Singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator based on KTA crystal
S Das; S Gangopadhyay; C Ghosh; G C Bhar
2005-01-01
Tunable mid-infra-red radiation by singly resonant optical parametric oscillation based on KTA crystal pumped by multi-axial Gaussian shape beam from Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been demonstrated. Threshold energy of oscillation at different idler wavelengths for different cavity length has been demonstrated. Single pass conversion efficiency of incident pump energy to infra-red wavelength has also been measured.
Modeling of Self-Pumped Singly Resonant Optical Parametric Oscillator
Deng, Chengxian
2016-01-01
A model of the steady-state operating, self-pumped singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SPSRO) has been developed. The characteristics of quasi three-level laser gain medium pumped longitudinally have been taken into account. The characteristics of standing wave cavity, reabsorption losses, focusing Gaussian beams of the pump laser, fundamental laser and signal wave have been considered in the analyses. Furthermore, The power characteristics of threshold and efficiency have been analyzed, employing a Yb3+-doped periodically poled lithium niobate co-doped with MgO (Yb3+:MgO:PPLN) as the medium of laser gain and second-order nonlinear crystal.
Xiong-Hua, Zheng; Bao-Fu, Zhang; Zhong-Xing, Jiao; Biao, Wang
2016-01-01
We present a continuous-wave singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator with 1.5% output coupling of the resonant signal wave, based on an angle-polished MgO-doped periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN), pumped by a commercial Nd:YVO4 laser at 1064 nm. The output-coupled optical parametric oscillator delivers a maximum total output power of 4.19 W with 42.8% extraction efficiency, across a tuning range of 1717 nm in the near- and mid-infrared region. This indicates improvements of 1.87 W in output power, 19.1% in extraction efficiency and 213 nm in tuning range extension in comparison with the optical parametric oscillator with no output coupling, while at the expense of increasing the oscillation threshold by a factor of ˜ 2. Moreover, it is confirmed that the finite output coupling also contributes to the reduction of the thermal effects in crystal. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61308056, 11204044, 11232015, and 11072271), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant Nos. 20120171110005 and 20130171130003), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. 14lgpy07), and the Opening Project of Science and Technology on Reliability Physics and Application Technology of Electronic Component Laboratory, China (Grant No. ZHD201203).
Low-Threshold Optical Parametric Oscillations in a Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator
Fürst, J. U.; Strekalov, D. V.; Elser, D.;
2010-01-01
efficient optical frequency conversion. Our analysis of the phase-matching conditions for optical parametric down-conversion (PDC) in a spherical WGM resonator shows their direct relation to the sum rules for photons' angular momenta and predicts a very low parametric oscillation threshold. We realized...... such an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on naturally phase-matched PDC in lithium niobate. We demonstrated a single-mode, strongly nondegenerate OPO with a threshold of 6.7 μW and linewidth under 10 MHz. This work demonstrates the remarkable capabilities of WGM-based OPOs....
Thermal self-frequency locking of doubly-resonant optical parametric oscillator
Hansen, P.L.; Buchhave, Preben
1997-01-01
The increase in the circulating signal and idler fields that occurs in a high-Q doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as it approaches resonance results in a small increase in the crystal temperature owing to absorption of the generated fields. The temperature change affects...
Ly, Aliou; Bretenaker, Fabien
2015-01-01
We present an experimental technique allowing to stabilize the frequency of the non resonant wave in a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO) down to the kHz level, much below the pump frequency noise level. By comparing the frequency of the non resonant wave with a reference cavity, the pump frequency noise is imposed to the frequency of the resonant wave, and is thus subtracted from the frequency of the non resonant wave. This permits the non resonant wave obtained from such a SRO to be simultaneously powerful and frequency stable, which is usually impossible to obtain when the resonant wave frequency is stabilized.
Modelling a singly resonant, intracavity ring optical parametric oscillator
Buchhave, Preben; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Wei, Hou;
2003-01-01
We study theoretically and experimentally the dynamics of a single-frequency, unidirectional ring laser with an intracavity nonlinear singly resonant OPO-crystal in a coupled resonator. We find for a range of operating conditions good agreement between model results and measurements of the laser ...
Continuous-wave singly resonant optical parametric oscillator placed inside a ring laser
Abitan, Haim; Buchhave, Preben
2003-01-01
A cw singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO) was built and placed inside the cavity of a ring laser. The system consists of a diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO4 ring laser with intracavity periodically poled lithium niobate as the nonlinear gain medium of the SRO. When the laser was operated...... the laser was coupled with the SRO. The results show that it is preferable to couple a SRO with a unidirectional ring laser....
Controlling Parametric Resonance
Galeazzi, Roberto; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad
2012-01-01
Parametric resonance is a resonant phenomenon which takes place in systems characterized by periodic variations of some parameters. While seen as a threatening condition, whose onset can drive a system into instability, this chapter advocates that parametric resonance may become an advantage if t...
Continuous-wave, two-crystal, singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator: theory and experiment.
Samanta, G K; Aadhi, A; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M
2013-04-22
We present theoretical and experimental study of a continuous-wave, two-crystal, singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (T-SRO) comprising two identical 30-mm-long crystals of MgO:sPPLT in a four- mirror ring cavity and pumped with two separate pump beams in the green. The idler beam after each crystal is completely out-coupled, while the signal radiation is resonant inside the cavity. Solving the coupled amplitude equations under undepleted pump approximation, we calculate the maximum threshold reduction, parametric gain acceptance bandwidth and closest possible attainable wavelength separation in arbitrary dual-wavelength generation and compare with the experimental results. Although the T-SRO has two identical crystals, the acceptance bandwidth of the device is equal to that of a single-crystal SRO. Due to the division of pump power in two crystals, the T-SRO can handle higher total pump power while lowering crystal damage risk and thermal effects. We also experimentally verify the high power performance of such scheme, providing a total output power of 6.5 W for 16.2 W of green power at 532 nm. We verified coherent energy coupling between the intra-cavity resonant signal waves resulting Raman spectral lines. Based on the T-SRO scheme, we also report a new technique to measure the temperature acceptance bandwidth of the single-pass parametric amplifier across the OPO tuning range.
Stefszky, Michael; Buchler, Ben C; Symul, Thomas; Lam, Ping Koy [Quantum Optics Group, Department of Quantum Science, The Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Mow-Lowry, Conor M; McKenzie, Kirk; Chua, Sheon; McClelland, David E, E-mail: michael.stefszky@anu.edu.au [Centre for Gravitational Physics, Department of Quantum Science, The Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia)
2011-01-14
A squeezed light source requires properties such as high squeezing amplitude, high bandwidth and stability over time, ideally using as few resources, such as laser power, as possible. We compare three nonlinear materials, two of which have not been well characterized for squeezed state production, and also investigate the viability of doubly-resonant optical parametric oscillator cavities in achieving these requirements. A model is produced that provides a new way of looking at the construction of an optical parametric oscillator/optical parametric amplifier setup where second harmonic power is treated as a limited resource. The well-characterized periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP) is compared in an essentially identical setup to two relatively new materials, periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate (PPSLT) and 1.7% magnesium oxide doped periodically poled stoichiometric lithium niobate (PPSLN). Although from the literature PPSLT and PPSLN present advantages such as a higher damage threshold and a higher nonlinearity, respectively, PPKTP was still found to have the most desirable properties. With PPKTP, 5.8 dB of squeezing below the shot noise limit was achieved. With PPSLT, 5.0 dB of squeezing was observed but the power required to see this squeezing was much higher than expected. A technical problem with the PPSLN limited the observed squeezing to around 1.0 dB. This problem is discussed.
Efficient monolithic MgO:LiNbO3 singly resonant optical parametric oscillator
Kozlovsky, W. J.; Gustafson, E. K.; Eckardt, R. C.; Byer, R. L.
1988-01-01
A monolithic MgO:LiNbO3 singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) was operated as both a standing-wave and a ring-geometry resonator. The OPO was pumped by the second harmonic of an amplified single-mode diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser. Pump depletions of greater than 60 percent were observed when pumping four times greater than the 35-W threshold. The OPO output at the resonant signal tuned with temperature from 834 to 958 nm, while the corresponding idler tuned from 1.47 to 1.2 microns. The spectral characteristics of the OPO signal output and the relative merits of a standing wave versus a ring geometry are discussed.
Beckmann, T; Steigerwald, H; Sturman, B; Haertle, D; Buse, K; Breunig, I
2010-01-01
Tunability of optical parametric oscillation in a radially structured whispering gallery resonator made of lithium niobate is investigated experimentally and theoretically. With a 1.04-\\mu m pump wave, the signal and idler waves are tuned from 1.78 to 2.5 \\mu m -- including the point of degeneracy -- by varying the temperature between 20 and 62{\\deg}C. A weak off-centering of the radial domain structure extends considerably the tuning capabilities. The oscillation threshold lies in the mW-power range.
Parametric Resonance in Dynamical Systems
Nijmeijer, Henk
2012-01-01
Parametric Resonance in Dynamical Systems discusses the phenomenon of parametric resonance and its occurrence in mechanical systems,vehicles, motorcycles, aircraft and marine craft, and micro-electro-mechanical systems. The contributors provide an introduction to the root causes of this phenomenon and its mathematical equivalent, the Mathieu-Hill equation. Also included is a discussion of how parametric resonance occurs on ships and offshore systems and its frequency in mechanical and electrical systems. This book also: Presents the theory and principles behind parametric resonance Provides a unique collection of the different fields where parametric resonance appears including ships and offshore structures, automotive vehicles and mechanical systems Discusses ways to combat, cope with and prevent parametric resonance including passive design measures and active control methods Parametric Resonance in Dynamical Systems is ideal for researchers and mechanical engineers working in application fields such as MEM...
Wan, Chenchen
Optical frequency combs are coherent light sources consist of thousands of equally spaced frequency lines. Frequency combs have achieved success in applications of metrology, spectroscopy and precise pulse manipulation and control. The most common way to generate frequency combs is based on mode-locked lasers which has the output spectrum of comb structures. To generate stable frequency combs, the output from mode-locked lasers need to be phase stabilized. The whole comb lines will be stabilized if the pulse train repetition rate corresponding to comb spacing and the pulse carrier envelope offset (CEO) frequency are both stabilized. The output from a laser always has fluctuations in parameters known as noise. In laser applications, noise is an important factor to limit the performance and often need to be well controlled. For example in precision measurement such as frequency metrology and precise spectroscopy, low laser intensity and phase noise is required. In mode-locked lasers there are different types of noise like intensity noise, pulse temporal position noise also known as timing jitter, optical phase noise. In term for frequency combs, these noise dynamics is more complex and often related. Understanding the noise behavior is not only of great interest in practical applications but also help understand fundamental laser physics. In this dissertation, the noise of frequency combs and mode-locked lasers will be studied in two projects. First, the CEO frequency phase noise of a synchronously pumped doubly resonant optical parametric oscillators (OPO) will be explored. This is very important for applications of the OPO as a coherent frequency comb source. Another project will focus on the intensity noise coupling in a soliton fiber oscillator, the finding of different noise coupling in soliton pulses and the dispersive waves generated from soliton perturbation can provide very practical guidance for low noise soliton laser design. OPOs are used to generate
Khodabakhsh, Amir; Rutkowski, Lucile; Johansson, Alexandra C; Lee, Kevin F; Jiang, Jie; Mohr, Christian; Fermann, Martin E; Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
2016-01-01
We present a versatile mid-infrared frequency comb spectroscopy system based on a doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator tunable in the 3-5.4 {\\mu}m range and two detection methods, a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a Vernier spectrometer. Using the FTS with a multipass cell we measure high-precision broadband absorption spectra of CH$_4$ and NO at ~3.3 {\\mu}m and ~5.2 {\\mu}m, respectively, and of atmospheric species (CH$_4$, CO, CO$_2$ and H$_2$O) in air in the signal and idler wavelength range. The figure of merit of the system is on the order of 10$^{-8}$ cm$^{-1}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ per spectral element, and multiline fitting yields minimum detectable concentrations of 10-20 ppb Hz$^{-1/2}$ for CH$_4$, NO and CO. For the first time in the mid-infrared, we perform continuous-filtering Vernier spectroscopy using a low finesse enhancement cavity, a grating and a single detector, and measure the absorption spectrum of CH$_4$ and H$_2$O in ambient air at ~3.3 {\\mu}m.
YAN Bo-Xia; CHENG Hua; BI Yong; ZHOU Mi; WANG Dong-Dong; QI Yan; FANG Tao; WANG Bin; WANG Yan-Wei; ZHENG Guang
2010-01-01
@@ We present a compact all-solid-state cw mid-infrared intracavity singly resonant optical parametric oscillator(OPO)that is based on a self-fabricated 1-mm-thick 40-mm-long doped MgO periodically poled lithium niobate(MgO:PPLN).At a diode pump power of 15.6W.the compact intracavity Nd:YVO4/MgO:PPLN OPO produced 1.9 W output power at 3.19 μm,corresponding to conversion efficiency of 12.2% from the laser diode pump to OPO idler output.
My, Thu-Hien; Drag, Cyril; Bretenaker, Fabien
2008-07-01
A widely tunable continuous intracavity-frequency-doubled singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on MgO-doped periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate crystal is described. The idler radiation resonating in the cavity is frequency doubled by an intracavity BBO crystal. Pumped in the green, this system can provide up to 485 mW of single-frequency orange radiation. The system is continuously temperature tunable between 1170 and 1355 nm for the idler, 876 and 975 nm for the signal, and between 585 and 678 nm for the doubled idler. The free-running power and frequency stability of the system have been observed to be better than those for a single-mode dye laser.
Nieuwenhuis, Albert F.; Lee, Christopher James; Sumpf, Bernd; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Erbert, Götz; Boller, Klaus J.
2010-01-01
We report more than 1.1 Watt of idler power at 3373 nm in a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO), directly pumped by a single-frequency monolithic tapered diode laser. The SRO is based on a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 crystal in a four mirror cavity and is excited by 8.05 W of 1062
Narrow linewidth pulsed optical parametric oscillator
S Das
2010-11-01
Tunable narrow linewidth radiation by optical parametric oscillation has many applications, particularly in spectroscopic investigation. In this paper, different techniques such as injection seeding, use of spectral selecting element like grating, grating and etalon in combination, grazing angle of incidence, entangled cavity configuration and type-II phase matching have been discussed for generating tunable narrow linewidth radiation by singly resonant optical parametric oscillation process.
Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances
Johnson, Rolland P.
2008-06-07
Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances was an SBIR project begun in July 2004 and ended in January 2008 with Muons, Inc., (Dr. Rolland Johnson, PI), and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) (Dr. Yaroslav Derbenev, Subcontract PI). The project was to develop the theory and simulations of Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) so that it could be used to provide the extra transverse cooling needed for muon colliders in order to relax the requirements on the proton driver, reduce the site boundary radiation, and provide a better environment for experiments. During the course of the project, the theoretical understanding of PIC was developed and a final exposition is ready for publication. Workshops were sponsored by Muons, Inc. in May and September of 2007 that were devoted to the PIC technique. One outcome of the workshops was the interesting and somewhat unexpected realization that the beam emittances using the PIC technique can get small enough that space charge forces can be important. A parallel effort to develop our G4beamline simulation program to include space charge effects was initiated to address this problem. A method of compensating for chromatic aberrations by employing synchrotron motion was developed and simulated. A method of compensating for spherical aberrations using beamline symmetry was also developed and simulated. Different optics designs have been developed using the OptiM program in preparation for applying our G4beamline simulation program, which contains all the power of the Geant4 toolkit. However, no PIC channel design that has been developed has had the desired cooling performance when subjected to the complete G4beamline simulation program. This is believed to be the consequence of the difficulties of correcting the aberrations associated with the naturally large beam angles and beam sizes of the PIC method that are exacerbated by the fringe fields of the rather complicated channel designs that have been
Parametric resonance in ideal magnetohydrodynamics
Zaqarashvili
2000-08-01
We show that an external nonelectromagnetic periodic inhomogeneous force sets up a parametric resonance in an ideal magnetohydrodynamics. Alfven waves with certain wavelengths grow exponentially in amplitude. Nonlinear interaction between the resonant harmonics produces the long-term modulation of amplitudes. The mechanism of the energy transformation from an external nonelectromagnetic force to magnetic oscillations of the system presented here can be used in understanding the physical background of the gravitational action on the magnetized medium. Future application of this theory to several astrophysical problems is briefly discussed.
Parametric resonance in neutrino oscillations in matter
E Kh Akhmedov
2000-01-01
Neutrino oscillations in matter can exhibit a specific resonance enhancement - parametric resonance, which is different from the MSW resonance. Oscillations of atmospheric and solar neutrinos inside the earth can undergo parametric enhancement when neutrino trajectories cross the core of the earth. In this paper we review the parametric resonance of neutrino oscillations in matter. In particular, physical interpretation of the effect and the prospects of its experimental observation in oscillations of solar and atmospheric neutrinos in the earth are discussed.
LY, Aliou; Bretenaker, Fabien
2016-01-01
We build a 1-Watt cw singly resonant optical parametric oscillator operating at an idler wavelength of 1.65-$\\mu$m for application to quantum interfaces. The non resonant idler is frequency stabilized by side-fringe locking on a relatively high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity, and the influence of intensity noise is carefully analyzed. A relative linewidth down to the sub-kHz level (about 30 Hz over 2 s) is achieved. A very good long term stability is obtained for both frequency and intensity.
Airy beam optical parametric oscillator.
Aadhi, A; Chaitanya, N Apurv; Jabir, M V; Vaity, Pravin; Singh, R P; Samanta, G K
2016-05-04
Airy beam, a non-diffracting waveform, has peculiar properties of self-healing and self-acceleration. Due to such unique properties, the Airy beam finds many applications including curved plasma wave-guiding, micro-particle manipulation, optically mediated particle clearing, long distance communication, and nonlinear frequency conversion. However, many of these applications including laser machining of curved structures, generation of curved plasma channels, guiding of electric discharges in a curved path, study of nonlinear propagation dynamics, and nonlinear interaction demand Airy beam with high power, energy, and wavelength tunability. Till date, none of the Airy beam sources have all these features in a single device. Here, we report a new class of coherent sources based on cubic phase modulation of a singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO), producing high-power, continuous-wave (cw), tunable radiation in 2-D Airy intensity profile existing over a length >2 m. Based on a MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal pumped at 1064 nm, the Airy beam OPO produces output power more than 8 W, and wavelength tunability across 1.51-1.97 μm. This demonstration gives new direction for the development of sources of arbitrary structured beams at any wavelength, power, and energy in all time scales (cw to femtosecond).
Parametric-Resonance Ionization Cooling in Twin-Helix.
V.S. Morozov, Ya.S. Derbenev, A. Afanasev, R.P. Johnson, Erdelyi. B., J.A. Maloney
2011-09-01
Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) is proposed as the final 6D cooling stage of a highluminosity muon collider. For the implementation of PIC, we developed an epicyclic twin-helix channel with correlated optics. Wedge-shaped absorbers immediately followed by short rf cavities are placed into the twin-helix channel. Parametric resonances are induced in both planes using helical quadrupole harmonics. We demonstrate resonant dynamics and cooling with stochastic effects off using GEANT4/G4beamline. We illustrate compensation of spherical aberrations and benchmark COSY Infinity, a powerful tool for aberration analysis and compensation.
Parametric resonance in concrete beam-columns
Sharma,Mamta R.; Singh,Arbind K; Benipal,Gurmail S
2014-01-01
A dynamic instability, called parametric resonance, is exhibited by undampedelastic beam-columns when under the action of pulsating axial force. The scope of the existing theory of parametric resonance is restricted to physically linear beam-columns undergoing finite lateral displacements. In this Paper, the dynamic behaviour of physically nonlinear elastic cracked concrete beam-columns under pulsating axial force and constant lateral force is investigated. The constitutive equations derived ...
Spatiotemporal structures in the internally pumped optical parametric oscillator
Lodahl, Peter; Bache, Morten; Saffman, Mark
2001-01-01
We analyze pattern formation in doubly resonant second-harmonic generation in the presence of a competing parametric process, also named the internally pumped optical parametric oscillator. Different scenarios are established where either the up- or down-conversion processes dominate the spatiote...... patterns and gray solitons. Estimates of the thresholds for pattern formation under experimentally relevant conditions are given....
Observation of Three Mode Parametric Interactions in Long Optical Cavities
Zhao, C; Fan, Y; Slagmolen, S Gras B J J; Miao, H; Blair, P Barriga D G; Hosken, D J; Brooks, A F; Veitch, P J; Mudge, D; Munch, J
2008-01-01
We report the first observation of three-mode opto-acoustic parametric interactions of the type predicted to cause parametric instabilities in an 80 m long, high optical power cavity that uses suspended sapphire mirrors. Resonant interaction occurs between two distinct optical modes and an acoustic mode of one mirror when the difference in frequency between the two optical cavity modes is close to the frequency of the acoustic mode. Experimental results validate the theory of parametric instability in high power optical cavities.
Efficient primary and parametric resonance excitation of bistable resonators
Ramini, Abdallah
2016-09-12
We experimentally demonstrate an efficient approach to excite primary and parametric (up to the 4th) resonance of Microelectromechanical system MEMS arch resonators with large vibrational amplitudes. A single crystal silicon in-plane arch microbeam is fabricated such that it can be excited axially from one of its ends by a parallel-plate electrode. Its micro/nano scale vibrations are transduced using a high speed camera. Through the parallel-plate electrode, a time varying electrostatic force is applied, which is converted into a time varying axial force that modulates dynamically the stiffness of the arch resonator. Due to the initial curvature of the structure, not only parametric excitation is induced, but also primary resonance. Experimental investigation is conducted comparing the response of the arch near primary resonance using the axial excitation to that of a classical parallel-plate actuation where the arch itself forms an electrode. The results show that the axial excitation can be more efficient and requires less power for primary resonance excitation. Moreover, unlike the classical method where the structure is vulnerable to the dynamic pull-in instability, the axial excitation technique can provide large amplitude motion while protecting the structure from pull-in. In addition to primary resonance, parametrical resonances are demonstrated at twice, one-half, and two-thirds the primary resonance frequency. The ability to actuate primary and/or parametric resonances can serve various applications, such as for resonator based logic and memory devices. (C) 2016 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license
Parametric resonance in spherical immersed elastic shells
Ko, William
2014-01-01
We perform a stability analysis for a fluid-structure interaction problem in which a spherical elastic shell or membrane is immersed in a 3D viscous, incompressible fluid. The shell is an idealised structure having zero thickness, and has the same fluid lying both inside and outside. The problem is formulated mathematically using the immersed boundary framework in which Dirac delta functions are employed to capture the two-way interaction between fluid and immersed structure. The elastic structure is driven parametrically via a time-periodic modulation of the elastic membrane stiffness. We perform a Floquet stability analysis, considering the case of both a viscous and inviscid fluid, and demonstrate that the forced fluid-membrane system gives rise to parametric resonances in which the solution becomes unbounded even in the presence of viscosity. The analytical results are validated using numerical simulations with a 3D immersed boundary code for a range of wavenumbers and physical parameter values. Finally, ...
Parametric Symmetry Breaking in a Nonlinear Resonator
Leuch, Anina; Papariello, Luca; Zilberberg, Oded; Degen, Christian L.; Chitra, R.; Eichler, Alexander
2016-11-01
Much of the physical world around us can be described in terms of harmonic oscillators in thermodynamic equilibrium. At the same time, the far-from-equilibrium behavior of oscillators is important in many aspects of modern physics. Here, we investigate a resonating system subject to a fundamental interplay between intrinsic nonlinearities and a combination of several driving forces. We have constructed a controllable and robust realization of such a system using a macroscopic doubly clamped string. We experimentally observe a hitherto unseen double hysteresis in both the amplitude and the phase of the resonator's response function and present a theoretical model that is in excellent agreement with the experiment. Our work unveils that the double hysteresis is a manifestation of an out-of-equilibrium symmetry breaking between parametric phase states. Such a fundamental phenomenon, in the most ubiquitous building block of nature, paves the way for the investigation of new dynamical phases of matter in parametrically driven many-body systems and motivates applications ranging from ultrasensitive force detection to low-energy computing memory units.
Raman-Suppressing Coupling for Optical Parametric Oscillator
Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute; Matsko, Andrey; Rubiola, Enrico
2007-01-01
A Raman-scattering-suppressing input/ output coupling scheme has been devised for a whispering-gallery-mode optical resonator that is used as a four-wave-mixing device to effect an all-optical parametric oscillator. Raman scattering is undesired in such a device because (1) it is a nonlinear process that competes with the desired nonlinear four-wave conversion process involved in optical parametric oscillation and (2) as such, it reduces the power of the desired oscillation and contributes to output noise. The essence of the present input/output coupling scheme is to reduce output loading of the desired resonator modes while increasing output loading of the undesired ones.
Parametric Amplification For Detecting Weak Optical Signals
Hemmati, Hamid; Chen, Chien; Chakravarthi, Prakash
1996-01-01
Optical-communication receivers of proposed type implement high-sensitivity scheme of optical parametric amplification followed by direct detection for reception of extremely weak signals. Incorporates both optical parametric amplification and direct detection into optimized design enhancing effective signal-to-noise ratios during reception in photon-starved (photon-counting) regime. Eliminates need for complexity of heterodyne detection scheme and partly overcomes limitations imposed on older direct-detection schemes by noise generated in receivers and by limits on quantum efficiencies of photodetectors.
An on-chip diamond optical parametric oscillator
Hausmann, B J M; Venkataraman, V; Deotare, P; Loncar, M
2013-01-01
Efficient, on-chip optical nonlinear processes are of great interest for the development of compact, robust, low-power consuming systems for applications in spectroscopy, metrology, sensing and classical and quantum optical information processing. Diamond holds promise for these applications, owing to its exceptional properties. However, although significant progress has been made in the development of an integrated diamond photonics platform, optical nonlinearities in diamond have not been explored much apart from Raman processes in bulk samples. Here, we demonstrate optical parametric oscillations (OPO) via four wave mixing (FWM) in single crystal diamond (SCD) optical networks on-chip consisting of waveguide-coupled microring resonators. Threshold powers as low as 20mW are enabled by ultra-high quality factor (1*10^6) diamond ring resonators operating at telecom wavelengths, and up to 20 new wavelengths are generated from a single-frequency pump laser. We also report the inferred nonlinear refractive index...
Parametric resonance of intrinsic localized modes in coupled cantilever arrays
Kimura, Masayuki; Matsushita, Yasuo; Hikihara, Takashi
2016-08-01
In this study, the parametric resonances of pinned intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) were investigated by computing the unstable regions in parameter space consisting of parametric excitation amplitude and frequency. In the unstable regions, the pinned ILMs were observed to lose stability and begin to fluctuate. A nonlinear Klein-Gordon, Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-like, and mixed lattices were investigated. The pinned ILMs, particularly in the mixed lattice, were destabilized by parametric resonances, which were determined by comparing the shapes of the unstable regions with those in the Mathieu differential equation. In addition, traveling ILMs could be generated by parametric excitation.
Parametric resonance induced chaos in magnetic damped driven pendulum
Khomeriki, Giorgi, E-mail: giokhomeriki123@gmail.com
2016-07-15
A damped driven pendulum with a magnetic driving force, appearing from a solenoid, where ac current flows is considered. The solenoid acts on the magnet, which is located at a free end of the pendulum. In this system the existence and interrelation of chaos and parametric resonance is theoretically examined. Derived analytical results are supported by numerical simulations and conducted experiments. - Highlights: • A damped magnetic pendulum is considered driven by off resonant magnetic field. • Our system is chaotic only when the conditions for parametric resonance are fulfilled. • Conducted experiments give a good agreement with theory and numerical simulations. • Calculated Lyapunov exponents are compared with parametric instability growth rates.
Diode-pumped optical parametric oscillator.
Geiger, A R; Hemmati, H; Farr, W H; Prasad, N S
1996-02-01
Diode-pumped optical parametric oscillation has been demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge in a single Nd:MgO:LiNbO(3) nonlinear crystal. The crystal is pumped by a semiconductor diode laser array at 812 nm. The Nd(3+) ions absorb the 812-nm radiation to generate 1084-nm laser oscillation. On internal Q switching the 1084-nm radiation pumps the LiNbO(3) host crystal that is angle cut at 46.5 degrees and generates optical parametric oscillation. The oscillation threshold that is due to the 1084-nm laser pump with a pulse length of 80 ns in a 1-mm-diameter beam was measured to be approximately 1 mJ and produced 0.5-mJ output at 3400-nm signal wavelength.
Parametric roll resonance monitoring using signal-based detection
Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Falkenberg, Thomas
2015-01-01
Extreme roll motion of ships can be caused by several phenomena, one of which is parametric roll resonance. Several incidents occurred unexpectedly around the millennium and caused vast fiscal losses on large container vessels. The phenomenon is now well understood and some consider parametric ro......-based monitoring system is a simple and effective mean to provide timely warning of resonance conditions...... algorithms in real conditions, and to evaluate the frequency of parametric roll events on the selected vessels. Detection performance is scrutinised through the validation of the detected events using owners’ standard methods, and supported by available wave radar data. Further, a bivariate statistical...
Epicyclic helical channels for parametric resonance ionization cooling
Johson, Rolland Paul [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Yaroslav [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)
2015-08-23
Proposed next-generation muon colliders will require major technical advances to achieve rapid muon beam cooling requirements. Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) is proposed as the final 6D cooling stage of a high-luminosity muon collider. In PIC, a half-integer parametric resonance causes strong focusing of a muon beam at appropriately placed energy absorbers while ionization cooling limits the beam’s angular spread. Combining muon ionization cooling with parametric resonant dynamics in this way should then allow much smaller final transverse muon beam sizes than conventional ionization cooling alone. One of the PIC challenges is compensation of beam aberrations over a sufficiently wide parameter range while maintaining the dynamical stability with correlated behavior of the horizontal and vertical betatron motion and dispersion. We explore use of a coupling resonance to reduce the dimensionality of the problem and to shift the dynamics away from non-linear resonances. PIC simulations are presented.
Muon Tracking Studies in a Skew Parametric Resonance Ionization Cooling Channel
Sy, Amy [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Afanaciev, Andre [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Derbenev, Yaroslav S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Morozov, Vasiliy [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)
2015-09-01
Skew Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (SPIC) is an extension of the Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) framework that has previously been explored as the final 6D cooling stage of a high-luminosity muon collider. The addition of skew quadrupoles to the PIC magnetic focusing channel induces coupled dynamic behavior of the beam that is radially periodic. The periodicity of the radial motion allows for the avoidance of unwanted resonances in the horizontal and vertical transverse planes, while still providing periodic locations at which ionization cooling components can be implemented. A first practical implementation of the magnetic field components required in the SPIC channel is modeled in MADX. Dynamic features of the coupled correlated optics with and without induced parametric resonance are presented and discussed.
Optical parametric amplification and oscillation assisted by low-frequency stimulated emission
Longhi, Stefano
2016-01-01
Optical parametric amplification/oscillation provide a powerful tool for coherent light generation in spectral regions inaccessible to lasers. Parametric gain is based on a frequency {\\it down-conversion} process, and thus it can not be realized for signal waves at a frequency $\\omega_3$ {\\it higher} than the frequency of the pump wave $\\omega_1$. In this work we suggest a route toward the realization of {\\it up-conversion} optical parametric amplification and oscillation, i.e. amplification of the signal wave by a coherent pump wave of lower frequency, assisted by stimulated emission of the auxiliary idler wave. When the signal field is resonated in an optical cavity, parametric oscillation is obtained. Design parameters for the observation of up-conversion optical parametric oscillation at $\\lambda_3=465$ nm are given for a periodically-poled lithium-niobate (PPLN) crystal doped with Nd$^{3+}$ ions.
Probing eigenfunction nonorthogonality by parametric shifts of resonance widths
Savin, D V
2013-01-01
Recently, it has been shown that the change of resonance widths in an open system under a perturbation of its interior is a sensitive indicator of the nonorthogonality of resonance states. We apply this measure to quantify parametric motion of the resonances. In particular, a strong redistribution of the widths is linked with the maximal degree of nonorthogonality. Then for weakly open chaotic systems we discuss the role of spectral rigidity on the statistical properties of the parametric width shifts, and derive the distribution of the latter in a picket-fence model with equidistant spectrum.
Resonator coupled Josephson junctions; parametric excitations and mutual locking
Jensen, H. Dalsgaard; Larsen, A.; Mygind, Jesper
1991-01-01
Self-pumped parametric excitations and mutual locking in systems of Josephson tunnel junctions coupled to multimode resonators are reported. For the very large values of the coupling parameter, obtained with small Nb-Al2O3-Nb junctions integrated in superconducting microstrip resonators, the DC I......-V characteristic shows an equidistant series of current steps generated by subharmonic pumping of the fundamental resonator mode. This is confirmed by measurement of frequency and linewidth of the emitted Josephson radiation...
A quadratic-shaped-finger comb parametric resonator
Guo, Congzhong; Fedder, Gary K.
2013-09-01
A large-stroke (8 µm) parametric resonator excited by an in-plane ‘shaped-finger’ electrostatic comb drive is fabricated using a 15 µm thick silicon-on-insulator microelectromechanical systems (SOI-MEMS) process. A quadratic capacitance-engagement response is synthesized by engineering a custom-shaped comb finger profile. A folded-flexure suspension allows lateral motion while constraining rotational modes. The excitation of the nonlinear parametric resonance is realized by selecting an appropriate combination of the linear and cubic electrostatic stiffness coefficients through a specific varying-gap comb-finger design. The large-amplitude parametric resonance promotes high signal-to-noise ratio for potential use in sensitive chemical gravimetric sensors, strain gauges, and mode-matched gyroscope applications.
Parametric Resonance in the Early Universe - A Fitting Analysis
Figueroa, Daniel G.
2017-01-01
Particle production via parametric resonance in the early Universe, is a non-perturbative, non-linear and out-of-equilibrium phenomenon. Although it is a well studied topic, whenever a new scenario exhibits parametric resonance, a full re-analysis is normally required. To avoid this tedious task, many works present often only a simplified linear treatment of the problem. In order to surpass this circumstance in the future, we provide a fitting analysis of parametric resonance through all its relevant stages: initial linear growth, non-linear evolution, and relaxation towards equilibrium. Using lattice simulations in an expanding grid in $3+1$ dimensions, we parametrise the dynamics' outcome scanning over the relevant ingredients: role of the oscillatory field, particle coupling strength, initial conditions, and background expansion rate. We emphasise the inaccuracy of the linear calculation of the decay time of the oscillatory field, and propose a more appropriate definition of this scale based on the subsequ...
A capacitive ultrasonic transducer based on parametric resonance
Surappa, Sushruta; Satir, Sarp; Levent Degertekin, F.
2017-07-01
A capacitive ultrasonic transducer based on a parametric resonator structure is described and experimentally demonstrated. The transducer structure, which we call capacitive parametric ultrasonic transducer (CPUT), uses a parallel plate capacitor with a movable membrane as part of a degenerate parametric series RLC resonator circuit with a resonance frequency of fo. When the capacitor plate is driven with an incident harmonic ultrasonic wave at the pump frequency of 2fo with sufficient amplitude, the RLC circuit becomes unstable and ultrasonic energy can be efficiently converted to an electrical signal at fo frequency in the RLC circuit. An important characteristic of the CPUT is that unlike other electrostatic transducers, it does not require DC bias or permanent charging to be used as a receiver. We describe the operation of the CPUT using an analytical model and numerical simulations, which shows drive amplitude dependent operation regimes including parametric resonance when a certain threshold is exceeded. We verify these predictions by experiments with a micromachined membrane based capacitor structure in immersion where ultrasonic waves incident at 4.28 MHz parametrically drive a signal with significant amplitude in the 2.14 MHz RLC circuit. With its unique features, the CPUT can be particularly advantageous for applications such as wireless power transfer for biomedical implants and acoustic sensing.
Gain Characteristics of Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier
高明义; 姜淳; 胡卫生
2004-01-01
The theory model of fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) was introduced, which is based on optical nonlinear effect. And then numerical simulation was done to analyze and discuss the gain spectral characteristics of one-pump and two-pump FOPA. The results show that for one-pump FOPA, when pump wavelength is near to fiber zero-dispersion wavelength(ZDW), the gain flatness is better, and with the increase of the pump power, fiber length and its nonlinear coefficient, the gain value will increase while the gain bandwidth will become narrow. For two-pump FOPA, when the pump central wavelength is near to fiber ZDW, the gain flatness is better. Moreover, by decreasing the space of two pumps wavelength, the gain flatness can be improved. Finally, some problems existing in FOPA were addressed.
Optical Vortex Solitons in Parametric Wave Mixing
Alexander, T J; Buryak, A V; Sammut, R A; Alexander, Tristram J.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Buryak, Alexander V.; Sammut, Rowland A.
2000-01-01
We analyze two-component spatial optical vortex solitons supported by degenerate three- or four-wave mixing in a nonlinear bulk medium. We study two distinct cases of such solitons, namely, parametric vortex solitons due to phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a optical medium with competing quadratic and cubic nonlinear response, and vortex solitons in the presence of third-harmonic generation in a cubic medium. We find, analytically and numerically, the structure of two-component vortex solitons, and also investigate modulational instability of their plane-wave background. In particular, we predict and analyze in detail novel types of vortex solitons, a `halo-vortex', consisting of a two-component vortex core surrounded by a bright ring of its harmonic field, and a `ring-vortex' soliton which is a vortex in a harmonic field that guides a bright localized ring-like mode of a fundamental frequency field.
Normal dispersion femtosecond fiber optical parametric oscillator.
Nguyen, T N; Kieu, K; Maslov, A V; Miyawaki, M; Peyghambarian, N
2013-09-15
We propose and demonstrate a synchronously pumped fiber optical parametric oscillator (FOPO) operating in the normal dispersion regime. The FOPO generates chirped pulses at the output, allowing significant pulse energy scaling potential without pulse breaking. The output average power of the FOPO at 1600 nm was ∼60 mW (corresponding to 1.45 nJ pulse energy and ∼55% slope power conversion efficiency). The output pulses directly from the FOPO were highly chirped (∼3 ps duration), and they could be compressed outside of the cavity to 180 fs by using a standard optical fiber compressor. Detailed numerical simulation was also performed to understand the pulse evolution dynamics around the laser cavity. We believe that the proposed design concept is useful for scaling up the pulse energy in the FOPO using different pumping wavelengths.
High-Frequency RIN Transfer in Fibre Optic Parametric Amplifiers
Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Kang, Ning
2011-01-01
ibre optic parametric amplifiers (FOPAs) are versatile devices for amplification at arbitrary wavelengths, as well as a wide range of optical signal processing applications, including switching, wavelength conversion, regeneration, pulse generation etc [1]. Transfer of intensity fluctuations from...
A Theoretical Evaluation of Optical Parametric Amplification in BBO Crystal
邵敏; 薛绍林; 林尊琪
2005-01-01
The noncollinear optical parametric amplification in BBO crystal is theoretically investigated. The phase matching angle, gain bandwidth, optimal noncollinear angle and conversion efficiency for both type-Ⅰ and type-Ⅱ BBO are simulated. The numerical simulation results are important to the practical optical parametric amplification experiments with BBO crystal.
Parametric resonance in the early Universe—a fitting analysis
Figueroa, Daniel G.; Torrentí, Francisco
2017-02-01
Particle production via parametric resonance in the early Universe, is a non-perturbative, non-linear and out-of-equilibrium phenomenon. Although it is a well studied topic, whenever a new scenario exhibits parametric resonance, a full re-analysis is normally required. To avoid this tedious task, many works present often only a simplified linear treatment of the problem. In order to surpass this circumstance in the future, we provide a fitting analysis of parametric resonance through all its relevant stages: initial linear growth, non-linear evolution, and relaxation towards equilibrium. Using lattice simulations in an expanding grid in 3+1 dimensions, we parametrize the dynamics' outcome scanning over the relevant ingredients: role of the oscillatory field, particle coupling strength, initial conditions, and background expansion rate. We emphasize the inaccuracy of the linear calculation of the decay time of the oscillatory field, and propose a more appropriate definition of this scale based on the subsequent non-linear dynamics. We provide simple fits to the relevant time scales and particle energy fractions at each stage. Our fits can be applied to post-inflationary preheating scenarios, where the oscillatory field is the inflaton, or to spectator-field scenarios, where the oscillatory field can be e.g. a curvaton, or the Standard Model Higgs.
Parametric strong mode-coupling in carbon nanotube mechanical resonators
Li, Shu-Xiao; Zhu, Dong; Wang, Xin-He; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Deng, Guang-Wei; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Kai-Li; Dai, Xing-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping
2016-08-01
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted much attention for use in nanomechanical devices because of their exceptional properties, such as large resonant frequencies, low mass, and high quality factors. Here, we report the first experimental realization of parametric strong coupling between two mechanical modes on a single CNT nanomechanical resonator, by applying an extra microwave pump. This parametric pump method can be used to couple mechanical modes with arbitrary frequency differences. The properties of the mechanical resonator are detected by single-electron tunneling at low temperature, which is found to be strongly coupled to both modes. The coupling strength between the two modes can be tuned by the pump power, setting the coupling regime from weak to strong. This tunability may be useful in further phonon manipulations in carbon nanotubes.Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted much attention for use in nanomechanical devices because of their exceptional properties, such as large resonant frequencies, low mass, and high quality factors. Here, we report the first experimental realization of parametric strong coupling between two mechanical modes on a single CNT nanomechanical resonator, by applying an extra microwave pump. This parametric pump method can be used to couple mechanical modes with arbitrary frequency differences. The properties of the mechanical resonator are detected by single-electron tunneling at low temperature, which is found to be strongly coupled to both modes. The coupling strength between the two modes can be tuned by the pump power, setting the coupling regime from weak to strong. This tunability may be useful in further phonon manipulations in carbon nanotubes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fit of the quality factor and similar results in more devices. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02853e
Correction to "Parametric Resonance in Immersed Elastic Boundaries"
Ko, William
2012-01-01
This note is a correction to a paper of Cortez, Peskin, Stockie & Varela [SIAM J. Appl. Math., 65(2):494-520, 2004], who studied the stability of a parametrically-forced, circular, elastic fiber immersed in an incompressible fluid in 2D, and showed the existence of parametric resonance. The results were represented as plots that separate parameter space into regions where the solution is either stable or unstable. We uncovered two errors in the paper: the first was in the derivation of the eigenvalue problem, and the second was in the code to used to calculate the stability contours.
Parametric resonances of convection belt system
Zhi-an YANG; Gao-feng LI
2009-01-01
Based on the Coriolis acceleration and the Lagrangian strain formula,a generalized equation for the transverse vibration system of convection belts is derived using Newton's second law.The method of multiple scales is directly applied to the governing equations,and an approximate solution of the primary parameter resonance of the system is obtained.The detuning parameter,cross-section area,elastic and viscoelastic parameters,and axial moving speed have a significant influences on the amplitudes of steady-state response and their existence boundaries.Some new dynamical phenomena are revealed.
Cross resonant optical antenna.
Biagioni, P; Huang, J S; Duò, L; Finazzi, M; Hecht, B
2009-06-26
We propose a novel cross resonant optical antenna consisting of two perpendicular nanosized gold dipole antennas with a common feed gap. We demonstrate that the cross antenna is able to convert propagating fields of any polarization state into correspondingly polarized, localized, and enhanced fields and vice versa. The cross antenna structure therefore opens the road towards the control of light-matter interactions based on polarized light as well as the analysis of polarized fields on the nanometer scale.
Cross Resonant Optical Antenna
Biagioni, P.; Huang, J. S.; Duò, L.; Finazzi, M.; Hecht, B.
2009-06-01
We propose a novel cross resonant optical antenna consisting of two perpendicular nanosized gold dipole antennas with a common feed gap. We demonstrate that the cross antenna is able to convert propagating fields of any polarization state into correspondingly polarized, localized, and enhanced fields and vice versa. The cross antenna structure therefore opens the road towards the control of light-matter interactions based on polarized light as well as the analysis of polarized fields on the nanometer scale.
Design criteria for ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers
Manzoni, C.; Cerullo, G.
2016-10-01
Optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) exploit second-order nonlinearity to transfer energy from a fixed frequency pump pulse to a variable frequency signal pulse, and represent an easy way of tuning over a broad range the frequency of an otherwise fixed femtosecond laser system. OPAs can also act as broadband amplifiers, transferring energy from a narrowband pump to a broadband signal and thus considerably shortening the duration of the pump pulse. Due to these unique properties, OPAs are nowadays ubiquitous in ultrafast laser laboratories, and are employed by many users, such as solid state physicists, atomic/molecular physicists, chemists and biologists, who are not experts in ultrafast optics. This tutorial paper aims at providing the non-specialist reader with a self-consistent guide to the physical foundations of OPAs, deriving the main equations describing their performance and discussing how they can be used to understand their most important working parameters (frequency tunability, bandwidth, pulse energy/repetition rate scalability, control over the carrier-envelope phase of the generated pulses). Based on this analysis, we derive practical design criteria for OPAs, showing how their performance depends on the type of the nonlinear interaction (crystal type, phase-matching configuration, crystal length), on the characteristics of the pump pulse (frequency, duration, energy, repetition rate) and on the OPA architecture.
Progress on muon parametric-resonance ionization cooling channel development
V.S. Morozov, Ya.S. Derbenev, A. Afanasev, K.B. Beard, R.P. Johnson, B. Erdelyi, J.A. Maloney
2012-07-01
Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) is intended as the final 6D cooling stage of a high-luminosity muon collider. To implement PIC, a continuous-field twin-helix magnetic channel was developed. A 6D cooling with stochastic effects off is demonstrated in a GEANT4/G4beamline model of a system where wedge-shaped Be absorbers are placed at the appropriate dispersion points in the twin-helix channel and are followed by short rf cavities. To proceed to cooling simulations with stochastics on, compensation of the beam aberrations from one absorber to another is required. Initial results on aberration compensation using a set of various-order continuous multipole fields are presented. As another avenue to mitigate the aberration effect, we optimize the cooling channel's period length. We observe a parasitic parametric resonance naturally occurring in the channel's horizontal plane due to the periodic beam energy modulation caused by the absorbers and rf. We discuss options for compensating this resonance and/or properly combining it with the induced half-integer parametric resonance needed for PIC.
Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems
Marhic, Michel E.; Andrekson, Peter A.; Petropoulos, Periklis
2015-01-01
The prospects for using fiber optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) in optical communication systems are reviewed. Phase-insensitive amplifiers (PIAs) and phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) are considered. Low-penalty amplification at/or near 1 Tb/s has been achieved, for both wavelength- and time-...... in excess of 14,000 Tb/s x km in realistic wavelength-division multiplexed long-haul networks. Technical challenges remaining to be addressed in order for fiber OPAs to become useful for long-haul communication networks are discussed.......The prospects for using fiber optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) in optical communication systems are reviewed. Phase-insensitive amplifiers (PIAs) and phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) are considered. Low-penalty amplification at/or near 1 Tb/s has been achieved, for both wavelength- and time......-modulated signals. A PSA with 1.1-dB noise figure has been demonstrated, and preliminary wavelength-division multiplexing experiments have been performed with PSAs. 512Gb/s have been transmitted over 6,000km by periodic phase conjugation. Simulations indicate that PIAs could reach data rate x reach products...
Fiber-optic parametric amplifier and oscillator based on intracavity parametric pump technique.
Luo, Zhengqian; Zhong, Wen-De; Tang, Ming; Cai, Zhiping; Ye, Chenchun; Xiao, Xiaosheng
2009-01-15
A cost-effective fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) based on the laser intracavity pump technique has been proposed and demonstrated experimentally. The parametric process is realized by inserting a 1 km highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber (HNL-DSF) into a fiber ring-laser cavity that consists of a high-power erbium-doped fiber (EDF) amplifier and two highly reflective fiber Bragg gratings. Compared with the conventional parametric pump schemes, the proposed pumping technique is free from a tunable semiconductor laser as the pump source and also the pump phase modulation. When the oscillating power of 530 mW in the EDF laser cavity is achieved to pump the HNL-DSF, a peak parametric gain of 27.5 dB and a net gain over 45 nm are obtained. Moreover, a widely tunable fiber-optic parametric oscillator is further developed using the FOPA as a gain medium.
Parametric resonance in the system of long Josephson junctions
Rahmonov, I. R.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Irie, A.
2014-08-01
The phase dynamics of the system of long Josephson junctions whose length exceeds the Josephson penetration depth has been studied. The possibility of the appearance of a longitudinal plasma wave and parametric resonance has been demonstrated. Both inductive and capacitive couplings between Josephson junctions have been taken into account in the calculations. The current-voltage characteristics, as well as time evolution of the spatial distribution of the electric charge in superconducting layers and the magnetic field, have been calculated in all Josephson junctions of the system. The coexistence of the longitudinal plasma wave and fluxon states has been observed in the region of parametric resonance beginning with a certain length of the Josephson junction. This indicates the appearance of a new unique collective excitation in the system of coupled Josephson junctions, namely, a composite state of the Josephson current, electric field, and vortex magnetic field.
Microsecond pulsed optical parametric oscillator pumped by a Q-switched fiber laser
Klein, M.E.; Adel, P.; Auerbach, M.; Fallnich, C.; Gross, P.; Boller, Klaus J.
2003-01-01
We report on what is to our knowledge the first optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by microsecond pulses from a wavelength-tunable solid-state laser. The singly resonant OPO (SRO) is based on a periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal and pumped with 2.1-ms-long pulses from an actively Q-switched Y
Early Detection of Parametric Roll Resonance on Container Ships
Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad
2013-01-01
Parametric roll resonance on ships is a nonlinear phenomenon where waves encountered at twice the natural roll frequency can bring the vessel dynamics into a bifurcation mode and lead to extreme values of roll. Recent years have seen several incidents with dramatic damage to container vessels...... on experimental data from model tests and on data from a container ship crossing the Atlantic during a storm....
Parametric-Resonance Ionization Cooling of Muon Beams
Morozov, V. S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Ya. S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Afanasev, A. [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States) and George Washington University, Washington, D.C. (United States); Johnson, R. P. [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Erdelyi, B. [Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL (United States); Maloney, J. A. [Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL (United States)
2012-12-01
Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) is proposed as the final 6D cooling stage of a high-luminosity muon collider. Combining muon ionization cooling with parametric resonant dynamics should allow an order of magnitude smaller final equilibrium transverse beam emittances than conventional ionization cooling alone. In this scheme, a half-integer parametric resonance is induced in a cooling channel causing the beam to be naturally focused with the period of the channel's free oscillations. Thin absorbers placed at the focal points then cool the beam?s angular divergence through the usual ionization cooling mechanism where each absorber is followed by RF cavities. A special continuous-field twin-helix magnetic channel with correlated behavior of the horizontal and vertical betatron motions and dispersion was developed for PIC. We present the results of modeling PIC in such a channel using GEANT4/ G4 beamline. We discuss the challenge of precise beam aberration control from one absorber to another over a wide angular spread.
Parametric-resonance ionization cooling of muon beams
Morozov, V. S.; Derbenev, Ya. S.; Afanasev, A.; Johnson, R. P.; Erdelyi, B.; Maloney, J. A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); Muons, Inc., Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States) and George Washington University, Washington, D.C. 20052 (United States); Muons, Inc., Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois 60115 (United States)
2012-12-21
Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) is proposed as the final 6D cooling stage of a high-luminosity muon collider. Combining muon ionization cooling with parametric resonant dynamics should allow an order of magnitude smaller final equilibrium transverse beam emittances than conventional ionization cooling alone. In this scheme, a half-integer parametric resonance is induced in a cooling channel causing the beam to be naturally focused with the period of the channel's free oscillations. Thin absorbers placed at the focal points then cool the beam's angular divergence through the usual ionization cooling mechanism where each absorber is followed by RF cavities. A special continuous-field twin-helix magnetic channel with correlated behavior of the horizontal and vertical betatron motions and dispersion was developed for PIC. We present the results of modeling PIC in such a channel using GEANT4/G4beamline. We discuss the challenge of precise beam aberration control from one absorber to another over a wide angular spread.
Continuous-wave terahertz light from optical parametric oscillators
Sowade, Rosita
2010-12-15
Continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) are working horses for spectroscopy in the near and mid infrared. However, in the terahertz frequency range (0.1 to 10 THz), the pump threshold is more than 100 W due to the high absorption in nonlinear crystals and thus exceeds the power of standard cw single-frequency pump sources. In this thesis the first cw OPO capable of generating terahertz radiation is demonstrated. To overcome the high threshold, the signal wave of a primary infrared process is resonantly enhanced to serve as the pump wave for a cascaded parametric process with one wave being at the terahertz frequency level. A terahertz output power of more than two microwatts is measured and tuning is achieved from 1.3 to 1.7 THz. This terahertz source emits a narrow-band, diffraction-limited beam which remains mode-hop free over more than one hour. Such a device inhibits high potential for applications in areas like astronomy, telecommunications or high-resolution spectroscopy. (orig.)
Studies of nondegenerate, quasi-phase-matched optical parametric amplification
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
2004-03-18
We have performed extensive numerical studies of quasi-phase-matched optical parametric amplification with the aim to improve its nondegenerate spectral bandwidth. Our multi-section fan-out design calculations indicate a 35-fold increase in spectral bandwidth.
Resonant Dampers for Parametric Instabilities in Gravitational Wave Detectors
Gras, Slawek; Barsotti, Lisa; Evans, Matthew
2015-01-01
Advanced gravitational wave interferometric detectors will operate at their design sensitivity with nearly 1MW of laser power stored in the arm cavities. Such large power may lead to the uncontrolled growth of acoustic modes in the test masses due to the transfer of optical energy to the mechanical modes of the arm cavity mirrors. These parametric instabilities have the potential of significantly compromising the detector performance and control. Here we present the design of "acoustic mode dampers" that use the piezoelectric effect to reduce the coupling of optical to mechanical energy. Experimental measurements carried on an Advanced LIGO-like test mass shown a 10-fold reduction in the amplitude of several mechanical modes, thus suggesting that this technique can greatly mitigate the impact of parametric instabilities in advanced detectors.
Optical stochastic cooling for RHIC using optical parametric amplification
M. Babzien
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We propose using an optical parametric amplifier, with a ∼12 μm wavelength, for optical-stochastic cooling of ^{79}Au ions in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. While the bandwidth of this amplifier is comparable to that of a Ti:sapphire laser, it has a higher average output power. Its wavelength is longer than that of the laser amplifiers previously considered for such an application. This longer wavelength permits a longer undulator period and higher magnetic field, thereby generating a larger signal from the pickup undulator and ensuring a more efficient interaction in the kicker undulator, both being essential elements in cooling moderately relativistic ions. The transition to a longer wavelength also relaxes the requirements for stability of the path length during ion-beam transport between pickup and kicker undulators.
Yoo, Jaeg Won; Cho, Sunh Oh; Jeong, Young Uk; Lee, Byung Cheol; Lee, Jong Min
2000-10-01
In this report we present a theoretical study of bare optical resonators having in mind to extend it to active resonators. To compute diffractional losses, phase shifts, intensity distributions and phases of radiation fields on mirrors, we coded a package of numerical procedures on bases of a pair of integral equations. Two numerical schemes, a matrix formalism and an iterative method, are programmed for finding numeric solutions to the pair of integral equations. The iterative method had been tried by Fox and Li, but it was not applicable to cases for high Fresnel numbers since the numerical errors involved propagate and accumulate uncontrollably. In this report, we implemented the matrix method to extend the computational limit further. A great deal of case studies are carried out with various configurations of stable and unstable resonators. Our results presented in this report show not only a good agreement with the results previously obtained by Fox and Li, but also a legitimacy of our numerical procedures in high Fresnel numbers.
Pulse Distortion in Saturated Fiber Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification
Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Da Ros, Francesco; Rottwitt, Karsten
2012-01-01
Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation.......Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation....
Optical Parametric Technology for Methane Measurements
Dawsey, Martha; Numata, Kenji; Wu, Stewart; Riris, Haris
2015-01-01
Atmospheric methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas, with approximately 25 times the radiative forcing of carbon dioxide (CO2) per molecule. Yet, lack of understanding of the processes that control CH4 sources and sinks and its potential release from stored carbon reservoirs contributes significant uncertainty to our knowledge of the interaction between carbon cycle and climate change. At Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) we have been developing the technology needed to remotely measure CH4 from orbit. Our concept for a CH4 lidar is a nadir viewing instrument that uses the strong laser echoes from the Earth's surface to measure CH4. The instrument uses a tunable, narrow-frequency light source and photon-sensitive detector to make continuous measurements from orbit, in sunlight and darkness, at all latitudes and can be relatively immune to errors introduced by scattering from clouds and aerosols. Our measurement technique uses Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA), which measures the absorption of laser pulses by a trace gas when tuned to a wavelength coincident with an absorption line. We have already demonstrated ground-based and airborne CH4 detection using Optical Parametric Amplifiers (OPA) at 1651 nm using a laser with approximately 10 microJ/pulse at 5kHz with a narrow linewidth. Next, we will upgrade our OPO system to add several more wavelengths in preparation for our September 2015 airborne campaign, and expect that these upgrades will enable CH4 measurements with 1% precision (10-20 ppb).
Optical parametric technology for methane measurements
Dawsey, Martha; Numata, Kenji; Wu, Stewart; Riris, Haris
2015-09-01
Atmospheric methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas, with approximately 25 times the radiative forcing of carbon dioxide (CO2) per molecule. Yet, lack of understanding of the processes that control CH4 sources and sinks and its potential release from stored carbon reservoirs contributes significant uncertainty to our knowledge of the interaction between carbon cycle and climate change. At Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) we have been developing the technology needed to remotely measure CH4 from orbit. Our concept for a CH4 lidar is a nadir viewing instrument that uses the strong laser echoes from the Earth's surface to measure CH4. The instrument uses a tunable, narrow-frequency light source and photon-sensitive detector to make continuous measurements from orbit, in sunlight and darkness, at all latitudes and can be relatively immune to errors introduced by scattering from clouds and aerosols. Our measurement technique uses Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA), which measures the absorption of laser pulses by a trace gas when tuned to a wavelength coincident with an absorption line. We have already demonstrated ground-based and airborne CH4 detection using Optical Parametric Amplifiers (OPA) at 1651 nm using a laser with approximately 10 μJ/pulse at 5kHz with a narrow linewidth. Next, we will upgrade our OPO system to add several more wavelengths in preparation for our September 2015 airborne campaign, and expect that these upgrades will enable CH4 measurements with 1% precision (10-20 ppb).
Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling of Muon Beams
Derbenev, Ya S; Afanasev, A; Beard, K B; Johnson, R; Erdelyi, B; Maloney, J A
2012-01-01
Cooling of muon beams for the next-generation lepton collider is necessary to achieve its higher luminosity with fewer muons. In this paper we present an idea to combine ionization cooling with parametric resonances that is expected to lead to muon beams with much smaller transverse sizes. We describe a linear magnetic transport channel where a half integer resonance is induced such that the normal elliptical motion of particles in x-x' phase space becomes hyperbolic, with particles moving to smaller x and larger x' at the channel focal points. Thin absorbers placed at the focal points of the channel then cool the angular divergence of the beam by the usual ionization cooling mechanism where each absorber is followed by RF cavities. We present a theory of Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC), starting with the basic principles in the context of a simple quadrupole-focused beam line. Then we discuss detuning caused by chromatic, spherical, and non-linear field aberrations and the techniques needed to ...
Thermally Induced Principal Parametric Resonance in Circular Plates
Ali H. Nayfeh
2002-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the problem of large-amplitude vibrations of a simply supported circular flat plate subjected to harmonically varying temperature fields arising from an external heat flux (aeroheating for example. The plate is modeled using the von Karman equations. We used the method of multiple scales to determine an approximate solution for the case in which the frequency of the thermal variations is approximately twice the fundamental natural frequency of the plate; that is, the case of principal parametric resonance. The results show that such thermal loads produce large-amplitude vibrations, with associated multi-valued responses and subcritical instabilities.
Tunable optical frequency division using a phase-locked optical parametric oscillator.
Lee, D; Wong, N C
1992-01-01
We report the experimental demonstration of a novel optical parametric oscillator approach to tunable optical frequency division. The beat frequency of the signal and idler subharmonic outputs of a tunable cw KTP optical parametric oscillator was phase locked to a microwave reference frequency source, which thus permitted precise determination of the output frequencies at approximately half the input pump frequency.
Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems.
Marhic, Michel E; Andrekson, Peter A; Petropoulos, Periklis; Radic, Stojan; Peucheret, Christophe; Jazayerifar, Mahmoud
2015-01-01
The prospects for using fiber optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) in optical communication systems are reviewed. Phase-insensitive amplifiers (PIAs) and phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) are considered. Low-penalty amplification at/or near 1 Tb/s has been achieved, for both wavelength- and time-division multiplexed formats. High-quality mid-span spectral inversion has been demonstrated at 0.64 Tb/s, avoiding electronic dispersion compensation. All-optical amplitude regeneration of amplitude-modulated signals has been performed, while PSAs have been used to demonstrate phase regeneration of phase-modulated signals. A PSA with 1.1-dB noise figure has been demonstrated, and preliminary wavelength-division multiplexing experiments have been performed with PSAs. 512 Gb/s have been transmitted over 6,000 km by periodic phase conjugation. Simulations indicate that PIAs could reach data rate x reach products in excess of 14,000 Tb/s × km in realistic wavelength-division multiplexed long-haul networks. Technical challenges remaining to be addressed in order for fiber OPAs to become useful for long-haul communication networks are discussed. [Formula: see text].
Spiral intensity patterns in the internally pumped optical parametric oscillator
Lodahl, Peter; Bache, Morten; Saffman, Mark
2001-01-01
We describe a nonlinear optical system that supports spiral pattern solutions in the field intensity. This new spatial structure is found to bifurcate above a secondary instability in the internally pumped optical parametric oscillator. The analytical predictions of threshold and spatial scale...
Decomposing a pulsed optical parametric amplifier into independent squeezers
Lvovsky, A I; Banaszek, K
2006-01-01
We discuss the concept of characteristic squeezing modes applied to a travelling-wave optical parametric amplifier pumped by an ultrashort pulse. The characteristic modes undergo decoupled single-mode squeezing transformations, and therefore they form a useful basis to describe the evolution of the entire multimode system. This provides an elegant and intuitive picture of quantum statistical properties of parametric fluorescence. We analyse the efficiency of detecting quadrature squeezing, and present results of numerical calculations for a realistic nonlinear medium.
Resonant parametric excitations driven by lower-hybrid fields
Villalon, E.
1980-11-01
Three-wave parametric excitation in inhomogeneous plasmas is examined in a two-dimensional geometry relevant to supplementary rf heating of tokamaks. The stabilization of resonant parametric excitation due to a linear mismatch in wavenumbers and to the Landau-damping rates of the decay waves is analyzed, assuming that the magnitude of the pump field is constant in time and in the spatial region where the resonant interaction takes place. Both types of temporally growing modes and spatially amplified instabilities are studied, using a WKB analysis. It is shown that either by increasing the strength of the mismatch K' or the width of the pump L, the growth rate of the fastest growing normal mode will decrease. When the excited waves are slightly damped, it is shown that there exists a finite value of the product K'L, such that, above it, no temporal normal modes are excited. The amount of spatial amplification is also reduced by the mismatch in wavenumbers and by the damping rates of the excited waves. Because of the finite spatial extent of the pump electric field, the amplification length is found to be smaller than or equal to L, depending on the strength of the mismatch and damping rates.
Resonant parametric excitations driven by lower-hybrid fields
Villalon, E.
1980-11-01
Three-wave parametric excitation in inhomogeneous plasmas is examined in a two-dimensional geometry relevant to supplementary rf heating of tokamaks. The stabilization of resonant parametric excitation due to a linear mismatch in wavenumbers and to the Landau-damping rates of the decay waves is analyzed, assuming that the magnitude of the pump field is constant in time and in the spatial region where the resonant interaction takes place. Both types of temporally growing modes and spatially amplified instabilities are studied, using a WKB analysis. It is shown that by increasing the strength of the mismatch K prime or the width of the pump L, the growth rate of the fastest growing normal mode will decrease. The amount of spatial amplification is also reduced by the mismatch in wavenumbers and by the damping rates of the excited waves. Because of the finite spatial extent of the pump electric field, the amplification length is smaller than or equal to L, depending on the strength of the mismatch and damping rates.
Westra, H.J.R.; Karabacak, D.M.; Brongersma, S.H.; Crego-Calama, M.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Venstra, W.J.
2011-01-01
The interactions between parametrically- and directly-driven vibration modes of a clamped-clamped beam resonator are studied. An integrated piezoelectric transducer is used for direct and parametric excitation. First, the parametric amplification and oscillation of a single mode are analyzed by the
Westra, H.J.R.; Karabacak, D.M.; Brongersma, S.H.; Crego-Calama, M.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Venstra, W.J.
2011-01-01
The interactions between parametrically- and directly-driven vibration modes of a clamped-clamped beam resonator are studied. An integrated piezoelectric transducer is used for direct and parametric excitation. First, the parametric amplification and oscillation of a single mode are analyzed by the
Femtosecond Optical Parametric Amplifier for Petawatt Nd:Glass Lasers
ZHANG Xiao-Min; QIAN Lie-Jia; YUAN Peng; LUO Hang; ZHU He-Yuan; ZHU Qi-Hua; WEI Xiao-Feng; FAN Dian-Yuan
2006-01-01
@@ We study a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pumped optical parametric amplifier (OPA) at 1053nm. The OPA generates stable signal pulses with duration smaller than 100 fs, wavelength drift smaller than 0.5nm, and pulse-to-pulse fluctuation of about ±4%, by employing an external seeder. In a terawatt laser pumped large-aperture LiNbO3 OPA, pulse energy at signal has been scaled up to 4mJ. This m J-class femtosecond OPA at 1053nm presents a feasible alternative to optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification, and is ready to be applied to petawatt lasers.
Optical parametric oscillators in isotropic photonic crystals and cavities: 3D time domain analysis
Conti, Claudio; Di Falco, Andrea; Assanto, Gaetano
2004-01-01
We investigate optical parametric oscillations through four-wave mixing in resonant cavities and photonic crystals. The theoretical analysis underlines the relevant features of the phenomenon and the role of the density of states. Using fully vectorial 3D time-domain simulations, including both dispersion and nonlinear polarization, for the first time we address this process in a face centered cubic lattice and in a photonic crystal slab. The results lead the way to the development of novel p...
High-Energy Optical Parametric Waveform Synthesizer
Muecke, Oliver D.; Cirmi, G.; Fang, S.; Rossi, G. M.; Chia, Shih-Hsuan; Kärtner, F. X.; Manzoni, C.; Farinello, P.; Cerullo, and G.
2014-01-01
We discuss the ongoing development of a phase-stable, multi-mJ 3-channel parametric waveform synthesizer generating a 2-octave-wide spectrum (0.52-2.4μm). After two amplification stages, the combined >125-μJ output supports 1.9-fs waveforms. First preliminary FROG-characterization results of the second-stage outputs demonstrate the feasibility to recompress all three channels simultaneously close to the Fourier limit. Energy scaling to ~2 mJ is achieved after three amplification stages. The f...
Pu, Minhao; Ottaviano, Luisa; Semenova, Elizaveta
2015-01-01
We present a record-low threshold power of 7 mW at ~1.55 µm for on-chip optical parametric oscillation using a high quality factor micro-ring-resonator in a new nonlinear photonics platform: AlGaAs-on-insulator......We present a record-low threshold power of 7 mW at ~1.55 µm for on-chip optical parametric oscillation using a high quality factor micro-ring-resonator in a new nonlinear photonics platform: AlGaAs-on-insulator...
Coupled mode parametric resonance in a vibrating screen model
Slepyan, Leonid I
2013-01-01
We consider a simple dynamic model of the vibrating screen operating in the parametric resonance (PR) mode. This model was used in the course of designing and setting of such a screen in LPMC. The PR-based screen compares favorably with conventional types of such machines, where the transverse oscillations are excited directly. It is characterized by larger values of the amplitude and by insensitivity to damping in a rather wide range. The model represents an initially strained system of two equal masses connected by a linearly elastic string. Self-equilibrated, longitudinal, harmonic forces act on the masses. Under certain conditions this results in transverse, finite-amplitude oscillations of the string. The problem is reduced to a system of two ordinary differential equations coupled by the geometric nonlinearity. Damping in both the transverse and longitudinal oscillations is taken into account. Free and forced oscillations of this mass-string system are examined analytically and numerically. The energy e...
Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides
Liu, Xiaoping; Vlasov, Yurii A; Green, William M J
2010-01-01
All-optical signal processing is envisioned as an approach to dramatically decrease power consumption and speed up performance of next-generation optical telecommunications networks. Nonlinear optical effects, such as four-wave mixing (FWM) and parametric gain, have long been explored to realize all-optical functions in glass fibers. An alternative approach is to employ nanoscale engineering of silicon waveguides to enhance the optical nonlinearities by up to five orders of magnitude, enabling integrated chip-scale all-optical signal processing. Previously, strong two-photon absorption (TPA) of the telecom-band pump has been a fundamental and unavoidable obstacle, limiting parametric gain to values on the order of a few dB. Here we demonstrate a silicon nanophotonic optical parametric amplifier exhibiting gain as large as 25.4 dB, by operating the pump in the mid-IR near one-half the band-gap energy (E~0.55eV, lambda~2200nm), at which parasitic TPA-related absorption vanishes. This gain is high enough to comp...
Coupled-resonator optical waveguides
Raza, Søren; Grgic, Jure; Pedersen, Jesper Goor
2010-01-01
Coupled-resonator optical waveguides hold potential for slow-light propagation of optical pulses. The dispersion properties may adequately be analyzed within the framework of coupled-mode theory. We extend the standard coupled-mode theory for such structures to also include complex-valued paramet...
Gain characteristics of a saturated fiber optic parametric amplifier
Rottwitt, Karsten; Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny
2008-01-01
In this work we discuss saturation performance of a fiber optic parametric amplifier. A simple numerical model is described and applied to specific cases. A system experiment using a saturated amplifier illustrates a 4 dB improvement in required signal to noise ratio for a fixed bit error ratio....
Asymmetric gain-saturated spectrum in fiber optical parametric amplifiers
Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Rottwitt, Karsten; Galili, Michael
2012-01-01
We demonstrate experimentally and numerically an unexpected spectral asymmetry in the saturated-gain spectrum of single-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers. The interaction between higher-order four-wave mixing products and dispersive waves radiated as an effect of third-order dispersion...
Parametric excitation of multiple resonant radiations from localized wavepackets
Conforti, Matteo; Mussot, Arnaud; Kudlinski, Alexandre
2015-01-01
Fundamental physical phenomena such as laser-induced ionization, driven quantum tunneling, Faraday waves, Bogoliubov quasiparticle excitations, and the control of new states of matter rely on time-periodic driving of the system. A remarkable property of such driving is that it can induce the localized (bound) states to resonantly couple to the continuum. Therefore experiments that allow for enlightening and controlling the mechanisms underlying such coupling are of paramount importance. We implement such an experiment in a special fiber optics system characterized by a dispersion oscillating along the propagation coordinate, which mimics "time". The quasi-momentum associated with such periodic perturbation is responsible for the efficient coupling of energy from the localized wave-packets sustained by the fiber nonlinearity into free-running linear dispersive waves (continuum), at multiple resonant frequencies. Remarkably, the observed resonances can be explained by means of a unified approach, regardless of ...
Numerical Modelling of Spontaneous Emission in Optical Parametric Amplifiers
Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Rottwitt, Karsten
2013-01-01
Fiber optical parametric processes offer a wide range of applications including phase sensitive as well as phase insensitive amplification, wavelength conversion and signal regeneration. One of the difficult challenges is any of these applications is to predict their associated noise performance....... However, it is well accepted that one contribution to the noise performance originates from vacuum fluctuations. In this work we show a novel approach to predict the spontaneous radiation from a parametric amplifier. In the approach the propagating fields are treated as a sum of a classical mean field...
Optical antennas as nanoscale resonators
Agio, Mario
2011-01-01
Recent progress in nanotechnology has enabled us to fabricate subwavelength architectures that function as antennas for improving the exchange of optical energy with nanoscale matter. We describe the main features of optical antennas for enhancing quantum emitters and review designs that increase the spontaneous emission rate by orders of magnitude from the ultraviolet up to the near-infrared spectral range. To further explore how optical antennas may lead to unprecedented regimes of light-matter interaction, we draw a relationship between metal nanoparticles, radio-wave antennas and optical resonators. Our analysis points out how optical antennas may function as nanoscale resonators and how these may offer unique opportunities with respect to state-of-the-art microcavities.
Optical antennas as nanoscale resonators.
Agio, Mario
2012-02-07
Recent progress in nanotechnology has enabled us to fabricate sub-wavelength architectures that function as antennas for improving the exchange of optical energy with nanoscale matter. We describe the main features of optical antennas for enhancing quantum emitters and review the designs that increase the spontaneous emission rate by orders of magnitude from the ultraviolet up to the near-infrared spectral range. To further explore how optical antennas may lead to unprecedented regimes of light-matter interactions, we draw a relationship between metal nanoparticles, radio-wave antennas and optical resonators. Our analysis points out how optical antennas may function as nanoscale resonators and how these may offer unique opportunities with respect to state-of-the-art microcavities.
Resonance modes in optical fibres
余寿绵; 余恬
2002-01-01
The weakly nonlinear boundary value problem of wave propagation in an optical fibre (for the transverse electric mode, for example) is formulated and a modified linear solution is obtained. It is shown that a self-consistent theory of fibre optics should be weakly nonlinear. The mode of critical refraction that does not exist in the linear theory is obtained, showing that it is a mode consisting of resonance modes. It is shown that the signal carriers in a long fibre are of resonance modes, not normal modes. Some experimental data are given for comparison with the theoretical predictions, and the agreement seems satisfactory.
Studies of the Twin Helix Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling Channel with COSY INFINITY
J.A. Maloney, K.B. Beard, R.P. Johnson, A. Afanasev, S.A. Bogacz, Y.S. Derbenev, V.S. Morozov, B. Erdelyi
2012-07-01
A primary technical challenge to the design of a high luminosity muon collider is an effective beam cooling system. An epicyclic twin-helix channel utilizing parametric-resonance ionization cooling has been proposed for the final 6D cooling stage. A proposed design of this twin-helix channel is presented that utilizes correlated optics between the horizontal and vertical betatron periods to simultaneously focus transverse motion of the beam in both planes. Parametric resonance is induced in both planes via a system of helical quadrupole harmonics. Ionization cooling is achieved via periodically placed wedges of absorbing material, with intermittent rf cavities restoring longitudinal momentum necessary to maintain stable orbit of the beam. COSY INFINITY is utilized to simulate the theory at first order. The motion of particles around a hyperbolic fixed point is tracked. Comparison is made between the EPIC cooling channel and standard ionization cooling effects. Cooling effects are measured, after including stochastic effects, for both a single particle and a distribution of particles.
Parametric and scattering characterization of PDMS membranes for optical applications
Santiago-Alvarado, A.; Vazquez Montiel, S.; Munoz-Lopez, J.; Castro-Ramos, J.; Delgado Atencio, J. A.
2009-08-01
Today elastic membranes are being used more frequent as optical surfaces in the science or in the industry. This due to the advantages that they display in their handling and in their cost of production. These characteristics make them ideals to apply them in micro-optical components and Tunable Focus Liquid Filled Length Lens (TFLFLL). In order to know if a membrane of PDMS (PDMS Sylgard 184) is feasible for a specific application within the field of the optics, it is necessary to know its mechanical, optical and chemical properties. In this work the parametric membrane characterization is reported for an optical application. An important factor in the performance of these membranes is related with their scattering factor that is produced due to the roughness and impurities (micro-bubbles or dust particles). These membranes are used as refractive surface in TFLFLL. Experimental results of the characterization process and device performance are presented.
Ultra-Broad-Band Optical Parametric Amplifier or Oscillator
Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatolly; Maleki, Lute
2009-01-01
A concept for an ultra-broad-band optical parametric amplifier or oscillator has emerged as a by-product of a theoretical study in fundamental quantum optics. The study was originally intended to address the question of whether the two-photon temporal correlation function of light [in particular, light produced by spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC)] can be considerably narrower than the inverse of the spectral width (bandwidth) of the light. The answer to the question was found to be negative. More specifically, on the basis of the universal integral relations between the quantum two-photon temporal correlation and the classical spectrum of light, it was found that the lower limit of two-photon correlation time is set approximately by the inverse of the bandwidth. The mathematical solution for the minimum two-photon correlation time also provides the minimum relative frequency dispersion of the down-converted light components; in turn, the minimum relative frequency dispersion translates to the maximum bandwidth, which is important for the design of an ultra-broad-band optical parametric oscillator or amplifier. In the study, results of an analysis of the general integral relations were applied in the case of an optically nonlinear, frequency-dispersive crystal in which SPDC produces collinear photons. Equations were found for the crystal orientation and pump wavelength, specific for each parametric-down-converting crystal, that eliminate the relative frequency dispersion of collinear degenerate (equal-frequency) signal and idler components up to the fourth order in the frequency-detuning parameter
Effect of idler absorption in pulsed optical parametric oscillators.
Rustad, Gunnar; Arisholm, Gunnar; Farsund, Øystein
2011-01-31
Absorption at the idler wavelength in an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is often considered detrimental. We show through simulations that pulsed OPOs with significant idler absorption can perform better than OPOs with low idler absorption both in terms of conversion efficiency and beam quality. The main reason for this is reduced back conversion. We also show how the beam quality depends on the beam width and pump pulse length, and present scaling relations to use the example simulations for other pulsed nanosecond OPOs.
Ground and Airborne Methane Measurements with an Optical Parametric Amplifier
Numata, Kenji
2012-01-01
We report on ground and airborne atmospheric methane measurements with a differential absorption lidar using an optical parametric amplifier (OPA). Methane is a strong greenhouse gas on Earth and its accurate global mapping is urgently needed to understand climate change. We are developing a nanosecond-pulsed OPA for remote measurements of methane from an Earth-orbiting satellite. We have successfully demonstrated the detection of methane on the ground and from an airplane at approximately 11-km altitude.
Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Cristofori, Valentina; Rottwitt, Karsten
2015-01-01
This article reviews recent results of amplification of short optical pulses using fiber-optical parametric amplifiers. This includes chirped-pulse amplification of 400 fs pulses, error-free amplification of a 640-Gbit/s optical time-division multiplexed signal with less than a 1-dB power penalty...
Dual-wavelength, two-crystal, continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator.
Samanta, G K; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M
2011-08-15
We report a cw optical parametric oscillator (OPO) in a novel architecture comprising two nonlinear crystals in a single cavity, providing two independently tunable pairs of signal and idler wavelengths. Based on a singly resonant oscillator design, the device permits access to arbitrary signal and idler wavelength combinations within the parametric gain bandwidth and reflectivity of the OPO cavity mirrors. Using two identical 30 mm long MgO:sPPLT crystals in a compact four-mirror ring resonator pumped at 532 nm, we generate two pairs of signal and idler wavelengths with arbitrary tuning across 850-1430 nm, and demonstrate a frequency separation in the resonant signal waves down to 0.55 THz. Moreover, near wavelength-matched condition, coherent energy coupling between the resonant signal waves, results in reduced operation threshold and increased output power. A total output power >2.8 W with peak-to-peak power stability of 16% over 2 h is obtained. © 2011 Optical Society of America
Fiber-optic parametric amplifiers: Their advantages and limitations
Yaman, Fatih
Fiber-optic parametric amplifiers (FOPAs) can be used in lightwave systems for several signal-processing applications including optical amplification, phase conjugation, and wavelength conversion. In principle, FOPAs can provide high gain uniform over a wide wavelength range (> 100 nm). What is more, FOPAs add little noise to the amplified signal. FOPAs can have noise figure as low as 0 dB when operated in the phase-sensitive mode and 3 dB in the phase insensitive mode. However, in practice, these advantages of FOPAs are compromised. In this work, I investigate several factors that limit the performance of FOPAs, and propose practical schemes to minimize those limitations. FOPAs can provide a relatively large gain bandwidth because the gain spectrum of FOPAs is not determined by material resonances but by the phase-matching condition. For the same reason, FOPAs are very sensitive to perturbations stemming from fiber irregularities. One such irregularity is that fiber dispersion varies randomly along the fiber length. My numerical modeling showed that, because of such variations, FOPA gain spectrum cannot maintain its flatness and also that FOPA gain profile changes from one fiber to the other. Using stochastic methods, an analytic theory is developed that can predict an "average gain spectrum." This analytic theory can be used to show that flatness of FOPA gain is recovered at the expense of reducing the gain bandwidth. Another fiber irregularity that affects FOPA gain spectrum is the residual birefringence. During the fiber-drawing process, the cross section of fiber core inevitably deviates from perfect circular symmetry. As a result, all non-polarization maintaining fibers exhibit residual birefringence. Both the magnitude of birefringence and the direction of its principal axis vary along the fiber length as well as in time. Because of residual birefringence, state of polarizations of the propagating fields change randomly also. Since the underlying four
Optical detection of terahertz using nonlinear parametric upconversion.
Khan, M Jalal; Chen, Jerry C; Kaushik, Sumanth
2008-12-01
We extend our work to perform sensitive, room-temperature optical detection of terahertz (THz) by using nonlinear parametric upconversion. THz radiation at 700 GHz is mixed with pump light at 1,550 nm in a bulk GaAs crystal to generate an idler wave at 1,555.6 nm. The idler is separated, coupled into optical fiber, and detected using a gated Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode. The resulting THz detector has a power sensitivity of 4.5 pW/Hz and a timing resolution of 1 ns.
Effect of microwave irradiation on parametric resonance in intrinsic Josephson junctions
Gaafar, Mahmoud, E-mail: futech_ma7moudgaafer@yahoo.com [BLTP, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region 141980 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Menoufya University (Egypt); Shukrinov, Yury [BLTP, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region 141980 (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, 01187 Dresden (Germany)
2013-08-15
Highlights: ► We investigated the effect of microwave irradiation on the phase dynamics of IJJs. ► A remarkable changing of the wavelength of LPW at parametric resonance is shown. ► Appearance of an additional parametric resonance before Shapiro step is observed. -- Abstract: The effect of microwave irradiation on the phase dynamics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high temperature superconductors is investigated. We demonstrate the influence of microwave’s amplitude variation on the current–voltage characteristics and on the time dependence (temporal oscillations) of the electric charge in the superconducting layers. A remarkable changing of the longitudinal plasma wavelength at parametric resonance is shown. We demonstrate an effect of the microwave radiation on the width of the parametric resonance region.
Advances in magnetic and optical resonance
Warren, Warren S
1997-01-01
Since 1965, Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance has provided researchers with timely expositions of fundamental new developments in the theory of, experimentation with, and application of magnetic and optical resonance.
Effect of microwave irradiation on parametric resonance in intrinsic Josephson junctions
Gaafar, Mahmoud; Shukrinov, Yury
2013-08-01
The effect of microwave irradiation on the phase dynamics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high temperature superconductors is investigated. We demonstrate the influence of microwave’s amplitude variation on the current-voltage characteristics and on the time dependence (temporal oscillations) of the electric charge in the superconducting layers. A remarkable changing of the longitudinal plasma wavelength at parametric resonance is shown. We demonstrate an effect of the microwave radiation on the width of the parametric resonance region.
2013-01-01
We report, in this work, on unprecedented levels of parametric amplification in microelectromechanical resonators, operated in air, with integrated piezoelectric actuation and sensing capabilities. The method relies on an analytical/numerical understanding of the influence of geometrical nonlinearities inherent to the bridge-like configuration of the resonators. We provide analytical formulae to predict the performances of the parametric amplifier below the nonlinearity threshold, in terms of...
Thermal effects in high average power optical parametric amplifiers.
Rothhardt, Jan; Demmler, Stefan; Hädrich, Steffen; Peschel, Thomas; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas
2013-03-01
Optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) have the reputation of being average power scalable due to the instantaneous nature of the parametric process (zero quantum defect). This Letter reveals serious challenges originating from thermal load in the nonlinear crystal caused by absorption. We investigate these thermal effects in high average power OPAs based on beta barium borate. Absorption of both pump and idler waves is identified to contribute significantly to heating of the nonlinear crystal. A temperature increase of up to 148 K with respect to the environment is observed and mechanical tensile stress up to 40 MPa is found, indicating a high risk of crystal fracture under such conditions. By restricting the idler to a wavelength range far from absorption bands and removing the crystal coating we reduce the peak temperature and the resulting temperature gradient significantly. Guidelines for further power scaling of OPAs and other nonlinear devices are given.
Wavelength Conversion by Cascaded FWM in a Fiber Optical Parametric Oscillator
Svane, Ask Sebastian; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Rishøj, Lars Søgaard
2011-01-01
We report on a continuous-wave fiber optical parametric oscillator utilizing selective filtering on cascade four wave mixing (CFWM). Oscillations of distinct CFWM terms are obtained, extending wavelength conversion outside the parametric gain region.......We report on a continuous-wave fiber optical parametric oscillator utilizing selective filtering on cascade four wave mixing (CFWM). Oscillations of distinct CFWM terms are obtained, extending wavelength conversion outside the parametric gain region....
Synchronously pumped CdSe optical parametric oscillator in the 9-10 microm region.
Watson, M A; O'Connor, M V; Shepherd, D P; Hanna, D C
2003-10-15
Continuous mode-locked operation of a singly resonant, synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (SPOPO) based on CdSe has produced idler output tuned over the range of 9.1-9.7 microm, the longest wavelength generated so far to our knowledge from a SPOPO. Average idler powers as high as approximately 70 mW are generated in the crystal. Tandem pumping with a diffraction-grating-tuned parametric oscillator in periodically poled lithium niobate provides a convenient and agile means of tuning the noncritically phase-matched CdSe device. The absence of any detrimental thermal effects in the CdSe crystal suggests that significant further power scaling should be possible, with idler tuning ranges extendable to cover 8-12 microm.
Distributed optical fiber surface plasmon resonance sensors
Zhenxin Cao; Lenan Wu; Dayong Li
2006-01-01
@@ The relationships of the resonant wavelength of optical fiber surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors to the modulation layer refractive index, thickness and the refractive index of the bulk medium are obtained by using theoretical calculation model of optical fiber SPR sensors under certain conditions, which indicates that resonant wavelength of the sensors is approximately linear with modulation layer thickness. Based on the linear relationship, multiple SPR sensors with different resonant wavelengths can be fabricated in a single optical fiber named as distributed optical fiber surface plasmon resonance sensors (DOFSPRSs).Experimental results are presented, showing that it is practical to fabricate more than one SPR sensors in a single optical fiber.
Optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier at 1600 nm with all-optical synchronization
Leitenstorfer Alfred
2013-03-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate the amplification of 1.6 μm pulses by a KTA optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier based on an all-optical synchronization scheme as a scalable approach to generation of high power tunable mid infrared.
Astigmatism transfer phenomena in the optical parametric amplification process
Li, Wenkai; Chen, Yun; Li, Yanyan; Xu, Yi; Guo, Xiaoyang; Lu, Jun; Leng, Yuxin
2017-01-01
We numerically and experimentally investigate the astigmatism transfer phenomena in femtosecond optical parametric amplification (OPA). We model the OPA process based on the coupled second-order three-wave nonlinear propagation equations. The numerical and experimental results support that the input pump pulse astigmatism can be transferred into the idler pulse but not the signal pulse, and the idler pulse astigmatism originating from spatial walk-off is less than the idler pulse astigmatism received from the pump. Thus, we can provide a clear understanding of astigmatism transfer mechanisms in the OPA process, and make better use of broadband tunable OPA sources.
Spontaneous parametric processes in optical fibers: a comparison
Garay-Palmett, Karina; U'Ren, Alfred
2013-01-01
We study the processes of spontaneous four wave mixing and of third-order spontaneous parametric downconversion in optical fibers, as the basis for the implementation of photon-pair and photon-triplet sources. We present a comparative analysis of the two processes including expressions for the respective quantum states and plots of the joint spectral intensity, a discussion of phasematching characteristics, and expressions for the conversion efficiency. We have also included a comparative study based on numerical results for the conversion efficiency for the two sources, as a function of several key experimental parameters.
A Coherent Ising Machine Based On Degenerate Optical Parametric Oscillators
Wang, Zhe; Marandi, Alireza; Wen, Kai; Byer, Robert L.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2014-03-01
A degenerate optical parametric oscillator network is proposed to solve the NP-hard problem of finding a ground state of the Ising model. The underlying operating mechanism originates from the bistable output phase of each oscillator and the inherent preference of the network in selecting oscillation modes with the minimum photon decay rate. Computational experiments are performed on all instances reducible to the NP-hard MAX-CUT problems on cubic graphs of order up to 20. The numerical results reasonably suggest the effectiveness of the proposed network. This project is supported by the FIRST program of Japanese Government. Zhe Wang is also grateful for the support from Stanford Graduate Fellowship.
Entanglement in the above-threshold optical parametric oscillator
Villar, A S; Dechoum, K; Khoury, A Z; Martinelli, M; Nussenzveig, P; Cassemiro, Katiuscia N.; Dechoum, Kaled; Khoury, Antonio Z.; Martinelli, Marcelo; Nussenzveig, Paulo; Villar, Alessandro S.
2006-01-01
We investigate entanglement in the above-threshold Optical Parametric Oscillator, both theoretically and experimentally, and discuss its potential applications to quantum information. The fluctuations measured in the subtraction of signal and idler amplitude quadratures are $\\Delta^2 \\hat p_-=0.50(1)$, or $-3.01(9)$ dB, and in the sum of phase quadratures are $\\Delta^2 \\hatq_+=0.73(1)$, or $-1.37(6)$ dB. A detailed experimental study of the noise behavior as a function of pump power is presented, and discrepancies with theory are discussed.
Triply-resonant Continuous Wave Parametric Source with a Microwatt Pump
Martin, Aude; Combrié, Sylvain; Lehoucq, Gaëlle; Debuisschert, Thierry; Lian, Jin; Sokolov, Sergey; Mosk, Allard P; de Rossi, Alfredo
2016-01-01
We demonstrate a nanophotonic parametric light source with a record high normalized conversion efficiency of $3\\times 10^6\\, W^{-2}$, owing to resonantly enhanced four wave mixing in coupled high-Q photonic crystal resonators. The rate of spontaneously emitted photons reaches 14 MHz.
Parametric analysis of the planar metamaterials based on complementary double-ring resonators
Lu Wei-Bing; Ji Zhong-Fu
2011-01-01
The planar metamaterials comprising complementary double-ring resonators (CDRRs) show its left handed behaviour. As a consequent work, this paper presents a detailed parametric study on the magnetically resonant transmission characteristics of the complementary double-ring metamaterials based on its structural parameters. This will be useful for the design of compact planar metamaterials based on the transmission lines loaded with CDRRs.
All-optical Photonic Oscillator with High-Q Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators
Savchenkov, Anatoliy A.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Strekalov, Dmitry; Mohageg, Makan; Iltchenko, Vladimir S.; Maleki, Lute
2004-01-01
We demonstrated low threshold optical photonic hyper-parametric oscillator in a high-Q 10(exp 10) CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator which generates stable 8.5 GHz signal. The oscillations result from the resonantly enhanced four wave mixing occurring due to Kerr nonlinearity of the material.
Cascade of parametric resonances in coupled Josephson junctions
Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Azemtsa-Donfack, H.; Rahmonov, I. R.; Botha, A. E.
2016-06-01
We found that the coupled system of Josephson junctions under external electromagnetic radiation demonstrates a cascade of parametric instabilities. These instabilities appear along the IV characteristics within bias current intervals corresponding to Shapiro step subharmonics and lead to charging in the superconducting layers. The amplitudes of the charge oscillations increase with increasing external radiation power. We demonstrate the existence of longitudinal plasma waves at the corresponding bias current values. An essential advantage of the parametric instabilities in the case of subharmonics is the lower amplitude of radiation that is needed for the creation of the longitudinal plasma wave. This fact gives a unique possibility to create and control longitudinal plasma waves in layered superconductors. We propose a novel experiment for studying parametric instabilities and the charging of superconducting layers based on the simultaneous variation of the bias current and radiation amplitude.
Quantum correlation in degenerate optical parametric oscillators with mutual injections
Takata, Kenta
2015-01-01
We theoretically and numerically study the quantum dynamics of two degenerate optical parametric oscillators with mutual injections. The cavity mode in the optical coupling path between the two oscillator facets is explicitly considered. Stochastic equations for the oscillators and mutual injection path based on the positive $P$ representation are derived. The system of two gradually pumped oscillators with out-of-phase mutual injections are simulated, and their quantum states are investigated. When the incoherent loss of the oscillators other than the mutual injections is small, the squeezed quadratic amplitudes $\\hat{p}$ in the oscillators are positively correlated near the oscillation threshold. It indicates finite quantum correlation, and the entanglement between the intracavity subharmonic fields. When with a small loss of the injection path, each oscillator around the phase transition point forms macroscopic superposition for a small pump noise. It suggests that the low-loss injection path works as a sq...
Short-pulse propagation in fiber optical parametric amplifiers
Cristofori, Valentina
and can operate with a potentially low noise figure with respect to erbium-doped fiber amplifiers and Raman amplifiers, when working in phase-sensitive configurations. A characterization of the signal distortion mechanisms introduced by FOPAs is relevant for investigating the applicability of FOPAs......Fiber optical parametric amplifiers (FOPAs) are attractive because they can provide large gain over a broad range of central wavelengths, depending only on the availability of a suitable pump laser. In addition, FOPAs are suitable for the realization of all-optical signal processing functionalities...... transfer can be reduced in saturated F OPAs. In order to characterize propagation impairments such as dispersion and Kerr effect, affecting signals reaching multi-terabit per second per channel, short pulses on the order of 500 fs need to be considered. Therefore, a short pulses fiber laser source...
Phase mismatched optical parametric generation in semiconductor magnetoplasma
Dubey, Swati; Ghosh, S.; Jain, Kamal
2017-05-01
Optical parametric generation involves the interaction of pump, signal, and idler waves satisfying law of conservation of energy. Phase mismatch parameter plays important role for the spatial distribution of the field along the medium. In this paper instead of exactly matching wave vector, a small mismatch is admitted with a degree of phase velocity mismatch between these waves. Hence the medium must possess certain finite coherence length. This wave mixing process is well explained by coupled mode theory and one dimensional hydrodynamic model. Based on this scheme, expressions for threshold pump field and transmitted intensity have been derived. It is observed that the threshold pump intensity and transmitted intensity can be manipulated by varying doping concentration and magnetic field under phase mismatched condition. A compound semiconductor crystal of n-InSb is assumed to be shined at 77 K by a 10.6μm CO2 laser with photon energy well below band gap energy of the crystal, so that only free charge carrier influence the optical properties of the medium for the I.R. parametric generation in a semiconductor plasma medium. Favorable parameters were explored to incite the said process keeping in mind the cost effectiveness and conversion efficiency of the process.
Investigation of coupled optical parametric oscillators for novel applications
Ding, Yujie J.
2016-03-01
In this proceedings article, we summarize our previous results on the novel applications using the coupled optical parametric oscillators (OPO's). In a conventional OPO, a single pump wavelength is capable of generating a pair of the signal and idler beams by placing a bulk nonlinear crystal inside an OPO cavity. When a nonlinear crystal composite consisting of periodically-inverted KTiOPO4 (KTP) plates bonded together by the adhesive-free-bonded (AFB) technique is used instead of the bulk nonlinear crystal, the optical parametric oscillation takes place at two sets of the new wavelengths for the signal and idler beams due to the phase shifts occurring at the interfaces of the adjacent domains making up the composite. These two sets of the signal and idler waves are effectively generated by the two OPO's being coupled to each other. These signals and idlers exhibit ultrastability in terms of their frequency separation. We review the progress made by us on the applications being realized by using such coupled OPO's such as THz generation and restoration of the blurred images after propagating through a distortion plate and a phase plate simulating atmospheric turbulence.
Chaotic parametric soliton-like pulses in ferromagnetic-film active ring resonators
Grishin, S. V., E-mail: grishfam@sgu.ru; Golova, T. M.; Morozova, M. A.; Romanenko, D. V. [Tchernyshevsky State University (Russian Federation); Seleznev, E. P. [Saratov Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotel’nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Russian Federation); Sysoev, I. V.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P. [Tchernyshevsky State University (Russian Federation)
2015-10-15
The generation of quasi-periodic sequences of parametric soliton-like pulses in an active ring resonator with a ferromagnetic film via the three-wave parametric instability of a magnetostatic surface wave is studied theoretically and experimentally. These dissipative structures form in time due to the competition between the cubic nonlinearity caused by parametric coupling between spin waves and the time dispersion caused by the resonant cavity that is present in a self-oscillatory system. The development of dynamic chaos due to the parametric instability of a magnetostatic surface wave results in irregular behavior of a phase. However, this behavior does not break a quasi-periodic pulse sequence when the gain changes over a wide range. The generated soliton-like pulses have a chaotic nature, which is supported by the maximum Lyapunov exponent estimated from experimental time series.
Off-axis QEPAS using a pulsed nanosecond Mid-Infrared Optical Parametric Oscillator
Lassen, Mikael; Feng, Yuyang; peremans, Andre; Petersen, Jan C
2016-01-01
A trace gas sensor, based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS), consisting of two acoustically coupled micro-resonators (mR) with an o?-axis 20 kHz quartz tuning fork (QTF) is demonstrated. The complete acoustically coupled mR system is optimized based on finite element simulations and experimentally verified. The QEPAS sensor is pumped resonantly by a nanosecond pulsed single-mode mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator (MIR OPO). The sensor is used for spectroscopic measurements on methane in the 3.1 um to 3.5 um wavelength region with a resolution bandwidth of 1 cm^-1 and a detection limit of 0.8 ppm. An Allan deviation analysis shows that the detection limit at optimum integration time for the QEPAS sensor is 32 ppbv@190s and that the background noise is solely due to the thermal noise of the QTF.
Three-photon absorption in optical parametric oscillators based on OP-GaAs
Heckl, Oliver H.; Bjork, Bryce J.; Winkler, Georg; Bryan Changala, P.; Spaun, Ben; Porat, Gil; Bui, Thinh Q.; Lee, Kevin F.; Jiang, Jie; Fermann, Martin E.; Schunemann, Peter G.; Ye, Jun
2016-11-01
We report on the first singly-resonant (SR), synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on orientation-patterned gallium arsenide (OP-GaAs). Together with a doubly resonant (DR) degenerate OPO based on the same OP-GaAs material, the output spectra cover 3 to 6 ${\\mu}$m within ~3 dB of relative power. The DR-OPO has the highest output power reported to date from a femtosecond, synchronously pumped OPO based on OP-GaAs. We discovered strong three photon absorption with a coefficient of 0.35 ${\\pm}$ 0.06 cm${^3}$/GW${^2}$ for our OP-GaAs sample, which limits the output power of these OPOs as mid-IR light sources. We present a detailed study of the three photon loss on the performance of both the SR and DR-OPOs, and compare them to those without this loss mechanism.
Three Photon Absorption in Optical Parametric Oscillators Based on OP-GaAs
Heckl, Oliver H; Winkler, Georg; Changala, P Bryan; Spaun, Ben; Porat, 1 Gil; Bui, Thinh Q; Lee, Kevin F; Jiang, Jie; Fermann, Martin; Schunemann, Peter G; Ye, Jun
2016-01-01
We report on the first singly-resonant (SR), synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on orientation-patterned gallium arsenide (OP-GaAs). Together with a doubly resonant (DR) degenerate OPO based on the same OP-GaAs material, the output spectra cover 3 to 6 ${\\mu}$m within ~3 dB of relative power. The DR-OPO has the highest output power reported to date from a femtosecond, synchronously pumped OPO based on OP-GaAs. We discovered strong three photon absorption with a coefficient of 0.35 ${\\pm}$ 0.06 cm${^3}$/GW${^2}$ for our OP-GaAs sample, which limits the output power of these OPOs as mid-IR light sources. We present a detailed study of the three photon loss on the performance of both the SR and DR-OPOs, and compare them to those without this loss mechanism.
Optical Microspherical Resonators for Biomedical Sensing
Giancarlo C. Righini
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Optical resonators play an ubiquitous role in modern optics. A particular class of optical resonators is constituted by spherical dielectric structures, where optical rays are total internal reflected. Due to minimal reflection losses and to potentially very low material absorption, these guided modes, known as whispering gallery modes, can confer the resonator an exceptionally high quality factor Q, leading to high energy density, narrow resonant-wavelength lines and a lengthy cavity ringdown. These attractive characteristics make these miniaturized optical resonators especially suited as laser cavities and resonant filters, but also as very sensitive sensors. First, a brief analysis is presented of the characteristics of microspherical resonators, of their fabrication methods, and of the light coupling techniques. Then, we attempt to overview some of the recent advances in the development of microspherical biosensors, underlining a number of important applications in the biomedical field.
Estep, Nicholas A.; Sounas, Dimitrios L.; Soric, Jason; Alù, Andrea
2014-12-01
Non-reciprocal components, which are essential to many modern communication systems, are almost exclusively based on magneto-optical materials, severely limiting their applicability. A practical and inexpensive route to magnetic-free non-reciprocity could revolutionize radio-frequency and nanophotonic communication networks. Angular-momentum biasing was recently proposed as a means of realizing isolation for sound waves travelling in a rotating medium, and envisaged as a path towards compact, linear integrated non-reciprocal electromagnetic components. Inspired by this concept, here we demonstrate a subwavelength, linear radio-frequency non-reciprocal circulator free from magnetic materials and bias. The scheme is based on the parametric modulation of three identical, strongly and symmetrically coupled resonators. Their resonant frequencies are modulated by external signals with the same amplitude and a relative phase difference of 120°, imparting an effective electronic angular momentum to the system. We observe giant non-reciprocity, with up to six orders of magnitude difference in transmission for opposite directions. Furthermore, the device topology is tunable in real time, and can be directly embedded in a conventional integrated circuit.
Aberration compensation in a Skew parametric-resonance ionization cooling channel
Sy, Amy V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Yaroslav S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Morozov, Vasiliy [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Afanasev, Andrei [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Bao, Y. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Johnson, Rolland P. [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)
2017-05-01
Skew Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (Skew PIC) represents a novel method for focusing of highly divergent particle beams, as in the final 6D cooling stage of a high-luminosity muon collider. In the muon collider concept, the resultant equilibrium transverse emittances from cooling with Skew PIC are an order of magnitude smaller than in conventional ionization cooling. The concept makes use of coupling of the transverse dynamic behavior, and the linear dynamics are well-behaved with good agreement between analytic solutions and simulation results. Compared to the uncoupled system, coupling of the transverse dynamic behavior purports to reduce the number of multipoles required for aberration compensation while also avoiding unwanted resonances. Aberration compensation is more complicated in the coupled case, especially in the high-luminosity muon collider application where equilibrium angular spreads in the cooling channel are on the order of 200 mrad. We present recent progress on aberration compensation for control of highly divergent muon beams in the coupled correlated optics channel, and a simple cooling model to test the transverse acceptance of the channel.
CHEN Liqun; Jean W.ZU; WU Jun
2004-01-01
To investigate the principal resonance in transverse nonlinear parametric vibration of an axially accelerating viscoelastic string, the method of multiple scales is applied directly to the nonlinear partial differential equation that governs the transverse vibration of the string. To derive the governing equation, Newton's second law, Lagrangean strain, and Kelvin's model are respectively used to account the dynamical relation, geometric nonlinearity and the viscoelasticity of the string material.Based on the solvability condition of eliminating the secular terms, closed form solutions are obtained for the amplitude and the existence conditions of nontrivial steady-state response of the principal parametric resonance. The Lyapunov linearized stability theory is employed to analyze the stability of the trivial and nontrivial solutions in the principal parametric resonance. Some numerical examples are presented to show the effects of the mean transport speed, the amplitude and the frequency of speed variation.
The Experimental Investigation Of The Screen Operation In The Parametric Resonance Conditions
Bąk Łukasz
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper the experimental studies of the screen working in the parametric resonance condition are discussed. The investigations are conducted for laboratory parametric resonance screen. The measuring test is performed for four cases of tension force values. The full sheet metal instead of the sieve is used. For each considered case the natural frequency of the plate and the parameter modulation frequency are determined. The achieved results are presented and discussed. It is shown that the highest sieve plate amplitude is obtained when the parameter modulation frequency is two times larger than natural frequency of the sieve plate. This parametric resonance vibration was observed only for tension force equal to 4000 N because of the rotational speed limits of electrical vibratos.
Łuczko, Jan; Czerwiński, Andrzej
2016-07-01
The article presents an analysis of a model describing transverse vibrations of an elastic hose induced by non-harmonic fluid flow pulsation. The equation of motion is given as a nonlinear partial differential equation with periodically variable coefficients. The Galerkin method is employed, utilising orthogonal polynomials as shape functions. The effect of selected parameters on increased vibration intensity range and the character and form of vibrations is investigated. It is demonstrated that sub-harmonic and quasi-periodic vibrations can be induced in the simple and combination parametric resonance range. The occurrence of the parametric resonance phenomenon is evidenced by experimental data.
Phonon-assisted nonlinear optical processes in ultrashort-pulse pumped optical parametric amplifiers
Isaienko, Oleksandr; Robel, István
2016-03-01
Optically active phonon modes in ferroelectrics such as potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) and potassium titanyl arsenate (KTA) in the ~7-20 THz range play an important role in applications of these materials in Raman lasing and terahertz wave generation. Previous studies with picosecond pulse excitation demonstrated that the interaction of pump pulses with phonons can lead to efficient stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) accompanying optical parametric oscillation or amplification processes (OPO/OPA), and to efficient polariton-phonon scattering. In this work, we investigate the behavior of infrared OPAs employing KTP or KTA crystals when pumped with ~800-nm ultrashort pulses of duration comparable to the oscillation period of the optical phonons. We demonstrate that under conditions of coherent impulsive Raman excitation of the phonons, when the effective χ(2) nonlinearity cannot be considered instantaneous, the parametrically amplified waves (most notably, signal) undergo significant spectral modulations leading to an overall redshift of the OPA output. The pump intensity dependence of the redshifted OPA output, the temporal evolution of the parametric gain, as well as the pump spectral modulations suggest the presence of coupling between the nonlinear optical polarizations PNL of the impulsively excited phonons and those of parametrically amplified waves.
Reconfigurable optical routers based on Coupled Resonator Induced Transparency resonances.
Mancinelli, M; Bettotti, P; Fedeli, J M; Pavesi, L
2012-10-08
The interferometric coupling of pairs of resonators in a resonator sequence generates coupled ring induced transparency (CRIT) resonances. These have quality factors an order of magnitude greater than those of single resonators. We show that it is possible to engineer CRIT resonances in tapered SCISSOR (Side Coupled Integrated Space Sequence of Resonator) to realize fast and efficient reconfigurable optical switches and routers handling several channels while keeping single channel addressing capabilities. Tapered SCISSORs are fabricated in silicon-on-insulator technology. Furthermore, tapered SCISSORs show multiple-channel switching behavior that can be exploited in DWDM applications.
Two-optical-cycle pulses in the mid-infrared from an optical parametric amplifier.
Brida, D; Marangoni, M; Manzoni, C; Silvestri, S De; Cerullo, G
2008-12-15
Ultrabroadband mid IR pulses with energy as high as 2 microJ and tunability from 2 to 5 microm are generated as the idler beam of an 800 nm pumped optical parametric amplifier in periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate. After bulk compression in a Ge plate and frequency-resolved-opticle-gating characterization, a pulse duration as low as 25 fs was measured, corresponding to two optical cycles of the 3.6 microm carrier wavelength.
Loop coupled resonator optical waveguides.
Song, Junfeng; Luo, Lian-Wee; Luo, Xianshu; Zhou, Haifeng; Tu, Xiaoguang; Jia, Lianxi; Fang, Qing; Lo, Guo-Qiang
2014-10-06
We propose a novel coupled resonator optical waveguide (CROW) structure that is made up of a waveguide loop. We theoretically investigate the forbidden band and conduction band conditions in an infinite periodic lattice. We also discuss the reflection- and transmission- spectra, group delay in finite periodic structures. Light has a larger group delay at the band edge in a periodic structure. The flat band pass filter and flat-top group delay can be realized in a non-periodic structure. Scattering matrix method is used to calculate the effects of waveguide loss on the optical characteristics of these structures. We also introduce a tunable coupling loop waveguide to compensate for the fabrication variations since the coupling coefficient of the directional coupler in the loop waveguide is a critical factor in determining the characteristics of a loop CROW. The loop CROW structure is suitable for a wide range of applications such as band pass filters, high Q microcavity, and optical buffers and so on.
Synchronously pumped femtosecond optical parametric oscillator with broadband chirped mirrors
Stankevičiūte, Karolina; Melnikas, Simas; Kičas, Simonas; Trišauskas, Lukas; Vengelis, Julius; Grigonis, Rimantas; Vengris, Mikas; Sirutkaitis, Valdas
2015-05-01
We present results obtained during investigation of synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (SPOPO) with broadband complementary chirped mirror pairs (CMP). The SPOPO based on β-BBO nonlinear crystal is pumped by second harmonic of femtosecond Yb:KGW laser and provides signal pulses tunable over spectral range from 625 to 980 nm. More than 500 mW are generated in the signal beam, giving up to 27 % pump power to signal power conversion efficiency. The plane SPOPO cavity mirror pairs were specially designed to provide 99 % reflection in broad spectral range corresponding to signal wavelength tuning (630-1030 nm) and to suppress group delay dispersion (GDD) oscillations down to +/-10 fs2. Dispersion properties of designed mirrors were tested with white light interferometer (WLI) and attributed to the SPOPO tuning behaviour.
Diode-pumped intracavity optical parametric oscillator in pulsed and continuous-wave operation
Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Skettrup, Torben; Petersen, O.B.;
2002-01-01
An intracavity optical parametric oscillator is investigated in pulsed and continuous-wave operation. The intracavity optical parametric oscillator is based on Yb:YAG as the laser material and a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal as the nonlinear material. Tuneable idler output powers above...
Ground and Airborne Methane Measurements Using Optical Parametric Amplifiers
Numata, Kenji; Riris, Haris; Li, Steve; Wu, Stewart; Kawa, Stephan R.; Abshire, James Brice; Dawsey, Martha; Ramanathan, Anand
2011-01-01
We report on ground and airborne methane measurements with an active sensing instrument using widely tunable, seeded optical parametric generation (OPG). The technique has been used to measure methane, CO2, water vapor, and other trace gases in the near and mid-infrared spectral regions. Methane is a strong greenhouse gas on Earth and it is also a potential biogenic marker on Mars and other planetary bodies. Methane in the Earth's atmosphere survives for a shorter time than CO2 but its impact on climate change can be larger than CO2. Carbon and methane emissions from land are expected to increase as permafrost melts exposing millennial-age carbon stocks to respiration (aerobic-CO2 and anaerobic-CH4) and fires. Methane emissions from c1athrates in the Arctic Ocean and on land are also likely to respond to climate warming. However, there is considerable uncertainty in present Arctic flux levels, as well as how fluxes will change with the changing environment. For Mars, methane measurements are of great interest because of its potential as a strong biogenic marker. A remote sensing instrument that can measure day and night over all seasons and latitudes can localize sources of biogenic gas plumes produced by subsurface chemistry or biology, and aid in the search for extra-terrestrial life. In this paper we report on remote sensing measurements of methane using a high peak power, widely tunable optical parametric generator (OPG) operating at 3.3 micrometers and 1.65 micrometers. We have demonstrated detection of methane at 3.3 micrometers and 1650 nanometers in an open path and compared them to accepted standards. We also report on preliminary airborne demonstration of methane measurements at 1.65 micrometers.
Nitzan, Sarah H; Zega, Valentina; Li, Mo; Ahn, Chae H; Corigliano, Alberto; Kenny, Thomas W; Horsley, David A
2015-01-01
Parametric amplification, resulting from intentionally varying a parameter in a resonator at twice its resonant frequency, has been successfully employed to increase the sensitivity of many micro- and nano-scale sensors. Here, we introduce the concept of self-induced parametric amplification, which arises naturally from nonlinear elastic coupling between the degenerate vibration modes in a micromechanical disk-resonator, and is not externally applied. The device functions as a gyroscope wherein angular rotation is detected from Coriolis coupling of elastic vibration energy from a driven vibration mode into a second degenerate sensing mode. While nonlinear elasticity in silicon resonators is extremely weak, in this high quality-factor device, ppm-level nonlinear elastic effects result in an order-of-magnitude increase in the observed sensitivity to Coriolis force relative to linear theory. Perfect degeneracy of the primary and secondary vibration modes is achieved through electrostatic frequency tuning, which also enables the phase and frequency of the parametric coupling to be varied, and we show that the resulting phase and frequency dependence of the amplification follow the theory of parametric resonance. We expect that this phenomenon will be useful for both fundamental studies of dynamic systems with low dissipation and for increasing signal-to-noise ratio in practical applications such as gyroscopes.
Frequency comb metrology with an optical parametric oscillator.
Balskus, K; Schilt, S; Wittwer, V J; Brochard, P; Ploetzing, T; Jornod, N; McCracken, R A; Zhang, Z; Bartels, A; Reid, D T; Südmeyer, T
2016-04-18
We report on the first demonstration of absolute frequency comb metrology with an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) frequency comb. The synchronously-pumped OPO operated in the 1.5-µm spectral region and was referenced to an H-maser atomic clock. Using different techniques, we thoroughly characterized the frequency noise power spectral density (PSD) of the repetition rate frep, of the carrier-envelope offset frequency fCEO, and of an optical comb line νN. The comb mode optical linewidth at 1557 nm was determined to be ~70 kHz for an observation time of 1 s from the measured frequency noise PSD, and was limited by the stability of the microwave frequency standard available for the stabilization of the comb repetition rate. We achieved a tight lock of the carrier envelope offset frequency with only ~300 mrad residual integrated phase noise, which makes its contribution to the optical linewidth negligible. The OPO comb was used to measure the absolute optical frequency of a near-infrared laser whose second-harmonic component was locked to the F = 2→3 transition of the 87Rb D2 line at 780 nm, leading to a measured transition frequency of νRb = 384,228,115,346 ± 16 kHz. We performed the same measurement with a commercial fiber-laser comb operating in the 1.5-µm region. Both the OPO comb and the commercial fiber comb achieved similar performance. The measurement accuracy was limited by interferometric noise in the fibered setup of the Rb-stabilized laser.
Parametric resonance of entropy perturbations in massless preheating
Moghaddam, Hossein Bazrafshan; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Cai, Yi-Fu; Ferreira, Elisa G. M.
2015-07-01
In this paper, we revisit the question of possible preheating of entropy modes in a two-field model with a massless inflaton coupled to a matter scalar field. Using a perturbative approximation to the covariant method we demonstrate that there is indeed a parametric instability of the entropy mode which then at second-order leads to exponential growth of the curvature fluctuation on super-Hubble scale. Back-reaction effects shut off the induced curvature fluctuations, but possibly not early enough to prevent phenomenological problems. This confirms previous results obtained using different methods and resolves a controversy in the literature.
Parametrics Resonances of a Forced Modified Rayleigh-Duffing Oscillator
Miwadinou, C H; Chabi, J B
2013-01-01
We investigate in this paper the superharmonic and subharmonic resonances of forced modified Rayleigh-Duffing oscillator. We analyse this equation by method of multiple scales and we obtain superharmonic and subharmonic resonances order-two and order-three. We obtain also regions where steady-state subharmonic responses exist. Finally, we use the amplitude-frequency curve for demonstrate the effect of various parameters on the response of the system.
Nonlinear Container Ship Model for the Study of Parametric Roll Resonance
Holden, Christian; Galeazzi, Roberto; Rodríguez, Claudio
2007-01-01
Parametric roll is a critical phenomenon for ships, whose onset may cause roll oscillations up to 40, leading to very dangerous situations and possibly capsizing. Container ships have been shown to be particularly prone to parametric roll resonance when they are sailing in moderate to heavy head...... seas. A Matlab/Simulinkr parametric roll benchmark model for a large container ship has been implemented and validated against a wide set of experimental data. The model is a part of a Matlab/Simulink Toolbox (MSS, 2007). The benchmark implements a 3rd-order nonlinear model where the dynamics of roll...... is strongly coupled with the heave and pitch dynamics. The implemented model has shown good accuracy in predicting the container ship motions, both in the vertical plane and in the transversal one. Parametric roll has been reproduced for all the data sets in which it happened, and the model provides realistic...
Jia, Y.; Yan, J.; Soga, K.; Seshia, A. A.
2013-12-01
The mechanical amplification effect of parametric resonance has the potential to outperform direct resonance by over an order of magnitude in terms of power output. However, the excitation must first overcome the damping-dependent initiation threshold amplitude prior to accessing this more profitable region. In addition to activating the principal (1st order) parametric resonance at twice the natural frequency ω0, higher orders of parametric resonance may be accessed when the excitation frequency is in the vicinity of 2ω0/n for integer n. Together with the passive design approaches previously developed to reduce the initiation threshold to access the principal parametric resonance, vacuum packaging (< 10 torr) is employed to further reduce the threshold and unveil the higher orders. A vacuum packaged MEMS electrostatic harvester (0.278 mm3) exhibited 4 and 5 parametric resonance peaks at room pressure and vacuum respectively when scanned up to 10 g. At 5.1 ms-2, a peak power output of 20.8 nW and 166 nW is recorded for direct and principal parametric resonance respectively at atmospheric pressure; while a peak power output of 60.9 nW and 324 nW is observed for the respective resonant peaks in vacuum. Additionally, unlike direct resonance, the operational frequency bandwidth of parametric resonance broadens with lower damping.
Chaotic motions in the resonant separatrix band of a parametrically excited pendulum
AlbertC.J.LUO
2000-01-01
The energy increment spectrum method is developed for the numerical prediction of the appearance and disappearance of a primary (2M : 1)-librational or (M : 1)-rotational resonant separatrix band in a parametrically excited pendulum. The analytical conditions for the presence of such separatrix bands are also obtained. Illustrations of the analytical and numerical results for the appearance and destruction of the resonant bands are given for a comparison.
Saturating optical resonances in quantum dots
Nair, Selvakumar V.; Rustagi, K. C.
Optical bistability in quantum dots, recently proposed by Chemla and Miller, is studied in a two-resonance model. We show that for such classical electromagnetic resonances the applicability of a two-resonance model is far more restrictive than for those in atoms.
Droogendijk, H.; Bruinink, C.M.; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.
2011-01-01
We demonstrate that the responsivity of flow sensors for harmonic flows can be improved significantly by non-resonant parametric amplification. Using electrostatic spring softening by AC-bias voltages, increased responsivity and sharp filtering are achieved in our biomimetic flow sensors. Tunable
Stabilisation of Parametric Roll Resonance by Combined Speed and Fin Stabiliser Control
Galeazzi, Roberto; Holden, Christian; Blanke, Mogens
2009-01-01
Parametric roll resonance on a ship is a condition where large roll motion develops rapidly in moderate head or following seas. The phenomenon is caused by bifurcation in the nonlinear equations of motion when a restoring moment is subject to periodic variation. This paper analyzes the stability ...
Stability Analysis of the Parametric Roll Resonance under Non-constant Ship Speed
Galeazzi, Roberto; Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Blanke, Mogens
2008-01-01
The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of a nonconstant ship speed on the onset and development of the parametric roll resonance. A 2-DOF nonlinear surge-roll model is set up and analyzed. Perturbation methods are also applied to evaluate the influence of dynamic variations of surge vel...
Kobyakov, D.; Bychkov, V.; Lundh, E.; Bezett, A.H.; Marklund, M.
2012-01-01
We study the parametric resonance of capillary waves on the interface between two immiscible Bose-Einstein condensates pushed towards each other by an oscillating force. Guided by analytical models, we solve numerically the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations for a two-component Bose-Einstein condens
Theory of double resonance parametric excitation in plasmas. II
Fried, B. D.; Adler, A.; Bingham, R.
1980-10-01
A simpler formalism than in the original paper on this subject is used to verify the earlier result that, for a pump frequency separation Delta approximately equal to twice the ion acoustic frequency Omega, the use of two long-wavelength pumps can reduce the threshold for parametric excitation of ion-acoustic waves when, and only when, the Langmuir wave damping rate gamma is much larger than Omega. The threshold is then reduced by a factor of order Omega/omega, the optimum value of Delta being 2 Omega-Gamma for equal pump amplitudes, where Gamma is the ion-acoustic wave damping rate and Gamma is much less than Omega. The analysis presented in a recent paper is shown to be valid only for gamma much less than Omega, where the threshold reduction is quite small, vanishing in the limit of weak ion-acoustic wave damping (Te/Ti much greater than 1).
Stothard, D J M; Hopkins, J-M; Burns, D; Dunn, M H
2009-06-22
We report relaxation oscillation free, true continuous-wave operation of a singly-resonant, intracavity optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based upon periodically-poled, MgO-doped LiNbO3 and pumped internal to the cavity of a compact, optically-excited semiconductor disk laser (or VECSEL). The very short upper-laser-state lifetime of this laser gain medium, coupled with the enhancing effect of the high-finesse pump laser cavity in which the OPO is located, enables a low threshold, high efficiency intracavity device to be operated free of relaxation oscillations in continuous-wave mode. By optimizing for low-power operation, parametric threshold was achieved at a diode-laser power of only 1.4 W. At 8.5 W of diode-laser power, 205 mW of idler power was extracted, indicating a total down-converted power of 1.25 W, and hence a down-conversion efficiency of 83%.
A CrTmHo:YAG laser pumped ZnGeP2 optical parametric oscillator for mid-infrared spectroscopy
Nieuwenhuis, Ab F.; Lee, Chris J.; Slot, van der Peter J.M.; Lindsay, Ian D.; Gross, Petra; Boller, K.-J.; Powers, Peter E.
2008-01-01
We report a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO) based on a ZnGeP2 crystal directly-pumped by a lamp-pumped Q-switched CrTmHo:YAG laser. The IR wavelength was tuneable from 4.7 μm to 7.8 μm via crystal angle tuning. A maximum optical to optical efficiency of 56% was obtained from pump
A CrTmHo:YAG laser pumped ZnGeP2 optical parametric oscillator for mid-infrared spectroscopy
Nieuwenhuis, Albert F.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Lee, Christopher James; Lindsay, I.D.; Gross, P.; Boller, Klaus J.; Powers, Peter E.
2008-01-01
We report a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO) based on a ZnGeP2 crystal directly-pumped by a lamp-pumped Q-switched CrTmHo:YAG laser. The IR wavelength was tuneable from 4.7 μm to 7.8 μm via crystal angle tuning. A maximum optical to optical efficiency of 56% was obtained from pump
Design of triply-resonant microphotonic parametric oscillators based on Kerr nonlinearity.
Zeng, Xiaoge; Popović, Miloš A
2014-06-30
We propose optimal designs for triply-resonant optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) based on degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) in microcavities. We show that optimal designs in general call for different external coupling to pump and signal/idler resonances. We provide a number of normalized performance metrics including threshold pump power and maximum achievable conversion efficiency for OPOs with and without two-photon (TPA) and free-carrier absorption (FCA). We find that the maximum achievable conversion efficiency is bound to an upper limit by nonlinear and free-carrier losses independent of pump power, while linear losses only increase the pump power required to achieve a certain conversion efficiency. The results of this work suggest unique advantages in on-chip implementations that allow explicit engineering of resonances, mode field overlaps, dispersion, and wavelength-and mode-selective coupling. We provide universal design curves that yield optimum designs, and give example designs of microring-resonator-based OPOs in silicon at the wavelengths 1.55 μm (with TPA) and 2.3 μm (no TPA) as well as in silicon nitride (Si(3)N(4)) at 1.55 μm. For typical microcavity quality factor of 10(6), we show that the oscillation threshold in excitation bus can be well into the sub-mW regime for silicon microrings and a few mW for silicon nitride microrings. The conversion efficiency can be a few percent when pumped at 10 times of the threshold. Next, based on our results, we suggest a family of synthetic "photonic molecule"-like, coupled-cavity systems to implement optimum FWM, where structure design for control of resonant wavelengths can be separated from that of optimizing nonlinear conversion efficiency, and where furthermore pump, signal, and idler coupling to bus waveguides can be controlled independently, using interferometric cavity supermode coupling as an example. Finally, consideration of these complex geometries calls for a generalization of the nonlinear
Multipolar third-harmonic generation driven by optically-induced magnetic resonances
Smirnova, Daria A; Smirnov, Lev A; Kivshar, Yuri S
2016-01-01
We analyze the third-harmonic generation from high-index dielectric nanoparticles and discuss the basic features and multipolar nature of the parametrically generated electromagnetic fields near the Mie-type optical resonances in silicon particles. By combining both analytical and numerical methods, we study the nonlinear scattering from simple nanoparticle geometries such as spheres and disks driven by the magnetic dipole resonance. We reveal the approaches for manipulating and directing the resonantly enhanced nonlinear emission with subwavelength all-dielectric structures that can be of a particular interest for a design of nonlinear optical antennas and engineering the magnetic optical nonlinear response at nanoscale.
Optical-parametric-amplification applications to complex images
Vaughan, Peter M.
2011-12-01
Ultrafast optical pulses have many useful features. One in particular is their ability to exploit nonlinear processes due to their extremely short durations. We have used ultrafast optical pulses, primarily focused on the nonlinear processes of Polarization Gating and of Optical Parametric Amplification, one for measurement and the other for imaging purposes. For measurement, we have demonstrated a robust method of measurement to simultaneously measure both optical pulses used in a pump-probe type configuration. In these measurements, no initial information beyond the nonlinear interaction between the pulses is required. We refer to this method of pulse measurement as Double-Blind Polarization Gating FROG[1]. We have demonstrated this single-shot method for measuring two unknown pulses using one device. We have demonstrated this technique on three separate pulse pairs. We measured two Gaussian pulses with different amounts of chirp. We measured two double pulses with different pulse separations, and we have measured two extremely different pulses, where one was simple Gaussian and the other was a pulse train produced by an etalon. This method has no non-trivial ambiguities, has a reliable algorithm, and is automatically phase matched for all spectral bandwidths. In simulations[2], this method has proven to be extremely robust, measuring very complicated pulses with TBPs of ˜100 even in the presence of noise. In addition to pulse measurement, we have demonstrated the processes of Optical Parametric Amplification (OPA) applicability to imaging of complex objects[3]. We have done this where the Fourier transform plane is used during the interaction. We have amplified and wavelength converted a complex image. We report imaging of spatial features from 1.1 to 10.1 line pairs/millimeter (lp/mm) in the vertical dimension and from 2.0 to 16.0 lp/mm in the horizontal dimension. We observe a gain of ˜100, and, although our images were averaged over many shots, we used a
Yen-Yin Lin
2014-11-01
Full Text Available We report a multi-watt broadband continuous-wave multi-harmonic optical comb based on a frequency division-by-three singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator. This cw optical comb is frequency-stabilized with the help of a beat signal derived from the signal and frequency-doubled idler waves. The measured frequency fluctuation in one standard deviation is ~437 kHz. This is comparable to the linewidth of the pump laser which is a master-oscillator seeded Yb:doped fiber amplifier at ~1064 nm. The measured powers of the fundamental wave and the harmonic waves up to the 6th harmonic wave are 1.64 W, 0.77 W, 3.9 W, 0.78 W, 0.17 W, and 0.11 W, respectively. The total spectral width covered by this multi-harmonic comb is ~470 THz. When properly phased, this multi-harmonic optical comb can be expected to produce by Fourier synthesis a light source consisting of periodic optical field waveforms that have an envelope full-width at half-maximum of 1.59 fs in each period.
Principal parametric resonance of axially accelerating rectangular thin plate in magnetic field
胡宇达; 张金志
2013-01-01
Nonlinear parametric vibration and stability is investigated for an axially accelerating rectangular thin plate subjected to parametric excitations resulting from the axial time-varying tension and axial time-varying speed in the magnetic field. Consid-ering geometric nonlinearity, based on the expressions of total kinetic energy, potential energy, and electromagnetic force, the nonlinear magneto-elastic vibration equations of axially moving rectangular thin plate are derived by using the Hamilton principle. Based on displacement mode hypothesis, by using the Galerkin method, the nonlinear para-metric oscillation equation of the axially moving rectangular thin plate with four simply supported edges in the transverse magnetic field is obtained. The nonlinear principal parametric resonance amplitude-frequency equation is further derived by means of the multiple-scale method. The stability of the steady-state solution is also discussed, and the critical condition of stability is determined. As numerical examples for an axially moving rectangular thin plate, the influences of the detuning parameter, axial speed, axial tension, and magnetic induction intensity on the principal parametric resonance behavior are investigated.
Optical resonance and two-level atoms
Allen, L
1987-01-01
""Coherent and lucid…a valuable summary of a subject to which [the authors] have made significant contributions by their own research."" - Contemporary PhysicsOffering an admirably clear account of the basic principles behind all quantum optical resonance phenomena, and hailed as a valuable contribution to the literature of nonlinear optics, this distinguished work provides graduate students and research physicists probing fields such as laser physics, quantum optics, nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, and resonance optics an ideal introduction to the study of the interaction of electroma
Nonlinear Phenomena and Resonant Parametric Perturbation Control in QR-ZCS Buck DC-DC Converters
Hsieh, Fei-Hu; Liu, Feng-Shao; Hsieh, Hui-Chang
The purpose of this study is to investigate the chaotic phenomena and to control in current-mode controlled quasi-resonant zero-current-switching (QR-ZCS) DC-DC buck converters, and to present control of chaos by resonant parametric perturbation control methods. First of all, MATLAB/SIMULINK is used to derive a mathematical model for QR-ZCS DC-DC buck converters, and to simulate the converters to observe the waveform of output voltages, inductance currents and phase-plane portraits from the period-doubling bifurcation to chaos by changing the load resistances. Secondly, using resonant parametric perturbation control in QR-ZCS buck DC-DC converters, the simulation results of the chaotic converter form chaos state turn into stable state period 1, and improve ripple amplitudes of converters under the chaos, to verify the validity of the proposes method.
Parametric Roll Resonance Detection using Phase Correlation and Log-likelihood Testing Techniques
Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad
2009-01-01
Real-time detection of parametric roll is still an open issue that is gathering an increasing attention. A first generation warning systems, based on guidelines and polar diagrams, showed their potential to face issues like long-term prediction and risk assessment. This paper presents a second...... generation warning system the purpose of which is to provide the master with an onboard system able to trigger an alarm when parametric roll is likely to happen within the immediate future. A detection scheme is introduced, which is able to issue a warning within five roll periods after a resonant motion...
Heteroclinic structure of parametric resonance in the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation
Conforti, M; Kudlinski, A; Rota-Nodari, S; Dujardin, G; De Bievre, S; Armaroli, A; Trillo, S
2016-01-01
We show that the nonlinear stage of modulational instability induced by parametric driving in the {\\em defocusing} nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation can be accurately described by combining mode truncation and averaging methods, valid in the strong driving regime. The resulting integrable oscillator reveals a complex hidden heteroclinic structure of the instability. A remarkable consequence, validated by the numerical integration of the original model, is the existence of breather solutions separating different Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrent regimes. Our theory also shows that optimal parametric amplification unexpectedly occurs outside the bandwidth of the resonance (or Arnold tongues) arising from the linearised Floquet analysis.
Multi-Watt femtosecond optical parametric master oscillator power amplifier at 43 MHz.
Mörz, Florian; Steinle, Tobias; Steinmann, Andy; Giessen, Harald
2015-09-07
We present a high repetition rate mid-infrared optical parametric master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) scheme, which is tunable from 1370 to 4120nm. Up to 4.3W average output power are generated at 1370nm, corresponding to a photon conversion efficiency of 78%. Bandwidths of 6 to 12nm with pulse durations between 250 and 400fs have been measured. Strong conversion saturation over the whole signal range is observed, resulting in excellent power stability. The system consists of a fiber-feedback optical parametric oscillator that seeds an optical parametric power amplifier. Both systems are pumped by the same Yb:KGW femtosecond oscillator.
Dereux, A.; Hassan, K.; Weeber, J.-C.; Djellali, N.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Tsilipakos, O.; Pitilakis, A.; Kriezis, E.; Papaioannou, S.; Vyrsokinos, K.; Pleros, N.; Tekin, T.; Baus, M.; Kalavrouziotis, D.; Giannoulis, G.; Avramopoulos, H.
2011-01-01
Surface plasmons polaritons are electromagnetic waves propagating along the surface of a conductor. Surface plasmons photonics is a promising candidate to satisfy the constraints of miniaturization of optical interconnects. This contribution reviews an experimental parametric study of dielectric loaded surface plasmon waveguides ring resonators and add-drop filters within the perspective of the recently suggested hybrid technology merging plasmonic and silicon photonics on a single board (European FP7 project PLATON "Merging Plasmonic and Silicon Photonics Technology towards Tb/s routing in optical interconnects"). Conclusions relevant for dielectric loaded surface plasmon switches to be integrated in silicon photonic circuitry will be drawn. They rely on the opportunity offered by plasmonic circuitry to carry optical signals and electric currents through the same thin metal circuitry. The heating of the dielectric loading by the electric current enables to design low foot-print thermo-optical switches driving the optical signal flow.
Beam divergence effects on high power optical parametric oscillation
Li Hui-Qing; Geng Ai-Cong; Bo Yong; Wu Ling-An; Cui Da-Fu; Xu Zu-Yan
2005-01-01
The beam divergence effects of the input pump laser on a high power nanosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) have been numerically simulated. The OPO conversion efficiency is affected due to the angular deviation of real laser beams from ideal phase matching conditions. Our theoretical model is based on the decomposition of the Gaussian beam and assumes each component has a single deviation angle and thus a Particular wave vector mismatch. We take into account the variable intensity profile in the spatial and temporal domains of the Gaussian beam, the pump depletion effects for large-signal processes as well as the oscillatory effects of the three waves. Two nonlinear crystals β-BaB2O4 (BBO) and LiB3O5 (LBO) have been investigated in detail. The results indicate that the degree of beam divergence strongly influences the maximum pump intensity, optimum crystal length and OPO conversion efficiency.The impact of beam divergence is much more severe in the case of critical phase-matching for BBO than in the case of non-critical phase-matching for LBO. The results provide a way to choose the optimum parameters for a high power ns OPO such as the nonlinear material, the crystal length and the pump intensity, etc. Good agreement is obtained with our experimental results.
Optical parametric amplification beyond the slowly varying amplitude approximation
M Hosseini Farzad
2007-09-01
The coupled-wave equations describing optical parametric amplification (OPA) are usually solved in the slowly varying amplitude (SVA) approximation regime, in which the second-order derivatives of the signal and idler amplitudes are ignored and in fact the electromagnetic effects due to exit face of the medium is not involved. Here, an analytical plane-wave solution of these coupled-wave equations in a non-absorbing medium is presented. The solutions are derived beyond the SVA approximation up to order of = (coupling constant over the wave number). The intensity distributions of the signal and the idler waves show a periodic behavior about their corresponding distributions of SVA-adapted solution. This behavior can be explained by the interference of the forward propagating signal (idler) wave and the corresponding backward one resulted from the reflection by the end face of the medium. Furthermore, this interference pattern in the medium can in turn serve as a periodic source for the next generations of the signal and idler waves. Therefore, the superposition of the waves, generated from different points of this periodic source, at the exit face of the medium shows an oscillatory behavior of the transmitted signal (idler) wave in terms of normalized coupling constant, . This study also shows that this effect is more considerable for high intensity pump beam, high relative refractive index and short length of the nonlinear medium.
Ground and Airborne Methane Measurements using Optical Parametric Amplifiers
Riris, Haris; Numata, Kenji; Li, Steve; Wu, Stewart; Kawa, Stephan R.; Abshire, James; Dawsey, Martha; Ramanathan, Anand
2012-01-01
We report on an initial airborne demonstration of atmospheric methane column measurements at 1.65 micrometers using a widely tunable, seeded optical parametric amplifier (OPA) lidar and a photon counting detector. Methane is an important greenhouse gas and accurate knowledge of its sources and sinks is needed for climate modeling. Our lidar system uses 20 pulses at increasing wavelengths and integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) to map a methane line at 1650.9 nanometers. The wavelengths are generated by using a Nd:YAG pump laser at 1064.5 nanometers and distributed feedback diode laser at 1650.9 nanometers and a periodically-poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal. The pulse width was 3 nanoseconds and the pulse repetition rate was 6.28 KHz. The outgoing energy was approximately 13 microJoules/pulse. A commercial 20 nanometer diameter fiber-coupled telescope with a photon counting detector operated in analog mode with a 0.8 nanometer bandpass filter was used as the lidar receiver. The lidar system was integrated on NASA's DC-8 flying laboratory, based at Dryden Airborne operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale CA. Three flights were performed in the central valley of California. Each flight lasted about 2.5 hours and it consisted of several flight segments at constant altitudes at approximately 3, 4.5, 6, 7.6, 9.1, 10.6 km (l0, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 kft). An in-situ cavity ring down spectrometer made by Picarro Inc. was flown along with the lidar instrument provided us with the "truth" i.e. the local CH4, CO2 and H2O concentrations at the constant flight altitude segments. Using the aircraft's altitude, GPS, and meteorological data we calculated the theoretical differential optical depth of the methane absorption at increasing altitudes. Our results showed good agreement between the experimentally derived optical depth measurements from the lidar instrument and theoretical calculations as the flight altitude was increased from 3 to 10.6 kilometers, assuming a
Polarimetric Properties of Optically Resonant Nanostructures
Theisen, Michael John
Optically resonant nanostructures have been incorporated into a variety of devices used in a number of different fields. In this thesis, we explore optically resonant nanostructures in two forms. First we investigate a relatively new material, gallium implanted silicon (Si:Ga). We cover the fabrication process and experimentally find the optical properties as a function of both dose and wavelength. We then use the properties of this new material to create suspended arrays of Si:Ga nanowires, and determine their optical characteristics. In the second part of this thesis, we use more conventional materials and fabrication procedures to investigate the phase effects of guided mode resonators. We look at the spectral phase effects for a grating coupled silicon-on-insulator based guided mode resonator. We also look the angular phase effects of a surface plasmon polariton based guided mode resonator, comparing experimental results to theory calculated with rigorous coupled wave analysis for both cases. In addition, the guided mode resonance is modeled as a Fano resonance to gain insight into the functional form of the phase. Knowing the phase response of guided mode resonances may allow the creation of guided mode resonance based devices with higher sensitivity than traditional reflectance based devices.
Improving the Optical Quality Factor of the WGM Resonator
Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Iltchenko, Vladimir
2008-01-01
Resonators usually are characterized with two partially dependent values: finesse (F) and quality factor (Q). The finesse of an empty Fabry-Perot (FP) resonator is defined solely by the quality of its mirrors and is calculated as F=piR(exp 1/2)/(1-R). The maximum up-to-date value of reflectivity R approximately equal to 1 - 1.6 x 10(exp -6) is achieved with dielectric mirrors. An FP resonator made with the mirrors has finesse F=1.9 x 10(exp 6). Further practical increase of the finesse of FP resonators is problematic because of the absorption and the scattering of light in the mirror material through fundamental limit on the reflection losses given by the internal material losses and by thermodynamic density fluctuations on the order of parts in 109. The quality factor of a resonator depends on both its finesse and its geometrical size. A one-dimensional FP resonator has Q=2 F L/lambda, where L is the distance between the mirrors and lambda is the wavelength. It is easy to see that the quality factor of the resonator is unlimited because L is unlimited. F and Q are equally important. In some cases, finesse is technically more valuable than the quality factor. For instance, buildup of the optical power inside the resonator, as well as the Purcell factor, is proportional to finesse. Sometimes, however, the quality factor is more valuable. For example, inverse threshold power of intracavity hyperparametric oscillation is proportional to Q(exp 2) and efficiency of parametric frequency mixing is proportional to Q(exp 3). Therefore, it is important to know both the maximally achievable finesse and quality factor values of a resonator. Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are capable of achieving larger finesse compared to FP resonators. For instance, fused silica resonators with finesse 2.3 x 10(exp 6) and 2.8 x 10(exp 6) have been demonstrated. Crystalline WGM resonators reveal even larger finesse values, F=6.3 x 10(exp 6), because of low attenuation of light in the
Resonant optical device with a microheater
Lentine, Anthony L.; DeRose, Christopher
2017-04-04
A resonant photonic device is provided. The device comprises an optical waveguiding element, such as an optical resonator, that includes a diode junction region, two signal terminals configured to apply a bias voltage across the junction region, and a heater laterally separated from the optical waveguiding element. A semiconductor electrical barrier element is juxtaposed to the heater. A metallic strip is electrically and thermally connected at one end to a signal terminal of the optical waveguiding element and thermally connected at another end to the barrier element.
Optical resonance of metal-coated nanoshell
Diao Jia-Jie(刁佳杰); Chen Guang-De(陈光德); Xi Cong(席聪); Z Y Fan; Yuan Jin-She(苑进社)
2003-01-01
Metal-coated nanoshell, the nanoparticle consisting of a nanometre-scale dielectric core coated with a thin metallic shell, exhibits three distinct optical resonant forms, the sphere cavity resonance (SCR), plasmon resonance (PR), and concentric dielectric sphere resonance (CDSR). The SCR, PR and CDSR of the metal-coated nanoshell reveal a geometric tunability controlled by the core radius and by the ratio of the core radius to the total radius. Classical electrodynamics and Mie scattering theory are used to treat the resonant forms and the transition state between the resonant forms. Based on previous experimental research, we present a group of resonant equations for all the resonant forms, which depend on the geometric structure of the metal-coated nanoshell.
Active Control of the Parametric Resonance in the Modified Rayleigh-Duffing Oscillator
Miwadinou, C H; Orou, J B Chabi
2013-01-01
The present paper examines the active control of parametric resonance in modified Rayleigh-Duffing oscillator. We used the method of averaging to obtain steady-state solutions. We have found the critical value of the parametrical amplitude which indicates the boundary layer where the control is efficient in reducing the amplitude vibration. We find also the effects of excitation parameters and time-delay on dynamical of this system with the principal parametric resonance. We obtain also for this oscillators the Hopf bifurcation or saddle-node bifurcation for certains values of parametric parameters and time-delay and we have studied the influence of parameter $k_2$ which is one parameter which modify the ordinary Rayleigh-Duffing oscillator. We have discussed the appropriate choice of the time-delay and control gain. We finally studied the stability of fixed point and it is found that the appropriate choice of the time-delay can broaden the stable region of the non-trivial steady-state solutions enhance the c...
Fermi resonance in optical microcavities
Yi, Chang-Hwan; Yu, Hyeon-Hye; Lee, Ji-Won; Kim, Chil-Min
2015-04-01
Fermi resonance is a phenomenon of quantum mechanical superposition, which most often occurs between normal and overtone modes in molecular systems that are nearly coincident in energy. We find that scarred resonances in deformed dielectric microcavities are the very phenomenon of Fermi resonance, that is, a pair of quasinormal modes interact with each other due to coupling and a pair of resonances are generated through an avoided resonance crossing. Then the quantum number difference of a pair of quasinormal modes, which is a consequence of quantum mechanical superposition, equals periodic orbits, whereby the resonances are localized on the periodic orbits. We derive the relation between the quantum number difference and the periodic orbits and confirm it in an elliptic, a rectangular, and a stadium-shaped dielectric microcavity.
Diode-pumped intracavity optical parametric oscillator in pulsed and continuous-wave operation
Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Skettrup, Torben; Petersen, O.B.;
2002-01-01
An intracavity optical parametric oscillator is investigated in pulsed and continuous-wave operation. The intracavity optical parametric oscillator is based on Yb:YAG as the laser material and a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal as the nonlinear material. Tuneable idler output powers above...... 200 mW are obtained in both modes of operation with 13.5 W of incident diode pump power. The idler output was tuned in the wavelength range 3820-4570 nm....
Parametric Optical Signal Processing in Silicon Waveguides with Reverse-biased p-i-n Junctions
Peucheret, C.; Da Ros, Francesco; Vukovic, Dragana;
2014-01-01
The use of silicon-on-insulator waveguides with free carriers removal using a reverse-biased p-i-n junction for parametric optical signal processing is reviewed. High-efficiency wavelength conversion and phase-sensitive regeneration are reported.......The use of silicon-on-insulator waveguides with free carriers removal using a reverse-biased p-i-n junction for parametric optical signal processing is reviewed. High-efficiency wavelength conversion and phase-sensitive regeneration are reported....
Fiber Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification of Sub-Picosecond Pulses
Cristofori, Valentina; Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Da Ros, Francesco
2013-01-01
We demonstrate experimentally, for the first time to our knowledge, fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification of 400-fs pulses. The 400-fs signal is stretched, amplified by 26 dB and compressed back to 500 fs.......We demonstrate experimentally, for the first time to our knowledge, fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification of 400-fs pulses. The 400-fs signal is stretched, amplified by 26 dB and compressed back to 500 fs....
Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny; Nielsen, Carsten Vandel
2008-01-01
We demonstrate an increased gain in optical parametric amplier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering by applying a temperature distribution along the fiber resulting in a reduction of the required phase modulation.......We demonstrate an increased gain in optical parametric amplier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering by applying a temperature distribution along the fiber resulting in a reduction of the required phase modulation....
Asymmetric Gain-Saturated Spectrum in One-pump Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers
Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Rottwitt, Karsten; Galili, Michael
2011-01-01
The effect of third-order dispersion on the saturated-gain in fiber optical parametric amplifiers is experimentally demonstrated. A possible interpretation in terms of dispersive waves, which change the power transfer to the signal, is presented.......The effect of third-order dispersion on the saturated-gain in fiber optical parametric amplifiers is experimentally demonstrated. A possible interpretation in terms of dispersive waves, which change the power transfer to the signal, is presented....
Effect of microwave irradiation on parametric resonance in intrinsic Josephson junctions
Gaafar, Mahmoud; Shukrinov, Yury
2012-01-01
The effect of microwave irradiation on the phase dynamics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high temperature superconductors is investigated. We demonstrate the influence of microwave's amplitude variation on the current-voltage characteristics and on the time dependence (temporal oscillations) of the electric charge in the superconducting layers. A remarkable changing of the longitudinal plasma wavelength at parametric resonance is shown. We demonstrate an effect of the microwave radiation...
Demonstration of a chip-based optical isolator with parametric amplification
Hua, Shiyue; Wen, Jianming; Jiang, Xiaoshun; Hua, Qian; Jiang, Liang; Xiao, Min
2016-11-01
Despite being fundamentally challenging in integrated (nano)photonics, achieving chip-based light non-reciprocity becomes increasingly urgent in signal processing and optical communications. Because of material incompatibilities in conventional approaches based on the Faraday effect, alternative solutions have resorted to nonlinear processes to obtain one-way transmission. However, dynamic reciprocity in a recent theoretical analysis has pinned down the functionalities of these nonlinear isolators. To bypass such dynamic reciprocity, we here demonstrate an optical isolator on a silicon chip enforced by phase-matched parametric amplification in four-wave mixing. Using a high-Q microtoroid resonator, we realize highly non-reciprocal transport at the 1,550 nm wavelength when waves are injected from both directions in two different operating configurations. Our design, compatible with current complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) techniques, yields convincing isolation performance with sufficiently low insertion loss for a wide range of input power levels. Moreover, our work demonstrates the possibility of designing chip-based magnetic-free optical isolators for information processing and laser protection.
Specifics of short-wavelength generation in a continuous wave fiber optical parametric oscillator
Zlobina, E. A.; Mishra, V.; Kablukov, S. I.; Singh, S. P.; Varshney, S. K.; Babin, S. A.
2016-11-01
We investigate factors limiting short-wavelength generation and therefore tuning range of the continuous wave all-fiber optical parametric oscillator based on birefringent photonic crystal fiber pumped by a tunable linearly polarized ytterbium-doped fiber laser. Influence of the longitudinal dispersion fluctuations in the fiber on the threshold of the fiber optical parametric oscillators is numerically studied. It is shown that even low fluctuations (<0.5 nm) of the zero dispersion wavelength in 18 m-long fiber result in a significant increase of the threshold at large parametric shifts.
Resonance spectra of diabolo optical antenna arrays
Guo, Hong; Simpkins, Blake; Caldwell, Joshua D.; Guo, Junpeng
2015-10-01
A complete set of diabolo optical antenna arrays with different waist widths and periods was fabricated on a sapphire substrate by using a standard e-beam lithography and lift-off process. Fabricated diabolo optical antenna arrays were characterized by measuring the transmittance and reflectance with a microscope-coupled FTIR spectrometer. It was found experimentally that reducing the waist width significantly shifts the resonance to longer wavelength and narrowing the waist of the antennas is more effective than increasing the period of the array for tuning the resonance wavelength. Also it is found that the magnetic field enhancement near the antenna waist is correlated to the shift of the resonance wavelength.
Resonance spectra of diabolo optical antenna arrays
Guo, Hong; Guo, Junpeng, E-mail: guoj@uah.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 301 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Simpkins, Blake; Caldwell, Joshua D. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave., SW Washington, DC 20375 (United States)
2015-10-15
A complete set of diabolo optical antenna arrays with different waist widths and periods was fabricated on a sapphire substrate by using a standard e-beam lithography and lift-off process. Fabricated diabolo optical antenna arrays were characterized by measuring the transmittance and reflectance with a microscope-coupled FTIR spectrometer. It was found experimentally that reducing the waist width significantly shifts the resonance to longer wavelength and narrowing the waist of the antennas is more effective than increasing the period of the array for tuning the resonance wavelength. Also it is found that the magnetic field enhancement near the antenna waist is correlated to the shift of the resonance wavelength.
Instability analysis of resonant standing waves in a parametrically excited boxed basin
Sirwah, Magdy A [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt)], E-mail: magdysirwah@yahoo.com
2009-06-15
Two-mode parametric excited interfacial waves of incompressible immiscible liquids in an infinite boxed basin subjected to a vertical excitation are studied. The method of multiple time scales is used to obtain uniform solutions of the second-order system as well as the third-order one, which in turn leads to the solvability conditions of the two orders including the cubic interaction terms. The different cases of resonance that arise among the natural frequencies together with the frequency of the vertical vibration of the box are demonstrated theoretically and numerical computations of one of these cases (the two-to-one internal resonance and the principal parametric resonance) have been performed in detail in order to investigate the behavior of the resonant waves, especially the qualitative one. The autonomous system of four first-order differential equations for the modulation of the amplitudes and phases of the resonant waves is derived. Some numerical applications are achieved to show the stability criteria of the excited liquids inside the considered basin.
Parametric and Internal Resonances of an Axially Moving Beam with Time-Dependent Velocity
Bamadev Sahoo
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The nonlinear vibration of a travelling beam subjected to principal parametric resonance in presence of internal resonance is investigated. The beam velocity is assumed to be comprised of a constant mean value along with a harmonically varying component. The stretching of neutral axis introduces geometric cubic nonlinearity in the equation of motion of the beam. The natural frequency of second mode is approximately three times that of first mode; a three-to-one internal resonance is possible. The method of multiple scales (MMS is directly applied to the governing nonlinear equations and the associated boundary conditions. The nonlinear steady state response along with the stability and bifurcation of the beam is investigated. The system exhibits pitchfork, Hopf, and saddle node bifurcations under different control parameters. The dynamic solutions in the periodic, quasiperiodic, and chaotic forms are captured with the help of time history, phase portraits, and Poincare maps showing the influence of internal resonance.
Effects of Tsallis distribution on parametric resonance in chiral phase transitions
Ishihara, Masamichi
2016-01-01
The parametric resonance was studied in chiral phase transitions when the momentum distribution is described by a Tsallis distribution. A Tsallis distribution has two parameters, the temperature $T$ and the entropic index $q$. The amplification was estimated in two cases: 1) expansionless case and 2) one dimensional expansion case. In an expansionless case, the temperature $T$ is constant, and the amplified modes as a function of $T$ were calculated for various $q$. In one dimensional expansion case, the temperature $T$ decreases as a function of the proper time, and the amplification as a function of the transverse momentum was calculated for various $q$. In the expansionless case, the following facts were found: 1) the larger the value $q$ is, the softer the amplified modes are for the first and second resonance bands, 2) the amplified mode of the first resonance band decreases and vanishes, as the temperature $T$ increases, and 3) the amplified mode of the second resonance band decreases and approaches to ...
Savchenkov, Anatoliy A. (Inventor); Strekalov, Dmitry V. (Inventor); Maleki, Lute (Inventor); Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Iltchenko, Vladimir S. (Inventor); Martin, Jan M. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
A method of shifting and fixing an optical frequency of an optical resonator to a desired optical frequency, and an optical resonator made by such a method are provided. The method includes providing an optical resonator having a surface and a refractive index, and obtaining a coating composition having a predetermined concentration of a substance and having a refractive index that is substantially similar to the refractive index of the optical resonator. The coating composition inherently possesses a thickness when it is applied as a coating. The method further includes determining a coating ratio for the surface of the optical resonator and applying the coating composition onto a portion of the surface of the optical resonator based upon the determined coating ratio.
Advances in magnetic and optical resonance
Warren, Warren S
2013-01-01
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance contains three articles which review quite fundamentally different aspects of coherent spectroscopy. An enormous variety of effects can be observed when optical and spin resonances are coupled, usually by a combination of radio frequency and laser irradiation. The first article reviews these effects and pays particular attention to developing a theoretical framework which is as similar as possible for the optical and spin cases. Subsequent articles examine deuterium relaxation in molecular solids, and the spatiotemporal growth of multiple spin coheren
Optical ballast and adaptive dynamic stable resonator
Zhang Guang-Yin; Jiao Zhi-Yong; Guo Shu-Guang; Zhang Xiao-Hua; Gu Xue-Wen; Yan Cai-Fan; Wu Ding-Er; Song Feng
2004-01-01
In this paper a new concept of ‘optical ballast' is put forward. Optical ballast is a kind of device that can be used to decrease the variation and fluctuation of the propagation characteristics of light beams caused by the disturbance of refractive index of the medium. To illustrate the idea clearly and concretely, a fully adaptive dynamic stable solid-state laser resonator is presented as application example of optical ballast.
Mid-infrared generation based on a periodically poled LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillator
Lin Xue-Chun; Wu Ling-An; Xu Zu-Yan; Kong Yu-Peng; Zhang Ying; Zhang Jie; Yao Ai-Yun; Bi Yong; Sun Zhi-Pei; Cui Da-Fu; Li Rui-Ning
2004-01-01
We report a nanosecond Nd:YVO4-pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on periodically poled LiNbOs (PPLN). Tuning is achieved in this experiment by varying the temperature and period of the PPLN. The design of double-pass singly resonant oscillator (DSRO) and confocal cavity enables the OPO threshold to be lowered considerably, resulting in a simple, compact, all-solid-state configuration with the mid-infrared idler powers of up to 466mW at 3.41μm.
Near-Nyquist optical pulse generation with fiber optical parametric amplification.
Vedadi, Armand; Shoaie, Mohammad Amin; Brès, Camille-Sophie
2012-12-10
A novel method using optical fiber parametric amplification and phase modulation is proposed in order to generate Nyquist pulses. Using parabolic pulses as a pump, we show theoretically that it is possible to generate Nyquist pulses. Furthermore, we show that by using a sinusoidal pump (pump intensity modulated by an RF tone), it is possible to obtain pulses with characteristics that are close to Nyquist limited pulses. We demonstrate experimentally the generation of bandwidth limited pulses with full width half maximum of 14 ps at 10 GHz repetition rate. We also discuss limitations of this method and means to overcome these limitations.
Nouroozi, Rahman
2010-10-19
Efficient ultra-fast integrated all-optical wavelength converters and parametric amplifiers transparent to the polarization, phase, and modulation-level and -format are investigated. The devices take advantage of the optical nonlinearity of Ti:PPLN waveguides exploiting difference frequency generation (DFG). In a DFG, the signal ({lambda}{sub s}) is mixed with a pump ({lambda}{sub p}) to generate a wavelength shifted idler (1/{lambda}{sub i}=1/{lambda}{sub p}-1/{lambda}{sub s}). Efficient generation of the pump in Ti:PPLN channel guides is investigated using different approaches. In the waveguide resonators, first a resonance of the fundamental wave alone is considered. It is shown that the maximum power enhancement of the fundamental wave, and therefore the maximum second-harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency, can be achieved with low loss matched resonators. By this way, SHG efficiency of {proportional_to}10300%/W (10.3 %/mW) has been achieved in a 65 mm long waveguide resonator. Its operation for cSHG/DFG requires narrowband reflector for fundamental wave only. Thus, the SH (pump) wave resonator is investigated. The SH-wave resonator enhances the intracavity SH power only. Based on this scheme, an improvement of {proportional_to}10 dB for cSHG/DFG based wavelength conversion efficiency has been achieved with 50 mW of coupled fundamental power in a 30 mm long Ti:PPLN. However, operation was limited to relatively small fundamental power levels (<50 mW) due to the onset of photorefractive instabilities destroying the cavity stabilization. The cSHG/DFG efficiency can be considerably improved by using a double-pass configuration in which all the interacting waves were reflected by a broadband dielectric mirror deposited on the one endface of the waveguide. Three different approaches are investigated and up to 9 dB improvement of the wavelength conversion efficiency in comparison with the single-pass configuration is achieved. Polarization-insensitive wavelength
Yang, Yong; Jiang, Xuefeng; Kasumie, Sho; Zhao, Guangming; Xu, Linhua; Ward, Jonathan M; Yang, Lan; Chormaic, Síle Nic
2016-11-15
Frequency comb generation in microresonators at visible wavelengths has found applications in a variety of areas such as metrology, sensing, and imaging. To achieve Kerr combs based on four-wave mixing in a microresonator, dispersion must be in the anomalous regime. In this Letter, we demonstrate dispersion engineering in a microbubble resonator (MBR) fabricated by a two-CO2 laser beam technique. By decreasing the wall thickness of the MBR to 1.4 μm, the zero dispersion wavelength shifts to values shorter than 764 nm, making phase matching possible around 765 nm. With the optical Q-factor of the MBR modes being greater than 107, four-wave mixing is observed at 765 nm for a pump power of 3 mW. By increasing the pump power, parametric oscillation is achieved, and a frequency comb with 14 comb lines is generated at visible wavelengths.
Yang, Yong; Kasumie, Sho; Zhao, Guangming; Xu, Linhua; Ward, Jonathan; Yang, Lan; Chormaic, Síle Nic
2016-01-01
Frequency comb generation in microresonators at visible wavelengths has found applications in a variety of areas such as metrology, sensing, and imaging. To achieve Kerr combs based on four-wave mixing in a microresonator, dispersion must be in the anomalous regime. In this work, we demonstrate dispersion engineering in a microbubble resonator (MBR) fabricated by a two-CO$_2$ laser beam technique. By decreasing the wall thickness of the MBR down to 1.4 $\\mu$m, the zero dispersion wavelength shifts to values shorter than 764 nm, making phase matching possible around 765 nm. With the optical \\textit{Q}-factor of the MBR modes being greater than $10^7$, four-wave mixing is observed at 765 nm for a pump power of 3 mW. By increasing the pump power, parametric oscillation is achieved, and a frequency comb with 14 comb lines is generated at visible wavelengths.
Nonlinear Container Ship Model for the Study of Parametric Roll Resonance
Christian Holden
2007-10-01
Full Text Available Parametric roll is a critical phenomenon for ships, whose onset may cause roll oscillations up to +-40 degrees, leading to very dangerous situations and possibly capsizing. Container ships have been shown to be particularly prone to parametric roll resonance when they are sailing in moderate to heavy head seas. A Matlab/Simulink parametric roll benchmark model for a large container ship has been implemented and validated against a wide set of experimental data. The model is a part of a Matlab/Simulink Toolbox (MSS, 2007. The benchmark implements a 3rd-order nonlinear model where the dynamics of roll is strongly coupled with the heave and pitch dynamics. The implemented model has shown good accuracy in predicting the container ship motions, both in the vertical plane and in the transversal one. Parametric roll has been reproduced for all the data sets in which it happened, and the model provides realistic results which are in good agreement with the model tank experiments.
S.M. Ali
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In this study a parabolic reflector antenna is designed and fabricated for IEEE 802.11a WLAN application. Initially, a single element circular tuning slot coupled Cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antenna (CDRA feeder is designed and fabricated for a symmetric parabolic reflector. Subsequently, the designed feeder is integrated at the focal point of the parabolic reflector to provide unidirectional radiation pattern with improved gain and sidelobe levels. The measured fractional impedance bandwidth achieved for the proposed antenna is 1.8% for S11<-10 dB from 5.32 to 5.52 GHz. A radiation pattern with broadside radiation and low back radiation has been obtained. A good measurement gain of approximately 13 dB is achieved over the bandwidth by placing CDRA feeder at the focal point of the parabolic reflector. In addition, a comprehensive parametric study has been conducted to realize the effect of slot size and position on the resonance frequency of the designed feeder. Furthermore, a parametric study of various reflector parameters has also been performed to study the effect of size, depth and focal point of the parabolic reflector on gain of the antenna. Important design factors have been identified from the parametric study of the antenna. The experimental and measured results show that the designed antenna is suitable for IEEE WLAN 802.11a wireless application.
Parametric resonance after hilltop inflation caused by an inhomogeneous inflaton field
Antusch, Stefan; Nolde, David; Orani, Stefano
2015-01-01
We study preheating after hilltop inflation where the inflaton couples to another scalar field, e.g. a right-handed sneutrino, which provides a mechanism for generating the correct initial conditions for inflation and also a decay channel for the inflaton that allows for reheating and non-thermal leptogenesis. In the presence of such a coupling, we find that after the known phases of preheating during which the inflaton field becomes fully inhomogeneous, there can be a subsequent preheating phase where the fluctuations of the other field get resonantly enhanced, from initial vacuum fluctuations up to amplitudes of the same order (and even larger) as the ones of the inflaton field. This resonant enhancement differs from the usual parametric resonance as the inflaton field is highly inhomogeneous at the time the enhancement takes place. We study this effect using lattice simulations as well as semi-analytically with a generalized Floquet analysis for inhomogeneous background fields.
Inverse four-wave-mixing and self-parametric amplification effect in optical fibre.
Turitsyn, Sergei K; Bednyakova, Anastasia E; Fedoruk, Mikhail P; Papernyi, Serguei B; Clements, Wallace R L
2015-09-01
An important group of nonlinear processes in optical fibre involves the mixing of four waves due to the intensity dependence of the refractive index. It is customary to distinguish between nonlinear effects that require external/pumping waves (cross-phase modulation and parametric processes such as four-wave mixing) and self-action of the propagating optical field (self-phase modulation and modulation instability). Here, we present a new nonlinear self-action effect, self-parametric amplification (SPA), which manifests itself as optical spectrum narrowing in normal dispersion fibre, leading to very stable propagation with a distinctive spectral distribution. The narrowing results from an inverse four-wave mixing, resembling an effective parametric amplification of the central part of the spectrum by energy transfer from the spectral tails. SPA and the observed stable nonlinear spectral propagation with random temporal waveform can find applications in optical communications and high power fibre lasers with nonlinear intra-cavity dynamics.
Velocity selective optical pumping resonance sign reversal
Krasteva, A.; Slavov, D.; Todorov, G.; Cartaleva, S.
2013-03-01
We report experimental and theoretical examinations of the peculiarities in Velocity Selective Optical Pumping (VSOP) resonance behavior at open and closed hyperfine transition spectra of Cs atoms (on the D2 line), confined in optical cell with thickness L = 6λ, where λ = 852 nm. For linear and circular polarizations of the irradiating light, open transitions exhibit reduced absorption (fluorescence) VSOP resonances whose contrast increases with atomic concentration and light intensity. However, in case of closed transition the situation is different, the enhanced absorption (fluorescence) VSOP resonance reverses its sign with the atomic concentration and light intensity. Theoretical analysis based on the density matrix formalism, taking into account the statistical tensors describing atomic population and longitudinal alignment, shows that the VSOP resonance sign reversal at the closed transition can be attributed to the efficiency reduction of population transfer by the spontaneous decay with atomic source temperature.
Tlidi, M; Pieroux, D; Mandel, Paul
2003-09-15
We show that coupling diffraction and chromatic dispersion lead to body-centered cubic and hexagonally packed cylinders of dissipative optical crystals in a degenerate optical parametric oscillator. The stabilization of these crystals is a direct consequence of the interaction between the modulational and the quasi-neutral modes.
Detection of Parametric Roll Resonance on Ships from Indication of Nonlinear Energy Flow
Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad
2009-01-01
The detection of the onset of parametric roll resonance on ships is of a central importance in order to activate specific control strategies able to counteract the large roll motion. One of the main priorities is to have detectors with a small detection time, such that warnings can be issued when...... the roll oscillations are about 5◦. This paper proposes two different detection approaches: the first one based on sinusoidal detection in white gaussian noise; the second one utilizes an energy flow indicator in order to catch the onset of parametric roll based upon the transfer of energy from heave...... and pitch to roll. Both detectors have been validated against experimental data of a scale model of a container vessel excited with both regular and irregular waves. The detector based on the energy flow indicator proved to be very robust to different scenarios (regular/irregular waves) since it does...
Parametric decay instability near the upper hybrid resonance in magnetically confined fusion plasmas
Hansen, S. K.; Nielsen, S. K.; Salewski, M.; Stejner, M.; Stober, J.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team
2017-10-01
In this paper we investigate parametric decay of an electromagnetic pump wave into two electrostatic daughter waves, particularly an X-mode pump wave decaying into a warm upper hybrid wave (a limit of an electron Bernstein wave) and a warm lower hybrid wave. We describe the general theory of the above parametric decay instability (PDI), unifying earlier treatments, and show that it may occur in underdense and weakly overdense plasmas. The PDI theory is used to explain anomalous sidebands observed in collective Thomson scattering (CTS) spectra at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The theory may also account for similar observations during CTS experiments in stellarators, as well as in some 1st harmonic electron cyclotron resonance and O-X-B heating experiments.
Traveling wave parametric amplifier with Josephson junctions using minimal resonator phase matching
White, T. C.; Mutus, J. Y.; Hoi, I.-C.; Barends, R.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Neill, C.; O' Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Martinis, John M., E-mail: martinis@physics.ucsb.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-9530 (United States); Megrant, A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-9530 (United States); Department of Materials, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Chaudhuri, S. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); and others
2015-06-15
Josephson parametric amplifiers have become a critical tool in superconducting device physics due to their high gain and quantum-limited noise. Traveling wave parametric amplifiers (TWPAs) promise similar noise performance, while allowing for significant increases in both bandwidth and dynamic range. We present a TWPA device based on an LC-ladder transmission line of Josephson junctions and parallel plate capacitors using low-loss amorphous silicon dielectric. Crucially, we have inserted λ/4 resonators at regular intervals along the transmission line in order to maintain the phase matching condition between pump, signal, and idler and increase gain. We achieve an average gain of 12 dB across a 4 GHz span, along with an average saturation power of −92 dBm with noise approaching the quantum limit.
Entanglement of movable mirror and cavity field enhanced by an optical parametric amplifier
Cai-yun, Zhang; Hu, Li; Gui-xia, Pan; Zong-qiang, Sheng
2016-07-01
A scheme to generate entanglement in a cavity optomechanical system filled with an optical parametric amplifier is proposed. With the help of the optical parametric amplifier, the stationary macroscopic entanglement between the movable mirror and the cavity field can be notably enhanced, and the entanglement increases when the parametric gain increases. Moreover, for a given parametric gain, the degree of entanglement of the cavity optomechanical system increases with increasing input laser power. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11247001), the Scientific Research Foundation of the Higher Education Institutions of Anhui Province, China (Grant No. KJ2012A083), and the Doctor (Master) Fund of Anhui University of Science and Technology, China.
Performance Analysis Of Single-Pumped And Dual-Pumped Parametric Optical Amplifier
Sandar Myint
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this study we present a performance analysis of single-pumped and dual- pumped parametric optical amplifier and present the analysis of gain flatness in dual- pumped Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier FOPA based on four-wave mixing FWM. Result shows that changing the signal power and pump power give the various gains in FOPA. It is also found out that the parametric gain increase with increase in pump power and decrease in signal power. .Moreover in this paper the phase matching condition in FWM plays a vital role in predicting the gain profile of the FOPAbecause the parametric gain is maximum when the total phase mismatch is zero.In this paper single-pumped parametric amplification over a 50nm gain bandwidth is demonstrated using 500 nm highly nonlinear fiber HNLF and signal achieves about 31dB gain. For dual-pumped parametric amplification signal achieves 26.5dB gains over a 50nm gain bandwidth. Therefore dual-pumped parametric amplifier can provide relatively flat gain over a much wider bandwidth than the single-pumped FOPA.
Tunable Optical Filters Having Electro-optic Whispering-gallery-mode Resonators
Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor)
2006-01-01
Tunable optical filters using whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators are described. The WGM optical resonator in a filter exhibits an electro-optical effect and hence is tunable by applying a control electrical signal.
200 TW 45 fs laser based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification.
Lozhkarev, V V; Freidman, G I; Ginzburg, V N; Katin, E V; Khazanov, E A; Kirsanov, A V; Luchinin, G A; Mal'shakov, A N; Martyanov, M A; Palashov, O V; Poteomkin, A K; Sergeev, A M; Shaykin, A A; Yakovlev, I V; Garanin, S G; Sukharev, S A; Rukavishnikov, N N; Charukhchev, A V; Gerke, R R; Yashin, V E
2006-01-01
200 TW peak power has been achieved experimentally using a Cr:forsterite master oscillator at 1250 nm, a stretcher, three optical parametrical amplifiers based on KD*P (DKDP) crystals providing 14.5 J energy in the chirped pulse at 910 nm central wavelength, and a vacuum compressor. The final parametrical amplifier and the compressor are described in detail. Scaling of such architecture to multipetawatt power is discussed.
YIN Lu; SANG Xin-zhu; ZHANG Qi; XIN Xiang-jun; YU Chong-xiu; Da-xiong
2011-01-01
By analyzing the principle of dual-pump parametric amplification and the polarization dependent gain of fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA), a polarization-insensitive FOPA based on polarization-diversity technique with dual parallel pumps is presented. The performances of polarization-insensitivity, gain and BER are theoretically analyzed and numerically simulated by comparing the proposed scheme with parallel pump solution and orthogonal pump solution. The presented solution can reduce the complexity of state of polarization (SoP) of pumps.
Thermodynamics of the Optical Feshbach Resonance Effect
Blatt, S; Bloom, B J; Williams, J R; Thomsen, J W; Julienne, P S; Ye, J
2011-01-01
Using a narrow intercombination line in alkaline earth atoms to mitigate large inelastic losses, we explore the Optical Feshbach Resonance effect in an ultracold gas of bosonic $^{88}$Sr. A systematic measurement of several resonances allows precise determinations of the OFR strength and scaling law, in agreement with coupled-channels theory. Resonant enhancement of the complex scattering length leads to thermodynamic behavior mediated by elastic and inelastic collisions in an otherwise ideal gas. OFR could be used to control atomic interactions with high spatial and time resolution.
Resonant superfluidity in an optical lattice
Titvinidze, Irakli; Hofstetter, Walter [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Snoek, Michiel [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2010-07-01
We study a system of ultracold fermionic Potassium ({sup 40}K) atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice in the neighborhood of an s-wave Feshbach resonance. Close to resonance, the system is described by a multi-band Bose-Fermi Hubbard Hamiltonian. We derive an effective lowest-band Hamiltonian in which the effect of the higher band is incorporated by a self-consistent mean-field approximation. The resulting model is solved by means of Generalized Dynamical Mean-Field Theory. In addition to the BEC/BCS crossover we find on the BCS side of the resonance a phase transition to a fermionic Mott insulator at half filling, induced by the repulsive fermionic background scattering length. We also calculate the critical temperature of the BEC/BCS-state across the resonance and find it to be minimal at resonance.
Demonstration of an All-Optical 2-to-4 Level Encoder Based on an Optical Parametric Amplifier
Yu Liang
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We demonstrated a novel technique for all-optical 2-to-4 level amplitude-shift keying (ASK coding based on a fiber optical parametric amplifier. A 20-Gb/s signal is realized by multiplexing two 10-Gb/s data streams.
Free Surface Waves And Interacting Bouncing Droplets: A Parametric Resonance Case Study
Borja, Francisco J.
2013-07-01
Parametric resonance is a particular type of resonance in which a parameter in a system changes with time. A particularly interesting case is when the parameter changes in a periodic way, which can lead to very intricate behavior. This di↵ers from periodic forcing in that solutions are not necessarily periodic. A system in which parametric resonance is realized is when a fluid bath is shaken periodically, which leads to an e↵ective time dependent gravitational force. This system will be used to study the onset of surface waves in a bath with non-uniform topography. A linear model for the surface waves is derived from the Euler equations in the limit of shallow waves, which includes the geometry of the bottom and surface tension. Experiments are performed to compare with the proposed model and good qualitative agreement is found. Another experiment which relies on a shaking fluid bath is that of bouncing fluid droplets. In the case of two droplets the shaking allows for a larger bouncing droplet to attract a smaller moving droplet in a way that creates a bound system. This bound system is studied and shows some analogous properties to quantum systems, so a quantum mechanical model for a two dimensional atom is studied, as well as a proposed model for the droplet-wave system in terms of equations of fluid mechanics.
刘红军; 赵卫; 陈国夫; 王屹山; 于连君; 阮驰; 卢克清
2004-01-01
Experimental investigations of nondegenerate ultrabroadband chirped pulse optical parametric amplification have been carried out. The general mathematical expressions for evaluating parametric bandwidth, gain and gain bandwidth for arbitrary three-wave mixing parametric amplifiers are presented. In our experiments, a type-I noncollinear phase-matched optical parametric amplifier based on lithium triborate, which was pumped by a 5-ns second harmonic pulses from a Q-switched Nd:YAG operating at 10 Hz, seeded by a 14-rs Ti:sapphire laser at 800nm, was presented. The 0.85nJ energy of input chirped signal pulse with 57-FWHM has been amplified to 3.1 μJ at pump intensity 3 G W/cm2, the corresponding parametric gain reached 3.6 × 103, the 53 nm-FWHM gain spectrum bandwidth of output signal has been obtained. The large gain and broad gain bandwidth, which have been confirmed experimentally, provide great potentials to amplify efficiently the broad bandwidth femtosecond light pulses to generate new extremes in power, intensity, and pulse duration using optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers pumped by powerful nanosecond systems.
Optical resonances in multilayer structures
Maksimovic, Milan
2008-01-01
Theoretical research in optics may be divided in two distinctive but well connected general directions. The first deals with developing new or improving existing mathematical models to describe relevant physics. The second aims to predict new phenomena or applications using established models and te
Optical resonances in multilayer structures
Maksimovic, Milan
2008-01-01
Theoretical research in optics may be divided in two distinctive but well connected general directions. The first deals with developing new or improving existing mathematical models to describe relevant physics. The second aims to predict new phenomena or applications using established models and
Tuning of optical resonances of a microsphere with liquid crystal
Yilmaz, Hasan; Tamer, Mehmet Selman; Gürlü, Oguzhan; Serpengüzel, Ali
2011-05-01
Optical resonances are observed in the elastic light scattering form high refractive index glass microspheres placed on a single mode optical fiber coupler and in a liquid crystal. Placing the liquid crystal on the optical fiber coupler increases the non-resonant scattering, whereas placing the liquid crystal away from the optical coupler increases the resonant scattering. Optical resonances blue and red shift due to the placement and removal of the liquid crystal.
Tuning of optical resonances of a microsphere with liquid crystal
Serpengüzel, Ali; Yılmaz, Huzeyfe; Tamer, Mehmet Selman; Gürlü, Oğuzhan
2011-01-01
Optical resonances are observed in the elastic light scattering form high refractive index glass microspheres placed on a single mode optical fiber coupler and in a liquid crystal. Placing the liquid crystal on the optical fiber coupler increases the non-resonant scattering, whereas placing the liquid crystal away from the optical coupler increases the resonant scattering. Optical resonances blue and red shift due to the placement and removal of the liquid crystal.
Passive ring resonator micro-optical gyroscopes
Venediktov, V. Yu; Filatov, Yu V.; Shalymov, E. V.
2016-05-01
This paper reviews recent advances in passive micro-optical gyroscopes. In the last decade, most research effort in the area of micro-optical gyros has been concentrated on a configuration that takes advantage of a single-mode passive ring resonator, which is usually fabricated using integrated optical technologies. The dimensions of such micro-optical gyros are comparable to those of micromechanical gyroscopes (area of 10 to 100 mm2) and their sensitivity is considerably better than the sensitivity of the latter, approaching that of fibre-optic and laser gyros. Moreover, microoptical gyros can be made as a single integrated circuit, like the micromechanical gyros, but they have no movable parts, in contrast to their micromechanical counterparts. We also describe the development and investigation of micro-optical gyros produced in our studies.
Cameron, S.M.; Bliss, D.E.
1997-02-01
Implementation of optical imagery in a diffuse inhomogeneous medium such as biological tissue requires an understanding of photon migration and multiple scattering processes which act to randomize pathlength and degrade image quality. The nature of transmitted light from soft tissue ranges from the quasi-coherent properties of the minimally scattered component to the random incoherent light of the diffuse component. Recent experimental approaches have emphasized dynamic path-sensitive imaging measurements with either ultrashort laser pulses (ballistic photons) or amplitude modulated laser light launched into tissue (photon density waves) to increase image resolution and transmissive penetration depth. Ballistic imaging seeks to compensate for these {open_quotes}fog-like{close_quotes} effects by temporally isolating the weak early-arriving image-bearing component from the diffusely scattered background using a subpicosecond optical gate superimposed on the transmitted photon time-of-flight distribution. The authors have developed a broadly wavelength tunable (470 nm -2.4 {mu}m), ultrashort amplifying optical gate for transillumination spectral imaging based on optical parametric amplification in a nonlinear crystal. The time-gated image amplification process exhibits low noise and high sensitivity, with gains greater than 104 achievable for low light levels. We report preliminary benchmark experiments in which this system was used to reconstruct, spectrally upcovert, and enhance near-infrared two-dimensional images with feature sizes of 65 {mu}m/mm{sup 2} in background optical attenuations exceeding 10{sup 12}. Phase images of test objects exhibiting both absorptive contrast and diffuse scatter were acquired using a self-referencing Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor in combination with short-pulse quasi-ballistic gating. The sensor employed a lenslet array based on binary optics technology and was sensitive to optical path distortions approaching {lambda}/100.
INTRODUCTION One proposed mechanism of action of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on biological systems is the Ion Parametric Resonance (IPR) model, which has been experimentally validated in neuronal PC-12 cells [1, 2]. It proposes that when applied EMFs are tuned to resonate with...
Phase locking and quantum statistics in a parametrically driven nonlinear resonator
Hovsepyan, G. H.; Shahinyan, A. R.; Chew, Lock Yue; Kryuchkyan, G. Yu.
2016-04-01
We discuss phase-locking phenomenon at low-level of quanta and quantum statistics for parametrically driven nonlinear Kerr resonator (PDNR). Oscillatory mode of PDNR is created in the process of a degenerate down-conversion of photons under interaction with a train of external Gaussian pulses. We calculate the distribution of photon-number states, the second-order correlation function of photons, the Wigner functions of cavity mode showing two-fold symmetry in phase space, and we analyze formation of phase-locked states in the regular as well as the quantum chaotic regime of the PDNR.
Resonating properties of passive spherical optical microcavities
Wen Li(李文); Ruopeng Wang(王若鹏)
2004-01-01
As an optically pumped device, the lasing characteristics of a spherical microcavity laser depend on the optical pumping processes. These characteristics can be described in term of the Q factor and the optical field distribution in a microsphere. We derived analytical expressions and carried out numerical calculation for Q factor and optical field. The Q factor is found to be oscillatory functions of the radius of a microsphere and the pumping wavelength, and the pumping efficiency for a resonating microsphere is much higher than that for an anti-resonating microsphere. Using tunable lasers as pumping sources is suggested in order to achieve a higher pumping efficiency. Numerical calculation on optical field distribution in spherical microcavities shows that a well focused Gaussian beam is a suitable incident wave for cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments in which strong confinement of optical field in the center of a microsphere is requested, but higher order spherical wave should be used instead for exciting whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microsphere lasers, for the purpose of favoring optical energy transferring to WGM in optical microspheres.
Toward practical application of fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems
Wong, Kin-Yip
One of the most powerful techniques in fiber optical communication systems is wave-length division multiplexing (WDM). By utilizing the large (˜300 nm), low-loss (0.2--0.4 dB/km) transmission bandwidth, a single fiber can transmit many wavelengths. One fiber can potentially support transmission of tens of terabits per second of information over thousands of kilometers, to meet the exponentially-growing capacity demand. One of the key components for WDM systems is the optical amplifier; currently the most widely used optical amplifier is the erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). However, its bandwidth and operating wavelength are limited. To mitigate the bandwidth limitation of EDFAs, alternative optical amplifiers have been investigated, and one of the most promising candidates is the fiber optical parametric amplifier (OPA). Fiber OPAs are based on the third-order nonlinear susceptibility chi (3) in fiber. They can exhibit large bandwidth, and may find applications as optical amplifiers for WDM transmission. They also generate another wavelength, called idler, which contains the same modulation information as the input signal, with an inverted spectrum. This phase-conjugated idler can be used not only for wavelength conversion in WDM networks, but also for mid-span spectral inversion (MSSI) which can combat fiber dispersion, and even some of the detrimental fiber nonlinearities. In this dissertation, a record high-performance fiber OPA with 60 dB signal gain, and a parametric wavelength converter with 40 dB of conversion gain and 3.8 dB of noise figure are experimentally demonstrated. An OPA with 92% pump depletion is analyzed theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. Polarization-independent OPA, both in one-pump and two-pump configurations are investigated. The differences between the two configurations are discussed and other solutions are also proposed to address some issues of linear orthogonal two-pump OPA. In addition, the applications of OPA: as a
Strongly driven nonlinear quantum optics in microring resonators
Vernon, Z
2015-01-01
We present a detailed analysis of strongly driven spontaneous four-wave mixing in a lossy integrated microring resonator side-coupled to a channel waveguide. A nonperturbative, analytic solution within the undepleted pump approximation is developed for a cw pump input of arbitrary intensity. In the strongly driven regime self- and cross-phase modulation, as well as multi-pair generation, lead to a rich variety of power-dependent effects; the results are markedly different than in the low power limit. The photon pair generation rate, single photon spectrum, and joint spectral intensity (JSI) distribution are calculated. Splitting of the generated single photon spectrum into a doublet structure associated with both pump detuning and cross-phase modulation is predicted, as well as substantial narrowing of the generated signal and idler bandwidths associated with the onset of optical parametric oscillation at intermediate powers. Both the correlated and uncorrelated contributions to the JSI are calculated, and fo...
Monolithic resonant optical reflector laser diodes
Hirata, T.; Suehiro, M.; Maeda, M.; Hihara, M.; Hosomatsu, H.
1991-10-01
The first monolithic resonant optical reflector laser diode that has a waveguide directional coupler and two DBR reflectors integrated by compositional disordering of quantum-well heterostructures is described. A linewidth of 440 kHz was obtained, and this value is expected to be greatly decreased by reducing the propagation loss in the integrated waveguide.
Sabater, A. B.; Rhoads, J. F.
2017-02-01
The parametric system identification of macroscale resonators operating in a nonlinear response regime can be a challenging research problem, but at the micro- and nanoscales, experimental constraints add additional complexities. For example, due to the small and noisy signals micro/nanoresonators produce, a lock-in amplifier is commonly used to characterize the amplitude and phase responses of the systems. While the lock-in enables detection, it also prohibits the use of established time-domain, multi-harmonic, and frequency-domain methods, which rely upon time-domain measurements. As such, the only methods that can be used for parametric system identification are those based on fitting experimental data to an approximate solution, typically derived via perturbation methods and/or Galerkin methods, of a reduced-order model. Thus, one could view the parametric system identification of micro/nanosystems operating in a nonlinear response regime as the amalgamation of four coupled sub-problems: nonparametric system identification, or proper experimental design and data acquisition; the generation of physically consistent reduced-order models; the calculation of accurate approximate responses; and the application of nonlinear least-squares parameter estimation. This work is focused on the theoretical foundations that underpin each of these sub-problems, as the methods used to address one sub-problem can strongly influence the results of another. To provide context, an electromagnetically transduced microresonator is used as an example. This example provides a concrete reference for the presented findings and conclusions.
Yuye Wang; Degang Xu; Yizhong Yu; Wuqi Wen; Xifu Li; Jianquan Yao
2008-01-01
We derive the threshold pump intensity for a singly resonant intracavity optical parametric oscillator (IOPO)based on a temporal coupled field model.Particular attention is Paid to the dependence of the intracavity singly resonant OPO(SRO)threshold intensity on the signal wave output coupling.Meanwhile,a Nd:YAG laser pumped KTiOPO4(KTP)IOPO for eye-safe laser output is studied experimentally.The experiment is performed with four signal wave output reflectivities of 60%,70%,80%,and 90%,respectively.The measured values are in good agreement with the theoretical results.With an output coupler reflectivity of 80%,a peak power of 70 kW at 1572 nm has been obtained at a repetition rate of 3.5 kHz.The pulse width is 4.9 ns.Such investigation is helpful to identifying suitable operational regime of low pump intensity.
Resonance spectra of diabolo optical antenna arrays
Hong Guo
2015-10-01
Full Text Available A complete set of diabolo optical antenna arrays with different waist widths and periods was fabricated on a sapphire substrate by using a standard e-beam lithography and lift-off process. Fabricated diabolo optical antenna arrays were characterized by measuring the transmittance and reflectance with a microscope-coupled FTIR spectrometer. It was found experimentally that reducing the waist width significantly shifts the resonance to longer wavelength and narrowing the waist of the antennas is more effective than increasing the period of the array for tuning the resonance wavelength. Also it is found that the magnetic field enhancement near the antenna waist is correlated to the shift of the resonance wavelength.
Temperature Sensors Based on WGM Optical Resonators
Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Yu, Nan; Maleki, Lute; Itchenko, Vladimir; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry
2008-01-01
A proposed technique for measuring temperature would exploit differences between the temperature dependences of the frequencies of two different electromagnetic modes of a whispering gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonator. An apparatus based on this technique was originally intended to be part of a control system for stabilizing a laser frequency in the face of temperature fluctuations. When suitably calibrated, apparatuses based on this technique could also serve as precise temperature sensors for purposes other than stabilization of lasers. A sensor according to the proposal would include (1) a transparent WGM dielectric resonator having at least two different sets of modes characterized by different thermo-optical constants and (2) optoelectronic instrumentation for measuring the difference between the temperature-dependent shifts of the resonance frequencies of the two sets of modes.
Parametric resonance of flexible footbridges under crowd-induced lateral excitation
Piccardo, Giuseppe; Tubino, Federica
2008-03-01
The excessive lateral sway motion caused by crowds walking across footbridges has attracted great public attention in the past few years. Three possible mechanisms responsible for such lateral vibrations have been investigated in the literature: direct resonance, dynamic interaction, and internal resonance. In this paper, starting from a critical review of the mechanisms proposed in the literature, a parametric excitation mechanism is analyzed, based on a forcing model whose amplitude is a function of deck oscillations. A stability criterion is identified, depending on the ratio between the structural and excitation frequencies, on the ratio of the structural and pedestrian masses, and on the structural damping. The proposed mechanism can be achieved for very flexible footbridges, with a lateral natural frequency around 0.5 Hz, corresponding to a half of the lateral walking frequency. This situation can occur in modern structures, such as in the case of the London Millennium Footbridge.
Missey, M; Dominic, V; Powers, P; Schepler, K L
2000-02-15
We used elliptical beams to demonstrate aperture scaling effects in nanosecond single-grating and multigrating periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) monolithic optical parametric oscillators and generators. Increasing the cavity Fresnel number in single-grating crystals broadened both the beam divergence and the spectral bandwidth. Both effects are explained in terms of the phase-matching geometry. These effects are suppressed when a multigrating PPLN crystal is used because the individual gratings provide small effective subapertures. A flood-pumped multigrating optical parametric generator displayed a low output beam divergence and contained 19 pairs of signal and idler frequencies.
Ulvila, Ville; Halonen, Lauri; Vainio, Markku
2015-01-01
We present an experimental study of optical frequency comb generation based on cascaded quadratic nonlinearities inside a continuous-wave-pumped optical parametric oscillator. We demonstrate comb states which produce narrow-linewidth intermode beat note signals, and we verify the mode spacing uniformity of the comb at the Hz level. We also show that spectral quality of the comb can be improved by modulating the parametric gain at a frequency that corresponds to the comb mode spacing. We have reached a high average output power of over 4 W in the near-infrared region, at ~2 {\\mu}m.
Johannessen, Christian; Abdali, Salim; White, Peter C.
2007-01-01
High quality Resonance Raman (RR) and resonance Raman Optical Activity (ROA) spectra of cytochrome c were obtained in order to perform full assignment of spectral features of the resonance ROA spectrum. The resonance ROA spectrum of cytochrome c revealed a distinct spectral signature pattern due...... to resonance enhanced skeletal porphyrin vibrations, more pronounced than any contribution from the protein back-bone. Combining the intrinsic resonance enhancement of cytochrome c with surface plasmon enhancement by colloidal silver particles, the Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering (SERRS) and Chiral...... Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (ChERS) spectra of the protein were successfully obtained at very low concentration (as low as 1 µM). The assignment of spectral features was based on the information obtained from the RR and resonance ROA spectra. Excellent agreement between RR and SERRS spectra is reported...
Magnetic resonance imaging of optic nerve
Foram Gala
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Optic nerves are the second pair of cranial nerves and are unique as they represent an extension of the central nervous system. Apart from clinical and ophthalmoscopic evaluation, imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, plays an important role in the complete evaluation of optic nerve and the entire visual pathway. In this pictorial essay, the authors describe segmental anatomy of the optic nerve and review the imaging findings of various conditions affecting the optic nerves. MRI allows excellent depiction of the intricate anatomy of optic nerves due to its excellent soft tissue contrast without exposure to ionizing radiation, better delineation of the entire visual pathway, and accurate evaluation of associated intracranial pathologies.
Energy harvesting using parametric resonant system due to time-varying damping
Scapolan, Matteo; Tehrani, Maryam Ghandchi; Bonisoli, Elvio
2016-10-01
In this paper, the problem of energy harvesting is considered using an electromechanical oscillator. The energy harvester is modelled as a spring-mass-damper, in which the dissipated energy in the damper can be stored rather than wasted. Previous research provided the optimum damping parameter, to harvest maximum amount of energy, taking into account the stroke limit of the device. However, the amount of the maximum harvested energy is limited to a single frequency in which the device is tuned. Active and semi-active strategies have been suggested, which increases the performance of the harvester. Recently, nonlinear damping in the form of cubic damping has been proposed to extend the dynamic range of the harvester. In this paper, a periodic time-varying damper is introduced, which results in a parametrically excited system. When the frequency of the periodic time-varying damper is twice the excitation frequency, the system internal energy increases proportionally to the energy already stored in the system. Thus, for certain parametric damping values, the system can become unstable. This phenomenon can be exploited for energy harvesting. The transition curves, which separate the stable and unstable dynamics are derived, both analytically using harmonic balance method, and numerically using time simulations. The design of the harvester is such that its response is close to the transition curves of the Floquet diagram, leading to stable but resonant system. The performance of the parametric harvester is compared with the non-parametric one. It is demonstrated that performances and the frequency bandwidth in which the energy can be harvested can be both increased using time-varying damping.
Enhanced energy storage in chaotic optical resonators
Liu, Changxu
2013-05-05
Chaos is a phenomenon that occurs in many aspects of contemporary science. In classical dynamics, chaos is defined as a hypersensitivity to initial conditions. The presence of chaos is often unwanted, as it introduces unpredictability, which makes it difficult to predict or explain experimental results. Conversely, we demonstrate here how chaos can be used to enhance the ability of an optical resonator to store energy. We combine analytic theory with ab initio simulations and experiments in photonic-crystal resonators to show that a chaotic resonator can store six times more energy than its classical counterpart of the same volume. We explain the observed increase by considering the equipartition of energy among all degrees of freedom of the chaotic resonator (that is, the cavity modes) and discover a convergence of their lifetimes towards a single value. A compelling illustration of the theory is provided by enhanced absorption in deformed polystyrene microspheres. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
All-Optical Quantum Random Bit Generation from Intrinsically Binary Phase of Parametric Oscillators
Marandi, Alireza; Vodopyanov, Konstantin L; Byer, Robert L
2012-01-01
True random number generators (RNGs) are desirable for applications ranging from cryptogra- phy to computer simulations. Quantum phenomena prove to be attractive for physical RNGs due to their fundamental randomness and immunity to attack [1]- [5]. Optical parametric down conversion is an essential element in most quantum optical experiments including optical squeezing [9], and generation of entangled photons [10]. In an optical parametric oscillator (OPO), photons generated through spontaneous down conversion of the pump initiate the oscillation in the absence of other inputs [11, 12]. This quantum process is the dominant effect during the oscillation build-up, leading to selection of one of the two possible phase states above threshold in a degenerate OPO [13]. Building on this, we demonstrate a novel all-optical quantum RNG in which the photodetection is not a part of the random process, and no post processing is required for the generated bit sequence. We implement a synchronously pumped twin degenerate O...
Nearly-Noncritical Phase Matching in MgO:LiNbO3 Optical Parametric Oscillators
姚建铨; 于意仲; 王鹏; 王涛; 张百钢; 丁欣; 陈进; H.J.Peng; H.S.Kwok
2001-01-01
We have proposed and demonstrated a nearly-noncritical phase-matched (NCPM) optical parametric oscillation (OPO) in an MgO:LiNbO3 crystal with 5 mol% MgO by temperature tuning. By giving up perfect NCPM, the practical tuning range for the OPO is increased by two times. For the crystal, the operated temperature decreases with the phase-matching angle at degeneracy. With a cutting angle of 82° instead of the noncritical case of 90°, the tuning range was increased. In order to obtain a sufficiently high output pulse energy for both signal and idler throughout the entire tuning range, five sets of mirrors were used for the resonator. The tuning range of the OPO was 800 - 1700 nm with temperatures tuning from 83°C to 224.2°C. The output energy was about 6.45 mJ with a conversion efficiency of nearly 13%. The bandwidth of the output was 1.0 - L1 nm.
Development of Optical Parametric Oscillator Tunable in the Range 970-1460 nm
S. P. Singh
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Optical parametric oscillator (OPO tunable in the range 970-1460 nm has been developed using bet barium borate (BBO crystal as the gain medium and second harmonic of Nd:YAG laser as pump source. Two sets of resonators were used to cover the range; first was nearly degenerate (970-1180 nm and the second was nondegenerate (1240-1460 nm. The measured threshold pump pulse energy was nearly 8 mJ. Maximum signal pulse energy of about 14 mJ was obtained for pump pulse energy of nearly 31 mJ. Power scaling efficiency was about 70 per cent. The signal pulse width was ~5 ns corresponding to the pump pulse width of ~ 9 ns. OPO signal beam quality was Gaussian although the pump beam was top-hat multimode.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(4, pp.377-382, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.562
LIM; C.W.
2010-01-01
Nonlinear combination parametric resonance is investigated for an axially accelerating viscoelastic string.The governing equation of in-planar motion of the string is established by introducing a coordinate transform in the Eulerian equation of a string with moving boundaries.The string under investigation is constituted by the standard linear solid model in which the material,not partial,time derivative was used.The governing equation leads to the Mote model for transverse vibration by omitting the longitudinal component and higher order terms.The Kirchhoff model is derived from the Mote model by replacing the tension with the averaged tension over the string.The two models are respectively analyzed via the method of multiple scales for principal parametric resonance.The amplitudes and the existence conditions of steady-state response and its stability can be numerically determined.Numerical calculations demonstrate the effects of the string material parameters,the initial tension,and the axial speed fluctuation amplitude.The outcomes of the two models are qualitatively and quantitatively compared.
Doubly Resonant Optical Periodic Structure.
Alagappan, G; Png, C E
2016-02-08
Periodic structures are well known in various branches of physics for their ability to provide a stopband. In this article, using optical periodic structures we showed that, when a second periodicity--very closed to the original periodicity is introduced, large number of states appears in the stopband corresponding to the first periodicity. In the limit where the two periods matches, we have a continuum of states, and the original stopband completely disappears. This intriguing phenomena is uncovered by noticing that, regardless of the proximities of the two periodicities, there is an array of spatial points where the dielectric functions corresponding to the two periodicities interfere destructively. These spatial points mimic photonic atoms by satisfying the standards equations of quantum harmonic oscillators, and exhibit lossless, atom-like dispersions.
Coupled Optical Resonance Laser Lockin
Burd, Shaun
2013-01-01
We have demonstrated simultaneous laser frequency stabilization of a UV and IR laser, to the same spectroscopic sample, by monitoring only the absorption of the UV laser. For trapping and cooling Yb$^{+}$ ions, a frequency stabilized laser is required at 369.95nm to drive the $^{2}S_{1/2}$ $ \\rightarrow $ $ ^{2}P_{1/2}$ cooling transition. Since the cycle is not closed, a 935.18nm laser is needed to drive the $^{2}D_{3/2}$ $\\rightarrow$ $^{3}D_{[3/2]1/2}$ transition which is followed by rapid decay to the $^{2}S_{1/2}$ state. Our 369nm laser is locked to Yb$^{+}$ ions generated in a hollow cathode discharge lamp using saturated absorption spectroscopy. Without pumping, the metastable $^{2}D_{3/2}$ level is only sparsely populated and direct absorption of 935nm light is difficult to detect. A resonant 369nm laser is able to significantly populate the $^{2}D_{3/2}$ state due to the coupling between the levels. Fast re-pumping to the $^{2}S_{1/2}$ state, by 935nm light, can be detected by observing the change in...
BBO晶体光参量放大研究%A Theoretical Evaluation of Optical Parametric Amplification in BBO Crystal
SHAO Min; XUE Shao-lin; LIN Zun-qi
2005-01-01
The noncollinear optical parametric amplification in BBO crystal is theoretically investigated. The phase matching angle, gain bandwidth, optimal noncollinear angle and conversion efficiency for both type-Ⅰ and type-Ⅱ BBO are simulated. The numerical simulation results are important to the practical optical parametric amplification experiments with BBO crystal.
Extraordinary transmission in optical Helmholtz resonators.
Chevalier, Paul; Bouchon, Patrick; Sakat, Emilie; Pelouard, Jean-Luc; Pardo, Fabrice; Haïdar, Riad
2015-06-15
Optical Helmholtz resonators (OHRs) have been adapted from acoustics designs for light absorbing structures, exhibiting extreme light confinement. Here, extraordinary transmission of light is theoretically demonstrated through symmetric OHRs, comprising a cavity with two λ/500 narrow slits on either side. This device has appealing features to act as a spectral bandpass filter in the context of multispectral imaging, in particular its high angular tolerance because of the localized nature of the resonance. Besides, the cavity can be modeled as an inductor and the two slits can be modeled as capacitors, the whole design acting as a LC circuit thus preventing any harmonic features.
Robinson, Iain; Jack, James W.; Rae, Cameron F.; Moncrieff, John B.
2015-10-01
We report the development of a differential absorption lidar instrument (DIAL) designed and built specifically for the measurement of anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The DIAL is integrated into a commercial astronomical telescope to provide high-quality receiver optics and enable automated scanning for three-dimensional lidar acquisition. The instrument is portable and can be set up within a few hours in the field. The laser source is a pulsed optical parametric oscillator (OPO) which outputs light at a wavelength tunable near 1.6 μm. This wavelength region, which is also used in telecommunications devices, provides access to absorption lines in both carbon dioxide at 1573 nm and methane at 1646 nm. To achieve the critical temperature stability required for a laserbased field instrument the four-mirror OPO cavity is machined from a single aluminium block. A piezoactuator adjusts the cavity length to achieve resonance and this is maintained over temperature changes through the use of a feedback loop. The laser output is continuously monitored with pyroelectric detectors and a custom-built wavemeter. The OPO is injection seeded by a temperature-stabilized distributed feedback laser diode (DFB-LD) with a wavelength locked to the absorption line centre (on-line) using a gas cell containing pure carbon dioxide. A second DFB-LD is tuned to a nearby wavelength (off-line) to provide the reference required for differential absorption measurements. A similar system has been designed and built to provide the injection seeding wavelengths for methane. The system integrates the DFB-LDs, drivers, locking electronics, gas cell and balanced photodetectors. The results of test measurements of carbon dioxide are presented and the development of the system is discussed, including the adaptation required for the measurement of methane.
Parametric-based brain Magnetic Resonance Elastography using a Rayleigh damping material model.
Petrov, Andrii Y; Sellier, Mathieu; Docherty, Paul D; Chase, J Geoffrey
2014-10-01
The three-parameter Rayleigh damping (RD) model applied to time-harmonic Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) has potential to better characterise fluid-saturated tissue systems. However, it is not uniquely identifiable at a single frequency. One solution to this problem involves simultaneous inverse problem solution of multiple input frequencies over a broad range. As data is often limited, an alternative elegant solution is a parametric RD reconstruction, where one of the RD parameters (μI or ρI) is globally constrained allowing accurate identification of the remaining two RD parameters. This research examines this parametric inversion approach as applied to in vivo brain imaging. Overall, success was achieved in reconstruction of the real shear modulus (μR) that showed good correlation with brain anatomical structures. The mean and standard deviation shear stiffness values of the white and gray matter were found to be 3±0.11kPa and 2.2±0.11kPa, respectively, which are in good agreement with values established in the literature or measured by mechanical testing. Parametric results with globally constrained μI indicate that selecting a reasonable value for the μI distribution has a major effect on the reconstructed ρI image and concomitant damping ratio (ξd). More specifically, the reconstructed ρI image using a realistic μI=333Pa value representative of a greater portion of the brain tissue showed more accurate differentiation of the ventricles within the intracranial matter compared to μI=1000Pa, and ξd reconstruction with μI=333Pa accurately captured the higher damping levels expected within the vicinity of the ventricles. Parametric RD reconstruction shows potential for accurate recovery of the stiffness characteristics and overall damping profile of the in vivo living brain despite its underlying limitations. Hence, a parametric approach could be valuable with RD models for diagnostic MRE imaging with single frequency data. Copyright © 2014
Xiao Li; Zhang Wei; Huang Yi-Dong; Peng Jiang-De
2008-01-01
High nonlinear microstructure fibre (HNMF) is preferred in nonlinear fibre optics, especially in the applications of optical parametric effects, due to its high optical nonlinear coefficient. However, polarization dependent dispersion will impact the nonlinear optical parametric process in HNMFs. In this paper, modulation instability (MI) method is used to measure the polarization dependent dispersion of a piece of commercial HNMF, including the group velocity dispersion, the dispersion slope, the fourth-order dispersion and group birefringence. It also experimentally demonstrates the impact of the polarization dependent dispersion on the continuous wave supercontinuum (SC) generation. On one axis MI sidebands with symmetric frequency dctunings are generated, while on the other axis with larger MI frequency detuning, SC is generated by soliton self-frequency shift.
Highly efficient optical parametric generation in proton exchanged PPLN waveguides
Chanvillard, L; Baldi, P; De Micheli, M; Ostrowsky, D B; Huang, L; Bamford, G
1999-01-01
Summary form only given. Parametric fluorescence, amplification, and oscillation in PPLN waveguides have already been demonstrated. In all previous experiments, the measured efficiencies were smaller than the theoretically predicted values since the waveguide fabrication process utilized, annealed proton exchange (APE) can reduce or even destroy the nonlinear coefficient and/or the periodic domain orientation in a portion of the guiding structure. In the experiment reported here, we used a 2 cm long, Z-cut PPLN with a 18 mu m domain inversion period. The waveguides are created using a direct proton exchange process in a highly diluted melt, which induces no crystallographic phase transition. This allows preserving both the nonlinear coefficient and the domain orientation while fully benefiting from the power confinement associated with the guided wave configuration. (4 refs).
Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Skettrup, Torben; Balle-Petersen, O.;
2001-01-01
Summary form only given. CW and pulsed compact tunable laser sources in the infrared have widespread scientific, medical and industrial applications. Such a laser source can be obtained by use of a diode-pumped intracavity optical parametric oscillator (IOPO). We report on a IOPO based on a Yb...
Guo, Xiaoyang; Tokita, Shigeki; Tu, Xiaoniu; Zheng, Yanqing; Kawanaka, Junji
2017-02-01
We conceptually propose a standard optical parametric amplification system based on YCOB crystal to achieve terawatt (TW) class infrared (IR) pulses with 100 mJ level energy, which would be one order of magnitude more energetic and powerful than currently available IR pulses and suitable to generate high photon flux water window x-rays.
Generation of few-cycle terawatt light pulses using optical parametric chirped pulse amplification
Witte, S.; Zinkstok, R.T.; Hogervorst, W.; Eikema, K.S.E.
2005-01-01
We demonstrate the generation of 9.8 +/- 0.3 fs laser pulses with a peak power exceeding one terawatt at 30 Hz repetition rate, using optical parametric chirped pulse amplification. The amplifier is pumped by 140 mJ, 60 ps pulses at 532 nm, and amplifies seed pulses from a Ti: Sapphire oscillator to
Cristofori, Valentina; Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Rishøj, Lars Søgaard
2013-01-01
We show a first-time demonstration of amplification of 400 fs pulses in a fiber optical parametric amplifier. The 400 fs signal is stretched in time, amplified by 26 dB and compressed back to 500 fs. A significant broadening of the pulses is experimentally shown due to dispersion and limited gain...
Generation of Squeezing in Higher Order Hermite-Gaussian Modes with an Optical Parametric Amplifier
Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Delaubert, Vincent; Harb, Charles C.;
2006-01-01
We demonstrate quantum correlations in the transverse plane of continuous wave light beams by producing -4.0 dB, -2.6 dB and -1.5 dB of squeezing in the TEM_{00}, TEM_{10} and TEM_{20} Hermite-Gauss modes with an optical parametric amplifier, respectively. This has potential applications in quant...
Optical isolation via unidirectional resonant photon tunneling
Moccia, Massimo; Galdi, Vincenzo; Alu', Andrea; Engheta, Nader
2013-01-01
We show that tri-layer structures combining epsilon-negative and magneto-optical material layers can exhibit unidirectional resonant photon tunneling phenomena that can discriminate between circularly-polarized (CP) waves of given handedness impinging from opposite directions, or between CP waves with different handedness impinging from the same direction. This physical principle may be utilized to design compact optical isolators for CP waves. Within this framework, we derive simple analytical conditions and design formulae, and quantitatively assess the isolation performance, also taking into account the unavoidable imperfections and nonidealities.
Parametric interaction of optical modes in fiber-optic light guide
Stirzhevskiy, V. L.; Fonmaniy, V. A.; Yashkir, Yu. N.
1987-10-01
Parametric interaction of optical modes in an arbitrary fiber-optic structure with quadratically nonlinear susceptibility is analyzed, assuming propagation of natural modes along the fiber axis and a known transverse field distribution. Generation of a sum-frequency wave by interaction of a pump wave and an infrared signal wave is considered, for specificity, assuming that the amplitudes of all three fields vary slowly as functions of the longitudinal coordinate. The corresponding system of integro-differential equations is solved for TEM modes, in standard shorthand notation, with the mathematical apparatus of Bessel and Hankel functions. The solution yields the overlap integral and the Umov-Poynting vector. On this basis we calculate the dependence of the conversion efficiency on the fiber radius and on the half-width of the Gaussian pump-power distribution over modes in a fiber of given radius, this half-width being normalized to the number of the highest-order mode still propagating at the pump wavelength and being proportional to the angular width of the laser beam at the fiber entrance.
Malik, R; Kumpera, A; Lorences-Riesgo, A; Andrekson, P A; Karlsson, M
2014-11-17
We measure the frequency-resolved noise figure of fiber optical parametric amplifiers both in phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive modes in the frequency range from 0.03 to 3 GHz. We also measure the variation in noise figure due to the degradation in pump optical signal to noise ratio and also as a function of the input signal powers. Noise figure degradation due to stimulated Brillouin scattering is observed.
Stable integrated hyper-parametric oscillator based on coupled optical microcavities
Armaroli, Andrea; Dumeige, Yannick
2015-01-01
We propose a flexible scheme based on three coupled optical microcavities which permits to achieve stable oscillations in the microwave range, the frequency of which depends only on the cavity coupling rates. We find the different dynamical regimes (soft and hard excitation) to affect the oscillation intensity but not their period. This configuration may permit to implement compact hyper-parametric sources on an integrated optical circuit, with interesting applications in communications, sensing and metrology.
Passive optical resonator for OSQAR LSW experiment
Kunc, Š.; Messineo, G.; Schott, M.; Šulc, M.
2016-11-01
This paper treats the issue of locking a solid state laser, pumped by high power diodes (Verdi V5), to a twenty meter long optical resonator for OSQAR LSW - light shining through the wall, dark matter search experiment. In this paper the optical design and a possible locking scheme are presented. The environmental conditions in SM18 testing hall at CERN, where OSQAR experiment is based, are discussed. The main focus is put on the vibration analysis, cavity transversal modes behaviour, possible clipping in the anticryostat of LHC - Large Hadron Collider magnet bore and locking loop parameters required for future experimental testing. The expected finesse of resonator will be presented and discussed in the sense of OSQAR LSW; its impact on possible new exclusion limits is discussed.
Rydberg optical Feshbach resonances in cold gases
Sándor, Nóra; Julienne, Paul S; Pupillo, Guido
2016-01-01
We propose a novel scheme to efficiently tune the scattering length of two colliding ground-state atoms by off-resonantly coupling the scattering-state to an excited Rydberg-molecular state using laser light. For the s-wave scattering of two colliding ${^{87}}\\mathrm{Rb}$ atoms, we demonstrate that the effective optical length and pole strength of this Rydberg optical Feshbach resonance can be tuned over several orders of magnitude, while incoherent processes and losses are minimised. Given the ubiquity of Rydberg molecular states, this technique should be generally applicable to homo-nuclear atomic pairs as well as to atomic mixtures with s-wave (or even p-wave) scattering.
Cheng, Huihui; Luo, Zhengqian; Ye, Chenchun; Huang, Yizhong; Liu, Chun; Cai, Zhiping
2013-01-20
Mid-infrared fiber optical parametric oscillators (MIR FOPOs) based on the degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) of tellurite photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are proposed and modeled for the first time. Using the DFWM coupled-wave equations, numerical simulations are performed to analyze the effects of tellurite PCFs, single-resonant cavity, and pump source on the MIR FOPO performances. The numerical results show that: (1) although a longer tellurite PCF can decrease the pump threshold of MIR FOPOs to a few watts only, the high conversion-efficiency of MIR idler usually requires a short-length optimum PCF with low loss; (2) compared with the single-pass DFWM configurations of the MIR fiber sources published previously, the stable oscillation of signal light in single-resonant cavity can significantly promote the MIR idler output efficiency. With a suggested tellurite PCF as parametric gain medium, the theoretical prediction indicates that such a MIR FOPO could obtain a wide MIR-tunable range and a high conversion efficiency of more than 10%.
Resonant Optical Absorption in Semiconductor Quantum Wells
YU Li-Yuan; CAO Jun-Cheng
2004-01-01
@@ We have calculated the intraband photon absorption coefficients of hot two-dimensional electrons interacting with polar-optical phonon modes in quantum wells. The dependence of the photon absorption coefficients on the photon wavelength λ is obtained both by using the quantum mechanical theory and by the balance-equation theory. It is found that the photon absorption spectrum displays a local resonant maximum, corresponding to LO energy, and the absorption peak vanishes with increasing the electronic temperature.
Optical microfiber coil resonator refractometric sensor.
Xu, Fei; Horak, Peter; Brambilla, Gilberto
2007-06-11
We present a novel refractometric sensor based on a coated all-coupling optical-fiber-nanowire microcoil resonator which is robust, compact, and comprises an intrinsic fluidic channel. We calculate the device sensitivity and find its dependence on the nanowire diameter and coating thickness. A sensitivity as high as 700 nm/RIU and a refractive index resolution as low as 10(-10) are predicted.
Ammonia Optical Sensing by Microring Resonators
Passaro, Vittorio M. N.; Dell'Olio, Francesco; De Leonardis, Francesco
2007-01-01
A very compact (device area around 40 μm2) optical ammonia sensor based on a microring resonator is presented in this work. Silicon-on-insulator technology is used in sensor design and a dye doped polymer is adopted as sensing material. The sensor exhibits a very good linearity and a minimum detectable refractive index shift of sensing material as low as 8×10-5, with a detection limit around 4 ‰.
Image transmission in mid-IR using a solid state laser pumped optical parametric oscillator
Prasad, Narasimha S.; Kratovil, Pat; Magee, James R.
2002-04-01
In this paper, image transmission using a mid-wave IR (MWIR) optical transceiver based free-space data link under low visibility conditions is presented. The all-solid-state MWIR transceiver primarily consisted of a passively Q-switched, short-pulsed Nd:YAG laser pumping a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) based optical parametric oscillator and a Dember effect detector. The MILES transceiver generates pulse position waveforms. The optical data link consisting of transmitter drive electronics, pulse conditioning electronics and a computer generating pulses compatible with the 2400-baud rate RS232 receiver was utilized. Data formatting and RS232 transmission and reception were achieved using a computer. Data formatting transformed an arbitrary image file format compatible with the basic operation of pump laser. Images were transmitted at a date rate of 2400 kbits/sec with 16 bits/pixel. Test images consisting of 50X40 pixels and 100X80 pixels were transmitted through free-space filled with light fog up to 120 ft. Besides optical parametric oscillators, the proposed concept can be extended to optical parametric amplifiers, Raman lasers and other nonlinear optical devices to achieve multi-functionality.
Optical trapping apparatus, methods and applications using photonic crystal resonators
Erickson, David; Chen, Yih-Fan
2015-06-16
A plurality of photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatuses and a plurality optical trapping methods using the plurality of photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatuses include located and formed over a substrate a photonic waveguide that is coupled (i.e., either separately coupled or integrally coupled) with a photonic crystal resonator. In a particular embodiment, the photonic waveguide and the photonic crystal resonator comprise a monocrystalline silicon (or other) photonic material absent any chemical functionalization. In another particular embodiment, the photonic waveguide and the photonic crystal resonator comprise a silicon nitride material which when actuating the photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatus with a 1064 nanometer resonant photonic radiation wavelength (or other resonant photonic radiation wavelength in a range from about 700 to about 1200 nanometers) provides no appreciable heating of an aqueous sample fluid that is analyzed by the photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatus.
苏辉; 李志平; 段延敏; 王小蕾; 朱海永
2013-01-01
为了用简单、紧凑的谐振腔获得稳定的激光输出,大的调谐范围和转换效率,设计了信号光单共振V型光学参量振荡(OPO)腔,采用内腔式抽运周期极化掺镁铌酸锂晶体(PPMgLN)的光学参量振荡技术获得了连续中红外宽波段调谐激光的输出.用808 nm半导体激光抽运Nd:YVO4晶体产生的1 064 nm激光作为光参量振荡的基频光,通过V型腔灵活控制激光光斑并改变PPMgLN的极化周期和控制温度实现了2 249～3 706 nm中红外的连续宽波段调谐激光输出.在半导体激光抽运功率为10.5W,极化周期为29.98μm,控制温度为411 K的情况下获得了最高650 mW的中红外激光输出,对应的中心波长为3 466 nm,线宽为2.6 nm,具有较好的单色性.在7.5W的入射功率下,最高808 nm抽运光到闲频光的转化效率达7.73％,对应输出功率为580 mW.%To obtain stable laser outputs,bigger turning ranges and higher transfer efficiencies by a simple and compact resonance cavity,a V-type Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO) pumped by a 1064 nm Nd:YVO4 laser is designed,and broadband wavelength-tunable,continuous-wave (CW)mid-infrared laser sources are obtained.The Nd:YVO4 laser crystal is pumped by a 808 nm semiconductor laser to generate a 1 064 nm laser as the fundamental frequency light,and the V-type cavity is used to control laser spots and to change the grating period and temperature of the PPMgLN to obtain the 2 249 to 3 706 nm tunable idler output.With an 808-nm pump power of 10.5 W and a polarized period of 29.98 μm,a maximum idler output power up to 650 mW at 3 466 nm is achieved under the PPMgLN to be set at 411 K,which shows a better monochromaticity and is corresponding to a center wavelength of 3 466 nm and line width of 2.6 nm.Moreover,when 808 nm pump power is 7.5 W,the maximum optical-to-optical conversion efficiency can be up to 7.73％ and the corresponding output power is 580 mW.
Nieuwenhuis, Albert F.; Lee, Christopher James; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Lindsay, I.D.; Gross, P.; Boller, Klaus J.
2008-01-01
We report a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO) based on a ZnGeP2 crystal directly pumped by a lamp-pumped Q-switched CrTmHo:YAG laser. The IR was tunable from 4.7 to 7.8 μm via crystal angle tuning. A maximum optical to optical efficiency of 56% was obtained from the pump (2.09 μm)
Riedel, R; Stephanides, A; Prandolini, M J; Gronloh, B; Jungbluth, B; Mans, T; Tavella, F
2014-03-15
Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifiers with high average power are possible with novel high-power Yb:YAG amplifiers with kW-level output powers. We demonstrate a compact wavelength-tunable sub-30-fs amplifier with 11.4 W average power with 20.7% pump-to-signal conversion efficiency. For parametric amplification, a beta-barium borate crystal is pumped by a 140 W, 1 ps Yb:YAG InnoSlab amplifier at 3.25 MHz repetition rate. The broadband seed is generated via supercontinuum generation in a YAG crystal.
Souayeh Saoussen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The collective nonlinear dynamics of a coupled array of nanocantilevers is investigated while taking into account the main sources of nonlinearities. The amplitude and phase equations of this device, subject to parametric and internal resonances, are analytically derived by means of a multi-modal Galerkin discretization coupled with a multiscale analysis. Based on the steady-state solutions of these equations, the frequency responses are numerically computed for a two-beam array. The effects of different parameters are investigated and several dynamical aspects are confirmed by numerical simulations. Particularly, we have demonstrated that the bifurcation topology transfer is imposed by the first nanocantilever and it can be general to the collective nonlinear dynamics of the NEMS array.
Koike, Masafumi; Ota, Toshihiko; Saito, Masako; Sato, Joe
2016-08-01
Effects of the inhomogeneous matter density on the three-generation neutrino oscillation probability are analyzed. Realistic profile of the matter density is expanded into a Fourier series. Taking in the Fourier modes one by one, we demonstrate that each mode has its corresponding target energy. The high Fourier mode selectively modifies the oscillation probability of the low-energy region. This rule is well described by the parametric resonance between the neutrino oscillation and the matter effect. The Fourier analysis gives a simple guideline to systematically control the uncertainty of the oscillation probability caused by the uncertain density of matter. Precise analysis of the oscillation probability down to the low-energy region requires accurate evaluation of the Fourier coefficients of the matter density up to the corresponding high modes.
Koike, Masafumi; Saito, Masako; Sato, Joe
2016-01-01
Effects of the inhomogeneous matter density on the three-generation neutrino oscillation probability are analyzed. Realistic profile of the matter density is expanded into a Fourier series. Taking in the Fourier modes one by one, we demonstrate that each mode has its corresponding target energy. The high Fourier mode selectively modifies the oscillation probability of the low-energy region. This rule is well described by the parametric resonance between the neutrino oscillation and the matter effect. The Fourier analysis gives a simple guideline to systematically control the uncertainty of the oscillation probability caused by the uncertain density of matter. Precise analysis of the oscillation probability down to the low-energy region requires accurate evaluation of the Fourier coefficients of the matter density up to the corresponding high modes.
Ramachandran, Rahul; Nosonovsky, Michael
2014-07-14
The phenomenon of liquid droplets "levitating" or bouncing off a liquid vibrating surface has attracted attention of scientists due to its possible application in microfluidics and novel nanostructured superhydrophobic materials. Several models have been suggested in the literature, and the effect is usually attributed to non-linear viscosity. Here we suggest a simple model relating the effect to the parametric resonance as described by the Mathieu equation, which explains stabilization of an inverted pendulum with vibration foundation. Small fast vibrations can be substituted by an effective "levitation" force. We present modeling and experimental results for oil droplets and discuss how the mathematical separation of the slow and fast motion provides insights on the relation of vibro-levitation of oil droplets and soft materials with the vibro-stabilization of an inverted pendulum, and the "Indian rope" and "Cornstarch monster" tricks.
Nonperturbative evaluation of quantum particle production in parametric resonance enhanced by noise
Murakami, Asako
2016-01-01
Numerical studies are reported to support the idea to explain the particle production in late inflationary era based on the parametric resonance with a noise effect. Two nonperturbative renormalization group formulations are used to numerically calculate the time evolution of particle numbers. Firstly, the dynamical renormalization group (DRG) method is applied to sum up the secular contributions. Secondly, we derive an exact evolution equation of the particle number which turned out to be possible surprisingly owing to the presence of the noise effect. Our numerical results show a drastic enhancement of the particle production in agreement with earlier works qualitatively. A comparison is made of numerical results based on two methods. Our work provides nonperturbative and quantitative methods to evaluate the particle production for the inflationary cosmology.
Application of parametric equations of motion to study the resonance coalescence in H2(+).
Kalita, Dhruba J; Gupta, Ashish K
2012-12-07
Recently, occurrence of coalescence point was reported in H(2)(+) undergoing multiphoton dissociation in strong laser field. We have applied parametric equations of motion and smooth exterior scaling method to study the coalescence phenomenon of H(2)(+). The advantage of this method is that one can easily trace the different states that are changing as the field parameters change. It was reported earlier that in the parameter space, only two bound states coalesce [R. Lefebvre, O. Atabek, M. Sindelka, and N. Moiseyev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 123003 (2009)]. However, it is found that increasing the accuracy of the calculation leads to the coalescence between resonance states originating from the bound and the continuum states. We have also reported many other coalescence points.
Space charge effect on parametric resonances of ion cloud in a linear Paul trap
Mandal, P; De Munshi, D; Dutta, T; Mukherjee, M
2013-01-01
The effect of the presence of a finite number of ions on their parametric resonances inside a Paul trap has been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The Coulomb coupling among the charged particles results in two distinct phenomena: one is the frequency shift of the trapped ion oscillators and second is the collective oscillation of the trapped ion cloud. We observe both in a linear trap configuration. It is found that the strength and the secular frequency of individual ion-oscillation decrease while the strength of the collective oscillation increases with increasing number of trapped ions. The observation has been modeled by considering the space charge potential as an effective dc potential inside the trap. It describes the observations well within the experimental uncertainties.
Kobyakov, D.; Bychkov, V.; Lundh, E.; Bezett, A.; Marklund, M.
2012-08-01
We study the parametric resonance of capillary waves on the interface between two immiscible Bose-Einstein condensates pushed towards each other by an oscillating force. Guided by analytical models, we solve numerically the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations for a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate at zero temperature. We show that, at moderate amplitudes of the driving force, the instability is stabilized due to nonlinear modifications of the oscillation frequency. When the amplitude of the driving force is large enough, we observe a detachment of droplets from the Bose-Einstein condensates, resulting in the generation of quantum vortices (skyrmions). We analytically investigate the vortex dynamics, and conditions of quantized vortex generation.
Xiaodong WANG; Yushu CHEN; Lei HOU
2015-01-01
The bifurcation analysis of a simple electric power system involving two synchronous generators connected by a transmission network to an infinite-bus is carried out in this paper. In this system, the infinite-bus voltage are considered to maintain two fluctuations in the amplitude and phase angle. The case of 1:3 internal resonance between the two modes in the presence of parametric principal resonance is considered and examined. The method of multiple scales is used to obtain the bifurcation equations of this system. Then, by employing the singularity method, the transition sets determining different bifurcation patterns of the system are obtained and analyzed, which reveal the effects of the infinite-bus voltage amplitude and phase fluctuations on bifurcation patterns of this system. Finally, the bifurcation patterns are all examined by bifurcation diagrams. The results obtained in this paper will contribute to a better understanding of the complex nonlinear dynamic behaviors in a two-machine infinite-bus (TMIB) power system.
Mi, Xianwu; Bai, Jiangxiang; Ke-hui, Song
2013-06-01
Robust entanglement created between an optical cavity field mode and a macroscopic vibrating mirror with an optical parametric amplifier is shown. Increasing the gain of the optical parametric amplifier makes the line of the logarithmic negativity E N move to the range of the larger detuning and higher temperature. Such optomechanical entanglement can be generated even at room temperature with current experimental parameters. Compared with other proposals, we have considered the one-to-one correspondence between the detuning and the input power, which is reasonable with the fact that the mean shift of the cavity frequency is determined by the radiation pressure which is related to the input power. Such consideration may be valuable to current experiments.
Optical racetrack resonator transduction of nanomechanical cantilevers.
Sauer, V T K; Diao, Z; Freeman, M R; Hiebert, W K
2014-02-07
Optomechanical transduction has demonstrated its supremacy in probing nanomechanical displacements. In order to apply nano-optomechanical systems (NOMS) as force and mass sensors, knowledge about the transduction responsivity (i.e. the change in measured optical transmission with nanomechanical displacement) and its tradeoffs with system design is paramount. We compare the measured responsivities of NOMS devices with varying length, optomechanical coupling strength gom, and optical cavity properties. Cantilever beams 1.5 to 5 μm long are fabricated 70 to 160 nm from a racetrack resonator optical cavity and their thermomechanical (TM) noise signals are measured. We derive a generic expression for the transduction responsivity of the NOMS in terms of optical and mechanical system parameters such as finesse, optomechanical coupling constant, and interaction length. The form of the expression holds direct insight as to how these parameters affect the responsivity. With this expression, we obtain the optomechanical coupling constants using only measurements of the TM noise power spectra and optical cavity transmission slopes. All optical pump/probe operation is also demonstrated in our side-coupled cantilever-racetrack NOMS. Finally, to assess potential operation in a gas sensing environment, the TM noise signal of a device is measured at atmospheric pressure.
Parametric imaging of viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography
Wijesinghe, Philip; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Sampson, David D.; Kennedy, Brendan F.
2015-03-01
We demonstrate imaging of soft tissue viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography. Viscoelastic creep deformation is induced in tissue using step-like compressive loading and the resulting time-varying deformation is measured using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography. From a series of co-located B-scans, we estimate the local strain rate as a function of time, and parameterize it using a four-parameter Kelvin-Voigt model of viscoelastic creep. The estimated viscoelastic strain and time constant are used to visualize viscoelastic creep in 2D, dual-parameter viscoelastograms. We demonstrate our technique on six silicone tissue-simulating phantoms spanning a range of viscoelastic parameters. As an example in soft tissue, we report viscoelastic contrast between muscle and connective tissue in fresh, ex vivo rat gastrocnemius muscle and mouse abdominal transection. Imaging viscoelastic creep deformation has the potential to provide complementary contrast to existing imaging modalities, and may provide greater insight into disease pathology.
Parametric Analysis of Fiber Non-Linearity in Optical systems
Abhishek Anand
2013-06-01
Full Text Available With the advent of technology Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM is always an area of interest in the field of optical communication. When combined with Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA, it provides high data transmission rate and low attenuation. But due to fiber non-linearity such as Self Phase Modulation (SPM and Cross Phase Modulation (XPM the system performance has degraded. This non-linearity depends on different parameters of an optical system such as channel spacing, power of the channel and length of the fiber section. The degradation can be seen in terms of phase deviation and Bit Error Rate (BER performance. Even after dispersion compensation at the fiber end, residual pulse broadening still exists due to cross talk penalty.
Four-Wave Optical Parametric Amplification in a Raman-Active Gas
Yuichiro Kida
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Four-wave optical parametric amplification (FWOPA in a Raman-active medium is experimentally investigated by use of an air-filled hollow fiber. A femtosecond pump pulse shorter than the period of molecular motion excites the coherent molecular motion of the Raman-active molecules during the parametric amplification of a signal pulse. The excited coherent motion modulates the frequency of the signal pulse during the parametric amplification, and shifts it to lower frequencies. The magnitude of the frequency redshift depends on the pump intensity, resulting in intensity-dependent spectral characteristics that are different from those in the FWOPA induced in a noble-gas-filled hollow fiber.
S Verma; C Mishra; V Kumar; M Yadav; K C Bahuguna; N S Vasan; S P Gaba
2014-02-01
This paper presents the experimental results of degenerate optical parametric generation using a high gray track resistant potassium titanyl phosphate (HGTR KTP) optical parametric oscillator (OPO). An average output power of 7 W at 10 kHz has been achieved that includes both signal and idler powers near degeneracy using 20Waverage power from a 1064 nm Nd:YVO4 pump source corresponding to an optical conversion efficiency of 35%.
Parametric optimization of optical devices based on strong photonic localization
Gui, Minmin; Yang, Xiangbo
2017-07-01
Symmetric two-segment-connected triangular defect waveguide networks (STSCTDWNs) can produce strong photonic localization, which is useful for designing highly efficient energy storage devices, high power superluminescent light emitting diodes, all-optical switches, and more. Although STSCTDWNs have been studied in previous works, in this paper we systematically optimize the parameters of STSCTDWNs to further enhance photonic localization so that the function of optical devices based on strong photonic localization can be improved. When optimizing the parameters, we find a linear relationship between the logarithm of photonic localization and the broken degree of networks. Furthermore, the slope and intercept of the linear relationship are larger than previous results. This means that the increasing speed of photonic localization is improved. The largest intensity of photonic localizations can reach 1036, which is 16 orders of magnitude larger than previous reported results. These optimized networks provide practical solutions for all optical devices based on strong photonic localization in the low frequency range, such as nanostructured devices.
Development of Optical Parametric Amplifier for Lidar Measurements of Trace Gases on Earth and Mars
Numata, Kenji; Riris, Haris; Li, Steve; Wu, Stewart; Kawa, Stephen R.; Krainak, Michael; Abshire, James
2011-01-01
Trace gases in planetary atmospheres offer important clues as to the origins of the planet's hydrology, geology. atmosphere. and potential for biology. Wc report on the development effort of a nanosecond-pulsed optical parametric amplifier (OPA) for remote trace gas measurements for Mars and Earth. The OP A output light is single frequency with high spectral purity and is widely tunable both at 1600 nm and 3300 nm with an optical-optical conversion efficiency of approximately 40%. We demonstrated open-path atmospheric measurements ofCH4 (3291 nm and 1651 nm). CO2 (1573 nm), H20 (1652 nm) with this laser source.
Resonant optical devices for IR lasers
Johnson, Eric G.; Li, Yuan; Raghu Srimathi, Indumathi; Woodward, Ryan H.; Poutous, Menelaos K.; Pung, Aaron J.; Richardson, Martin; Shah, Lawrence; Shori, Ramesh; Magnusson, Robert
2013-03-01
This paper highlights recent developments in resonant optical devices for infrared (IR) and mid-infrared (mid- IR) lasers. Sub-wavelength grating based resonant optical filters are introduced and their application in 2 μm thulium fiber laser and amplifier systems has been discussed. The paper focuses on applying such filtering techniques to 2.8 μm mid-IR fiber laser systems. A narrowband mid-IR Guided-Mode Resonance Filter (GMRF) was designed and fabricated using Hafnium(IV) Oxide film/quartz wafer material system. The fabricated GMRF was then integrated into an Erbium (Er)-doped Zr-Ba-La-Al-Na (ZBLAN) fluoride glass fiber laser as a wavelength selective feedback element. The laser operated at 2782 nm with a linewidth less than 2 nm demonstrating the viability of GMRF's for wavelength selection in the mid-IR. Furthermore, a GMRF of narrower linewidth based on Aluminum Oxide/quartz wafer material system is fabricated and tested in the same setup. The potentials and challenges with GMRFs will be discussed and summarized.
Two mode coupling in a single ion oscillator via parametric resonance
Gorman, Dylan J; Selvarajan, Sankaranarayanan; Daniilidis, Nikos; Häffner, Hartmut
2014-01-01
Atomic ions, confined in radio-frequency Paul ion traps, are a promising candidate to host a future quantum information processor. In this letter, we demonstrate a method to couple two motional modes of a single trapped ion, where the coupling mechanism is based on applying electric fields rather than coupling the ion's motion to a light field. This reduces the design constraints on the experimental apparatus considerably. As an application of this mechanism, we cool a motional mode close to its ground state without accessing it optically. As a next step, we apply this technique to measure the mode's heating rate, a crucial parameter determining the trap quality. In principle, this method can be used to realize a two-mode quantum parametric amplifier.
Silicon single-crystal cryogenic optical resonator.
Wiens, Eugen; Chen, Qun-Feng; Ernsting, Ingo; Luckmann, Heiko; Rosowski, Ulrich; Nevsky, Alexander; Schiller, Stephan
2014-06-01
We report on the demonstration and characterization of a silicon optical resonator for laser frequency stabilization, operating in the deep cryogenic regime at temperatures as low as 1.5 K. Robust operation was achieved, with absolute frequency drift less than 20 Hz over 1 h. This stability allowed sensitive measurements of the resonator thermal expansion coefficient (α). We found that α=4.6×10(-13) K(-1) at 1.6 K. At 16.8 K α vanishes, with a derivative equal to -6×10(-10) K(-2). The temperature of the resonator was stabilized to a level below 10 μK for averaging times longer than 20 s. The sensitivity of the resonator frequency to a variation of the laser power was also studied. The corresponding sensitivities and the expected Brownian noise indicate that this system should enable frequency stabilization of lasers at the low-10(-17) level.
Kari, Otto K; Rojalin, Tatu; Salmaso, Stefano; Barattin, Michela; Jarva, Hanna; Meri, Seppo; Yliperttula, Marjo; Viitala, Tapani; Urtti, Arto
2017-04-01
When nanocarriers are administered into the blood circulation, a complex biomolecular layer known as the "protein corona" associates with their surface. Although the drivers of corona formation are not known, it is widely accepted that this layer mediates biological interactions of the nanocarrier with its surroundings. Label-free optical methods can be used to study protein corona formation without interfering with its dynamics. We demonstrate the proof-of-concept for a multi-parametric surface plasmon resonance (MP-SPR) technique in monitoring the formation of a protein corona on surface-immobilized liposomes subjected to flowing 100 % human serum. We observed the formation of formulation-dependent "hard" and "soft" coronas with distinct refractive indices, layer thicknesses, and surface mass densities. MP-SPR was also employed to determine the affinity (K D ) of a complement system molecule (C3b) with cationic liposomes with and without polyethylene glycol. Tendency to create a thick corona correlated with a higher affinity of opsonin C3b for the surface. The label-free platform provides a fast and robust preclinical tool for tuning nanocarrier surface architecture and composition to control protein corona formation.
Dechoum, K; Khoury, A Z; 10.1103/PhysRevA.83.063843
2011-01-01
We analyze the three-mode correlation properties of the electromagnetic field in a optical parametric oscillator below threshold. We employ a perturbative expansion of the It\\^o equations derived from the positive-P representation of the density matrix. Using the generalized Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, we investigate the genuine quantum nature of the triple correlations between the interacting fields, since in this case continuous variable entanglement is not detected by the van Loock-Furusawa criterion [Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 67}, 052315 (2003)]. Although not being a necessary condition, these triple correlations are a sufficient evidence of tripartite entanglement. Of course, our characterization of the quantum correlations is applicable to non-Gaussian states, which we show to be the case of the optical parametric oscillator below threshold, provided nonlinear quantum fluctuations are properly taken into account.
Kurita, Takashi; Sueda, Keiichi; Tsubakimoto, Koji; Miyanaga, Noriaki
2010-07-05
We experimentally demonstrated coherent beam combining using optical parametric amplification with a nonlinear crystal pumped by random-phased multiple-beam array of the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser at 10-Hz repetition rate. In the proof-of-principle experiment, the phase jump between two pump beams was precisely controlled by a motorized actuator. For the demonstration of multiple-beam combining a random phase plate was used to create random-phased beamlets as a pump pulse. Far-field patterns of the pump, the signal, and the idler indicated that the spatially coherent signal beams were obtained on both cases. This approach allows scaling of the intensity of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification up to the exa-watt level while maintaining diffraction-limited beam quality.
Phase matched parametric amplification via four-wave mixing in optical microfibers.
Abdul Khudus, Muhammad I M; De Lucia, Francesco; Corbari, Costantino; Lee, Timothy; Horak, Peter; Sazio, Pier; Brambilla, Gilberto
2016-02-15
Four-wave mixing (FWM) based parametric amplification in optical microfibers (OMFs) is demonstrated over a wavelength range of over 1000 nm by exploiting their tailorable dispersion characteristics to achieve phase matching. Simulations indicate that for any set of wavelengths satisfying the FWM energy conservation condition there are two diameters at which phase matching in the fundamental mode can occur. Experiments with a high-power pulsed source working in conjunction with a periodically poled silica fiber (PPSF), producing both fundamental and second harmonic signals, are undertaken to investigate the possibility of FWM parametric amplification in OMFs. Large increases of idler output power at the third harmonic wavelength were recorded for diameters close to the two phase matching diameters. A total amplification of more than 25 dB from the initial signal was observed in a 6 mm long optical microfiber, after accounting for the thermal drift of the PPSF and other losses in the system.
High-power, high repetition-rate, green-pumped, picosecond LBO optical parametric oscillator.
Kienle, Florian; Teh, Peh Siong; Lin, Dejiao; Alam, Shaif-Ul; Price, Jonathan H V; Hanna, D C; Richardson, David J; Shepherd, David P
2012-03-26
We report on a picosecond, green-pumped, lithium triborate optical parametric oscillator with record-high output power. It was synchronously pumped by a frequency-doubled (530 nm), pulse-compressed (4.4 ps), high-repetition-rate (230 MHz), fiber-amplified gain-switched laser diode. For a pump power of 17 W, a maximum signal and idler power of 3.7 W and 1.8 W was obtained from the optical parametric oscillator. A signal pulse duration of ~3.2 ps was measured and wide tunability from 651 nm to 1040 nm for the signal and from 1081 nm to 2851 nm for the idler was achieved.
Dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in coupled ring resonators
Chenguang Huang
2012-09-01
Full Text Available We investigate the dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in a photonic system of two coupled ring resonators. A bus waveguide is used to couple light in and out of one of the coupled resonators. Based on the coupling from the bus to the resonator, the coupling between the resonators and the intrinsic loss of each individual resonator, the system transmission spectrum can be classified by three different categories: coupled-resonator-induced absorption, coupled-resonator-induced transparency and over coupled resonance splitting. Dynamic thermal optical effects due to linear absorption have been analyzed for each category as a function of the input power. The heat power in each resonator determines the thermal dynamics in this coupled resonator system. Multiple “shark fins” and power competition between resonators can be foreseen. Also, the nonlinear absorption induced thermal effects have been discussed.
Few-cycle, Broadband, Mid-infrared Optical Parametric Oscillator Pumped by a 20-fs Ti:sapphire Laser
Kumar, Suddapalli Chaitanya; Ideguchi, Takuro; Yan, Ming; Holzner, Simon; Hänsch, Theodor W; Picqué, Nathalie; Ebrahim-Zadeh, Majid
2014-01-01
We report a few-cycle, broadband, singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) for the mid-infrared based on MgO-doped periodically-poled LiNbO3 (MgO:PPLN), synchronously pumped by a 20-fs Ti:sapphire laser. By using crystal interaction lengths as short as 250 um, and careful dispersion management of input pump pulses and the OPO resonator, near-transform-limited, few-cycle idler pulses tunable across the mid-infrared have been generated, with as few as 3.7 optical cycles at 2682 nm. The OPO can be continuously tuned over 2179-3732 nm by cavity delay tuning, providing up to 33 mW of output power at 3723 nm. The idler spectra exhibit stable broadband profiles with bandwidths spaning over 422 nm (FWHM) recorded at 3732 nm. We investigate the effect of crystal length on spectral bandwidth and pulse duration at a fixed wavelength, confirming near-transform-limited idler pulses for all grating interaction lengths. By locking the repetition frequency of the pump laser to a radio-frequency reference, and with...
Fabrication of periodically poled lithium niobate chips for optical parametric oscillators
Ashok Kaul; Ajay Mishra
2010-11-01
An electric-field poling process was established that yielded uniform periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) in 0.5 mm thick lithium niobate substrate. We have fabricated 50 mm long fanned as well as multigrating PPLNs having period variations from 25 m to 32 m. These PPLNs are required for quasi-phase-matched (QPM) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) applications. We have also configured a bench-top OPO set-up based on these PPLNs.
Moses, J; Huang, S-W; Hong, K-H; Mücke, O D; Falcão-Filho, E L; Benedick, A; Ilday, F O; Dergachev, A; Bolger, J A; Eggleton, B J; Kärtner, F X
2009-06-01
We present a 9 GW peak power, three-cycle, 2.2 microm optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification source with 1.5% rms energy and 150 mrad carrier envelope phase fluctuations. These characteristics, in addition to excellent beam, wavefront, and pulse quality, make the source suitable for long-wavelength-driven high-harmonic generation. High stability is achieved by careful optimization of superfluorescence suppression, enabling energy scaling.
Siddiqui, Aleem M; Moses, Jeffrey; Hong, Kyung-Han; Lai, Chien-Jen; Kärtner, Franz X
2010-06-15
We show that an enhancement cavity seeded at the full repetition rate of the pump laser can automatically reshape small-signal gain across the interacting pulses in an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier for close-to-optimal operation, significantly increasing both the gain bandwidth and the conversion efficiency, in addition to boosting gain for high-repetition-rate amplification. Applied to a degenerate amplifier, the technique can provide an octave-spanning gain bandwidth.
Yoshitaka Haribara
2016-04-01
Full Text Available We present the operational principle of a coherent Ising machine (CIM based on a degenerate optical parametric oscillator (DOPO network. A quantum theory of CIM is formulated, and the computational ability of CIM is evaluated by numerical simulation based on c-number stochastic differential equations. We also discuss the advanced CIM with quantum measurement-feedback control and various problems which can be solved by CIM.
Sub-two-cycle light pulses at 1.6 microm from an optical parametric amplifier.
Brida, D; Cirmi, G; Manzoni, C; Bonora, S; Villoresi, P; De Silvestri, S; Cerullo, G
2008-04-01
We generate ultrabroadband pulses, spanning the 1200-2100 nm wavelength range, from an 800 nm pumped optical parametric amplifier (OPA) working at degeneracy. We compress the microjoule-level energy pulses to nearly transform-limited 8.5 fs duration by an adaptive system employing a deformable mirror. To our knowledge, these are the shortest light pulses generated at 1.6 microm.
Generation of broadband mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier.
Brida, D; Manzoni, C; Cirmi, G; Marangoni, M; De Silvestri, S; Cerullo, G
2007-11-12
We report on the direct generation of broadband mid-IR pulses from an optical parametric amplifier. Several crystals with extended IR transparency, when pumped at 800 nm, display a broad phase-matching bandwidth around 1 mum, allowing for the generation of idler pulses spanning the 3-5 mum wavelength range. Using LiIO(3), we produce 2muJ pulses tunable in the 3-4 mum range with bandwidth supporting 30-fs transform-limited duration.
Martinelli, M; Ducci, S; Gigan, S; Maitre, A; Fabre, C; Martinelli, Marcello; Treps, Nicolas; Ducci, Sara; Gigan, Sylvain; Maitre, Agnes; Fabre, Claude
2003-01-01
We study experimentally the spatial distribution of quantum noise in the twin beams produced by a type II Optical Parametric Oscillator operating in a confocal cavity above threshold. The measured intensity correlations are at the same time below the standard quantum limit and not uniformly distributed inside the beams. We show that this feature is an unambiguous evidence for the multimode and nonclassical character of the quantum state generated by the device.
LI Wen-Hui; CHEN Li-Xue; TANG Dong-Hua; DING Wei-Qiang; LIU Shu-Tian
2005-01-01
@@ Using the cascaded structure of a linear and a second-order nonlinear photonic crystals, we realize a high-efficiency optical parametric amplifier in the case of exact phase matching. This proposal is verified using the slow-envelope nonlinear finite difference time domain numerical method. Compared with the case of the individual nonlinear photonic crystal structure, the oscillation threshold is decreased obviously, and the peak power amplification factor of the transmitted signal is enhanced more than 20 times.
13.5 nm High Harmonic Generation Driven by a Visible Noncollinear Optical Parametric Amplifier
2011-11-11
light source. We build a high energy tunable visible Optical Parametric Amplifier, and drive High Harmonic Generation in Argon and Helium . We study how...wavelength of 13.5 nm. The results agree well with a previously developed theoretical model. We predict that using a 630-nm driver in Helium could have a...light on the photo resist. Current techniques are capable of producing sub-100-nm features by using UV light at 193 nm from excimer lasers, but for
陈予恕; 徐鉴
1996-01-01
The bifurcation of the second-order approximate solutions of nonlinear parametrically excited systems possessing generalized van der Pol’s dampings and quintic Duffing’s nonlinearities subjected to a primary parametric resonance is investigated. Using singularity theory with Z2-symmetry, bifurcations of the solutions are universally classified in a topologically equivalent sense for Z2-codimension>3. The question of whether the approximate solutions from the classical perturbation methods can be topologically equivalent in describing the periodic responses and the bifurcations of the original systems is made clear. The numerical results indicate that the vibration characteristic may suddenly disappear in the range of Z2-codimension>4.
Coupled-channels optical calculation of positron-hydrogen resonances
Yu Rong-Mei; Zhou Ya-Jun; Jiao Li-Guang; Cheng Yong-Jun
2012-01-01
An application of the coupled-channels optical method is given for the energy-dependent phenomena of positronhydrogen resonances below the n =2 excitation threshold.The equivalent local optical potential is used to account for the target polarization and positronium formation.The calculation includes 9 explicitly physical coupled channels.The lowest S-wave resonance energy position and new resonances are found.Angular dependence of the cross section in the resonance region are investigated.
Ray and wave chaos in asymmetric resonant optical cavities
Nöckel, J U; Noeckel, Jens U.
1998-01-01
Optical resonators are essential components of lasers and other wavelength-sensitive optical devices. A resonator is characterized by a set of modes, each with a resonant frequency omega and resonance width Delta omega=1/tau, where tau is the lifetime of a photon in the mode. In a cylindrical or spherical dielectric resonator, extremely long-lived resonances are due to `whispering gallery' modes in which light circulates around the perimeter trapped by total internal reflection. These resonators emit light isotropically. Recently, a new category of asymmetric resonant cavities (ARCs) has been proposed in which substantial shape deformation leads to partially chaotic ray dynamics. This has been predicted to give rise to a universal, frequency-independent broadening of the whispering-gallery resonances, and highly anisotropic emission. Here we present solutions of the wave equation for ARCs which confirm many aspects of the earlier ray-optics model, but also reveal interesting frequency-dependent effects charac...
Measurement of optical Feshbach resonances in an ideal gas.
Blatt, S; Nicholson, T L; Bloom, B J; Williams, J R; Thomsen, J W; Julienne, P S; Ye, J
2011-08-12
Using a narrow intercombination line in alkaline earth atoms to mitigate large inelastic losses, we explore the optical Feshbach resonance effect in an ultracold gas of bosonic (88)Sr. A systematic measurement of three resonances allows precise determinations of the optical Feshbach resonance strength and scaling law, in agreement with coupled-channel theory. Resonant enhancement of the complex scattering length leads to thermalization mediated by elastic and inelastic collisions in an otherwise ideal gas. Optical Feshbach resonance could be used to control atomic interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution.
Dispersion management for a sub-10-fs, 10 TW optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier.
Tavella, Franz; Nomura, Yutaka; Veisz, Laszlo; Pervak, Vladimir; Marcinkevicius, Andrius; Krausz, Ferenc
2007-08-01
We report the amplification of three-cycle, 8.5 fs optical pulses in a near-infrared noncollinear optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (OPCPA) up to energies of 80 mJ. Improved dispersion management in the amplifier by means of a combination of reflection grisms and a chirped-mirror stretcher allowed us to recompress the amplified pulses to within 6% of their Fourier limit. The novel ultrabroad, ultraprecise dispersion control technology presented in this work opens the way to scaling multiterawatt technology to even shorter pulses by optimizing the OPCPA bandwidth.
Combined Yb/Nd driver for optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers.
Michailovas, Kirilas; Baltuska, Andrius; Pugzlys, Audrius; Smilgevicius, Valerijus; Michailovas, Andrejus; Zaukevicius, Audrius; Danilevicius, Rokas; Frankinas, Saulius; Rusteika, Nerijus
2016-09-19
We report on the developed front-end/pump system for optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers. The system is based on a dual output fiber oscillator/power amplifier which seeds and assures all-optical synchronization of femtosecond Yb and picosecond Nd laser amplifiers operating at a central wavelength of 1030 nm and 1064 nm, respectively. At the central wavelength of 1030 nm, the fiber oscillator generates partially stretched 4 ps pulses with the spectrum supporting a scaling currently is prevented by limited dimensions of the diffraction gratings, which, because of the fast progress in MLD grating manufacturing technologies is only a temporary obstacle.
Shah, Rahul C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Randall P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shimada, Tsutomu [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hegelich, Bjorn M [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
To address few-shot pulse contrast measurement, we present a correlator coupling the high gain of an optical parametric amplification scheme with large pulse tilt. This combination enables a low sensitivity charge coupled device (CCD) to observe features in the pulse intensity within a 50 ps single-shot window with inter-window dynamic range > 10{sup 7} and < 0.5 mJ input energy. Partitioning of the single window with optical densities to boost the CCD dynamic range is considered.
Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Buchhave, Preben
We describe simultaneous measurements of signal/idler near field and far field patterns of a 2nd order nonlinear multi-mode parametric downconverter. We also describe the use of auto- and cross correlation techniques to obtain statistical data.......We describe simultaneous measurements of signal/idler near field and far field patterns of a 2nd order nonlinear multi-mode parametric downconverter. We also describe the use of auto- and cross correlation techniques to obtain statistical data....
Dissipative parametric modulation instability and pattern formation in nonlinear optical systems
Perego, A. M.; Tarasov, N.; Churkin, D. V.; Turitsyn, S. K.; Staliunas, K.
2016-04-01
We present the essential features of the dissipative parametric instability, in the universal complex Ginzburg- Landau equation. Dissipative parametric instability is excited through a parametric modulation of frequency dependent losses in a zig-zag fashion in the spectral domain. Such damping is introduced respectively for spectral components in the +ΔF and in the -ΔF region in alternating fashion, where F can represent wavenumber or temporal frequency depending on the applications. Such a spectral modulation can destabilize the homogeneous stationary solution of the system leading to growth of spectral sidebands and to the consequent pattern formation: both stable and unstable patterns in one- and in two-dimensional systems can be excited. The dissipative parametric instability provides an useful and interesting tool for the control of pattern formation in nonlinear optical systems with potentially interesting applications in technological applications, like the design of mode- locked lasers emitting pulse trains with tunable repetition rate; but it could also find realizations in nanophotonics circuits or in dissipative polaritonic Bose-Einstein condensates.
Wei, Xiaoming; Tan, Sisi; Mussot, Arnaud; Kudlinski, Alexandre; Tsia, Kevin K.; Wong, Kenneth
2016-03-01
Fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) has gained its popularity in the telecommunication systems at the 1.5-um window for its gain, bandwidth etc. Unfortunately, its practical application at the bio-favorable window, i.e. 1.0 um, still requires substantial efforts. Thus, here we report a versatile all-fiber optical parametric amplifier for life-science (OPALS) at 1.0 um as an add-on module for optical imaging system. The parametric gain fiber (photonic-crystal fiber (PCF), 110 m in length) is specially designed to reduce the longitudinal dispersion fluctuation, which yields a superior figure of merit, i.e. a total insertion loss of ~2.5 dB and a nonlinear coefficient of 34 /(W•km). Our OPALS delivers a superior performance in terms of gain (~158,000), bandwidth (>100 nm) and gain flatness (Experimentally, we show that: 1) a wavelength-varying quasi-monochrome pump achieves a 52-dB gain and 160-nm bandwidth, but at the expense of a larger gain-spectrum ripple, i.e. a bell-shaped; 2) the birefringence of the parametric gain medium, i.e. PCF in this case, can be utilized to improve the gain-spectrum flatness of OPALS by 10.5 dB, meanwhile a 100-nm bandwidth can be guaranteed; 3) the gain-spectrum flatness of OPALS can be further flattened by using a high-speed wavelength-sweeping pump, which exhibits a 110-nm flat gain spectrum with ripple less than 3 dB. Finally, we employ this versatile all-fiber OPALS as an add-on module to enhance the sensitivity of a spectrally-encoded microscope by 47 dB over an ultra-wide spectral range.
Synthetic gauge fields for light beams in optical resonators
Longhi, Stefano
2015-01-01
A method to realize artificial magnetic fields for light waves trapped in passive optical cavities with anamorphic optical elements is theoretically proposed. In particular, when a homogeneous magnetic field is realized, a highly-degenerate Landau level structure for the frequency spectrum of the transverse resonator modes is obtained, corresponding to a cyclotron motion of the optical cavity field. This can be probed by transient excitation of the passive optical resonator.
Optical cavity resonator in an expanding universe
Kopeikin, Sergei M.
2015-02-01
We study the cosmological evolution of frequency of a standing electromagnetic wave in a resonant optical cavity placed to the expanding manifold described by the Robertson-Walker metric. Because of the Einstein principle of equivalence (EEP), one can find a local coordinate system (a local freely falling frame), in which spacetime is locally Minkowskian. However, due to the conformal nature of the Robertson-Walker metric the conventional transformation to the local inertial coordinates introduces ambiguity in the physical interpretation of the local time coordinate, . Therefore, contrary to a common-sense expectation, a straightforward implementation of EEP alone does not allow us to unambiguously decide whether atomic clocks based on quantum transitions of atoms, ticks at the same rate as the clocks based on electromagnetic modes of a cavity. To resolve this ambiguity we have to analyse the cavity rigidity and the oscillation of its electromagnetic modes in an expanding universe by employing the full machinery of the Maxwell equations irrespectively of the underlying theory of gravity. We proceed in this way and found out that the size of the cavity and the electromagnetic frequency experience an adiabatic drift in conformal (unphysical) coordinates as the universe expands in accordance with the Hubble law. We set up the oscillation equation for the resonant electromagnetic modes, solve it by the WKB approximation, and reduce the coordinate-dependent quantities to their counterparts measured by a local observer who counts time with atomic clock. The solution shows that there is a perfect mutual cancellation of the adiabatic drift of cavity's frequency by space transformation to local coordinates and the time counted by the clocks based on electromagnetic modes of cavity has the same rate as that of atomic clocks. We conclude that if general relativity is correct and the local expansion of space is isotropic there should be no cosmological drift of frequency of a
Wnuk, Paweł; Stepanenko, Yuriy; Radzewicz, Czesław
2010-04-12
We report on a high gain amplification of broadband ultraviolet femtosecond pulses in an optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier. Broadband ultraviolet seed pulses were obtained by an achromatic frequency doubling of the output from a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire oscillator. Stretched seed pulses were amplified in a multipass parametric amplifier with a single BBO crystal pumped by a ns frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG laser. A noncollinear configuration was used for a broadband amplification. The total (after compression) amplification of 2.510(5) was achieved, with compressed pulse energy of 30 microJ and pulse duration of 24 fs. We found that the measured gain was limited by thermal effects induced by the absorption of the pump laser by color centers created in the BBO crystal.
Zhou Yu-Fei(周宇飞); Tse C K; Qiu Shui-Sheng(丘水生); Chen Jun-Ning(陈军宁)
2005-01-01
This paper presents an improved resonant parametric perturbation method based on the modulation of a nonlinear map for controlling chaos. The control target can be any periodic orbit, which is not necessarily what is embedded in the chaotic attractor. Application of the method is illustrated for a common current-programmed DC/DC converter which has been known to easily become chaotic for a wide parameter range. The control effects of chaos are demonstrated with computer simulations.
Feaver, Ryan K.
Optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) utilizing quasi-phase matched materials offer an appealing alternative to direct laser sources. Quasi-phase matched materials provide a useful alternative to traditional birefringent nonlinear optical materials and through material engineering, higher nonlinear coefficients can now be accessed. Orientation patterned gallium arsenide (OPGaAs) is an ideal material because of its broad IR transmission and large nonlinear coefficient. In contrast to ferroelectric materials, such as lithium niobate, where the pattern is fabricated through electric poling, zincblende materials, like OPGaAs, are grown epitaxially with the designed pattern. Generating longwave output from a much shorter pump wavelength, however, is relatively inefficiency due to the large quantum defect when compared to similar devices operating in the 3 - 5 mum regime. One method to increase pump to idler conversion efficiency is to recycle the undesired and higher energy signal photons into additional idler photons via a second nonlinear stage. An external amplifier stage can be utilized, where the signal and idler from the OPO are sent to a second nonlinear crystal in which the idler is amplified at the expense of the signal. Alternatively, the second crystal can be placed within the original OPO cavity where the signal from the first-stage acts as the pump for the second crystal and the resonant intensity of the signal is higher. Pumping the second crystal within the OPO should lead to higher conversion efficiency into the longwave idler. The grating period needed for the second crystal to use the signal from the first crystal to produce additional idler has the fortuitous advantage that it will not phase match to the original pump wavelength, avoiding unwanted nonlinear interactions. Therefore, a simple linear cavity can be utilized where the pump from the first-stage will simply propagate through the second crystal without undesired results. Without this feature
Development of optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifiers and their applications
Ishii, Nobuhisa
2006-11-21
In this work, optical pulse amplification by parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) has been applied to the generation of high-energy, few-cycle optical pulses in the near-infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) spectral regions. Amplification of such pulses is ordinarily difficult to achieve by existing techniques of pulse amplification based on standard laser gain media followed by external compression. Potential applications of few-cycle pulses in the IR have also been demonstrated. The NIR OPCPA system produces 0.5-terawatt (10 fs,5 mJ) pulses by use of noncollinearly phase-matched optical parametric amplification and a down-chirping stretcher and up-chirping compressor pair. An IR OPCPA system was also developed which produces 20-gigawatt (20 fs,350 {mu}J) pulses at 2.1 {mu}m. The IR seed pulse is generated by optical rectification of a broadband pulse and therefore it exhibits a self-stabilized carrier-envelope phase (CEP). In the IR OPCPA a common laser source is used to generate the pump and seed resulting in an inherent sub-picosecond optical synchronization between the two pulses. This was achieved by use of a custom-built Nd:YLF picosecond pump pulse amplifier that is directly seeded with optical pulses from a custom-built ultrabroadband Ti:sapphire oscillator. Synchronization between the pump and seed pulses is critical for efficient and stable amplification. Two spectroscopic applications which utilize these unique sources have been demonstrated. First, the visible supercontinuum was generated in a solid-state media by the infrared optical pulses and through which the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of the driving pulse was measured with an f-to-3f interferometer. This measurement confirms the self-stabilization mechanism of the CEP in a difference frequency generation process and the preservation of the CEP during optical parametric amplification. Second, high-order harmonics with energies extending beyond 200 eV were generated with the few
Geng You-Fu; Tan Xiao-Ling; Li Xue-Jin; Yao Jian-Quan
2010-01-01
Using a double resonant KTiOPO4(KTP)intracavity optical parametric oscillator operating at degenerated point of 2 μm,we demonstrate a unique mid-infrared source based on difference frequency generation in GaSe crystal.The output tuning range is 8.42-19.52 μm,and a peak power of 834 W for type-Ⅰ phase matching scheme and 730 W for type-Ⅱ phase matching scheme are achieved.Experimental results show that this oscillator is a good alternative to the generator of a compact and tabletop mid-infrared radiation with a widely tunable range.
Liao, Zhi M; Jovanovic, Igor; Ebbers, Chris A; Fei, Yiting; Chai, Bruce
2006-05-01
Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) in nonlinear crystals has the potential to produce extremes of peak and average power but is limited either in energy by crystal growth issues or in average power by crystal thermo-optic characteristics. Recently, large (7.5 cm diameter x 25 cm length) crystals of yttrium calcium oxyborate (YCOB) have been grown and utilized for high-average-power second-harmonic generation. Further, YCOB has the necessary thermo-optic properties required for scaling OPCPA systems to high peak and average power operation for wavelengths near 1 microm. We report what is believed to be the first use of YCOB for OPCPA. Scalability to higher peak and average power is addressed.
Passively Q -Switched 1.57- m Intracavity Optical Parametric Oscillator
Yashkir, Yuri; van Driel, Henry M.
1999-04-01
We demonstrate an eye-safe KTP-based optical parametric oscillator (OPO) driven intracavity by a diode-pumped 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser, passively Q -switched by a Cr 4 :YAG crystal. The characteristics of this system, which operates at 1570 nm with a repetition rate as high as 50 Hz, are studied as a function of Cr 4 :YAG optical density. Under optimum conditions the OPO generates 1.5-mJ, 3.4 0.1-ns pulses in a single transverse mode. For a Cr 4 :YAG Q -switch element with an optical density of 0.5 the conversion efficiency of the intracavity energy is 45% with the ratio of OPO to Nd:YAG peak-pulse intensity exceeding unity. These and other OPO characteristics compare favorably with a simple rate equation model of the OPO dynamics.
Passively Q-switched 1.57-microm intracavity optical parametric oscillator.
Yashkir, Y; van Driel, H M
1999-04-20
We demonstrate an eye-safe KTP-based optical parametric oscillator (OPO) driven intracavity by a diode-pumped 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser, passively Q-switched by a Cr4+:YAG crystal. The characteristics of this system, which operates at 1570 nm with a repetition rate as high as 50 Hz, are studied as a function of Cr4+:YAG optical density. Under optimum conditions the OPO generates 1.5-mJ, 3.4 +/- 0.1-ns pulses in a single transverse mode. For a Cr4+:YAG Q-switch element with an optical density of 0.5 the conversion efficiency of the intracavity energy is approximately 45% with the ratio of OPO to Nd:YAG peak-pulse intensity exceeding unity. These and other OPO characteristics compare favorably with a simple rate equation model of the OPO dynamics.
Center mode of a doubly resonant optical periodic structure
Alagappan, G.; Png, C. E.
2016-07-01
An optical periodic structure with a single spatial resonance exhibits a stopband. When a second spatial resonance very close to the first one is added, the resulting doubly resonant structure exhibits a Gaussian enveloped, high quality factor transmission state right at the center of the original stopband. Using a slowly varying envelope approximation, we describe the optical characteristics of this transmission state analytically. The transmission state exists despite an optical structure of low refractive index contrast, and has potential applications in nano-optics, and photonics.
Optical back-action in silicon nanowire resonators: bolometric versus radiation pressure effects
Gil-Santos, E.; Ramos, D.; Pini, V.; Llorens, J.; Fernández-Regúlez, M.; Calleja, M.; Tamayo, J.; San Paulo, A.
2013-03-01
We study optical back-action effects associated with confined electromagnetic modes in silicon nanowire resonators interacting with a laser beam used for interferometric read-out of the nanowire vibrations. Our analysis describes the resonance frequency shift produced in the nanowires by two different mechanisms: the temperature dependence of the nanowire's Young's modulus and the effect of radiation pressure. We find different regimes in which each effect dominates depending on the nanowire morphology and dimensions, resulting in either positive or negative frequency shifts. Our results also show that in some cases bolometric and radiation pressure effects can have opposite contributions so that their overall effect is greatly reduced. We conclude that Si nanowire resonators can be engineered for harnessing back-action effects for either optimizing frequency stability or exploiting dynamic phenomena such as parametric amplification.
Jin, Yuwei; Harren, Frans J M; Mandon, Julien
2015-01-01
Within a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (SPOPO), the inherent synchronism between the pump and the resonating signal is the magic to partly transfer the coherence property of the pump to the signal. In our demonstration, Vernier effect is observed within a femtosecond SPOPO by simply detuning the FSR of the cavity, generating signal pulses at tunable repetition rate from several GHz to 1 THz with a maximum 22.58 nm full width half maximum (FWHM) bandwidth supporting 160 fs pulses covering the C- and L-bands of the telecom wavelength region. This technique offers a simple method of active ?filtering of dense frequency comb lines instead of using Fabry-P?erot (FP) cavities with complex locking system for astro-comb generation. Beside, as a promising source for frequency combs with tunable and large comb-spacing, it offers potential opportunities for applications such as high speed coherent data transmission, line-by-line pulse shaping, optical clocks and precision metrology.
Fibre Optical Parametric Amplification in Defect Bragg Fibres with Zero Dispersion Slow Light Effect
XIAO Li; ZHANG Wei; HUANG Yi-Dong; PENG Jiang-De; ZHAO Hong; YANG Ke-Wu
2008-01-01
Nonfinearity enhancement by slow light effect and strong light confinement in defect Bragg fibres is demonstrated and analysed in applications of fibre optical parametric amplifiers. Broadband low group velocity and zero dispersion as well as the strong light confinement by band gap enhances the nonlinear coefficient up to more than one order than the conventional high nonlinear fibres.Moreover,the zero dispersion wavelength of coupled core mode can be designed arbitrarily,under which the phase-matching bandwidth of the nonlinear process can be extended.
Tassin, Philippe; Van der Sande, Guy; Veretennicoff, Irina; Kockaert, Pascal; Tlidi, Mustapha
2009-05-25
We consider a degenerate optical parametric oscillator containing a left-handed material. We show that the inclusion of a left-handed material layer allows for controlling the strength and sign of the diffraction coefficient at either the pump or the signal frequency. Subsequently, we demonstrate the existence of stable dissipative structures without diffraction matching, i.e., without the usual relationship between the diffraction coefficients of the signal and pump fields. Finally, we investigate the size scaling of these light structures with decreasing diffraction strength.
Hädrich, S; Gottschall, T; Rothhardt, J; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A
2010-02-01
An optical parametric amplifier that delivers nearly transform limited pulses is presented. The center wavelength of these pulses can be tuned between 993 nm and 1070 nm and, at the same time, the pulse duration is varied between 206 fs and 650 fs. At the shortest pulse duration the pulse energy was increased up to 7.2 microJ at 50 kHz repetition rate. Variation of the wavelength is achieved by applying a tunable cw seed while the pulse duration can be varied via altering the pump pulse duration. This scheme offers superior flexibility and scaling possibilities.
Arisholm, Gunnar
2007-05-14
Group velocity mismatch (GVM) is a major concern in the design of optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) and generators (OPGs) for pulses shorter than a few picoseconds. By simplifying the coupled propagation equations and exploiting their scaling properties, the number of free parameters for a collinear OPA is reduced to a level where the parameter space can be studied systematically by simulations. The resulting set of figures show the combinations of material parameters and pulse lengths for which high performance can be achieved, and they can serve as a basis for a design.
Single-frequency mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator source for coherent laser radar.
Hanson, F; Poirier, P; Arbore, M A
2001-11-15
We report on the design and characterization of a highly coherent mid-IR source at 3.57mum based on a single-frequency optical parametric oscillator. Detailed frequency and amplitude noise spectra have been measured. The rms intensity noise from 1.2 to 1000 Hz was 0.03%, and a rms frequency drift of 8 kHz in 1 ms was observed. We have also demonstrated the utility of this source for coherent laser radar applications by measuring micro-Doppler spectra from vibrating targets.
Wang, Yimeng; Zhang, Xinping, E-mail: Zhangxinping@bjut.edu.cn; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Hongmei [Institute of Information Photonics Technology and College of Applied Sciences, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)
2014-07-07
We investigate stretching-induced microscopic deformations spatially distributed in a flexible plate of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and their applications in the broadening of the output spectrum of a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator. The hologram of the stretched PDMS plate was used to evaluate indirectly the microscopic deformations. The experimental results show that these deformations exhibit weak scattering and diffraction of light and induce negligible cavity loss, ensuring practical applications of the PDMS plate as an intracavity device for lasers. In combination with the thickness reduction of the PDMS plate through stretching, the distributed deformations enable smooth tuning of the output spectrum.
Investigation on bismuth-oxide photonic crystal fiber for optical parametric amplification
JIN Cang; RAO Lan; YUAN Jin-hui; SHEN Xiang-wei; YU Chong-xiu
2011-01-01
A hexagonal solid-core bismuth-oxide micro-structure fiber is developed to balance its dispersion and nonlinearity. This simulation and calculation results show that the bismuth-oxide photonic crystal fiber (Bi-PCF) has near zero dispersion around 1550 nm. Its dispersion slop in the communication wavelength range is also relatively flat. Moreover, both nonlinear coefficient and model field distribution are obtained. Compared with the experimental results by SiO-PCF, it can be seen that the Bi-PCF shows excellent characteristics for the optical parametric amplification (OPA).
Brustlein, Sophie; Ferrand, Patrick; Walther, Nico; Brasselet, Sophie; Billaudeau, Cyrille; Marguet, Didier; Rigneault, Hervé
2011-02-01
We present the assets and constraints of using optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) to perform point scanning nonlinear microscopy and spectroscopy with special emphasis on coherent Raman spectroscopy. The difterent possible configurations starting with one OPO and two OPOs are described in detail and with comments that are intended to be practically useful for the user. Explicit examples on test samples such as nonlinear organic crystal, polystyrene beads, and fresh mouse tissues are given. Special emphasis is given to background-free coherent Raman anti-Stokes scattering (CARS) imaging, including CARS hyperspectral imaging in a fully automated mode with commercial OPOs.
Mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy with an optical parametric oscillator.
Zhang, Zhaowei; Gardiner, Tom; Reid, Derryck T
2013-08-15
We present the first implementation of mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy with an optical parametric oscillator. Methane absorption spectroscopy was demonstrated with a resolution of 0.2 cm(-1) (5 GHz) at an acquisition time of ~10.4 ms over a spectral coverage at 2900-3050 cm(-1). The average power from each individual mid-infrared comb line was ~1 μW, representing a power level much greater than typical difference-frequency-generation sources. Mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy opens up unique opportunities to perform broadband spectroscopic measurements with high resolution, high requisition rate, and high detection sensitivity.
Generation of few-cycle terawatt light pulses using optical parametric chirped pulse amplification.
Witte, S; Zinkstok, R; Hogervorst, W; Eikema, K
2005-06-27
We demonstrate the generation of 9.8+/-0.3 fs laser pulses with a peak power exceeding one terawatt at 30 Hz repetition rate, using optical parametric chirped pulse amplification. The amplifier is pumped by 140 mJ, 60 ps pulses at 532 nm, and amplifies seed pulses from a Ti:Sapphire oscillator to 23 mJ/pulse, resulting in 10.5 mJ/pulse after compression while amplified fluorescence is kept below 1%. We employ grating-based stretching and compression in combination with an LCD phase-shaper, allowing compression close to the Fourier limit of 9.3 fs.
Adachi, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Yuya; Sudo, Yuki; Suzuki, Toshinori
2017-09-01
We present a novel design of a few-cycle noncollinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) pumped by the second harmonic of a Ti:sapphire laser. A quasi-transform-limited sub-6 fs pulse width was realized by static dispersion compensation with commercially available chirped mirrors. The performance of the NOPA was tested by performing transient absorption spectroscopy on sensory rhodopsin II, and we observe short-lived oscillatory components that are associated with the vibrational coherence from the isomerizing molecule in the excited electronic state.
Feng Xiu-Qin; Shen Ke
2005-01-01
We have investigated chaotic synchronization in the generalized sense for the degenerate optical parametric oscillator (DOPO). The numerical results show that two unidirectional coupling DOPOs in chaos can be completely phase synchronization or anti-phase synchronization with a suitable coupling coefficient under which the maximum condition Lyapunov exponent (MCLE) is negative. Phase synchronization and anti-phase synchronization of chaos can be realized through positive and negative coupling. On the other hand, the different synchronization states depend on the coupling types used in the DOPO systems.
Jin, Lei; Xu, Bo; Yamashita, Shinji
2012-11-19
We theoretically and numerically explain the power saturation and the additional phase noise brought by the fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA). An equation to calculate an approximation to the saturated signal output power is presented. We also propose a scheme for alleviating the phase noise brought by the FOPA at the saturated state. In simulation, by controlling the decisive factor dispersion difference term Δk of the FOPA, amplitude-noise and additional phase noise reduction of quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) based on the saturated FOPA is studied, which can provide promising performance to deal with PSK signals.
Optical sensors of bulk refractive index using optical fiber resonators
Eryürek, M.; Karadag, Y.; Ghafoor, M.; Bavili, N.; Cicek, K.; Kiraz, A.
2017-05-01
Optical fiber resonator (OFR) sensor is presented for bulk liquid refractive index (RI) sensing. The sensing mechanism relies on the spectral shifts of whispering gallery modes (WGMs) of OFRs which are excited using a tapered fiber. OFR liquid RI sensor is fully characterized using water solutions of ethanol and ethylene glycol (EG). A good agreement is achieved between the analytical calculations and experimental results for both TE and TM polarizations. The detection limit for bulk RI is calculated to be between 2.7 - 4.7 × 10-5 refractive index unit (RIU). The OFR sensor provides a robust, easy-to-fabricate and sensitive liquid refractive index sensor which can be employed in lab-on-a-chip applications.
Unstable optical resonator loss calculations using the prony method.
Siegman, A E; Miller, H Y
1970-12-01
The eigenvalues for all the significant low-order resonant modes of an unstable optical resonator with circular mirrors are computed using an eigenvalue method called the Prony method. A general equivalence relation is also given, by means of which one can obtain the design parameters for a single-ended unstable resonator of the type usually employed in practical lasers, from the calculated or tabulated values for an equivalent symmetric or double-ended unstable resonator.
Demonstration of sharp multiple Fano resonances in optical metamaterials.
Moritake, Yuto; Kanamori, Yoshiaki; Hane, Kazuhiro
2016-05-01
We experimentally demonstrated multiple Fano resonances in optical metamaterials. By combination of two different sized asymmetric-double-bar (ADB) structures, triple Fano resonance was observed in the near-infrared region. In addition to Fano resonance due to anti-phase modes in isolated ADB structures, an anti-phase mode due to coupling among different sized ADBs was observed. Dependence of characteristics of resonances on size difference was also investigated. At specific conditions of size difference, quality factors of three Fano resonances were improved compared with ADB metamaterials consisting of one kind of ADBs. The results will help to realize applications using metamaterial resonators with multiple functionalities and high performance.
Metzger, Thomas; Schwarz, Alexander; Teisset, Catherine Yuriko; Sutter, Dirk; Killi, Alexander; Kienberger, Reinhard; Krausz, Ferenc
2009-07-15
We report an optically synchronized picosecond pump laser for optical parametric amplifiers based on an Yb:YAG thin-disk amplifier. At 3 kHz repetition rate, pulse energies of 25 mJ with 1.6 ps pulse duration were achieved with an rms fluctuation in pulse energy of pumped regenerative amplifier.
Ripley, David P; Motwani, Manish; Brown, Julia M; Nixon, Jane; Everett, Colin C; Bijsterveld, Petra; Maredia, Neil; Plein, Sven; Greenwood, John P
2015-07-15
The CE-MARC study assessed the diagnostic performance investigated the use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). The study used a multi-parametric CMR protocol assessing 4 components: i) left ventricular function; ii) myocardial perfusion; iii) viability (late gadolinium enhancement (LGE)) and iv) coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). In this pre-specified CE-MARC sub-study we assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the individual CMR components and their combinations. All patients from the CE-MARC population (n = 752) were included using data from the original blinded-read. The four individual core components of the CMR protocol was determined separately and then in paired and triplet combinations. Results were then compared to the full multi-parametric protocol. CMR and X-ray angiography results were available in 676 patients. The maximum sensitivity for the detection of significant CAD by CMR was achieved when all four components were used (86.5%). Specificity of perfusion (91.8%), function (93.7%) and LGE (95.8%) on its own was significantly better than specificity of the multi-parametric protocol (83.4%) (all P parametric protocol was the optimum to rule-out significant CAD (Likelihood Ratio negative (LR-) 0.16) and the LGE component alone was the best to rue-in CAD (LR+ 9.81). Overall diagnostic accuracy was similar with the full multi-parametric protocol (85.9%) compared to paired and triplet combinations. The use of coronary MRA within the full multi-parametric protocol had no additional diagnostic benefit compared to the perfusion/function/LGE combination (overall accuracy 84.6% vs. 84.2% (P = 0.5316); LR- 0.16 vs. 0.21; LR+ 5.21 vs. 5.77). From this pre-specified sub-analysis of the CE-MARC study, the full multi-parametric protocol had the highest sensitivity and was the optimal approach to rule-out significant CAD. The LGE component alone was the optimal rule-in strategy
Low-Loss Polymer-Based Ring Resonator for Resonant Integrated Optical Gyroscopes
Guang Qian
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Waveguide ring resonator is the sensing element of resonant integrated optical gyroscope (RIOG. This paper reports a polymer-based ring resonator with a low propagation loss of about 0.476 dB/cm for RIOG. The geometrical parameters of the waveguide and the coupler of the resonator were optimally designed. We also discussed the optical properties and gyroscope performance of the polymer resonator which shows a high quality factor of about 105. The polymer-based RIOG exhibits a limited sensitivity of less than 20 deg/h for the low and medium resolution navigation systems.
Empirical parametrizations of the resonance amplitudes based on the Siegert's theorem
Ramalho, G
2016-01-01
We present parametrizations of the $\\gamma^\\ast N \\to N(1535)1/2^-$, $\\gamma^\\ast N \\to N(1520)3/2^-$ and $\\gamma^\\ast N \\to \\Delta(1232)3/2^+$ transition amplitudes that are compatible with the analytic constraints at the pseudothreshold (Siegert's theorem). The presented parametrizations also provide a fair description of the experimental data. For the case of the $\\gamma^\\ast N \\to \\Delta(1232)3/2^+$ transition, we discuss how the pion cloud parametrizations of the electric and the Coulomb quadrupole form factors can be adjusted according to the Siegert's theorem.
Geometrically Protected Resonance Modes and Optical Fano Resonances
Regan, Emma C; Lopez, Josue J; Hsu, Chia Wei; Zhen, Bo; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljacic, Marin
2015-01-01
Traditionally, photonic crystal slabs can support resonances that are strongly confined to the slab but also couple to external radiation. However, when a photonic crystal slab is placed on a substrate, the resonance modes become less confined, and as the index contrast between slab and substrate decreases, they eventually disappear. Using the scale structure of the Dione Juno butterfly wing as an inspiration, we present a low-index zigzag surface structure that supports resonance modes even without index contrast with the substrate. The zigzag structure supports resonances that are contained away from the substrate; this geometrically protects the modes from coupling to the substrate. We experimentally verify the protected resonance property of the zigzag structure in the visible wavelength regime. Potential applications include substrate-independent structural color and light guiding.
Optical cavity resonator in an expanding universe
Kopeikin, Sergei
2014-01-01
We study evolution of frequency of a standing electromagnetic (EM) wave in a resonant optical cavity placed to the expanding manifold described by the Robertson-Walker metric. One builds a local coordinate system in which spacetime is locally Minkowskian. However, due to the conformal nature of the Robertson-Walker metric the conventional transformation to the local inertial coordinates introduces ambiguity in the physical interpretation of the local time coordinate. Therefore, contrary to a common-sense expectation, a straightforward implementation of EEP alone does not allow us to decide whether atomic clocks ticks at the same rate as the clocks based on EM modes of a cavity. To resolve the ambiguity we analyzed the cavity rigidity and the oscillation of its EM modes in an expanding universe by employing the Maxwell equations. We found out that both the size of the cavity and the EM frequency experience an adiabatic drift in conformal coordinates as the universe expands. We set up the oscillation equation f...
Large-scale Ising spin network based on degenerate optical parametric oscillators
Inagaki, Takahiro; Hamerly, Ryan; Inoue, Kyo; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Takesue, Hiroki
2016-01-01
Simulating a network of Ising spins with physical systems is now emerging as a promising approach for solving mathematically intractable problems. Here we report a large-scale network of artificial spins based on degenerate optical parametric oscillators (DOPO), paving the way towards a photonic Ising machine capable of solving difficult combinatorial optimization problems. We generated >10,000 time-division-multiplexed DOPOs using dual-pump four-wave mixing (FWM) in a highly nonlinear fibre (HNLF) placed in a fibre cavity. Using those DOPOs, a one-dimensional (1D) Ising model was simulated by introducing nearest-neighbour optical coupling. We observed the formation of spin domains and found that the domain size diverged near the DOPO threshold, which suggests that the DOPO network can simulate the behavior of low-temperature Ising spins.
Exploiting vibrational strong coupling to make an optical parametric oscillator out of a Raman laser
del Pino, Javier; Feist, Johannes
2016-01-01
When the collective coupling of the rovibrational states in organic molecules and confined electromagnetic modes is sufficiently strong, the system enters into vibrational strong coupling, leading to the formation of hybrid light-matter quasiparticles. In this work we demonstrate theoretically how this hybridization in combination with stimulated Raman scattering can be utilized to widen the capabilities of Raman laser devices. We explore the conditions under which the lasing threshold can be diminished and the system can be transformed into an optical parametric oscillator. Finally, we show how the dramatic reduction of the many final molecular states into two collective excitations can be used to create an all-optical switch with output in the mid-infrared.
Ground Demonstration of Planetary Gas Lidar Based on Optical Parametric Amplifier
Numata, Kenji; Riris, Haris; Li, Steve; Wu, Stewart; Kawa, Stephen R.; Krainak, Michael; Abshire, James
2012-01-01
We report on the development effort of a nanosecond-pulsed optical parametric amplifier (OPA) for remote trace gas measurements for Mars and Earth. The OPA output has high spectral purity and is widely tunable both at near-infrared and mid-infrared wavelengths, with an optical-optica1 conversion efficiency of up to approx 39 %. Using this laser source, we demonstrated open-path measurements of CH4 (3291 nm and 1651 nm), CO2 (1573 nm), H2O (1652 nm), and CO (4764 nm) on the ground. The simplicity, tunability. and power scalability of the OPA make it a strong candidate for general planetary lidar instruments, which will offer important information on the origins of the planet's geology, atmosphere, and potential for biology,
Exploiting Vibrational Strong Coupling to Make an Optical Parametric Oscillator Out of a Raman Laser
del Pino, Javier; Garcia-Vidal, Francisco J.; Feist, Johannes
2016-12-01
When the collective coupling of the rovibrational states in organic molecules and confined electromagnetic modes is sufficiently strong, the system enters into vibrational strong coupling, leading to the formation of hybrid light-matter quasiparticles. In this Letter, we demonstrate theoretically how this hybridization in combination with stimulated Raman scattering can be utilized to widen the capabilities of Raman laser devices. We explore the conditions under which the lasing threshold can be diminished and the system can be transformed into an optical parametric oscillator. Finally, we show how the dramatic reduction of the many final molecular states into two collective excitations can be used to create an all-optical switch with output in the midinfrared.
Fiber optical parametric oscillator based on highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber
Sigang YANG; Kenneth K. Y. WONG; Minghua CHEN; Shizhong XIE
2013-01-01
The development of fiber optical parametric oscillators （FOPO） based on highly nonlinear dispersion- shifted fiber is reviewed in this paper. Firstly, the background and motivation are introduced, and it is pointed out that the FOPO is promising to act as optical source in non-conventional wavelength bands. Subsequently, the context focuses principally on the problem of inherent multiple-longitudinal-mode characteristic of FOPO and the corresponding solutions to it. The primary technique is by locking the phase of multiple longitudinal modes. The first reported actively mode locked FOPO is also presented in this article. However, it is not probable to realize passively mode locked FOPO because of the random phase dithering of the pump required for suppressing stimulated Brillouin scattering. Furthermore, a regeneratively mode locked FOPO is demonstrated, which can generate wide band tunable radiation in non- conventional wavelengths. Besides mode locked FOPO, the single-longitudinal-mode FOPO is also introduced. Finally, potential future directions are discussed.
Optical wavelength conversion via optomechanical coupling in a silica resonator
Dong, Chunhua; Kuzyk, Mark C; Tian, Lin; Wang, Hailin
2012-01-01
We report the experimental demonstration of converting coherent optical fields between two different optical wavelengths by coupling two optical modes to a mechanical breathing mode in a silica resonator. The experiment is based on an itinerant approach, in which state-mapping from optical to mechanical and from mechanical to another optical state takes place simultaneously. In contrast to conventional nonlinear optical processes, optomechanical impedance matching as well as efficient optical input-output coupling, instead of phase-matching, plays a crucial role in optomechanics-based wavelength conversion.
Widely tunable picosecond optical parametric generation and amplification in BiB(3)O(6).
Sun, Zhipei; Ghotbi, Masood; Zadeh, Majid E
2007-04-02
Efficient generation of widely tunable picosecond pulses from the visible to near-infrared is demonstrated by optical parametric generation and amplification in BiB(3)O(6). Pumped by the second harmonic of an amplified mode-locked Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm, also generated in BiB(3)O(6), a signal and idler tuning range of 740-1893 nm has been achieved with angle tuning under type I (o?e+e) phase-matching in the optical yz-plane. With 40-ps pump pulses of 420-muJ energy, single-pass signal pulse energies of up to 48.6 muJ have been obtained at total OPA pump to signal and idler conversion efficiency as high as 30%. Significant temperature tuning under type I (o?e+e) noncritical interaction along the optical z-axis is also demonstrated, extending the signal tuning range from 740 nm down to 676 nm and idler tuning range from 1893 nm up to 2497 nm. Using second harmonic generation of the amplified signal pulses, also in BiB(3)O(6),wavelength extension to 370-500 nm has been achieved at 24% conversion efficiency, providing 10-muJ pulses across the tuning range. Optical parametric generation and amplification in BiB(3)O(6) under strong two-photon absorption pumped by 210-muJ pulses at 355 nm is also reported, providing amplified signal pulse energies of 14.2 muJ at OPA conversion efficiency as high as 21% and a spectral coverage across 450-1674 nm.
Usefulness of a wavelength tunable optical parametric oscillator laser on photodynamic therapy
Nishiwaki, Yoshiro; Yoshida, Takato O.; Nakamura, Satoshi; Baba, Shozo; Matsusawa, Eiji; Suzuki, Hideo; Hirano, Toru
1995-03-01
By rotating the optical axis of a nonlinear optical crystal ((beta) -BaB2O4), a tunable laser beam could be obtained from an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) laser. When the crystal was optically pumped by the third harmonics of the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser, we had a coherent beam from 410 nm through 2550 nm continuously without changing the optical cavity. We compared photodynamic therapy (PDT) effects of two photosensitizers, phenophorbide a(Phd) and Photosan-3(Ph-3, hematoporphyrin-polyester), on Wistar rat liver. Twenty-four hours after sensitization (5 mg/kg i.v.), 670 nm and 630 nm light (75 mW/cm2) was irradiated for Phd and Ph-3 respectively at energy doses of 25, 50, and 100 J/cm2. The rats were sacrificed 24 hours after laser irradiation and analyzed pathologically. Phd produced more severe necrosis than Ph-3. Twenty-five J/cm2 of Phd was identical with 100 J/cm2 of Ph-3. Next, we treated HeLa cell tumors of nude mice by Phd 670 nm PDT and Ph-3 630 nm PDT. The PDT effects of the two photosensitizers on HeLa cell tumors were similar to those on normal liver tissue. In conclusion the OPO laser could make it possible to compare PDT effects of photosensitizers by activating them with their matched wavelengths.
The role of the plasmon resonance for enhanced optical forces
Ploschner, Martin
Optical manipulation of nanoscale objects is studied with particular emphasis on the role of plasmon resonance for enhancement of optical forces. The thesis provides an introduction to plasmon resonance and its role in confinement of light to a sub-diffraction volume. The strong light confinement and related enhancement of optical forces is then theoretically studied for a special case of nanoantenna supporting plasmon resonances. The calculation of optical forces, based on the Maxwell stress tensor approach, reveals relatively weak optical forces for incident powers that are used in typical realisations of trapping with nanoantenna. The optical forces are so weak that other non-optical effects should be considered to explain the observed trapping. These effects include heating induced convection, thermoporesis and chemical binding. The thesis also studies the optical effects of plasmon resonances for a fundamentally different application - size-based optical sorting of gold nanoparticles. Here, the plasmon resonances are not utilised for sub-diffraction light confinement but rather for their ability to increase the apparent cross-section of the particles for their respective resonant sizes. Exploiting these resonances, we realise sorting in a system of two counter-propagating evanescent waves, each at different wavelength that selectively guide gold nanoparticles of different sizes in opposite directions. The method is experimentally demonstrated for bidirectional sorting of gold nanoparticles of either 150 or 130 nm in diameter from those of 100 nm in diameter within a mixture. We conclude the thesis with a numerical study of the optimal beam-shape for optical sorting applications. The developed theoretical framework, based on the force optical eigenmode method, is able to find an illumination of the back-focal plane of the objective such that the force difference between nanoparticles of various sizes in the sample plane is maximised.
Nonlinear and quantum optics with whispering gallery resonators
Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Marquardt, Christoph; Matsko, Andrey B.; Schwefel, Harald G. L.; Leuchs, Gerd
2016-12-01
Optical whispering gallery modes (WGMs) derive their name from a famous acoustic phenomenon of guiding a wave by a curved boundary observed nearly a century ago. This phenomenon has a rather general nature, equally applicable to sound and all other waves. It enables resonators of unique properties attractive both in science and engineering. Very high quality factors of optical WGM resonators persisting in a wide wavelength range spanning from radio frequencies to ultraviolet light, their small mode volume, and tunable in- and out- coupling make them exceptionally efficient for nonlinear optical applications. Nonlinear optics facilitates interaction of photons with each other and with other physical systems, and is of prime importance in quantum optics. In this paper we review numerous applications of WGM resonators in nonlinear and quantum optics. We outline the current areas of interest, summarize progress, highlight difficulties, and discuss possible future development trends in these areas.
Optical wavelength conversion via optomechanical coupling in a silica resonator
Dong, Chunhua; Fiore, Victor; Kuzyk, Mark C.; Wang, Hailin [Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Tian, Lin [University of California, Merced, CA (United States)
2015-01-01
In an optomechanical resonator, an optically active mechanical mode can couple to any of the optical resonances via radiation pressure. This unique property can enable a remarkable phenomenon: conversion of optical fields via optomechanical coupling between vastly different wavelengths. Here we expand an earlier experimental study [Science 338, 1609 (2012)] on classical wavelength conversion of coherent optical fields by coupling two optical modes to a mechanical breathing mode in a silica resonator. Heterodyne detection of the converted optical fields shows that the wavelength conversion process is coherent and bidirectional. The conversion efficiency obtained features a distinct saturation behavior that arises from optomechanical impedance matching. A measurement of the coherent mechanical excitation involved in the wavelength conversion process also provides additional insight on the underlying optomechanical interactions. (copyright 2014 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Microwave-to-Optical Conversion in WGM Resonators
Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Strekalov, Dmitry; Yu, Nan; Matsko, Andrey; Maleki, Lute
2008-01-01
Microwave-to-optical frequency converters based on whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonators have been proposed as mixers for the input ends of microwave receivers in which, downstream of the input ends, signals would be processed photonically. A frequency converter as proposed (see figure) would exploit the nonlinearity of the electromagnetic response of a WGM resonator made of LiNbO3 or another suitable ferroelectric material. Up-conversion would take place by three-wave mixing in the resonator. The WGM resonator would be de - signed and fabricated to obtain (1) resonance at both the microwave and the optical operating frequencies and (2) phase matching among the input and output microwave and optical signals as described in the immediately preceding article. Because the resonator would be all dielectric there would be no metal electrodes signal losses would be very low and, consequently, the resonance quality factors (Q values) of the microwave and optical fields would be very large. The long lifetimes associated with the large Q values would enable attainment of high efficiency of nonlinear interaction with low saturation power. It is anticipated that efficiency would be especially well enhanced by the combination of optical and microwave resonances in operation at input signal frequencies between 90 and 300 GHz.
Recuerda Maximilien
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment planning of spine pathologies requires information on the rigidity and permeability of the intervertebral discs (IVDs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI offers great potential as a sensitive and non-invasive technique for describing the mechanical properties of IVDs. However, the literature reported small correlation coefficients between mechanical properties and MRI parameters. Our hypothesis is that the compressive modulus and the permeability of the IVD can be predicted by a linear combination of MRI parameters. Methods Sixty IVDs were harvested from bovine tails, and randomly separated in four groups (in-situ, digested-6h, digested-18h, digested-24h. Multi-parametric MRI acquisitions were used to quantify the relaxation times T1 and T2, the magnetization transfer ratio MTR, the apparent diffusion coefficient ADC and the fractional anisotropy FA. Unconfined compression, confined compression and direct permeability measurements were performed to quantify the compressive moduli and the hydraulic permeabilities. Differences between groups were evaluated from a one way ANOVA. Multi linear regressions were performed between dependent mechanical properties and independent MRI parameters to verify our hypothesis. A principal component analysis was used to convert the set of possibly correlated variables into a set of linearly uncorrelated variables. Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering was performed on the 3 principal components. Results Multilinear regressions showed that 45 to 80% of the Young’s modulus E, the aggregate modulus in absence of deformation HA0, the radial permeability kr and the axial permeability in absence of deformation k0 can be explained by the MRI parameters within both the nucleus pulposus and the annulus pulposus. The principal component analysis reduced our variables to two principal components with a cumulative variability of 52-65%, which increased to 70-82% when considering the third
Characterization of optical quantum circuits using resonant phase shifts
Poot, Menno
2016-01-01
We demonstrate that important information about linear optical circuits can be obtained through the phase shift induced by integrated optical resonators. As a proof of principle, the phase of an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer is determined. Then the method is applied to a complex optical circuit designed for linear optical quantum computation. In this controlled-NOT gate with qubit initialization and tomography stages, the relative phases are determined as well as the coupling ratios of its directional couplers.
All-optical gates based on photonic crystal resonators
Moille, Grégory; De Rossi, Alfredo; Combrié, Sylvain
2016-04-01
We briefly review the technology of advanced nonlinear resonators for all-optical gating with a specific focus on the application of high-performance signal sampling and on the properties of III-V semiconductor photonic crystals
An embedded optical nanowire loop resonator refractometric sensor.
Xu, Fei; Pruneri, Valerio; Finazzi, Vittoria; Brambilla, Gilberto
2008-01-21
A novel refractometric sensor based on an embedded optical nanowire loop resonator is presented. The device sensitivity has been studied in two typical configurations and its dependence on the nanowire diameter and coating thickness determined.
林学春; 李瑞宁; 姚爱云; 毕勇; 崔大复; 许祖彦
2003-01-01
We report the broadly tunable source by a cascaded optical parametric oscillator in the periodically poled LiNbO3(PPLN) with domain grating period and temperature tuning. The optical parametric oscillator was pumped by a passive Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser. Multi-wavelength outputs from visible to infrared were obtained. The temperature of the PPLN crystal changed within the range of 70-150℃ with different periods of PPLN. The tunable range covered from 433 to 1657nm.
Quantum State Engineering of Light with Continuous-wave Optical Parametric Oscillators
Morin, Olivier; Liu, Jianli; Huang, Kun; Barbosa, Felippe; Fabre, Claude; Laurat, Julien
2014-01-01
Engineering non-classical states of the electromagnetic field is a central quest for quantum optics1,2. Beyond their fundamental significance, such states are indeed the resources for implementing various protocols, ranging from enhanced metrology to quantum communication and computing. A variety of devices can be used to generate non-classical states, such as single emitters, light-matter interfaces or non-linear systems3. We focus here on the use of a continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator3,4. This system is based on a non-linear χ2 crystal inserted inside an optical cavity and it is now well-known as a very efficient source of non-classical light, such as single-mode or two-mode squeezed vacuum depending on the crystal phase matching. Squeezed vacuum is a Gaussian state as its quadrature distributions follow a Gaussian statistics. However, it has been shown that number of protocols require non-Gaussian states5. Generating directly such states is a difficult task and would require strong χ3 non-linearities. Another procedure, probabilistic but heralded, consists in using a measurement-induced non-linearity via a conditional preparation technique operated on Gaussian states. Here, we detail this generation protocol for two non-Gaussian states, the single-photon state and a superposition of coherent states, using two differently phase-matched parametric oscillators as primary resources. This technique enables achievement of a high fidelity with the targeted state and generation of the state in a well-controlled spatiotemporal mode. PMID:24961685
Resonator chains of 2-D square dielectric optical microcavities
Lohmeyer, Manfred
2008-01-01
Chains of coupled square dielectric cavities are investigated. Resonant transfer of optical power can be achieved along quite arbitrary, moderately long rectangular paths, even with individual standing-wave resonators of limited quality. We introduce an ab-initio coupled mode model that helps to int
High-power, continuous-wave, mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator based on MgO:sPPLT.
Chaitanya Kumar, S; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M
2011-07-01
We report a stable, high-power, cw, mid-IR optical parametric oscillator using MgO-doped stoichiometric periodically poled LiTaO₃ (MgO:sPPLT) pumped by a Yb fiber laser at 1064 nm. The singly resonant oscillator (SRO), based on a 30 mm long crystal, is tunable over 430 nm from 3032 to 3462 nm and can generate as much as 5.5 W of mid-IR output power, with >4 W of over 60% of the tuning range and under reduced thermal effects, enabling room temperature operation. Idler power scaling measurements at ~3.3 μm are compared with an MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO₃ cw SRO, confirming that MgO:sPPLT is an attractive material for multiwatt mid-IR generation. The idler output at 3299 nm exhibits a peak-to-peak power stability better than 12.8% over 5 h and frequency stability of ~1 GHz, while operating close to room temperature, and has a linewidth of ~0.2 nm, limited by the resolution of the wavemeter. The corresponding signal linewidth at 1570 nm is ~21 MHz.
High-power, fiber-laser-pumped, picosecond optical parametric oscillator based on MgO:sPPLT.
Kumar, S Chaitanya; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M
2011-12-19
We report a stable, high-power, mid-infrared synchronously-pumped optical parametric oscillator (SPOPO) based on MgO:sPPLT, pumped by a 1064 nm, picosecond Yb-fiber laser operating at a repetition rate of 81.1 MHz. The singly resonant SPOPO is tunable over 1531-1642 nm (111 nm) in the near-infrared signal and 3022-3488 nm (466 nm) in the mid-infrared idler, providing a total tuning range of 577 nm. Careful optimization of output coupling results in a signal output power as high as 4.3 W at 1593 nm and a mid-infrared idler power of 2 W at 3204 nm for 13.4 W of pump power at a total extraction efficiency of 47%. The SPOPO can be operated near room temperature, down to 30 °C, and exhibits passive peak-to-peak power stability better than 8.6% at 1568 nm (signal) and 8.2% at 3310 nm (idler) over 13 hours at full power. The output signal pulses have duration of 17.5 ps, with a FWHM spectral bandwidth of 1.4 nm centered at 1568 nm.
WANG He-Lin; YANG Ai-Jun; LENG Yu-Xin
2011-01-01
A high-average-power diode-pumped narrowband regenerative chirped pulse amplifier is developed using the thin-rod Nd:YAG laser architecture for optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA).The effect of the etalons on the amplified pulse in the regenerative cavity is studied experimentally and theoretically.By inserting glass etalons of thickness 1 mm and 5 mm into the regenerative cavity,the pre-stretching pulse from an (O)ffner stretcher is further broadened to above 200ps,which matches the amplification windows of the signal pulses in OPCPA and is suitable for use as a pump source in the OPCPA system.The bandwidth of the amplified pulse is 1.5 nm,and an output energy of 2mJ is achieved at a repetition rate of 10 Hz.Optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA)[1-4] has attracted a great deal of attention as the most promising technique for generating ultrashort ultrahigh-peak-power laser pulses because of its very broad gain bandwidth,negligible thermal load on the nonlinear crystal,and extremely high singlepass gain as compared to amplifiers based on laser gain media.For efficient amplification and high fidelity of dispersion compensation in OPCPA,a femtosecond seed pulse is first stretched to several tens of picoseconds with a bulk grating stretcher or a fiber stretcher.%A high-average-power diode-pumped narrowband regenerative chirped pulse amplifier is developed using the thin-rod Nd:YAG laser architecture for optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA). The effect of the etalons on the amplified pulse in the regenerative cavity is studied experimentally and theoretically. By inserting glass etalons of thickness 1 mm and 5 mm into the regenerative cavity, the pre-stretching pulse from an (O)finer stretcher is further broadened to above 200 ps, which matches the amplification windows of the signal pulses in OPCPA and is suitable for use as a pump source in the OPCPA system. The bandwidth of the amplified pulse is 1.5 nm, and an
Huo, Meiru; Qin, Jiliang; Yan, Zhihui; Jia, Xiaojun; Peng, Kunchi
2016-11-01
As important members of nonclassical states of light, squeezed states and entangled states are basic resources for realizing quantum measurements and constructing quantum information networks. We experimentally demonstrate that the two types of nonclassical optical states can be generated from an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) involving a periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystal with a domain-inversion period of 51.7 μm, by changing the polarization of the pump laser. When a vertically polarized 671 nm laser is used to pump the OPO, the intra-cavity frequency-down-conversion with type-0 quasi-phase matching is realized and the output optical beam is a quadrature amplitude squeezed state of light at the wavelength of 1342 nm with the fluctuation of quadrature component of 3.17 dB below the quantum noise limit (QNL). If the pump laser is horizontally polarized, the condition of the type-II quasi-phase matching is satisfied and the output optical beam becomes Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled state of light with correlation variances of both quadrature amplitude-sum and quadrature phase-difference of 2.2 dB below the corresponding QNL.
Anstett, G.; Wallenstein, R.
2004-11-01
We report an experimental investigation of the spectro-temporal dynamics of the pulse formation in Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers and in nanosecond optical parametric oscillators (OPOs). The temporal evolution of the spectral intensity distribution of the light pulses was measured with a 1-m Czerny Turner spectrometer in combination with a fast streak camera. This detection system allows the analysis of temporal changes in the spectrum of single nanosecond pulses. The measurements were performed for a flashlamp-pumped, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and for an unseeded as well as for a seeded singly-resonant nanosecond OPO. The laser output spectrum varies strongly from pulse to pulse and even within a single pulse due to mode beating. In an unseeded OPO, individual spectral modes start to oscillate statistically from the parametric noise for pump powers close to the OPO threshold. With increasing pump power a strong modulation in the spectral formation of the pulse is observed, resulting from a strong interaction of parametric conversion and back conversion of signal and idler radiation into pump radiation. By means of injection seeding, the starting condition was controlled for a single mode. Due to the seed radiation, the seeded mode starts sooner than the unseeded modes. These are suppressed completely in the case of sufficient seed power and moderate pump power. The observations are in good agreement with results of corresponding numerical simulations.
Klimentov, Sergei M.; Garnov, Serge V.; Epifanov, Alexander S.; Manenkov, Alexander A.
1994-06-01
For application of optical parametric oscillator (OPO) to investigation of nonlinear interaction of laser radiation with matter the factor of importance is stability of light spatial distribution and spotsize position on a target through a tuning range. Collinear temperature tunable schemes show an advantage for these purposes, in particular, for small pump beam diameters. A simple and efficient visible range parametric converter can be realized using two-pass configuration, where parametric luminescence is excited on the first pass through a nonlinear crystal and amplified on the second pass after spatial filtering. Lack of resonator simplifies high power UV pumping and getting of relatively narrow emission spectrum. Using such an approach, we have made the oscillator-amplifier system temperature tunable in the range of 440 to 670 nm employing 4-cm-length ADP crystal pumped by 266 nm radiation from the single-mode YAG:Nd laser. The output energy of 3 mJ in about 1-ns pulsewidth has been achieved with total conversion efficiency of 10%. A spatial profile of the output beam kept its shape within the branch of the tuning curve. This allowed us to use the device as a proper tool for investigation of two-photon excitation in undoped CsI and KI single crystals. The OPO signal output was used to record photoconductivity spectra in these materials.
Optical combs with a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator
Savchenkov, Anatoliy A; Ilchenko, Vladimir S; Solomatine, Iouri; Seidel, David; Maleki, Lute
2008-01-01
We report on the experimental demonstration of a tunable monolithic optical frequency comb generator. The device is based on the four-wave mixing in a crystalline calcium fluoride whispering gallery mode resonator. The frequency spacing of the comb is given by an integer number of the free spectral range of the resonator. We select the desired number by tuning the pumping laser frequency with respect to the corresponding resonator mode. We also observe interacting optical combs and high-frequency hyperparametric oscillation, depending on the experimental conditions. A potential application of the comb for generating narrowband frequency microwave signals is demonstrated.
Ring resonator systems to perform optical communication enhancement using soliton
Amiri, Iraj Sadegh
2014-01-01
The title explain new technique of secured and high capacity optical communication signals generation by using the micro and nano ring resonators. The pulses are known as soliton pulses which are more secured due to having the properties of chaotic and dark soliton signals with ultra short bandwidth. They have high capacity due to the fact that ring resonators are able to generate pulses in the form of solitons in multiples and train form. These pulses generated by ring resonators are suitable in optical communication due to use the compact and integrated rings system, easy to control, flexibi
Parametric decay instability near the upper hybrid resonance in magnetically confined fusion plasmas
Hansen, Søren Kjer; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Salewski, Mirko
2017-01-01
In this paper we investigate parametric decay of an electromagnetic pump wave into two electrostatic daughter waves, particularly an X-mode pump wave decaying into a warm upper hybrid wave (a limit of an electron Bernstein wave) and a warm lower hybrid wave. We describe the general theory...
High-energy infrared femtosecond pulses generated by dual-chirped optical parametric amplification.
Fu, Yuxi; Takahashi, Eiji J; Midorikawa, Katsumi
2015-11-01
We demonstrate high-energy infrared femtosecond pulse generation by a dual-chirped optical parametric amplification (DC-OPA) scheme [Opt. Express19, 7190 (2011)]. By employing a 100 mJ pump laser, a signal pulse energy exceeding 20 mJ at a wavelength of 1.4 μm was achieved before dispersion compensation. A total output energy of 33 mJ was recorded. Under a further energy scaling condition, the signal pulse was compressed to an almost transform-limited duration of 27 fs using a fused silica prism compressor. Since the DC-OPA scheme is efficient and energy scalable, design parameters for obtaining 100 mJ level infrared pulses are presented, which are suitable as driver lasers for the energy scaling of high-order harmonic generation with sub-keV photon energy.
Thermal properties of borate crystals for high power optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification.
Riedel, R; Rothhardt, J; Beil, K; Gronloh, B; Klenke, A; Höppner, H; Schulz, M; Teubner, U; Kränkel, C; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A; Prandolini, M J; Tavella, F
2014-07-28
The potential of borate crystals, BBO, LBO and BiBO, for high average power scaling of optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifiers is investigated. Up-to-date measurements of the absorption coefficients at 515 nm and the thermal conductivities are presented. The measured absorption coefficients are a factor of 10-100 lower than reported by the literature for BBO and LBO. For BBO, a large variation of the absorption coefficients was found between crystals from different manufacturers. The linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients at 515 nm as well as thermal conductivities were determined for the first time for BiBO. Further, different crystal cooling methods are presented. In addition, the limits to power scaling of OPCPAs are discussed.
High efficiency terahertz-wave photonic crystal fiber optical parametric oscillator.
Li, Shaopeng; Liu, Hongjun; Huang, Nan; Sun, Qibing; Li, Xuefeng
2012-08-01
We theoretically propose phase matched terahertz (THz)-wave generation via degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) in a fiber optical parametric oscillator (FOPO) with our newly designed photonic crystal fiber (PCF). Perfect phase matching is realized when we locate the pump wavelength in the normal group-velocity dispersion (GVD) regime. The generated THz-wave can be tuned from 4.7578 to 5.9015 THz by varying the pump wavelength. Moreover, peak power of 27.38 W at 5.9015 THz with conversion efficiency of 1.37% is realized when the pump peak power of 2000 W is at 4.675 μm in our FOPO.
High-Power Blue Light Generation by External Frequency Doubling of an Optical Parametric Oscillator
毕勇; 张鸿博; 孙志培; 包照日格图; 李惠清; 孔宇鹏; 林学春; 王桂玲; 张杰; 侯玮; 李瑞宁; 崔大复; 许祖彦; 宋立维; 章萍; 崔建峰; 樊仲维
2003-01-01
We report on an all-solid-state high-power quasi-continuous blue light source by the frequency doubling of a signal wave from an optical parametric oscillator(OPO).A 50-mm-long LiB3O5(LBO)crystal is used for the OPO,which is pumped by a diode-pumped Nd:YAG green laser(10kHz,50ns).Tunable blue emission in a new nonlinear crystal BiB3O6(BiBO)is obtained with a wavelength range from 450 to 495 nm.The average power of the signal output is as high as 9.3 W from 924 to 970nm.The maximum output of the blue laser with the second harmonic walk-off compensation is 1.3 W average power at 470nm for 6.2 W of OPO signal light at 940nm.
Label-free imaging of thick tissue at 1550 nm using a femtosecond optical parametric generator.
Trägårdh, Johanna; Robb, Gillian; Gadalla, Kamal K E; Cobb, Stuart; Travis, Christopher; Oppo, Gian-Luca; McConnell, Gail
2015-08-01
We have developed a simple wavelength-tunable optical parametric generator (OPG), emitting broadband ultrashort pulses with peak wavelengths at 1530-1790 nm, for nonlinear label-free microscopy. The OPG consists of a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, pumped at 1064 nm by a ultrafast Yb:fiber laser with high pulse energy. We demonstrate that this OPG can be used for label-free imaging, by third-harmonic generation, of nuclei of brain cells and blood vessels in a >150 μm thick brain tissue section, with very little decay of intensity with imaging depth and no visible damage to the tissue at an incident average power of 15 mW.
Tuning characteristics of femtosecond optical parametric oscillator with broadband chirped mirrors
Stankevičiūtė, Karolina; Vengris, Mikas; Melnikas, Simas; Kičas, Simonas; Grigonis, Rimantas; Sirutkaitis, Valdas
2015-12-01
We present the investigation of a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (SPOPO) based on beta barium borate (BBO) nonlinear crystal with broadband complementary chirped mirror pairs (CMPs). Three SPOPO cavity configurations with slightly different intracavity dispersion were explored. Dispersion properties of cavity mirrors were characterized using a white light interferometer and found to be the key factor determining the gap-free tuning range as well as simultaneous multiwavelength generation. The SPOPO is pumped by the second harmonic of a Yb:KGW oscillator and provides signal pulses tunable over a spectral range from 625 to 980 nm. Signal pulse duration ranges from 102 to 268 fs in various intracavity dispersion regimes. In addition, signal beam power in excess of 500 mW is demonstrated, corresponding to 27% conversion efficiency from pump to signal wave.
Raman and loss induced quantum noise in depleted fiber optical parametric amplifiers
Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Rottwitt, Karsten; McKinstrie, C. J.
2013-01-01
We present a semi-classical approach for predicting the quantum noise properties of fiber optical parametric amplifiers. The unavoidable contributors of noise, vacuum fluctuations, loss-induced noise, and spontaneous Raman scattering, are included in the analysis of both phase-insensitive and phase......-sensitive amplifiers. We show that the model agrees with earlier fully quantum approaches in the linear gain regime, whereas in the saturated gain regime, in which the classical equations are valid, we predict that the amplifier increases the signal-to-noise ratio by generating an amplitude-squeezed state of light....... Also, in the same process, we analyze the quantum noise properties of the pump, which is difficult using standard quantum approaches, and we discover that the pump displays complicated dynamics in both the linear and the nonlinear gain regimes....
Generating 2 micron continuous-wave ytterbium-doped fiber laser-based optical parametric effect
Paul, M. C.; Latiff, A. A.; Hisyam, M. B.; Rusdi, M. F. M.; Harun, S. W.
2016-10-01
We report an efficient method for generating a 2 micron laser based on an optical parametric oscillator (OPO). It uses a long piece of a newly developed double-clad ytterbium-doped fiber (YDF), which is obtained by doping multi-elements of ZrO2, CeO2 and CaO in a phospho-alumina-silica glass as a gain medium. The efficient 2 micron laser generation is successful due to the presence of partially crystalline Yb-doped ZrO2 nano-particles that serve as a nonlinear material in a linear cavity configuration and high watt-level pump power. Stable self-wavelength double lasing at 2122 nm with an efficiency of 7.15% is successfully recorded. At a maximum pump power of 4.1 W, the output power is about 201 mW.
Mid-IR fiber optic light source around 6 micron through parametric wavelength translation
Barh, A; Varshney, R K; Pal, B P; Sanghera, J; Shaw, L B; Aggarwal, I D
2014-01-01
We report numerically designed highly nonlinear all glass chalcogenide microstructured optical fiber for efficient generation of light around 6 micron through degenerate four wave mixing by considering continuous wave CO laser of 5 to 10 Watts power emitting at 5.6 micron as the pump. By tuning the pump wavelength, pump power, fiber dispersion and nonlinear properties, narrow and broad band mid-IR all-fiber light source could be realized. Parametric amplification of more than 20 decibel is achievable for the narrow band source at 6.46 micron with a maximum power conversion efficiency of 33 percent while amplification of 22 decibel is achievable for a B-band source over the wavelength range of 5 to 6.3 micron with a conversion efficiency of 40 percent.
De Martini, Francesco
2012-01-01
The present work reports on an extended research endeavor focused on the theoretical and experimental realization of a macroscopic quantum superposition (MQS) made up with photons. As it is well known, this intriguing, fundamental quantum condition is at the core of a famous argument conceived by Erwin Schroedinger, back in 1935. The main experimental challenge to the actual realization of this object resides generally on the unavoidable and uncontrolled interactions with the environment, i.e. the decoherence leading to the cancellation of any evidence of the quantum features associated with the macroscopic system. The present scheme is based on a nonlinear process, the "quantum injected optical parametric amplification", that maps by a linearized cloning process the quantum coherence of a single - particle state, i.e. a Micro - qubit, into a Macro - qubit, consisting in a large number M of photons in quantum superposition. Since the adopted scheme was found resilient to decoherence, the MQS\\ demonstration wa...
HCMT models of optical microring-resonator circuits
Lohmeyer, Manfred
2010-01-01
Circuits of dielectric integrated optical microring resonators are addressed through a two-dimensional hybrid analytical/numerical coupled mode theory (HCMT) model. Analytical modes of all straight and curved cores form templates for the optical fields of the entire circuits. Our variational techniq
General Theoretical Model for Resonantly Enhanced Optical Modulators
Yuvaraja; S.; Visagathilagar; Arnan; Mitchell; Michael; W.; Austin
2003-01-01
1 IntroductionLiNbO3 optical modulators have become essential transmission devices for current and future wideband fibre-optic communications for both military and telecommunications applications. For many telecommunications applications, only a narrow bandwidth is required and thus resonantly enhancedMach-Zehndermodulators(RE-MZMs)have been developed to improve modulation efficiency at the expense of bandwidth.
Parametric studies of magnetic-optic imaging using finite-element models
Chao, C.; Udpa, L.; Xuan, L.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Thorne, D.; Shih, W.
2000-05-01
Magneto-optic imaging is a relatively new sensor application of bubble memory technology to NDI. The Magneto-Optic Imager (MOI) uses a magneto-optic (MO) sensor to produce analog images of magnetic flux leakage from surface and subsurface defects. The flux leakage is produced by eddy current induction techniques in nonferrous metals and magnetic yokes are used in ferromagnetic materials. The technique has gained acceptance in the aircraft maintenance industry for use to detect surface-breaking cracks and corrosion. Until recently, much of the MOI development has been empirical in nature since the electromagnetic processes that produce images are rather complex. The availability of finite element techniques to numerically solve Maxwell's equations, in conjunction with MOI observations, allows greater understanding of the capabilities of the instrument. In this paper, we present a systematic set of finite element calculations along with MOI measurements on specific defects to quantify the current capability of the MOI as well as its desired performance. Parametric studies including effects of liftoff and proximity of edges are also studied.—This material is based upon work supported by the Federal Aviation Administration under Contract #DTFA03-98-D-00008, Delivery Order #IA013 and performed at Iowa State University's Center for NDE as part of the Center for Aviation Systems Reliability program.
Characterization of optical whispering gallery mode resonance and applications
Quan, Haiyong
The whispering-gallery mode microdisk or microsphere resonators have supercompact size, high energy storage, very narrow resonance bandwidth, and high sensitivity. These appealing properties have attracted much attention in the realization of microlasers, narrow filters, optical switching, biosensing, high resolution spectroscopy, and so on. In this dissertation, the optical and energy transport phenomena of whispering-gallery mode resonance and its potentials in some optical sensing applications will be characterized. A 2D theoretical analysis is first presented based on the method of separation of variables and by deriving several appropriate and reasonable boundary conditions to describe the electrical field distribution at resonance modes. This analytical model can precisely predict the intrinsic resonance frequencies of isolated whispering-gallery mode resonators. To consider the coupling of light-delivery waveguides with resonators and investigate the resonance phenomena of the resonator-waveguide system and/or device, simulations using a Finite Element Method solver of Maxwell's equations are conducted. The results indicate the influences of the geometric dimensions, refractive indices, gap distances, and excitation wavelengths on the main characteristics of the resonance modes such as the quality factor Q, the finesse, the mode intensity, and so on. Furthermore, the gap effects are detailedly studied by both theoretical analysis and simulation modeling. The optimal gap for the maximum coupling efficiency and the optimum gap for the best sensing application of the whispering gallery mode resonators are introduced and discussed based on simulation data and theoretical estimations. Three prospective applications of the whispering gallery mode-based sensors are introduced and proof-of-concept studies are demonstrated. The design schemes and fabrication process of the on-chip resonance device made of the Si3N4/SiO2 material system using nanofabrication
Photocurrent mapping of near-field optical antenna resonances.
Barnard, Edward S; Pala, Ragip A; Brongersma, Mark L
2011-08-21
An increasing number of photonics applications make use of nanoscale optical antennas that exhibit a strong, resonant interaction with photons of a specific frequency. The resonant properties of such antennas are conventionally characterized by far-field light-scattering techniques. However, many applications require quantitative knowledge of the near-field behaviour, and existing local field measurement techniques provide only relative, rather than absolute, data. Here, we demonstrate a photodetector platform that uses a silicon-on-insulator substrate to spectrally and spatially map the absolute values of enhanced fields near any type of optical antenna by transducing local electric fields into photocurrent. We are able to quantify the resonant optical and materials properties of nanoscale (∼50 nm) and wavelength-scale (∼1 µm) metallic antennas as well as high-refractive-index semiconductor antennas. The data agree well with light-scattering measurements, full-field simulations and intuitive resonator models.
Nonlinear and Quantum Optics with Whispering Gallery Resonators
Strekalov, Dmitry V; Matsko, Andrey B; Schwefel, Harald G L; Leuchs, Gerd
2016-01-01
Optical Whispering Gallery Modes (WGMs) derive their name from a famous acoustic phenomenon of guiding a wave by a curved boundary observed nearly a century ago. This phenomenon was later realized to have a rather general nature, equally applicable to sound and all other waves, but in particular also to electromagnetic waves ranging from radio frequencies to ultraviolet light. Very high quality factors of optical WGM resonators persisting in a wide wavelength range, their small mode volume, and tunable in- and out- coupling make them exceptionally efficient for nonlinear optical applications. Nonlinear optics facilitates interaction of photons with each other and with other physical systems, and is of prime importance in quantum optics. In this paper we review numerous applications of WGM resonators in nonlinear and quantum optics. We outline the current areas of interest, summarize progress, highlight difficulties, and discuss possible future development trends in these areas.
Resonance-enhanced optical forces between coupled photonic crystal slabs.
Liu, Victor; Povinelli, Michelle; Fan, Shanhui
2009-11-23
The behaviors of lateral and normal optical forces between coupled photonic crystal slabs are analyzed. We show that the optical force is periodic with displacement, resulting in stable and unstable equilibrium positions. Moreover, the forces are strongly enhanced by guided resonances of the coupled slabs. Such enhancement is particularly prominent near dark states of the system, and the enhancement effect is strongly dependent on the types of guided resonances involved. These structures lead to enhancement of light-induced pressure over larger areas, in a configuration that is directly accessible to externally incident, free-space optical beams.
Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Ozolins, Oskars; An, Yi
2012-01-01
The performance of cascaded single-pump fiber optical parametric amplifiers (FOPAs) is experimentally studied for the first time using recirculating loop transmission with 80-km dispersion managed spans. Error-free performance has been achieved over 320 km for 40-Gbit/s CSRZ-OOK and CSRZ...
Cristofori, Valentina; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Peucheret, Christophe
2011-01-01
This paper presents a detailed experimental characterization of the relative intensity noise (RIN) transferred from the pump to the signal in one-pump phase insensitive fibre optic parametric amplifiers. We extend an existing experimental and theoretical work towards higher frequencies, showing...
Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Bruun-Larsen, M.; Balle-Petersen, O.;
2008-01-01
Nanosecond yellow light has been generated through simultaneously phase matched sum-frequency generation and optical parametric oscillation in a periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal. 300 mW of yellow light at a wavelength of 586 nm has been generated from 1.3 W of laser power from a Q-switched Yb...
Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny; Nielsen, Carsten Vandel
2009-01-01
An increased gain in a fibre-optical parametric amplifier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering is demonstrated by applying a temperature distribution along the fibre for a fixed phase modulation of the pump. The temperature distribution slightly impacts the gain spectrum....
Verbraak, H.; Ngai, A.K.Y.; Persijn, S.T.; Harren, F.J.M.; Linnartz, H.
2007-01-01
A sensitive infrared detection scheme is presented in which continuous wave cavity ring down spectroscopy is used to record rovibrational spectra of molecular ions in direct absorption through supersonically expanding planar plasma. A cw optical parametric oscillator is used as a light source and
300 microJ noncollinear optical parametric amplifier in the visible at 1 kHz repetition rate.
Tzankov, Pancho; Zheng, Jiaan; Mero, Mark; Polli, Dario; Manzoni, Cristian; Cerullo, Giulio
2006-12-15
We demonstrate an order-of-magnitude energy scaling of a white-light seeded noncollinear optical parametric amplifier in the visible. The generated pulses, tunable between 520 and 650 nm with sub-25-fs duration, had energies up to 310 microJ with 20% blue-pump-to-signal energy conversion efficiency at 540 nm. This new ultrafast source will make possible numerous extreme nonlinear optics applications. As a first application, we demonstrate the generation of tunable vacuum ultraviolet pulses.
Klingebiel, Sandro; Wandt, Christoph; Skrobol, Christoph; Ahmad, Izhar; Trushin, Sergei A; Major, Zsuzsanna; Krausz, Ferenc; Karsch, Stefan
2011-03-14
We present a chirped pulse amplification (CPA) system based on diode-pumped Yb:YAG. The stretched ns-pulses are amplified and have been compressed to less than 900 fs with an energy of 200 mJ and a repetition rate of 10 Hz. This system is optically synchronized with a broadband seed laser and therefore ideally suited for pumping optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA) stages on a ps-timescale.
Sign-Reversal Coupling in Coupled-Resonator Optical Waveguide
Gao, Zhen; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile
2016-01-01
Coupled-resonator optical waveguides (CROWs), which play a significant role in modern photonics, achieve waveguiding through near-field coupling between tightly localized resonators. The coupling factor, a critical parameter in CROW theory, determines the coupling strength between two resonators and the waveguiding dispersion of a CROW. However, the original CROW theory proposed by Yariv et al. only demonstrated one value of coupling factor for a multipole resonance mode. Here, by imaging the tight-binding Bloch waves on a CROW consisting of designer-surface-plasmon resonators in the microwave regime, we demonstrate that the coupling factor in the CROW theory can reverse its sign for a multipole resonance mode. This determines two different waveguiding dispersion curves in the same frequency range, experimentally confirmed by matching Bloch wavevectors and frequencies in the CROW. Our study supplements and extends the original CROW theory, and may find novel use in functional photonic systems.
Optical Twist Induced by Plasmonic Resonance
Chen, Jun; Wang, Neng; Cui, Liyong; Li, Xiao; Lin, Zhifang; Ng, Jack
2016-06-01
Harvesting light for optical torque is of significant importance, owing to its ability to rotate nano- or micro-objects. Nevertheless, applying a strong optical torque remains a challenging task: angular momentum must conserve but light is limited. A simple argument shows the tendency for two objects with strong mutual scattering or light exchange to exhibit a conspicuously enhanced optical torque without large extinction or absorption cross section. The torque on each object is almost equal but opposite, which we called optical twist. The effect is quite significant for plasmonic particle cluster, but can also be observed in structures with other morphologies. Such approach exhibits an unprecedentedly large torque to light extinction or absorption ratio, enabling limited light to exert a relatively large torque without severe heating. Our work contributes to the understanding of optical torque and introduces a novel way to manipulate the internal degrees of freedom of a structured particle cluster.
Optical Torque from Enhanced Scattering by Multipolar Plasmonic Resonance
Lee, Yoonkyung E; Jin, Dafei; Fang, Nicholas
2014-01-01
We present a theoretical study of the optical angular momentum transfer from a circularly polarized plane wave to thin metal nanoparticles of different rotational symmetries. While absorption has been regarded as the predominant mechanism of torque generation on the nanoscale, we demonstrate numerically how the contribution from scattering can be enhanced by using multipolar plasmon resonance. The multipolar modes in non-circular particles can convert the angular momentum carried by the scattered field, thereby producing scattering-dominant optical torque, while a circularly symmetric particle cannot. Our results show that the optical torque induced by resonant scattering can contribute to 80% of the total optical torque in gold particles. This scattering-dominant torque generation is extremely mode-specific, and deserves to be distinguished from the absorption-dominant mechanism. Our findings might have applications in optical manipulation on the nanoscale as well as new designs in plasmonics and metamateria...
On the interrelation of divergence, flutter and auto-parametric resonance.
Herrmann, G.; Hauger, W.
1973-01-01
The dependence between static instability and kinetic instability (flutter) on autoparameteric resonance is studied by taking compressibility into account in a model of a cantilever beam under the action of a follower force. It is shown that both instabilities are formally special cases of instabilities known as subharmonic and combination resonances.
Enhanced optical absorption and electric field resonance in diabolo metal bar optical antennas.
Pan, Zeyu; Guo, Junpeng
2013-12-30
Resonance behaviors of the fundamental resonance mode of diabolo metal bar optical antennas are investigated by using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical simulations and a dipole oscillator model. It is found that as the waist of the diabolo metal bar optical antenna is reduced, optical energy absorption cross section and near field enhancement at resonance increase significantly. Also reduction of the diabolo waist width causes red-shift of the resonant wavelengths in the spectra of absorption cross-section, scattering cross-section, and the near electric field. A dipole oscillator model including the self-inductance force is used to fit the FDTD numerical simulation results. The dipole oscillator model characterizes well the resonance behaviors of narrow waist diabolo metal bar optical antennas.
2010-07-27
noise performance, optical gain bandwidth, and power efficiency. An interesting alternative to the mature Erbium-doped fiber amplifier ( EDFA ) is the...fibers (HNLF) and high power booster EDFAs . The FOPA can provide a very wide gain bandwidth [2], very high gain (70 dB was demonstrated in [3]), and...amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise in EDFAs is also generated. It is sometimes referred to as amplified quantum noise. Maximum gain (at the gain
Guo, Xueshi; Li, Xiaoying; Liu, Nannan; Ou, Z Y
2016-07-26
One of the important functions in a communication network is the distribution of information. It is not a problem to accomplish this in a classical system since classical information can be copied at will. However, challenges arise in quantum system because extra quantum noise is often added when the information content of a quantum state is distributed to various users. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a quantum information tap by using a fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) with correlated inputs, whose noise is reduced by the destructive quantum interference through quantum entanglement between the signal and the idler input fields. By measuring the noise figure of the FOPA and comparing with a regular FOPA, we observe an improvement of 0.7 ± 0.1 dB and 0.84 ± 0.09 dB from the signal and idler outputs, respectively. When the low noise FOPA functions as an information splitter, the device has a total information transfer coefficient of Ts+Ti = 1.5 ± 0.2, which is greater than the classical limit of 1. Moreover, this fiber based device works at the 1550 nm telecom band, so it is compatible with the current fiber-optical network for quantum information distribution.
Guo, Xueshi; Li, Xiaoying; Liu, Nannan; Ou, Z. Y.
2016-07-01
One of the important functions in a communication network is the distribution of information. It is not a problem to accomplish this in a classical system since classical information can be copied at will. However, challenges arise in quantum system because extra quantum noise is often added when the information content of a quantum state is distributed to various users. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a quantum information tap by using a fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) with correlated inputs, whose noise is reduced by the destructive quantum interference through quantum entanglement between the signal and the idler input fields. By measuring the noise figure of the FOPA and comparing with a regular FOPA, we observe an improvement of 0.7 ± 0.1 dB and 0.84 ± 0.09 dB from the signal and idler outputs, respectively. When the low noise FOPA functions as an information splitter, the device has a total information transfer coefficient of Ts+Ti = 1.5 ± 0.2, which is greater than the classical limit of 1. Moreover, this fiber based device works at the 1550 nm telecom band, so it is compatible with the current fiber-optical network for quantum information distribution.
Large-scale Ising spin network based on degenerate optical parametric oscillators
Inagaki, Takahiro; Inaba, Kensuke; Hamerly, Ryan; Inoue, Kyo; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Takesue, Hiroki
2016-06-01
Solving combinatorial optimization problems is becoming increasingly important in modern society, where the analysis and optimization of unprecedentedly complex systems are required. Many such problems can be mapped onto the ground-state-search problem of the Ising Hamiltonian, and simulating the Ising spins with physical systems is now emerging as a promising approach for tackling such problems. Here, we report a large-scale network of artificial spins based on degenerate optical parametric oscillators (DOPOs), paving the way towards a photonic Ising machine capable of solving difficult combinatorial optimization problems. We generate >10,000 time-division-multiplexed DOPOs using dual-pump four-wave mixing in a highly nonlinear fibre placed in a cavity. Using those DOPOs, a one-dimensional Ising model is simulated by introducing nearest-neighbour optical coupling. We observe the formation of spin domains and find that the domain size diverges near the DOPO threshold, which suggests that the DOPO network can simulate the behaviour of low-temperature Ising spins.
Chen, Haixia; Zhang, Yiqi; Yao, Xin; Wu, Zhenkun; Zhang, Xun; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min
2014-01-01
We report experimental studies of bright-state polaritons of four-wave mixing (FWM) and six-wave mixing (SWM) signals through cascade nonlinear optical parametric amplification processes in an atom-cavity composite system for the first time. Also, the coexisting cavity transmission modes of parametrically amplified FWM and SWM signals are observed. Finally, electromagnetically induced absorption by the FWM cavity modes in the probe beam is investigated. The investigations can find potential applications in multi-channel narrow-band long-distance quantum communication. PMID:24401795
Optical cavity coupled surface plasmon resonance sensing for enhanced sensitivity
Zheng Zheng; Xin Zhao; Jinsong Zhu; Jim Diamond
2008-01-01
A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing system based on the optical cavity enhanced detection tech-nique is experimentally demonstrated. A fiber-optic laser cavity is built with a SPR sensor inside. By measuring the laser output power when the cavity is biased near the threshold point, the sensitivity, defined as the dependence of the output optical intensity on the sample variations, can be increased by about one order of magnitude compared to that of the SPR sensor alone under the intensity interrogation scheme. This could facilitate ultra-high sensitivity SPR biosensing applications. Further system miniaturization is possible by using integrated optical components and waveguide SPR sensors.
Optical chiral metamaterial based on the resonant behaviour of nanodiscs
Kordi, Mahdi; Mojtaba Mirsalehi, Mir
2016-08-01
Circular dichorism and optical activity have been achieved by chiral metamaterials in the optical spectrum, but for the case of negative index of refraction, remarkable achievements have not been obtained in this region so far. We employ nanoparticles to shift the resonant frequency of a chiral metamaterial based on twisted cross wires to optical domain. Our proposed structure provides giant optical activity, strong circular dichorism and also negative refractive index in the optical wavelengths. Optical activity in our structure has a rotary power similar to a gyrotropic crystal of quartz, but in a thickness which is four orders of magnitude smaller. The foundation of our method for realizing such an optical chiral metamaterial is based on creating a different coupling between longitudinal modes of localized surface plasmons for right and left circularly polarized incident waves.
Optical resonance problem in metamaterial arrays: a lattice dynamics approach
Liu, Wanguo
2016-11-01
A systematic dynamic theory is established to deal with the optical collective resonance in metamaterial arrays. As a reference model, we consider an infinite split ring resonator (SRR) array illuminated by a linearly polarized wave and introduce an N-degree-of-freedom forced oscillator equation to simplify the coupled-mode vibration problem. We derive a strict formula of resonance frequency (RF) and its adjustable range from the steady-state response. Unlike a single SRR possesses invariant RF, it successfully explains the mechanism of RF shift effect in the SRR array when the incident angle changes. Instead of full wave analysis, only one or two adjacent resonance modes can give an accurate response line shape. Our approach is applicable for metallic arrays with any N-particle cell at all incident angles and well matched with numerical results. It provides a versatile way to study the vibration dynamics in optical periodic many-body systems.
Micro--structured crystalline resonators for optical frequency comb generation
Grudinin, Ivan S
2014-01-01
Optical frequency combs have recently been demonstrated in micro--resonators through nonlinear Kerr processes. Investigations in the past few years provided better understanding of micro--combs and showed that spectral span and mode locking are governed by cavity spectrum and dispersion. While various cavities provide unique advantages, dispersion engineering has been reported only for planar waveguides. In this Letter, we report a resonator design that combines dispersion control, mode crossing free spectrum, and ultra--high quality factor. We experimentally show that as the dispersion of a MgF2 resonator is flattened, the comb span increases reaching 700 nm with as low as 60 mW pump power at 1560 nm wavelength, corresponding to nearly 2000 lines separated by 46 GHz. The new resonator design may enable efficient low repetition rate coherent octave spanning frequency combs without the need for external broadening, ideal for applications in optical frequency synthesis, metrology, spectroscopy, and communicatio...
Parametric decay of plasma waves near the upper-hybrid resonance
Dodin, I. Y.; Arefiev, A. V.
2017-03-01
An intense X wave propagating perpendicularly to dc magnetic field is unstable with respect to a parametric decay into an electron Bernstein wave and a lower-hybrid wave. A modified theory of this effect is proposed that extends to the high-intensity regime, where the instability rate γ ceases to be a linear function of the incident-wave amplitude. An explicit formula for γ is derived and expressed in terms of cold-plasma parameters. Theory predictions are in reasonable agreement with the results of the particle-in-cell simulations presented in a separate publication.
Pham, Trang Thanh; Liney, Gary; Wong, Karen; Rai, Robba; Lee, Mark; Moses, Daniel; Henderson, Christopher; Lin, Michael; Shin, Joo-Shik; Barton, Michael Bernard
2017-07-04
Response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) of rectal cancer is variable. Accurate imaging for prediction and early assessment of response would enable appropriate stratification of management to reduce treatment morbidity and improve therapeutic outcomes. Use of either diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) or dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) imaging alone currently lacks sufficient sensitivity and specificity for clinical use to guide individualized treatment in rectal cancer. Multi-parametric MRI and analysis combining DWI and DCE may have potential to improve the accuracy of therapeutic response prediction and assessment. This protocol describes a prospective non-interventional single-arm clinical study. Patients with locally advanced rectal cancer undergoing preoperative CRT will prospectively undergo multi-parametric MRI pre-CRT, week 3 CRT, and post-CRT. The protocol consists of DWI using a read-out segmented sequence (RESOLVE), and DCE with pre-contrast T1-weighted (VIBE) scans for T1 calculation, followed by 60 phases at high temporal resolution (TWIST) after gadoversetamide injection. A 3-dimensional voxel-by-voxel technique will be used to produce colour-coded ADC and K(trans) histograms, and data evaluated in combination using scatter plots. MRI parameters will be correlated with surgical histopathology. Histopathology analysis will be standardized, with chemoradiotherapy response defined according to AJCC 7th Edition Tumour Regression Grade (TRG) criteria. Good response will be defined as TRG 0-1, and poor response will be defined as TRG 2-3. The combination of DWI and DCE can provide information on physiological tumour factors such as cellularity and perfusion that may affect radiotherapy response. If validated, multi-parametric MRI combining DWI and DCE can be used to stratify management in rectal cancer patients. Accurate imaging prediction of patients with a complete response to CRT would enable a 'watch and wait' approach, avoiding surgical morbidity
冯志华; 胡海岩
2003-01-01
A set of nonlinear differential equations is established by using Kane's method for the planar oscillation of flexible beams undergoing a large linear motion. In the case of a simply supported slender beam under certain average acceleration of base, the second natural frequency of the beam may approximate the tripled first one so that the condition of 3: i internal resonance of the beam holds true. The method of multiple scales is used to solve directly the nonlinear differential equations and to derive a set of nonlinear modulation equations for the principal parametric resonance of the first mode combined with 3: 1 internal resonance between the first two modes. Then, the modulation equations are numerically solved to obtain the steady-state response and the stability condition of the beam. The abundant nonlinear dynamic behaviors, such as various types of local bifurcations and chaos that do not appear for linear models, can be observed in the case studies. For a Hopf bifurcation,the 4-dimensional modulation equations are reduced onto the central manifold and the type of Hopf bifurcation is determined. As usual, a limit cycle may undergo a series of period-doubling bifurcations and become a chaotic oscillation at last.
Jia, Jemianne Bautista; Houshyar, Roozbeh; Verma, Sadhna; Uchio, Edward; Lall, Chandana
2016-01-01
Multi-parametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the current imaging standard for detection and staging of prostate cancer. The combination of anatomical and functional imaging provided in this exam significantly increases the accuracy of prostate cancer detection. Computed tomography (CT) imaging has so far been found to be lacking in this regard, however observations at our academic institution as well as evidence present in the literature support the proposition that CT could indeed be helpful in detecting prostate abnormalities that correspond to neoplasm. The purpose of this study was to prove that areas of focal mass-like enhancement on CT imaging directly correlate with prostate neoplasms as revealed on multi-parametric MRI and follow-up targeted biopsy. This was a single institution retrospective study with 27 male subjects. Inclusion criteria required subjects to have a multi-parametric MRI of the prostate between January 1, 2014 and June 1, 2015 and a pelvic venous phase contrast-enhanced CT study between January 1, 2000 and June 1, 2015. Two blinded Radiologists read subjects' CT scans for any abnormalities of the prostate. CT and multi-parametric MRI results were compared and were considered concordant if focal or mass like enhancement to a greater degree than the background parenchyma was detected in the same areas of the prostate on CT scan as areas of decreased T2 signal, perfusion abnormalities, and restricted diffusion on multi-parametric MRI. CT results were directly compared to multi-parametric MRI findings and biopsy results. The overall agreement of MRI and CT is 85.19% (95% CI: 67.52-94.08%). The positive percent agreement is 78.95% (95% CI: 54.43-93.95%) and the negative percent agreement is 100.0% (95% CL: 63.06-100.0%). When CT results are directly compared to biopsy results, sensitivity and specificity of CT are 63.64% (95% CI: 30.79-89.07%) and 100.0% (95% CI: 47.82-100.0%). The positive predictive value (PPV) is
Chikh-Touami, Hocine; Kremer, Régis; Lee, Hsin-Jung; Lee, Min Won; Peng, Lung-Han; Boudrioua, Azzedine
2017-06-01
We investigated angle-resolved optical parametric generation (OPG) in 2D periodically poled lithium tantalate (PPLT) with a 8.52 μm square lattice structure. Substantial parametric gain was observed at two specific incident angles of {0.8}\\circ and {1.6}\\circ , with the signal/idler wave propagating collinearly/non-collinearly to a 532 nm pump. These phenomena are due to simultaneous quasi-phase-matching OPG processes involved contribution from the reciprocal lattice vectors of ({{K}}{1,{0}} and {{K}}{1,{1}}) or ({{K}}{1,{0}} and {{K}}{1,{2}}), respectively. These configurations raise the parametric gain to comparable to that of the 1D QPM structure.
Experimental study of resonance fiber optic gyroscope employing a dual-ring resonator
Fan, Yue; Wang, Wei
2016-09-01
A dual-ring resonator which is available to alter the full width at half maximum (FWHM) without altering the free spectrum range (FSR) for practice applications is analyzed theoretically and set up in practice. The parameters of the dual-ring resonator have been optimized in simulation, the resonance depth and the dynamic range are enhanced. The prototype is set up with single mode fiber of 8 meter and two 95 : 5 couplers for open loop experiment. The FWHM of the dual-ring resonator is demonstrated less than 1.5MHz and the fineness is calculated to be 37 during the frequency sweeping experiment. The frequency locking experiment with demodulation curve method has been accomplished, and the locking time achieves less than 40ms. All these provide a basic reference for optimizing the resonance fiber optic gyro based on dual-ring resonator.
Optical Leaky-Wave Antenna Integrated in Ring Resonator
Guclu, Caner; Boyraz, Ozdal; Capolino, Filippo
2014-01-01
A leaky-wave antenna at optical frequencies is designed and integrated with a ring resonator at 1550 nm wavelength. The leaky wave is generated by using periodic perturbations in the integrated dielectric waveguide that excite the -1 spatial harmonic. The antenna consists of a dielectric waveguides with semiconductor corrugations, and it is compatible with CMOS fabrication technology. We show that integrating the leaky wave antenna in an optical ring resonator that is fed by directional couplers, we can improve the electronic control of the radiation through carrier injection into the semiconductor corrugations.
Optical Kerr Frequency Comb Generation in Overmoded Resonators
Matsko, A B; Liang, W; Ilchenko, V S; Seidel, D; Maleki, L
2012-01-01
We show that scattering-based interaction among nearly degenerate optical modes is the key factor in low threshold generation of Kerr frequency combs in nonlinear optical resonators possessing small group velocity dispersion (GVD). The mode interaction is capable of producing drastic change in the local GVD, resulting in either a significant reduction or increase of the oscillation threshold. It is also responsible for the majority of observed combs in resonators characterized with large normal GVD. We present results of our numerical simulations as well as supporting experimental data.
Elkjær, Maria; Pedersen, Bodil Ginnerup; Høyer, Søren
2015-01-01
Introduction and Objectives: Pathological examination of the extracted prostate after radical prostatectomy often reveals that trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) and TRUS-guided biopsy (TRUS-bx) underestimated the tumor’s true size and aggressiveness. This clinical problem seems to defy a satisfactory...... solution to the dilemma of whether to enroll patients in active surveillance (AS) or to offer the patient active treatment. We present the preliminary results of an on-going trial in which we investigate if multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate detects significant prostate...... cancer (PC) better than TRUS and TRUS-bx, and if we may in this way make selection of patients for active surveillance safer. Materials and Methods: From November 2014 patients enrolled in an AS program at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, were offered an mpMRI 8 weeks after TRUS-bx. All patients were...
Capture into resonance and phase space dynamics in optical centrifuge
Armon, Tsafrir
2016-01-01
The process of capture of a molecular enesemble into rotational resonance in the optical centrifuge is investigated. The adiabaticity and phase space incompressibility are used to find the resonant capture probability in terms of two dimensionless parameters P1,P2 characterising the driving strength and the nonlinearity, and related to three characteristic time scales in the problem. The analysis is based on the transformation to action-angle variables and the single resonance approximation, yielding reduction of the three-dimensional rotation problem to one degree of freedom. The analytic results for capture probability are in a good agreement with simulations. The existing experiments satisfy the validity conditions of the theory.
Asher, R.B.; Bliss, D.E.; Cameron, S.M.; Hamil, R.A.
1998-10-14
The development of unconventional active optical sensors to remotely detect and spatially resolve suspected threats obscured by low-visibility observation conditions (adverse weather, clouds, dust, smoke, precipitation, etc.) is fundamental to maintaining tactical supremacy in the battlespace. In this report, the authors describe an innovative frequency-agile image intensifier technology based on time-gated optical parametic amplification (OPA) for enhanced light-based remote sensing through pervasive scattering and/or turbulent environments. Improved dynamic range characteristics derived from the amplified passband of the OPA receiver combined with temporal discrimination in the image capture process will offset radiant power extinction losses, while defeating the deugradative effects & multipath dispersion and ,diffuse backscatter noise along the line-of-sight on resultant image contrast and range resolution. Our approach extends the operational utility of the detection channel in existing laser radar systems by increasing sensitivity to low-level target reffectivities, adding ballistic rejection of scatter and clutter in the range coordinate, and introducing multispectral and polarization discrimination capability in a wavelen~h-tunable, high gain nonlinear optical component with strong potential for source miniaturization. A key advantage of integrating amplification and tlequency up-conversion functions within a phasematched three-wave mixing parametric device is the ability to petiorm background-free imaging with eye-safe or longer inilared illumination wavelengths (idler) less susceptible to scatter without sacrificing quantum efficiency in the detection process at the corresponding signal wavelength. We report benchmark laboratory experiments in which the OPA gating process has been successfidly demonstrated in both transillumination and reflection test geometries with extended pathlengths representative of realistic coastal sea water and cumulus cloud
Applications of Optical Microcavity Resonators in Analytical Chemistry.
Wade, James H; Bailey, Ryan C
2016-06-12
Optical resonator sensors are an emerging class of analytical technologies that use recirculating light confined within a microcavity to sensitively measure the surrounding environment. Bolstered by advances in microfabrication, these devices can be configured for a wide variety of chemical or biomolecular sensing applications. We begin with a brief description of optical resonator sensor operation, followed by discussions regarding sensor design, including different geometries, choices of material systems, methods of sensor interrogation, and new approaches to sensor operation. Throughout, key developments are highlighted, including advancements in biosensing and other applications of optical sensors. We discuss the potential of alternative sensing mechanisms and hybrid sensing devices for more sensitive and rapid analyses. We conclude with our perspective on the future of optical microcavity sensors and their promise as versatile detection elements within analytical chemistry.
Yovel, Oren S; Katz, Miriam; Leiba, Hana
2012-09-01
A 49-year-old woman with painless reduction in visual acuity in her left eye was found to have nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Fluorescein angiography revealed optic disc capillary leakage consistent with "luxury perfusion." Contrast-enhanced FLAIR magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed marked enhancement of the left optic disc. Resolution of the optic disc edema and the MRI abnormalities followed a similar time course. This report appears unique in documenting the MRI findings of luxury perfusion in NAION.
Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance
Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.
2007-12-11
The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.
Squeezing Alters Frequency Tuning of WGM Optical Resonator
Mohageg, Makan; Maleki, Lute
2010-01-01
Mechanical squeezing has been found to alter the frequency tuning of a whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonator that has an elliptical shape and is made of lithium niobate. It may be possible to exploit this effect to design reconfigurable optical filters for optical communications and for scientific experiments involving quantum electrodynamics. Some background information is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the squeezing-induced alteration of frequency tuning: The spectrum of a WGM resonator is represented by a comblike plot of intensity versus frequency. Each peak of the comblike plot corresponds to an electromagnetic mode represented by an integer mode number, and the modes are grouped into sets represented by integer mode indices. Because lithium niobate is an electro-optically active material, the WGM resonator can be tuned (that is, the resonance frequencies can be shifted) by applying a suitable bias potential. The frequency shift of each mode is quantified by a tuning rate defined as the ratio between the frequency shift and the applied potential. In the absence of squeezing, all modes exhibit the same tuning rate. This concludes the background information. It has been demonstrated experimentally that when the resonator is squeezed along part of either of its two principal axes, tuning rates differ among the groups of modes represented by different indices (see figure). The differences in tuning rates could be utilized to configure the resonance spectrum to obtain a desired effect; for example, through a combination of squeezing and electrical biasing, two resonances represented by different mode indices could be set at a specified frequency difference something that could not be done through electrical biasing alone.
Critical Coupling Between Optical Fibers and WGM Resonators
Matsko, Andrey; Maleki, Lute; Itchenko, Vladimir; Savchenkov, Anatoliy
2009-01-01
Two recipes for ensuring critical coupling between a single-mode optical fiber and a whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonator have been devised. The recipes provide for phase matching and aperture matching, both of which are necessary for efficient coupling. There is also a provision for suppressing intermodal coupling, which is detrimental because it drains energy from desired modes into undesired ones. According to one recipe, the tip of the single-mode optical fiber is either tapered in diameter or tapered in effective diameter by virtue of being cleaved at an oblique angle. The effective index of refraction and the phase velocity at a given position along the taper depend on the diameter (or effective diameter) and the index of refraction of the bulk fiber material. As the diameter (or effective diameter) decreases with decreasing distance from the tip, the effective index of refraction also decreases. Critical coupling and phase matching can be achieved by placing the optical fiber and the resonator in contact at the proper point along the taper. This recipe is subject to the limitation that the attainable effective index of refraction lies between the indices of refraction of the bulk fiber material and the atmosphere or vacuum to which the resonator and fiber are exposed. The other recipe involves a refinement of the previously developed technique of prism coupling, in which the light beam from the optical fiber is collimated and focused onto one surface of a prism that has an index of refraction greater than that of the resonator. Another surface of the prism is placed in contact with the resonator. The various components are arranged so that the collimated beam is focused at the prism/resonator contact spot. The recipe includes the following additional provisions:
Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Kato, Takumi; Harada, Ken-Ichi; Takesue, Hiroki; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Taniyama, Hideaki; Notomi, Masaya
2011-10-10
We demonstrate highly enhanced optical nonlinearity in a coupled-resonator optical waveguide (CROW) in a four-wave mixing experiment. Using a CROW consisting of 200 coupled resonators based on width-modulated photonic crystal nanocavities in a line defect, we obtained an effective nonlinear constant exceeding 10,000 /W/m, thanks to slow light propagation combined with a strong spatial confinement of light achieved by the wavelength-sized cavities.
Massively parallel dual-comb molecular detection with subharmonic optical parametric oscillators
Smolski, Viktor O; Xu, Jia; Vodopyanov, Konstantin L
2016-01-01
Mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy offers unparalleled sensitivity for the detection of trace gases, solids and liquids, which is based on the existence of strong telltale vibrational bands in this part of the spectrum. It was shown more than a decade ago that a dual-comb Fourier spectroscopy could provide superior spectral coverage combined with high resolution and extremely fast data acquisition. Capabilities of this method were limited because of difficulty of producing twins of mutually coherent frequency combs in the mid- IR. Here we report a phase-coherent and broadband dual-comb system that is based on a pair of subharmonic (frequency-divide-by-two) optical parametric oscillators, pumped in turn by two phase-locked thulium fiber lasers at 2-micron wavelength. We demonstrate simultaneous detection of multiple molecular species in the whole band of 3.2-5.3 microns (frequency span 1200 cm^{-1}) augmented by the pump laser band of 1.85-2 microns (span 400 cm^{-1}), with spectral resolution 0.01-0.07 cm^{-1...
Hong, Zuofei; Zhang, Qingbin; Lu, Peixiang
2013-04-22
A novel compact dual-crystal optical parametric amplification (DOPA) scheme, collinearly pumped by a Ti:sapphire laser (0.8 μm), is theoretically investigated for efficiently generating broadband IR pulses at non-degenerate wavelengths (1.2 μm~1.4 μm and 1.8 μm~2.1 μm). By inserting a pair of barium fluoride (BaF(2)) wedges between two thin β-barium borate (BBO) crystals, the group velocity mismatch (GVM) between the three interacting pulses can be compensated simultaneously. In this case, the obtained signal spectrum centered at 1.3 μm is nearly 20% broader and the conversion efficiency is increased, but also the pulse contrast and beam quality are improved due to the better temporal overlap. Furthermore, sub-two-cycle idler pulses with carrier-envelope phase (CEP) fluctuation of sub-100-mrad root mean square (RMS) can be generated. Because a tunable few-cycle IR pulse with millijoule energy is attainable in this scheme, it will contribute to ultrafast community and be particularly useful as a driving or controlling field for the generation of ultrafast coherent x-ray supercontinuum.
Multi-gigahertz, femtosecond Airy beam optical parametric oscillator pumped at 78 MHz
Aadhi, A.; Sharma, Varun; Chaitanya, N. Apurv; Samanta, G. K.
2017-01-01
We report a high power ultrafast Airy beam source producing femtosecond pulses at multi-gigahertz (GHz) repetition rate (RR). Based on intra-cavity cubic phase modulation of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) designed in high harmonic cavity configuration synchronous to a femtosecond Yb-fiber laser operating at 78 MHz, we have produced ultrafast 2D Airy beam at multi-GHz repetition rate through the fractional increment in the cavity length. While small (Magnesium-oxide doped periodically poled LiNbO3 (MgO:PPLN) crystal for efficient generation of ultrafast Airy beam and broadband mid-IR radiation. Pumping the MgO:PPLN crystal of grating period, Λ = 30 μm and crystal temperature, T = 100 °C using a 5-W femtosecond laser centred at 1064 nm, we have produced Airy beam radiation of 684 mW in ~639 fs (transform limited) pulses at 1525 nm at a RR of ~2.5 GHz. Additionally, the source produces broadband idler radiation with maximum power of 510 mW and 94 nm bandwidth at 3548 nm in Gaussian beam profile. Using an indirect method (change in cavity length) we estimate maximum RR of the Airy beam source to be ~100 GHz. PMID:28262823
Fiber-laser-based green-pumped picosecond MgO:sPPLT optical parametric oscillator.
Chaitanya Kumar, S; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M
2013-12-15
We report a stable, high-power, picosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) at 160 MHz repetition rate synchronously pumped by a frequency-doubled mode-locked Yb-fiber laser at 532 nm and tunable in the near-infrared, across 874-1008 nm (signal) and 1126-1359 nm (idler). Using a 30-mm-long MgO:sPPLT crystal, the OPO provides average output power up to 780 mW in the signal at 918.58 nm and 600 mW in the idler at 1242 nm. The device operates stably over many days, even close to degeneracy, exhibiting passive long-term power stability better than 1.8% rms in the signal and 2.4% rms in the idler over 2.5 h at a temperature of 55°C. We investigate spectral and temporal characteristics of the signal pulses under different conditions and demonstrate cavity-length tuning enabled by the dispersion properties of MgO:sPPLT. The output signal pulses have a duration of 2.4 ps at 967 nm.
Transmission Performance Analysis of Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers for WDM System
Xiaohong Jiang
2009-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical analysis is presented on the long-haul wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM transmission system employing fiber-optic parametric amplifier (FOPA cascades based on one-pump FOPA model with Raman Effect taken into account. The end-to-end equalization scheme is applied to optimize the system features in terms of proper output powers and signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs in all the channels. The numerical results show that—through adjusting the fiber spans along with the number of FOPAs as well as the channel powers at the terminals in a prescribed way—the transmission distance and system performance can be optimized. By comparing the results generated by different lengths of fiber span, we come to the optimal span length to achieve the best transmission performance. Furthermore, we make a comparison among the long-haul WDM transmission systems employing different inline amplifiers, namely, FOPA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA, and Fiber Raman Amplifier (FRA. FOPA demonstrates its advantage over the other two in terms of system features.
Tunable High Harmonic Generation driven by a Visible Optical Parametric Amplifier
Cirmi, G.; Lai, C.-J.; Huang, S.-W.; Granados, E.; Sell, A.; Moses, J.; Hong, K.-H.; Keathley, P.; Kärtner, F. X.
2013-03-01
We studied high-harmonic generation (HHG) in Ar, Ne and He gas jets using a broadly tunable, high-energy optical parametric amplifier (OPA) in the visible wavelength range. We optimized the noncollinear OPA to deliver tunable, femtosecond pulses with 200-500 μJ energy at 1-kHz repetition rate with excellent spatiotemporal properties, suitable for HHG experiments. By tuning the central wavelength of the OPA while keeping energy, duration and beam size constant, we experimentally studied the scaling law of conversion efficiency and cut-off energy with the driver wavelength in argon and helium respectively. Our measurements show a λ-5.9±0.9 wavelength dependence of the conversion efficiency and a λ1.7±0.2 dependence of the HHG cut-off photon energy over the full visible range in agreement with previous experiments of near- and mid-IR wavelengths. By tuning the central wavelength of the driver source and changing the gas, the high order harmonic spectra in the extreme ultraviolet cover the full range of photon energy between ~25 eV and ~100 eV. Due to the high coherence intrinsic in HHG, as well as the broad and continuous tunability in the extreme UV range, a high energy, high repetition rate version of this source might be an ideal seed for free electron lasers.
Tunable High Harmonic Generation driven by a Visible Optical Parametric Amplifier
Keathley P.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available We studied high-harmonic generation (HHG in Ar, Ne and He gas jets using a broadly tunable, high-energy optical parametric amplifier (OPA in the visible wavelength range. We optimized the noncollinear OPA to deliver tunable, femtosecond pulses with 200-500 μJ energy at 1-kHz repetition rate with excellent spatiotemporal properties, suitable for HHG experiments. By tuning the central wavelength of the OPA while keeping energy, duration and beam size constant, we experimentally studied the scaling law of conversion efficiency and cut-off energy with the driver wavelength in argon and helium respectively. Our measurements show a λ−5.9±0.9 wavelength dependence of the conversion efficiency and a λ1.7±0.2 dependence of the HHG cut-off photon energy over the full visible range in agreement with previous experiments of near- and mid-IR wavelengths. By tuning the central wavelength of the driver source and changing the gas, the high order harmonic spectra in the extreme ultraviolet cover the full range of photon energy between ~25 eV and ~100 eV. Due to the high coherence intrinsic in HHG, as well as the broad and continuous tunability in the extreme UV range, a high energy, high repetition rate version of this source might be an ideal seed for free electron lasers.
Light squeezing in optical parametric ampliﬁcation beyond the slowly-varying amplitude approximation
M Hosseini Farzad
2012-04-01
Optical parametric ampliﬁcation (OPA) described usually by the coupled-wave equations with the ﬁrst-order derivatives of the signal and idler waves, is solved under the slowly-varying amplitude approximation (SVA). In this article, by keeping the second-order derivatives in the coupled-wave equations, we obtained an analytical solution for the output signal and idler waves up to the ﬁrst order of (/)1; the ratio of coupling constant to the wave number. Furthermore, here the signal and the idler waves are distinguished only by their polarizations with the same frequency. Light squeezing is observed in normally ordered variances of the two quadrature operators of the output combined mode when plotted against , where is the coupling constant and the interaction length. The variances have different signs for a range of values of and their variations are in opposite directions. We also show that this property is strongly dependent on the relative refractive index of the medium (). It is worth mentioning that the relative index dependency is not an explicit feature in squeezing of OPA under SVA approximation. Furthermore, the squeezing vanishes when → 1 and / → 0.
Rueda, Alfredo; Collodo, Michele C; Vogl, Ulrich; Stiller, Birgit; Schunk, Gerhard; Strekalov, Dmitry V; Marquardt, Christoph; Fink, Johannes M; Painter, Oskar; Leuchs, Gerd; Schwefel, Harald G L
2016-01-01
Linking classical microwave electrical circuits to the optical telecommunication band is at the core of modern communication. Future quantum information networks will require coherent microwave-to-optical conversion to link electronic quantum processors and memories via low-loss optical telecommunication networks. Efficient conversion can be achieved with electro-optical modulators operating at the single microwave photon level. In the standard electro-optic modulation scheme this is impossible because both, up- and downconverted, sidebands are necessarily present. Here we demonstrate true single sideband up- or downconversion in a triply resonant whispering gallery mode resonator by explicitly addressing modes with asymmetric free spectral range. Compared to previous experiments, we show a three orders of magnitude improvement of the electro-optical conversion efficiency reaching 0.1% photon number conversion for a 10GHz microwave tone at 0.42mW of optical pump power. The presented scheme is fully compatible...
Reflective Optical Limiter Based on Resonant Transmission
Makri, Eleana; Vitebskiy, Ilya
2014-01-01
Optical limiters transmit low-level radiation while blocking electromagnetic pulses with excessively high energy (energy limiters) or with excessively high peak intensity (power limiters). A typical optical limiter absorbs most of the high-level radiation which can cause its destruction via overheating. Here we introduce the novel concept of a reflective energy limiter which blocks electromagnetic pulses with excessively high total energy by reflecting them back to space, rather than absorbing them. The idea is to use a defect layer with temperature dependent loss tangent embedded in a low-loss photonic structure. The low energy pulses with central frequency close to that of the localized defect mode will pass through. But if the cumulative energy carried by the pulse exceeds certain level, the entire photonic structure reflects the incident light (and does not absorb it!) for a broad frequency window. The underlying physical mechanism is based on self-regulated impedance mismatch which increases dramatically...
Hamiltonian optics formalism for microring resonator structures with varying ring resonances.
Sun, Xiaolan; Yang, Zhenshan; Liu, Xiaohong; Li, Chao; Dong, Yanhua; Xie, Libin; Sipe, J E
2011-04-11
We develop a Hamiltonian optics formalism to quantitatively analyze a recently proposed scheme for increasing the delay-time-bandwidth product for microring resonator structures with varying ring resonances [Yang and Sipe, Opt. Lett. 32, 918 (2007)]. This theory is formally compact, simple and physically intuitive. We compare this formalism with the more rigorous transfer matrix method, and conclude that the Hamiltonian optics formalism correctly gives the average dispersion, which essentially determines the group delay as well as the dispersive distortion for pulses in the ps regime or longer.
Reconfigurable Optical Spectra from Perturbations on Elliptical Whispering Gallery Resonances
Mohageg, Makan; Maleki, Lute
2008-01-01
Elastic strain, electrical bias, and localized geometric deformations were applied to elliptical whispering-gallery-mode resonators fabricated with lithium niobate. The resultant perturbation of the mode spectrum is highly dependant on the modal indices, resulting in a discretely reconfigurable optical spectrum. Breaking of the spatial degeneracy of the whispering-gallery modes due to perturbation is also observed.
Optical Phased Array Using Guided Resonance with Backside Reflectors
Horie, Yu (Inventor); Arbabi, Amir (Inventor); Faraon, Andrei (Inventor)
2016-01-01
Methods and systems for controlling the phase of electromagnetic waves are disclosed. A device can consist of a guided resonance grating layer, a spacer, and a reflector. A plurality of devices, arranged in a grid pattern, can control the phase of reflected electromagnetic phase, through refractive index control. Carrier injection, temperature control, and optical beams can be applied to control the refractive index.
Demonstration of a refractometric sensor based on optical microfiber resonator
2008-01-01
We experimentally demonstrated a refractometric sensor based on a coated optical microfiber coil resonator. It is robust, compact, and comprises an intrinsic fluidic channel. A sensitivity of about 40 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) has been measured, in agreement with predictions.
Chen, Jia Nen; Liu, Jun [Tianjin Key Laboratory of the Design and Intelligent Control of the Advanced Mechatronical System, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Wei; Yao, Ming Hui [College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing (China); Sun, Min [School of Science, Tianjin Chengjian University, Tianjin (China)
2016-09-15
Nonlinear vibrations of carbon fiber reinforced composite sandwich plate with pyramidal truss core are investigated. The governing equation of motion for the sandwich plate is derived by using a Zig-Zag theory under consideration of geometrically nonlinear. The natural frequencies of sandwich plates with different dimensions are calculated and compared with those obtained from the classic laminated plate theory and Reddy's third-order shear deformation plate theory. The frequency responses and waveforms of the sandwich plate when 1:3 internal resonance occurs are obtained, and the characteristics of the internal resonance are discussed. The influences of layer number of face sheet, strut radius, core height and inclination angle on the nonlinear responses of the sandwich plate are analyzed. The results demonstrate that the strut radius and inclination angle mainly affect the resonance frequency band of the sandwich plate, and the layer number and core height not only influence the resonance frequency band but also significantly affect the response amplitude.
Open-loop experiments of resonator micro-optic gyro
ZHANG Xu-lin; ZHOU Ke-jiang
2009-01-01
An open-loop resonator micro-optic gyro (R-MOG) with a 6 cm-long waveguide-type ring resonator is set up using the phase modulation spectroscopy technique. In the experiment, according to the test parameters of the resonator, the shot-noise-limited sensitivity is estimated to be 1.07×10-4 rad/s. From the test demodulation signal, the gyro dynamic range of ±7.0×103 rad/s is obtained. Using different phase modulation frequencies, the open-loop gyro output signal is observed when the equivalent gyro rotation is applied to the aconstic-optical modulators (AOMs). The sensitivity of the R-MOG can be increased by some countermeasures against system noise.
A modern Michelson-Morley experiment using ultrastable optical resonators
Peters, Achim
2005-05-01
This talk will describe a modern version of the classic Michelson-Morley experiment testing the isotropy of light propagation and thus the foundations of Special Relativity. The latest experimental setup employs of an assembly of orthogonal ultrastable optical resonators mounted inside a liquid Helium cryostat, which itself is actively rotated using a high performance air-supported turntable. The cavity resonance frequencies are continuously monitored using monolithic Nd:YAG lasers and analyzed for periodic modulations indicating violations of Lorentz-invariance. Compared to pervious experiments using cryogenic optical resonators (COREs), but relying solely on Earth's rotation, this new version is expected to lead to orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity to Lorentz-Invariance violation. We present the initial results of this experimental effort at the δc(θ)/c ˜ 10-16 level for an direction dependent variation of the speed of light and discuss the potential for future improvements.
Resonant state expansion applied to planar open optical systems
Doost, M B; Muljarov, E A
2011-01-01
The resonant state expansion (RSE), a novel perturbation theory of Brillouin-Wigner type developed in electrodynamics [Muljarov, Langbein, and Zimmermann, Europhys. Lett., 92, 50010(2010)], is applied to planar, effectively one-dimensional optical systems, such as layered dielectric slabs and Bragg reflector microcavities. It is demonstrated that the RSE converges with a power law in the basis size. Algorithms for error estimation and their reduction by extrapolation are presented and evaluated. Complex eigenfrequencies, electro-magnetic fields, and the Green's function of a selection of optical systems are calculated, as well as the observable transmission spectra. In particular we find that for a Bragg-mirror microcavity, which has sharp resonances in the spectrum, the transmission calculated using the resonant state expansion reproduces the result of the transfer/scattering matrix method.
Manzoni, C; Vozzi, C; Benedetti, E; Sansone, G; Stagira, S; Svelto, O; De Silvestri, S; Nisoli, M; Cerullo, G
2006-04-01
We produce ultrabroadband self-phase-stabilized near-IR pulses by a novel approach where a seed pulse, obtained by difference-frequency generation of a hollow-fiber broadened supercontinuum, is amplified by a two-stage optical parametric amplifier. Energies up to 20 microJ with a pulse spectrum extending from 1.2 to 1.6 microm are demonstrated, and a route for substantial energy scaling is indicated.
730-nm optical parametric conversion from near- to short-wave infrared band
Boggio, J.M.C.; Windmiller, J.R.; Knutzen, M.;
2008-01-01
A record 730 nm parametric conversion in silica fiber from the near-infrared to the short-wave infrared band is reported and analyzed. A parametric gain in excess of 30 dB was measured for a signal at 1300 nm (with corresponding idler at 2030 nm). This conversion was performed in a travelling...
WGM-Resonator/Tapered-Waveguide White-Light Sensor Optics
Stekalov, Dmitry; Maleki, Lute; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Iltchenko, Vladimir
2007-01-01
Theoretical and experimental investigations have demonstrated the feasibility of compact white-light sensor optics consisting of unitary combinations of (1) low-profile whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonators and (2) tapered rod optical waveguides. These sensors are highly wavelength-dispersive and are expected to be especially useful in biochemical applications for measuring absorption spectra of liquids. These sensor optics exploit the properties of a special class of non-diffracting light beams that are denoted Bessel beams because their amplitudes are proportional to Bessel functions of the radii from their central axes. High-order Bessel beams can have large values of angular momentum. In a sensor optic of this type, a low-profile WGM resonator that supports modes having large angular momenta is used to generate high-order Bessel beams. As used here, "low-profile" signifies that the WGM resonator is an integral part of the rod optical waveguide but has a radius slightly different from that of the adjacent part(s).
Xu, Hongyan; Yang, Feng; Chen, Ying; Liu, Ke; Du, Shifeng; Zong, Nan; Yang, Jing; Bo, Yong; Peng, Qinjun; Zhang, Jingyuan; Cui, Dafu; Xu, Zuyan
2015-03-20
A millijoule-level high pulse energy picosecond (ps) mid-infrared (MIR) optical parametric amplifier (OPA) at 3.9 μm based on large-aperture MgO-doped periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN) crystal was demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The MIR OPA was pumped by a 30 ps 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser at 10 Hz and injected by an energy-adjustable near-infrared seed based on a barium boron oxide (BBO) optical parametric generator/optical parametric amplifier (OPG/OPA) with double-pass geometry. Output energy of 1.14 mJ at 3.9 μm has been obtained at pump energy of 15.2 mJ. Furthermore, the performance of MIR OPG in MgO:PPLN was also investigated for comparing with the seeded OPA.
Time-dependent resonant magneto-optical rotation
Dziczek, Dariusz
2015-01-01
Results of a fairly straightforward experiment on resonant magneto-optical rotation by rubidium-87 atoms revealed strong time-dependence of the polarization plane of light emerging from atomic vapors following a sudden irradiation with a laser beam. The rotation of the plane appears as a not direct consequence of the influence of the magnetic field on atoms. Reported measurements conducted using a vapor cell without any buffer gas or an anti-relaxation wall coating show that transmitted light has initially the same (linear) polarization as the incident one. Rotation of the polarization plane caused by an axial magnetic field develops in time scales similar to the pace of establishing the optical pumping/relaxation equilibrium in the atomic ensemble. The traditional passive Faraday rotation picture providing working description for the resonant magneto-optical effects in steady-state conditions does not explain the observed sequence of evolution of the polarization. The picture has to be augmented with analysi...
Graphene photonics for resonator-enhanced electro-optic devices and all-optical interactions
Englund, Dirk R.; Gan, Xuetao
2017-03-21
Techniques for coupling light into graphene using a planar photonic crystal having a resonant cavity characterized by a mode volume and a quality factor and at least one graphene layer positioned in proximity to the planar photonic crystal to at least partially overlap with an evanescent field of the resonant cavity. At least one mode of the resonant cavity can couple into the graphene layer via evanescent coupling. The optical properties of the graphene layer can be controlled, and characteristics of the graphene-cavity system can be detected. Coupling light into graphene can include electro-optic modulation of light, photodetection, saturable absorption, bistability, and autocorrelation.
Optical-optical double-resonant multiphoton ionization spectra of Rydberg states of nitrogen dioxide
Zhang Gui-Yin; Zhang Lian-Shui; Sun Bo; Han Xiao-Feng; Yu Wei
2005-01-01
The optical-optical double-resonant multiphoton ionization(OODR-MPI) technique has been applied to the study of the Rydberg states of nitrogen dioxide. The results show that ,althougy the OODR-MPI spectra of NO2 are composed of regular progression bands at different pump laser intensities, their ionization pathways are different.The NO2 mollecule is ionized through the (3+1+1)double-resonant process as the pump laser intensity is in a high value, or else it is through the (1+2+1)rpocess.The final resonant states in the two ionizing processes have been attributed to different Rydberg states.
Graphene photonics for resonator-enhanced electro-optic devices and all-optical interactions
Englund, Dirk R.; Gan, Xuetao
2017-03-21
Techniques for coupling light into graphene using a planar photonic crystal having a resonant cavity characterized by a mode volume and a quality factor and at least one graphene layer positioned in proximity to the planar photonic crystal to at least partially overlap with an evanescent field of the resonant cavity. At least one mode of the resonant cavity can couple into the graphene layer via evanescent coupling. The optical properties of the graphene layer can be controlled, and characteristics of the graphene-cavity system can be detected. Coupling light into graphene can include electro-optic modulation of light, photodetection, saturable absorption, bistability, and autocorrelation.
Chaos-assisted, broadband trapping of light in optical resonators
Liu, C; Molinari, D; Khan, Y; Ooi, B S; Krauss, T F; Fratalocchi, A
2012-01-01
Chaos is a phenomenon that occurs in many aspects of contemporary science. In classical dynamics, chaos is defined as a hypersensitivity to initial conditions. The presence of chaos is often unwanted, as it introduces unpredictability, which makes it difficult to predict or explain experimental results. Conversely, we demonstrate here how chaos can be used to enhance the ability of an optical resonator to store energy. We combine analytic theory with ab-initio simulations and experiments in photonic crystal resonators to show that a chaotic resonator can store six times more energy than its classical counterpart of the same volume. We explain the observed increase with the equipartition of energy among all degrees of freedom of the chaotic resonator, i.e. the cavity modes, which is evident from the convergence of their lifetime towards a single value. A compelling illustration of the theory is provided by demonstrating enhanced absorption in deformed polystyrene microspheres.
A silicon single-crystal cryogenic optical resonator
Wiens, Eugen; Ernsting, Ingo; Luckmann, Heiko; Rosowski, Ulrich; Nevsky, Alexander; Schiller, Stephan
2014-01-01
We report on the demonstration and characterization of a silicon optical resonator for laser frequency stabilization, operating in the deep cryogenic regime at temperatures as low as 1.5 K. Robust operation was achieved, with absolute frequency drift less than 20 Hz over 1 hour. This stability allowed sensitive measurements of the resonator thermal expansion coefficient ($\\alpha$). We found $\\alpha=4.6\\times10^{-13}$ ${\\rm K^{-1}}$ at 1.6 K. At 16.8 K $\\alpha$ vanishes, with a derivative equal to $-6\\times10^{-10}$ ${\\rm K}^{-2}$. The temperature of the resonator was stabilized to a level below 10 $\\mu$K for averaging times longer than 20 s. The sensitivity of the resonator frequency to a variation of the laser power was also studied. The corresponding sensitivities and the expected Brownian noise indicate that this system should enable frequency stabilization of lasers at the low-$10^{-17}$ level.
Silicon single-crystal cryogenic optical resonator: erratum
Wiens, Eugen; Chen, Qun-Feng; Ernsting, Ingo; Luckmann, Heiko; Rosowski, Ulrich; Nevsky, Alexander; Schiller, Stephan
2015-01-01
We report on the demonstration and characterization of a silicon optical resonator for laser frequency stabilization, operating in the deep cryogenic regime at temperatures as low as 1.5 K. Robust operation was achieved, with absolute frequency drift less than 20 Hz over 1 hour. This stability allowed sensitive measurements of the resonator thermal expansion coefficient ($\\alpha$). We found $\\alpha=4.6\\times10^{-13}$ ${\\rm K^{-1}}$ at 1.6 K. At 16.8 K $\\alpha$ vanishes, with a derivative equal to $-6\\times10^{-10}$ ${\\rm K}^{-2}$. The temperature of the resonator was stabilized to a level below 10 $\\mu$K for averaging times longer than 20 s. The sensitivity of the resonator frequency to a variation of the laser power was also studied. The corresponding sensitivities and the expected Brownian noise indicate that this system should enable frequency stabilization of lasers at the low-$10^{-17}$ level.
Optical Feshbach Resonances: Field-Dressed Theory and Experimental Comparisons
Nicholson, T L; Bloom, B J; Williams, J R; Thomsen, J W; Ye, J; Julienne, P S
2015-01-01
Optical Feshbach resonances (OFRs) have generated significant experimental interest in recent years. These resonances are promising for many-body physics experiments, yet the practical application of OFRs has been limited. The theory of OFRs has been based on an approximate model that fails in important detuning regimes, and the incomplete theoretical understanding of this effect has hindered OFR experiments. We present the most complete theoretical treatment of OFRs to date, demonstrating important characteristics that must be considered in OFR experiments and comparing OFRs to the well studied case of magnetic Feshbach resonances. We also present a comprehensive treatment of the approximate OFR model, including a study of the range of validity for this model. Finally, we derive experimentally useful expressions that can be applied to real experimental data to extract important information about the resonance structure of colliding atoms.
Perea Palazón, R J; Solé Arqués, M; Prat González, S; de Caralt Robira, T M; Cibeira López, M T; Ortiz Pérez, J T
2015-01-01
Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is considered the reference technique for characterizing myocardial tissue; for example, T2-weighted sequences make it possible to evaluate areas of edema or myocardial inflammation. However, traditional sequences have many limitations and provide only qualitative information. Moreover, traditional sequences depend on the reference to remote myocardium or skeletal muscle, which limits their ability to detect and quantify diffuse myocardial damage. Recently developed magnetic resonance myocardial mapping techniques enable quantitative assessment of parameters indicative of edema. These techniques have proven better than traditional sequences both in acute cardiomyopathy and in acute ischemic heart disease. This article synthesizes current developments in T2 mapping as well as their clinical applications and limitations. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Cristofori, Valentina; Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Lund-Hansen, Toke
2011-01-01
A numerical and experimental characterization of how signal gain saturation affects the transfer of the intensity modulation of the pump to the signal in single-pump phaseinsensitive fibre optic parametric amplifiers is presented.......A numerical and experimental characterization of how signal gain saturation affects the transfer of the intensity modulation of the pump to the signal in single-pump phaseinsensitive fibre optic parametric amplifiers is presented....
Ham, Byoung S
2008-09-01
A method of reversible quantum optical data storage is presented using resonant Raman field excited spin coherence, where the spin coherence is stored in an inhomogeneously broadened spin ensemble. Unlike the photon echo method, in the present technique, a 2pi Raman optical rephasing pulse area is used and multimode (parallel) optical channels are available in which the multimode access gives a great benefit to quantum information processors such as quantum repeaters.
Photocurrent mapping of near-field optical antenna resonances
Barnard, Edward S.
2011-08-21
An increasing number of photonics applications make use of nanoscale optical antennas that exhibit a strong, resonant interaction with photons of a specific frequency. The resonant properties of such antennas are conventionally characterized by far-field light-scattering techniques. However, many applications require quantitative knowledge of the near-field behaviour, and existing local field measurement techniques provide only relative, rather than absolute, data. Here, we demonstrate a photodetector platform that uses a silicon-on-insulator substrate to spectrally and spatially map the absolute values of enhanced fields near any type of optical antenna by transducing local electric fields into photocurrent. We are able to quantify the resonant optical and materials properties of nanoscale (∼50nm) and wavelength-scale (∼1μm) metallic antennas as well as high-refractive-index semiconductor antennas. The data agree well with light-scattering measurements, full-field simulations and intuitive resonator models. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Meizhi Sun; Lailin Ji; Qunyu Bi; Nannan Wang; Jun Kang; Xinglong Xie; Zunqi Lin
2011-01-01
A new type of optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier is designed and analyzed for the amplification of pulse centered at 808 nm.A novel crystal,yttrium calcium oxyborate YCa4O(BO3)3 (YCOB),is utilized in the power amplification stage of optical parametric amplification (OPA).Noncollinear phase matching parameters in the xoz principle plane of YCOB,compared with those in BBO and DKDP,are analyzed by numerical simulation.The results show that YCOB rather than DKDP can be used in the power amplification stage of OPA to realize the amplification of chirped pulse to several joules with a gain bandwidth exceeding 100 nm.This can be used to gain a high intensity pulse of ～10 fs after the compressor.The amplification of the femtosecond pulse is an important branch of ultra-intense laser technology,with Ti:sapphire as the medium for its large gain bandwidth.From the perspective of technical features and applications,such femtosecond pulses are used to study high field physics and other related areas in ultrashort time[1,2];however,the pursuit of higher energy femtosecond pulse should not be abandoned.Optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA) has been successfully used in the front end of high intensity lasers[3-8],indicating the possibility of femtosecond pulse amplification.This has been verified by an increasing number of fine crystals being invented,such as YCa4O(BO3)3 (YCOB)[9-12].%A new type of optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier is designed and analyzed for the amplification of pulse centered at 808 nm. A novel crystal, yttrium calcium oxyborate YCa4O(BO3)3 (YCOB), is utilized in the power amplification stage of optical parametric amplification (OPA). Noncollinear phase matching parameters in the xoz principle plane of YCOB, compared with those in BBO and DKDP, are analyzed by numerical simulation. The results show that YCOB rather than DKDP can be used in the power amplification stage of OPA to realize the amplification of chirped pulse to
Trace Gas Measurements on Mars and Earth Using Optical Parametric Generation
Numata, Kenji; Haris, Riris; Li, Steve; Sun, Xiaoli; Abshire, James Brice
2010-01-01
Trace gases and their isotopic ratios in planetary atmospheres offer important but subtle clues as to the origins of a planet's atmosphere, hydrology, geology, and potential for biology. An orbiting laser remote sensing instrument is capable of measuring trace gases on a global scale with unprecedented accuracy, and higher spatial resolution that can be obtained by passive instruments. We have developed an active sensing instrument for the remote measurement of trace gases in planetary atmospheres (including Earth). The technique uses widely tunable, seeded optical parametric generation (OPG) to measure methane, CO2, water vapor, and other trace gases in the near and mid-infrared spectral regions. Methane is a strong greenhouse gas on Earth and it is also a potential biogenic marker on Mars and other planets. Methane in the Earth's atmosphere survives for a shorter time than CO2 but its impact on climate change can be larger than CO2. Methane levels have remained relatively constant over the last decade around 1.78 parts per million (ppm) but recent observations indicate that methane levels may be on the rise. Increasing methane concentrations may trigger a positive feedback loop and a subsequent runaway greenhouse effect, where increasing temperatures result in increasing methane levels. The NRC Decadal Survey recognized the importance of global observations of greenhouse gases and called for simultaneous CH4, CO, and CO2 measurements but also underlined the technological limitations for these observations. For Mars, methane measurements are of great interest because of its potential as a strong biogenic marker. A remote sensing instrument that can measure day and night over all seasons and latitudes can identify and localize sources of biogenic gas plumes produced by subsurface chemistry or biology, and aid in the search for extra-terrestrial life. It can identify the dynamics of methane generation over time and latitude and identify future lander mission sites
ZHANG Wei; XIAO Li; ZHANG Lei; HUANG Yi-Dong; PENG Jiang-De
2006-01-01
@@ We report a microstructure-fibre-based parametric amplification experiment in telecom band with ultra-high gain slope. A peak on-off gain of 52.3 dB is achieved using 25 m high nonlinear microstructure fibre (MF) and only 5.3 W pump power. The parametric gain slope is up to 580dBW-1 km-1. From the experimental data, the linear coefficient of the MF is estimated to be about 66. 7 W-1 km-1. The experiment shows the great potential of MFs in practical fibre parametric amplifiers.
Highly Efficient Tabletop Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplifier at 1 (micron)m
Jovanovic, I.; Ebbers, C.A.; Comaskey, B.J.; Bonner, R.A.; Morse, E.C.
2001-12-04
Optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA) is a scalable technology, for ultrashort pulse amplification. Its major advantages include design simplicity, broad bandwidth, tunability, low B-integral, high contrast, and high beam quality. OPCPA is suitable both for scaling to high peak power as well as high average power. We describe the amplification of stretched 100 fs oscillator pulses in a three-stage OPCPA system pumped by a commercial, single-longitudinal-mode, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The stretched pulses were centered around 1054 nm with a FWHM bandwidth of 16.5 nm and had an energy of 0.5 nJ. Using our OPCPA system, we obtained an amplified pulse energy of up to 31 mJ at a 10 Hz repetition rate. The overall conversion efficiency from pump to signal is 6%, which is the highest efficiency obtained With a commercial tabletop pump laser to date. The overall conversion efficiency is limited due to the finite temporal overlap of the seed (3 ns) with respect to the duration of the pump (8.5 ns). Within the temporal window of the seed pulse the pump to signal conversion efficiency exceeds 20%. Recompression of the amplified signal was demonstrated to 310 fs, limited by the aberrations initially present in the low energy seed imparted by the pulse stretcher. The maximum gain in our OPCPA system is 6 x 10{sup 7}, obtained through single passing of 40 mm of beta-barium borate. We present data on the beam quality obtained from our system (M{sup 2}=1.1). This relatively simple system replaces a significantly more complex Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier based CPA system used in the front end of a high energy short pulse laser. Future improvement will include obtaining shorter amplified pulses and higher average power.
Efficient, high-power, ytterbium-fiber-laser-pumped picosecond optical parametric oscillator.
Kokabee, O; Esteban-Martin, A; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M
2010-10-01
We report a high-power picosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) synchronously pumped by a Yb fiber laser at 1.064 μm, providing 11.7 W of total average power in the near to mid-IR at 73% extraction efficiency. The OPO, based on a 50 mm MgO:PPLN crystal, is pumped by 20.8 ps pulses at 81.1 MHz and can simultaneously deliver 7.1 W of signal at 1.56 μm and 4.6 W of idler at 3.33 μm for 16 W of pump power. The oscillator has a threshold of 740 mW, with maximum signal power of 7.4 W at 1.47 μm and idler power of 4.9 W at 3.08 μm at slope efficiencies of 51% and 31%, respectively. Wavelength coverage across 1.43-1.63 μm (signal) and 4.16-3.06 μm (idler) is obtained, with a total power of ~11 W and an extraction efficiency of ~68%, with pump depletion of ~78% maintained over most of the tuning range. The signal and idler output have a single-mode spatial profile and a peak-to-peak power stability of ±1.8% and ±2.9% over 1 h at the highest power, respectively. A signal pulse duration of 17.3 ps with a clean single-peak spectrum results in a time-bandwidth product of ~1.72, more than four times below the input pump pulses.
The parametric resonance features for theory of energy transfer in dusty plasma
Semyonov, V. P.; Timofeev, A. V.
2015-11-01
One of the mechanisms of energy transfer between degrees of freedom of dusty plasma system can be described by equations similar to Mathieu equation with account of stochastic forces. Such equation is studied by analytical approach. The solutions for higher order of accuracy are obtained. The method for numerical solution and resonance zone detection is proposed. The solution for the extended Mathieu equation is obtained for wide range of parameter values. The results of numerical solution are compared with analytical solutions of different order and known analytical results for Mathieu equation.
Marchand, Paul J.; Bouwens, Arno; Shamaei, Vincent; Nguyen, David; Extermann, Jerome; Bolmont, Tristan; Lasser, Theo
2016-03-01
Magnetic Resonance Imaging has revolutionised our understanding of brain function through its ability to image human cerebral structures non-invasively over the entire brain. By exploiting the different magnetic properties of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood, functional MRI can indirectly map areas undergoing neural activation. Alongside the development of fMRI, powerful statistical tools have been developed in an effort to shed light on the neural pathways involved in processing of sensory and cognitive information. In spite of the major improvements made in fMRI technology, the obtained spatial resolution of hundreds of microns prevents MRI in resolving and monitoring processes occurring at the cellular level. In this regard, Optical Coherence Microscopy is an ideal instrumentation as it can image at high spatio-temporal resolution. Moreover, by measuring the mean and the width of the Doppler spectra of light scattered by moving particles, OCM allows extracting the axial and lateral velocity components of red blood cells. The ability to assess quantitatively total blood velocity, as opposed to classical axial velocity Doppler OCM, is of paramount importance in brain imaging as a large proportion of cortical vascular is oriented perpendicularly to the optical axis. We combine here quantitative blood flow imaging with extended-focus Optical Coherence Microscopy and Statistical Parametric Mapping tools to generate maps of stimuli-evoked cortical hemodynamics at the capillary level.
Norris, G; McConnell, G
2010-03-01
A novel bi-directional pump geometry that nonlinearly increases the nonlinear optical conversion efficiency of a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is reported. This bi-directional pumping method synchronizes the circulating signal pulse with two counter-propagating pump pulses within a linear OPO resonator. Through this pump scheme, an increase in nonlinear optical conversion efficiency of 22% was achieved at the signal wavelength, corresponding to a 95% overall increase in average power. Given an almost unchanged measured pulse duration of 260 fs under optimal performance conditions, this related to a signal wavelength peak power output of 18.8 kW, compared with 10 kW using the traditional single-pass geometry. In this study, a total effective peak intensity pump-field of 7.11 GW/cm(2) (corresponding to 3.55 GW/cm(2) from each pump beam) was applied to a 3 mm long periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, which had a damage threshold intensity of 4 GW/cm(2), without impairing crystal integrity. We therefore prove the application of this novel pump geometry provides opportunities for power-scaling of synchronously pumped OPO systems together with enhanced nonlinear conversion efficiency through relaxed damage threshold intensity conditions.
Low-Threshold Mid-Infrared Optical Parametric Oscillator Using Periodically Poled LiNbO3
林学春; 张瑛; 孔宇鹏; 张杰; 姚爱云; 侯玮; 崔大复; 李瑞宁; 许祖彦; 李健
2004-01-01
We report the generation of tunable mid-infrared optical pulses using all-solid-state pumped optical parametric oscillator in a periodically poled lithium niobate. Several ways were used to lower the threshold, resulting in a mean threshold as low as 6.5m W and an achievement of wavelength conversion in the 2.77-4.04μm spectral range. Continuous tuning range from 2.97 to 3.25 μm was achieved. The maximum idler output power of 466 m W at the wavelength of 3.41 μm was obtained, which represents an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 19%from incident pump power to the idler output.
A comparison of nonlinear media for parametric all-optical signal processing
Martinez Diaz, Jordi; Bohigas Nadal, Jaume; Vukovic, Dragana;
2013-01-01
We systematically compare nonlinear media for parametric signal processing by determining the minimum pump power that is required for a given conversion efficiency in a degenerate four-wave mixing process, including the effect of nonlinear loss....
Rothhardt, J; Hädrich, S; Röser, F; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A
2008-06-09
We present a high peak power degenerated parametric amplifier operating at 1030 nm and 97 kHz repetition rate. Pulses of a state-of-the art fiber chirped-pulse amplification (FCPA) system with 840 fs pulse duration and 410 microJ pulse energy are used as pump and seed source for a two stage optical parametric amplifier. Additional spectral broadening of the seed signal in a photonic crystal fiber creates enough bandwidth for ultrashort pulse generation. Subsequent amplification of the broadband seed signal in two 1 mm BBO crystals results in 41 microJ output pulse energy. Compression in a SF 11 prism compressor yields 37 microJ pulses as short as 52 fs. Thus, pulse shortening of more than one order of magnitude is achieved. Further scaling in terms of average power and pulse energy seems possible and will be discussed, since both concepts involved, the fiber laser and the parametric amplifier have the reputation to be immune against thermo-optical effects.
Peucheret, Christophe; Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Seoane, Jorge
2008-01-01
Input power dynamic range enhancement and amplitude regeneration of highly distorted signals are demonstrated experimentally for 40 Gbit/s RZ-DPSK in a single-pump fibre parametric amplifier with 22 dB smallsignal gain.......Input power dynamic range enhancement and amplitude regeneration of highly distorted signals are demonstrated experimentally for 40 Gbit/s RZ-DPSK in a single-pump fibre parametric amplifier with 22 dB smallsignal gain....
Quantum and Raman Noise in a Depleted Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier
Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Rottwitt, Karsten; McKinstrie, Colin J.
2013-01-01
The noise properties of both phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive saturated parametric amplifiers are studied using a semi-classical approach. Vacuum fluctuations as well as spontaneous Raman scattering are included in the analysis.......The noise properties of both phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive saturated parametric amplifiers are studied using a semi-classical approach. Vacuum fluctuations as well as spontaneous Raman scattering are included in the analysis....
侯之超; 祖武争
2004-01-01
Nonlinear dynamic analysis is performed on moving belts subjected to geometric nonlinearity and initial tension fluctuation.To incorporate more accurately the damping mechanism of belt material, linear viscoelastic models are adopted in a unified form of differential operators.To circumvent high-order differential vibration equation of time-varying coefficients and with gyroscopic and nonlinear terms, where analytical solution is almost impossible, a systematic approach is presented by reforming the motion equation and directly using the method of multiple scales.To exemplify the procedure, the solutions at principal resonance are obtained and their stability conditions are derived for employing a Kelvin-Voigt model to reflect the property of the belt material.The solutions and stability conditions successfully reduce to those for using Kelvin model and elastic model, which validate the present approaches.Numerical simulations highlight the effects of tension fluctuations and translating speeds on the stability of the belt vibration.
Perea Palazón, R J; Ortiz Pérez, J T; Prat González, S; de Caralt Robira, T M; Cibeira López, M T; Solé Arqués, M
2016-01-01
The development of myocardial fibrosis is a common process in the appearance of ventricular dysfunction in many heart diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging makes it possible to accurately evaluate the structure and function of the heart, and its role in the macroscopic characterization of myocardial fibrosis by late enhancement techniques has been widely validated clinically. Recent studies have demonstrated that T1-mapping techniques can quantify diffuse myocardial fibrosis and the expansion of the myocardial extracellular space in absolute terms. However, further studies are necessary to validate the usefulness of this technique in the early detection of tissue remodeling at a time when implementing early treatment would improve a patient's prognosis. This article reviews the state of the art for T1 mapping of the myocardium, its clinical applications, and its limitations. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Optical sum-frequency generation in whispering gallery mode resonators
Strekalov, Dmitry V; Huang, Yu-Ping; Kumar, Prem
2013-01-01
We demonstrate sum-frequency generation in a nonlinear whispering gallery mode resonator between a telecom wavelength and the Rb D2 line, achieved through natural phase matching. Due to the strong optical field confinement and ultra high Q of the cavity, we achieve a 1000-fold enhancement in the conversion efficiency compared to existing waveguide-based devices. The experimental data are in agreement with the nonlinear dynamics and phase matching theory in the spherical geometry employed. The experimental and theoretical results point to a new platform to manipulate the color and quantum states of light waves toward applications such as atomic memory based quantum networking and logic operations with optical signals.
Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors Based on Polymer Optical Fiber
Rong-Sheng Zheng; Yong-Hua Lu; Zhi-Guo Xie; Jun Tao; Kai-Qun Lin; Hai Ming
2008-01-01
Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is a powerful technique for directly sensing in biological studies, chemical detection and environmental pollution monitoring. In this paper, we present polymer optical fiber application in SPR sensors, including wavelength interrogation surface enhanced Raman scattering SPR sensor and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probe.Long-period fiber gratings are fabricated on single mode polymer optical fiber (POF) with 120 μm period and 50% duty cycle. The polarization characteristic of this kind of birefringent grating is studied. Theoretical analysis shows it will be advantageous in SPR sensing applications.
Feedback-free optical cavity with self-resonating mechanism
Uesugi, Y; Honda, Y; Kosuge, A; Omori, T; Takahashi, T; Urakawa, J; Washio, M
2015-01-01
We demonstrated the operation of a high finesse optical cavity without utilizing an active feedback system to stabilize the resonance. The finesse of the cavity was measured to be $465,000 \\pm 3,000$, and the laser power stored in the cavity was $2.52 \\pm 0.13$ kW, which is about 187,000 times greater than the incident power to the cavity. The stored power was stabilized with a fluctuation of $1.7 \\%$, and we confirmed continuous cavity operation for more than two hours. This result relaxes the technical requirement of stabilizing of the optical resonant cavity and expands possibilities for various applications such as laser-Compton scattering.
Resonant bowtie aperture nano-antenna for the control of optical nanocavities resonance
Baida, Fadi Issam
2015-01-01
Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy (SNOM) has been successful in finely tuning the optical properties of photonic crystal (PC) nanocavities. The SNOM nanoprobes proposed so far allowed for either redshifting or blueshifting the resonance peak of the PC structures. In this Letter, we theoretically demonstrate the possibility of redshifting (up to +0.65nm) and blueshifting (up to $-5$~nm) PC cavity resonance with a single SNOM probe. This probe is obtained by opening a bowtie-aperture nano-antenna (BNA) at the apex of a metal-coated tip. This double-way PC tunability is the result of a competition between the effects of the BNA resonance (induced electric dipole leading to a redshift) and the metal-coated tip (induced magnetic dipole giving rise to a blueshift) onto the PC mode volume. The sign of the spectral shift is modified by simply controlling the tip-to-PC distance. This study opens the way to the full postproduction control of the resonance wavelength of high quality factor optical cavities.
Sharba, A B; Zepf, M; Borghesi, M; Sarri, G
2016-01-01
We present a comprehensive model for predicting the full performance of a second harmonic generationoptical parametric amplification system that aims at enhancing the temporal contrast of laser pulses. The model simultaneously takes into account all the main parameters at play in the system such as the group velocity mismatch, the beam divergence, the spectral content, the pump depletion, and the length of the nonlinear crystals. We monitor the influence of the initial parameters of the input pulse and the interdependence of the two related non-linear processes on the performance of the system and show its optimum configuration. The influence of the initial beam divergence on the spectral and the temporal characteristics of the generated pulse is discussed. In addition, we show that using a crystal slightly longer than the optimum length and introducing small delay between the seed and the pump ensures maximum efficiency and compensates for the spectral shift in the optical parametric amplification stage in c...
Ishiguro, T.; Ito, A.; Mizoguchi, S. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))
1991-05-01
The unstable rolling region and angle in the regular waves were studied by both tank test modeling a large container ship and theoretical calculation based on Mathieu{prime}s equation. Further research was made on the influence of metacentric height (GM) under the calm sea condition, ship speed and bilge keel dimension on the unstable rolling region. To avoid the unstable roll motion in the waves caused by the parametric resonance, the fluctuation in GM is designed to be diminished on the waves by U-shaping the hull fore and aft like a fat large ship hull, or the fluctuation in dynamic stability is done to be diminished by increasing the GM on the calm sea. However, the ship with a U-shaped hull fore and aft is large in rolling angle due to the smallness in righting arm at the large heeling angle. Generally regardless of oceanic condition and ship speed, it is impossible to establish the GM absolutely without the primary and secondary synchronizing points. To avoid the unstable roll motion with a low ship speed, it is desirable to do it by the ship speed to be as high as possible. 11 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.
Jacobus FA Jansen; Yonggang Lu; Gaorav Gupta; Nancy Y Lee; Hilda E Stambuk; Yousef Mazaheri; Joseph O Deasy; Amita Shukla-Dave
2016-01-01
AIM: To investigate the merits of texture analysis on parametric maps derived from pharmacokinetic modeling with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging(DCE-MRI) as imaging biomarkers for the prediction of treatment response in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma(HNSCC). METHODS: In this retrospective study,19 HNSCC patients underwent pre- and intra-treatment DCEMRI scans at a 1.5T MRI scanner. All patients had chemo-radiation treatment. Pharmacokinetic modeling was performed on the acquired DCE-MRI images,generating maps of volume transfer rate(Ktrans) and volume fraction of the extravascular extracellular space(ve). Image texture analysis was then employed on maps of Ktrans and ve,generating two texture measures: Energy(E) and homogeneity.RESULTS: No significant changes were found for the mean and standard deviation for Ktrans and ve between pre- and intra-treatment(P > 0.09). Texture analysis revealed that the imaging biomarker E of ve was significantly higher in intra-treatment scans,relative to pretreatment scans(P < 0.04). CONCLUSION: Chemo-radiation treatment in HNSCC significantly reduces the heterogeneity of tumors.
Triple-resonant Brillouin light scattering in magneto-optical cavities
Haigh, J A; Ramsay, A J; Ferguson, A J
2016-01-01
An enhancement in Brillouin light scattering of optical photons with magnons is demonstrated in magneto-optical whispering gallery mode resonators tuned to a triple resonance point. This occurs when both the input and output optical modes are resonant with those of the whispering gallery resonator, with a separation given by the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequency. The identification and excitation of specific optical modes allows us to gain a clear understanding of the mode-matching conditions. A selection rule due to wavevector matching leads to an intrinsic single-sideband excitation. Strong suppression of one sideband is essential for one-to-one frequency mapping in coherent optical-to-microwave conversion.
Cosci, Alessandro; Berneschi, Simone; Giannetti, Ambra; Farnesi, Daniele; Cosi, Franco; Baldini, Francesco; Nunzi Conti, Gualtiero; Soria, Silvia; Barucci, Andrea; Righini, Giancarlo; Pelli, Stefano
2016-01-01
This work shows the improvements in the sensing capabilities and precision of an Optical Microbubble Resonator due to the introduction of an encaging poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) box. A frequency fluctuation parameter σ was defined as a score of resonance stability and was evaluated in the presence and absence of the encaging system and in the case of air- or water-filling of the cavity. Furthermore, the noise interference introduced by the peristaltic and the syringe pumping system was studied. The measurements showed a reduction of σ in the presence of the encaging PMMA box and when the syringe pump was used as flowing system. PMID:27589761
Baoquan Yao; Youlun Ju; Yuezhu Wang; Wanjun He
2008-01-01
A doubly resonant ZnGeP2 (ZGP) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by a novel Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser was demonstrated. Cryogenic Tm(5 at.-%), Ho(0.5 at.-%):GdVO4 laser with high pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 10 kHz at 2.05 μm was employed as pumping source of ZGP OPO. The 15-mm-long ZGP crystal, 55° cut for I-type phase-matching with low absorption coefficient less than 0.05 cm-1 at 2-μm, was placed in a plano-plano cavity with resonator length of 30 mm. The ZGP OPO generated a total combined output power of 1.2 W at 3.75 and 4.52 μm under pumping power of 5.3 W, corresponding to slope efficiency of 40% from incident 2-μm laser power to mid-infrared (Mid-IR) output. A widely tunable range from 3.0 to 6.5 μm was achieved by changing the crystal angle only 3.5 .