MTP, CES3 and DGAT1 proteins increased significantly after 24h of formaldehyde treatment. Intracellular TG levels decreased for 48h treatment of formaldehyde. AMPKα increased significantly in all tested groups and p-AMPK increased significantly after 0.1mM formaldehyde treatment for 48h. Our results indicated that short-term formaldehyde exposure balances triglyceride metabolism by promoting hepatocellular TG synthesis and VLDL secretion; Long-term formaldehyde disturbs the TG metabolism balance in the hepatocytes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Formaldehyde Exposure and Mortality Risks From Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Lymphohematopoietic Malignancies in the US National Cancer Institute Cohort Study of Workers in Formaldehyde Industries (United States)

    Dell, Linda D.; Boffetta, Paolo; Gallagher, Alexa E.; Crawford, Lori; Lees, Peter SJ.; Mundt, Kenneth A.


    Objectives: To evaluate associations between cumulative and peak formaldehyde exposure and mortality from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other lymphohematopoietic malignancies. Methods: Cox proportional hazards analyses. Results: Acute myeloid leukemia was unrelated to cumulative exposure. Hodgkin lymphoma relative risk estimates in the highest exposure categories of cumulative and peak exposures were, respectively, 3.76 (Ptrend = 0.05) and 5.13 (Ptrend = 0.003). There were suggestive associations with peak exposure observed for chronic myeloid leukemia, albeit based on very small numbers. No other lymphohematopoietic malignancy was associated with either chronic or peak exposure. Conclusions: Insofar as there is no prior epidemiologic evidence supporting associations between formaldehyde and either Hodgkin leukemia or chronic myeloid leukemia, any causal interpretations of the observed risk patterns are at most tentative. Findings from this re-analysis do not support the hypothesis that formaldehyde is a cause of AML. PMID:26147546

  1. Interactive effects of ozone and formaldehyde on the nasal respiratory lining epithelium in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuzel, P.G.; Wilmer, J.W.; Woutersen, R.A.; Zwart, A.; Rombout, P.J.; Feron, V.J. (TNO-CIVO Toxicology and Nutrition Institute, Zeist (Netherlands))


    The combined effects on the nasal epithelium of mixtures of ozone and formaldehyde at cytotoxic and noncytotoxic concentrations were examined. Male Wistar rats were exposed by inhalation during 22 h/d for 3 consecutive days to 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 ppm formaldehyde, or to 0.2, 0.4, or 0.8 ppm ozone, or to mixtures of 0.4 ppm ozone and 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 ppm formaldehyde, or to 1.0 ppm formaldehyde and 0.2, 0.4, or 0.8 ppm ozone, or they were sham-exposed to clean air. The noses were examined for pathological changes at six standard cross levels by light microscopy and for epithelial cell proliferation by counting (3H-methyl)thymidine-labeled cells at cross levels II and III. Ozone at 0.4 ppm or 0.8 ppm or formaldehyde at 3 ppm enhanced cell proliferation at cross level II at all locations, except for the epithelium of the septum, which was not affected by ozone. At cross level III ozone alone did not induce cell proliferation, but formaldehyde at 0.3 and 1 ppm tended to reduce cell proliferation while at 3 ppm proliferation was slightly stimulated. The combined exposure to 0.4 ppm ozone and 0.3 ppm formaldehyde induced less cell proliferation at cross levels II and III when compared with that of 0.4 ppm ozone alone. Less cell proliferation was also seen at cross level II when animals were exposed to 0.4 or 0.8 ppm ozone in combination with 1 ppm formaldehyde than when exposed to these ozone concentrations alone. A more than additive increase in cell proliferation was found at cross level II after exposure to 0.4 ppm ozone in combination with 3 ppm formaldehyde, and at cross level III in animals exposed to 0.4 ppm ozone and 1 or 3 ppm formaldehyde. Treatment-related histopathological nasal changes, such as disarrangement, loss of cilia, and hyper/metaplasia of the epithelium were seen at 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm ozone and at 3 ppm formaldehyde.

  2. Formaldehyde at low concentration induces protein tau into globular amyloid-like aggregates in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Lai Nie

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that neurodegeneration is closely related to misfolding and aggregation of neuronal tau. Our previous results show that neuronal tau aggregates in formaldehyde solution and that aggregated tau induces apoptosis of SH-SY5Y and hippocampal cells. In the present study, based on atomic force microscopy (AFM observation, we have found that formaldehyde at low concentrations induces tau polymerization whilst acetaldehyde does not. Neuronal tau misfolds and aggregates into globular-like polymers in 0.01-0.1% formaldehyde solutions. Apart from globular-like aggregation, no fibril-like polymerization was observed when the protein was incubated with formaldehyde for 15 days. SDS-PAGE results also exhibit tau polymerizing in the presence of formaldehyde. Under the same experimental conditions, polymerization of bovine serum albumin (BSA or alpha-synuclein was not markedly detected. Kinetic study shows that tau significantly misfolds and polymerizes in 60 minutes in 0.1% formaldehyde solution. However, presence of 10% methanol prevents protein tau from polymerization. This suggests that formaldehyde polymerization is involved in tau aggregation. Such aggregation process is probably linked to the tau's special "worm-like" structure, which leaves the epsilon-amino groups of Lys and thiol groups of Cys exposed to the exterior. Such a structure can easily bond to formaldehyde molecules in vitro and in vivo. Polymerizing of formaldehyde itself results in aggregation of protein tau. Immunocytochemistry and thioflavin S staining of both endogenous and exogenous tau in the presence of formaldehyde at low concentrations in the cell culture have shown that formaldehyde can induce tau into amyloid-like aggregates in vivo during apoptosis. The significant protein tau aggregation induced by formaldehyde and the severe toxicity of the aggregated tau to neural cells may suggest that toxicity of methanol and formaldehyde ingestion is related to

  3. Epigenetic Changes Induced by Air Toxics: Formaldehyde Exposure Alters miRNA Expression Profiles in Human Lung Cells (United States)

    Rager, Julia E.; Smeester, Lisa; Jaspers, Ilona; Sexton, Kenneth G.; Fry, Rebecca C.


    Background Exposure to formaldehyde, a known air toxic, is associated with cancer and lung disease. Despite the adverse health effects of formaldehyde, the mechanisms underlying formaldehyde-induced disease remain largely unknown. Research has uncovered microRNAs (miRNAs) as key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression that may influence cellular disease state. Although studies have compared different miRNA expression patterns between diseased and healthy tissue, this is the first study to examine perturbations in global miRNA levels resulting from formaldehyde exposure. Objectives We investigated whether cellular miRNA expression profiles are modified by formaldehyde exposure to test the hypothesis that formaldehyde exposure disrupts miRNA expression levels within lung cells, representing a novel epigenetic mechanism through which formaldehyde may induce disease. Methods Human lung epithelial cells were grown at air–liquid interface and exposed to gaseous formaldehyde at 1 ppm for 4 hr. Small RNAs and protein were collected and analyzed for miRNA expression using microarray analysis and for interleukin (IL-8) protein levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Gaseous formaldehyde exposure altered the miRNA expression profiles in human lung cells. Specifically, 89 miRNAs were significantly down-regulated in formaldehyde-exposed samples versus controls. Functional and molecular network analysis of the predicted miRNA transcript targets revealed that formaldehyde exposure potentially alters signaling pathways associated with cancer, inflammatory response, and endocrine system regulation. IL-8 release increased in cells exposed to formaldehyde, and results were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Conclusions Formaldehyde alters miRNA patterns that regulate gene expression, potentially leading to the initiation of a variety of diseases. PMID:21147603

  4. [Critical approach to technics for the disinfection of respirators with formaldehyde]. (United States)

    Laguenie, G; Bavoux, F; Garnier, R; Murat, I; Couturier, C


    Method of artificial respirators desinfection by Formaldehyde is studied. Formaldehyde and ammoniac quantitative analysis are performed. Air samples are taken by dry process and by wet process. Two concentrations are in ceiling values for exposure of workers and exceed irritant concentrations during chronic exposition. Particular attention should be paid to perform measurement: air samples must be taken by wet process as artificial ventilation circumstances: indeed in this case air is humidified; potential toxicity is unappreciated in this use. Complementary studies are required.

  5. First principle and ReaxFF molecular dynamics investigations of formaldehyde dissociation on Fe(100) surface. (United States)

    Yamada, Takahiro; Phelps, Donald K; van Duin, Adri C T


    Detailed formaldehyde adsorption and dissociation reactions on Fe(100) surface were studied using first principle calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and results were compared with available experimental data. The study includes formaldehyde, formyl radical (HCO), and CO adsorption and dissociation energy calculations on the surface, adsorbate vibrational frequency calculations, density of states analysis of clean and adsorbed surfaces, complete potential energy diagram construction from formaldehyde to atomic carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O), simulation of formaldehyde adsorption and dissociation reaction on the surface using reactive force field, ReaxFF MD, and reaction rate calculations of adsorbates using transition state theory (TST). Formaldehyde and HCO were adsorbed most strongly at the hollow (fourfold) site. Adsorption energies ranged from -22.9 to -33.9 kcal/mol for formaldehyde, and from -44.3 to -66.3 kcal/mol for HCO, depending on adsorption sites and molecular direction. The dissociation energies were investigated for the dissociation paths: formaldehyde → HCO + H, HCO → H + CO, and CO → C + O, and the calculated energies were 11.0, 4.1, and 26.3 kcal/mol, respectively. ReaxFF MD simulation results were compared with experimental surface analysis using high resolution electron energy loss spectrometry (HREELS) and TST based reaction rates. ReaxFF simulation showed less reactivity than HREELS observation at 310 and 523 K. ReaxFF simulation showed more reactivity than the TST based rate for formaldehyde dissociation and less reactivity than TST based rate for HCO dissociation at 523 K. TST-based rates are consistent with HREELS observation. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Adsorption of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu and Hg ions on Formaldehyde and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption of Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II) ions on formaldehyde and Pyridine modified bean husks were determined. The adsorption capacity of formaldehyde modified bean husks (mg/g) was: Pb2+, 5.01; Cd2+, 3.63; Zn2+, 2.18; Hg2+, 1.82; Cu2+, 1.58 and that of pyridine modified bean husk was: Hg2+, 6.92; Cd2+ ...

  7. Formaldehyd i tekstil som mulig årsag til arthritis og angioødem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, O C; Bach, B


    A case of arthritis and angioedema which developed on occupational exposure to formaldehyde in textiles is described. Possible pathological mechanisms are discussed. The suspicion that an unknown immunological reaction may be the cause is raised.......A case of arthritis and angioedema which developed on occupational exposure to formaldehyde in textiles is described. Possible pathological mechanisms are discussed. The suspicion that an unknown immunological reaction may be the cause is raised....

  8. Demethylation of methylmercury and the enhanced production of formaldehyde in mouse liver. (United States)

    Uchikawa, Takuya; Kanno, Toshihiro; Maruyama, Isao; Mori, Nobuko; Yasutake, Akira; Ishii, Yuji; Yamada, Hideyuki


    Methylmercury (MeHg) is gradually changed to inorganic Hg after demethylation in animal tissues, and a selective quantification of inorganic Hg in the tissues is necessary to detect the reaction. We detected inorganic Hg formation in liver and kidney of mouse as early as 24 hr after MeHg injection. As an example of biological demethylation, the cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated N-demethylation of drugs has been well documented, and formaldehyde was detected as a reaction product. Here we incubated mouse liver homogenate with added MeHg and observed a dose-dependent production of formaldehyde, as well as inorganic Hg formation. Since the amount of formaldehyde was approx. 500 times higher than that of the inorganic Hg that formed, the formaldehyde production would be stimulated by inorganic Hg formed from MeHg. We observed that inorganic Hg caused formaldehyde production, and it was enhanced by L-methionine and sarcosine. Thus, some biomolecules with S-methyl and N-methyl groups may function as methyl donors in the reaction. Using subcellular fractions of mouse liver, we observed that microsomal P450 did not participate in the demethylation of MeHg, but the greatest activity was located in the mitochondria-rich fraction. The addition of superoxide anion in the reaction mixture significantly enhanced the formaldehyde production, whereas Mn-superoxide dismutase depressed the reaction. Our present findings demonstrated that inorganic Hg formed by MeHg demethylation in mouse liver stimulated the endogenous formaldehyde production, and we observed that MeHg demethylation could be estimated by a formaldehyde analysis. Our results also suggested that superoxide anion is involved in the reaction.

  9. Performance of optical biosensor using alcohol oxidase enzyme for formaldehyde detection (United States)

    Sari, A. P.; Rachim, A.; Nurlely, Fauzia, V.


    The recent issue in the world is the long exposure of formaldehyde which is can increase the risk of human health, therefore, that is very important to develop a device and method that can be optimized to detect the formaldehyde elements accurately, have a long lifetime and can be fabricated and produced in large quantities. A new and simple prepared optical biosensor for detection of formaldehyde in aqueous solutions using alcohol oxidase (AOX) enzyme was successfully fabricated. The poly-n-butyl acrylic-co-N-acryloxysuccinimide (nBA-NAS) membranes containing chromoionophore ETH5294 were used for immobilization of alcohol oxidase enzyme (AOX). Biosensor response was based on the colour change of chromoionophore as a result of enzymatic oxidation of formaldehyde and correlated with the detection concentration of formaldehyde. The performance of biosensor parameters were measured through the optical absorption value using UV-Vis spectrophotometer including the repeatability, reproducibility, selectivity and lifetime. The results showed that the prepared biosensor has good repeatability (RSD = 1.9 %) and good reproducibility (RSD = 2.1 %). The biosensor was selective formaldehyde with no disturbance by methanol, ethanol, and acetaldehyde, and also stable before 49 days and decrease by 41.77 % after 49 days.

  10. Human health risks of formaldehyde indoor levels: An issue of concern. (United States)

    Rovira, Joaquim; Roig, Neus; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L


    Formaldehyde is a carcinogenic substance for humans. Exposure to formaldehyde may also cause eye and respiratory tract irritation, as well as skin sensitization. The main indoor sources of formaldehyde are wood-pressed products, insulation materials, paints, varnishes, household cleaning products and cigarettes, among others. Although this chemical is a well-known indoor pollutant, data on indoor concentrations of formaldehyde are still scarce in some countries. In February 2014, 10 homes in Catalonia, Spain, were randomly selected to collect indoor (bedroom and living room) and outdoor air samples. Ten additional samples were also collected at different workplaces (e.g., offices, shops, classrooms, etc.). Formaldehyde air levels found in homes ranged from 10.7 to 47.7 μg m(-3), from 9.65 to 37.2 μg m(-3), and from 0.96 to 3.37 μg m(-3) in bedrooms, living rooms, and outdoors, respectively. Meanwhile, at workplaces, indoor air levels ranged from 5.86 to 40.4 μg m(-3). These levels are in agreement with data found in the scientific literature. Non-carcinogenic risks were above the threshold limit (HQ > 1), and carcinogenic risks were not acceptable either (>10(-4)). Despite the current study limitations, the results confirm that formaldehyde indoor levels are a matter of health concern, which must be taken into account by policymakers and regulatory bodies.

  11. An electrochemical impedimetric sensor based on biomimetic electrospun nanofibers for formaldehyde. (United States)

    Dai, Hong; Gong, Lingshan; Xu, Guifang; Li, Xiuhua; Zhang, Shupei; Lin, Yanyu; Zeng, Baoshan; Yang, Caiping; Chen, Guonan


    Herein, simple molecular recognition sites for formaldehyde were designed on electrospun polymer nanofibers. In order to improve the conductivity of the electrospun polymer nanofibers, carbon nanotubes were introduced into the resulting nanofibers. By employing these functionalized nanocomposite fibers to fabricate a biomimetic sensor platform, an obvious change caused by recognition between recognition sites and formaldehyde molecules was monitored through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The experimental conditions were optimized and then a quantitative method for formaldehyde sensing in low concentration was established. The relative results demonstrated that the sensor based on biomimetic recognition nanofibers displays an excellent recognition capacity toward formaldehyde. The linear response range of the sensor was between 1 × 10(-6) mol L(-1) and 1 × 10(-2) mol L(-1), with the detection limit of 8 × 10(-7) mol L(-1). The presented research provided a fast, feasible and sensitive method for formaldehyde with good anti-interference capabilities and good stability, which could meet the practical requirement for formaldehyde assay.

  12. Developing a reference material for diffusion-controlled formaldehyde emissions testing. (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Xiaomin; Cox, Steven S; Little, John C


    Formaldehyde, a known human carcinogen and mucous membrane irritant, is emitted from a variety of building materials and indoor furnishings. The drive to improve building energy efficiency by decreasing ventilation rates increases the need to better understand emissions from indoor products and to identify and develop lower emitting materials. To help meet this need, formaldehyde emissions from indoor materials are typically measured using environmental chambers. However, chamber testing results are frequently inconsistent and provide little insight into the mechanisms governing emissions. This research addresses these problems by (1) developing a reference formaldehyde emissions source that can be used to validate chamber testing methods for characterization of dynamic sources of formaldehyde emissions and (2) demonstrating that emissions from finite formaldehyde sources can be predicted using a fundamental mass-transfer model. Formaldehyde mass-transfer mechanisms are elucidated, providing practical approaches for developing diffusion-controlled reference materials that mimic actual sources. The fundamental understanding of emissions mechanisms can be used to improve emissions testing and guide future risk reduction actions.

  13. Formaldehyde and TVOC emission behavior of laminate flooring by structure of laminate flooring and heating condition. (United States)

    An, Jae-Yoon; Kim, Sumin; Kim, Hyun-Joong


    Formaldehyde was measured with a desiccator, a 20 L chamber and the FLEC method. The formaldehyde emission rate from laminate was the highest at 32 °C using the desiccator, which then decreased with time. The formaldehyde emission using the 20 L small chamber and FLEC showed a similar tendency. There was a strong correlation between the formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) with both types of floorings using the two different methods. The formaldehyde emission rate and TVOC results were higher when tested using the FLEC method than with the 20 L small chamber method. The emission rate was affected by the joint edge length in laminate flooring. Toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene were the main VOCs emitted from laminate flooring, and there were more unidentified VOCs emitted than identified VOCs. The samples heated with a floor heating system emitted more formaldehyde than those heated using an air circulation system due to the temperature difference between the bottom panel and flooring. The TVOC emission level of the samples was higher when an air circulation system was used than when a floor heating system was used due to the high ventilation rate. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Case of Recurrent Urticaria Due to Formaldehyde Release from Root-Canal Disinfectant. (United States)

    Jang, Ji Hoon; Park, Seung Hyun; Jang, Hang Jea; Lee, Sung Geun; Park, Jin Han; Jeong, Jae Won; Park, Chan Sun


    Although formaldehyde is well known to cause type 4 hypersensitivity, immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity to formaldehyde is rare. Here, we report a case of recurrent generalized urticaria after endodontic treatment using a para-formaldehyde (PFA)-containing root canal sealant and present a review of previous studies describing cases of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to formaldehyde. A 50-year-old man visited our allergy clinic for recurrent generalized urticaria several hours after endodontic treatment. Prick tests to latex, lidocaine, and formaldehyde showed negative reactions. However, swelling and redness at the prick site continued for several days. The level of formaldehyde-specific IgE was high (class 4). Thus, the patient was deemed to have experienced an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction caused by the PFA used in the root canal disinfectant. Accordingly, we suggest that physicians should pay attention to type I hypersensitivity reactions to root canal disinfectants, even if the symptoms occur several hours after exposure.

  15. Identification of Protein Thiazolidination as a Novel Molecular Signature for Oxidative Stress and Formaldehyde Exposure. (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Chan, K K Jason; Chan, Wan


    Chemical modifications of proteins have been well-documented to play important roles in normal cell physiology such as cell signaling and protein functions. They have also been demonstrated to be one of the milestones in the pathophysiology of many human diseases such as cancer, age-related pathology, and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we report the initial identification of a novel protein modification, cysteine thiazolidination, through reaction with endogenous and exogenous formaldehyde with cysteine residues in proteins. Using an isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS(3)) method, we initiated the study by quantitating thioproline in formaldehyde-treated Escherichia coli (E. coli) protein. The study was then extended to quantitate thioproline in protein obtained from formaldehyde- and oxidant-exposed E. coli. Furthermore, N(6)-formyllysine, a well-defined formylation product between formaldehyde and lysine, was exploited in a comparative study to evaluate the relative reactivity and amount of cysteine thiazolidination in the reaction of formaldehyde with proteins. It is anticipated that cysteine thiazolidination may serve as a novel biomarker for oxidative stress and formaldehyde exposure.

  16. Film bulk acoustic formaldehyde sensor with layer-by-layer assembled carbon nanotubes/polyethyleneimine multilayers (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Da; Wang, Hongfei; Yu, Wenhua; Wu, Maozeng; Yang, Lei


    Trace formaldehyde vapor was detected by a micron-scale AlN film bulk acoustic resonator based on mass-sensitive mechanism. The layer-by-layer carbon nanotubes/polyethyleneimine multilayers were assembled on the resonator surface as the sensitive coating. An almost linear decrease of the resonant frequency was observed as a function of the number of nanotubes/polyethyleneimine periods. The multilayers showed a random and porous structure and thus provided a large specific surface area for gas adsorption and diffusion. At the same time, the amine groups in polyethyleneimine had an strong affinity to formaldehyde with excellent selectivity. When exposed to gaseous formaldehyde, the attachment of gas molecules induced a small decrease in the resonant frequency, which made the sensor easily detect formaldehyde at ppb levels with 1 min response time. A linear relationship was observed between the formaldehyde concentrations and the frequency downshift of the resonator. The layer number had an obvious influence on the absorption/desorption behavior of formaldehyde. The gas sensitivity of FBAR sensors was 1.29–1.90 kHz ppb‑1 with the limit of detection of 24–38 ppb.

  17. NMR studies of the equilibria and reaction rates in aqueous solutions of formaldehyde. (United States)

    Rivlin, Michal; Eliav, Uzi; Navon, Gil


    Formaldehyde has an important role in the chemical industry and in biological sciences. In dilute aqueous solutions of formaldehyde only traces of the molecular formaldehyde are present and the predominant species are methylene glycol and in lower concentrations, dimethylene glycol. The chemical equilibria and reaction rates of the hydration of formaldehyde in H2O and D2O solutions at low concentrations were studied by (1)H and (13)C NMR at various conditions of pH (1.8-7.8) and temperature (278-333 K). These measurements became possible by direct detection of formaldehyde (13)C and (1)H peaks. The equilibrium and rate constants of the dimerization reaction of methylene glycol were also measured. The rate constants for both the hydration and the dimerization reactions were measured by a new version of the conventional selective inversion transfer method. This study, together with previous published work, completes the description of dynamics and equilibria of all the processes occurring in dilute aqueous formaldehyde solutions.

  18. Biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) for ultrahigh-sensitive gaseous formaldehyde monitoring. (United States)

    Kudo, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yuki; Gessei, Tomoko; Takahashi, Daishi; Arakawa, Takahiro; Mitsubayashi, Kohji


    An ultrahigh-sensitive fiber-optic biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) for continuous monitoring of indoor formaldehyde was constructed and tested. The bio-sniffer measures gaseous formaldehyde as fluorescence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), which is the product of formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) reaction. The bio-sniffer device was constructed by attaching a flow cell with a FALDH immobilized membrane onto a fiber-optic NADH measurement system. The NADH measurement system utilizes an ultraviolet-light emitting diode (UV-LED) with peak emission of 335 nm as an excitation light source. The excitation light was introduced to an optical fiber probe, and fluorescence emission of neighboring NADH, which was produced by applying formaldehyde vapor to the FALDH membrane, was concentrically measured with a photomultiplier tube. Assessment of the bio-sniffer was carried out using a standard gas generator. Response, calibration range and selectivity to other chemical substances were investigated. Circulating phosphate buffer, which contained NAD+, available for continuous monitoring of formaldehyde vapor. The calibration range of the bio-sniffer was 2.5 ppb to 10 ppm, which covers the guideline value of the World Health Organization (80 ppb). High selectivity to other gaseous substances due to specific activity of FALDH was also confirmed. Considering its high sensitivity, a possible application of the bio-sniffer is continuous indoor formaldehyde monitoring to provide healthy residential atmosphere. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation of formaldehyde pollution of tap water and rain water using a novel visual colorimetry. (United States)

    Murai, K; Okano, M; Kuramitz, H; Hata, N; Kawakami, T; Taguchi, S


    The pollution of tap water and rain water with formaldehyde in Toyama Pref., Japan was investigated by means of a simple, rapid and cost-effective visual colorimetry developed by us. The levels of formaldehyde in three tap waters from different sources of dams on mountainside and a well-water pumped in urban area in Toyama Pref. were lower than 0.01 mg L(-1) that was the detection limit of the colorimetry. On the other hand, rain waters were seriously polluted with formaldehyde. Rain waters were sampled from three different sites (urban area, top of hill and industrial area) in Toyama Pref. from autumn to winter in 2006. The levels of formaldehyde in the rain waters ranged from 0.07 to 0.30 mg L(-1). The analytical results by the visual colorimetry were in good agreement with those obtained by GC-MS method. It was confirmed that the colorimetry is excellent for practical use for the determination of formaldehyde. It must be concerned about the pollution of rainwater with formaldehyde, when rain water is applied for tap water and miscellaneous purpose. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  20. Media stylistics


    Lambrou, Marina; Durant, Alan


    In this chapter we review the concept of ‘media stylistics’. In particular, we disentangle the polysemy of these two terms which, when combined, describe but can also obscure work in this area; and we discuss key themes and concerns which emerge. Through analysis of two short extracts of media discourse in English, we elaborate a distinction between two alternative emphases: study of media language as concerned with the capabilities associated with changing technologies for conveying linguist...

  1. Media Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabel, Lars


    News and other kinds of journalistic stories, 16-17 hours a day, all year round, on all platforms, also the moderated social media. The key research thesis behind this article is that the continuous and speedy stream of news stories and media content now is becoming the centre of the production...... processes and the value creation in converged multimedia newsrooms. The article identify new methods and discuss editorial challenges in handling media flow....

  2. A Simple Approach to Distinguish Classic and Formaldehyde-Free Tannin Based Rigid Foams by ATR FT-IR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Tondi


    Full Text Available Tannin based rigid foams (TBRFs have been produced with formaldehyde since 1994. Only recently several methods have been developed in order to produce these foams without using formaldehyde. TBRFs with and without formaldehyde are visually indistinguishable; therefore a method for determining the differences between these foams had to be found. The attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR investigation of the TBRFs presented in this paper allowed discrimination between the formaldehyde-containing (classic and formaldehyde-free TBRFs. The spectra of the formaldehyde-free TBRFs, indeed, present decreased band intensity related to the C–O stretching vibration of (i the methylol groups and (ii the furanic rings. This evidence served to prove the chemical difference between the two TBRFs and explained the slightly higher mechanical properties measured for the classic TBRFs.

  3. Formaldehyde and TVOC emission behaviors according to finishing treatment with surface materials using 20 L chamber and FLEC. (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Wook; Kim, Sumin; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Park, Jin Chul


    Formaldehyde and TVOC are emitted from wood-based panels that are made using wood particles, wood fiber, wood chips and formaldehyde-based resins. This study examined the formaldehyde and TVOC emission behavior of medium density fiberboard (MDF) overlaid with three types of uncoated lignocellulosic surface materials (oak decorative veneer, low pressure melamine impregnated paper and high pressure melamine impregnated paper) and four types of coated surface materials (coated paper, two types of finishing foils, and PVC) using the Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC) method and a 20 L small chamber method. The uncoated lignocellulosic surface materials exhibited lower formaldehyde and TVOC emission levels. The coated surface materials did not show reduced TVOC emissions but the formaldehyde emission was reduced in the 20 L small chamber test. In the FLEC test, both the uncoated lignocellulosic surface materials and coated surface materials showed lower TVOC and formaldehyde emissions from MDF. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of Very Low Level of Free Formaldehyde in Liquid Detergents and Cosmetic Products Using Photoluminescence Method


    Ali Gholami; Atefeh Mohsenikia; Saeed Masoum


    Formaldehyde is commonly used in detergents and cosmetic products as antibacterial agent and preservative. This substance is unfavorable for human health because it is known to be toxic for humans and causes irritation of eyes and skins. The toxicology studies of this compound indicate risk of detergents and cosmetic formulations with a minimum content of 0.05% free formaldehyde. Therefore, determination of formaldehyde as quality control parameter is very important. In this study, a photolum...

  5. Print media vs internet media


    Koganuramath, M. M.; Angadi, Mallikarjun


    The Information Technology has revolutionised the communication media with the emergence of Internet. This paper describes the pace of change in print media to On-line journalism. The process has began with On-line journalism utilising Internet wherein websites are replacing the print media. Most of the On-line newspapers are free, interactive and archival in nature and it provides users to search the information on newspapers through various access points i.e. by contributors, title, and dat...

  6. Systematic studies of tannin-formaldehyde aerogels: preparation and properties (United States)

    Amaral-Labat, Gisele; Szczurek, Andrzej; Fierro, Vanessa; Pizzi, Antonio; Celzard, Alain


    Gelation of tannin-formaldehyde (TF) solutions was systematically investigated by changing pH and concentration of TF resin in water. In this way we constructed the TF phase diagram, from which chemical hydrogels could be described, and also synthesized thermoreversible tannin-based hydrogels. Conditions of non-gelation were also determined. Hydrogels were dried in supercritical CO2, leading to a broad range of TF aerogels. The latter were investigated for volume shrinkage, total porosity, micro-, meso- and macropore volumes, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, microscopic texture, mechanical and thermal properties. All these properties are discussed in relation to each other, leading to an accurate and self-consistent description of these bioresource-based highly porous materials. The conditions for obtaining the highest BET surface area or mesopore volume were determined and explained in relation to the preparation conditions. The highest BET surface area, 880 m2 g-1, is remarkably high for organic aerogels derived from a natural resource.

  7. Systematic studies of tannin–formaldehyde aerogels: preparation and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Amaral-Labat, Andrzej Szczurek, Vanessa Fierro, Antonio Pizzi and Alain Celzard


    Full Text Available Gelation of tannin–formaldehyde (TF solutions was systematically investigated by changing pH and concentration of TF resin in water. In this way we constructed the TF phase diagram, from which chemical hydrogels could be described, and also synthesized thermoreversible tannin-based hydrogels. Conditions of non-gelation were also determined. Hydrogels were dried in supercritical CO2, leading to a broad range of TF aerogels. The latter were investigated for volume shrinkage, total porosity, micro-, meso- and macropore volumes, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET surface area, microscopic texture, mechanical and thermal properties. All these properties are discussed in relation to each other, leading to an accurate and self-consistent description of these bioresource-based highly porous materials. The conditions for obtaining the highest BET surface area or mesopore volume were determined and explained in relation to the preparation conditions. The highest BET surface area, 880 m2 g−1, is remarkably high for organic aerogels derived from a natural resource.

  8. Role of 2-hexyl, 5-propyl resorcinol production by Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606 in the multitrophic interactions in the avocado rhizosphere during the biocontrol process. (United States)

    Calderón, Claudia E; de Vicente, Antonio; Cazorla, Francisco M


    Different bacterial traits can contribute to the biocontrol of soilborne phytopathogenic fungus. Among others, (1) antagonism, (2) competition for nutrients and niches, (3) induction of systemic resistance of the plants and (4) predation and parasitism are the most studied. Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606 is an antagonistic rhizobacterium that produces the antifungal metabolite 2-hexyl, 5-propyl resorcinol (HPR). This bacterium can biologically control the avocado white root rot caused by Rosellinia necatrix. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of the avocado rhizosphere revealed that this biocontrol bacterium and the fungal pathogen compete for the same niche and presumably also for root exudate nutrients. The use of derivative mutants in the geners related to HPR biosynthesis (dar genes) revealed that the lack of HPR production by P. chlororaphis PCL1606 negatively influences the bacterial colonisation of the avocado root surface. Microscopical analysis showed that P. chlororaphis PCL1606 closely interacts and colonises the fungal hyphae, which may represent a novel biocontrol mechanism in this pseudomonad. Additionally, the presence of HPR-producing biocontrol bacteria negatively affects the ability of the fungi to infect the avocado root. HPR production negatively affects hyphal growth, leading to alterations in the R. necatrix physiology visible under microscopy, including the curling, vacuolisation and branching of hyphae, which presumably affects the colonisation and infection abilities of the fungus. This study provides the first report of multitrophic interactions in the avocado rhizosphere, advancing our understanding of the role of HPR production in those interactions. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A novel derivatization-free method of formaldehyde and propylene glycol determination in hydrogels by liquid chromatography with refractometric detection. (United States)

    Isakau, Henadz; Robert, Marielle; Shingel, Kirill I


    The paper describes the development and validation of a new derivatization-free liquid chromatography method for simultaneous determination of propylene glycol and formaldehyde in the formulations containing formaldehyde-releasing preservative. Highly swollen hydrogel made of poly(ethylene glycol)-protein conjugates was taken as a model formulation for integration of the propylene glycol and the diazolydinyl urea as formaldehyde releaser. The method is shown to be simple and selective and, more importantly, allows determining an existing level of formaldehyde at the moment of analysis instead of all available formaldehyde that might be released during chemical derivatization. After liquid extraction the propylene glycol (PG) and formaldehyde (FA) amounts are determined chromatographically on a Shodex SH 1011 ligand-exchange column using 0.01 M sulfuric acid mobile phase, a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and RI detection. The assay is validated showing good linearity, precision, and accuracy. The limits of detection of formaldehyde and propylene glycol in the analyzed solutions were estimated to be 25 ng and 87 ng, respectively. This analytical assay is considered useful for product stability studies and in developing new formaldehyde releaser-containing formulations where the concentration of formaldehyde is a presumable subject of labeling requirements. This method can also provide a rapid and convenient alternative to gas chromatography method of propylene glycol quantification.

  10. Area and Personal Exposure Levels to Formaldehyde and Its Variation among Undergraduate Students during Gross Anatomy Laboratory Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pensri Watchalayann


    Full Text Available Formaldehyde emitted from the cadavers in Gross Anatomy Laboratory may fluctuate leading to a variation in exposure level of the participants during practice. This study aimed to evaluate the variation of formaldehyde levels and to determine the relationship between area and personal exposure concentration. Formaldehyde levels were measured in six sampling areas repeatedly during three types of study sessions; thoracic, abdominal, and brain and nerve study session. The highest formaldehyde level of area sampling (0.712 ppm was found during the abdominal study session. Even though, formaldehyde levels were inconsistent but there were no statistical differences of areal formaldehyde concentrations among the sampling areas and the types of study sessions (p > 0.05. Personal samplings were conducted concurrently with 15 students. Average formaldehyde levels of the 15 students ranged from 0.317 to 0.912 ppm. Personal formaldehyde concentrations in the different types of study sessions were statistically different (p < 0.05. The relationship between personal and area formaldehyde concentrations of these 15 participants indicated that the correlation coefficients ranged from -0.529 to 0.600 with an average of 0.377. This result suggested there was a limitation in using area concentration to estimate personal exposure levels.

  11. Media darling

    CERN Multimedia

    Chalmers, Matthew


    He is the media-friendly face of particle physics, appearing on countless TV and radio shows in the run-up to the opening of CERN's Large Hadron Collider. Matthew Chalmers discovers how Brian Cox finds the time to be both a physicist and a media personality. (2 pages)

  12. Exposition by inhalation to the formaldehyde in the air. Source, measures and concentrations; Exposition par inhalation au formaldehyde dans l'air. Source, mesures et concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Gratta, F.; Durif, M.; Fagault, Y.; Zdanevitch, I


    This document presents the main techniques today available to characterize the formaldehyde concentrations in the air for different contexts: urban and rural areas or around industrial installations but also indoor and occupational area. It provides information to guide laboratories and research departments. A synthesis gives also the main emissions sources of these compounds as reference concentrations measured in different environments. (A.L.B.)

  13. Potential Exposure and Cancer Risk from Formaldehyde Emissions from Installed Chinese Manufactured Laminate Flooring. (United States)

    Sheehan, Patrick; Singhal, Ankur; Bogen, Kenneth T; MacIntosh, David; Kalmes, Renee M; McCarthy, John


    Lumber Liquidators (LL) Chinese-manufactured laminate flooring (CLF) has been installed in >400,000 U.S. homes over the last decade. To characterize potential associated formaldehyde exposures and cancer risks, chamber emissions data were collected from 399 new LL CLF, and from LL CLF installed in 899 homes in which measured aggregate indoor formaldehyde concentrations exceeded 100 μg/m 3 from a total of 17,867 homes screened. Data from both sources were combined to characterize LL CLF flooring-associated formaldehyde emissions from new boards and installed boards. New flooring had an average (±SD) emission rate of 61.3 ± 52.1 μg/m 2 -hour; >one-year installed boards had ∼threefold lower emission rates. Estimated emission rates for the 899 homes and corresponding data from questionnaires were used as inputs to a single-compartment, steady-state mass-balance model to estimate corresponding residence-specific TWA formaldehyde concentrations and potential resident exposures. Only ∼0.7% of those homes had estimated acute formaldehyde concentrations >100 μg/m 3 immediately after LL CLF installation. The TWA daily formaldehyde inhalation exposure within the 899 homes was estimated to be 17 μg/day using California Proposition 65 default methods to extrapolate cancer risk (below the regulation "no significant risk level" of 40 μg/day). Using a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency linear cancer risk model, 50th and 95th percentile values of expected lifetime cancer risk for residents of these homes were estimated to be 0.33 and 1.2 per 100,000 exposed, respectively. Based on more recent data and verified nonlinear cancer risk assessment models, LL CLF formaldehyde emissions pose virtually no cancer risk to affected consumers. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Regulation characteristics of oxide generation and formaldehyde removal by using volume DBD reactor (United States)

    Bingyan, CHEN; Xiangxiang, GAO; Ke, CHEN; Changyu, LIU; Qinshu, LI; Wei, SU; Yongfeng, JIANG; Xiang, HE; Changping, ZHU; Juntao, FEI


    Discharge plasmas in air can be accompanied by ultraviolet (UV) radiation and electron impact, which can produce large numbers of reactive species such as hydroxyl radical (OH·), oxygen radical (O·), ozone (O3), and nitrogen oxides (NO x ), etc. The composition and dosage of reactive species usually play an important role in the case of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) treatment with the discharge plasmas. In this paper, we propose a volume discharge setup used to purify formaldehyde in air, which is configured by a plate-to-plate dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) channel and excited by an AC high voltage source. The results show that the relative spectral-intensity from DBD cell without formaldehyde is stronger than the case with formaldehyde. The energy efficiency ratios (EERs) of both oxides yield and formaldehyde removal can be regulated by the gas flow velocity in DBD channel, and the most desirable processing effect is the gas flow velocity within the range from 2.50 to 3.33 m s‑1. Moreover, the EERs of both the generated dosages of oxides (O3 and NO2) and the amount of removed formaldehyde can also be regulated by both of the applied voltage and power density loaded on the DBD cell. Additionally, the EERs of both oxides generation and formaldehyde removal present as a function of normal distribution with increasing the applied power density, and the peak of the function is appeared in the range from 273.5 to 400.0 W l‑1. This work clearly demonstrates the regulation characteristic of both the formaldehyde removal and oxides yield by using volume DBD, and it is helpful in the applications of VOCs removal by using discharge plasma.

  15. Low-Dose Formaldehyde Delays DNA Damage Recognition and DNA Excision Repair in Human Cells (United States)

    Luch, Andreas; Frey, Flurina C. Clement; Meier, Regula; Fei, Jia; Naegeli, Hanspeter


    Objective Formaldehyde is still widely employed as a universal crosslinking agent, preservative and disinfectant, despite its proven carcinogenicity in occupationally exposed workers. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the possible impact of low-dose formaldehyde exposures in the general population. Due to the concomitant occurrence of multiple indoor and outdoor toxicants, we tested how formaldehyde, at micromolar concentrations, interferes with general DNA damage recognition and excision processes that remove some of the most frequently inflicted DNA lesions. Methodology/Principal Findings The overall mobility of the DNA damage sensors UV-DDB (ultraviolet-damaged DNA-binding) and XPC (xeroderma pigmentosum group C) was analyzed by assessing real-time protein dynamics in the nucleus of cultured human cells exposed to non-cytotoxic (formaldehyde concentrations. The DNA lesion-specific recruitment of these damage sensors was tested by monitoring their accumulation at local irradiation spots. DNA repair activity was determined in host-cell reactivation assays and, more directly, by measuring the excision of DNA lesions from chromosomes. Taken together, these assays demonstrated that formaldehyde obstructs the rapid nuclear trafficking of DNA damage sensors and, consequently, slows down their relocation to DNA damage sites thus delaying the excision repair of target lesions. A concentration-dependent effect relationship established a threshold concentration of as low as 25 micromolar for the inhibition of DNA excision repair. Conclusions/Significance A main implication of the retarded repair activity is that low-dose formaldehyde may exert an adjuvant role in carcinogenesis by impeding the excision of multiple mutagenic base lesions. In view of this generally disruptive effect on DNA repair, we propose that formaldehyde exposures in the general population should be further decreased to help reducing cancer risks. PMID:24722772

  16. Study of Necrosis in the Liver of Formaldehyde and Benzo(αPyrene Exposured-Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Soni


    Full Text Available Formaldehyde and benzo(αpyrene are compounds that harmful for health. Misapplication of this compound has an impact in the form of organ damage in the body. This study aims to determine the impact of the treatment of the combined exposure of formaldehyde and benzo(αpyrene to cell necrosis in the liver of mice (Mus musculus. Treatment of formaldehyde dose of 25 mg/kg BW to mice was given orally every day for 60 days. Treatment of benzo(αpyrene via intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 250 mg/kg BW were given after 30 days of incubation with four times injection with one day interval. Liver organ histological preparations were made through the HE staining. Observations were made by using a microscope for liver organ preparations. The data obtained that is the percentage of cells necrosis and necrotic foci. This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD with 95% confidence interval. Liver organ preparations observations indicate that the percentage of necrosis in the untreated control, benzo(αpyrene 250 mg/kg BW, formaldehyde 25 mg/kg BW, combination of formaldehyde 25 mg/kg BW with BaP in a row that is equal to 14.43% ± 0.91; 26.05% ± 3.75; 49.38% ± 2.66; 51.86 ± 1.73. The mean of necrotic foci in liver organ formed in the untreatment control, benzo(αpyrene 250 mg/kg BW, Formaldehyde 25 mg/kg BW, and the combination of formaldehyde 25 mg/kg BW with BaP in a row, equal to 1.3 ± 0,07; 1.63 ± 0.61; 2 ± 0.51, and 3.4 ± 0.76. This suggests that the combined treatment had the highest level of toxicity compared with other treatments.

  17. The Australian Work Exposures Study: Prevalence of Occupational Exposure to Formaldehyde. (United States)

    Driscoll, Timothy R; Carey, Renee N; Peters, Susan; Glass, Deborah C; Benke, Geza; Reid, Alison; Fritschi, Lin


    The aims of this study were to produce a population-based estimate of the prevalence of work-related exposure to formaldehyde, to identify the main circumstances of exposure and to describe the use of workplace control measures designed to decrease those exposures. The analysis used data from the Australian Workplace Exposures Study, a nationwide telephone survey, which investigated the current prevalence and exposure circumstances of work-related exposure to 38 known or suspected carcinogens, including formaldehyde, among Australian workers aged 18-65 years. Using the web-based tool OccIDEAS, semi-quantitative information was collected about exposures in the current job held by the respondent. Questions were addressed primarily at tasks undertaken rather than about self-reported exposures. Of the 4993 included respondents, 124 (2.5%) were identified as probably being exposed to formaldehyde in the course of their work [extrapolated to 2.6% of the Australian working population-265 000 (95% confidence interval 221 000-316 000) workers]. Most (87.1%) were male. About half worked in technical and trades occupations. In terms of industry, about half worked in the construction industry. The main circumstances of exposure were working with particle board or plywood typically through carpentry work, building maintenance, or sanding prior to painting; with the more common of other exposures circumstances being firefighters involved in fighting fires, fire overhaul, and clean-up or back-burning; and health workers using formaldehyde when sterilizing equipment or in a pathology laboratory setting. The use of control measures was inconsistent. Workers are exposed to formaldehyde in many different occupational circumstances. Information on the exposure circumstances can be used to support decisions on appropriate priorities for intervention and control of occupational exposure to formaldehyde, and estimates of burden of cancer arising from occupational exposure to formaldehyde

  18. Media violence. (United States)

    Cantor, J


    Research on the effects of media violence is not well understood by the general public. Despite this fact, there is an overwhelming consensus in the scientific literature about the unhealthy effects of media violence. Meta-analyses show that media-violence viewing consistently is associated with higher levels of antisocial behavior, ranging from the trivial (imitative violence directed against toys) to the serious (criminal violence), with many consequential outcomes in between (acceptance of violence as a solution to problems, increased feelings of hostility, and the apparent delivery of painful stimulation to another person). Desensitization is another well-documented effect of viewing violence, which is observable in reduced arousal and emotional disturbance while witnessing violence, the reduced tendency to intervene in a fight, and less sympathy for the victims of violence. Although there is evidence that youth who are already violent are more likely to seek out violent entertainment, there is strong evidence that the relationship between violence viewing and antisocial behavior is bidirectional. There is growing evidence that media violence also engenders intense fear in children which often lasts days, months, and even years. The media's potential role in solutions to these problems is only beginning to be explored, in investigations examining the uses and effects of movie ratings, television ratings, and the V-chip, and the effects of media literacy programs and public education efforts. Future research should explore important individual differences in responses to media violence and effective ways to intervene in the negative effects.

  19. Formation, Accumulation, and Hydrolysis of Endogenous and Exogenous Formaldehyde-Induced DNA Damage. (United States)

    Yu, Rui; Lai, Yongquan; Hartwell, Hadley J; Moeller, Benjamin C; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Kracko, Dean; Bodnar, Wanda M; Starr, Thomas B; Swenberg, James A


    Formaldehyde is not only a widely used chemical with well-known carcinogenicity but is also a normal metabolite of living cells. It thus poses unique challenges for understanding risks associated with exposure. N(2-)hydroxymethyl-dG (N(2)-HOMe-dG) is the main formaldehyde-induced DNA mono-adduct, which together with DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) and toxicity-induced cell proliferation, play important roles in a mutagenic mode of action for cancer. In this study, N(2)-HOMe-dG was shown to be an excellent biomarker for direct adduction of formaldehyde to DNA and the hydrolysis of DPCs. The use of inhaled [(13)CD2]-formaldehyde exposures of rats and primates coupled with ultrasensitive nano ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry permitted accurate determinations of endogenous and exogenous formaldehyde DNA damage. The results show that inhaled formaldehyde only reached rat and monkey noses, but not tissues distant to the site of initial contact. The amounts of exogenous adducts were remarkably lower than those of endogenous adducts in exposed nasal epithelium. Moreover, exogenous adducts accumulated in rat nasal epithelium over the 28-days exposure to reach steady-state concentrations, followed by elimination with a half-life (t1/2) of 7.1 days. Additionally, we examined artifact formation during DNA preparation to ensure the accuracy of nonlabeled N(2)-HOMe-dG measurements. These novel findings provide critical new data for understanding major issues identified by the National Research Council Review of the 2010 Environmental Protection Agency's Draft Integrated Risk Information System Formaldehyde Risk Assessment. They support a data-driven need for reflection on whether risks have been overestimated for inhaled formaldehyde, whereas underappreciating endogenous formaldehyde as the primary source of exposure that results in bone marrow toxicity and leukemia in susceptible humans and rodents deficient in DNA repair. © The Author 2015

  20. Formaldehyde dehydrogenase preparations from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) comprise methanol dehydrogenase and methylene tetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Adeosun, Ekundayo K; Smith, Thomas J; Hoberg, Anne-Mette; Velarde, Giles; Ford, Robert; Dalton, Howard


    In methylotrophic bacteria, formaldehyde is an important but potentially toxic metabolic intermediate that can be assimilated into biomass or oxidized to yield energy. Previously reported was the purification of an NAD(P)(+)-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH) from the obligate methane-oxidizing methylotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), presumably important in formaldehyde oxidation, which required a heat-stable factor (known as the modifin) for FDH activity. Here, the major protein component of this FDH preparation was shown by biophysical techniques to comprise subunits of 64 and 8 kDa in an alpha(2)beta(2) arrangement. N-terminal sequencing of the subunits of FDH, together with enzymological characterization, showed that the alpha(2)beta(2) tetramer was a quinoprotein methanol dehydrogenase of the type found in other methylotrophs. The FDH preparations were shown to contain a highly active NAD(P)(+)-dependent methylene tetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenase that was the probable source of the NAD(P)(+)-dependent formaldehyde oxidation activity. These results support previous findings that methylotrophs possess multiple pathways for formaldehyde dissimilation.

  1. The detection of formaldehyde using microelectromechanical acoustic resonator with multiwalled carbon nanotubes-polyethyleneimine composite coating (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Zhan, Da; Wang, Ke; Hang, Weiwei


    A micro-scale gas sensor based on mass-sensitive film bulk acoustic resonator is demonstrated for the detection of trace formaldehyde at room temperature. The composites mixed with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and polyethyleneimine (MWNTs-PEI) were coated on the resonator surface as the sensitive layer to specifically absorb formaldehyde molecules using a facile spray process. The influence of spraying processes on the formaldehyde sensing properties were investigated. Different response behaviors were determined by both the chemical absorption between formaldehyde molecules and the amine functional groups on PEI and the increase of absorption surface came from the nanostructure. The combination of high frequency of the film bulk acoustic resonator (~4.3 GHz) and the specific absorbability of MWNTs-PEI composites provided a high sensitivity in the detections of trace formaldehyde. The obtained ultra-low limit of detection was as low as 60 ppb with linear response, quick response/recovery time, good reproducibility and selectivity. The proposed sensor shows potential as a portable and convenient gas-sensing system for monitoring the low-level concentration of indoor air pollution.

  2. Endogenous Formaldehyde Is a Hematopoietic Stem Cell Genotoxin and Metabolic Carcinogen (United States)

    Pontel, Lucas B.; Rosado, Ivan V.; Burgos-Barragan, Guillermo; Garaycoechea, Juan I.; Yu, Rui; Arends, Mark J.; Chandrasekaran, Gayathri; Broecker, Verena; Wei, Wei; Liu, Limin; Swenberg, James A.; Crossan, Gerry P.; Patel, Ketan J.


    Summary Endogenous formaldehyde is produced by numerous biochemical pathways fundamental to life, and it can crosslink both DNA and proteins. However, the consequences of its accumulation are unclear. Here we show that endogenous formaldehyde is removed by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase 5 (ADH5/GSNOR), and Adh5−/− mice therefore accumulate formaldehyde adducts in DNA. The repair of this damage is mediated by FANCD2, a DNA crosslink repair protein. Adh5−/−Fancd2−/− mice reveal an essential requirement for these protection mechanisms in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), leading to their depletion and precipitating bone marrow failure. More widespread formaldehyde-induced DNA damage also causes karyomegaly and dysfunction of hepatocytes and nephrons. Bone marrow transplantation not only rescued hematopoiesis but, surprisingly, also preserved nephron function. Nevertheless, all of these animals eventually developed fatal malignancies. Formaldehyde is therefore an important source of endogenous DNA damage that is counteracted in mammals by a conserved protection mechanism. PMID:26412304

  3. Circulating immune/inflammation markers in Chinese workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde (United States)

    Seow, Wei Jie; Zhang, Luoping; Vermeulen, Roel; Tang, Xiaojiang; Hu, Wei; Bassig, Bryan A.; Ji, Zhiying; Shiels, Meredith S.; Kemp, Troy J.; Shen, Min; Qiu, Chuangyi; Reiss, Boris; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Blair, Aaron; Kim, Christopher; Guo, Weihong; Wen, Cuiju; Li, Laiyu; Pinto, Ligia A.; Huang, Hanlin; Smith, Martyn T.; Hildesheim, Allan; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing


    Background. Formaldehyde has been classified as a human myeloid leukemogen. However, the mechanistic basis for this association is still debated. Objectives. We aimed to evaluate whether circulating immune/inflammation markers were altered in workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde. Methods. Using a multiplexed bead-based assay, we measured serum levels of 38 immune/inflammation markers in a cross-sectional study of 43 formaldehyde-exposed and 51 unexposed factory workers in Guangdong, China. Linear regression models adjusting for potential confounders were used to compare marker levels in exposed and unexposed workers. Results. We found significantly lower circulating levels of two markers among exposed factory workers compared with unexposed controls that remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders and multiple comparisons using a false discovery rate of 10%, including chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11 (36.2 pg/ml in exposed versus 48.4 pg/ml in controls, P = 0.0008) and thymus and activation regulated chemokine (52.7 pg/ml in exposed versus 75.0 pg/ml in controls, P = 0.0028), suggesting immunosuppression among formaldehyde-exposed workers. Conclusions. Our findings are consistent with recently emerging understanding that immunosuppression might be associated with myeloid diseases. These findings, if replicated in a larger study, may provide insights into the mechanisms by which formaldehyde promotes leukemogenesis. PMID:25908645

  4. Formaldehyde exposure and its effects during pregnancy: Recommendations for laboratory attendance based on available data. (United States)

    Haffner, Matthew J; Oakes, Peter; Demerdash, Amin; Yammine, Kaissar Cesar; Watanabe, Koichi; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane


    Formalin is commonly used in fixation of cadaveric specimens. Exposure to formaldehyde, a component of formalin and a known carcinogen, during gross anatomy laboratory dissection is a continuing concern for pregnant students and instructors. Since there is little literature on this specific topic, the current review was compiled in the hope of offering recommendations to pregnant students and instructors who are engaged in human anatomical dissection where formalin is used. Relevant articles were obtained through searches of PubMed and Google Scholar for the terms "formaldehyde," "pregnant," "formalin," and "exposure." A literature search was conducted for chemical information and articles about exposure as issued by government regulatory agencies and chemical companies that produce formaldehyde. This led to the compilation of 29 articles each of which included references to previous, relevant, human research. The reviewed literature contains data strongly suggesting that pregnancy can be affected by formaldehyde exposure. Therefore, on the basis our analysis, female students who might be pregnant should avoid formaldehyde exposure, including that in a gross anatomy laboratory. Instructors should find other means of ensuring anatomical competence for these students. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Formaldehyde Crosses the Human Placenta and Affects Human Trophoblast Differentiation and Hormonal Functions (United States)

    Pidoux, Guillaume; Gerbaud, Pascale; Guibourdenche, Jean; Thérond, Patrice; Ferreira, Fatima; Simasotchi, Christelle; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Gil, Sophie


    The chorionic villus of the human placenta is the source of specific endocrine functions and nutrient exchanges. These activities are ensured by the syncytiotrophobast (ST), which bathes in maternal blood. The ST arises and regenerates throughout pregnancy by fusion of underlying cytotrophoblasts (CT). Any anomaly of ST formation or regeneration can affect pregnancy outcome and fetal growth. Because of its direct interaction with maternal blood, the ST is sensitive to drugs, pollutants and xenohormones. Ex vivo assays of perfused cotyledon show that formaldehyde, a common pollutant present in furniture, paint and plastics, can accumulate in the human placenta and cross to the fetal compartment. By means of RT-qPCR, immunoblot and immunocytochemistry experiments, we demonstrate in vitro that formaldehyde exerts endocrine toxicity on human trophoblasts, including a decrease in the production of protein hormones of pregnancy. In addition, formaldehyde exposure triggered human trophoblast fusion by upregulating syncitin-1 receptor expression (ASC-type amino-acid transporter 2: ASCT2). Moreover, we show that formaldehyde-exposed trophoblasts present an altered redox status associated with oxidative stress, and an increase in ASCT2 expression intended to compensate for this stress. Finally, we demonstrate that the adverse effects of formaldehyde on trophoblast differentiation and fusion are reversed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (Nac), an antioxidant. PMID:26186596

  6. Age-related formaldehyde interferes with DNA methyltransferase function, causing memory loss in Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Tong, Zhiqian; Han, Chanshuai; Qiang, Min; Wang, Weishan; Lv, Jihui; Zhang, Shouzi; Luo, Wenhong; Li, Hui; Luo, Hongjun; Zhou, Jiangning; Wu, Beibei; Su, Tao; Yang, Xu; Wang, Xiaomin; Liu, Ying; He, Rongqiao


    Hippocampus-related topographic amnesia is the most common symptom of memory disorders in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Recent studies have revealed that experience-mediated DNA methylation, which is regulated by enzymes with DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity, is required for the formation of recent memory as well as the maintenance of remote memory. Notably, overexpression of DNMT3a in the hippocampus can reverse spatial memory deficits in aged mice. However, a decline in global DNA methylation was found in the autopsied hippocampi of patients with AD. Exactly, what endogenous factors that affect DNA methylation still remain to be elucidated. Here, we report a marked increase in endogenous formaldehyde levels is associated with a decline in global DNA methylation in the autopsied hippocampus from AD patients. In vitro and in vivo results show that formaldehyde in excess of normal physiological levels reduced global DNA methylation by interfering DNMTs. Interestingly, intrahippocampal injection of excess formaldehyde before spatial learning in healthy adult rats can mimic the learning difficulty of early stage of AD. Moreover, injection of excess formaldehyde after spatial learning can mimic the loss of remote spatial memory observed in late stage of AD. These findings suggest that aging-associated formaldehyde contributes to topographic amnesia in AD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Formaldehyde and heavy metal migration from rubber and metallic packaging/utensils in Korea. (United States)

    Kim, Su-Un; Kim, Tae-Rang; Lee, Eun-Soon; Kim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Li-Ra; Shin, Gi-Young


    The aim of this study was to determine the non-intentionally added substances--formaldehyde and trace metals--at 4% acetic acid conditions in rubber and metallic packaging/utensils. The temperature effect on migration in rubber and metallic packaging/utensils was monitored at 60 °C and 100 °C under acidic (pH formaldehyde--23.1 μg kg⁻¹, lead--13.41 μg kg⁻¹, cadmium--0.15 μg kg⁻¹, total arsenic--2.02 μg kg⁻¹ and nickel--2.92 μg kg⁻¹ at 60 °C and formaldehyde--148.9 μg kg⁻¹, lead--17.04 μg kg⁻¹, cadmium--0.14 μg kg⁻¹, total arsenic--7.25 μg kg⁻¹ and nickel--8.7 μg kg⁻¹ at 100 °C. A significant difference was noticed in formaldehyde and total arsenic between both temperatures (p formaldehyde and total arsenic were more sensitive with cooking temperature than the other metals.

  8. A permeation-controlled formaldehyde reference source for application in environmental test chambers. (United States)

    Salthammer, Tunga; Giesen, Ruth; Schripp, Tobias


    In a wide range of indoor air pollutants, formaldehyde is one of the most-used and best-known substances. In order to protect human health, many countries have established threshold values for the release of formaldehyde from miscellaneous products and revise them constantly. Compliance with these regulations is usually assessed by emission test chamber measurements or derived methods. To control and improve the mechanisms of an emission test chamber, a reliable reference source with sample mimicking emission properties is required but not available so far. This study describes a permeation-controlled reference source based on the application of paraformaldehyde as formaldehyde releasing polymeric compound. Interactions between the formaldehyde release of the source and the governing chamber parameters temperature, relative humidity and air velocity were investigated in 1 m(3) emission chambers. Depending on the conditions, constant formaldehyde concentrations between approximately 10 ppb and 150 ppb can be adjusted for up to 600 h. A linear correlation between the logarithm of the chamber concentration and the reciprocal temperature was found. The results support the feasibility of the source for validation of emission test chamber performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Concomitant contact allergies to formaldehyde, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, methylisothiazolinone, and fragrance mixes I and II. (United States)

    Pontén, Ann; Bruze, Magnus; Engfeldt, Malin; Hauksson, Inese; Isaksson, Marléne


    Contact allergies to the preservatives formaldehyde and methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI) have been reported to appear together at a statistically significant level. Recently, revisions concerning the patch test preparations of MCI/MI, MI and formaldehyde have been recommended for the European baseline series. To investigate (i) the number of concomitant contact allergies to the preservatives, (ii) the number of concomitant contact allergies to the preservatives and the fragrance mixes (FM I and FM II) and (iii) gender differences. Patients tested with the Swedish baseline series during the period 2012-2014 at the Department of Occupational and Environmental Dermatology in Malmö, Sweden were investigated. 2165 patients were patch tested with the baseline series (34% males and 66% females). Contact allergies to formaldehyde and MCI/MI and/or MI were significantly associated (p formaldehyde and FM I and/or FM II as well as, were statistically significant (p formaldehyde and MCI/MI and/or MI are significantly associated, as well as contact allergies to these preservatives and fragrance allergy. Males and females do not differ significantly concerning contact allergy to fragrances. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Excruciating Effect of Formaldehyde Exposure to Students in Gross Anatomy Dissection Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FM Onyije


    Full Text Available Background: Formaldehyde is extensively used for preservation of cadavers in departments of anatomy. However, it is a noxious chemical which may cause serious health problems. Objective: To assess the effect of exposure of medical students to formaldehyde at the Department of Anatomy, Niger Delta University, Nigeria. Methods: In a questionnaire-based study, 93 second-year medical students were surveyed at the Department of Human Anatomy, Niger Delta University, Nigeria. The average duration of exposure for each student in the dissection hall was 6 hr/wk. Participants with history of cough, respiratory or skin diseases were excluded from the study. Results: Out of 93 questionnaires distributed, 75 were completed and returned (response rate: 81%. Of 75 students, 58 (77% were strongly affected by unpleasant smell of formaldehyde. It was followed by “runny or congested nose” and “redness of the eyes.” “Skin-related diseases” was identified as the least ranked effect of formaldehyde. Conclusion: Due to the numerous health challenges that formaldehyde causes to students in the gross anatomy dissection laboratories, it cannot be considered as a suitable chemical for embalmment of cadaver for dissection.

  11. Respiratory symptoms and functional impairments induced by occupational exposure to formaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Choobineh


    Full Text Available Background and aimsThe main purpose of this study was to assess the acute and chronic effects of occupational exposure to low levels of formaldehyde on respiratory health.MethodsThis historical cohort study was conducted at a local melamine-formaldehyde resin producing plant. The study population consisted of seventy exposed and 24 non-exposed (referent employees. In this study, a questionnaire was used to evaluate and determined the prevalence of respiratory symptoms. Atmospheric concentrations of formaldehyde were measured at different areas of the plant. Similarly, using a spirometer, the parameters of pulmonary function were measured during exposure and a few days after exposure ceased.ResultsAtmospheric concentrations of formaldehyde marginally exceeded current permissible levels. Additionally, significant decrements in some parameters of pulmonary function, both during and after exposure were noted. However, a relative recovery in lungfunctional capacity observed following temporary cessation of exposure. Furthermore, exposed workers had higher prevalencerates of regular cough, wheezing, phlegm, shortness of breath, chest tightness and episodes of chest illness associated with cold.ConclusionThe findings of this study indicate that exposure to formaldehyde may induce respiratory symptoms, acute partially reversible and chronic irreversible functional impairments of the lungs.

  12. Effect of Thermal Treatment of Veneer on Formaldehyde Emission of Poplar Plywood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takato Nakano


    Full Text Available A large amount of poplar plywood is now being imported into Japan from China, and as a result, formaldehyde emitted from this plywood represents an undesirable chemical that must be controlled using a chemical catching agent. The aim of this study is to find an approach to reduce the formaldehyde emission of poplar plywood using thermal treatment without employing any chemicals. The experimental results obtained show that heating veneer sheets in the temperature range of 150 °C to 170 °C effectively reduced the formaldehyde emission of plywood, without diminishing the mechanical properties of the veneer. By applying Langmuir’s theory and Hailwood-Horrobin theory to the adsorption isotherm obtained in this study, the relationship between the formaldehyde emission of plywood and the adsorption properties of veneer as a material is discussed. When veneer sheets were heated in the temperature range of 150 °C to 170 °C, the amount of hydrated water (monomolecular layer decreased slightly and that of dissolved water (polymolecular layer did not change. It is hypothesized that the formaldehyde emission of plywood is related to the condition of the adsorption site of the wood.

  13. Catalysts with Cerium in a Membrane Reactor for the Removal of Formaldehyde Pollutant from Water Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Gutiérrez-Arzaluz


    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of cerium oxide, cobalt oxide, mixed cerium, and cobalt oxides and a Ce–Co/Al2O3 membrane, which are employed as catalysts for the catalytic wet oxidation (CWO reaction process and the removal of formaldehyde from industrial effluents. Formaldehyde is present in numerous waste streams from the chemical industry in a concentration low enough to make its recovery not economically justified but high enough to create an environmental hazard. Common biological degradation methods do not work for formaldehyde, a highly toxic but refractory, low biodegradability substance. The CWO reaction is a recent, promising alternative that also permits much lower temperature and pressure conditions than other oxidation processes, resulting in economic benefits. The CWO reaction employing Ce- and Co-containing catalysts was carried out inside a slurry batch reactor and a membrane reactor. Experimental results are reported. Next, a mixed Ce–Co oxide film was supported on an γ-alumina membrane used in a catalytic membrane reactor to compare formaldehyde removal between both types of systems. Catalytic materials with cerium and with a relatively large amount of cerium favored the transformation of formaldehyde. Cerium was present as cerianite in the catalytic materials, as indicated by X-ray diffraction patterns.

  14. One-step electric-field driven methane and formaldehyde synthesis from liquid methanol. (United States)

    Cassone, Giuseppe; Pietrucci, Fabio; Saija, Franz; Guyot, François; Saitta, A Marco


    The reaction pathways connecting methanol to methane and formaldehyde are among the most emblematic in chemistry because of their outstanding interest in the fields of energy, synthesis, and bio- and geo-chemistry. Despite of its fundamental nature, the one-pot synthesis of formaldehyde and methane stemming from methanol has never been reported before. Here we present a study, based on ab initio molecular dynamics and free-energy methods, in which the simultaneous oxidation and reduction (i.e., the disproportionation) of liquid methanol into methane and formaldehyde has been achieved at ambient temperature through the application of a static electric field. Because strong electric fields can be generated in the proximity of field emitter tips, this finding shows that the challenge of experimentally disproportionating methanol into formaldehyde and methane could be attempted. We show that the methanol "solvent" molecules play a major role in this process and that the chemical pathway connecting methanol to the detected products in the bulk liquid phase is very different from its reproduced gas-phase counterpart. Finally, we demonstrate that switching on an external electric field drastically modifies the reaction network of methanol, lowering some activation barriers, stabilizing the methane and formaldehyde products, and opening otherwise difficult-to-achieve chemical routes.

  15. Formaldehyde solutions in simulated sweat increase human melanoma but not normal human keratinocyte cells proliferation. (United States)

    Rizzi, M; Cravello, B; Tonello, S; Renò, F


    Our skin is in close contact with clothes most of the time thus risking potentially noxious chemicals contact. One of the potentially harmful manufacturing by-products that can be released by textiles when sweating is formaldehyde, used as an anti-crease treatment. As it is known to be carcinogenic to humans and a potent skin sensitizer, the aim of this study was to investigate its effects on both normal human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) and on a highly invasive malignant melanoma cell line (SK-MEL-28) in order to contribute to the definition of safety cut-off to be applied to the production processes. Formaldehyde concentrations below the commonly accepted limits (10-50μM) were obtained by diluting formaldehyde in simulated sweat (UNI EN ISO 105-E04). The effects on cell proliferation were evaluated by cell counting, while ERK pathway activation was evaluated by western blot. Low concentrations of formaldehyde (10μM) in both acidic and alkaline simulated sweat were able to increase malignant melanoma cell proliferation, while not affecting normal keratinocytes. Melanoma proliferation increase was greater in acidic (pH=5.5) than in alkaline (pH=8) conditions. Moreover, formaldehyde stimulation was able to induce ERK pathway activation. The data obtained suggest the need for an even increasing attention to the potentially harmful effects of textile manufacturing by-products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hollow latex particles functionalized with chitosan for the removal of formaldehyde from indoor air. (United States)

    Nuasaen, Sukanya; Opaprakasit, Pakorn; Tangboriboonrat, Pramuan


    Chitosan and polyethyleneimine (PEI) functionalized hollow latex (HL) particles were conveniently fabricated by coating poly(methyl methacrylate-co-divinyl benzene-co-acrylic acid) (P(MMA/DVB/AA)) HL particles with 5 wt% chitosan or 14 wt% PEI. The materials were used as formaldehyde adsorbent, where their adsorbent activity was examined by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The nucleophilic addition of amines to carbonyls generated a carbinolamine intermediate with a characteristic band at 1,020 cm(-1) and Schiff base product at 1650 cm(-1), whose intensity increased with prolonged formaldehyde exposure times. The major products observed in HL-chitosan were carbinolamine and Schiff base, whereas a small amount of Schiff base was obtained in HL-PEI particles, confirming a chemical bond formation without re-emission of formaldehyde. Compared to HL-PEI, HL-chitosan possesses higher formaldehyde adsorption efficiency. Besides providing opacity and whiteness, the multilayer HL-chitosan particles can effectively remove indoor air pollutants, i.e., formaldehyde gas, and, hence, would be useful in special coating applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro reaction of formaldehyde with fenfluramine: conversion to N-methyl fenfluramine. (United States)

    Gannett, P M; Hailu, S; Daft, J; James, D; Rybeck, B; Tracy, T S


    Embalming is common, and it can create problems for the forensic scientist if a drug has been the cause death and this drug is also reactive toward the embalming fluid. Previous studies have focused on the tricyclic amines nortriptyline and desipramine. In the presence of formaldehyde, a typical component of embalming fluid, either of these two compounds can be rapidly converted to their methylated derivatives amitriptyline and imipramine, respectively. We have begun a larger project designed to determine the reactivity and reactions of a wide range of drugs with formaldehyde. We report here our results from fenfluramine, which, like the tricyclic amines, is reactive towards formaldehyde and is converted into its N-methyl derivative. The rate of conversion is dependent upon pH and formaldehyde concentration. Up to 100% conversion in 24 h was observed. In addition, we have also devised a simplified procedure for monitoring this process that may be useful for others working in this area. Finally, we note that the reactions of fenfluramine studied here and of amines in general with formaldehyde need to be considered when performing postmortem/postembalming forensic analysis.

  18. Endogenous Formaldehyde Is a Hematopoietic Stem Cell Genotoxin and Metabolic Carcinogen. (United States)

    Pontel, Lucas B; Rosado, Ivan V; Burgos-Barragan, Guillermo; Garaycoechea, Juan I; Yu, Rui; Arends, Mark J; Chandrasekaran, Gayathri; Broecker, Verena; Wei, Wei; Liu, Limin; Swenberg, James A; Crossan, Gerry P; Patel, Ketan J


    Endogenous formaldehyde is produced by numerous biochemical pathways fundamental to life, and it can crosslink both DNA and proteins. However, the consequences of its accumulation are unclear. Here we show that endogenous formaldehyde is removed by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase 5 (ADH5/GSNOR), and Adh5(-/-) mice therefore accumulate formaldehyde adducts in DNA. The repair of this damage is mediated by FANCD2, a DNA crosslink repair protein. Adh5(-/-)Fancd2(-/-) mice reveal an essential requirement for these protection mechanisms in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), leading to their depletion and precipitating bone marrow failure. More widespread formaldehyde-induced DNA damage also causes karyomegaly and dysfunction of hepatocytes and nephrons. Bone marrow transplantation not only rescued hematopoiesis but, surprisingly, also preserved nephron function. Nevertheless, all of these animals eventually developed fatal malignancies. Formaldehyde is therefore an important source of endogenous DNA damage that is counteracted in mammals by a conserved protection mechanism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of an ozone-generating air-purifying device on reducing concentrations of formaldehyde in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esswein, E.J. [Univ. of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Boeniger, M.F. [National Institute for Occupational Safety, Cincinnati, OH (United States)


    Formaldehyde, an air contaminant found in many indoor air investigations, poses distinct occupational exposure hazards in certain job categories (e.g., mortuary science) but is also of concern when found or suspected in office buildings and homes. A variety of air-purifying devices (APDs) are currently available or marketed for application to reduce or remove concentrations of a variety of indoor air pollutants through the use of ozone as a chemical oxidant. An investigation was conducted to determine if concentrations of formaldehyde similar to those found in industrial hygiene evaluations of funeral homes could be reduced with the use of an ozone-generating APD. An ozone-generating APD was placed in an exposure chamber and formaldehyde-containing embalming solution was allowed to evaporate naturally, creating peak and mean chamber concentrations of 2.5 and 1.3 ppm, respectively. Continuous-reading instruments were used to sample for formaldehyde and ozone. Active sampling methods were also used to sample simultaneously for formaldehyde and a possible reactant product, formic acid. Triplicate measurements were made in each of three evaluations: formaldehyde alone, ozone alone, and formaldehyde and ozone combined. Concentrations of formaldehyde were virtually identical with and without 0.5 ppm ozone. No reduction in formaldehyde concentration was found during a 90-minute evaluation using ozone at this concentration with peak and average concentrations of approximately 2.5 and 1.3 ppm formaldehyde, respectively. The results of this investigation suggest that the use of ozone is ineffective in reducing concentrations of formaldehyde. Because ozone has demonstrated health hazards, and is a regulated air contaminant in both the occupational and ambient environment, the use of ozone as an air purification agent in indoor air does not seem warranted. 25 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Formaldehyde Production From Isoprene Oxidation Across NOx Regimes (United States)

    Wolfe, G. M.; Kaiser, J.; Hanisco, T. F.; Keutsch, F. N.; de Gouw, J. A.; Gilman, J. B.; Graus, M.; Hatch, C. D.; Holloway, J.; Horowitz, L. W.; hide


    The chemical link between isoprene and formaldehyde (HCHO) is a strong, non-linear function of NOx (= NO + NO2). This relationship is a linchpin for top-down isoprene emission inventory verification from orbital HCHO column observations. It is also a benchmark for overall photochemical mechanism performance with regard to VOC oxidation. Using a comprehensive suite of airborne in situ observations over the southeast US, we quantify HCHO production across the urban-rural spectrum. Analysis of isoprene and its major first-generation oxidation products allows us to define both a prompt yield of HCHO (molecules of HCHO produced per molecule of freshly emitted isoprene) and the background HCHO mixing ratio (from oxidation of longer-lived hydrocarbons). Over the range of observed NOx values (roughly 0.1 - 2 ppbv), the prompt yield increases by a factor of 3 (from 0.3 to 0.9 ppbv ppbv(exp. -10), while background HCHO increases by a factor of 2 (from 1.6 to 3.3 ppbv). We apply the same method to evaluate the performance of both a global chemical transport model (AM3) and a measurement-constrained 0-D steady-state box model. Both models reproduce the NOx dependence of the prompt HCHO yield, illustrating that models with updated isoprene oxidation mechanisms can adequately capture the link between HCHO and recent isoprene emissions. On the other hand, both models underestimate background HCHO mixing ratios, suggesting missing HCHO precursors, inadequate representation of later-generation isoprene degradation and/or underestimated hydroxyl radical concentrations. Detailed process rates from the box model simulation demonstrate a 3-fold increase in HCHO production across the range of observed NOx values, driven by a 100% increase in OH and a 40% increase in branching of organic peroxy radical reactions to produce HCHO.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christine Weiser


      For the leaders assembled in the SchoolCIO working group, it seems the most successful implementations of social media use are found in those schools that recognize the importance of guiding students in their journey...

  2. From Augmentation Media to Meme Media. (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuzuru

    Computers as meta media are now evolving from augmentation media vehicles to meme media vehicles. While an augmentation media system provides a seamlessly integrated environment of various tools and documents, meme media system provides further functions to edit and distribute tools and documents. Documents and tools on meme media can easily…

  3. Community Media: Muting the Democratic Media Discourse?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpentier, N.; Lie, R.; Servaes, J.


    Focuses on the concept of community media. Components that construct the identity of community media; Multi-theoretical approaches for analysis of community media; Definition of community media based on the concept of alternative media; Link between community media and civil society; Problems faced

  4. Media Bias


    Sendhil Mullainathan; Andrei Shleifer


    There are two different types of media bias. One bias, which we refer to as ideology, reflects a news outlet's desire to affect reader opinions in a particular direction. The second bias, which we refer to as spin, reflects the outlet's attempt to simply create a memorable story. We examine competition among media outlets in the presence of these biases. Whereas competition can eliminate the effect of ideological bias, it actually exaggerates the incentive to spin stories.

  5. Monitoring the efficacy of steam and formaldehyde treatment of naturally Salmonella-infected layer houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Jørgensen, J.C.; Andersen, J.S.


    steam treated in a download period, aiming at greater than or equal to60degreesC and 100% relative humidity (RH) during a 24-h period, with or without the addition of 30 ppm formaldehyde. In addition, two control layer houses were disinfected chemically. Salmonella samples taken from predetermined sites...... (where the temperature was logged at 5-min intervals) and tested for surviving bacteria. Generally, the field test results confirmed the results of laboratory tests, especially when 30 ppm formaldehyde was added to the steam. In well-sealed houses, the recommended temperature-humidity-time scheme...... was accomplished at a minimum of 10 cm above floor level within 1 h. Conclusions: A steam treatment of greater than or equal to60degreesC and 100% RH during a 24-h period with the addition of 30 ppm formaldehyde at the beginning of the process is recommended for eliminating Salmonella from naturally infected...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The aim of this paper has been to characterize the relation between the pyrolysis temperature of phenol-formaldehyde resin, the development of a porous structure, and the mechanical properties for the application of semipermeable membranes for gas separation. No previous study has dealt with this problem in its entirety. Phenol-formaldehyde resin showed an increasing trend toward micropore porosity in the temperature range from 500 till 1000°C, together with closure of mesopores and macropores. Samples cured and pyrolyzed at 1000°C pronounced hysteresis of desorption branch. The ultimate bending strength was measured using a four-point arrangement that is more suitable for measuring of brittle materials. The chevron notch technique was used for determination the fracture toughness. The results for mechanical properties indicated that phenol-formaldehyde resin pyrolyzates behaved similarly to ceramic materials. The data obtained for the material can be used for calculating the technical design of gas separation membranes.

  7. Immunopathogenesis associated with formaldehyde-inactivated RSV vaccine in preclinical and clinical studies. (United States)

    Muralidharan, Abenaya; Li, Changgui; Wang, Lisheng; Li, Xuguang


    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is responsible for one-third of deaths of acute lower respiratory infection in children less than one-year-old. The formaldehyde-inactivated RSV vaccine trial conducted in the 1960s predisposed the vaccinees to more serious RSV infection instead of protection. Better understanding of the underlying mechanism is of critical importance for better designing of safe and effective RSV vaccines. Areas covered: PubMed was searched to review immunopathology induced by RSV vaccines. We intend to dissect the differences in clinical and pathological manifestations of enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) in different animal models in comparison with humans. Formaldehyde-inactivated RSV vaccine causes ERD in both humans and animals, while RSV vaccine without formaldehyde treatment could also induce similar disease in animals, suggesting multiple pathways may be involved. Expert commentary: Identification of biomarkers pertinent to clinical evaluation should be further explored for safety assessment of RSV vaccines in human trials.

  8. Genetic engineering of baker's and wine yeasts using formaldehyde hyperresistance-mediating plasmids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt M.


    Full Text Available Yeast multi-copy vectors carrying the formaldehyde-resistance marker gene SFA have proved to be a valuable tool for research on industrially used strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The genetics of these strains is often poorly understood, and for various reasons it is not possible to simply subject these strains to protocols of genetic engineering that have been established for laboratory strains of S. cerevisiae. We tested our vectors and protocols using 10 randomly picked baker's and wine yeasts all of which could be transformed by a simple protocol with vectors conferring hyperresistance to formaldehyde. The application of formaldehyde as a selecting agent also offers the advantage of its biodegradation to CO2 during fermentation, i.e., the selecting agent will be consumed and therefore its removal during down-stream processing is not necessary. Thus, this vector provides an expression system which is simple to apply and inexpensive to use

  9. Formaldehyde and methylene glycol equivalence: critical assessment of chemical and toxicological aspects. (United States)

    Golden, R; Valentini, M


    Due largely to the controversy concerning the potential human health effects from exposure to formaldehyde gas in conjunction with the misunderstanding of the well-established equilibrium relationship with its hydrated reaction product, methylene glycol, the concept of chemical equivalence between these two distinctly different chemicals has been adopted by regulatory authorities. Chemical equivalence implies not only that any concentration of methylene glycol under some condition of use would be nearly or completely converted into formaldehyde gas, but also that these two substances would be toxicologically equivalent as well. A relatively simple worst case experiment using 37% formalin (i.e., concentrated methylene glycol) dispels the concept of chemical equivalence and a review of relevant literature demonstrates that methylene glycol has no inherent toxicity apart from whatever concentration of formaldehyde that might be present in equilibrium with such solutions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Formaldehyde migration in aqueous extracts from paper and cardboard food packaging materials in Turkey. (United States)

    Dogan, Canan Ekinci; Sancı, Rukiye


    Migration of formaldehyde to aqueous extracts from paper and cardboard food packaging materials was determined by an ultraviolet visible-spectrophotometric method at 410 nm. Intraday and interday precision of the method, expressed as coefficient of variation, varied between 1.5 to 4.4% and 7 to 8.8%, respectively. The limit of quantification was 0.28 mg kg(-1) for formaldehyde in aqueous extracts. The recovery of the method was over 90% for two different concentration levels in aqueous extracts. The method was applied to the migration of formaldehyde to aqueous extracts from 31 different paper and cardboard materials collected from the packaging sector, intended for food contact, such as tea filters, hot water filters, paper pouches and folding boxes. The results were between limit of detection 0.23 mg/kg and 40 mg kg(-1) and were evaluated according to the relevant directives.

  11. Changes in formaldehyde contents of germinating acorns of Quercus cerris L. under low temperature stress conditions. (United States)

    Németh, Z I; Albert, L; Varga, S


    Acorns of Quercus cerris L., after saturation with water and storage at -20 degrees C, were studied for changes in their contents of endogenous formaldehyde and its potential precursor and generator compounds. For the measurement of formaldehyde, after conversion to formaldemethone and some methyl acceptor and donor substances, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used. First, the amount of formaldehyde was drastically decreased. Having reached a minimum value within three to five days of the beginning of low temperature storage, a higher steady-state than the control acorns was recorded. Trigonelline and gamma-amino-butyric acid in seedleaf extracts were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS).



    Cenk Demirkır; Gürsel Çolakoğlu; İsmail Aydın; Semra Çolak


    In this study; changes in some properties of the okume plywood panels when used alder and beech veneers in their core layers were investigated. Two types of melamine-urea formaldehyde (MUF) resins having different free formaldehyde contents were used for bonding plywood panels manufactured from 2 mm thick veneers at industrial conditions. The formaldehyde emission values of plywood panels bonded with MÜF having higher free formaldehyde content were found to be higher than those of the panels ...

  13. Impact of endophytic colonization patterns on Zamioculcas zamiifolia stress response and in regulating ROS, tryptophan and IAA levels under airborne formaldehyde and formaldehyde-contaminated soil conditions. (United States)

    Khaksar, Gholamreza; Treesubsuntorn, Chairat; Thiravetyan, Paitip


    Deeper understanding of plant-endophyte interactions under abiotic stress would provide new insights into phytoprotection and phytoremediation enhancement. Many studies have investigated the positive role of plant-endophyte interactions in providing protection to the plant against pollutant stress through auxin (indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)) production. However, little is known about the impact of endophytic colonization patterns on plant stress response in relation to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and IAA levels. Moreover, the possible effect of pollutant phase on plant stress response is poorly understood. Here, we elucidated the impact of endophytic colonization patterns on plant stress response under airborne formaldehyde compared to formaldehyde-contaminated soil. ROS, tryptophan and IAA levels in the roots and shoots of endophyte-inoculated and non-inoculated plants in the presence and absence of formaldehyde were measured. Strain-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to investigate dynamics of endophyte colonization. Under the initial exposure to airborne formaldehyde, non-inoculated plants accumulated more tryptophan in the shoots (compared to the roots) to synthesize IAA. However, endophyte-inoculated plants behaved differently as they synthesized and accumulated more tryptophan in the roots and, hence, higher levels of IAA accumulation and exudation within roots which might act as a signaling molecule to selectively recruit B. cereus ERBP. Under continuous airborne formaldehyde stress, higher levels of ROS accumulation in the shoots pushed the plant to synthesize more tryptophan and IAA in the shoots (compared to the roots). Higher levels of IAA in the shoots might act as the potent driving force to relocalize B. cereus ERBP from roots to the shoots. In contrast, under formaldehyde-contaminated soil, B. cereus ERBP colonized root tissues without moving to the shoots since there was a sharp increase in ROS, tryptophan and IAA

  14. Synthetic conditions and chemical structures of urea-formaldehyde resins. I. Properties of the resins synthesized by three different procedures (United States)

    Gu Ji-you; Mitsuo Higuchi; Mitsuhiro Morita; Chung-Yun Hse


    The properties and chemical structures of urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins synthesized by three different procedures were investigated. The procedures employed were: 1) methylolation under the conditions of pH 8 and a formaldehyde/urea (F/U) molar ratio of 2, followed by condensation at pH 5 and by additional incorporation of urea, 2) condensation under the conditions of...

  15. Effects of Endogenous Formaldehyde in Nasal Tissues on Inhaled Formmaldehyde Dosimetry Predictions in the Rat, Monkey, and Human Nasal Passages (United States)

    ABSTRACT Formaldehyde, a nasal carcinogen, is also an endogenous compound that is present in all living cells. Due to its high solubility and reactivity, quantitative risk estimates for inhaled formaldehyde rely on internal dose calculations in the upper respiratory tract which ...

  16. Use of LC-MS/MS and Stable Isotopes to Differentiate Hydroxymethyl and Methyl DNA Adducts from Formaldehyde and Nitrosodimethylamine (United States)

    Lu, Kun; Craft, Sessaly; Nakamura, Jun; Moeller, Benjamin C.; Swenberg, James A.


    Formaldehyde is a known human and animal carcinogen that forms DNA adducts, and causes mutations. While there is widespread exposure to formaldehyde in the environment, formaldehyde is also an essential biochemical in all living cells. The presence of both endogenous and exogenous sources of formaldehyde makes it difficult to develop exposure-specific DNA biomarkers. Furthermore, chemicals such as nitrosodimethylamine form one mole of formaldehyde for every mole of methylating agent, raising questions about potential co-carcinogenesis. Formaldehyde-induced hydroxymethyl DNA adducts are not stable and need to be reduced to stable methyl adducts for detection, which adds another layer of complexity to identifying the origins of these adducts. In this study, highly sensitive mass spectrometry methods and isotope labeled compounds were used to differentiate between endogenous and exogenous hydroxymethyl and methyl DNA adducts. We demonstrate that N2-hydroxymethyl-dG is the primary DNA adduct formed in cells following formaldehyde exposure. In addition, we show that alkylating agents induce methyl adducts at N2-dG and N6-dA positions, which are identical to the reduced forms of hydroxymethyl adducts arising from formaldehyde. The use of highly sensitive LC-MS/MS and isotope labeled compounds for exposure solves these challenges and provides mechanistic insights on the formation and role of these DNA adducts. PMID:22148432

  17. Limitation of the AccuProbe Coccidioides immitis Culture Identification Test: False-Negative Results with Formaldehyde-Killed Cultures (United States)

    Gromadzki, Sally G.; Chaturvedi, Vishnu


    The AccuProbe Coccidioides immitis culture identification test (CI test) yielded false-negative results with formaldehyde-killed C. immitis submitted to a reference laboratory. Further evaluation with pure or mixed cultures or stored, heat-killed cultures revealed the CI test to be highly sensitive and specific for C. immitis except when the cultures were pretreated with formaldehyde. PMID:10835023

  18. Does allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde in clothes treated with durable-press chemical finishes exist in the USA? (United States)

    de Groot, Anton C; Maibach, Howard I


    Recent US studies have presented case series of patient with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) allegedly caused by formaldehyde in clothes treated with durable-press chemical finishes (DPCF), which are known formaldehyde releasers. However, the amounts of formaldehyde released by modern DPCF are thought to be well below the levels previously estimated to be able to elicit ACD. The objectives of this review are (i) to investigate whether clothes sold in the USA may contain enough free formaldehyde to elicit ACD in previously sensitized individuals and (ii) to assess the validity of US reports on ACD from formaldehyde in DPCF treated clothes. Literature was examined using various resources. The threshold level for formaldehyde in clothes that may cause ACD in sensitized individuals is unknown; we present data suggesting that levels clothes had some weaknesses and in no report was the diagnosis proven beyond doubt. Currently, there is no definite proof that textile ACD from formaldehyde in DPCF in the USA exists. Future research should be directed at establishing the elicitation threshold and the amounts of formaldehyde present in textiles.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanif Mahdi


    Full Text Available Formaldehyde is a simplest organic compound of aldehyde or alkanal group. Formaldehyde is a toxic and carcinogenic substance. Formaldehyde contamination through food or feeding diet continuously is very dangerous for the body, especially for bodies organ for instances likes hepar and kidney. Because formaldehyde is sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS and free radicals substances for the body. This purpose of the study is to know the effect of formaldehyde exposure and yogurt supplementation on profile and characters of rats (Rattus norvegicus protein hepar tissues. The research methods is laboratory methods. The protein profiles determined by electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE methods. The character of hepar protein tissue determined by ELISA, Dot Blot and Western Blot methods. The result showed that formaldehyde exposure through the feeding diet of rats affect on profile of hepar protein tissue, that characterized by appear of new band of specific protein with molecule weigh is 29.6 kDa (PSForm 29.6. Yogurt supplementation on rat that exposure by formaldehyde through the feeding diet of rat, that characterized by expressing of new band of specific protein with relative molecule weight 24.8 kDa (PSYogh 24.8 kDa, and followed by depressed or dispear of protein specific band of 29.6 kDa(PSForm 29.6 kDa. The result showed that isolated protein PSForm 29.6 kDa have a antigenecity character.   Keywords: Formaldehyde exposure, yogurt, ROS, profile and protein character

  20. Ion Exchange Study of Some New Copolymer Resins Derived from 8-Hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic Acid, Biuret and Formaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Dhakite


    Full Text Available Copolymer resins (8-HQSABF were synthesized by the condensation of 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid and biuret with formaldehyde in the presence of hydrochloric acid as catalyst, proved to be selective chelation ion exchange copolymer resins for certain metals. Chelation ion exchange properties to these polymers were studied for Cu2+, Cd2+, Co2+ and Zn2+ ions. A batch equilibrium method was employed in the study of the selectivity of the distribution of a given metal ions between the polymer sample and a solution containing the metal ion. The study was carried out over a wide pH range and in a media of various ions strengths. The polymer showed a higher selectivity for Cu2+ ions than for Cd2+, Co2+ and Zn2+ ions. Hence on the basis of above studies these copolymer may be used as semiconductors, surface coating, ion-exchangers, materials for rechargeable battery cell in various electronic industries, plastic materials, elastomers and in boiler plants

  1. Second-generation method for analysis of chromatin binding with formaldehyde-cross-linking kinetics. (United States)

    Zaidi, Hussain; Hoffman, Elizabeth A; Shetty, Savera J; Bekiranov, Stefan; Auble, David T


    Formaldehyde-cross-linking underpins many of the most commonly used experimental approaches in the chromatin field, especially in capturing site-specific protein-DNA interactions. Extending such assays to assess the stability and binding kinetics of protein-DNA interactions is more challenging, requiring absolute measurements with a relatively high degree of physical precision. We previously described an experimental framework called the cross-linking kinetics (CLK) assay, which uses time-dependent formaldehyde-cross-linking data to extract kinetic parameters of chromatin binding. Many aspects of formaldehyde behavior in cells are unknown or undocumented, however, and could potentially affect CLK data analyses. Here, we report biochemical results that better define the properties of formaldehyde-cross-linking in budding yeast cells. These results have the potential to inform interpretations of "standard" chromatin assays, including chromatin immunoprecipitation. Moreover, the chemical complexity we uncovered resulted in the development of an improved method for measuring binding kinetics with the CLK approach. Optimum conditions included an increased formaldehyde concentration and more robust glycine-quench conditions. Notably, we observed that formaldehyde-cross-linking rates can vary dramatically for different protein-DNA interactions in vivo Some interactions were cross-linked much faster than the in vivo macromolecular interactions, making them suitable for kinetic analysis. For other interactions, we found the cross-linking reaction occurred on the same time scale or slower than binding dynamics; for these interactions, it was sometimes possible to compute the in vivo equilibrium-binding constant but not binding on- and off-rates. This improved method yields more accurate in vivo binding kinetics estimates on the minute time scale. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Indoor formaldehyde concentrations in urban China: Preliminary study of some important influencing factors. (United States)

    Huang, Shaodan; Wei, Wenjuan; Weschler, Louise B; Salthammer, Tunga; Kan, Haidong; Bu, Zhongming; Zhang, Yinping


    The Huai River and Qingling Mountain divide (H-Q) divide China into north and south with respect to public policies for building construction and operation practises. China's building energy efficiency standard mandates that air exchange rates be 0.5h -1 north of the H-Q divide and 1h -1 south of the divide. China's heating policy allows space heating systems only north of the H-Q divide. Consequently, indoor temperature and humidity differ considerably between north and south. A theoretical model using indoor temperature, humidity, and air change rate was developed to predict indoor formaldehyde concentrations. Data for 39 cities were obtained from 42 studies. There was good agreement between the literature and modelling in a theoretical reference room. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA) model was applied to estimate cancer risk from formaldehyde exposure indoors. The median indoor formaldehyde concentration for renovation ever from 2002 to 2015 in Chinese cities was 125μg/m 3 , which is higher than the WHO threshold, 100μg/m 3 . The median indoor formaldehyde concentrations in the north were higher than in the south (0.5 times higher for dwellings renovated within the past year and 0.2 times higher for renovation ever), driven by the much higher northern winter concentrations (40-1320%). The U.S.EPA model predicts that the lifetime formaldehyde related cancer risk for people living north of the H-Q divide is 1.2 times greater than for people living south. This can be partly explained by greater indoor exposure to formaldehyde for Chinese living north of the H-Q divide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Formaldehyde-related clinical symptoms reported by medical students during gross anatomy cadaver dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Pietrzyk


    Full Text Available Introduction . Formaldehyde is a noxious gas used as a tissue preservative of cadavers in autopsy rooms. Therefore, exposure to higher concentrations applies particularly to laboratory staff, anatomists and medical students. Prolonged exposure to formaldehyde is associated with clinical complications. Objective. To assess whether exposure to repeated inhalation of low concentrations of formaldehyde (FA experienced during a gross anatomy course triggers subjective clinical symptoms in medical students. Material and methods . All 198 first-year medical students of the Medical University of Lublin, Poland (28% with allergy history and 72% without allergy history; 69% male and 31% female responded to a questionnaire concerning their subjective FA-related clinical symptoms. Differences in proportions of experienced symptoms between allergic vs. nonallergic, and female vs. males were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test. Results . Even though formaldehyde concentrations in the gross anatomy laboratory were relatively low (0.47–0.57 mg/m3, medical students experienced various reactions (lacrimation in 85.9%, red eyes, dry and itchy eyes, runny nose, sneezing, and headache in > 50% of students, cough in 44%, and dry throat or throat irritation in 42% of students. Among students with a history of allergy, eye, nose, skin and respiratory system symptoms occurred more frequently in comparison to nonallergic students. Female individuals demonstrated higher sensitivity to FA exposure. Conclusions . Exposure to formaldehyde may result in development of clinical symptoms in medical students. Particularly unpleasant symptoms may be experienced by individuals with allergy history. It is necessary to decrease formaldehyde concentrations in the anatomy dissection laboratory.

  4. Susceptibility of Mycobacterium immunogenum and Pseudomonas fluorescens to formaldehyde and non-formaldehyde biocides in semi-synthetic metalworking fluids. (United States)

    Selvaraju, Suresh B; Khan, Izhar U H; Yadav, Jagjit S


    Mycobacterium immunogenum, a newly identified member of the Mycobacterium chelonae_M. abscessus complex is considered a potential etiological agent for hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in machine workers exposed to contaminated metalworking fluid (MWF). This study investigated the biocidal efficacy of the frequently applied commercial formaldehyde-releasing (HCHO) biocides Grotan and Bioban CS 1135 and non-HCHO type biocides Kathon 886 MW (isothiazolone) and Preventol CMK 40 (phenolic) toward this emerging mycobacterial species (M. immunogenum) in HP-linked MWFs, alone and in presence of a representative of the Gram-negative bacterial contaminants, Pseudomonas fluorescens, using two semi-synthetic MWF matrices (designated Fluid A and Fluid B). Relative biocide susceptibility analysis indicated M immunogenum to be comparatively more resistant (2-1600 fold) than P. fluorescens to the tested biocides under the varied test conditions. In terms of minimum inhibitory concentration, Kathon was the most effective biocide against M. immunogenum. Fluid factors had a major effect on the biocide susceptibility. Fluid A formulation provided greater protective advantage to the test organisms than Fluid B. Fluid dialysis (Fluid A) led to an increased biocidal efficacy of Grotan, Kathon and Preventol against M. immunogenum further implying the role of native fluid components. Used fluid matrix, in general, increased the resistance of the two test organisms against the biocides, with certain exceptions. M. immunogenum resistance increased in presence of the co-contaminant P. fluorescens. Collectively, the results show a multifactorial nature of the biocide susceptibility of MWF-colonizing mycobacteria and highlight the importance of more rigorous efficacy testing and validation of biocides prior to and during their application in metalworking fluid operations.

  5. Susceptibility of Mycobacterium immunogenum and Pseudomonas fluorescens to Formaldehyde and Non-Formaldehyde Biocides in Semi-Synthetic Metalworking Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh B. Selvaraju


    Full Text Available Mycobacterium immunogenum, a newly identified member of the Mycobacterium chelonae_M. abscessus complex is considered a potential etiological agent for hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP in machine workers exposed to contaminated metalworking fluid (MWF. This study investigated the biocidal efficacy of the frequently applied commercial formaldehyde-releasing (HCHO biocides Grotan and Bioban CS 1135 and non-HCHO type biocides Kathon 886 MW (isothiazolone and Preventol CMK 40 (phenolic toward this emerging mycobacterial species (M. immunogenum in HP-linked MWFs, alone and in presence of a representative of the Gram-negative bacterial contaminants, Pseudomonas fluorescens, using two semi-synthetic MWF matrices (designated Fluid A and Fluid B. Relative biocide susceptibility analysis indicated M immunogenum to be comparatively more resistant (2–1600 fold than P. fluorescens to the tested biocides under the varied test conditions. In terms of minimum inhibitory concentration, Kathon was the most effective biocide against M. immunogenum. Fluid factors had a major effect on the biocide susceptibility. Fluid A formulation provided greater protective advantage to the test organisms than Fluid B. Fluid dialysis (Fluid A led to an increased biocidal efficacy of Grotan, Kathon and Preventol against M. immunogenum further implying the role of native fluid components. Used fluid matrix, in general, increased the resistance of the two test organisms against the biocides, with certain exceptions. M. immunogenum resistance increased in presence of the co-contaminant P. fluorescens. Collectively, the results show a multifactorial nature of the biocide susceptibility of MWF-colonizing mycobacteria and highlight the importance of more rigorous efficacy testing and validation of biocides prior to and during their application in metalworking fluid operations.

  6. Regulation of methylamine and formaldehyde metabolism in Arthrobacter P1. Effect of pulse-wise addition of "heterotrophic" substrates to C1 substrate-limited continuous cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, L.M.; Tiesma, L.; Dijkhuizen, L.


    The regulation of methylamine and formaldehyde metabolism in Arthrobacter P1 was investigated in carbon-limited continuous cultures. To avoid toxic effects of higher formaldehyde concentrations, formaldehyde-limited cultures were established in smooth substrate transitions from choline-limitation.

  7. Catalytic Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Formaldehyde Based on its Catalytic Effect on the ReactionBetween Bromate and Safranin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Keyvanfard


    Full Text Available The reaction monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in absorbance of the reaction mixture at 533 nm. The fixed-time method was used for the first 60s. For initiation of the reaction, under the optimum conditions, in the concentration range of 0.02-1.5 μg mL–1 formaldehyde can be determined with a limit of detection 9.5 ng mL–1. The relative standard deviation of five replicate measurements is 2.3% for 0.5 μg mL–1 of formaldehyde. The method was used for the determination of formaldehyde in water samples with satisfactory results. A new simple and fast catalytic kinetic method for the determination of trace amount of formaldehyde is described. The method is based on the catalytic effect of formaldehyde on the oxidation of safranin by bromate in the present of sulfuric acid.

  8. Adhesion characteristics of phenol formaldehyde pre-preg oil palm stem veneers


    Nor Hafizah Ab. Wahab; Paridah Md. Tahir; Yeoh Beng Hoong; Zaidon Ashaari; Nor Yuziah Mohd Yunus; Mohd Khairun Anwar Uyup; Mohd Hamami Shahri


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adhesion properties of phenol formaldehyde-prepreg oil palm veneers that have potential for plywood manufacture. Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin of three different molecular weights (i.e. 600 (low), 2,000 (medium), and 5,000 (commercial)) were used to pre-treat the veneers. The veneers were soaked in each type of PF resin for 20 seconds, pressed between two rollers, and pre-cured in an oven maintained at 103 ± 2 °C for 24 hours. The volume percent ...

  9. Impact of high and zero formaldehyde crosslinkers on the performance of the dyed cotton fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Muhammad


    Full Text Available Performance of the colored cotton fabrics dyed with sulphur, vat, direct and reactive dyes was investigated by using two crosslinkers. DMDHEU was used as formaldehyde based crosslinker and BTCA was assessed as a zero formaldehyde alternative. Shade change of the fabrics treated with both crosslinkers was comparable and in acceptable range apart from all sulphur dyes and two reactive dyes. However, shade change of the sulphur dyed fabrics was significantly improved when typical sodium hypophosphite based catalyst for BTCA was replaced with sodium phosphate. In addition, tensile strength and easy care performance of the crosslinker treated dyed fabric was also assessed.

  10. The Formation of Formaldehyde on Interstellar Carbonaceous Grain Analogs by O/H Atom Addition (United States)

    Potapov, Alexey; Jäger, Cornelia; Henning, Thomas; Jonusas, Mindaugas; Krim, Lahouari


    An understanding of possible scenarios for the formation of astrophysically relevant molecules, particularly complex organic molecules, will bring us one step closer to the understanding of our astrochemical heritage. In this context, formaldehyde is an important molecule as a precursor of methanol, which in turn is a starting point for the formation of more complex organic species. In the present experiments, for the first time, following the synthesis of CO, formaldehyde has been produced on the surface of interstellar grain analogs, hydrogenated fullerene-like carbon grains, by O and H atom bombardment. The formation of H2CO is an indication for a possible methanol formation route in such systems.

  11. Formaldehyde removal from wastewater and air by using UV, ferrate(VI) and UV/ferrate(VI). (United States)

    Talaiekhozani, Amirreza; Salari, Malihe; Talaei, Mohammad Reza; Bagheri, Marzieh; Eskandari, Zeynab


    Formaldehyde removal from an air stream absorbed into a water stream in a packed bed continuously and then removed by employing a combination of UV and ferrate(VI) as a highly-powerful oxidant in a continuous stirred tank. In addition, the removal of formaldehyde from water was investigated in both batch and continuous modes. The results of the study performed on formaldehyde-contaminated water treatment can be used for both air and water treatment process design. The primary objective of this study is to compare the performance of using UV and ferrate(VI) individually with that of using UV/ferrate(VI) simultaneously to remove formaldehyde from both air and water. Moreover, the effects of several factors such as pH, ferrate(VI) concentration and temperature on formaldehyde removal from water using ferrate(VI) method were evaluated. The results of the current study in batch condition showed that the best initial pH and ferrate(VI) concentration to obtain the highest formaldehyde removal are 2 and 1 mg/l, respectively. The results of this part of research also reveal that temperatures rise from 25 °C to 50 °C increases formaldehyde removal from 69% to 97%; however, further increase in temperature has an adverse effect on removal efficiency. The combination of UV and ferrate(VI) enhances formaldehyde removal efficiency to very close to 100% within 35 min. In continuous air stream treatment, maximum formaldehyde removal of 94% was obtained by using a packed bed scrubber with gas over liquid flow rates ratio of 1.28 m(3)/m(3). Although the results of this study shows that ferrate(VI) method for removal of formaldehyde can be considered as a promising alternative for both water and air treatment, further economic studies are required for this process to be commercialized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Satellite measurements of formaldehyde linked to shipping emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wagner


    Full Text Available International shipping is recognized as a pollution source of growing importance, in particular in the remote marine boundary layer. Nitrogen dioxide originating from ship emissions has previously been detected in satellite measurements. This study presents the first satellite measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO linked to shipping emissions as derived from observations made by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME instrument.

    We analyzed enhanced HCHO tropospheric columns from shipping emissions over the Indian Ocean between Sri Lanka and Sumatra. This region offers good conditions in term of plume detection with the GOME instrument as all ship tracks follow a single narrow track in the same east-west direction as used for the GOME pixel scanning. The HCHO signal alone is weak but could be clearly seen in the high-pass filtered data. The line of enhanced HCHO in the Indian Ocean as seen in the 7-year composite of cloud free GOME observations clearly coincides with the distinct ship track corridor from Sri Lanka to Indonesia. The observed mean HCHO column enhancement over this shipping route is about 2.0×1015 molec/cm2.

    Compared to the simultaneously observed NO2 values over the shipping route, those of HCHO are substantially higher; also the HCHO peaks are found at larger distance from the ship routes. These findings indicate that direct emissions of HCHO or degradation of emitted NMHC cannot explain the observed enhanced HCHO values. One possible reason might be increased CH4 degradation due to enhanced OH concentrations related to the ship emissions, but this source is probably too weak to fully explain the observed values.

    The observed HCHO pattern also agrees qualitatively well with results from the coupled earth system model ECHAM5/MESSy applied to atmospheric chemistry (EMAC. However, the modelled HCHO values over the ship corridor are two times lower than in the


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araya, E. D.; Brown, J. E. [Western Illinois University, Physics Department, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States); Olmi, L. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Ortiz, J. Morales [University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus, Physical Sciences Department, P.O. Box 23323, San Juan, PR 00931 (United States); Hofner, P.; Creech-Eakman, M. J. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Physics Department, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kurtz, S. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 3-72, 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Linz, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)


    The detection of four formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO) maser regions toward young high-mass stellar objects in the last decade, in addition to the three previously known regions, calls for an investigation of whether H{sub 2}CO masers are an exclusive tracer of young high-mass stellar objects. We report the first survey specifically focused on the search for 6 cm H{sub 2}CO masers toward non high-mass star-forming regions (non HMSFRs). The observations were conducted with the 305 m Arecibo Telescope toward 25 low-mass star-forming regions, 15 planetary nebulae and post-AGB stars, and 31 late-type stars. We detected no H{sub 2}CO emission in our sample of non HMSFRs. To check for the association between high-mass star formation and H{sub 2}CO masers, we also conducted a survey toward 22 high-mass star-forming regions from a Hi-GAL (Herschel infrared Galactic Plane Survey) sample known to harbor 6.7 GHz CH{sub 3}OH masers. We detected a new 6 cm H{sub 2}CO emission line in G32.74−0.07. This work provides further evidence that supports an exclusive association between H{sub 2}CO masers and young regions of high-mass star formation. Furthermore, we detected H{sub 2}CO absorption toward all Hi-GAL sources, and toward 24 low-mass star-forming regions. We also conducted a simultaneous survey for OH (4660, 4750, 4765 MHz), H110α (4874 MHz), HCOOH (4916 MHz), CH{sub 3}OH (5005 MHz), and CH{sub 2}NH (5289 MHz) toward 68 of the sources in our sample of non HMSFRs. With the exception of the detection of a 4765 MHz OH line toward a pre-planetary nebula (IRAS 04395+3601), we detected no other spectral line to an upper limit of 15 mJy for most sources.

  14. Social media management and media environment


    Šiđanin Iva


    The paper deals with the system of services that social media management can offer to a variety of users. As social media systems are emerging, social media management can strengthen teams in social media and help to manage numerous social channels and distribution of social information from one place. Social media management is a system of procedures that are used to manage the flow of information in the environment of social media. This involves connecting with social media like Facebook, T...

  15. Media Training

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    With the LHC starting up soon, the world's media are again turning their attention to CERN. We're all likely to be called upon to explain what is happening at CERN to media, friends and neighbours. The seminar will be given by BBC television news journalists Liz Pike and Nadia Marchant, and will deal with the kind of questions we're likely to be confronted with through the restart period. The training is open for everybody. Make sure you arrive early enough to get a seat - there are only 200 seats in the Globe. The session will also be webcast:

  16. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Annual report, September 25, 1994--September 24, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.


    The objectives of the research program are to (1) identify and develop polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) develop methods to predict their performance in field applications. The research focused on four types of gel systems -- KUSP1 systems which contain an aqueous polysaccharide designated KUSP1, phenolic-aldehyde systems composed of resorcinol and formaldehyde, colloidal-dispersion systems composed of polyacrylamide and aluminum citrate, and a chromium-based system where polyacrylamide is crosslinked by chromium(III). Gelation behavior of the resorcinol-formaldehyde systems and the KUSP1-borate system was examined. Size distributions of aggregates that form in the polyacrylamide-aluminum colloidal-dispersion gel system were determined. Permeabilities to brine of several rock materials were significantly reduced by gel treatments using the KUSP1 polymer-ester (monoethylphthalate) system, the KUSP1 polymer-boric acid system, and the sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde system. The KUSP1 polymer-ester system and the sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde system were also shown to significantly reduce the permeability to super-critical carbon dioxide. A mathematical model was developed to simulate the behavior of a chromium redox-polyacrylamide gel system that is injected through a wellbore into a multi-layer reservoir in which crossflow between layers is allowed. The model describes gelation kinetics and filtration of pre-gel aggregates in the reservoir. Studies using the model demonstrated the effect filtration of gel aggregates has on the placement of gel systems in layered reservoirs.

  17. Effects of dust, formaldehyde and delayed feeding on early postnatal development of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, de P.; Ven, van de L.J.F.; Lourens, A.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.


    We investigated effects of perinatal exposure to dust or formaldehyde and the moment of first feed intake after hatching on broiler chicken development during the first week of life. Four environmental treatments were used from 468 until 512 h of incubation: control (CONT), heat treated dust (HTD),

  18. Adsorption of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu and Hg ions on Formaldehyde and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: Adsorption of Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II) ions on formaldehyde and Pyridine modified bean husks ... for the metal ions were found to be less than unity which indicates that adsorption of metals on bean husks have increased as a ..... lead and cadmium ions from aqueous solution by Caladium bicolor.

  19. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart Nnn... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride (United States)


    ... Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride B Appendix B to Subpart NNN of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants for Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. NNN, App. B Appendix B to Subpart NNN of Part 63—Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride 1. Scope This method was...

  20. Synthesis and cure kinetics of liquefied wood/phenol/formaldehyde resins (United States)

    Hui Pan; Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse


    Wood liquefaction was conducted at a 2/1 phenol/wood ratio in two different reactors: (1) an atmospheric three-necked flask reactor and (2) a sealed Parr reactor. The liquefied wood mixture (liquefied wood, unreacted phenol, and wood residue) was further condensed with formaldehyde under acidic conditions to synthesize two novolac-type liquefied wood/phenol/...

  1. Novel high-activity catalysts for partial oxidation of methane to formaldehyde

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parmaliana, A


    Full Text Available Vanadium oxide-silica catalysts can effect the partial oxidation of methane to formaldehyde with extremely high activities and the space time yield (STY) can reach a value in excess of 800 g kg-1cat h-1; bare silica also shows appreciable STY value...

  2. Differential scanning calorimetry of the effects of temperature and humidity on phenol-formaldehyde resin cure (United States)

    X.-M. Wang; B. Riedl; A.W. Christiansen; R.L. Geimer


    Phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin is a widely used adhesive in the manufacture of wood composites. However, curing behaviour of the resin under various environmental conditions is not well known. A differential scanning calorimeter was employed to characterize the degree of resin cure in this study. Resin-impregnated glass cloth samples with varied moisture contents (0,31...

  3. [Features of dyslipidemia development and insulin resistance in female workers engaged in methanol and formaldehyde production]. (United States)

    Taranenko, L A


    The article covers data on analyzing occupational risk of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in female workers exosed to methanol and formaldehyde. Findings are that increased contents of the studied chemicals in the air of workplace cause more probable dyslipidemia, insuline resistence in peri-menopausal female workers, these disorders have reliable correlation with occupation.

  4. Quantitation of gene expression in formaldehyde-fixed and fluorescence-activated sorted cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia N Russell

    Full Text Available Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS is a sensitive and valuable technique to characterize cellular subpopulations and great advances have been made using this approach. Cells are often fixed with formaldehyde prior to the sorting process to preserve cell morphology and maintain the expression of surface molecules, as well as to ensure safety in the sorting of infected cells. It is widely recognized that formaldehyde fixation alters RNA and DNA structure and integrity, thus analyzing gene expression in these cells has been difficult. We therefore examined the effects of formaldehyde fixation on the stability and quantitation of nucleic acids in cell lines, primary leukocytes and also cells isolated from SIV-infected pigtailed macaques. We developed a method to extract RNA from fixed cells that yielded the same amount of RNA as our common method of RNA isolation from fresh cells. Quantitation of RNA by RT-qPCR in fixed cells was not always comparable with that in unfixed cells. In comparison, when RNA was measured by the probe-based NanoString system, there was no significant difference in RNA quantitation. In addition, we demonstrated that quantitation of proviral DNA in fixed cells by qPCR is comparable to that in unfixed cells when normalized by a single-copy cellular gene. These results provide a systematic procedure to quantitate gene expression in cells that have been fixed with formaldehyde and sorted by FACS.

  5. New curing system of urea-formaldehyde resind with polyhydrazides. I. Curing with dihydrazie compounds (United States)

    Bunichiro Tomita; Hideaki Osawa; Chung-Yun Hse; George E. Myers


    A nonconventional curing system was developed using a simple mixing of urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins with polyfunctional hydrazide compounds under neutral contition. Several kinds of low molecular-weight dihydrazide compounds were investigated as hardners of the UF resins. Results were as follows: 1) As the minimum gelation times were observed in the range of molar...

  6. Characteristics of urea-formaldehyde resins as related to glue bond quality of southern pine particleboard (United States)

    C. -Y. Hse


    Forty-five urea resins were formulated and replicated by factorial arrangement of three variables: molar ratio of formaldehyde to urea (1.5, 1.7, 1.9, 2.1, and 2.3), reactant concentration (35, 42.5, and 50%), and reaction temperature (75°, 85°, and 95°C).

  7. An outbreak of contact dermatitis from toluenesulfonamide formaldehyde resin in a nail hardener

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, F. S.; de Groot, A. C.; Weyland, J. W.; Bos, J. D.


    8 cases of contact dermatitis from toluenesulfonamide formaldehyde resin in a nail hardener are presented. Most patients had used nail lacquers containing this resin for many years without trouble, but became sensitized to the resin shortly after the introduction of this particular nail hardener. A

  8. 75 FR 30825 - Draft Toxicological Review of Formaldehyde in Support of Summary Information on the Integrated... (United States)


    ... public listening session for the external review draft human health assessment titled, ``Toxicological... National Research Council, acting under the auspices of National Academy of Sciences (NAS), will conduct an independent scientific peer review of the EPA draft human health assessment of formaldehyde. The peer review...

  9. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of the reaction of water with formaldehyde in sulfuric acid solution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprik, M.; Meijer, E.M.


    Ab initio molecular dynamics methods have been used to study the reaction mechanism of acidcatalyzed addition of water to formaldehyde in a model system of an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid. Using the method of constraints we find that an H

  10. Regional Sources of Atmospheric Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde, and Implications for Atmospheric Modeling (United States)

    Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations over the Eastern half of the United States are simulated with a 3-D air quality model to identify the most important chemical precursors under January and July conditions. We find that both aldehydes primarily result from photochemical...

  11. Investigation of Exposure to Formaldehyde from Preserved Biological Specimens. Status Report. (United States)

    Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC.

    This investigation of formaldehyde exposure in school laboratories, where its principal source is from preserved biological specimens, was undertaken because of concern over exposure levels reported in the literature. Information was obtained in two ways. A limited survey of schools was conducted to determine extent of students' use of preserved…

  12. Pressure dependent deuterium fractionation in the formation of molecular hydrogen in formaldehyde photolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Elna Johanna Kristina; Andersen, Vibeke Friis; Skov, Henrik


    and 1030 mbar. The relative dissociation rate kHCHO/kHCDO was found to depend strongly on pressure, varying from 1.1±0.1 at 50 mbar to 1.75±0.10 at 1030 mbar. The products of formaldehyde photodissociation are either H2+CO (molecular channel) or HCO+H (radical channel). The partitioning between...

  13. Estimating the spread rate of urea formaldehyde adhesive on birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer using fluorescence (United States)

    Toni Antikainen; Anti Rohumaa; Christopher G. Hunt; Mari Levirinne; Mark Hughes


    In plywood production, human operators find it difficult to precisely monitor the spread rate of adhesive in real-time. In this study, macroscopic fluorescence was used to estimate spread rate (SR) of urea formaldehyde adhesive on birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer. This method could be an option when developing automated real-time SR measurement for...

  14. The effect of pheno-formaldehyde finishing on the properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the effect of catalyst concentration, curing time and temperature on a phenolformaldehyde finished direct dyed cotton. The grey cotton fabric was desized, scoured, bleached and dyed with chlorazol D, a direct dye. Sample of the dyed cotton were subjected to resin finishing using phenol: formaldehyde.

  15. Discovery of a cyclic 6 + 6 hexamer of d-biotin and formaldehyde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisbjerg, Micke; Jessen, Bo M.; Rasmussen, Brian


    The discovery of receptors using templated synthesis enables the selection of strong receptors from complex mixtures. In this contribution we describe a study of the condensation of d-biotin and formaldehyde in acidic water. We have discovered that halide anions template the formation of a single...

  16. Ethanol-Glycerin Fixation with Thymol Conservation: A Potential Alternative to Formaldehyde and Phenol Embalming (United States)

    Hammer, Niels; Loffler, Sabine; Feja, Christine; Sandrock, Mara; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Bechmann, Ingo; Steinke, Hanno


    Anatomical fixation and conservation are required to prevent specimens from undergoing autolysis and decomposition. While fixation is the primary arrest of the structures responsible for autolysis and decomposition, conservation preserves the state of fixation. Although commonly used, formaldehyde has been classified as carcinogenic to humans. For…

  17. ROAT: morphology of ROAT on arm, neck and face in formaldehyde and diazolidinyl urea sensitive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Claus; Hall, Barbara; Cupferman, Sylvie


    The morphology of early allergic contact dermatitis reactions was studied in formaldehyde allergic individuals exposed to a cream product preserved with 4 different concentrations of diazolidinyl urea. The study was made using a dose-escalating design in 3 different anatomical regions, the upper...

  18. Phenol-formaldehyde reactivity with lignin in the wood cell wall (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph


    Latewood from Pinus taeda was reacted with alkaline phenol–formaldehyde (PF) adhesive and characterised using two-dimensional 1H–13C solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy so that chemical modification of the wood cell wall polymers, after PF resol curing, could be elucidated. The...

  19. Nine years of global hydrocarbon emissions based on source inversion of OMI formaldehyde observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauwens, Maite; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Müller, Jean François; De Smedt, Isabelle; Van Roozendael, Michel; Van Der Werf, Guido R.; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Sindelarova, Katerina; Guenther, Alex


    As formaldehyde (HCHO) is a high-yield product in the oxidation of most volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by fires, vegetation, and anthropogenic activities, satellite observations of HCHO are well-suited to inform us on the spatial and temporal variability of the underlying VOC sources. The

  20. Preparation and characterization of poly (urea-formaldehyde) walled dicyclopentadiene microcapsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiong, W.; Zhu, G.; Tang, J.; Dong, B.; Han, N.; Xing, F.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.


    Poly (urea-formaldehyde) (PUF) shelled dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) microcapsules were prepared by in-situ polymerization technology for self-healing concrete applications. It’s found, during the process, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) behaves better in emulsification of DCPD than other

  1. Formation of hexamethylenetetramine by aqueous solutions of formaldehyde and ammonium sulfate (United States)

    Rodriguez, A. A.; De Haan, D. O.; Kua, J.


    Formaldehyde and ammonium sulfate are prominent compounds found in cloudwater. Electronic structure calculations and lab experiments were carried out to explore the oligomerization reactions between formaldehyde and ammonia. Density functional theory calculations along with solvation and thermodynamic corrections were performed to map the kinetic and thermodynamic landscape for the reactions leading to the formation of hexamethylenetetramine (hmta). Three general classes of reactions were considered: nucleophilic addition of amine to formaldehyde, nucleophilic addition of ammonia to imine intermediates ammonia, and dehydration of alkanolamines. The reaction was studied experimentally using bulk-phase aqueous solutions of formaldehyde, ammonium sulfate, and in some experiments, iron (III) sulfate (chosen because Fe3+ forms a brown complex with hmta). Aqueous standard solutions of the reaction product hmta were also made. Reaction mixtures were analyzed using NMR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and LCMS. Compound hmta was the main product observed by both NMR and LCMS. Using LCMS a large peak was observed within minutes of mixing the reactants. The absorbance of the reaction mixture increased strongly below 225 nm but little to no absorbance was observed in the visible spectrum.

  2. Law and features of TVOC and Formaldehyde pollution in urban indoor air (United States)

    Chi, Chenchen; Chen, Weidong; Guo, Min; Weng, Mili; Yan, Gang; Shen, Xueyou


    There are several categories of indoor air pollutants. Organic pollutants are the most common ones. This study chooses TVOC and Formaldehyde, two of the typical pollutants, as indicators of evaluating household indoor air pollution and improves the TVOC concentration prediction model through the samples of indoor air taken from 3122 households. This study also categorizes and explains the features of household indoor air pollution based on the TVOC and Formaldehyde models as well as a large amount of sample measurement. Moreover, this study combines the TVOC model with the Formaldehyde model to calculate and verify the critical values of each type of indoor air pollution. In this study, indoor air pollution is categorized into three types: decoration pollution, consumption pollution and transition pollution. During the first 12 months after decoration, decoration pollution is the primary pollution type, both TVOC and Formaldehyde are highly concentrated while sometimes seriously over the standard. Pollutants mainly come from volatile sources. After the first 12 month but before 24 months the indoor air pollution is transition pollution. Both decoration materials and human activates affect the indoor air quality. 24 months after decoration, it transits into consumption pollution. In this stage, the main pollutants come from combustion sources, and concentration of pollutants fluctuates with the appearance and disappearance of the sources.

  3. Accelerated cure of phenol-formaldehyde by the addition of cure accelerators : studies with model compounds (United States)

    Linda F. Lorenz; Anthony C. Conner


    Fast curing phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins could potentially allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures than those currently used commercially. Recent reports in the literature have shown that the addition of esters, lactones, or organic carbonates increased the curing rate of PF resins. Several mechanisms have been proposed to...

  4. Predicting the reactivity of phenolic compounds with formaldehyde. II, continuation of an ab initio study. (United States)

    Tohru Mitsunaga; Anthony H. Conner; Charles G. Jr. Hill


    Phenol–formaldehyde resins are important adhesives used by the forest products industry. The phenolic compounds in these resins are derived primarily from petrochemical sources. Alternate sources of phenolic compounds include tannins, lignins, biomass pyrolysis products, and coal gasification products. Because of variations in their chemical structures, the...

  5. Accelerated cure of phenol-formaldehyde resins : studies with model compounds (United States)

    Anthony H. Conner; Linda F. Lorenz; Kolby C. Hirth


    2-Hydroxymethylphenol (2-HMP) and 4-hydroxymethylphenol (4-HMP) were used as model compounds to study the reactions that occur during cure of phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin to which cure accelerators (ethyl formate, propylene carbonate, g-butyrolactone, and triacetin) have been added. The addition of cure accelerators significantly increased the rate of condensation...

  6. Ambient formaldehyde source attribution in Houston during TexAQS II and TRAMP (United States)

    Buzcu Guven, Birnur; Olaguer, Eduardo P.


    An online data repository known as the Air Research Information Infrastructure (ARII) was used to discriminate large industrial sources of formaldehyde (HCHO) from mobile and secondary formaldehyde sources in Houston. Analysis of continuous online measurements at one urban and two industrial sites obtained during the summer of 2006 enabled us to isolate and evaluate major source factors associated with formaldehyde. The contribution of industrial sources to total atmospheric formaldehyde at the urban Houston site is estimated to be 17%, compared to 23% for mobile sources, 36% secondary formation, and 24% biogenic sources. The potential industrial sources include flares from petrochemical plants and refineries in the Port of Houston. The relative contribution of industrial source factors to ambient HCHO at the urban site increased to about 66% on some mornings, coinciding with the HCHO peak concentration. Secondary formation of HCHO during the day and night resulted from reactions of industrial olefins and other VOCs with OH or ozone. Some peak HCHO concentrations can also be linked to emission events of other VOCs, while a significant portion remains unexplained by the reported events. It is likely, based on the results from the SHARP campaign and our analysis, that some episodic emission events releasing primary HCHO are unreported to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ).

  7. In situ ruminal degradation of phytic acid in formaldehyde treated rice bran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Tereso, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Laar, van H.; Burbara, C.; Pedrosa, M.; Mulder, K.; Hartog, den L.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.


    Rice bran has a very high content of phytic acid (IP6), which is a nutritional antagonist of Ca. Microbial phytase degrades IP6, but ruminal degradation of nutrients can be reduced by formaldehyde treatment. Milk fever in dairy cows can be prevented by reducing available dietary Ca to stimulate Ca

  8. Pd-Cu/poly(o-Anisidine) nanocomposite as an efficient catalyst for formaldehyde oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, Sayed Reza, E-mail: [Nanochemistry Research Laboratory, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, 47416-95447 Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raoof, Jahan-Bakhsh [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, 47416-95447 Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghasemi, Shahram; Gholami, Zahra [Nanochemistry Research Laboratory, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, 47416-95447 Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Highlights: • o-Anisidine monomer was electro-polymerized at the pCPE surface in acid medium. • Palladium/copper NPs were prepared by galvanic replacement method at the POA/pCPE. • Pd-Cu NPs showed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards formaldehyde oxidation. • The bimetallic Pd-Cu NPs/POA nanocomposite showed satisfactory long-term stability. - Abstract: In this work, for the first time, the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde in 0.5 M sulfuric acid solution at spherical bimetallic palladium-copper nanoparticles (Pd-Cu NPs) deposited on the poly (o-Anisidine) film modified electrochemically pretreated carbon paste electrode (POA/pCPE) has been investigated. Highly porous POA film prepared by electropolymerization onto the pCPE was used as a potent support for deposition of the Pd-Cu NPs. The Pd-Cu NPs were prepared through spontaneous and irreversible reaction via galvanic replacement between Pd{sup II} ions and the Cu{sup 0} particles. The prepared Pd-Cu NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and electrochemical methods. The obtained results showed that the utilization of Cu nanoparticles and pretreatment technique enhances the electrocatalytic activity of the modified electrode towards formaldehyde oxidation. The influence of several parameters on formaldehyde oxidation as well as stability of the Pd-Cu/POA/pCPE has been investigated.

  9. Toxicity of formaldehyde and acrolein mixtures : in vitro studies using nasal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassee, F.R.; Stenhuis, W.S.; Groten, J.P.; Feron, V.J.


    In vitro studies with human and rat nasal epithelial cells were carried out to investigate the combined toxicity of formaldehyde and acrolein and the role of aldehyde dehydrogenases in this process. These studies showed that the toxic effect of mixtures of aldehydes was additive. In addition,

  10. Mutagenic risks induced by homemade hair straightening creams with high formaldehyde content. (United States)

    Mazzei, José L; Figueiredo, Erika V; da Veiga, Lia J; Aiub, Claudia A F; Guimarães, Pedro I C; Felzenszwalb, Israel


    Regardless of official recommendations, the inappropriate use of homemade hair creams has became a popular practice in Brazil and high formaldehyde content in the 'progressive straightening' creams has been reported. In the present work, three of these creams were analyzed by spectrophotometric, chromatographic and genotoxic assays in order to evaluate mutagenic risks associated with the uncontrolled addition of formaldehyde at contents higher than those allowed by regulation. The ultraviolet and Fourier-transformed infrared absorption spectra showed characteristic signals that can be assigned to formaldehyde, although with different relative intensities, revealing distinct compositions. Using high-performance liquid chromatography 1.6-10.5% w/v formaldehyde was quantified. Antibacterial activity was detected in all creams. At 0.10 microg per plate, one of them showed positive mutagenicity induction (P cream, at dosages of 10-100 microg per assay, was positive (P creams or perhaps these unspecified components by themselves might have significant genotoxic potential. We call attention to the popular use of homemade formulations of cosmetics, such as hair straightening creams, because they can contain mutagens that could increase the incidence of neoplasia in those people who use them.

  11. Preliminary survey report: control technology for formaldehyde emissions at Jasper Laminates, Jasper, Indiana, October 19, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortimer, V.D.


    An onsite visit was made to Jasper Laminates, Jasper, Indiana to observe the processes used in veneering wood panels by a heater platen press method, and methods of controlling formaldehyde emissions. The facility produced panels for pianos, organs, office furniture and other wood products, using primarily the hot press process along with some radiofrequency (RF) pressing of curved panels and small parts. The glue most often used was a urea/formaldehyde resin adhesive. The hot presses were located under one large ventilated enclosure, measuring about 20 by 150 feet. There were also eight ventilation fans in the ceiling and auxiliary fans used to provide additional cooling air for workers and for the caul plates. Therefore, the primary methods of controlling formaldehyde exposure were dispersion, using auxiliary fans, and area ventilation. No partial-shift-time weighted-average formaldehyde concentrations were measured at over 1 part per million (ppm). For two workers unloading different hot presses, short-term breathing-zone concentrations occasionally reached 2 ppm. The author concludes that this facility offers the opportunity to study large-scale area ventilation with passive make-up air supply, and the appropriate use of auxiliary fans.

  12. Study of changes in bacterial and viral abundance in formaldehyde - Fixed water samples by epifluorescence microscopy

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvathi, A.; Radhakrishnan, S.; Sajila, M.P.; Jacob, B.

    of bacteria and viruses in water samples from Cochin Backwater was determined by SYBR Green I staining and epifluorescence microscopy. The counts were determined for 45 days in samples fixed with 1–6% formaldehyde. The results suggest rapid decline in counts...

  13. Otitis media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovers, MM; Schilder, AGM; Zielhuis, GA; Rosenfeld, RM


    Otitis media (OM) continues to be one of the most common childhood infections and is a major cause of morbidity in children. The pathogenesis of OM is multifactorial, involving the adaptive and native immune system, Eustachian-tube dysfunction, viral and bacterial load, and genetic and environmental

  14. Social Media (United States)


    Digital Marketing and Ecommerce Professionals. 29 January 2010. 20 May 2010. < media...Statistics Revisited.” Econsultancy | Community of Digital Marketing and Ecommerce Professionals. 29 Jan. 2010. 20 May 2010. <

  15. Streaming Media (United States)

    Pulley, John


    At a time when the evolutionary pace of new media resembles the real-time mutation of certain microorganisms, the age-old question of how best to connect with constituents can seem impossibly complex--even for an elite institution plugged into the motherboard of Silicon Valley. Identifying the most effective vehicle for reaching a particular…

  16. Initiation of sugars synthesis from formaldehyde in the aqueous solution with ultraviolet radiation (United States)

    Pestunova, O.; Simonov, A.; Stojanovskii, V.; Snytnikov, V.; Parmon, V.

    Many scientists consider autocatalytic sugars synthesis from formaldehyde in alkaline aqueous solutions via so-called formose reaction as a probable way of sugars formation at the prebiotic stage of the Earth evolution [1, 2]. However, the authors of paper [3] shown, that in the pure aqueous solution of formaldehyde, which does not contain even seeds of monosaccharides, the formose reaction of formaldehyde polymerisation does not occur. In this work we demonstrate that in the above mentioned solution the formose reaction can be initiated by ultraviolet radiation. A quartz cuvette (l = 10 mm) with an aqueous solution of formaldehyde (2 or 0.5 mol/l) and a magnetic stirrer was exposed to an ArF excimer laser radiation (wavelength 193 nm, 15 ns, 150 mJ, beam area 24 mm2). The location of the absorption maximum of carbonyl group of formaldehyde is 190 nm. In the course of the light-initiated reaction, in the UV spectra of solutions two absorption bands at 205 and 270 nm appear. Apparently, these bands are belonging to formic acid and glycolaldehyde, respectively. The increase of the optical density of the solution during such transformation decrease the transparency of the solution for the laser beam, this resulted in a gradual reducing of the reaction rate and the further stop of reaction. The conversion of formaldehyde at the photoreaction stopping was 7 % for the 2 mol/l solution and 16 % for the 0.5 mol/l one. The analysis of exposed solutions with a HPLC method has shown, that one of the products of the reaction is glycol aldehyde (C2O2H4), which formally is a primary C2-sugar. The yield of glycol aldehyde was 0.5 and 0.4 mol % respectively. It is well-known, that glycol aldehyde initiates the autocatalytic formose reaction, being a better initiator than other monosaccharides [4]. In our case, the addition of the UV-exposed solution to a formaldehyde and calcium hydroxide containing solution stimulated the formose reaction with a sharp reduction of the induction

  17. Does occupational exposure to formaldehyde cause hematotoxicity and leukemia-specific chromosome changes in cultured myeloid progenitor cells? (United States)

    Mundt, Kenneth A; Gallagher, Alexa E; Dell, Linda D; Natelson, Ethan A; Boffetta, Paolo; Gentry, P Robinan


    Several cross-sectional studies of a single population of workers exposed to formaldehyde at one of two factories using or producing formaldehyde-melamine resins in China have concluded that formaldehyde exposure induces damage to hematopoietic cells that originate in the bone marrow. Moreover, the investigators interpret observed differences between groups as evidence that formaldehyde induces myeloid leukemias, although the mechanisms for inducing these diseases are not obvious and recently published scientific findings do not support causation. Our objective was to evaluate hematological parameters and aneuploidy in relation to quantitative exposure measures of formaldehyde. We obtained the study data for the original study (Zhang et al. 2010 ) and performed linear regression analyses. Results showed that differences in white blood cell, granulocyte, platelet, and red blood cell counts are not exposure dependent. Among formaldehyde-exposed workers, no association was observed between individual average formaldehyde exposure estimates and frequency of aneuploidy, suggested by the original study authors to be indicators of myeloid leukemia risk.

  18. Detection of Waterborne and Airborne Formaldehyde: From Amperometric Chemosensing to a Visual Biosensor Based on Alcohol Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasi Sigawi


    Full Text Available A laboratory prototype of a microcomputer-based analyzer was developed for quantitative determination of formaldehyde in liquid samples, based on catalytic chemosensing elements. It was shown that selectivity for the target analyte could be increased by modulating the working electrode potential. Analytical parameters of three variants of the amperometric analyzer that differed in the chemical structure/configuration of the working electrode were studied. The constructed analyzer was tested on wastewater solutions that contained formaldehyde. A simple low-cost biosensor was developed for semi-quantitative detection of airborne formaldehyde in concentrations exceeding the threshold level. This biosensor is based on a change in the color of a solution that contains a mixture of alcohol oxidase from the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, horseradish peroxidase and a chromogen, following exposure to airborne formaldehyde. The solution is enclosed within a membrane device, which is permeable to formaldehyde vapors. The most efficient and sensitive biosensor for detecting formaldehyde was the one that contained alcohol oxidase with an activity of 1.2 U·mL−1. The biosensor requires no special instrumentation and enables rapid visual detection of airborne formaldehyde at concentrations, which are hazardous to human health.

  19. Worker exposure to endotoxin, phenolic compounds, and formaldehyde in a fiberglass insulation manufacturing plant. (United States)

    Milton, D K; Walters, M D; Hammond, K; Evans, J S


    Worker exposures in a fiberglass wool insulation manufacturing plant were studied. The plant used a continuous process and operated at full production during a six-week study. Area samples were used to characterize spatial variability of contaminant levels. Repeated personal samples were used to characterize the distribution and to explore within- and between-worker variability of exposures. The greatest potential for exposure to each of the contaminants was restricted to specific areas of the plant. Area geometric mean concentrations were 1 to 390 ng/m3 for endotoxin and 22 to 414 micrograms/m3 for formaldehyde. There was considerable within-area variation of endotoxin (geometric standard deviation [GSD] 2.6 to 5.5) and formaldehyde (GSD 2.0 to 4.5). Concentrations of phenolic compounds were correlated with endotoxin and were influenced by a relatively high limit of detection. The ranges of personal GM exposures across homogeneous groupings were smaller than the range for the corresponding areas (endotoxin 5.8 to 36.4 ng/m3; formaldehyde 18.1 to 67.4 micrograms/m3). Variability in personal exposure was high. Individual GSDs ranged up to 10, with the mean individual GSD of 3.4 for endotoxin, and up to 12 with mean 3.7 for formaldehyde. Suggested thresholds for acute respiratory effects of endotoxin exposure were frequently exceeded (46% of 8-hr personal samples > 10 ng/m3, 7% > 100 ng/m3). No personal samples exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure level or the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists' threshold limit value for formaldehyde; however, 34% were greater than 60 micrograms/m3 and 11% were greater than 120 micrograms/m3. Thus, exposures fell in a range where important exposure-response relationship could be examined.

  20. Adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde on a clay-TiO{sub 2} composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibanova, Daria [Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Departamento de Procesos y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico); Sleiman, Mohamad [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Indoor Environment Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division (United States); Cervini-Silva, Javiera, E-mail: [Departamento de Procesos y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico); NASA Astrobiology Institute (United States); Destaillats, Hugo, E-mail: [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Indoor Environment Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division (United States); Arizona State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formaldehyde adsorption and photocatalytic elimination on hectorite-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dark adsorption in dry air >4 times higher than P25 (reference). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dark adsorption in humid air dominated by adsorbed water layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photocatalytic removal efficiency proportional to the Ti content, increased with contact time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More complete elimination with 254 + 185 nm irradiation. - Abstract: We investigated the adsorption capacity and photocatalytic removal efficiency of formaldehyde using a hectorite-TiO{sub 2} composite in a bench flow reactor. The same experimental conditions were applied to pure TiO{sub 2} (Degussa P25) as a reference. The catalysts were irradiated with either a UVA lamp (365 nm) or with one of two UVC lamps of 254 nm and 254 + 185 nm, respectively. Formaldehyde was introduced upstream at concentrations of 100-500 ppb, with relative humidity (RH) in the range 0-66% and residence times between 50 and 500 ms. Under dry air and without illumination, saturation of catalyst surfaces was achieved after {approx}200 min for P25 and {approx}1000 min for hectorite-TiO{sub 2}. The formaldehyde uptake capacity by hectorite-TiO{sub 2} was 4.1 times higher than that of P25, almost twice the BET surface area ratio. In the presence of humidity, the difference in uptake efficiency between both materials disappeared, and saturation was achieved faster (after {approx}200 min at 10% RH and {approx}60 min at 65% RH). Under irradiation with each of the three UV sources, removal efficiencies were proportional to the Ti content and increased with contact time. The removal efficiency decreased at high RH. A more complete elimination of formaldehyde was observed with the 254 + 185 nm UV source.