Study of Mode Coupling on Coaxial Resonators
Rui Liu; Hong-Fu Li
2011-01-01
A study of mode coupling phenomenon of coaxial resonators has been conducted with theories.Through establishing the source-free transmission line equation,boundary conditions of the coaxial resonators with a corrugated inner conductor are analyzed.In the end,calculations are performed in a wide range of corrugation parameters for the resonator of the Karisruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) relevant coaxial gyrotron.
Mode couplings and resonance instabilities in dust clusters.
Qiao, Ke; Kong, Jie; Oeveren, Eric Van; Matthews, Lorin S; Hyde, Truell W
2013-10-01
The normal modes for three to seven particle two-dimensional (2D) dust clusters in a complex plasma are investigated using an N-body simulation. The ion wakefield downstream of each particle is shown to induce coupling between horizontal and vertical modes. The rules of mode coupling are investigated by classifying the mode eigenvectors employing the Bessel and trigonometric functions indexed by order integers (m, n). It is shown that coupling only occurs between two modes with the same m and that horizontal modes having a higher shear contribution exhibit weaker coupling. Three types of resonances are shown to occur when two coupled modes have the same frequency. Discrete instabilities caused by both the first and third type of resonances are verified and instabilities caused by the third type of resonance are found to induce melting. The melting procedure is observed to go through a two-step process with the solid-liquid transition closely obeying the Lindemann criterion.
Strong and tunable mode coupling in carbon nanotube resonators
Castellanos-Gomez, Andres; Meerwaldt, Harold B.; Venstra, Warner J.; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Steele, Gary A.
2012-07-01
The nonlinear interaction between two mechanical resonances of the same freely suspended carbon nanotube resonator is studied. We find that, in the Coulomb-blockade regime, the nonlinear modal interaction is dominated by single-electron-tunneling processes and that the mode-coupling parameter can be tuned with the gate voltage, allowing both mode-softening and mode-stiffening behaviors. This is in striking contrast to tension-induced mode coupling in strings where the coupling parameter is positive and gives rise to a stiffening of the mode. The strength of the mode coupling in carbon nanotubes in the Coulomb-blockade regime is observed to be 6 orders of magnitude larger than the mechanical-mode coupling in micromechanical resonators.
Parametric strong mode-coupling in carbon nanotube mechanical resonators
Li, Shu-Xiao; Zhu, Dong; Wang, Xin-He; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Deng, Guang-Wei; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Kai-Li; Dai, Xing-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping
2016-08-01
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted much attention for use in nanomechanical devices because of their exceptional properties, such as large resonant frequencies, low mass, and high quality factors. Here, we report the first experimental realization of parametric strong coupling between two mechanical modes on a single CNT nanomechanical resonator, by applying an extra microwave pump. This parametric pump method can be used to couple mechanical modes with arbitrary frequency differences. The properties of the mechanical resonator are detected by single-electron tunneling at low temperature, which is found to be strongly coupled to both modes. The coupling strength between the two modes can be tuned by the pump power, setting the coupling regime from weak to strong. This tunability may be useful in further phonon manipulations in carbon nanotubes.Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted much attention for use in nanomechanical devices because of their exceptional properties, such as large resonant frequencies, low mass, and high quality factors. Here, we report the first experimental realization of parametric strong coupling between two mechanical modes on a single CNT nanomechanical resonator, by applying an extra microwave pump. This parametric pump method can be used to couple mechanical modes with arbitrary frequency differences. The properties of the mechanical resonator are detected by single-electron tunneling at low temperature, which is found to be strongly coupled to both modes. The coupling strength between the two modes can be tuned by the pump power, setting the coupling regime from weak to strong. This tunability may be useful in further phonon manipulations in carbon nanotubes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fit of the quality factor and similar results in more devices. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02853e
Strong and tunable mode coupling in carbon nanotube resonators
Castellanos Gomez, A.; Meerwaldt, H.B.; Ventra, W.J.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Steele, G.A.
2012-01-01
The nonlinear interaction between two mechanical resonances of the same freely suspended carbon nanotube resonator is studied. We find that, in the Coulomb-blockade regime, the nonlinear modal interaction is dominated by single-electron-tunneling processes and that the mode-coupling parameter can be
Nonadiabatic dynamics of two strongly coupled nanomechanical resonator modes.
Faust, Thomas; Rieger, Johannes; Seitner, Maximilian J; Krenn, Peter; Kotthaus, Jörg P; Weig, Eva M
2012-07-20
The Landau-Zener transition is a fundamental concept for dynamical quantum systems and has been studied in numerous fields of physics. Here, we present a classical mechanical model system exhibiting analogous behavior using two inversely tunable, strongly coupled modes of the same nanomechanical beam resonator. In the adiabatic limit, the anticrossing between the two modes is observed and the coupling strength extracted. Sweeping an initialized mode across the coupling region allows mapping of the progression from diabatic to adiabatic transitions as a function of the sweep rate.
Multistable internal resonance in electroelastic crystals with nonlinearly coupled modes
Kirkendall, Christopher R.; Kwon, Jae W.
2016-03-01
Nonlinear modal interactions have recently become the focus of intense research in micro- and nanoscale resonators for their use to improve oscillator performance and probe the frontiers of fundamental physics. However, our understanding of modal coupling is largely restricted to clamped-clamped beams, and lacking in systems with both geometric and material nonlinearities. Here we report multistable energy transfer between internally resonant modes of an electroelastic crystal plate and use a mixed analytical-numerical approach to provide new insight into these complex interactions. Our results reveal a rich bifurcation structure marked by nested regions of multistability. Even the simple case of two coupled modes generates a host of topologically distinct dynamics over the parameter space, ranging from the usual Duffing bistability to complex multistable behaviour and quasiperiodic motion.
Analytical solutions of coupled-mode equations for microring resonators
ZHAO C Y
2016-06-01
We present a study on analytical solutions of coupled-mode equations for microring resonators with an emphasis on occurrence of all-optical EIT phenomenon, obtained by using a cofactor. As concrete examples, analytical solutions for a $3 \\times 3$ linearly distributed coupler and a circularly distributed coupler are obtained. The former corresponds to a non-degenerate eigenvalue problem and the latter corresponds to a degenerate eigenvalue problem. For comparison and without loss of generality, analytical solution for a $4 \\times 4$ linearly distributed coupler is also obtained. This paper may be of interest to optical physics and integrated photonics communities.
Coupled mode parametric resonance in a vibrating screen model
Slepyan, Leonid I
2013-01-01
We consider a simple dynamic model of the vibrating screen operating in the parametric resonance (PR) mode. This model was used in the course of designing and setting of such a screen in LPMC. The PR-based screen compares favorably with conventional types of such machines, where the transverse oscillations are excited directly. It is characterized by larger values of the amplitude and by insensitivity to damping in a rather wide range. The model represents an initially strained system of two equal masses connected by a linearly elastic string. Self-equilibrated, longitudinal, harmonic forces act on the masses. Under certain conditions this results in transverse, finite-amplitude oscillations of the string. The problem is reduced to a system of two ordinary differential equations coupled by the geometric nonlinearity. Damping in both the transverse and longitudinal oscillations is taken into account. Free and forced oscillations of this mass-string system are examined analytically and numerically. The energy e...
Mode Coupling and Nonlinear Resonances of MEMS Arch Resonators for Bandpass Filters
Hajjaj, Amal Z.
2017-01-30
We experimentally demonstrate an exploitation of the nonlinear softening, hardening, and veering phenomena (near crossing), where the frequencies of two vibration modes get close to each other, to realize a bandpass filter of sharp roll off from the passband to the stopband. The concept is demonstrated based on an electrothermally tuned and electrostatically driven MEMS arch resonator operated in air. The in-plane resonator is fabricated from a silicon-on-insulator wafer with a deliberate curvature to form an arch shape. A DC current is applied through the resonator to induce heat and modulate its stiffness, and hence its resonance frequencies. We show that the first resonance frequency increases up to twice of the initial value while the third resonance frequency decreases until getting very close to the first resonance frequency. This leads to the phenomenon of veering, where both modes get coupled and exchange energy. We demonstrate that by driving both modes nonlinearly and electrostatically near the veering regime, such that the first and third modes exhibit softening and hardening behavior, respectively, sharp roll off from the passband to the stopband is achievable. We show a flat, wide, and tunable bandwidth and center frequency by controlling the electrothermal actuation voltage.
Selective mode coupling in microring resonators for single mode semiconductor lasers
Arbabi, Amir
Single mode semiconductor laser diodes have many applications in optical communications, metrology and sensing. Edge-emitting single mode lasers commonly use distributed feedback structures, or narrowband reflectors such as distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) and sampled grating distributed Bragg reflectors (SGDBRs). Compact, narrowband reflectors with high reflectivities are of interest to replace the commonly used DBRs and SGDBRs. This thesis presents our work on the simulation, design, fabrication, and characterization of devices operating based on the coupling of degenerate modes of a microring resonator, and investigation of the possibility of using them for improving the performance of laser diodes. In particular, we demonstrate a new type of compact, narrowband, on-chip reflector realized by selectively coupling degenerate modes of a microring resonator. For the simulation and design of reflective microring resonators, a fast and accurate analysis method is required. Conventional numerical methods for solving Maxwell's equations such as the finite difference time domain and the finite element method (FEM) provide accurate results but are computationally intense and are not suitable for the design of large 3D structures. We formulated a set of coupled mode equations that, combined with 2D FEM simulations, can provide a fast and accurate tool for the modeling and design of reflective microrings. We developed fabrication processing recipes and fabricated passive reflective microrings on silicon substrates with a silicon nitride core and silicon dioxide cladding. Narrowband single wavelength reflectors were realized which are 70 times smaller than a conventional DBR with the same bandwidth. Compared to the conventional DBR, they have faster roll-off, and no side modes. The smaller footprint saves real estate, reduces tuning power and makes these devices attractive as in-line mirrors for low threshold narrow linewidth laser diodes. Self-heating caused by material
Parametric resonance of intrinsic localized modes in coupled cantilever arrays
Kimura, Masayuki; Matsushita, Yasuo; Hikihara, Takashi
2016-08-01
In this study, the parametric resonances of pinned intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) were investigated by computing the unstable regions in parameter space consisting of parametric excitation amplitude and frequency. In the unstable regions, the pinned ILMs were observed to lose stability and begin to fluctuate. A nonlinear Klein-Gordon, Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-like, and mixed lattices were investigated. The pinned ILMs, particularly in the mixed lattice, were destabilized by parametric resonances, which were determined by comparing the shapes of the unstable regions with those in the Mathieu differential equation. In addition, traveling ILMs could be generated by parametric excitation.
Mode coupling control in a resonant device: application to solid-state ring lasers
Schwartz, Sylvain; Feugnet, Gilles; Bouyer, Philippe; Lariontsev, Evguenii; Aspect, Alain; Pocholle, Jean-Paul
2006-01-01
International audience; A theoretical and experimental investigation of the effects of mode coupling in a resonant macro- scopic quantum device is achieved in the case of a ring laser. In particular, we show both analytically and experimentally that such a device can be used as a rotation sensor provided the effects of mode coupling are controlled, for example through the use of an additional coupling. A possible general- ization of this example to the case of another resonant macroscopic qua...
Mode coupling in terahertz metamaterials using sub-radiative and super-radiative resonators
Qiao, Shen; Zhang, Yaxin, E-mail: Zhangyaxin@uestc.edu.cn; Zhao, Yuncheng; Xu, Gaiqi; Sun, Han; Yang, Ziqiang [Terahertz Science Cooperative Innovation Center, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Liang, Shixiong [National Key Laboratory of Application Specific Integrated Circuit, Hebei Semiconductor Research Institute, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China)
2015-11-21
We theoretically and experimentally explored the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) mode-coupling in terahertz (THz) metamaterial resonators, in which a dipole resonator with a super-radiative mode is coupled to an inductance-capacitance resonator with a sub-radiative mode. The interference between these two resonators depends on the relative spacing between them, resulting in a tunable transparency window in the absorption spectrum. Mode coupling was experimentally demonstrated for three spacing dependent EIT metamaterials. Transmittance of the transparency windows could be either enhanced or suppressed, producing different spectral linewidths. These spacing dependent mode-coupling metamaterials provide alternative ways to create THz devices, such as filters, absorbers, modulators, sensors, and slow-light devices.
Modeling of mode-locked coupled-resonator optical waveguide lasers
Agger, Christian; Skovgård, Troels Suhr; Gregersen, Niels;
2010-01-01
Coupled-resonator optical waveguides made from coupled high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities are investigated for use as cavities in mode-locked lasers. Such devices show great potential in slowing down light and can serve to reduce the cavity length of a mode-locked laser. An explicit expression...
Spectral Engineering with Coupled Microcavities: Active Control of Resonant Mode-Splitting
Souza, Mario C M M; Barea, Luis A M; von Zuben, Antonio A G; Wiederhecker, Gustavo S; Frateschi, Newton C
2015-01-01
Optical mode-splitting is an efficient tool to shape and fine-tune the spectral response of resonant nanophotonic devices. The active control of mode-splitting, however, is either small or accompanied by undesired resonance shifts, often much larger than the resonance-splitting. We report a control mechanism that enables reconfigurable and widely tunable mode-splitting while efficiently mitigating undesired resonance shifts. This is achieved by actively controlling the excitation of counter-traveling modes in coupled resonators. The transition from a large splitting (80 GHz) to a single-notch resonance is demonstrated using low power microheaters (35 mW). We show that the spurious resonance-shift in our device is only limited by thermal crosstalk and resonance-shift-free splitting control may be achieved.
A coupling model for quasi-normal modes of photonic resonators
Vial, Benjamin; Hao, Yang
2016-11-01
We develop a model for the coupling of quasi-normal modes in open photonic systems consisting of two resonators. By expressing the modes of the coupled system as a linear combination of the modes of the individual particles, we obtain a generalized eigenvalue problem involving small size dense matrices. We apply this technique to dielectric rod dimmer of rectangular cross section for transverse electric polarization in a two-dimensional setup. The results of our model show excellent agreement with full wave finite element simulations. We provide a convergence analysis, and a simplified model with a few modes to study the influence of the relative position of the two resonators. This model provides interesting physical insights on the coupling scheme at stake in such systems and pave the way for systematic and efficient design and optimization of resonances in more complicated systems, for applications including sensing, antennae and spectral filtering.
Vertically-coupled Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator Optical Waveguide, and Methods
Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Savchenkov, Anatolly A. (Inventor); Matleki, Lute (Inventor)
2007-01-01
A vertically-coupled whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator optical waveguide, a method of reducing a group velocity of light, and a method of making a waveguide are provided. The vertically-coupled WGM waveguide comprises a cylindrical rod portion having a round cross-section and an outer surface. First and second ring-shaped resonators are formed on the outer surface of the cylindrical rod portion and are spaced from each other along a longitudinal direction of the cylindrical rod. The first and second ringshaped resonators are capable of being coupled to each other by way an evanescent field formed in an interior of the cylindrical rod portion.
Near-field coupling and resonant cavity modes in plasmonic nanorod metamaterials.
Song, Haojie; Zhang, Junxi; Fei, Guangtao; Wang, Junfeng; Jiang, Kang; Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonghua; Iorsh, Ivan; Xu, Wei; Jia, Junhui; Zhang, Lide; Kivshar, Yuri S; Zhang, Lin
2016-10-14
Plasmonic resonant cavities are capable of confining light at the nanoscale, resulting in both enhanced local electromagnetic fields and lower mode volumes. However, conventional plasmonic resonant cavities possess large Ohmic losses at metal-dielectric interfaces. Plasmonic near-field coupling plays a key role in a design of photonic components based on the resonant cavities because of the possibility to reduce losses. Here, we study the plasmonic near-field coupling in the silver nanorod metamaterials treated as resonant nanostructured optical cavities. Reflectance measurements reveal the existence of multiple resonance modes of the nanorod metamaterials, which is consistent with our theoretical analysis. Furthermore, our numerical simulations show that the electric field at the longitudinal resonances forms standing waves in the nanocavities due to the near-field coupling between the adjacent nanorods, and a new hybrid mode emerges due to a coupling between nanorods and a gold-film substrate. We demonstrate that this coupling can be controlled by changing the gap between the silver nanorod array and gold substrate.
Near-field coupling and resonant cavity modes in plasmonic nanorod metamaterials
Song, Haojie; Zhang, Junxi; Fei, Guangtao; Wang, Junfeng; Jiang, Kang; Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonghua; Iorsh, Ivan; Xu, Wei; Jia, Junhui; Zhang, Lide; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Zhang, Lin
2016-10-01
Plasmonic resonant cavities are capable of confining light at the nanoscale, resulting in both enhanced local electromagnetic fields and lower mode volumes. However, conventional plasmonic resonant cavities possess large Ohmic losses at metal-dielectric interfaces. Plasmonic near-field coupling plays a key role in a design of photonic components based on the resonant cavities because of the possibility to reduce losses. Here, we study the plasmonic near-field coupling in the silver nanorod metamaterials treated as resonant nanostructured optical cavities. Reflectance measurements reveal the existence of multiple resonance modes of the nanorod metamaterials, which is consistent with our theoretical analysis. Furthermore, our numerical simulations show that the electric field at the longitudinal resonances forms standing waves in the nanocavities due to the near-field coupling between the adjacent nanorods, and a new hybrid mode emerges due to a coupling between nanorods and a gold-film substrate. We demonstrate that this coupling can be controlled by changing the gap between the silver nanorod array and gold substrate.
Coupled-mode induced transparency in aerostatically-tuned microbubble whispering gallery resonators
Yang, Yong; Ward, Jonathan; Chormaic, Síle Nic
2015-01-01
Coupled-mode induced transparency is realized in a single microbubble whispering gallery mode resonator. Using aerostatic tuning, we find that the pressure induced shifting rates are different for different radial order modes. A finite element simulation considering both the strain and stress effects shows a GHz/bar difference and this is confirmed by experiments. A transparency spectrum is obtained when a first order mode shifts across a higher order mode through precise pressure tuning. The resulting lineshapes are fitted with the theory. This work lays a foundation for future applications in microbubble sensing.
Inter-Well Coupling and Resonant Tunneling Modes of Multiple Graphene Quantum Wells
安丽萍; 王同标; 刘念华
2011-01-01
We investigate the inter-well coupling of multiple graphene quantum well structures consisting of graphene superlattices with different periodic potentials. The general form of the eigenlevel equation for the bound states of the quantum well is expressed in terms of the transfer matrix elements. It is found that the electronic transmission exhibits resonant tunneling peaks at the eigenlevels of the bound states and shifts to the higher energy with increasing the incident angle. If there are N coupled quantum wells, the resonant modes have N-fold splitting. The peaks of resonant tunneling can be controlled by modulating the graphene barriers.
Pattern Formation in Double-Layer Kerr Resonators with Coupled Modes
Bois, Antoine
2016-01-01
A double-layer Kerr resonator in which both coupled modes are excited and interact with each other via incoherent cross-phase modulation is investigated to reveal stable localized solutions beyond the usual formation mechanism involving a single mode. Periodic solutions from modulational instability are found to occur at a slight penalty on the nonlinear efficiency, but they stabilize the spatial dynamics, leading to dissipative solitons in previously unattainable regimes. Numerical simulations show paired breather solitons in addition to temporally stable solutions. The results demonstrate coupled modes can increase the stability of Kerr frequency comb generation.
A coupling model for quasi-normal modes of photonic resonators
Vial, Benjamin
2016-01-01
We develop a model for the coupling of quasi-normal modes in open photonic systems consisting of two resonators. By expressing the modes of the coupled system as a linear combination of the modes of the individual particles, we obtain a generalized eigenvalue problem involving small size dense matrices. We apply this technique to a 2D problem of a high index rod dimmer of rectangular cross section for Transverse Electric (TE) polarization. The results of our model are compared with full-wave finite element simulations and show a good agreement for the four lowest eigenvalues by taking into account the two lowest eigenfrequencies of the isolated rods. This model provides interesting physical insights on the coupling scheme at stake in such systems and pave the way for the design and optimization of resonances in more complicated systems, including the engineering of metamaterial unit cells.
Formation of long-lived resonances in hexagonal cavities by strong coupling of superscar modes
Song, Qinghai; Ge, Li; Wiersig, Jan; Cao, Hui
2013-08-01
The recent progresses in single crystalline wide bandgap hexagonal disk have stimulated intense research attention on pursuing ultraviolet (UV) laser diodes with low thresholds. While whispering-gallery modes based UV lasers have been successfully obtained in GaN, ZnO nanorods, and nanopillars, the reported thresholds are still very high, due to the low-quality (Q) factors of the hexagonal resonances. Here we demonstrate resonances whose Q factors can be more than two orders of magnitude higher than the hexagonal modes, promising the reduction of the energy consumption. The key to our finding is the avoided resonance crossing between superscar states along two sets of nearly degenerated triangle orbits, which leads to the formation of hexagram modes. The mode couplings suppress the field distributions at the corners and the deviations from triangle orbits simultaneously and therefore enhance the Q factors significantly.
Li, Quanshui; Hu, Jianling; Wang, Ziya; Wang, Fengping; Bao, Yongjun
2014-07-01
The resonant, near-resonant, and off-resonant plasmon coupling effects for the bonding modes in asymmetric dimers are illustrated by two types of configuration, one formed by a gold nanoparticle and a TiO2-Ag core-shell nanoparticle and the other formed by two TiO2-Ag core-shell nanoparticles with suitable sizes. The redshift and blueshift behaviours of the coupled bonding modes with decreasing gap are found under longitudinal and transverse polarization of light for these dimers in the resonant situation, respectively. Under the near-resonant situation, the redshift behaviours of the coupled bonding modes still remain under longitudinal polarization, whereas the two separated modes of monomers after coupling under transverse polarization exhibit no obvious peak-shift behaviours, and the one on the lower frequency side shows an apparent attenuation in the strength. Under the off-resonant situation, the redshift behaviours not only occur in the coupled modes under longitudinal polarization, but also occur in two separated modes under transverse polarization.
Li, Yangcheng
2015-01-01
In this dissertation novel resonant propulsion of dielectric microspheres is studied with the goal of sorting spheres with identical resonances, which are critical for developing microspherical photonics. First, evanescent field couplers were developed by fixing tapered microfibers in mechanically robust platforms. The tapers were obtained by chemical etching techniques. Using these platforms, WGMs modal numbers, coupling regimes and quality factors were determined for various spheres and compared with theory. Second, the spectroscopic properties of photonic molecules formed by spheres with better than 0.05% uniformity of WGM resonances were studied. It was shown that various spatial configurations of coupled-cavities present relatively stable mode splitting patterns in the fiber transmission spectra which can be used as spectral signatures to distinguish such photonic molecules. The third part is the study of giant resonant propulsion forces exerted on microspheres. This effect was observed in suspensions of...
Evidence of Resonant Mode Coupling in the Hot B Subdwarf Star KIC 10139564
Zong W.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The Kepler spacecraft provides new opportinuties to observe long term frequency and amplitude modulations of oscillation modes in pulsating stars. We analyzed more than three years of uninterrupted data obtained with this instrument on the hot B subdwarf (sdB star KIC 10139564 and found clear signatures of nonlinear resonant mode coupling affecting several multiplets. The observed periodic frequency and amplitude modulations may allow for new asteroseismic diagnostics, providing in particular ways to measure linear growth rates of pulsation modes in hot subdwarf stars for the first time.
Effects of mode coupling on the admittance of an AT-cut quartz thickness-shear resonator
He Hui-Jing; Yang Jia-Shi; Zhang Wei-Ping; Wang Ji
2013-01-01
We study the effects of couplings to flexure and face-shear modes on the admittance of an AT-cut quartz plate thickness-shear mode resonator.Mindlin's two-dimensional equations for piezoelectric plates are employed.Electrically forced vibration solutions are obtained for three cases:pure thickness-shear mode alone; two coupled modes of thickness shear and flexure; and three coupled modes of thickness shear,flexure,and face shear.Admittance is calculated and its dependence on the driving frequency and the length/thickness ratio of the resonator is examined.Results show that near the thickness-shear resonance,admittance assumes maxima,and that for certain values of the length/thickness ratio,the coupling to flexure causes severe admittance drops,while the coupling to the face-shear mode causes additional admittance changes that were previously unknown and hence are not considered in current resonator design practice.
Mode Modification of Plasmonic Gap Resonances induced by Strong Coupling with Molecular Excitons
Chen, Xingxing; Qin, Jian; Zhao, Ding; Ding, Boyang; Blaikie, Richard J; Qiu, Min
2016-01-01
Plasmonic cavities can be used to control the atom-photon coupling process at the nanoscale, since they provide ultrahigh density of optical states in an exceptionally small mode volume. Here we demonstrate strong coupling between molecular excitons and plasmonic resonances (so-called plexcitonic coupling) in a film-coupled nanocube cavity, which can induce profound and significant spectral and spatial modifications to the plasmonic gap modes. Within the spectral span of a single gap mode in the nanotube-film cavity with a 3-nm wide gap, the introduction of narrow-band J-aggregate dye molecules not only enables an anti-crossing behavior in the spectral response, but also splits the single spatial mode into two distinct modes that are easily identified by their far-field scattering profiles. Simulation results confirm the experimental findings and the sensitivity of the plexcitonic coupling is explored using digital control of the gap spacing. Our work opens up a new perspective to study the strong coupling pr...
Nonlinear mode coupling and internal resonances in MoS2 nanoelectromechanical system
Samanta, C.; Yasasvi Gangavarapu, P. R.; Naik, A. K.
2015-10-01
Atomically thin two dimensional (2D) layered materials have emerged as a new class of material for nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) due to their extraordinary mechanical properties and ultralow mass density. Among them, graphene has been the material of choice for nanomechanical resonator. However, recent interest in 2D chalcogenide compounds has also spurred research in using materials such as MoS2 for the NEMS applications. As the dimensions of devices fabricated using these materials shrink down to atomically thin membrane, strain and nonlinear effects have become important. A clear understanding of the nonlinear effects and the ability to manipulate them is essential for next generation sensors. Here, we report on all electrical actuation and detection of few-layer MoS2 resonator. The ability to electrically detect multiple modes and actuate the modes deep into the nonlinear regime enables us to probe the nonlinear coupling between various vibrational modes. The modal coupling in our device is strong enough to detect three distinct internal resonances.
Bandwidth tunable guided-mode resonance filter using contact coupled gratings at oblique incidence
Sang, Tian; Wang, Yueke; Li, Junlang; Zhou, Jianyu; Jiang, Wenwen; Wang, Jicheng; Chen, Guoqing
2017-01-01
A novel bandwidth tunable guided-mode resonance filter (GMRF) is proposed based on the contact coupled gratings (CCGs) with the absentee layers at oblique incidence. The design principle of the CCGs with double absentee layers is presented. The lateral shift of the CCGs changes the magnetic field distributions of the waveguide mode in the grating cavity and the surface-confined mode at the cover/grating interface thus facilitates the dynamic control of both the spectral and angular bandwidth of the GMRF. The resonance locations are almost immune to the variation of the lateral shift of the CCGs. The sideband level of the GMRF is almost unaffected by the lateral shift due to the Brewster AR effect. The resonance peak red-shifts quasi-linearly as the incident angle is increased, and the resonance wavelength can be selected by merely tuning the incident angle. The tunable ranges of both the spectral and angular bandwidth can be significantly enhanced by increasing the refractive-index contrast. Low-sideband reflection with controllable bandwidth at 650 nm is designed to demonstrate this concept.
Wang, Zheng; Liu, Chao; Li, Erwen; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Xu, Xiaochuan; Wang, Alan X.; Fan, D. L.; Chen, Ray T.
2017-02-01
Raman scattering spectroscopy is a unique tool to probe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes of a molecular system and therefore could be utilized to identify chemistry and quantity of molecules. However, the ultralow efficient Raman scattering, which is only 1/109 1/1014 of the excitation light due to the small Raman scattering cross-sections of molecules, have significantly hindered its development in practical sensing applications. The discovery of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in the 1970s and the significant progress in nanofabrication technique, provide a promising solution to overcome the inherent issues of Raman spectroscopy. It is found that In the vicinity of nanoparticles and their junctions, the Raman signals of molecules can be significantly improved by an enhancement factor as high as 1010, due to the ultrahigh electric field generated by the localized surface plasmons resonance (LSPR), where the intensity of Raman scattering is proportional to the |E|4. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a new approach combining LSPR from nanocapsules with densely assembled silver nanoparticles (NC-AgNPs) and guidemode- resonance (GMR) from dielectric photonic crystal slabs (PCSs) for SERS substrates with robustly high performance.
Coupling-of-modes analysis of thin film plate acoustic wave resonators utilizing the S0 Lamb mode.
Yantchev, Ventsislav
2010-04-01
In this work the applicability of the coupling-of-modes (COM) approach to the analysis of thin AlN film plate acoustic resonators (FPAR), utilizing the S0 Lamb wave, is discussed. Analysis based on the Floquet-Bloch theorem as well as COM parameter extraction from a micromachined FPAR test structure are simultaneously used to verify the applicability of the COM approach. Finite element model simulation is used to further study the contribution of the higher order mass loading effects over the Lamb wave propagation under a periodical grating. A possibility to achieve zero sensitivity of the FPAR resonance with respect to the grating strip thickness is identified and physically interpreted for the first time.
Temporal coupled mode theory of standing wave resonant cavities for infrared photodetection.
Lesmanne, Emeline; De Lamaestre, Roch Espiau; Fowler, David; Boutami, Salim; Badano, Giacomo
2015-03-23
Standing wave resonating cavities have been proposed in the past to increase the performance of infrared detectors by minimizing the volume of photogeneration, hence the noise, while maintaining the same quantum efficiency. We present an approach based on the temporal coupled mode theory to explain their behavior and limitations. If the ratio of the imaginary part of the absorber's dielectric function to the index of the incident medium ε″(d)/n₀ is larger than 1.4, then the absorption cross section σ(a) can attain its maximum value, which for an isolated cavity is approximately 2λ/π. Besides, for σ(a) to exceed the cavity width, the incident medium refractive index must be close to unity. Metallic loss is negligible in the infrared, making those resonators suitable for integration in infrared photodetectors.
A Refractive Index Sensor Based on the Resonant Coupling to Cladding Modes in a Fiber Loop
Reyes, Mauricio; Monzón-Hernández, David; Martínez-Ríos, Alejandro; Silvestre, Enrique; Díez, Antonio; Cruz, José Luis; Andrés, Miguel V.
2013-01-01
We report an easy-to-build, compact, and low-cost optical fiber refractive index sensor. It consists of a single fiber loop whose transmission spectra exhibit a series of notches produced by the resonant coupling between the fundamental mode and the cladding modes in a uniformly bent fiber. The wavelength of the notches, distributed in a wavelength span from 1,400 to 1,700 nm, can be tuned by adjusting the diameter of the fiber loop and are sensitive to refractive index changes of the external medium. Sensitivities of 170 and 800 nm per refractive index unit for water solutions and for the refractive index interval 1.40–1.442, respectively, are demonstrated. We estimate a long range resolution of 3 × 10−4 and a short range resolution of 2 × 10−5 for water solutions. PMID:23979478
Non-resonant instability of coupled Alfvén and drift compressional modes in magnetospheric plasma
Mager, Pavel N.; Klimushkin, Dmitri Yu
2017-09-01
A new mechanism of generation of the high-m compressional ULF waves in the magnetosphere is considered. It is suggested that the wave can be generated by the non-resonant instability of coupled Alfvén and drift compressional modes in the energetic component of the magnetospheric plasma. A stability analysis of the of the coupled modes in the inhomogeneous finite-β plasma in the dipole-like field in gyrokinetics is performed. A quadratic equation was obtained that determines mode frequency and the growth rate. The frequencies of both modes depend on the azimuthal wave number, m. The branches are merged at some critical m value, forming a mode with both real and imaginary parts of the wave frequency. This mode is amplified due to the instability called the drift coupling instability. The instability criterion was found. Its growth rate is determined by the mode coupling.
Dantan, Aurélien; Marler, Joan; Albert, Magnus
2010-01-01
We report on a novel noninvasive method to determine the normal mode frequencies of ion Coulomb crystals in traps based on the resonance enhanced collective coupling between the electronic states of the ions and an optical cavity field at the single photon level. Excitations of the normal modes...... are observed through a Doppler broadening of the resonance. An excellent agreement with the predictions of a zero-temperature uniformly charged liquid plasma model is found. The technique opens up for investigations of the heating and damping of cold plasma modes, as well as the coupling between them....
Entanglement of resonantly coupled field modes in cavities with vibrating boundaries
Andreata, M A; Dodonov, V V
2002-01-01
We study time dependence of various measures of entanglement (covariance entanglement coefficient, purity entanglement coefficient, normalized distance coefficient, entropic coefficients) between resonantly coupled modes of the electromagnetic field in ideal cavities with oscillating boundaries. Two types of cavities are considered: a three-dimensional cavity possessing eigenfrequencies $\\omega_3=3\\omega_1$, whose wall oscillates at the frequency $\\omega_w=2\\omega_1$, and a one-dimensional (Fabry--Perot) cavity with an equidistant spectrum $\\omega_n= n\\omega_1$, when the distance between perfect mirrors oscillates at the frequencies $\\omega_1$ and $2\\omega_1$. The behaviour of entanglement measures in these cases turns out to be completely different, although all three coefficients demonstrate qualitatively similar time dependences in each case (except for some specific situations, where the covariance entanglement coefficient, based on traces of covariance submatrices, seems to be essentially more sensitive ...
Design and Modelling of a Two-port Surface Acoustic WaveResonator using Coupling-of-modes Theory
Mamta Khaneja
2008-05-01
Full Text Available In this present paper the coupling-of-modes theory has been used to design and simulatethe characteristics of a two-port SAW resonator with shorted reflection gratings to define theresonance cavity. A resonator device at 150 MHz has been designed and fabricated on ST-Quartz. It is found that the simulated and experimental characteristics of the device are in closeagreement. The results show that the SAW designs based on coupling-of-modes formulationare adequate for most applications.
Pishko, Svetlana V; Benson, Trevor M; Boriskina, Svetlana V
2007-01-01
Waveguides composed of electromagnetically-coupled optical microcavities (coupled resonator optical waveguides or CROWs) can be used for light guiding, slowing and storage. In this paper, we present a two-dimensional analysis of finite-size straight and curved CROW sections based on a rigorous Muller boundary integral equations method. We study mechanisms of the coupling of whispering gallery (WG) modes and guiding light around bends in CROWs composed of both identical and size-mismatched microdisk resonators. Our accurate analysis reveals differences in WG modes coupling in the vicinity of bends in CROWs composed of optically-large and wavelength-scale microcavities. We propose and discuss possible ways to design low-loss CROW bends and to reduce bend losses. These include selecting specific bend angles depending on the azimuthal order of the WG mode and tuning the radius of the microdisk positioned at the CROW bend.
Zhang, Sheng; Rao, Jia-Yu; Tai, Wen-Si; Wang, Ting; Liu, Fa-Lin
2016-09-01
In this paper, a kind of quasi eighth substrate integrated waveguide resonator (QESIWR) with defected fractal structure (DFS) is proposed firstly. Compared with the eighth substrate integrated waveguide resonator (ESIWR), this kind of resonator has lower resonant frequency (f0), acceptable unloaded quality (Qu) value and almost unchanged electric field distribution. In order to validate the properties of QESIWR, a cascaded quadruplet QESIWRs filter is designed and optimized. By using cross coupling and gap coupling compensation, this filter has two transmission zeros (TZs) at each side of the passband. Meanwhile, in comparison with the conventional ones, its size is cut down over 90 %. The measured results agree well with the simulated ones.
Coherent coupling of molecular resonators with a micro-cavity mode
Shalabney, Atef; Hutchison, James A; Pupillo, Guido; Genet, Cyriaque; Ebbesen, Thomas W
2014-01-01
Strong coupling is at the heart of optomechanics where it enables coherent quantum state transfer between light and micromechanical oscillators. Strongly coupled molecule-cavity systems have also revealed unique properties enabling even the control of chemical rates through the optical hybridization of the electronic states. Here we combine these notions to show that molecular vibrational modes of the electronic ground state can be coherently coupled with a micro-cavity mode at room temperature, given the low vibrational thermal occupation factors n_{\
Li, Shuo [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Li, Zhanlong; Wang, Shenghan; Gao, Shuqin [College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Sun, Chenglin, E-mail: chenglin@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Li, Zuowei [College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)
2015-12-15
Highlights: • The Huang–Rhys factors and electron–phonon coupling constants are calculated. • The changes of overtone mode are larger than those of fundamental mode. • The variation pattern of electron–phonon coupling well interprets the changes of spectra. - Abstract: External field plays a very important role in the interaction between the π-electron transition and atomic vibration of polyenes. It has significant effects on both the Huang–Rhys factor and the electron–phonon coupling. In this paper, the visible absorption and resonance Raman spectra of all-trans-β-carotene are measured in the 345–295 K temperature range and it is found that the changes of the 0–1 and 0–2 vibration bands of the absorption spectra with the temperature lead to the different electron–phonon coupling of fundamental, overtone, and combination modes. The electron-phonon coupling constants of all the modes are calculated and analyzed under different temperatures. The variation law of the electron–phonon coupling with the temperature well interprets the changes of the resonance Raman spectra, such as the shift, intensity and line width of the overtone and combination modes, which are all greater than those of the fundamental modes.
Bakhti, Saïd; Tishchenko, Alexandre V.; Zambrana-Puyalto, Xavier; Bonod, Nicolas; Dhuey, Scott D.; Schuck, P. James; Cabrini, Stefano; Alayoglu, Selim; Destouches, Nathalie
2016-09-01
In this work we theoretically and experimentally analyze the resonant behavior of individual 3 × 3 gold particle oligomers illuminated under normal and oblique incidence. While this structure hosts both dipolar and quadrupolar electric and magnetic delocalized modes, only dipolar electric and quadrupolar magnetic modes remain at normal incidence. These modes couple into a strongly asymmetric spectral response typical of a Fano-like resonance. In the basis of the coupled mode theory, an analytical representation of the optical extinction in terms of singular functions is used to identify the hybrid modes emerging from the electric and magnetic mode coupling and to interpret the asymmetric line profiles. Especially, we demonstrate that the characteristic Fano line shape results from the spectral interference of a broad hybrid mode with a sharp one. This structure presents a special feature in which the electric field intensity is confined on different lines of the oligomer depending on the illumination wavelength relative to the Fano dip. This Fano-type resonance is experimentally observed performing extinction cross section measurements on arrays of gold nano-disks. The vanishing of the Fano dip when increasing the incidence angle is also experimentally observed in accordance with numerical simulations.
Coupled resonator vertical cavity laser
Choquette, K.D.; Chow, W.W.; Hou, H.Q.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.
1998-01-01
The monolithic integration of coupled resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. The authors report the first electrically injected coupled resonator vertical-cavity laser diode and demonstrate novel characteristics arising from the cavity coupling, including methods for external modulation of the laser. A coupled mode theory is used model the output modulation of the coupled resonator vertical cavity laser.
Hu, Ji-Ying; Li, Zhao-Hui; Sun, Yang; Li, Qi-Hu
2016-12-01
Shear-mode piezoelectric materials have been widely used to shunt the damping of vibrations where utilizing surface or interface shear stresses. The thick-shear mode (TSM) elastic constant and the mechanical loss factor can change correspondingly when piezoelectric materials are shunted to different electrical circuits. This phenomenon makes it possible to control the performance of a shear-mode piezoelectric damping system through designing the shunt circuit. However, due to the difficulties in directly measuring the TSM elastic constant and the mechanical loss factor of piezoelectric materials, the relationships between those parameters and the shunt circuits have rarely been investigated. In this paper, a coupling TSM electro-mechanical resonant system is proposed to indirectly measure the variations of the TSM elastic constant and the mechanical loss factor of piezoelectric materials. The main idea is to transform the variations of the TSM elastic constant and the mechanical loss factor into the changes of the easily observed resonant frequency and electrical quality factor of the coupling electro-mechanical resonator. Based on this model, the formular relationships are set up theoretically with Mason equivalent circuit method and they are validated with finite element (FE) analyses. Finally, a prototype of the coupling electro-mechanical resonator is fabricated with two shear-mode PZT5A plates to investigate the TSM elastic constants and the mechanical loss factors of different circuit-shunted cases of the piezoelectric plate. Both the resonant frequency shifts and the bandwidth changes observed in experiments are in good consistence with the theoretical and FE analyses under the same shunt conditions. The proposed coupling resonator and the obtained relationships are validated with but not limited to PZT5A. Project supported by the National Defense Foundation of China (Grant No. 9149A12050414JW02180).
Two mode coupling in a single ion oscillator via parametric resonance
Gorman, Dylan J; Selvarajan, Sankaranarayanan; Daniilidis, Nikos; Häffner, Hartmut
2014-01-01
Atomic ions, confined in radio-frequency Paul ion traps, are a promising candidate to host a future quantum information processor. In this letter, we demonstrate a method to couple two motional modes of a single trapped ion, where the coupling mechanism is based on applying electric fields rather than coupling the ion's motion to a light field. This reduces the design constraints on the experimental apparatus considerably. As an application of this mechanism, we cool a motional mode close to its ground state without accessing it optically. As a next step, we apply this technique to measure the mode's heating rate, a crucial parameter determining the trap quality. In principle, this method can be used to realize a two-mode quantum parametric amplifier.
Breger, Michel
2014-01-01
In the theory of resonant mode coupling, the parent and child modes are directly related in frequency and phase. The oscillations present in the fast rotating Delta Scuti star KIC 8054146 allow us to test the most general and generic aspects of such a theory. The only direct way to separate the parent and coupled (child) modes is to examine the correlations in amplitude variability between the different frequencies. For the dominant family of related frequencies, only a single mode and a triplet are the origins of nine dominant frequency peaks ranging from 2.93 to 66.30 cycles per day (as well as dozens of small-amplitude combination modes and a predicted and detected third high-frequency triplet). The mode-coupling model correctly predicts the large amplitude variations of the coupled modes as a product of the amplitudes of the parent modes, while the phase changes are also correctly modeled. This differs from the behavior of 'normal' combination frequencies in that the amplitudes are three orders of magnitu...
Off-resonance coupling between a cavity mode and an ensemble of driven spins
Wang, Hui; Masis, Sergei; Levi, Roei; Shtempluk, Oleg; Buks, Eyal
2017-05-01
We study the interaction between a superconducting cavity and a spin ensemble. The response of a cavity mode is monitored while simultaneously the spins are driven at a frequency close to their Larmor frequency, which is tuned to a value much higher than the cavity resonance. We experimentally find that the effective damping rate of the cavity mode is shifted by the driven spins. The measured shift in the damping rate is attributed to the retarded response of the cavity mode to the driven spins. The experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions and fair agreement is found.
Coupled-resonator optical waveguides
Raza, Søren; Grgic, Jure; Pedersen, Jesper Goor
2010-01-01
Coupled-resonator optical waveguides hold potential for slow-light propagation of optical pulses. The dispersion properties may adequately be analyzed within the framework of coupled-mode theory. We extend the standard coupled-mode theory for such structures to also include complex-valued paramet...
Gentry, Cale M; Popovic, Milos A
2014-01-01
We propose and demonstrate localized mode coupling as a viable dispersion engineering technique for phase-matched resonant four-wave mixing (FWM). We demonstrate a dual-cavity resonant structure that employs coupling-induced frequency splitting at one of three resonances to compensate for cavity dispersion, enabling phase-matching. Coupling strength is controlled by thermal tuning of one cavity enabling active control of the resonant frequency-matching. In a fabricated silicon microresonator, we show an 8 dB enhancement of seeded FWM efficiency over the non-compensated state. The measured four-wave mixing has a peak wavelength conversion efficiency of -37.9 dB across a free spectral range (FSR) of 3.334 THz ($\\sim$27 nm). Enabled by strong counteraction of dispersion, this FSR is, to our knowledge, the largest in silicon to demonstrate FWM to date. This form of mode-coupling-based, active dispersion compensation can be beneficial for many FWM-based devices including wavelength converters, parametric amplifier...
Vyshnevskyy, Oleksiy; Kovalev, Sergej; Mehner, Jan
2005-01-01
This paper describes a tangential-axial eigen-mode of a piezoelectric hollow cylinder. A new type of piezoelectric ultrasonic motor using this oscillation mode has been developed. The motor is a traveling-wave-type motor. The stator of such a motor consists of a solid piezoelectric hollow cylinder, which, excited in the tangential-axial resonant mode by a three-phase electrical signal, will exhibit elliptical displacement and transfer rotation to the rotor. The behavior of the stator has been simulated with finite element method (FEM) software. The simulation results have been checked with single-point contact measurements on the surface of the ultrasonic motors. The paper closes with the introduction of new ultrasonic motors based on this oscillation mode.
Breger, M.; Montgomery, M. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)
2014-03-10
In the theory of resonant mode coupling, the parent and child modes are directly related in frequency and phase. The oscillations present in the fast rotating δ Sct star KIC 8054146 allow us to test the most general and generic aspects of such a theory. The only direct way to separate the parent and coupled (child) modes is to examine the correlations in amplitude variability between the different frequencies. For the dominant family of related frequencies, only a single mode and a triplet are the origins of nine dominant frequency peaks ranging from 2.93 to 66.30 cycles day{sup –1} (as well as dozens of small-amplitude combination modes and a predicted and detected third high-frequency triplet). The mode-coupling model correctly predicts the large amplitude variations of the coupled modes as a product of the amplitudes of the parent modes, while the phase changes are also correctly modeled. This differs from the behavior of 'normal' combination frequencies in that the amplitudes are three orders of magnitude larger and may exceed even the amplitudes of the parent modes. We show that two dominant low frequencies at 5.86 and 2.93 cycles day{sup –1} in the gravity-mode region are not harmonics of each other, and their properties follow those of the almost equidistant high-frequency triplet. We note that the previously puzzling situation of finding two strong peaks in the low-frequency region related by nearly a factor of two in frequency has been seen in other δ Sct stars as well.
Bian, Nicolas H; Ratcliffe, Heather
2015-01-01
Of particular interest for radio and hard X-ray diagnostics of accelerated electrons during solar flares is the understanding of the basic non-linear mechanisms regulating the relaxation of electron beams propagating in turbulent plasmas. In this work, it is shown that in addition to scattering of beam electrons, scattering of the beam-generated Langmuir waves via for instance mode-coupling, can also result in broadening of the wave-particle resonance. We obtain a resonance-broadened version of weak-turbulence theory with mode-coupling to ion-sound modes. Resonance broadening is presented here as a unified framework which can quantitatively account for the reduction and possible suppression of the beam instability due to background scattering of the beam electrons themselves or due to scattering of the beam-generated Langmuir waves in fluctuating plasmas. Resonance broadening being essentially equivalent to smoothing of the electron phase-space distribution, it is used to construct an intuitive physical pictu...
The Circuit Theory Behind Coupled-Mode Magnetic Resonance-Based Wireless Power Transmission.
Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam
2012-09-01
Inductive coupling is a viable scheme to wirelessly energize devices with a wide range of power requirements from nanowatts in radio frequency identification tags to milliwatts in implantable microelectronic devices, watts in mobile electronics, and kilowatts in electric cars. Several analytical methods for estimating the power transfer efficiency (PTE) across inductive power transmission links have been devised based on circuit and electromagnetic theories by electrical engineers and physicists, respectively. However, a direct side-by-side comparison between these two approaches is lacking. Here, we have analyzed the PTE of a pair of capacitively loaded inductors via reflected load theory (RLT) and compared it with a method known as coupled-mode theory (CMT). We have also derived PTE equations for multiple capacitively loaded inductors based on both RLT and CMT. We have proven that both methods basically result in the same set of equations in steady state and either method can be applied for short- or midrange coupling conditions. We have verified the accuracy of both methods through measurements, and also analyzed the transient response of a pair of capacitively loaded inductors. Our analysis shows that the CMT is only applicable to coils with high quality factor (Q) and large coupling distance. It simplifies the analysis by reducing the order of the differential equations by half compared to the circuit theory.
Chen, Zhiyong; Chen, Yandong; Guerrero, Josep M.
2016-01-01
This paper firstly presents an equivalent coupling circuit modeling of multi-parallel inverters in microgrid operating in grid-connected mode. By using the model, the coupling resonance phenomena are explicitly investigated through the mathematical approach, and the intrinsic and extrinsic resona...... to attenuate coupling resonance, and the most salient feature is that the optimal range of the damping parameter can be easily located through an initiatively graphic method. Finally, simulations and experiments verify the validity of the proposed modeling and method....
Won Mok Kim
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In this study, we present and demonstrate a new route to a great enhancement in resolution of surface plasmon resonance sensors. Basically, our approach combines a waveguide coupled plasmonic mode and a kind of Au/Ag bimetallic enhancement concept. Theoretical modeling was carried out by solving Fresnel equations for the multilayer stack of prism/Ag inner-metal layer/dielectric waveguide/Au outer-metal layer. The inner Ag layer couples incident light to a guided wave and makes more fields effectively concentrated on the outer Au surface. A substantial enhancement in resolution was experimentally verified for the model stack using a ZnS-SiO2 waveguide layer.
Kolpakov, Stanislav A; Loika, Yuri; Tarasov, Nikita; Kalashnikov, Vladimir; Agrawal, Govind P
2015-01-01
A mode locked fibre laser as a source of ultra-stable pulse train has revolutionised a wide range of fundamental and applied research areas by offering high peak powers, high repetition rates, femtosecond range pulse widths and a narrow linewidth. However, further progress in linewidth narrowing seems to be limited by the complexity of the carrier-envelope phase control. Here for the first time we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically a new mechanism of resonance vector self-mode locking where tuning in-cavity birefringence leads to excitation of the longitudinal modes sidebands accompanied by the resonance phase locking of sidebands with the adjacent longitudinal modes. An additional resonance with acoustic phonons provides the repetition rate tunability and linewidth narrowing down to Hz range that drastically reduces the complexity of the carrier-envelope phase control and so will open the way to advance lasers in the context of applications in metrology, spectroscopy, microwave photonics, astronomy...
Surface acoustic wave mode conversion resonator
Martin, S. J.; Gunshor, R. L.; Melloch, M. R.; Datta, S.; Pierret, R. F.
1983-08-01
The fact that a ZnO-on-Si structure supports two distinct surface waves, referred to as the Rayleigh and the Sezawa modes, if the ZnO layer is sufficiently thick is recalled. A description is given of a unique surface wave resonator that operates by efficiently converting between the two modes at the resonant frequency. Since input and output coupling is effected through different modes, the mode conversion resonator promises enhanced out-of-band signal rejection. A Rayleigh wave traversing the resonant cavity in one direction is reflected as a Sezawa wave. It is pointed out that the off-resonance rejection of the mode conversion resonator could be enhanced by designing the transducers to minimize the level of cross coupling between transducers and propagating modes.
Coupling to Modes of a Near-Confocal Optical Resonator Using a Digital Light Modulator
Papageorge, Alexander T; Lev, Benjamin L
2016-01-01
Digital Micromirror Devices (DMD) provide a robust platform with which to implement digital holography, in principle providing the means to rapidly generate propagating transverse electromagnetic fields with arbitrary mode profiles at visible and IR wavelengths. We use a DMD to probe a Fabry-P\\'{e}rot cavity in single-mode and near-degenerate confocal configurations. Pumping arbitrary modes of the cavity is possible with excellent specificity by virtue of the spatial overlap between the incident light field and the cavity mode.
Bachelard, Nicolas; Sebbah, Patrick; Vanneste, Christian
2014-01-01
We use time-domain numerical simulations of a two-dimensional (2D) scattering system to study the interaction of a collection of emitters resonantly coupled to an Anderson-localized mode. For a small electric field intensity, we observe the strong coupling between the emitters and the mode, which is characterized by linear Rabi oscillations. Remarkably, a larger intensity induces non-linear interaction between the emitters and the mode, referred to as the dynamical Stark effect, resulting in non-linear Rabi oscillations. The transition between both regimes is observed and an analytical model is proposed which accurately describes our numerical observations.
Resonant scattering and mode coupling in two-dimensional textured planar waveguides.
Cowan, A R; Paddon, P; Pacradouni, V; Young, J F
2001-05-01
A heuristic formalism is developed for efficiently determining the specular reflectivity spectrum of two-dimensionally textured planar waveguides. The formalism is based on a Green's function approach wherein the electric fields are assumed to vary little over the thickness of the textured part of the waveguide. Its accuracy, when the thickness of the textured region is much smaller than the wavelength of relevant radiation, is verified by comparison with a much less efficient, exact finite difference solution of Maxwell's equations. In addition to its numerical efficiency, the formalism provides an intuitive explanation of Fano-like features evident in the specular reflectivity spectrum when the incident radiation is phase matched to excite leaky electromagnetic modes attached to the waveguide. By associating various Fourier components of the scattered field with bare slab modes, the dispersion, unique polarization properties, and lifetimes of these Fano-like features are explained in terms of photonic eigenmodes that reveal the renormalization of the slab modes due to interaction with the two-dimensional grating. An application of the formalism, in the analysis of polarization-insensitive notch filters, is also discussed.
Yang, Yi; Peng, Chao; Liang, Yong; Li, Zhengbin; Noda, Susumu
2014-08-01
A general coupled-wave theory is presented for the guided resonance in photonic crystal (PhC) slabs with TM-like polarization. Numerical results based on our model are presented with finite-difference time-domain validations. The proposed analysis facilitates comprehensive understanding of the physics of guided resonance in PhC slabs and provides guidance for its applications.
Murao, Tadashi; Saitoh, Kunimasa; Koshiba, Masanori
2011-01-31
In this paper, we propose a novel mechanism for suppression of higher-order modes (HOMs), namely multiple resonant coupling, in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers (PBGFs) with effectively large core diameters. In an analogy to the well-known tight-binding theory in solid-state physics, multiple anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW) modes bound in designedly arranged defects in the cladding make up Bloch states and resultant photonic bands with a finite effective-index width, which contribute to the suppression of HOMs. In particular, contrary to the conventional method for the HOM suppression using the index-matching of the HOMs in the core of the PBGF and the defect mode arranged in the cladding, the proposed mechanism guarantees a broadband HOM suppression without a precise structural design. This effect is explained by the multiple resonant coupling, as well as an enhanced confinement loss mechanism which occurs near the condition satisfying the multiple resonant coupling. Moreover, we show that the proposed structure exhibits a lower bending loss characteristic when compared to the conventional all-solid PBGFs. The simultaneous realization of the single-mode operation and the low bending loss property is due to the novel cladding concept named as heterostructured cladding. The proposed structure also resolves the issue for the increased confinement loss property in the first-order photonic bandgap (PBG) at the same time.
Sign-Reversal Coupling in Coupled-Resonator Optical Waveguide
Gao, Zhen; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile
2016-01-01
Coupled-resonator optical waveguides (CROWs), which play a significant role in modern photonics, achieve waveguiding through near-field coupling between tightly localized resonators. The coupling factor, a critical parameter in CROW theory, determines the coupling strength between two resonators and the waveguiding dispersion of a CROW. However, the original CROW theory proposed by Yariv et al. only demonstrated one value of coupling factor for a multipole resonance mode. Here, by imaging the tight-binding Bloch waves on a CROW consisting of designer-surface-plasmon resonators in the microwave regime, we demonstrate that the coupling factor in the CROW theory can reverse its sign for a multipole resonance mode. This determines two different waveguiding dispersion curves in the same frequency range, experimentally confirmed by matching Bloch wavevectors and frequencies in the CROW. Our study supplements and extends the original CROW theory, and may find novel use in functional photonic systems.
Photonic molecules formed by coupled hybrid resonators
Peng, Bo; Zhu, Jiangang; Yang, Lan; 10.1364/OL.37.003435
2013-01-01
We describe a method that enables free-standing whispering-gallery-mode microresonators, and report spectral tuning of photonic molecules formed by coupled free and on-chip resonators with different geometries and materials. We study direct coupling via evanescent fields of free silica microtoroids and microspheres with on-chip polymer coated silica microtoroids. We demonstrate thermal tuning of resonance modes to achieve maximal spectral overlap, mode splitting induced by direct coupling, and the effects of distance between the resonators on the splitting spectra.
Geometrically Protected Resonance Modes and Optical Fano Resonances
Regan, Emma C; Lopez, Josue J; Hsu, Chia Wei; Zhen, Bo; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljacic, Marin
2015-01-01
Traditionally, photonic crystal slabs can support resonances that are strongly confined to the slab but also couple to external radiation. However, when a photonic crystal slab is placed on a substrate, the resonance modes become less confined, and as the index contrast between slab and substrate decreases, they eventually disappear. Using the scale structure of the Dione Juno butterfly wing as an inspiration, we present a low-index zigzag surface structure that supports resonance modes even without index contrast with the substrate. The zigzag structure supports resonances that are contained away from the substrate; this geometrically protects the modes from coupling to the substrate. We experimentally verify the protected resonance property of the zigzag structure in the visible wavelength regime. Potential applications include substrate-independent structural color and light guiding.
Resonance modes in optical fibres
余寿绵; 余恬
2002-01-01
The weakly nonlinear boundary value problem of wave propagation in an optical fibre (for the transverse electric mode, for example) is formulated and a modified linear solution is obtained. It is shown that a self-consistent theory of fibre optics should be weakly nonlinear. The mode of critical refraction that does not exist in the linear theory is obtained, showing that it is a mode consisting of resonance modes. It is shown that the signal carriers in a long fibre are of resonance modes, not normal modes. Some experimental data are given for comparison with the theoretical predictions, and the agreement seems satisfactory.
Novel Propagation Analysis of Coupled Waveguides by Coupled Mode Expansion and Segmentation
Tomoyuki; Kato; Yasuo; Kokubun
2003-01-01
To optimize the coupling efficiency between the busline waveguide and the ring resonator in a vertically coupled microring resonator, we developed a new method using local normal modes and the segmentation along the propagation axis.
Strong polarization mode coupling in microresonators
Ramelow, Sven; Clemmen, Stéphane; Levy, Jacob S; Johnson, Adrea R; Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Lamont, Michael R E; Lipson, Michal; Gaeta, Alexander L
2014-01-01
We observe strong modal coupling between the TE00 and TM00 modes in Si3N4 ring resonators revealed by avoided crossings of the corresponding resonances. Such couplings result in significant shifts of the resonance frequencies over a wide range around the crossing points. This leads to an effective dispersion that is one order of magnitude larger than the intrinsic dispersion and creates broad windows of anomalous dispersion. We also observe the changes to frequency comb spectra generated in Si3N4 microresonators due polarization mode and higher-order mode crossings and suggest approaches to avoid these effects. Alternatively, such polarization mode-crossings can be used as a novel tool for dispersion engineering in microresonators.
Dispersion of coupled mode-gap cavities
Lian, Jin; Yüce, Emre; De Rossi, Sylvain Combrié Alfredo; Mosk, Allard P
2015-01-01
The dispersion of a CROW made of photonic crystal mode-gap cavities is pronouncedly asymmetric. This asymmetry cannot be explained by the standard tight binding model. We show that the fundamental cause of the asymmetric dispersion is the fact that the cavity mode profile itself is dispersive, i.e., the mode wave function depends on the driving frequency, not the eigenfrequency. This occurs because the photonic crystal cavity resonances do not form a complete set. By taking into account the dispersive mode profile, we formulate a mode coupling model that accurately describes the asymmetric dispersion without introducing any new free parameters.
Classical Coupled Mode Theory of Optomechanical Crystals
Khorasani, Sina
2016-01-01
Acousto-optic interaction in optomechanical crystals allows unidirectional control of elastic waves over optical waves. However, as a result of this nonlinear interaction, infinitely many optical modes are born. This article presents an exact formulaion of coupled mode theory for interaction between elastic Bloch wave waves and photonic Bloch waves moving in a phonotonic waveguide. In general, an optical wavefront is strongly diffracted by an elastic wave in frequency and wavevector, and thus infinite modes with different frequencies and wavevectors appear. We discuss resonance and mode conversion conditions, and present a rigorous method to derive coupling rates and mode profiles. We also find a conservation law which rules over total optical power from interacting individual modes. Modifications of the theory to phonotonic cavities are also discussed. We present application examples including switch, frequency shifter, and reflector.
Zielinski, M.L.; van Lenthe, J.H.
2008-01-01
The resonating block localize wave function (RBLW) method is introduced, a resonating modification of the block localized wave functions introduced by Mo et al. [Mo, Y.; Peyerimhoff, S. D. J. Chem. Phys. 1998, 109, 1687].This approach allows the evaluation of resonance energies following Pauling’s r
Indirect Coupling between Two Cavity Photon Systems via Ferromagnetic Resonance
Hyde, Paul; Harder, Michael; Match, Christophe; Hu, Can-Ming
2016-01-01
We experimentally realize indirect coupling between two cavity modes via strong coupling with the ferromagnetic resonance in Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG). We find that some indirectly coupled modes of our system can have a higher microwave transmission than the individual uncoupled modes. Using a coupled harmonic oscillator model, the influence of the oscillation phase difference between the two cavity modes on the nature of the indirect coupling is revealed. These indirectly coupled microwave modes can be controlled using an external magnetic field or by tuning the cavity height. This work has potential for use in controllable optical devices and information processing technologies.
Coupled Resonator Vertical Cavity Laser Diodes
Choquette, K.D.; Chow, W.W.; Fischer, A.J.; Allerman, A.A.; Hou, H.Q.; Geib, K.M.
1999-07-22
For many applications, the device performance of edge emitting semiconductor lasers can be significantly improved through the use of multiple section devices. For example, cleaved coupled cavity (C3) lasers have been shown to provide single mode operation, wavelength tuning, high speed switching, as well as the generation of short pulses via mode-locking and Q-switching [1]. Using composite resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the coupling between the monolithic cavities, incorporate passive or active resonators which are spectrally degenerate or detuned, and to fabricate these devices in 2-dimensional arrays. Composite resonator vertical cavity lasers (CRVCL) have been examined using optical pumping and electrical injection [2-5]. We report on CRVCL diodes and show that efficient modulation of the laser emission can be achieved by either forward or reverse biasing the passive cavity within a CRVCL.
Coupled Resonator Vertical Cavity Laser Diode
CHOQUETTE, KENT D.; CHOW, WENG W.; FISCHER, ARTHUR J.; GEIB, KENT M.; HOU, HONG Q.
1999-09-16
We report the operation of an electrically injected monolithic coupled resonator vertical cavity laser which consists of an active cavity containing In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}As quantum wells optically coupled to a passive GaAs cavity. This device demonstrates novel modulation characteristics arising from dynamic changes in the coupling between the active and passive cavities. A composite mode theory is used to model the output modulation of the coupled resonator vertical cavity laser. It is shown that the laser intensity can be modulated by either forward or reverse biasing the passive cavity. Under forward biasing, the modulation is due to carrier induced changes in the refractive index, while for reverse bias operation the modulation is caused by field dependent cavity enhanced absorption.
A sound absorbing metasurface with coupled resonators
Li, Junfei; Wang, Wenqi; Xie, Yangbo; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A.
2016-08-01
An impedance matched surface is able, in principle, to totally absorb the incident sound and yield no reflection, and this is desired in many acoustic applications. Here we demonstrate a design of impedance matched sound absorbing surface with a simple construction. By coupling different resonators and generating a hybrid resonance mode, we designed and fabricated a metasurface that is impedance-matched to airborne sound at tunable frequencies with subwavelength scale unit cells. With careful design of the coupled resonators, over 99% energy absorption at central frequency of 511 Hz with a 50% absorption bandwidth of 140 Hz is achieved experimentally. The proposed design can be easily fabricated, and is mechanically stable. The proposed metasurface can be used in many sound absorption applications such as loudspeaker design and architectural acoustics.
Air modes of the Bacon internal resonator banjo
Politzer, David
2016-01-01
Sound measurements on a sequence of related, similar constructions with slightly different dimensions confirm a simple picture of the air modes of the internal resonator banjo's body. For the purpose of this study, the air modes are decoupled from the soundboard (i.e., [drum] head) modes by replacing the head with 3/4" plywood. The resulting characteristic features survive the strong coupling of the air modes to the head and are in accord with the qualitative distinctions recognized by banjo players.
Tailored Asymmetry for Enhanced Coupling to WGM Resonators
Mohageg, Makan; Maleki, Lute
2008-01-01
Coupling of light into and out of whispering- gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators can be enhanced by designing and fabricating the resonators to have certain non-axisymmetric shapes (see figure). Such WGM resonators also exhibit the same ultrahigh values of the resonance quality factor (Q) as do prior WGM resonators. These WGM resonators are potentially useful as tunable narrow-band optical filters having throughput levels near unity, high-speed optical switches, and low-threshold laser resonators. These WGM resonators could also be used in experiments to investigate coupling between high-Q and chaotic modes within the resonators. For a WGM resonator made of an optically nonlinear material (e.g., lithium niobate) or another material having a high index of refraction, a prism made of a material having a higher index of refraction (e.g., diamond) must be used as part of the coupling optics. For coupling of a beam of light into (or out of) the high-Q resonator modes, the beam must be made to approach (or recede from) the resonator at a critical angle determined by the indices of refraction of the resonator and prism materials. In the case of a lithium niobate/diamond interface, this angle is approximately 22 .
Characterization of optical whispering gallery mode resonance and applications
Quan, Haiyong
The whispering-gallery mode microdisk or microsphere resonators have supercompact size, high energy storage, very narrow resonance bandwidth, and high sensitivity. These appealing properties have attracted much attention in the realization of microlasers, narrow filters, optical switching, biosensing, high resolution spectroscopy, and so on. In this dissertation, the optical and energy transport phenomena of whispering-gallery mode resonance and its potentials in some optical sensing applications will be characterized. A 2D theoretical analysis is first presented based on the method of separation of variables and by deriving several appropriate and reasonable boundary conditions to describe the electrical field distribution at resonance modes. This analytical model can precisely predict the intrinsic resonance frequencies of isolated whispering-gallery mode resonators. To consider the coupling of light-delivery waveguides with resonators and investigate the resonance phenomena of the resonator-waveguide system and/or device, simulations using a Finite Element Method solver of Maxwell's equations are conducted. The results indicate the influences of the geometric dimensions, refractive indices, gap distances, and excitation wavelengths on the main characteristics of the resonance modes such as the quality factor Q, the finesse, the mode intensity, and so on. Furthermore, the gap effects are detailedly studied by both theoretical analysis and simulation modeling. The optimal gap for the maximum coupling efficiency and the optimum gap for the best sensing application of the whispering gallery mode resonators are introduced and discussed based on simulation data and theoretical estimations. Three prospective applications of the whispering gallery mode-based sensors are introduced and proof-of-concept studies are demonstrated. The design schemes and fabrication process of the on-chip resonance device made of the Si3N4/SiO2 material system using nanofabrication
Resonator coupled Josephson junctions; parametric excitations and mutual locking
Jensen, H. Dalsgaard; Larsen, A.; Mygind, Jesper
1991-01-01
Self-pumped parametric excitations and mutual locking in systems of Josephson tunnel junctions coupled to multimode resonators are reported. For the very large values of the coupling parameter, obtained with small Nb-Al2O3-Nb junctions integrated in superconducting microstrip resonators, the DC I......-V characteristic shows an equidistant series of current steps generated by subharmonic pumping of the fundamental resonator mode. This is confirmed by measurement of frequency and linewidth of the emitted Josephson radiation...
Polarization Mode Dispersion Probability Distribution for Arbitrary Mode Coupling
无
2003-01-01
The probability distribution of the differential group delay for arbitrary mode coupling is simulated with Monte-Carlo method. Fitting the simulation results, we obtain probability distribution function for arbitrary mode coupling.
Polarization-selective out-coupling of whispering gallery modes
Sedlmeir, Florian; Vogl, Ulrich; Zeltner, Richard; Schunk, Gerhard; Strekalov, Dmitry V; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd; Schwefel, Harald G L
2016-01-01
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are an important building block for linear, nonlinear and quantum optical experiments. In such experiments, independent control of coupling rates to different modes can lead to improved conversion efficiencies and greater flexibility in generation of non-classical states based on parametric down conversion. In this work, we introduce a scheme which enables selective out-coupling of WGMs belonging to a specific polarization family, while the orthogonally polarized modes remain largely unperturbed. Our technique utilizes material birefringence in both the resonator and coupler such that a negative (positive) birefringence allows selective coupling to TE (TM) polarized WGMs. We formulate a new coupling condition suitable for describing the case where the refractive indices of the resonator and the coupler are almost the same, from which we derive the criterion for polarization-selective coupling. We experimentally demonstrate our proposed method using a lithium niobate di...
Broadband absorption through extended resonance modes in random metamaterials
Hao, J.; Niemiec, R.; Lheurette, É.; Lippens, D. [Institut d' Électronique de Microélectronique et Nanotechnologies, IEMN-UMR CNRS 8520, Université de Lille 1, Avenue Poincaré, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Burgnies, L. [Institut d' Électronique de Microélectronique et Nanotechnologies, IEMN-UMR CNRS 8520, Université de Lille 1, Avenue Poincaré, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Université du Littoral Côte d' Opale, Rue Ferdinand Buisson, CS 80699, 62228 Calais cedex (France)
2016-05-21
The properties of disordered metamaterial absorbers are analyzed on the basis of numerical simulations and experimental characterizations. A broadening of the absorption spectrum is clearly evidenced. This effect is the consequence of both the coupling between nearby resonators leading to the occurrence of extended magnetic resonance modes and the interconnection of elementary particles yielding the definition of resonating clusters. The angular robustness of the absorbing structure under oblique incidence is also demonstrated for a wide domain of angles.
Fiber-coupled short Fabry-Perot resonators
Stone, J.; Marcuse, D. (AT and T Bell Labs., Holmdel, NJ (USA))
1989-05-01
Fabry-Perot resonators intended as filters in wavelength-multiplexed optical communications systems may have to be very short (on the order of 10 {mu}m) in order to increase their free spectral range. Short, yet tunable cavities can be designed as air gaps between two fibers placed in close proximity with highly reflecting mirrors deposited on their ends. However, an air-gap resonator with plane mirrors between closely spaced fiber ends may yield low throughout because of the poor match between the modes of typical single-mode fibers and the resonant mode in the air-gap cavity. The throughput can be improved by confining the resonant mode by means of a hollow dielectric tube placed inside the resonator. This paper compares short fiber-coupled Fabry-Parot resonators with and without an inserted hollow dielectric waveguide and derives expressions for their transmission losses. The authors show that the throughput of both types of resonator can be improved significantly by using a special fiber with large mode size to couple to the resonator. The special fiber is then spliced to a conventional single-mode fiber. They conclude that the resonator with an inserted hollow dielectric waveguide offers increased throughput for resonators with high finesse.
Center Frequency Stabilization in Planar Dual-Mode Resonators during Mode-Splitting Control
Naji, Adham; Soliman, Mina H.
2017-03-01
Shape symmetry in dual-mode planar electromagnetic resonators results in their ability to host two degenerate resonant modes. As the designer enforces a controllable break in the symmetry, the degeneracy is removed and the two modes couple, exchanging energy and elevating the resonator into its desirable second-order resonance operation. The amount of coupling is controlled by the degree of asymmetry introduced. However, this mode coupling (or splitting) usually comes at a price. The centre frequency of the perturbed resonator is inadvertently drifted from its original value prior to coupling. Maintaining centre frequency stability during mode splitting is a nontrivial geometric design problem. In this paper, we analyse the problem and propose a novel method to compensate for this frequency drift, based on field analysis and perturbation theory, and we validate the solution through a practical design example and measurements. The analytical method used works accurately within the perturbational limit. It may also be used as a starting point for further numerical optimization algorithms, reducing the required computational time during design, when larger perturbations are made to the resonator. In addition to enabling the novel design example presented, it is hoped that the findings will inspire akin designs for other resonator shapes, in different disciplines and applications.
Center Frequency Stabilization in Planar Dual-Mode Resonators during Mode-Splitting Control
Naji, Adham; Soliman, Mina H.
2017-01-01
Shape symmetry in dual-mode planar electromagnetic resonators results in their ability to host two degenerate resonant modes. As the designer enforces a controllable break in the symmetry, the degeneracy is removed and the two modes couple, exchanging energy and elevating the resonator into its desirable second-order resonance operation. The amount of coupling is controlled by the degree of asymmetry introduced. However, this mode coupling (or splitting) usually comes at a price. The centre frequency of the perturbed resonator is inadvertently drifted from its original value prior to coupling. Maintaining centre frequency stability during mode splitting is a nontrivial geometric design problem. In this paper, we analyse the problem and propose a novel method to compensate for this frequency drift, based on field analysis and perturbation theory, and we validate the solution through a practical design example and measurements. The analytical method used works accurately within the perturbational limit. It may also be used as a starting point for further numerical optimization algorithms, reducing the required computational time during design, when larger perturbations are made to the resonator. In addition to enabling the novel design example presented, it is hoped that the findings will inspire akin designs for other resonator shapes, in different disciplines and applications. PMID:28272422
Viscoelastic coupling of nanoelectromechanical resonators.
Simonson, Robert Joseph; Staton, Alan W.
2009-09-01
This report summarizes work to date on a new collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) to utilize nanoelectromechanical resonators designed at Caltech as platforms to measure the mechanical properties of polymeric materials at length scales on the order of 10-50 nm. Caltech has succeeded in reproducibly building cantilever resonators having major dimensions on the order of 2-5 microns. These devices are fabricated in pairs, with free ends separated by reproducible gaps having dimensions on the order of 10-50 nm. By controlled placement of materials that bridge the very small gap between resonators, the mechanical devices become coupled through the test material, and the transmission of energy between the devices can be monitored. This should allow for measurements of viscoelastic properties of polymeric materials at high frequency over short distances. Our work to date has been directed toward establishing this measurement capability at Sandia.
An ultrasonic atomizing device using coupled-mode vibration
Toda, Kohji; Akimura, Yoshikazu
1994-10-01
A small, compact ultrasonic atomizing device is composed of a rectangular piezoelectric ceramic bar and a metal plate with minute holes. The resonance arising from the coupling between two vibration modes in the ceramic bar is used for the effective device operation. The best atomizing occurs when one of the coupled-mode resonant frequencies of the atomizing device is equal to that of the device without the metal vibrating plate. For an efficient power usage a self-oscillation type circuit, composed of the atomizing device as a resonant element and a power amplification transistor, is utilized.
Multilongitudinal-mode model for cleaved coupled-cavity lasers
van de Capelle, J. P.; Baets, R.; Lagasse, P. E.
1987-02-01
The multilongitudinal-mode model for the analysis of cleaved coupled-cavity lasers proposed by Van de Capelle et al. (1984) is described in full detail. The model includes the optical interactions between the two cavities as well as the noise (spontaneous emission) in each of the resonators. It takes several longitudinal modes into account simultaneously and solves the nonlinear field equations self-consistently, together with a nonlinear resonance condition for each longitudinal mode. These conditions are coupled with each other through the nonlinearity of the laser medium. The results of this model are compared with those from an analytic model based on an effective mirror concept.
Chen, Xi; Huang, Yingyan; Ho, Seng-Tiong
2015-02-01
We proposed and investigated a novel output coupling scheme for a circular and a square plasmonic nano-ring laser based on a T-shaped radial coupler that is easier to realize than a tangential coupler. The amount of coupling efficiency is shown to be highly controllable from a few percent to tens of percents. This is due to the fact that the standing-wave lasing mode pattern will rotate to give the minimal cavity loss at the T-coupler's location, making the amount of output coupling surprisingly low and hence, controllable. For a non-circular cavity, other symmetry-breaking and geometry-induced scattering could result in separate mode-pattern locking. These give a few main ways to control and optimize the coupling efficiency: via widening/narrowing or rotating the T-coupler's waveguide, or, for the case of a non-circular cavity, via shifting the location of the T-coupler. We observed increased unidirectional lasing induced by either rotating the waveguide or shifting it (for non-circular cases). We simulated the coupling using Maxwell's equations based on the multi-level multi-electron FDTD (MLME-FDTD) method to realistically model the lasing and output coupling behaviors of such plasmonic semiconductor lasers.
Maksimovic, Milan; Lohmeyer, Manfred; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.
2008-01-01
Quasi-normal modes are used to directly characterize defect resonances in composite 1D Photonic Crystal structures. Variational coupled mode theory using QNMs enables quantification of the eigenfrequency splitting in composite structures. Also, variational perturbation analysis of complex
Polarization Dependent Coupling of Whispering Gallery Modes in Microspheres
Adamovsky, G.; Wrbanek, S.; Floyd, B.; Crotty, M.
2010-01-01
Two sets of resonances in glass microspheres attached to a standard communication-grade single-mode optical fiber have been observed. It has been found that the strength of the resonances depends strongly on the polarization of the coupled light. Furthermore, the position of the resonances in the wavelength domain depends on the polarization of light in the optical fiber with maximum magnitudes shifted by approximately 45 .
Piezoelectric Voltage Coupled Reentrant Cavity Resonator
Carvalho, Natalia C; Floch, Jean-Michel Le; Tobar, Michael Edmund
2014-01-01
A piezoelectric voltage coupled microwave reentrant cavity has been developed. The central cavity post is bonded to a piezoelectric actuator allowing the voltage control of small post displacements over a high dynamic range. We show that such a cavity can be implemented as a voltage tunable resonator, a transducer for exciting and measuring mechanical modes of the structure and a transducer for measuring comparative sensitivity of the piezoelectric material. Experiments were conducted at room and cryogenic temperatures with results verified using Finite Element software.
Reconfigurable optical routers based on Coupled Resonator Induced Transparency resonances.
Mancinelli, M; Bettotti, P; Fedeli, J M; Pavesi, L
2012-10-08
The interferometric coupling of pairs of resonators in a resonator sequence generates coupled ring induced transparency (CRIT) resonances. These have quality factors an order of magnitude greater than those of single resonators. We show that it is possible to engineer CRIT resonances in tapered SCISSOR (Side Coupled Integrated Space Sequence of Resonator) to realize fast and efficient reconfigurable optical switches and routers handling several channels while keeping single channel addressing capabilities. Tapered SCISSORs are fabricated in silicon-on-insulator technology. Furthermore, tapered SCISSORs show multiple-channel switching behavior that can be exploited in DWDM applications.
Nanofabricated Optomechanical Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Strong interest in whispering gallery mode resonators (WGMR) for use in chip-scale photonic devices is motivated by their high optical quality, mechanical simplicity...
Mode imaging and selection in strongly coupled nanoantennas
Huang, Jer-Shing; Geisler, Peter; Weinmann, Pia; Kamp, Martin; Forchel, Alfred; Biagioni, Paolo; Hecht, Bert
2010-01-01
The number of eigenmodes in plasmonic nanostructures increases with complexity due to mode hybridization, raising the need for efficient mode characterization and selection. Here we experimentally demonstrate direct imaging and selective excitation of the bonding and antibonding plasmon mode in symmetric dipole nanoantennas using confocal two-photon photoluminescence mapping. Excitation of a high-quality-factor antibonding resonance manifests itself as a two-lobed pattern instead of the single spot observed for the broad bonding resonance, in accordance with numerical simulations. The two-lobed pattern is observed due to the fact that excitation of the antibonding mode is forbidden for symmetric excitation at the feedgap, while concomitantly the mode energy splitting is large enough to suppress excitation of the bonding mode. The controlled excitation of modes in strongly coupled plasmonic nanostructures is mandatory for efficient sensors, in coherent control as well as for implementing well-defined functiona...
Mode Imaging and Selection in Strongly Coupled Nanoantennas
Huang, Jer-Shing; Kern, Johannes; Geisler, Peter; Weinmann, Pia; Kamp, Martin; Forchel, Alfred; Biagioni, Paolo; Hecht, Bert
2010-06-01
The number of eigenmodes in plasmonic nanostructures increases with complexity due to mode hybridization, raising the need for efficient mode characterization and selection. Here we experimentally demonstrate direct imaging and selective excitation of the bonding and antibonding plasmon mode in symmetric dipole nanoantennas using confocal two-photon photoluminescence mapping. Excitation of a high-quality-factor antibonding resonance manifests itself as a two-lobed pattern instead of the single spot observed for the broad bonding resonance, in accordance with numerical simulations. The two-lobed pattern is observed due to the fact that excitation of the antibonding mode is forbidden for symmetric excitation at the feedgap, while concomitantly the mode energy splitting is large enough to suppress excitation of the bonding mode. The controlled excitation of modes in strongly coupled plasmonic nanostructures is mandatory for efficient sensors, in coherent control as well as for implementing well-defined functionalities in complex plasmonic devices.
Loop coupled resonator optical waveguides.
Song, Junfeng; Luo, Lian-Wee; Luo, Xianshu; Zhou, Haifeng; Tu, Xiaoguang; Jia, Lianxi; Fang, Qing; Lo, Guo-Qiang
2014-10-06
We propose a novel coupled resonator optical waveguide (CROW) structure that is made up of a waveguide loop. We theoretically investigate the forbidden band and conduction band conditions in an infinite periodic lattice. We also discuss the reflection- and transmission- spectra, group delay in finite periodic structures. Light has a larger group delay at the band edge in a periodic structure. The flat band pass filter and flat-top group delay can be realized in a non-periodic structure. Scattering matrix method is used to calculate the effects of waveguide loss on the optical characteristics of these structures. We also introduce a tunable coupling loop waveguide to compensate for the fabrication variations since the coupling coefficient of the directional coupler in the loop waveguide is a critical factor in determining the characteristics of a loop CROW. The loop CROW structure is suitable for a wide range of applications such as band pass filters, high Q microcavity, and optical buffers and so on.
Characterizing coupled MEMS resonators with an electrical resonator
Tao, Guowei; Choubey, Bhaskar
2016-10-01
Rapid development in micro/nano fabrication has enabled the shrinking of MEMS devices and the ability to fabricate them in large arrays. However, process variations and device mismatch have also raised testability issues in the MEMS industry. MEMS resonators have been coupled to simplify the characterization of the fabrication process and device performance using their collective behaviour. Perturbation analysis using eigenvalues can therefore be applied to extract the system matrix of coupled resonators. We propose a new way of perturbation analysis by coupling an electrical resonator to an array of MEMS resonators. The electrical resonator is simple in structure and easy to readout. It can also precisely control the amount of perturbation based on two available techniques. Coupling between MEMS resonators and electrical resonator opens a new window for process characterization, device testing, material characterization, as well as large sensors array actuation.
Optical wavelength conversion via optomechanical coupling in a silica resonator
Dong, Chunhua; Fiore, Victor; Kuzyk, Mark C.; Wang, Hailin [Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Tian, Lin [University of California, Merced, CA (United States)
2015-01-01
In an optomechanical resonator, an optically active mechanical mode can couple to any of the optical resonances via radiation pressure. This unique property can enable a remarkable phenomenon: conversion of optical fields via optomechanical coupling between vastly different wavelengths. Here we expand an earlier experimental study [Science 338, 1609 (2012)] on classical wavelength conversion of coherent optical fields by coupling two optical modes to a mechanical breathing mode in a silica resonator. Heterodyne detection of the converted optical fields shows that the wavelength conversion process is coherent and bidirectional. The conversion efficiency obtained features a distinct saturation behavior that arises from optomechanical impedance matching. A measurement of the coherent mechanical excitation involved in the wavelength conversion process also provides additional insight on the underlying optomechanical interactions. (copyright 2014 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Mode localized MEMS transducers with voltage-controlled linear coupling
Manav, M.; Srikantha Phani, A.; Cretu, E.
2017-05-01
Recent studies have demonstrated mode localized resonant micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) sensing devices with orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity. Avoided crossings or eigenvalue veering is the physical mechanism exploited to achieve the enhancement in sensitivity of devices operating either in vacuum or in air. The mode localized MEMS devices are typically designed to be symmetric and use gap-varying electrostatic springs to couple motions of two or more resonators. The role of asymmetry in the design of devices and its influence on sensitivity is not fully understood. Furthermore, gap-varying electrostatic springs suffer from nonlinearities when gap variation between coupling plates becomes large due to mode localization, imposing limitations on the device performance. To address these shortcomings, this contribution has two principal objectives. The first objective is to critically assess the role of asymmetry in the device design and operation. We show, based on energy analysis, that carefully designed asymmetry in devices can lead to even higher sensitivities than reported in the literature. Our second objective is to design and implement linear, tunable, electrostatic springs, using shaped combs, which allow large vibration amplitudes of resonators thereby increasing the signal to noise ratio. We experimentally demonstrate linear electrostatic coupling in a two oscillator device. Our study suggests that a future avenue for progress in the mode localized resonant sensing technology is to combine asymmetric devices with tunable linear coupling designs.
Photoelastic coupling in gallium arsenide optomechanical disk resonators
Baker, Christopher; Nguyen, Dac-Trung; Andronico, Alessio; Ducci, Sara; Leo, Giuseppe; Favero, Ivan
2014-01-01
We analyze the magnitude of the radiation pressure and electrostrictive stresses exerted by light confined inside GaAs semiconductor WGM optomechanical disk resonators, through analytical and numerical means, and find the electrostrictive force to be of prime importance. We investigate the geometric and photoelastic optomechanical coupling resulting respectively from the deformation of the disk boundary and from the strain-induced refractive index changes in the material, for various mechanical modes of the disks. Photoelastic optomechanical coupling is shown to be a predominant coupling mechanism for certain disk dimensions and mechanical modes, leading to total coupling g$_{om}$ and g$_0$ reaching respectively 3 THz/nm and 4 MHz. Finally, we point towards ways to maximize the photoelastic coupling in GaAs disk resonators, and we provide some upper bounds for its value in various geometries.
Coupling Bright and Dark Plasmonic Lattice Resonances
Rodriguez, S R K; Maes, B; Janssen, O T A; Vecchi, G; Rivas, J Gomez
2011-01-01
We demonstrate the coupling of bright and dark Surface Lattice Resonances (SLRs), which are collective Fano resonances in 2D plasmonic crystals. As a result of this coupling, a frequency stop-gap in the dispersion relation of SLRs is observed. The different field symmetries of the low and high frequency SLR bands lead to pronounced differences in their coupling to free space radiation. Standing waves of very narrow spectral width compared to localized surface plasmon resonances are formed at the high frequency band edge, while subradiant damping onsets at the low frequency band edge leading the resonance into darkness. We introduce a coupled oscillator analog to the plasmonic crystal, which serves to elucidate the physics of the coupled plasmonic resonances and to estimate very high quality factors (Q>700) for SLRs, which are the highest known for any 2D plasmonic crystal.
Coupled Optical Resonance Laser Lockin
Burd, Shaun
2013-01-01
We have demonstrated simultaneous laser frequency stabilization of a UV and IR laser, to the same spectroscopic sample, by monitoring only the absorption of the UV laser. For trapping and cooling Yb$^{+}$ ions, a frequency stabilized laser is required at 369.95nm to drive the $^{2}S_{1/2}$ $ \\rightarrow $ $ ^{2}P_{1/2}$ cooling transition. Since the cycle is not closed, a 935.18nm laser is needed to drive the $^{2}D_{3/2}$ $\\rightarrow$ $^{3}D_{[3/2]1/2}$ transition which is followed by rapid decay to the $^{2}S_{1/2}$ state. Our 369nm laser is locked to Yb$^{+}$ ions generated in a hollow cathode discharge lamp using saturated absorption spectroscopy. Without pumping, the metastable $^{2}D_{3/2}$ level is only sparsely populated and direct absorption of 935nm light is difficult to detect. A resonant 369nm laser is able to significantly populate the $^{2}D_{3/2}$ state due to the coupling between the levels. Fast re-pumping to the $^{2}S_{1/2}$ state, by 935nm light, can be detected by observing the change in...
Nonlinear Coherent Directional Coupler: Coupled Mode Theory and BPM Simulation
Kumbhakar, Dharmadas
2012-01-01
.... The coupling lengths derived from this simulation are compared with coupled mode theories. BPM results for the critical power follow the trend of the coupled mode theories, but it lies in between two coupled mode theories...
Observation of optomechanical coupling in a microbottle resonator
Asano, Motoki; Chen, Weijian; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya; Ikuta, Rikizo; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Yang, Lan; Yamamoto, Takashi
2016-01-01
In this work, we report optomechanical coupling, resolved sidebands and phonon lasing in a solid-core microbottle resonator fabricated on a single mode optical fiber. Mechanical modes with quality factors (Q_m) as high as 1.57*10^4 and 1.45*10^4 were observed, respectively, at the mechanical frequencies f_m=33.7 MHz and f_m=58.9 MHz. The maximum f_m*Q_m~0.85*10^12 Hz is close to the theoretical lower bound of 6*10^12 Hz needed to overcome thermal decoherence for resolved-sideband cooling of mechanical motion at room temperature, suggesting microbottle resonators as a possible platform for this endeavor. In addition to optomechanical effects, scatter-induced mode splitting and ringing phenomena, which are typical for high-quality optical resonances, were also observed in a microbottle resonator.
Geodesic acoustic modes with poloidal mode couplings ad infinitum
Singh, Rameswar; Garbet, X; Hennequin, P; Vermare, L; Morel, P; Singh, R
2015-01-01
Geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) are studied, for the first time, including all poloidal mode $(m)$ couplings using drift reduced fluid equations. The nearest neighbor coupling pattern, due to geodesic curvature, leads to a semi-infinite chain model of the GAM with the mode-mode coupling matrix elements proportional to the radial wave number $k_{r}$. The infinite chain can be reduced to a renormalized bi-nodal chain with a matrix continued fractions. Convergence study of linear GAM dispersion with respect to $k_{r}$ and the $m$-spectra confirms that high m couplings become increasingly important with $k_{r}$. The radially sorted roots overlap with experimentally measured GAM frequency profile in low collisionality shots in Tore Supra thus explaining the reduced frequency of GAM in Tore Supra.
Yue Tang
2017-04-01
Full Text Available A surface plasmon polariton refractive index sensor based on Fano resonances in metal–insulator–metal (MIM waveguides coupled with rectangular and ring resonators is proposed and numerically investigated using a finite element method. Fano resonances are observed in the transmission spectra, which result from the coupling between the narrow-band spectral response in the ring resonator and the broadband spectral response in the rectangular resonator. Results are analyzed using coupled-mode theory based on transmission line theory. The coupled mode theory is employed to explain the Fano resonance effect, and the analytical result is in good agreement with the simulation result. The results show that with an increase in the refractive index of the fill dielectric material in the slot of the system, the Fano resonance peak exhibits a remarkable red shift, and the highest value of sensitivity (S is 1125 nm/RIU, RIU means refractive index unit. Furthermore, the coupled MIM waveguide structure can be integrated with other photonic devices at the chip scale. The results can provide a guide for future applications of this structure.
Mode coupling in spin torque oscillators
Zhang, Steven S.-L., E-mail: ZhangShule@missouri.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Zhou, Yan, E-mail: yanzhou@hku.hk [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Center of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Li, Dong, E-mail: geodesic.ld@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Centre for Nonlinear Studies, and Beijing-Hong Kong-Singapore Joint Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Systems, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Heinonen, Olle, E-mail: heinonen@anl.gov [Material Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Northwestern-Argonne Institute of Science and Technology, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Computation Institute, The Unversity of Chicago, 5735 S Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)
2016-09-15
A number of recent experimental works have shown that the dynamics of a single spin torque oscillator can exhibit complex behavior that stems from interactions between two or more modes of the oscillator, such as observed mode-hopping or mode coexistence. There has been some initial work indicating how the theory for a single-mode (macro-spin) spin torque oscillator should be generalized to include several modes and the interactions between them. In the present work, we rigorously derive such a theory starting with the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation for magnetization dynamics by expanding up to third-order terms in deviation from equilibrium. Our results show how a linear mode coupling, which is necessary for observed mode-hopping to occur, arises through coupling to a magnon bath. The acquired temperature dependence of this coupling implies that the manifold of orbits and fixed points may shift with temperature. - Highlights: • Deriving equations for coupled modes in spin torque oscillators. • Including Hamiltonian formalism and elimination of three–magnon processes. • Thermal bath of magnons central to mode coupling. • Numerical examples of circular and elliptical devices.
Degroote, P; Catala, C; Uytterhoeven, K; Lefever, K; Morel, T; Aerts, C; Carrier, F; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Michel, E
2009-01-01
We present the CoRoT light curve of the Beta Cep star HD 180642, assembled during the first long run of the space mission, as well as archival single-band photometry. Our goal is to analyse the detailed behaviour present in the light curve and interpret it in terms of excited mode frequencies. After describing the noise properties in detail, we use various time series analysis and fitting techniques to model the CoRoT light curve, for various physical assumptions. We apply statistical goodness-of-fit criteria that allow us to select the most appropriate physical model fit to the data. We conclude that the light curve model based on nonlinear resonant frequency and phase locking provides the best representation of the data. The interpretation of the residuals is dependent on the chosen physical model used to prewhiten the data. Our observational results constitute a fruitful starting point for detailed seismic stellar modelling of this large-amplitude and evolved Beta Cep star.
Critical coupling in plasmonic resonator arrays
Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla
2011-08-01
We report critical coupling of electromagnetic waves to plasmonic cavity arrays fabricated on Moiré surfaces. Dark field plasmon microscopy imaging and polarization dependent spectroscopic reflection measurements reveal the critical coupling conditions of the cavities. The critical coupling conditions depend on the superperiod of the Moiré surface, which also defines the coupling between the cavities. Complete transfer of the incident power can be achieved for traveling wave plasmonic resonators, which have a relatively short superperiod. When the superperiod of the resonators increases, the coupled resonators become isolated standing wave resonators in which complete transfer of the incident power is not possible. Analytical and finite difference time domain calculations support the experimental observations.
Elnaggar, Sameh Y. [School of Engineering and Information Technology, University of New South Wales, Canberra (Australia); Tervo, Richard J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, E3B 5A3 Canada (Canada); Mattar, Saba M., E-mail: mattar@unb.ca [Chemistry Department, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, E3B 5A3 Canada (Canada)
2015-11-21
The theory and operation of various devices and systems, such as wireless power transfer via magnetic resonant coupling, magneto-inductive wave devices, magnetic resonance spectroscopy probes, and metamaterials can rely on coupled tuned resonators. The coupling strength is usually expressed in terms of the coupling coefficient κ, which can have electrical κ{sub E} and/or magnetic κ{sub M} components. In the current article, general expressions of κ are derived. The relation between the complex Poynting equation in its microscopic form and κ is made and discussed in detail. It is shown that κ can be expressed in terms of the interaction energy between the resonators' modes. It thus provides a general form that combines the magnetic and electric components of κ. The expressions make it possible to estimate the frequencies and fields of the coupled modes for arbitrarily oriented and spaced resonators. Thus, enabling the calculation of system specific parameters such as the transfer efficiency of wireless power transfer systems, resonator efficiency for electron spin resonance probes, and dispersion relations of magneto-inductive and stereo-metamaterials structures.
Critical Coupling Between Optical Fibers and WGM Resonators
Matsko, Andrey; Maleki, Lute; Itchenko, Vladimir; Savchenkov, Anatoliy
2009-01-01
Two recipes for ensuring critical coupling between a single-mode optical fiber and a whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonator have been devised. The recipes provide for phase matching and aperture matching, both of which are necessary for efficient coupling. There is also a provision for suppressing intermodal coupling, which is detrimental because it drains energy from desired modes into undesired ones. According to one recipe, the tip of the single-mode optical fiber is either tapered in diameter or tapered in effective diameter by virtue of being cleaved at an oblique angle. The effective index of refraction and the phase velocity at a given position along the taper depend on the diameter (or effective diameter) and the index of refraction of the bulk fiber material. As the diameter (or effective diameter) decreases with decreasing distance from the tip, the effective index of refraction also decreases. Critical coupling and phase matching can be achieved by placing the optical fiber and the resonator in contact at the proper point along the taper. This recipe is subject to the limitation that the attainable effective index of refraction lies between the indices of refraction of the bulk fiber material and the atmosphere or vacuum to which the resonator and fiber are exposed. The other recipe involves a refinement of the previously developed technique of prism coupling, in which the light beam from the optical fiber is collimated and focused onto one surface of a prism that has an index of refraction greater than that of the resonator. Another surface of the prism is placed in contact with the resonator. The various components are arranged so that the collimated beam is focused at the prism/resonator contact spot. The recipe includes the following additional provisions:
Song, Song-Kum
2016-01-01
Mechanism of the Fano resonances in planar metamaterials demonstrate based on the coupled two-oscillator model. We have described the optical spectrums like reflectance and transmittance near the resonances of bright mode (continuum mode) and dark mode (discrete mode) and explained their optical properties by the Fano formulism. the Fano formulism of the resonances in the planar metamaterials can predict the asymmetric shape line and radiative properties occurring in reflectance and transmittance from the coupling between bright and dark modes.
Scissors mode of Gd nuclei studied from resonance neutron capture
Kroll, J.; Baramsai, B.; Becker, J. A.; Bečvár, F.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Chyzh, A.; Dashdorj, D.; Haight, R. C.; Heil, M.; Jandel, M.; Käppeler, F.; Krtička, M.; Mitchell, G. E.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Parker, W.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Valenta, S.; Vieira, D. J.; Walker, C. L.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Wu, C. Y.
2012-10-01
Spectra of γ rays following the neutron capture at isolated resonances of stable Gd nuclei weremeasured. The objectives were to get new information on photon strength of 153,155-159Gd with emphasis on the role of the M1 scissors-mode vibration. An analysis of the data obtained clearly indicates that the scissors mode is coupled not only to the ground state, but also to all excited levels of the nuclei studied. The specificity of our approach ensures unbiasedness in estimating the sumed scissors-mode strength ΣB(M1)↑, even for odd product nuclei, for which conventional nuclear resonance fluorescence measurements yield only limited information. Our analysis indicates that for these nuclei the sum ΣB(M1)↑ increases with A and for 157,159Gd it is significantly higher compared to 156,158Gd.
Mode coupling in organic dye lasers
Hirth, A.
1973-10-25
Saturable dye triggering is discussed together with relaxation time and pulse duration. The influence of stimulated emission is detailed. Experimental results of mode coupling with cyanines and xanthines, flash excited and not, are reported.
Resonant mode conversion in the waveguides with an unbroken and broken PT-symmetry
Vysloukh, Victor A
2014-01-01
We study resonant mode conversion in the PT-symmetric multimode waveguides, where symmetry breaking manifests itself in sequential destabilization (appearance of the complex eigenvalues) of the pairs of adjacent guided modes. We show that the efficient mode conversion is possible even in the presence of the resonant longitudinal modulation of the complex refractive index. The distinguishing feature of the resonant mode conversion in the PT-symmetric structure is a drastic growth of the width of the resonance curve when the gain/losses coefficient approaches a critical value, at which symmetry breaking occurs. We found that in the system with broken symmetry the resonant coupling between exponentially growing mode with stable higher-order one effectively stabilizes dynamically coupled pair of modes and remarkably diminishes the average rate of the total power growth.
Waveguide coupled resonance fluorescence from on-chip quantum emitter.
Makhonin, Maxim N; Dixon, James E; Coles, Rikki J; Royall, Ben; Luxmoore, Isaac J; Clarke, Edmund; Hugues, Maxime; Skolnick, Maurice S; Fox, A Mark
2014-12-10
Resonantly driven quantum emitters offer a very promising route to obtain highly coherent sources of single photons required for applications in quantum information processing (QIP). Realizing this for on-chip scalable devices would be important for scientific advances and practical applications in the field of integrated quantum optics. Here we report on-chip quantum dot (QD) resonance fluorescence (RF) efficiently coupled into a single-mode waveguide, a key component of a photonic integrated circuit, with a negligible resonant laser background and show that the QD coherence is enhanced by more than a factor of 4 compared to off-resonant excitation. Single-photon behavior is confirmed under resonant excitation, and fast fluctuating charge dynamics are revealed in autocorrelation g((2)) measurements. The potential for triggered operation is verified in pulsed RF. These results pave the way to a novel class of integrated quantum-optical devices for on-chip quantum information processing with embedded resonantly driven quantum emitters.
Superconducting Resonant Inductive Power Coupling Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will develop a technology to wirelessly and efficiently transfer power over hundreds of meters via resonant inductive coupling. The key...
Strong Coupling between On Chip Notched Ring Resonator and Nanoparticle
Wang, S; Smith, H; Yi, Y
2010-01-01
We have demonstrated a new photonic structure to achieve strong optical coupling between nanoparticle and photonic molecule by utilizing a notched micro ring resonators. By creating a notch in the ring resonator and putting a nanoparticle inside the notch, large spectral shifts and splittings at nm scale can be achieved, compared to only pm scale observed by fiber tip evanescently coupled to the surface of microsphere, thereby significantly lowered the quality factor requirement for single nanoparticle detection. The ability for sorting the type of nanoparticles due to very different mode shift and splitting behavior of dielectric and metallic nanoparticles is also emphasized.
Resonance coupling in plasmonic nanomatryoshka homo- and heterodimers
Ahmadivand, Arash; Sinha, Raju; Pala, Nezih
2016-06-01
Here, we examine the electromagnetic (EM) energy coupling and hybridization of plasmon resonances between closely spaced concentric nanoshells known as "nanomatryoshka" (NM) units in symmetric and antisymmetric compositions using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) analysis. Utilizing plasmon hybridization model, we calculated the energy level diagrams and verified that, in the symmetric dimer (in-phase mode in a homodimer), plasmonic bonding modes are dominant and tunable within the considered bandwidth. In contrast, in the antisymmetric dimer (out-of-phase mode in a heterodimer), due to the lack of the geometrical symmetry, new antibonding modes appear in the extinction profile, and this condition gives rise to repeal of dipolar field coupling. We also studied the extinction spectra and positions of the antibonding and bonding modes excited due to the energy coupling between silver and gold NM units in a heterodimer structure. Our analysis suggest abnormal shifts in the higher energy modes. We propose a method to analyze the behavior of multilayer concentric nanoshell particles in an antisymmetric orientation employing full dielectric function calculations and the Drude model based on interband transitions in metallic components. This study provides a method to predict the behavior of the higher energy plasmon resonant modes in entirely antisymmetric structures such as compositional heterodimers.
Resonance coupling in plasmonic nanomatryoshka homo- and heterodimers
Arash Ahmadivand
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Here, we examine the electromagnetic (EM energy coupling and hybridization of plasmon resonances between closely spaced concentric nanoshells known as “nanomatryoshka” (NM units in symmetric and antisymmetric compositions using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD analysis. Utilizing plasmon hybridization model, we calculated the energy level diagrams and verified that, in the symmetric dimer (in-phase mode in a homodimer, plasmonic bonding modes are dominant and tunable within the considered bandwidth. In contrast, in the antisymmetric dimer (out-of-phase mode in a heterodimer, due to the lack of the geometrical symmetry, new antibonding modes appear in the extinction profile, and this condition gives rise to repeal of dipolar field coupling. We also studied the extinction spectra and positions of the antibonding and bonding modes excited due to the energy coupling between silver and gold NM units in a heterodimer structure. Our analysis suggest abnormal shifts in the higher energy modes. We propose a method to analyze the behavior of multilayer concentric nanoshell particles in an antisymmetric orientation employing full dielectric function calculations and the Drude model based on interband transitions in metallic components. This study provides a method to predict the behavior of the higher energy plasmon resonant modes in entirely antisymmetric structures such as compositional heterodimers.
Reduction of Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes
Berendt, Martin Ole; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Soccolich, C.E.
1999-01-01
We discuss fiber designs that have been suggested for the reduction of Bragg-grating induced coupling to cladding modes. The discussion is based on a theoretical approach that includes the effect of asymmetry in the UV-induced index grating, made by UV-side writing. Experimental results from...... gratings in a depressed-cladding fiber are compared with simulations. The model gives good agreement with the measured transmission spectrum and accounts for the pronounced coupling to asymmetrical cladding modes, even when the grating is written with the smallest possible blaze. The asymmetry causing...... this is accounted for by the unavoidable attenuation of the UV light. It is found for the considered fiber designs that a high numerical-aperture fiber increases the spectral separation between the Bragg resonance and the onset of cladding-mode losses. A depressed-cladding fiber reduces the coupling strength...
Using Whispering-Gallery-Mode Resonators for Refractometry
Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Strekalov, Dmitry; Iltchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute
2010-01-01
A method of determining the refractive and absorptive properties of optically transparent materials involves a combination of theoretical and experimental analysis of electromagnetic responses of whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonator disks made of those materials. The method was conceived especially for use in studying transparent photorefractive materials, for which purpose this method affords unprecedented levels of sensitivity and accuracy. The method is expected to be particularly useful for measuring temporally varying refractive and absorptive properties of photorefractive materials at infrared wavelengths. Still more particularly, the method is expected to be useful for measuring drifts in these properties that are so slow that, heretofore, the properties were assumed to be constant. The basic idea of the method is to attempt to infer values of the photorefractive properties of a material by seeking to match (1) theoretical predictions of the spectral responses (or selected features thereof) of a WGM of known dimensions made of the material with (2) the actual spectral responses (or selected features thereof). Spectral features that are useful for this purpose include resonance frequencies, free spectral ranges (differences between resonance frequencies of adjacently numbered modes), and resonance quality factors (Q values). The method has been demonstrated in several experiments, one of which was performed on a WGM resonator made from a disk of LiNbO3 doped with 5 percent of MgO. The free spectral range of the resonator was approximately equal to 3.42 GHz at wavelengths in the vicinity of 780 nm, the smallest full width at half maximum of a mode was approximately equal to 50 MHz, and the thickness of the resonator in the area of mode localization was 30 microns. In the experiment, laser power of 9 mW was coupled into the resonator with an efficiency of 75 percent, and the laser was scanned over a frequency band 9 GHz wide at a nominal wavelength of
Mode splitting effect in FEMs with oversized Bragg resonators
Peskov, N. Yu.; Sergeev, A. S. [Institute of Applied Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Kaminsky, A. K.; Perelstein, E. A.; Sedykh, S. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kuzikov, S. V. [Institute of Applied Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Nizhegorodsky State University, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)
2016-07-15
Splitting of the fundamental mode in an oversized Bragg resonator with a step of the corrugation phase, which operates over the feedback loop involving the waveguide waves of different transverse structures, was found to be the result of mutual influence of the neighboring zones of the Bragg scattering. Theoretical description of this effect was developed within the framework of the advanced (four-wave) coupled-wave approach. It is shown that mode splitting reduces the selective properties, restricts the output power, and decreases the stability of the narrow-band operating regime in the free-electron maser (FEM) oscillators based on such resonators. The results of the theoretical analysis were confirmed by 3D simulations and “cold” microwave tests. Experimental data on Bragg resonators with different parameters in a 30-GHz FEM are presented. The possibility of reducing the mode splitting by profiling the corrugation parameters is shown. The use of the mode splitting effect for the output power enhancement by passive compression of the double-frequency pulse generated in the FEM with such a resonator is discussed.
Performance of conformal guided mode resonance filters.
Cannistra, Aaron T; Poutous, Menelaos K; Johnson, Eric G; Suleski, Thomas J
2011-04-01
Guided mode resonance (GMR) filters are highly functional micro-optics capable of narrowband spectral filtering. GMR devices have previously been demonstrated on flat substrates using a wide range of materials and configurations. In this Letter, we apply a soft lithographic technique followed by the deposition of dielectric layers to generate GMR filters on a concave lens surface. Resonances of the resulting conformal GMR filters are experimentally measured and characterized, and the results are compared to the performance of similar GMR filters fabricated on flat surfaces.
Optical wavelength conversion via optomechanical coupling in a silica resonator
Dong, Chunhua; Kuzyk, Mark C; Tian, Lin; Wang, Hailin
2012-01-01
We report the experimental demonstration of converting coherent optical fields between two different optical wavelengths by coupling two optical modes to a mechanical breathing mode in a silica resonator. The experiment is based on an itinerant approach, in which state-mapping from optical to mechanical and from mechanical to another optical state takes place simultaneously. In contrast to conventional nonlinear optical processes, optomechanical impedance matching as well as efficient optical input-output coupling, instead of phase-matching, plays a crucial role in optomechanics-based wavelength conversion.
Transforming Fabry-Pérot resonances into a Tamm mode
Durach, Maxim; Rusina, Anastasia
2012-12-01
We propose an optical structure composed of two metal nanolayers enclosing a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror. The structure is an open photonic system whose bound modes are coupled to external radiation. We apply the special theoretical treatment based on inversion symmetry of the structure to classify its resonances. We show that the structure supports resonances transitional between Fabry-Pérot modes and Tamm plasmons. When the dielectric contrast of the DBR is removed these modes are a pair of conventional Fabry-Pérot resonances. They spectrally merge into a Tamm mode at high contrast. The optical properties of the structure in the frequency range of the DBR stop band, including highly beneficial 50% transmittivity through thick structures with sub-skin-depth metal films, are determined by the hybrid quasinormal modes of the open nonconservative structure under consideration. The results can find a broad range of applications in photonics and optoelectronics, including the possibility of coherent control over optical fields in the class of structures similar to the one proposed here.
Aptasensors Based on Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators
Nunzi Conti, Gualtiero; Berneschi, Simome; Soria, Silvia
2016-01-01
In this paper, we review the literature on optical evanescent field sensing in resonant cavities where aptamers are used as biochemical receptors. The combined advantages of highly sensitive whispering gallery mode resonator (WGMR)-based transducers, and of the unique properties of aptamers make this approach extremely interesting in the medical field, where there is a particularly high need for devices able to provide real time diagnosis for cancer, infectious diseases, or strokes. However, despite the superior performances of aptamers compared to antibodies and WGMR to other evanescent sensors, there is not much literature combining both types of receptors and transducers. Up to now, the WGMR that have been used are silica microspheres and silicon oxynitride (SiON) ring resonators. PMID:27438861
Aptasensors Based on Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators
Gualtiero Nunzi Conti
2016-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we review the literature on optical evanescent field sensing in resonant cavities where aptamers are used as biochemical receptors. The combined advantages of highly sensitive whispering gallery mode resonator (WGMR-based transducers, and of the unique properties of aptamers make this approach extremely interesting in the medical field, where there is a particularly high need for devices able to provide real time diagnosis for cancer, infectious diseases, or strokes. However, despite the superior performances of aptamers compared to antibodies and WGMR to other evanescent sensors, there is not much literature combining both types of receptors and transducers. Up to now, the WGMR that have been used are silica microspheres and silicon oxynitride (SiON ring resonators.
Observation of resonant lattice modes by inelastic neutron scattering
Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Mackintosh, A.R.
1965-01-01
Observation by inelastic neutron scattering of resonant lattice modes due to small concentration of W atoms in Cr host crystal; frequencies and lifetimes of phonons with frequencies near that of resonant mode are considerably affected by presence of defects....
Finite element modeling of coupled optical microdisk resonators for displacement sensing
Grudinin, Ivan
2012-01-01
We analyze normal mode splitting in a pair of vertically coupled microdisk resonators. A full vectorial finite element model is used to find the eigen frequencies of the symmetric and antisymmetric composite modes as a function of coupling distance. We find that the coupled microdisks can compete with the best Fabry-Perot resonators in displacement sensing. We also show how we configured FreeFem++ for the sphere eigenvalue problem.
Direct Coupling From WGM Resonator Disks to Photodetectors
Savchenkov, Antoliy; Maleki, Lute; Mohageg, Makan; Le, Thanh
2007-01-01
Output coupling of light from a whispering- gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonator directly to a photodetector has recently been demonstrated. By directly is meant that the coupling is effected without use of intervening optical components. Heretofore, coupling of light into and out of WGM resonators has been a complex affair involving the use of such optical components as diamond or glass prisms, optical fibers, coated collimators, and/or fiber tapers. Alignment of these components is time-consuming and expensive. To effect direct coupling, one simply mounts a photodetector in direct mechanical contact with a spacer that is, in turn, in direct mechanical contact with a WGM resonator disk. The spacer must have a specified thickness (typically of the order of a wavelength) and an index of refraction lower, by an adequate margin, than the indices of refraction of the photodetector and the WGM resonator disk. This mechanically simple approach makes it possible to obtain an optimum compromise between maximizing optical coupling and maximizing the resonance quality factor (Q).
Biological couplings: Function, characteristics and implementation mode
无
2010-01-01
Through rigorous natural selection, biological organisms have evolved exceptional functions highly adaptable to their living environments. Biological organisms can achieve a variety of biological functions efficiently by using the synergic actions of two or more different parts of the body, or the coupling effects of multiple factors, and demonstrate optimal adaptations to the living environment. In this paper, the function, characteristics and types of biological couplings are analyzed, the implementation mechanism and mode of biological coupling functions are revealed from the bionic viewpoint. Finally, the technological prospects of the bionic implementation of biological coupling function are predicted.
Higher order mode of a microstripline fed cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna
Kumar, A. V. Praveen, E-mail: praveen.kumar@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, BITS Pilani, Pilani, Rajasthan-333 031 (India)
2016-03-09
A microstrip transmission line can be used to excite the broadside radiating mode of a cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna (CDRA). The same is found to excite considerably well a higher order mode (HOM) as well. However unlike the broadside mode, the higher order mode gives distorted radiation pattern which makes this mode less useful for practical applications. The cause of distortion in the HOM radiation and the dependence of HOM coupling on the microstrip feed line are explored using HFSS simulations.
Ulhaq, A.; Ates, Serkan; Weiler, S.;
2010-01-01
We report on the robustness of a detuned mode channel for reading out the relevant s-shell properties of a resonantly excited coupled quantum dot (QD) in a pillar microcavity. The line broadening of the QD s-shell is “monitored” by the mode signal with high conformity to the directly measured QD ...
Dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in coupled ring resonators
Chenguang Huang
2012-09-01
Full Text Available We investigate the dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in a photonic system of two coupled ring resonators. A bus waveguide is used to couple light in and out of one of the coupled resonators. Based on the coupling from the bus to the resonator, the coupling between the resonators and the intrinsic loss of each individual resonator, the system transmission spectrum can be classified by three different categories: coupled-resonator-induced absorption, coupled-resonator-induced transparency and over coupled resonance splitting. Dynamic thermal optical effects due to linear absorption have been analyzed for each category as a function of the input power. The heat power in each resonator determines the thermal dynamics in this coupled resonator system. Multiple “shark fins” and power competition between resonators can be foreseen. Also, the nonlinear absorption induced thermal effects have been discussed.
PT-symmetric microring lasers: Self-adapting broadband mode-selective resonators
Hodaei, Hossein; Heinrich, Matthias; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; Khajavikhan, Mercedeh
2014-01-01
We demonstrate experimentally that stable single longitudinal mode operation can be readily achieved in PT-symmetric arrangements of coupled microring resonators. Whereas any active resonator is in principle capable of displaying single-wavelength operation, selective breaking of PT-symmetry can be utilized to systematically enhance the maximum achievable gain of this mode, even if a large number of competing longitudinal or transverse resonator modes fall within the amplification bandwidth of the inhomogeneously broadened active medium. This concept is robust with respect to fabrication tolerances, and its mode selectivity is established without the need for additional components or specifically designed filters. Our results may pave the way for a new generation of versatile cavities lasing at a desired longitudinal resonance. Along these lines, traditionally highly multi-moded microring resonator configurations can be fashioned to suppress all but one longitudinal mode.
Optically induced strong intermodal coupling in mechanical resonators at room temperature
Ohta, R.; Okamoto, H.; Yamaguchi, H. [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Hey, R.; Friedland, K. J. [Paul-Drude-Institut fur Festkörperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5–7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)
2015-08-31
Strong parametric mode coupling in mechanical resonators is demonstrated at room temperature by using the photothermal effect in thin membrane structures. Thanks to the large stress modulation by laser irradiation, the coupling rate of the mechanical modes, defined as half of the mode splitting, reaches 2.94 kHz, which is an order of magnitude larger than electrically induced mode coupling. This large coupling rate exceeds the damping rates of the mechanical resonators and results in the strong coupling regime, which is a signature of coherent mode interaction. Room-temperature coherent mode coupling will enable us to manipulate mechanical motion at practical operation temperatures and provides a wide variety of applications of integrated mechanical systems.
Modulating the Near Field Coupling through Resonator Displacement in Planar Terahertz Metamaterials
Mohan Rao, S. Jagan; Kumar, Deepak; Kumar, Gagan; Chowdhury, Dibakar Roy
2016-10-01
We present the effect of vertical displacements between the resonators inside the unit cell of planar coupled metamaterials on their near field coupling and hence on the terahertz (THz) wave modulation. The metamolecule design consists of two planar split- ring resonators (SRRs) in a unit cell which are coupled through their near fields. The numerically simulated transmission spectrum is found to have split resonances due to the resonance mode hybridization effect. With the increase in displacement between the near field coupled SRRs, this metamaterial system shows a transition from coupled to uncoupled state through merging of the split resonances to the single intrinsic resonance. We have used a semi-analytical model describing the effect of displacements between the resonators and determine that it can predict the numerically simulated results. The outcome could be useful in modulating the terahertz waves employing near field coupled metamaterials, hence, can be useful in the development of terahertz modulators and frequency tunable devices in future.
Modulating the Near Field Coupling through Resonator Displacement in Planar Terahertz Metamaterials
Mohan Rao, S. Jagan; Kumar, Deepak; Kumar, Gagan; Chowdhury, Dibakar Roy
2017-01-01
We present the effect of vertical displacements between the resonators inside the unit cell of planar coupled metamaterials on their near field coupling and hence on the terahertz (THz) wave modulation. The metamolecule design consists of two planar split- ring resonators (SRRs) in a unit cell which are coupled through their near fields. The numerically simulated transmission spectrum is found to have split resonances due to the resonance mode hybridization effect. With the increase in displacement between the near field coupled SRRs, this metamaterial system shows a transition from coupled to uncoupled state through merging of the split resonances to the single intrinsic resonance. We have used a semi-analytical model describing the effect of displacements between the resonators and determine that it can predict the numerically simulated results. The outcome could be useful in modulating the terahertz waves employing near field coupled metamaterials, hence, can be useful in the development of terahertz modulators and frequency tunable devices in future.
Guided-mode resonant wave plates.
Magnusson, Robert; Shokooh-Saremi, Mehrdad; Johnson, Eric G
2010-07-15
We introduce half-wave and quarter-wave retarders based on the dispersion properties of guided-mode resonance elements. We design the wave plates using numerical electromagnetic models joined with the particle swarm optimization method. The wave plates operate in reflection. We provide computed results for reflectance and phase in the telecommunication spectral region near 1.55 microm wavelength. A surface-relief grating etched in glass and overcoated with silicon yields a half-wave plate with nearly equal amplitudes of the TE and TM polarization components and pi phase difference across a bandwidth exceeding 50 nm. Wider operational bandwidths are obtainable with more complex designs involving glass substrates and mixed silicon/hafnium dioxide resonant gratings. The results indicate a potential new approach to fashion optical retarders.
Induced transparency in optomechanically coupled resonators
Duan, Zhenglu; Stace, Thomas M; Milburn, G J; Holmes, Catherine A
2015-01-01
In this work we theoretically investigate a hybrid system of two optomechanically coupled resonators, which exhibits induced transparency. This is realized by coupling an optical ring resonator to a toroid. In the semiclassical analyses, the system displays bistabilities, isolated branches (isolas) and self-sustained oscillation dynamics. Furthermore, we find that the induced transparency transparency window sensitively relies on the mechanical motion. Based on this fact, we show that the described system can be used as a weak force detector and the optimal sensitivity can beat the standard quantum limit without using feedback control or squeezing under available experimental conditions.
Capture into resonance of coupled Duffing oscillators.
Kovaleva, Agnessa
2015-08-01
In this paper we investigate capture into resonance of a pair of coupled Duffing oscillators, one of which is excited by periodic forcing with a slowly varying frequency. Previous studies have shown that, under certain conditions, a single oscillator can be captured into persistent resonance with a permanently growing amplitude of oscillations (autoresonance). This paper demonstrates that the emergence of autoresonance in the forced oscillator may be insufficient to generate oscillations with increasing amplitude in the attachment. A parametric domain, in which both oscillators can be captured into resonance, is determined. The quasisteady states determining the growth of amplitudes are found. An agreement between the theoretical and numerical results is demonstrated.
BANDEY, HELEN L.; BROWN, MARK J.; CERNOSEK, RICHARD W.; HILLMAN, A. ROBERT; MARTIN, STEPHEN J.
1999-09-16
We derive a lumped-element, equivalent-circuit model for the thickness shear mode (TSM) resonator with a viscoelastic film. This modified Butterworth-Van Dyke model includes in the motional branch a series LCR resonator, representing the quartz resonance, and a parallel LCR resonator, representing the film resonance. This model is valid in the vicinity of film resonance, which occurs when the acoustic phase shift across the film is an odd multiple of {pi}/2 radians. This model predicts accurately the frequency changes and damping that arise at resonance and is a reasonable approximation away from resonance. The elements of the model are explicitly related to film properties and can be interpreted in terms of elastic energy storage and viscous power dissipation. The model leads to a simple graphical interpretation of the coupling between the quartz and film resonances and facilitates understanding of the resulting responses. These responses are compared with predictions from the transmission-line and the Sauerbrey models.
Coupled optical resonance laser locking.
Burd, S C; du Toit, P J W; Uys, H
2014-10-20
We have demonstrated simultaneous laser frequency stabilization of a UV and IR laser, to coupled transitions of ions in the same spectroscopic sample, by detecting only the absorption of the UV laser. Separate signals for locking the different lasers are obtained by modulating each laser at a different frequency and using lock-in detection of a single photodiode signal. Experimentally, we simultaneously lock a 369 nm and a 935 nm laser to the (2)S(1/2) → (2)(P(1/2) and (2)D(3/2) → (3)D([3/2]1/2) transitions, respectively, of Yb(+) ions generated in a hollow cathode discharge lamp. Stabilized lasers at these frequencies are required for cooling and trapping Yb(+) ions, used in quantum information and in high precision metrology experiments. This technique should be readily applicable to other ion and neutral atom systems requiring multiple stabilized lasers.
Self-induced steps in a small Josephson junction strongly coupled to a multimode resonator
Larsen, A.; Jensen, H. Dalsgaard; Mygind, Jesper
1991-01-01
of the coupling parameter. The current steps are due to subharmonic parametric excitation of the fundamental mode of the resonator loaded by the junction admittance. Using an applied magnetic field to vary the coupling parameter, we traced out half-integer steps as well as the mode steps known from more weakly...
Plasmon coupling in vertical split-ring resonator metamolecules
Wu, Pin Chieh; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Chen, Wei Ting; Huang, Yao-Wei; Liao, Chun Yen; Liu, Ai Qun; Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Sun, Greg; Tsai, Din Ping
2015-01-01
The past decade has seen a number of interesting designs proposed and implemented to generate artificial magnetism at optical frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials, but owing to the planar configurations of typically fabricated metamolecules that make up the metamaterials, the magnetic response is mainly driven by the electric field of the incident electromagnetic wave. We recently fabricated vertical split-ring resonators (VSRRs) which behave as magnetic metamolecules sensitive to both incident electric and magnetic fields with stronger induced magnetic dipole moment upon excitation in comparison to planar SRRs. The fabrication technique enabled us to study the plasmon coupling between VSRRs that stand up side by side where the coupling strength can be precisely controlled by varying the gap in between. The resulting wide tuning range of these resonance modes offers the possibility of developing frequency selective functional devices such as sensors and filters based on plasmon coupling with high sensitivity. PMID:26043931
Terahertz beat freuquency generation from two-mode lasing operation of coupled microdisk laser
Ryu, Jung-Wan; Kim, Chil-Min; Shinohara, Susumu; Kim, Sang Wook
2012-01-01
We propose a coupled microdisk laser as a compact and tunable laser source for the generation of a coherent continuous wave THz radiation by photomixing. Using the Schr\\"odinger-Bloch model including the nonlinear effect of active medium, we find single mode and two mode lasings depending on the pumping strength. We explain the transitions of lasing modes in terms of resonant modes which are the solutions of the Schr\\"odinger-Bloch model without active medium and nonlinear interaction. In particular, a two mode lasing is shown to generate THz oscillating frequency originating from the light beating of two nearly degenerated resonant modes with different symmetries.
Murotani, Yuta; Tsuji, Naoto; Aoki, Hideo
2017-03-01
We theoretically investigate coherent optical excitations of collective modes in two-band BCS superconductors, which accommodate two Higgs modes and one Leggett mode corresponding, respectively, to the amplitude and relative-phase oscillations of the superconducting order parameters associated with the two bands. We find, based on a mean-field analysis, that each collective mode can be resonantly excited through a nonlinear light-matter coupling when the doubled frequency of the driving field coincides with the frequency of the corresponding mode. Among the two Higgs modes, the higher-energy one exhibits a sharp resonance with light, while the lower-energy mode has a broadened resonance width. The Leggett mode is found to be resonantly induced by a homogeneous ac electric field because the leading nonlinear effect generates a potential offset between the two bands that couples to the relative phase of the order parameters. The resonance for the Leggett mode becomes sharper with increasing temperature. All of these light-induced collective modes along with density fluctuations contribute to the third-harmonic generation. We also predict an experimental possibility of optical detection of the Leggett mode.
Nonlinearly Coupled Superconducting Lumped Element Resonators
Collodo, Michele C.; Potočnik, Anton; Rubio Abadal, Antonio; Mondal, Mintu; Oppliger, Markus; Wallraff, Andreas
We study SQUID-mediated tunable coupling between two superconducting on-chip resonators in the microwave frequency range. In this circuit QED implementation, we employ lumped-element type resonators, which consist of Nb thin film structured into interdigitated finger shunt capacitors and meander inductors. A SQUID, functioning as flux dependent and intrinsically nonlinear inductor, is placed as a coupling element together with an interdigitated capacitor between the two resonators (cf. A. Baust et al., Phys Rev. B 91 014515 (2015)). We perform a spectroscopic measurement in a dilution refrigerator and find the linear photon hopping rate between the resonators to be widely tunable as well as suppressible for an appropriate choice of parameters, which is made possible due to the interplay of inductively and capacitively mediated coupling. Vanishing linear coupling promotes nonlinear effects ranging from onsite- to cross-Kerr interaction. A dominating cross-Kerr interaction related to this configuration is notable, as it induces a unique quantum state. In the course of analog quantum simulations, such elementary building blocks can serve as a precursor for more complex geometries and thus pave the way to a number of novel quantum phases of light
Yang, T C
2014-02-01
This paper applies the mode coupling equation to calculate the mode-coupling matrix for nonlinear internal waves appearing as a train of solitons. The calculation is applied to an individual soliton up to second order expansion in sound speed perturbation in the Dyson series. The expansion is valid so long as the fractional sound speed change due to a single soliton, integrated over range and depth, times the wavenumber is smaller than unity. Scattering between the solitons are included by coupling the mode coupling matrices between the solitons. Acoustic fields calculated using this mode-coupling matrix formulation are compared with that obtained using a parabolic equation (PE) code. The results agree very well in terms of the depth integrated acoustic energy at the receivers for moving solitary internal waves. The advantages of using the proposed approach are: (1) The effects of mode coupling can be studied as a function of range and time as the solitons travel along the propagation path, and (2) it allows speedy calculations of sound propagation through a packet or packets of solitons saving orders of magnitude computations compared with the PE code. The mode coupling theory is applied to at-sea data to illustrate the underlying physics.
Resonances in Coupled-Channel Scattering
Wilson, David J
2016-01-01
Excited hadrons are seen as resonances in the scattering of lighter stable hadrons like $\\pi$, $K$ and $\\eta$. Many decay into multiple final states necessitating coupled-channel analyses. Recently it has become possible to obtain coupled-channel scattering amplitudes from lattice QCD. Using large diverse bases of operators it is possible to obtain reliable finite volume spectra at energies where multiple channels are open. Utilising the finite volume formalism proposed by L\\"uscher and extended by several others, scattering amplitudes can be extracted from the finite volume spectra. Recent applications will be discussed where the energy dependence of scattering amplitudes is mapped out in several quantum numbers. These are then continued to complex energies to extract resonance poles and couplings.
Resonance modes in stereometamaterial of square split ring resonators connected by sharing the gap
Wang, Sheng Lei; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Xiao Ming
2014-01-01
Stereometamaerials can fully utilize the 3D degrees of freedom to exploit the coupling and hybridization between multiple split ring resonators (SRRs), enabling more extraordinary resonances and properties over their planar counterparts. Here we propose and numerically study a kind of structure based on connected SRRs sharing their gap in a rotational fashion. It is shown that there are three typical resonance modes in such cage-like SRR (C-SRR) stereometamaterial in the communication and near infrared range. In the order of increasing energy, these modes can be essentially ascribed to magnetic torodial dipole, magnetic dipole, and a mixture of electric-dipole and magnetic toroidal dipole. We show that the latter two are derived from the second-order mode in the corresponding individual SRR, while the first one from the fundamental one. The highest energy mode remains relatively "dark" in an individual C-SRR due to the high-order feature and the rotational symmetry. However, they are all easily excitable in a...
Transverse Mode Multi-Resonant Single Crystal Transducer
Snook, Kevin A. (Inventor); Liang, Yu (Inventor); Luo, Jun (Inventor); Hackenberger, Wesley S. (Inventor); Sahul, Raffi (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A transducer is disclosed that includes a multiply resonant composite, the composite having a resonator bar of a piezoelectric single crystal configured in a d(sub 32) transverse length-extensional resonance mode having a crystallographic orientation set such that the thickness axis is in the (110) family and resonance direction is the (001) family.
Axion Dark Matter Coupling to Resonant Photons via Magnetic Field.
McAllister, Ben T; Parker, Stephen R; Tobar, Michael E
2016-04-22
We show that the magnetic component of the photon field produced by dark matter axions via the two-photon coupling mechanism in a Sikivie haloscope is an important parameter passed over in previous analysis and experiments. The interaction of the produced photons will be resonantly enhanced as long as they couple to the electric or magnetic mode structure of the haloscope cavity. For typical haloscope experiments the electric and magnetic couplings are equal, and this has implicitly been assumed in past sensitivity calculations. However, for future planned searches such as those at high frequency, which synchronize multiple cavities, the sensitivity will be altered due to different magnetic and electric couplings. We define the complete electromagnetic form factor and discuss its implications for current and future dark matter axion searches over a wide range of masses.
Collective behavior of quantum resonators coupled to a metamaterial
Felbacq, Didier; Rousseau, Emmanuel
2016-09-01
We study a device that consist of quantum resonators coupled to a mesoscopic photonic structure, such as a metasurface or a 2D metamaterial. For metasurfaces, we use surface Bloch modes in order to reach various coupling regimes between the metasurface and a quantum emitter, modelized semi-classically by an oscillator. Using multiple scattering theory and complex plane techniques, we show that the coupling can be characterized by means of a pole-and-zero structure. The regime of strong coupling is shown to be reached when the pole-and- zero pair is broken. For 2D metamaterial, we show the possibility of controlling optically the opening or closing of a gap.
White-Light Whispering Gallery Mode Optical Resonator System and Method
Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Savchenkov, Anatoliy A. (Inventor); Maleki, Lute (Inventor)
2009-01-01
An optical resonator system and method that includes a whispering-gallery mode (WGM) optical resonator that is capable of resonating across a broad, continuous swath of frequencies is provided. The optical resonator of the system is shaped to support at least one whispering gallery mode and includes a top surface, a bottom surface, a side wall, and a first curved transition region extending between the side wall and the top surface. The system further includes a coupler having a coupling surface which is arranged to face the transition region of the optical resonator and in the vicinity thereof such that an evanescent field emitted from the coupler is capable of being coupled into the optical resonator through the first curved transition region
Design of Microstrip UWB bandpass Filter using Multiple Mode Resonator
Vinay Kumar Sharma
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In this letter, we present a design of microstrip ultrawideband (UWB bandpass filter (BPF for the use in UWB wireless communication application set by Federal Communications Commission (FCC. The UWB filter is realized with a Basic MMR (Multiple Mode Resonators structure feed by interdigital coupled lines for achieving higher degree of coupling. The structure is optimized for high selectivity, inband and stopband performance. Finally for fabrication of this structure Rogers RT5880 substrate of thickness 0.4mm with Dielectric constant 2.2 is used. The electromagnetic simulation software, Computer Simulation Technology Microwave Studio (CST MWS is used for the simulation and analysis of the designed structure. The comparison between simulated and fabricated measured result shows good agreement. The insertion loss of proposed filter is greater then 0.2 dB at 6.8 GHz and very flat over whole pass band also returns loss is less then -12db.
Rigorous simulations of coupling between core and cladding modes in a double-helix fiber.
Napiorkowski, Maciej; Urbanczyk, Waclaw
2015-07-15
Using a fully vectorial numerical method based on the transformation optics formalism, we analyzed the effect of resonant coupling between the core and cladding modes in twisted, elliptical core fibers. Our rigorous simulations revealed the existence of a much richer resonance spectrum than that predicted by simplified perturbation approaches. This effect is caused by the appearance of even harmonics in the angular field distribution of higher-order cladding modes due to their interaction with the fiber core with two-fold symmetry. We also analyzed the dependence of the polarization state of the core modes upon the twist rate and wavelength. We demonstrated the effect of the resonant-polarization perturbation of the core modes, which is especially visible for the couplings between circularly polarized core modes and cladding modes of opposite handedness.
Thermoelastic dissipation in MEMS/NEMS flexural mode resonators.
Yan, Jize; Seshia, Ashwin A
2009-02-01
Understanding the energy dissipation mechanisms in single-crystal silicon MEMS/NEMS resonators are particularly important to maximizing an important figure of merit relevant for miniature sensor and signal processing applications: the Quality factor (Q) of resonance. This paper discusses thermoelastic dissipation (TED) as the dominant internal-friction mechanism in flexural mode MEMS/NEMS resonators. Criteria for optimizing the geometrical design of flexural mode MEMS/NEMS resonators are theoretically established with a view towards minimizing the TED for single-crystal silicon MEMS/NEMS flexural mode resonators.
Quantum averaging and resonances: two-level atom in a one-mode classical laser field
M. Amniat-Talab
2007-06-01
Full Text Available We use a nonperturbative method based on quantum averaging and an adapted from of resonant transformations to treat the resonances of the Hamiltonian of a two-level atom interacting with a one-mode classical field in Floquet formalism. We illustrate this method by extraction of effective Hamiltonians of the system in two regimes of weak and strong coupling. The results obtained in the strong-coupling regime, are valid in the whole range of the coupling constant for the one-photon zero-field resonance.
Energy harvesting with coupled magnetostrictive resonators
Naik, Suketu; Phipps, Alex; In, Visarath; Cavaroc, Peyton; Matus-Vargas, Antonio; Palacios, Antonio; Gonzalez-Hernandez, H. G.
2014-03-01
We report the investigation of an energy harvesting system composed of coupled resonators with the magnetostrictive material Galfenol (FeGa). A coupled system of meso-scale (1-10 cm) cantilever beams for harvesting vibration energy is described for powering and aiding the performance of low-power wireless sensor nodes. Galfenol is chosen in this work for its durability, compared to the brittleness often encountered with piezoelectric materials, and high magnetomechanical coupling. A lumped model, which captures both the mechanical and electrical behavior of the individual transducers, is first developed. The values of the lumped element parameters are then derived empirically from fabricated beams in order to compare the model to experimental measurements. The governing equations of the coupled system lead to a system of differential equations with all-to-all coupling between transducers. An analysis of the system equations reveals different patterns of collective oscillations. Among the many different patterns, a synchronous state appears to yield the maximum energy that can be harvested by the system. Experiments on coupled system shows that the coupled system exhibits synchronization and an increment in the output power. Discussion of the required power converters is also included.
Scattering by coupled resonating elements in air
Krynkin, Anton; Chong, Alvin Y B; Taherzadeh, Shahram; Attenborough, Keith
2011-01-01
Scattering by (a) a single composite scatterer consisting of a concentric arrangement of an outer N-slit rigid cylinder and an inner cylinder which is either rigid or in the form of a thin elastic shell and (b) by a finite periodic array of these scatterers in air has been investigated analytically and through laboratory experiments. The composite scatterer forms a system of coupled resonators and gives rise to multiple low frequency resonances. The corresponding analytical model employs polar angle dependent boundary conditions on the surface of the N-slit cylinder. The solution inside the slits assumes plane waves. It is shown also that in the low-frequency range the N-slit rigid cylinder can be replaced by an equivalent fluid layer. Further approximations suggest a simple square root dependence of the resonant frequencies on the number of slits and this is confirmed by data. The observed resonant phenomena are associated with Helmholtz-like behaviour of the resonator for which the radius and width of the o...
Rarefying Spectra of Whispering-Gallery-Mode Resonators
Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitri; Iltchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute
2007-01-01
A method of cleaning the mode spectra of whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators has been devised to make such resonators more suitable for use as narrow-band optical filters. The method applies, more specifically, to millimeter- sized whispering-gallery-mode optical resonators that are made of crystalline electro-optical materials and have ultrahigh values of the resonance quality factor (Q). The mode spectrum of such a resonator is typically dense, consisting of closely spaced families of modes; as such, the spectrum is not well suited for narrow-band filtering, in which there is a need for strong rejection of side modes. Cleaning as used here signifies rarefying the spectrum so that what remains consists mostly of a single desired family of modes or, at worst, a few mode families that are more widely spaced in frequency than are the mode families in the original, non-rarefied spectrum. The spectrum-cleaning method exploits the fact that various WGM mode families occupy various positions near the equator at the rim of a resonator disk. In this method, a damper in the form of a prism or other polished piece of material having an index of refraction greater than that of the resonator material is placed in contact with the rim of the resonator at such a position that the Qs of most or all of the undesired mode families are greatly reduced while the Q of the desired mode family is reduced by only a tolerably small amount. In an alternative method that has been considered, the mode spectrum would be cleaned through special design of the shape of the rim, but fabrication of the rim in a special shape is a complicated task. The advantage of the present method, relative to the alternative method, is that special shaping of the rim is not necessary and the damping prism can be emplaced after the resonator has been fabricated.
Coupled Mode Theory for Semiconductor Nanowires
Buschlinger, Robert; Peschel, Ulf
2016-01-01
We present a model to describe the spatiotemporal evolution of guided modes in semiconductor nanowires based on a coupled mode formalism. Light-matter interaction is modelled based on semiconductor Bloch equations, including many-particle effects in the screened Hartree-Fock approximation. Appropriate boundary conditions are used to incorporate reflections at waveguide endfacets, thus allowing for the simulation of nanowire lasing. We compute the emission characteristics and temporal dynamics of CdS and ZnO nanowire lasers and compare our results both to Finite-Difference Time-Domain simulations and to experimental data. Finally, we explore the dependence of the lasing emission on the nanowire cavity and on the materials relaxation time.
Mechanism of Edge Localized Mode Mitigation by Resonant Magnetic Perturbations
Bécoulet, M.; Orain, F.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Pamela, S.; Cahyna, P.; Hoelzl, M.; Garbet, X.; Franck, E.; Sonnendrücker, E.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Passeron, C.; Latu, G.; Morales, J.; Nardon, E.; Fil, A.; Nkonga, B.; Ratnani, A.; Grandgirard, V.
2014-09-01
A possible mechanism of edge localized modes (ELMs) mitigation by resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) is proposed based on the results of nonlinear resistive magnetohydrodynamic modeling using the jorek code, realistic JET-like plasma parameters and an RMP spectrum of JET error-field correction coils (EFCC) with a main toroidal number n =2 were used in the simulations. Without RMPs, a large ELM relaxation is obtained mainly due to the most unstable medium-n ballooning mode. The externally imposed RMP drives nonlinearly the modes coupled to n =2 RMP which produce small multimode relaxations, mitigated ELMs. The modes driven by RMPs exhibit a tearinglike structure and produce additional islands. Mitigated ELMs deposit energy into the divertor mainly in the structures ("footprints") created by n =2 RMPs, however, slightly modulated by other nonlinearly driven even harmonics. The divertor power flux during a ELM phase mitigated by RMPs is reduced almost by a factor of 10. The mechanism of ELM mitigation by RMPs proposed here reproduces generic features of high collisionality RMP experiments, where large ELMs are replaced by small, much more frequent ELMs or magnetic turbulence. Total ELM suppression was also demonstrated in modeling at higher RMP amplitude.
Thermally induced nonlinear mode coupling in high power fiber amplifiers
Johansen, Mette Marie; Hansen, Kristian Rymann; Alkeskjold, Thomas T.;
2013-01-01
Thermally induced nonlinear mode coupling leads to transverse mode instability (TMI) in high power fiber amplifiers. A numerical model including altering mode profiles from thermal effects and waveguide perturbations predicts a TMI threshold of ~200W.......Thermally induced nonlinear mode coupling leads to transverse mode instability (TMI) in high power fiber amplifiers. A numerical model including altering mode profiles from thermal effects and waveguide perturbations predicts a TMI threshold of ~200W....
CROSSING A COUPLING SPIN RESONANCE WITH AN RF DIPOLE.
BAI,M.; ROSER,T.
2001-06-18
In accelerators, due to quadrupole roll errors and solenoid fields, the polarized proton acceleration often encounters coupling spin resonances. In the Brookhaven AGS, the coupling effect comes from the solenoid partial snake which is used to overcome imperfection resonances. The coupling spin resonance strength is proportional to the amount of coupling as well as the strength of the corresponding intrinsic spin resonance. The coupling resonance can cause substantial beam polarization loss if its corresponding intrinsic spin resonance is very strong. A new method of using an horizontal rf dipole to induce a full spin flip crossing both the intrinsic and its coupling spin resonances is studied in the Brookhaven's AGS. Numerical simulations show that a full spin flip can be induced after crossing the two resonances by using a horizontal rf dipole to induce a large vertical coherent oscillation.
Graphene-based electromagnetically induced transparency with coupling Fabry-Perot resonators.
Zhuang, Huawei; Kong, Fanmin; Li, Kang; Sheng, Shiwei
2015-08-20
We investigate the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) using two adjacent graphene-based Fabry-Perot (F-P) resonators side coupling to a nanoribbon waveguide. By the coupling mode theory in time and F-P resonant model, the destructive interference from the coupling of the two F-P resonators results in the EIT-like optical response. The induced peak and width of the transparency window can be dynamically manipulated by varying the coupling distance of the two resonators, and the transparent window is easily shifted by tuning the resonator length or the chemical potential of the graphene nanoribbon. In order to verify the characteristics of slow light, the group index profile is analyzed at different coupling distances. The proposed graphene-based EIT-like system could open up new opportunities for potential applications in plasmonic slow light and optical information buffering devices.
Design and use of guided mode resonance filters for refractive index sensing
Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon
This Ph.D. thesis is concerned with the design and use of guided mode resonance filters (GMRF) for applications in refractive index sensing. GMRFs are optical nanostructures capable of efficiently and resonantly reflecting a narrow wavelength interval of incident broad band light. They combine...... a diffractive element with a waveguiding element, and it is the coupling between diffracted light and quasi guided modes that gives rise to the resonant response. The linewidth of the resonance can be tuned by the material and geometrical configuration of the device. The resonance wavelength is highly sensitive...... to changes in refractive index that occur within the region overlapped by the quasi guided mode, and GMRFs are thus well suited for optical sensing and tunable filter applications. They produce a polarization dependent response and can be optically characterized in both reflection and transmission...
Broadband robustly single-mode hollow-core PCF by resonant filtering of higher-order modes.
Uebel, Patrick; Günendi, Mehmet C; Frosz, Michael H; Ahmed, Goran; Edavalath, Nitin N; Ménard, Jean-Michel; Russell, Philip St J
2016-05-01
We report a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber that is engineered so as to strongly suppress higher-order modes, i.e., to provide robust LP01 single-mode guidance in all the wavelength ranges where the fiber guides with low loss. Encircling the core is a single ring of nontouching glass elements whose modes are tailored to ensure resonant phase-matched coupling to higher-order core modes. We show that the resulting modal filtering effect depends on only one dimensionless shape parameter, akin to the well-known d/Λ parameter for endlessly single-mode solid-core PCF. Fabricated fibers show higher-order mode losses some ∼100 higher than for the LP01 mode, with LP01 losses 110 THz bandwidth.
Dielectric tuning and coupling of whispering gallery modes using an anisotropic prism
Foreman, Matthew R; Schwefel, Harald G L; Leuchs, Gerd
2016-01-01
Optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are a powerful and versatile tool used in many branches of science. Fine tuning of the central frequency and line width of individual resonances is however desirable in a number of applications including frequency conversion, optical communications and efficient light-matter coupling. To this end we present a detailed theoretical analysis of dielectric tuning of WGMs supported in axisymmetric resonators. Using the Bethe-Schwinger equation and adopting an angular spectrum field representation we study the resonance shift and mode broadening of high $Q$ WGMs when a planar dielectric substrate is brought close to the resonator. Particular focus is given to use of a uniaxial substrate with an arbitrarily aligned optic axis. Competing red and blue resonance shifts ($\\sim 30$ MHz), deriving from generation of a near field material polarisation and back action from the radiation continuum respectively, are found. Anomalous resonance shifts can hence be observed depend...
Selective Mode Excitation And Detection Of Micromachined Resonators
Prak, Albert; Elwenspoek, Miko; Fluitman, Jan H.J
1992-01-01
Distributed mechanical systems such as micromachined resonant strain gages possess an infinite number of modes of vibration. Mostly, one is interested in only one or a few modes. A method is described with which only the desired modes are excited and detected. This is achieved by geometrically shapi
Shi, L; Rekola, H T; Martikainen, J -P; Moerland, R J; Törmä, P
2014-01-01
We study spatial coherence properties of a system composed of periodic silver nanoparticle arrays covered with a fluorescent organic molecule (DiD) film. The evolution of spatial coherence of this composite structure from the weak to the strong coupling regime is investigated by systematically varying the coupling strength between the localized DiD excitons and the collective, delocalized modes of the nanoparticle array known as surface lattice resonances. A gradual evolution of coherence from the weak to the strong coupling regime is observed, with the strong coupling features clearly visible in interference fringes. A high degree of spatial coherence is demonstrated in the strong coupling regime, even when the mode is very excitonlike (80%), in contrast to the purely localized nature of molecular excitons. We show that coherence appears in proportion to the weight of the plasmonic component of the mode throughout the weak-to-strong coupling crossover, providing evidence for the hybrid nature of the normal m...
Nordquist, Christopher D.; Branch, Darren W.; Pluym, Tammy; Choi, Sukwon; Nguyen, Janet H.; Grine, Alejandro; Dyck, Christopher W.; Scott, Sean M.; Sing, Molly N.; Olsson, Roy H., III
2016-10-01
Switching of transducer coupling in aluminum nitride contour-mode resonators provides an enabling technology for future tunable and reconfigurable filters for multi-function RF systems. By using microelectromechanical capacitive switches to realize the transducer electrode fingers, coupling between the metal electrode finger and the piezoelectric material is modulated to change the response of the device. On/off switched width extensional resonators with an area of 24 dB switching ratio at a resonator center frequency of 635 MHz. Other device examples include a 63 MHz resonator with switchable impedance and a 470 MHz resonator with 127 kHz of fine center frequency tuning accomplished by mass loading of the resonator with the MEMS switches.
Beam engineering for selective and enhanced coupling to multipolar resonances
Das, Tanya; Schuller, Jon A
2015-01-01
Multipolar electromagnetic phenomena in sub-wavelength resonators are at the heart of metamaterial science and technology. In this letter, we demonstrate selective and enhanced coupling to specific multipole resonances via beam engineering. We first derive an analytical method for determining the scattering and absorption of spherical nanoparticles (NPs) that depends only on the local electromagnetic field quantities within an inhomogeneous beam. Using this analytical technique, we demonstrate the ability to drastically manipulate the scattering properties of a spherical NP by varying illumination properties and demonstrate the excitation of a longitudinal quadrupole mode that cannot be accessed with conventional illumination. This work enhances the understanding of fundamental light-matter interactions in metamaterials, and lays the foundation for researchers to identify, quantify, and manipulate multipolar light-matter interactions through optical beam engineering.
Transverse multibunch modes for non-rigid bunches, including mode coupling
Berg, J.S.; Ruth, R.D. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)
1996-08-01
A method for computing transverse multibunch growth rates and frequency shifts in rings, which has been described previously, is applied to the PEP-II B factory. The method allows multibunch modes with different internal-bunch oscillation modes to couple to one another, similar to single-bunch mode coupling. Including coupling between the multibunch modes gives effects similar to those seen in single-bunch mode coupling. These effects occur at currents that are lower than the single-bunch mode coupling threshold. (author)
Transverse multibunch modes for non-rigid bunches, including mode coupling
Bert, J.S.; Ruth, R.D.
1995-08-01
A method for computing transverse multibunch growth rates and frequency shifts in rings, which has been described previously, is applied to the PEP-II B factory. The method allows multibunch modes with different internal-bunch oscillation modes to couple to one another, similar to single-bunch mode coupling. Including coupling between the multibunch modes gives effects similar to those seen in single-bunch mode coupling. These effects occur at currents that are lower than the single-bunch mode coupling threshold.
LI Jun-jie; WANG Jia-xian; HUANG Yong-zhen
2007-01-01
The mode characteristics for twin coupled microdisks are investigated by fmite-difference time-domain technique. In the coupled microdisks, the same order whispering-gallery (WG) modes can form coupled modes with split mode wavelengths.We find that the coupled fundamental and first order WG modes can have anticrossing mode coupling as their wavelengths approach the same value in some case, which prevents the cross of the coupled mode wavelengths. The anticrossing mode coupling greatly reduces the coupled mode Q-factor, because the coupled mode field distribution transfers between the fundamental and the first order WG modes.
Lyneis, C., E-mail: CMLyneis@lbl.gov; Benitez, J.; Hodgkinson, A.; Strohmeier, M.; Todd, D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Plaum, B. [Institut für Grenzflächenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie (IGVP), Stuttgart (Germany); Thuillier, T. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, 53 rue des martyrs 38026 Grenoble cedex (France)
2014-02-15
A number of superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources use gyrotrons at either 24 or 28 GHz for ECR heating. In these systems, the microwave power is launched into the plasma using the TE{sub 01} circular waveguide mode. This is fundamentally different and may be less efficient than the typical rectangular, linearly polarized TE{sub 10} mode used for launching waves at lower frequencies. To improve the 28 GHz microwave coupling in VENUS, a TE{sub 01}-HE{sub 11} mode conversion system has been built to test launching HE{sub 11} microwave power into the plasma chamber. The HE{sub 11} mode is a quasi-Gaussian, linearly polarized mode, which should couple strongly to the plasma electrons. The mode conversion is done in two steps. First, a 0.66 m long “snake” converts the TE{sub 01} mode to the TE{sub 11} mode. Second, a corrugated circular waveguide excites the HE{sub 11} mode, which is launched directly into the plasma chamber. The design concept draws on the development of similar devices used in tokamaks and stellerators. The first tests of the new coupling system are described below.
Transverse Mode Coupling Instability with Space Charge
Balbekov, V
2016-01-01
Transverse mode coupling instability of a bunch with space charge and wake field is considered in frameworks of the boxcar model. Eigenfunctions of the bunch without wake are used as the basis for solution of the equations with the wake field included. Dispersion equation for the bunch eigentunes is obtained in the form of an infinite continued fraction. It is shown that influence of space charge on the instability essentially depends on the wake sign. In particular, threshold of the negative wake increases in absolute value until the space charge tune shift is rather small, and goes to zero at higher space charge. The explanation of this behavior is developed by analysis of the bunch spectrum. A comparison of the results with published articles is represented.
Transverse Mode Coupling Instability with Space Charge
Balbekov, V. [Fermilab
2016-03-11
Transverse mode coupling instability of a bunch with space charge and wake field is considered in frameworks of the boxcar model. Eigenfunctions of the bunch without wake are used as the basis for solution of the equations with the wake field included. Dispersion equation for the bunch eigentunes is obtained in the form of an infinite continued fraction. It is shown that influence of space charge on the instability essentially depends on the wake sign. In particular, threshold of the negative wake increases in absolute value until the space charge tune shift is rather small, and goes to zero at higher space charge. The explanation of this behavior is developed by analysis of the bunch spectrum. A comparison of the results with published articles is represented.
Purcell factor of Mie resonators featuring electric and magnetic modes
Zambrana-Puyalto, Xavier
2015-01-01
We present a modal approach to compute the Purcell factor in Mie resonators exhibiting both electric and magnetic resonances. The analytic expressions of the normal modes are used to calculate the effective volumes. We show that important features of the effective volume can be predicted thanks to the translation-addition coefficients of a displaced dipole. Using our formalism, it is easy to see that, in general, the Purcell factor of Mie resonators is not dominated by a single mode, but rather by a large superposition. Finally we consider a silicon resonator homogeneously doped with electric dipolar emitters, and we show that the average electric Purcell factor dominates over the magnetic one.
Acoustic mode coupling of two facing, shallow cylindrical cavities
McCarthy, Philip; Ekmekci, Alis
2016-11-01
Cavity mode excitation by grazing flows is a well-documented source for noise generation. Similarly to their rectangular equivalents, single cylindrical cavities have been shown to exhibit velocity dependent self-sustaining feedback mechanisms that produce significant tonal noise. The present work investigates the effect of cavity mode coupling on the tonal noise generation for two facing, shallow cylindrical cavities. This geometric arrangement may occur for constrained flows, such as those within ducts, silencers or between aircraft landing gear wheels. For the latter configuration, the present study has observed that the tonal frequency dependence upon the freestream Mach number, associated with the single cavity feedback mechanism, no longer holds true. Instead, two simultaneously present and distinct large amplitude tones that are independent (in frequency) of speed, propagate to the far field. These two, fixed frequency tones are attributable to the first order transverse mode, and the first order transverse and azimuthal modes for the two combined cavities and the volume between them. Altering either the cavity aspect ratio or the inter-cavity spacing thus changes the acoustic resonant volume and translates the centre frequencies of the observed tones correspondingly. The authors would like to thank Bombardier and Messier-Bugatti-Dowty for their continued support.
Phase locking of coupled lasers with many longitudinal modes
Fridman, Moti; Ronen, Eitan; Friesem, Asher A; Davidson, Nir
2009-01-01
Detailed experimental and theoretical investigations on two coupled fiber lasers, each with many longitudinal modes, reveal that the behavior of the longitudinal modes depends on both the coupling strength as well as the detuning between them. For low to moderate coupling strength only longitudinal modes which are common for both lasers phase-lock while those that are not common gradually disappear. For larger coupling strengths, the longitudinal modes that are not common reappear and phase-lock. When the coupling strength approaches unity the coupled lasers behave as a single long cavity with correspondingly denser longitudinal modes. Finally, we show that the gradual increase in phase-locking as a function of the coupling strength results from competition between phase-locked and non phase-locked longitudinal modes.
Signal-flow graphs in coupled laser resonator analysis
Pedersen, Christian; Skettrup, Torben
1997-01-01
Signal-flow graph analysis of coupled linear systems is introduced in order to find a simple method to treat systems of coupled optical resonators. The proposed method turns out to be well suited for this purpose, and the reflectance and transmittance of coupled resonator systems are easily found...
Complex coupled-mode theory for tapered optical waveguides.
Mu, Jianwei; Huang, Wei-Ping
2011-03-15
A coupled-mode formulation based on complex local modes is developed for tapered and longitudinally varying optical waveguides. Different from the conventional coupled-mode theory that requires integration over the entire spectrum of radiation modes, the new formulation treats the radiation fields via discrete complex modes similarly to the guided modes. Accuracy, convergence, and scope of validity for the solutions of the complex coupled-mode equations are investigated in detail for a typical single-mode waveguide taper. It is demonstrated that the complex coupled-mode theory has overcome the difficulties of the conventional theory in simulation of radiation field effects while preserving the simplicity and intuitiveness of this popular method.
Dynamics of mode-coupling-induced microresonator frequency combs in normal dispersion
Jang, Jae K; Yu, Mengjie; Luke, Kevin; Ji, Xingchen; Lipson, Michal; Gaeta, Alexander L
2016-01-01
We experimentally and theoretically investigate the dynamics of microresonator-based frequency comb generation assisted by mode coupling in the normal group-velocity dispersion (GVD) regime. We show that mode coupling can initiate intracavity modulation instability (MI) by directly perturbing the pump-resonance mode. We also observe the formation of a low-noise comb as the pump frequency is tuned further into resonance from the MI point. We determine the phase-matching conditions that accurately predict all the essential features of the MI and comb spectra, and extend the existing analogy between mode coupling and high-order dispersion to the normal GVD regime. We discuss the applicability of our analysis to the possibility of broadband comb generation in the normal GVD regime.
Longitudinal mode structure in a non-planar ring resonator
M Jaberi
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The structure of longitudinal modes of a passively Q-switched, non-planar unidirectional ring-resonator,with Nd:YAG active medium is described in this article. Two different techniques are used to study the longitudinal mode structure of the laser resonator. At first, the fast-fourier transform technique is applied for analyzing the mode beating of the optical fields by intensity frequency structure of the laser pulses to determine the number of longitudinal modes. Then, an analyzer etalon is used to observe Fabry-Perot fringes to compute the numbers of the resonator longitudinal modes. The results of two techniques are in good agreement with each other. Under the proper conditions, a reliable single longitudinal mode of the non-planar ring-resonator can be achieved with a good spatial mode profile that originates from the unidirectional travelling optical field propagation in the resonator having a very low sensitivity of the non-planar ring resonator to the optical elements misalignment.
Mode conversion losses in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based racetrack resonators.
Xia, Fengnian; Sekaric, Lidija; Vlasov, Yurii A
2006-05-01
Two complimentary types of SOI photonic wire based devices, the add/drop (A/D) filter using a racetrack resonator and the Mach-Zehnder interferometer with one arm consisting of an identical resonator in all-pass filter (APF) configuration, were fabricated and characterized in order to extract the optical properties of the resonators and predict the performance of the optical delay lines based on such resonators. We found that instead of well-known waveguide bending and propagation losses, mode conversion loss in the coupling region of such resonators dominates when the air gap between the racetrack resonator and access waveguide is smaller than 120nm. We also show that this additional loss significantly degrades the performance of the optical delay line containing cascaded resonators in APF configuration.
Characterization of the non-resonant radiation damping in coupled cavity photon magnon system
Rao, J. W.; Kaur, S.; Fan, X. L.; Xue, D. S.; Yao, B. M.; Gui, Y. S.; Hu, C.-M.
2017-06-01
We have experimentally investigated the non-resonant radiation damping in the coupled cavity photon-magnon system in addition to the resonant radiation damping which results in the linewidth exchange between the magnon-like and photon-like hybrid modes. The contribution of this non-resonant effect becomes apparent when the cavity photon-magnon resonance frequencies are mismatched. By carefully examining the change in the linewidth and the shift in the magnon resonance as a function of the coupling strength between the cavity photons and magnons, we can quantitatively describe this non-resonant radiation damping by including an additional relaxation channel for the hybridized photon-magnon system. This experimental realization and theoretical modelling of the non-resonant radiation damping in the cavity photon-magnon system may help in the design and adaptation of these systems for practical applications.
Principal modes in multimode fibers: exploring the crossover from weak to strong mode coupling
Xiong, Wen; Bromberg, Yaron; Redding, Brandon; Rotter, Stefan; Cao, Hui
2016-01-01
We present experimental and numerical studies on principal modes in a multimode fiber with mode coupling. By applying external stress to the fiber and gradually adjusting the stress, we have realized a transition from weak to strong mode coupling, which corresponds to the transition from single scattering to multiple scattering in mode space. Our experiments show that principal modes have distinct spatial and spectral characteristic in the weak and strong mode coupling regimes. We also investigate the bandwidth of the principal modes, in particular, the dependence of the bandwidth on the delay time, and the effects of the mode-dependent loss. By analyzing the path-length distributions, we discover two distinct mechanisms that are responsible for the bandwidth of principal modes in weak and strong mode coupling regimes. Taking into account the mode-dependent loss in the fiber, our numerical results are in good agreement with our experimental observations. Our study paves the way for exploring potential applica...
Coupling between counterpropagating cladding modes in fiber Bragg gratings.
Sáez-Rodriguez, D; Cruz, J L; Díez, A; Andrés, M V
2011-04-15
We present an experimental demonstration of energy transfer between counterpropagating cladding modes in a fiber Bragg grating (FBG). A strong FBG written in a standard photosensitive optical fiber is illuminated with a single cladding mode, and the power transferred between the forward propagating cladding mode and different backward propagating cladding modes is measured by using two auxiliary long period gratings. Resonances between cladding modes having 30 pm bandwidth and 8 dB rejection have been observed.
Coupled-channels optical calculation of positron-hydrogen resonances
Yu Rong-Mei; Zhou Ya-Jun; Jiao Li-Guang; Cheng Yong-Jun
2012-01-01
An application of the coupled-channels optical method is given for the energy-dependent phenomena of positronhydrogen resonances below the n =2 excitation threshold.The equivalent local optical potential is used to account for the target polarization and positronium formation.The calculation includes 9 explicitly physical coupled channels.The lowest S-wave resonance energy position and new resonances are found.Angular dependence of the cross section in the resonance region are investigated.
Complete leaky mode coupling in dual-core photonic crystal fibre based on the coupled-mode theory
Yuan Jin-Hui; Yu Chong-Xiu; Sang Xin-Zhu; Zhang Jin-Long; Zhou Gui-Yao; Hou Lan-Tian
2011-01-01
This paper theoretically investigates the dependence of leaky mode coupling between inner core fundamental mode and outer core defect mode on phase and loss matching in pure silica dual-core photonic crystal fibres with the multi-pole method. The complete mode coupling can take place when both the phase and loss matching conditions are satisfied at the avoided anti-crossing wavelength. It shows the influences of cladding structure parameters including the diameters of cladding air holes d1, diameters of outer core holes d2 and hole to hole pitch A on the characteristics of leaky modes coupling. The coupled-mode theory is used to analyse the mode transition characteristics and the complete coupling can be clearly indicated by comparing the real and imaginary parts of propagation constant of the leaky modes.
Identifying modes of large whispering-gallery mode resonators from the spectrum and emission pattern
Schunk, Gerhard; Fuerst, Josef U.; Förtsch, Michael;
2014-01-01
Identifying the mode numbers in whispering-gallery mode resonators (WGMRs) is important for tailoring them to experimental needs. Here we report on a novel experimental mode analysis technique based on the combination of frequency analysis and far-field imaging for high mode numbers of large WGMRs....... The radial mode numbers q and the angular mode numbers p = l-m are identified and labeled via far-field imaging. The polar mode numbers l are determined unambiguously by fitting the frequency differences between individual whispering gallery modes (WGMs). This allows for the accurate determination...
Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator with Orthogonally Reconfigurable Filter Function
Maleki, Lute; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry; Savchenkov, Anatoliy
2008-01-01
An optical resonator has been developed with reconfigurable filter function that has resonant lines that can be shifted precisely and independently from each other, creating any desirable combination of resonant lines. This is achieved by changing the axial distribution of the effective refractive index of the resonator, which shifts the resonant frequency of particular optical modes, leaving all the rest unchanged. A reconfigurable optical filter is part of the remote chemical detector proposed for the Mars mission (Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program PIDDP), but it is also useful for photonic communications devices.
Transverse-mode coupling and diffraction loss in tunable Fabry-P\\'erot microcavities
Benedikter, Julia; Mader, Matthias; Schlederer, Benedikt; Reichel, Jakob; Hänsch, Theodor W; Hunger, David
2015-01-01
We report on measurements and modeling of the mode structure of tunable Fabry-P\\'erot optical microcavities with imperfect mirrors. We find that non-spherical mirror shape and finite mirror size lead to loss, mode deformation, and shifted resonance frequencies at particular mirror separations. For small mirror diameters, the useful cavity length is limited to values significantly below the expected stability range. We explain the observations by resonant coupling between different transverse modes of the cavity and mode-dependent diffraction loss. A model based on resonant state expansion that takes into account the measured mirror profile can reproduce the measurements and identify the parameter regime where detrimental effects of mode mixing are avoided.
Guo, Chang-Lei; Che, Kai-Jun; Gu, Guo-Qiang; Cai, Guo-Xiong; Cai, Zhi-Ping; Xu, Hui-Ying
2015-02-20
Plasmonic whispering gallery (WG) modes confined in metal-coated resonators are theoretically investigated by electromagnetic analyses. The resonance can be tuned from internal surface plasmonic WG modes to the hybrid state of the plasmonic mode by an introduced isolation layer. As the coated metal is reduced in size, the optical resonance is shifted out by the mode coupling of the internal and external surface plasmonic WG modes. Based on the optical leak of the plasmonic WG mode, the optical influences led by the surroundings with a variable refractive index are considered. Device performance criteria such as optical power leak, resonant wavelength shift, and threshold gain are studied. Full wave simulations are also employed and the results present good consistency with analytic solutions. The metal-coated resonator assisted by an active material is expected to provide promising performance as a refractometric sensor.
Optical rogue waves in whispering-gallery-mode resonators
Coillet, Aurélien; Dudley, John; Genty, Goëry; Larger, Laurent; Chembo, Yanne K.
2014-01-01
We report a theoretical study showing that rogue waves can emerge in whispering-gallery-mode resonators as the result of the chaotic interplay between Kerr nonlinearity and anomalous group-velocity dispersion. The nonlinear dynamics of the propagation of light in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator is investigated using the Lugiato-Lefever equation, and we give evidence of a range of parameters where rare and extreme events associated with non-Gaussian statistics of the field maxima are observed.
Optical Rogue Waves in Whispering-Gallery-Mode Resonators
Coillet, Aurélien; Genty, Goery; Larger, Laurent; Chembo, Yanne K
2014-01-01
We report a theoretical study showing that rogue waves can emerge in whispering gallery mode resonators as the result of the chaotic interplay between Kerr nonlinearity and anomalous group-velocity dispersion. The nonlinear dynamics of the propagation of light in a whispering gallery-mode resonator is investigated using the Lugiato-Lefever equation, and we evidence a range of parameters where rare and extreme events associated with a non-gaussian statistics of the field maxima are observed.
Wireless Power Transmission Using Resonance Inductive Coupling
Prof. Vishal V. Pande,
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present the concept of transmitting power without using wires i.e.transmitting power as Magnetic waves from one place to another is in order to reduce the transmission and distribution losses. This concept is known as Resonance Inductive Coupling (RIC. We also discussed the technological developments in Wireless Power Transmission (WPT. The advantages, disadvantages, biological impacts and applications of WPT are also presented. Wireless power or wireless energy transmission is the transmission of electrical energy from a power source to an electrical load without man-made conductors. Wireless transmission is useful in cases where interconnecting wires are inconvenient, hazardous, or impossible. the proportion of energy received becomes critical only if it is too low for the signal to be distinguished from the background noise. With wireless power, efficiency is the more significant parameter. A large part of the energy sent out by the generating plant must arrive at the receiver or receivers to make the system economical.The most common form of wireless power transmission is carried out using direct induction followed by resonant magnetic induction. Other methods under consideration are electromagnetic radiation in the form of microwaves or lasers and electrical conduction through natural media
Continuous spectrum of modes for optical micro-sphere resonators
Nooramin, Amir Saman; Shahabadi, Mahmoud
2016-09-01
This paper presents an improved modal analysis for the spherical dielectric resonator. This is commonly carried out by assuming an outgoing spherical Hankel function for the region surrounding the dielectric sphere. It will be shown that this assumption is incomplete and cannot lead to the entire spectrum of resonance frequencies. Following an analytical formulation, we prove that, like cylindrical resonators, the only choice for the outer region of the dielectric sphere can be a proper linear combination of an inward and an outward traveling wave. Starting from this formulation, we determine the complete spectrum of the resonance frequencies and the associated mode fields. In this analysis, the continuous spectrum of resonance frequencies is introduced and the properties of radiation modes are studied in detail. The proposed analytical formulation is thereafter employed to calculate the quality factor of the resonator due to radiation and dielectric loss.
Absolute analytical prediction of photonic crystal guided mode resonance wavelengths
Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon; Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron
2014-01-01
A class of photonic crystal resonant reflectors known as guided mode resonant filters are optical structures that are widely used in the field of refractive index sensing, particularly in biosensing. For the purposes of understanding and design, their behavior has traditionally been modeled numer...
Asymmetric excitation of surface plasmons by dark mode coupling.
Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Quan; Li, Quan; Xu, Yuehong; Gu, Jianqiang; Tian, Zhen; Ouyang, Chunmei; Liu, Yongmin; Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Xixiang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili
2016-02-01
Control over surface plasmons (SPs) is essential in a variety of cutting-edge applications, such as highly integrated photonic signal processing systems, deep-subwavelength lasing, high-resolution imaging, and ultrasensitive biomedical detection. Recently, asymmetric excitation of SPs has attracted enormous interest. In free space, the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in metamaterials has been widely investigated to uniquely manipulate the electromagnetic waves. In the near field, we show that the dark mode coupling mechanism of the classical EIT effect enables an exotic and straightforward excitation of SPs in a metasurface system. This leads to not only resonant excitation of asymmetric SPs but also controllable exotic SP focusing by the use of the Huygens-Fresnel principle. Our experimental findings manifest the potential of developing plasmonic metadevices with unique functionalities.
Asymmetric excitation of surface plasmons by dark mode coupling
Zhang, X.
2016-02-19
Control over surface plasmons (SPs) is essential in a variety of cutting-edge applications, such as highly integrated photonic signal processing systems, deep-subwavelength lasing, high-resolution imaging, and ultrasensitive biomedical detection. Recently, asymmetric excitation of SPs has attracted enormous interest. In free space, the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in metamaterials has been widely investigated to uniquely manipulate the electromagnetic waves. In the near field, we show that the dark mode coupling mechanism of the classical EIT effect enables an exotic and straightforward excitation of SPs in a metasurface system. This leads to not only resonant excitation of asymmetric SPs but also controllable exotic SP focusing by the use of the Huygens-Fresnel principle. Our experimental findings manifest the potential of developing plasmonic metadevices with unique functionalities.
Single-Mode WGM Resonators Fabricated by Diamond Turning
Grudinin, Ivan; Maleki, Lute; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrewy; Strekalov, Dmitry; Iltchenko, Vladimir
2008-01-01
A diamond turning process has made possible a significant advance in the art of whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators. By use of this process, it is possible to fashion crystalline materials into WGM resonators that have ultrahigh resonance quality factors (high Q values), are compact (ranging in size from millimeters down to tens of microns), and support single electromagnetic modes. This development combines and extends the developments reported in "Few- Mode Whispering-Gallery-Mode Resonators" (NPO-41256), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 1 (January 2006), page 16a and "Fabrication of Submillimeter Axisymmetric Optical Components" (NPO-42056), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 5 (May 2007), page 10a. To recapitulate from the first cited prior article: A WGM resonator of this special type consists of a rod, made of a suitable transparent material, from which protrudes a thin circumferential belt of the same material. The belt is integral with the rest of the rod and acts as a circumferential waveguide. If the depth and width of the belt are made appropriately small, then the belt acts as though it were the core of a single-mode optical fiber: the belt and the rod material adjacent to it support a single, circumferentially propagating mode or family of modes. To recapitulate from the second cited prior article: A major step in the fabrication of a WGM resonator of this special type is diamond turning or computer numerically controlled machining of a rod of a suitable transparent crystalline material on an ultrahigh-precision lathe. During the rotation of a spindle in which the rod is mounted, a diamond tool is used to cut the rod. A computer program is used to control stepping motors that move the diamond tool, thereby controlling the shape cut by the tool. Because the shape can be controlled via software, it is possible to choose a shape designed to optimize a resonator spectrum, including, if desired, to limit the resonator to supporting a single mode
Optical combs with a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator
Savchenkov, Anatoliy A; Ilchenko, Vladimir S; Solomatine, Iouri; Seidel, David; Maleki, Lute
2008-01-01
We report on the experimental demonstration of a tunable monolithic optical frequency comb generator. The device is based on the four-wave mixing in a crystalline calcium fluoride whispering gallery mode resonator. The frequency spacing of the comb is given by an integer number of the free spectral range of the resonator. We select the desired number by tuning the pumping laser frequency with respect to the corresponding resonator mode. We also observe interacting optical combs and high-frequency hyperparametric oscillation, depending on the experimental conditions. A potential application of the comb for generating narrowband frequency microwave signals is demonstrated.
Resonant Inerter Based Absorbers for a Selected Global Mode
Krenk, Steen
2016-01-01
The paper presents calibration and efficiency analyses for two different configurations of a resonant vibration absorber consisting of a spring, a damper and an inerter element. In the two configurations the damper is either in parallel with the spring or with the inerter element. A calibration......-resonant modes. The calibration procedure is given a unified format for the two absorber types, and the high efficiency – evaluated as the ability to reproduce the selected dynamic amplification level of the resonant mode – is demonstrated....
Full vector complex coupled mode theory for tilted fiber gratings.
Lu, Yu-Chun; Huang, Wei-Ping; Jian, Shui-Sheng
2010-01-18
A full vector complex coupled mode theory (CMT) for the analysis of tilted fiber gratings is presented. With the combination of the perfectly matched layer (PML) and the perfectly reflecting boundary (PRB), the continuous radiation modes are well represented by a set of discrete complex modes. Simulation of coupling to radiation modes is greatly simplified and may be treated in the same fashion as guided modes. Numerical results of the tilted fiber Bragg gratings (TFBGs) with outer-cladding index equal, lower and higher than that of the inner-cladding indicate that the complex coupled mode approach is highly effective in the simulation of couplings to cladding and radiation modes in tilted fiber gratings. The reflective TFBGs are investigated by the proposed approach in detail.
Three-dimensional coupled mode analysis of internal-wave acoustic ducts.
Shmelev, Alexey A; Lynch, James F; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Schmidt, Henrik
2014-05-01
A fully three-dimensional coupled mode approach is used in this paper to describe the physics of low frequency acoustic signals propagating through a train of internal waves at an arbitrary azimuth. A three layer model of the shallow water waveguide is employed for studying the properties of normal modes and their coupled interaction due to the presence of nonlinear internal waves. Using a robust wave number integration technique for Fourier transform computation and a direct global matrix approach, an accurate three-dimensional coupled mode full field solution is obtained for the tonal signal propagation through straight and parallel internal waves. This approach provides accurate results for arbitrary azimuth and includes the effects of backscattering. This enables one to provide an azimuthal analysis of acoustic propagation and separate the effects of mode coupled transparent resonance, horizontal reflection and refraction, the horizontal Lloyd's mirror, horizontal ducting and anti-ducting, and horizontal tunneling and secondary ducting.
Hägglund, Carl; Zeltzer, Gabriel; Ruiz, Ricardo; Wangperawong, Artit; Roelofs, Katherine E.; Bent, Stacey F.
2016-01-01
When optical resonances interact strongly, hybridized modes are formed with mixed properties inherited from the basic modes. Strong coupling therefore tends to equalize properties such as damping and oscillator strength of the spectrally separate resonance modes. This effect is here shown to be very useful for the realization of near perfect dual-band absorption with ultrathin (~10 nm) layers in a simple geometry. Absorber layers are constructed by atomic layer deposition of the heavy-damping...
Resonant Modes of L-Shaped Gold Nanoparticles
YANG Jing; ZHANG Jia-Sen; WU Xiao-Fei; GONG Qi-Huang
2009-01-01
We analyze the electric field modes excited in resonant L-shaped gold nanoparticles using a finite-difference time domain method.Compared to a single gold nanorod,both the odd and even modes of the L-shaped nanoparticles can be excited due to the symmetry breaking.The nanoparticles with equal and unequal arms have different dependence of field enhancement and mode on the incident polarization.
Impinging Jet Resonant Modes at Mach 1.5
Davis, Timothy
2013-01-01
High speed impinging jets have been the focus of several studies owing to their practical application and resonance dominated flow-field. The current study focuses on the identification and visualization of the resonant modes at certain critical impingement heights for a Mach 1.5 normally impinging jet. These modes are associated with high amplitude, discrete peaks in the power spectra and can be identified as having either axisymmetric or azimuthal modes. Their visualization is accomplished through phase-locked Schlieren imaging and fast-response pressure sensitive paint (PC-PSP) applied to the ground plane.
Localized surface plasmons selectively coupled to resonant light in tubular microcavities
Yin, Yin; Böttner, Stefan; Yuan, Feifei; Giudicatti, Silvia; Naz, Ehsan Saei Ghareh; Ma, Libo; Schmidt, Oliver G
2016-01-01
Vertical gold-nanogaps are created on microtubular cavities to explore the coupling between resonant light supported by the microcavities and surface plasmons localized at the nanogaps. Selective coupling of optical axial modes and localized surface plasmons critically depends on the exact location of the gold-nanogap on the microcavities which is conveniently achieved by rolling-up specially designed thin dielectric films into three dimensional microtube ring resonators. The coupling phenomenon is explained by a modified quasi-potential model based on perturbation theory. Our work reveals the coupling of surface plasmon resonances localized at the nanoscale to optical resonances confined in microtubular cavities at the microscale, implying a promising strategy for the investigation of light-matter interactions.
Resonant mode for gravitational wave detectors based on atom interferometry
Graham, Peter W.; Hogan, Jason M.; Kasevich, Mark A.; Rajendran, Surjeet
2016-11-01
We describe an atom interferometric gravitational wave detector design that can operate in a resonant mode for increased sensitivity. By oscillating the positions of the atomic wave packets, this resonant detection mode allows for coherently enhanced, narrow-band sensitivity at target frequencies. The proposed detector is flexible and can be rapidly switched between broadband and narrow-band detection modes. For instance, a binary discovered in broadband mode can subsequently be studied further as the inspiral evolves by using a tailored narrow-band detector response. In addition to functioning like a lock-in amplifier for astrophysical events, the enhanced sensitivity of the resonant approach also opens up the possibility of searching for important cosmological signals, including the stochastic gravitational wave background produced by inflation. We give an example of detector parameters which would allow detection of inflationary gravitational waves down to ΩGW˜10-14 for a two-satellite space-based detector.
Transforming Fabry-Perot resonances into a Tamm mode
Durach, Maxim
2012-01-01
We propose a novel photonic structure composed of metal nanolayer, Bragg mirror and metal nanolayer. The structure supports resonances that are transitional between Fabry-Perot and Tamm modes. When the dielectric contrast of the DBR is removed these modes are a pair of conventional Fabry-Perot resonances. They spectrally merge into a Tamm mode at high contrast. Such behavior differs from the results for structures supporting Tamm modes reported earlier. The optical properties of the structure in the frequency range of the DBR stop band, including highly beneficial 50% transmittivity through thick structures, are determined by the introduced in the paper hybrid resonances. The results can find a wide range of photonic applications.
Phase Matching of Diverse Modes in a WGM Resonator
Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Strekalov, Dmitry; Yu, Nan; Matsko, Andrey; Mohageg, Makan; Maleki, Lute
2008-01-01
Phase matching of diverse electromagnetic modes (specifically, coexisting optical and microwave modes) in a whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonator has been predicted theoretically and verified experimentally. Such phase matching is necessary for storage of microwave/terahertz and optical electromagnetic energy in the same resonator, as needed for exploitation of nonlinear optical phenomena. WGM resonators are used in research on nonlinear optical phenomena at low optical intensities and as a basis for design and fabrication of novel optical devices. Examples of nonlinear optical phenomena recently demonstrated in WGM resonators include low-threshold Raman lasing, optomechanical oscillations, frequency doubling, and hyperparametric oscillations. The present findings regarding phase matching were made in research on low-threshold, strongly nondegenerate parametric oscillations in lithium niobate WGM resonators. The principle of operation of such an oscillator is rooted in two previously observed phenomena: (1) stimulated Raman scattering by polaritons in lithium niobate and (2) phase matching of nonlinear optical processes via geometrical confinement of light. The oscillator is partly similar to terahertz oscillators based on lithium niobate crystals, the key difference being that a novel geometrical configuration of this oscillator supports oscillation in the regime. The high resonance quality factors (Q values) typical of WGM resonators make it possible to achieve oscillation at a threshold signal level much lower than that in a non-WGM-resonator lithium niobate crystal.
Thomas, Jens; Becker, Ria G; Marshall, Graham D; Withford, Michael J; Tünnermann, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan; Steel, M J
2010-01-01
The spectral characteristics of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with a transversely inhomogeneous refractive index profile, differs con- siderably from that of a transversely uniform one. Transmission spectra of inhomogeneous and asymmetric FBGs that have been inscribed with focused ultrashort pulses with the so-called point-by-point technique are investigated. The cladding mode resonances of such FBGs can span a full octave in the spectrum and are very pronounced (deeper than 20dB). Using a coupled-mode approach, we compute the strength of resonant coupling and find that coupling into cladding modes of higher azimuthal order is very sensitive to the position of the modification in the core. Exploiting these properties allows precise control of such reflections and may lead to many new sensing applications.
Preheating after multifield inflation with nonminimal couplings, II: Resonance Structure
DeCross, Matthew P; Prabhu, Anirudh; Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda; Sfakianakis, Evangelos I
2016-01-01
This is the second in a series of papers on preheating in inflationary models comprised of multiple scalar fields coupled nonminimally to gravity. In this paper, we work in the rigid-spacetime approximation and consider field trajectories within the single-field attractor, which is a generic feature of these models. We construct the Floquet charts to find regions of parameter space in which particle production is efficient for both the adiabatic and isocurvature modes, and analyze the resonance structure using analytic and semi-analytic techniques. Particle production in the adiabatic direction is characterized by the existence of an asymptotic scaling solution at large values of the nonminimal couplings, $\\xi_I \\gg 1$, in which the dominant instability band arises in the long-wavelength limit, for comoving wavenumbers $k \\rightarrow 0$. However, the large-$\\xi_I$ regime is not reached until $\\xi_I \\geq {\\cal O} (100)$. In the intermediate regime, with $\\xi_I \\sim {\\cal O}(10)$, the resonance structure depend...
Ultrahigh Q whispering gallery mode electro-optic resonators on a silicon photonic chip.
Soltani, Mohammad; Ilchenko, Vladimir; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Schlafer, John; Ryan, Colm; Maleki, Lute
2016-09-15
Crystalline whispering gallery mode (WGM) electro-optic resonators made of LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 are critical for a wide range of applications in nonlinear and quantum optics, as well as RF photonics, due to their remarkably ultrahigh Q(>108) and large electro-optic coefficient. Achieving efficient coupling of these resonators to planar on-chip optical waveguides is essential for any high-yield and robust practical applications. However, it has been very challenging to demonstrate such coupling while preserving the ultrahigh Q properties of the resonators. Here, we show how the silicon photonic platform can overcome this long-standing challenge. Silicon waveguides with appropriate designs enable efficient and strong coupling to these WGM electro-optic resonators. We discuss various integration architectures of these resonators onto a silicon chip and experimentally demonstrate critical coupling of a planar Si waveguide and an ultrahigh QLiTaO3 resonator (Q∼108). Our results show a promising path for widespread and practical applications of these resonators on a silicon photonic platform.
SOl-based radial-contour-mode micromechanical disk resonator
Jia Yingqian; Zhao Zhengping; Yang Yongjun; Hu Xiaodong; Li Qian
2011-01-01
This paper reports a radial-contour-mode micromechanical disk resonator for radio frequency applications.This disk resonator with a gold plated layer as the electrodes,was prepared on a silicon-on-insulator wafer,which is supported by an anchor on another silicon wafer through Au-Au thermo-compression bonding.The gap between the disk and the surrounding gold electrodes is 100 nm.The radius of the disk is 20 μm and the thickness is 4.5μm.In results,the resonator shows a resonant frequency of 143 MHz and a quality factor of 5600 in vacuum.
Complex resonances and trapped modes in ducted domains
Duan, Yuting; Koch, Werner; Linton, Chris M.; McIver, Maureen
Owing to radiation losses, resonances in open systems, i.e. solution domains which extend to infinity in at least one direction, are generally complex valued. However, near symmetric centred objects in ducted domains, or in periodic arrays, so-called trapped modes can exist below the cut-off frequency of the first non-trivial duct mode. These trapped modes have no radiation loss and correspond to real-valued resonances. Above the first cut-off frequency isolated trapped modes exist only for specific parameter combinations. These isolated trapped modes are termed embedded, because their corresponding eigenvalues are embedded in the continuous spectrum of an appropriate differential operator. Trapped modes are of considerable importance in applications because at these parameters the system can be excited easily by external forcing. In the present paper directly computed embedded trapped modes are compared with numerically obtained resonances for several model configurations. Acoustic resonances are also computed in two-dimensional models of a butterfly and a ball-type valve as examples of more complicated geometries.
Matsumura, Takeshi; Esashi, Masayoshi; Harada, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shuji
For future mobile phones based on cognitive radio technology, a compact multi-band RF front-end architecture is strongly required and an integrated multi-band RF filter bank is a key component in it. Contour-mode resonators are receiving increased attention for a multi-band filter solution, because its resonant frequency is mainly determined by its size and shape, which are defined by lithography. However, spurious responses including flexural vibration are also excited due to its thin structure. To improve resonator performance and suppress spurious modes, visual observation with a laser probe system is very effective. In this paper, we have prototyped a mechanically-coupled disk-array filter, which consists of a Si disk and 2 disk-type resonators of higher-order wine-glass mode, and observed its vibration modes using a high-frequency laser-Doppler vibrometer (UHF-120, Polytec, Inc.). As a result, it was confirmed that higher order wine-glass mode vibration included a compound displacement, and that its out-of-plane vibration amplitude was much smaller than other flexural spurious modes. The observed vibration modes were compared with FEM (Finite Element Method) simulation results. In addition, it was also confirmed that the fabrication error, e.g. miss-alignment, induced asymmetric vibration.
Complex coupled-mode theory for optical waveguides.
Huang, Wei-Ping; Mu, Jianwei
2009-10-12
A coupled-mode formulation is described in which the radiation fields are represented in terms of discrete complex modes. The complex modes are obtained from a waveguide model facilitated by the combination of perfectly matched boundary (PML) and perfectly reflecting boundary (PRB) condition. By proper choice of the PML parameters, the guided modes of the structure remain unchanged, whereas the continuous radiation modes are discretized into orthogonal and normalizable complex quasi-leaky and PML modes. The complex coupled-mode formulation is identical to that for waveguides with loss and/or gain and can be solved by similar analytical and numerical techniques. By identifying the phase-matching conditions between the complex modes, the coupled mode formulation may be further simplified to yield analytical solutions. The complex coupled-mode theory is applied to Bragg grating in slab waveguides and validated by rigorous mode-matching method. It is for the first time that we can treat guided and radiation field in a unified and straightforward fashion without having to resort to cumbersome radiation modes. Highly accurate and insightful results are obtained with consideration of only the nearly phase-matched modes.
Zhang, Weifeng; Li, Wangzhe; Yao, Jianping
2016-06-01
A grating-based Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity-coupled microring resonator on a silicon chip is reported to demonstrate an all-optically tunable Fano resonance. In the device, an add-drop microring resonator (MRR) is employed, and one of the two bus waveguides is replaced by an FP cavity consisting of two sidewall Bragg gratings. By choosing the parameters of the gratings, the resonant mode of the FP cavity is coupled to one of the resonant modes of the MRR. Due to the coupling between the resonant modes, a Fano resonance with an asymmetric line shape resulted. Measurement results show a Fano resonance with an extinction ratio of 22.54 dB, and a slope rate of 250.4 dB/nm is achieved. A further study of the effect of the coupling on the Fano resonance is performed numerically and experimentally. Thanks to the strong light-confinement capacity of the MRR and the FP cavity, a strong two-photon absorption induced nonlinear thermal-optic effect resulted, which is used to tune the Fano resonance optically.
Thermoplasmonic Study of a Triple Band Optical Nanoantenna Strongly Coupled to Mid IR Molecular Mode
Hasan, Dihan; Ho, Chong Pei; Pitchappa, Prakash; Yang, Bin; Yang, Chunsheng; Lee, Chengkuo
2016-02-01
We report the first thermal study of a triple band plasmonic nanoantenna strongly coupled to a molecular mode at mid IR wavelength (MW IR). The hybrid plasmonic structure supports three spatially and spectrally variant resonances of which two are magnetic and one is dipolar in nature. A hybridized mode is excited by coupling the structure’s plasmonic mode with the vibrational mode of PMMA at 5.79 μm. Qualitative agreement between the spectral changes in simulation and experiment clearly indicates that resistive heating is the dominant mechanisms behind the intensity changes of the dipolar and magnetic peaks. The study also unveils the thermal insensitivity of the coupled mode intensity as the temperature is increased. We propose a mechanism to reduce the relative intensity change of the coupled mode at elevated temperature by mode detuning and surface current engineering and demonstrate less than 9% intensity variation. Later, we perform a temperature cycling test and investigate into the degradation of the Au-PMMA composite device. The failure condition is identified to be primarily associated with the surface chemistry of the material interface rather than the deformation of the nanopatterns. The study reveals the robustness of the strongly coupled hybridized mode even under multiple cycling.
Design of Dual-Band Bandpass Filter Using Dual-Mode Defected Stub Loaded Resonator
Dechang Huang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A novel approach for designing a dual-band bandpass filter (BPF using defected stub loaded resonator (DSLR is presented in this paper. The proposed DSLR consists of two fundamental resonant modes and some resonant characteristics have been investigated by EM software of Ansoft HFSS. Then, based on two coupled DSLRs, a dual-band response BPF that operates at 2.4 GHz and 3.5 GHz is designed and implemented for WLAN and WIMAX application. The first passband is constructed by two lower frequencies of the coupled DSLRs and the second passband is produced by two higher ones; the coupling scheme of them is also given. Finally, the dual-band BPF is fabricated and measured; a good agreement between simulation and measurement is obtained, which verifies the validity of the design methodology.
Moving boundary and photoelastic coupling in GaAs optomechanical resonators
Balram, Krishna C; Lim, Ju Young; Song, Jin Dong; Srinivasan, K
2014-01-01
Chip-based cavity optomechanical systems are being considered for applications in sensing, metrology, and quantum information science. Critical to their development is an understanding of how the optical and mechanical modes interact, quantified by the coupling rate $g_{0}$. Here, we develop GaAs optomechanical resonators and investigate the moving dielectric boundary and photoelastic contributions to $g_{0}$. First, we consider coupling between the fundamental radial breathing mechanical mode and a 1550 nm band optical whispering gallery mode in microdisks. For decreasing disk radius from $R=5$ $\\mu$m to $R=1$ $\\mu$m, simulations and measurements show that $g_{0}$ changes from being dominated by the moving boundary contribution to having an equal photoelastic contribution. Next, we design and demonstrate nanobeam optomechanical crystals in which a $2.5$ GHz mechanical breathing mode couples to a 1550 nm optical mode predominantly through the photoelastic effect. We show a significant (30 $\\%$) dependence of ...
Wave propagation of coupled modes in the DNA double helix
Tabi, C B; Ekobena Fouda, H P [Laboratory of Biophysics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, PO Box 812, Yaounde (Cameroon); Mohamadou, A [Condensed Matter Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, PO Box 24157, Douala (Cameroon); Kofane, T C, E-mail: contab408@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Mechanics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, PO Box 812, Yaounde (Cameroon)
2011-03-15
The remarkable dynamics of waves propagating along the DNA molecule is described by the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations. We consider both the single and the coupled nonlinear excitation modes and, under numerical simulations of the Peyrard-Bishop model, with the use of realistic values of parameters, their biological implications are studied. Furthermore, the characteristics of the coupled mode solution are discussed and we show that such a solution can describe the local opening observed within the transcription and the replication phenomena.
Boucher Yann G.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The formal identification between a two-mode waveguide and a system of two mutually coupled single-mode waveguides stems from the symmetries of the evolution operator. When the gap tends to zero, the super-modes of the coupled system merge continuously into the modes of the multimode waveguide. For modelling purposes, it is very tempting to extend the analogy to three-mode waveguides (and beyond. But not without some precautions…
Cavity Mode Frequencies and Large Optomechanical Coupling in Two-Membrane Cavity Optomechanics
Li, J; Malossi, N; Vitali, D
2015-01-01
We study the cavity mode frequencies of a Fabry-Perot cavity containing two vibrating dielectric membranes and the corresponding optomechanical coupling. Due to optical interference, extremely large optomechanical coupling of the membrane relative motion is achieved when the two membranes are placed very close to a resonance of the inner cavity formed by the two membranes, and in the limit of highly reflective membranes. The upper bound of the coupling strength is given by the optomechanical coupling associated with the much shorter inner cavity, consistently with the analysis of A. Xuereb et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 223601 (2012).
Dynamically creating tripartite resonance and dark modes in a multimode optomechanical system
Damskägg, E; Sillanpää, M A
2016-01-01
We study a multimode optomechanical system where two mechanical oscillators are coupled to an electromagnetic cavity. Previously it has been shown that if the mechanical resonances have nearly equal frequencies, one can make the oscillators to interact via the cavity by strong pumping with a coherent pump tone. One can view the interaction also as emergence of an electromagnetically dark mode which gets asymptotically decoupled from the cavity and has a linewidth much smaller than that of the bare cavity. The narrow linewidth and long lifetime of the dark mode could be advantageous for example in information storage and processing. Here we investigate the possibility to create dark modes dynamically using two pump tones. We show that if the mechanical frequencies are intrinsically different, one can bring the mechanical oscillators and the cavity on-resonance and thus create a dark mode by double sideband pumping of the cavity. We realize the scheme in a microwave optomechanical device employing two drum osci...
Xiaoliang Zhang
2011-07-01
Full Text Available In a multimodal volume coil, only one mode can generate homogeneous Radiofrequency (RF field for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The existence of other modes may increase the volume coil design difficulties and potentially decreases coil performance. In this study, we introduce common-mode resonator technique to high and ultrahigh field volume coil designs to reduce the resonant mode while maintain the homogeneity of the RF field. To investigate the design method, the common-mode resonator was realized by using a microstrip line which was split along the central to become a pair of parallel transmission lines within which common-mode currents exist. Eight common-mode resonators were placed equidistantly along the circumference of a low loss dielectric cylinder to form a volume coil. Theoretical analysis and comparison between the 16-strut common-mode volume coil and a conventional 16-strut volume coil in terms of RF field homogeneity and efficiency was performed using Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD method at 298.2 MHz. MR imaging experiments were performed by using a prototype of the common-mode volume coil on a whole body 7 Tesla scanner. FDTD simulation results showed the reduced number of resonant modes of the common-mode volume coil over the conventional volume coil, while the RF field homogeneity of the two type volume coils was kept at the same level. MR imaging of a water phantom and a kiwi fruit showing the feasibility of the proposed method for simplifying the volume coil design is also presented.
Nitzan, Sarah H; Zega, Valentina; Li, Mo; Ahn, Chae H; Corigliano, Alberto; Kenny, Thomas W; Horsley, David A
2015-01-01
Parametric amplification, resulting from intentionally varying a parameter in a resonator at twice its resonant frequency, has been successfully employed to increase the sensitivity of many micro- and nano-scale sensors. Here, we introduce the concept of self-induced parametric amplification, which arises naturally from nonlinear elastic coupling between the degenerate vibration modes in a micromechanical disk-resonator, and is not externally applied. The device functions as a gyroscope wherein angular rotation is detected from Coriolis coupling of elastic vibration energy from a driven vibration mode into a second degenerate sensing mode. While nonlinear elasticity in silicon resonators is extremely weak, in this high quality-factor device, ppm-level nonlinear elastic effects result in an order-of-magnitude increase in the observed sensitivity to Coriolis force relative to linear theory. Perfect degeneracy of the primary and secondary vibration modes is achieved through electrostatic frequency tuning, which also enables the phase and frequency of the parametric coupling to be varied, and we show that the resulting phase and frequency dependence of the amplification follow the theory of parametric resonance. We expect that this phenomenon will be useful for both fundamental studies of dynamic systems with low dissipation and for increasing signal-to-noise ratio in practical applications such as gyroscopes.
Injection coupling with high amplitude transverse modes: Experimentation and simulation
Mery, Yoann; Ducruix, Sébastien; Scouflaire, Philippe; Candel, Sébastien
2009-06-01
High frequency combustion instabilities have technical importance in the design of liquid rocket engines. These phenomena involve a strong coupling between transverse acoustic modes and combustion. They are currently being investigated by combining experimentation and numerical simulations. On the experimental level, the coupling is examined in a model scale system featuring a multiple injector combustor (MIC) comprising five coaxial injectors fed with liquid oxygen and gaseous methane. This system is equipped with a novel VHAM actuator (Very High Amplitude Modulator) which comprises two nozzles and a rotating toothed wheel blocking the nozzles in an alternate fashion. This device was designed to obtain the highest possible levels of transverse oscillation in the MIC. After a brief review of the VHAM, this article reports cold flow experiments using this modulator. Velocity maps obtained under resonant conditions using the VHAM are examined at different instants during a cycle of oscillation. Experimental data are compared with numerical pressure and velocity fields obtained from an acoustic solver. The good agreement observed in the nozzle vicinity indicates that numerical simulations can be used to analyze the complex flow field generated by the VHAM. To cite this article: Y. Mery et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).
Studying Kittel-like modes in a 3D YIG disk using Torque-mixing Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Fani Sani, Fatemeh; Losby, Joseph; Grandmont, Dylan; Diao, Zhu; Belov, Miro; Burgess, Jacob; Compton, Shawn; Hiebert, Wayne; Vick, Doug; Mohammad, Kaveh; Salimi, Elham; Bridges, Gregory; Thomson, Douglas; Freeman, Mark
We report a study of ferrimagnetic resonance in a mesoscopic, single-crystalline YIG disk using torque-mixing magnetic resonance spectroscopy (TMRS). The Kittel model for magnetic resonance is a touchstone in measuring fundamental magnetic properties for magnetic films, which does not significantly depend on the film size. In 3D structures, ladders of confined resonance modes are observed, and these can exhibit the non-monotonic evolution of frequency with field familiar from Kittel modes. TMRS is a tool uniquely suited for observing this physics in individual 3D structures, on account of its combination of high sensitivity and broadband capability coupled with fine frequency resolution.
Whispering gallery mode resonators for frequency metrology applications
Baumgartel, Lukas
This dissertation describes an investigation into the use of whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators for applications towards frequency reference and metrology. Laser stabilization and the measurement of optical frequencies have enabled myriad technologies of both academic and commercial interest. A technology which seems to span both motivations is optical atomic clocks. These devices are virtually unimaginable without the ultra stable lasers plus frequency measurement and down-conversion afforded by Fabry Perot (FP) cavities and model-locked laser combs, respectively. However, WGM resonators can potentially perform both of these tasks while having the distinct advantages of compactness and simplicity. This work represents progress towards understanding and mitigating the performance limitations of WGM cavities for such applications. A system for laser frequency stabilization to a the cavity via the Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) method is described. While the laser lock itself is found to perform at the level of several parts in 1015, a variety of fundamental and technical mechanisms destabilize the WGM frequency itself. Owing to the relatively large thermal expansion coefficients in optical crystals, environmental temperature drifts set the stability limit at time scales greater than the thermal relaxation time of the crystal. Uncompensated, these drifts pull WGM frequencies about 3 orders of magnitude more than they would in an FP cavity. Thus, two temperature compensation schemes are developed. An active scheme measures and stabilizes the mode volume temperature to the level of several nK, reducing the effective temperature coefficient of the resonator to 1.7x10-7 K-1; simulations suggest that the value could eventually be as low as 3.5x10-8 K-1, on par with the aforementioned FP cavities. A second, passive scheme is also described, which employs a heterogeneous resonator structure that capitalizes on the thermo-mechanical properties of one material and the optical
Resonant mode controllers for launch vehicle applications
Schreiner, Ken E.; Roth, Mary Ellen
Electro-mechanical actuator (EMA) systems are currently being investigated for the National Launch System (NLS) as a replacement for hydraulic actuators due to the large amount of manpower and support hardware required to maintain the hydraulic systems. EMA systems in weight sensitive applications, such as launch vehicles, have been limited to around 5 hp due to system size, controller efficiency, thermal management, and battery size. Presented here are design and test data for an EMA system that competes favorably in weight and is superior in maintainability to the hydraulic system. An EMA system uses dc power provided by a high energy density bipolar lithium thionyl chloride battery, with power conversion performed by low loss resonant topologies, and a high efficiency induction motor controlled with a high performance field oriented controller to drive a linear actuator.
Electron acceleration by Landau resonance with whistler mode wave packets
Gurnett, D. A.; Reinleitner, L. A.
1983-01-01
Recent observations of electrostatic waves associated with whistler mode chorus emissions provide evidence that electrons are being trapped by Landau resonance interactions with the chorus. In this paper, the trapping, acceleration and escape of electrons in Landau resonance with a whistler mode wave packet are discussed. It is shown that acceleration can occur by both inhomogeneous and dispersive effects. The maximum energy gained is controlled by the points where trapping and escape occur. Large energy changes are possible if the frequency of the wave packet or the magnetic field strength increase between the trapping and escape points. Various trapping and escape mechanisms are discussed.
Symmetry and resonant modes in platonic grating stacks
Haslinger, Stewart G; Movchan, Natasha V; McPhedran, Ross C
2013-01-01
We study the flexural wave modes existing in finite stacks of gratings containing rigid, zero-radius pins. We group the modes into even and odd classes, and derive dispersion equations for each. We study the recently discovered EDIT (elasto-dynamically inhibited transmission) phenomenon, and relate it to the occurrence of trapped waves of even and odd symmetries being simultaneously resonant. We show how the EDIT interaction may be steered over a wide range of frequencies and angles, using a strategy in which the single-grating reflectance is kept high, so enabling the quality factors of the even and odd resonances to be kept large.
Flexural Mie Resonances: Localized Surface Platonic Modes
Farhat, M; Chen, P Y; Salama, K N; Bagci, H
2016-01-01
Surface plasmons polaritons were thought to exist only in metals near their plasma frequencies. The concept of spoof plasmons extended the realms of plasmonics to domains such as radio frequencies, magnetism, or even acoustic waves. Here, we introduce the concept of localized surface platonic modes (SPMs). We demonstrate that they can be generated on a two-dimensional clamped (or stress-free) cylindrical surface, in a thin elastic plate, with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident flexural plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is elastically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with negatively uniform and dispersive flexural rigidity. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like platonic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including earthquake sensing, or elastic imaging and cloaking.
Two Mode Resonator and Contact Model for Standing Wave Piezomotor
Andersen, B.; Blanke, Mogens; Helbo, J.
2001-01-01
The paper presents a model for a standing wave piezoelectric motor with a two bending mode resonator. The resonator is modelled using Hamilton's principle and the Rayleigh-Ritz method. The contact is modelled using the Lagrange Multiplier method under the assumption of slip and it is showed how...... to solve the set of differential-algebraic equations. Detailled simulations show resonance frequencies as function of the piezoelement's position, tip trajectories and contact forces. The paper demonstrates that contact stiffness and stick should be included in such model to obtain physically realistic...
Broad-band robustly single-mode hollow-core PCF by resonant filtering of higher order modes
Günendi, Mehmet C; Frosz, Michael H; Russell, Philip St J
2015-01-01
We propose and theoretically analyse a novel hollow-core photonic crystal fibre (PCF) that is engineered so as to strongly suppress higher order modes, i.e., to provide robust LP$_{01}$ single-mode guidance in all the wavelength ranges where the fibre guides with low loss. Encircling the core is a single ring of non-touching glass elements whose modes are tailored to ensure resonant phase-matched coupling to higher-order core modes, causing them to leak at a very high rate into the supporting solid glass sheath. Using a model based on coupled capillary waveguides, as well as full vectorial finite element modelling, we show that this modal filtering effect depends on only one dimensionless geometrical parameter, akin to the well-known $d/{\\Lambda}$ parameter for endlessly single-mode solid-core PCF. The design is scalable up to large core sizes and is predicted to deliver LP$_{01}$ mode losses of some $10$s of dB/km in multiple transmission windows, the broadest of which spans more than an octave. At the same ...
Application of coupled mode theory on radiative heat transfer between layered Lorentz materials
Lin, Chungwei; Wang, Bingnan; Teo, Koon Hoo
2017-05-01
The coupled mode theory (CMT) provides a simple and clear framework to analyze the radiation energy exchange between reservoirs. We apply CMT to analyze the radiative heat transfer between layered Lorentz materials whose dielectric functions can be approximated by the Lorentz oscillator model. By comparing the transmissivity computed by the exact solution to that computed by CMT, we find that CMT generally gives a good approximation for this class of materials. The biggest advantage of CMT analysis, in our opinion, is that only the (complex) resonant energies are needed to obtain the radiation energy transfer; the knowledge of the spatial profile of resonances is not required. Several issues, including how to choose the resonant modes, what these modes represent, and the limitation of this method, are discussed. Finally, we also apply the CMT method to the electronic systems, demonstrating the generality of this formalism.
Integrating out resonances in strongly-coupled electroweak scenarios
Rosell, Ignasi; Santos, Joaquin; Sanz-Cillero, Juan Jose
2016-01-01
Accepting that there is a mass gap above the electroweak scale, the Electroweak Effective Theory (EWET) is an appropriate tool to describe this situation. Since the EWET couplings contain information on the unknown high-energy dynamics, we consider a generic strongly-coupled scenario of electroweak symmetry breaking, where the known particle fields are coupled to heavier states. Then, and by integrating out these heavy fields, we study the tracks of the lightest resonances into the couplings. The determination of the low-energy couplings (LECs) in terms of resonance parameters can be made more precise by considering a proper short-distance behaviour on the Lagrangian with heavy states, since the number of resonance couplings is then reduced. Notice that we adopt a generic non-linear realization of the electroweak symmetry breaking with a singlet Higgs.
Resonant coupling of a Bose-Einstein condensate to a micromechanical oscillator
Hunger, D; Haensch, T W; Koenig, D; Kotthaus, J P; Reichel, J; Treutlein, P
2010-01-01
We report experiments in which the vibrations of a micromechanical oscillator are coupled to the motion of Bose-condensed atoms in a trap. The interaction relies on surface forces experienced by the atoms at about one micrometer distance from the mechanical structure. We observe resonant coupling to several well-resolved mechanical modes of the condensate. Coupling via surface forces does not require magnets, electrodes, or mirrors on the oscillator and could thus be employed to couple atoms to molecular-scale oscillators such as carbon nanotubes.
Plasmon coupling of magnetic resonances in an asymmetric gold semishell
Ye, Jian; Kong, Yan; Liu, Cheng
2016-05-01
The generation of magnetic dipole resonances in metallic nanostructures is of great importance for constructing near-zero or even negative refractive index metamaterials. Commonly, planar two-dimensional (2D) split-ring resonators or relevant structures are basic elements of metamaterials. In this work, we introduce a three-dimensional (3D) asymmetric Au semishell composed of two nanocups with a face-to-face geometry and demonstrate two distinct magnetic resonances spontaneously in the visible-near infrared optical wavelength regime. These two magnetic resonances are from constructive and destructive hybridization of magnetic dipoles of individual nanocups in the asymmetric semishell. In contrast, complete cancellation of magnetic dipoles in the symmetric semishell leads to only a pronounced electric mode with near-zero magnetic dipole moment. These 3D asymmetric resonators provide new ways for engineering hybrid resonant modes and ultra-high near-field enhancement for the design of 3D metamaterials.
Bonding and Anti-bonding Modes of Plasmon Coupling Effects in TiO2-Ag Core-shell Dimers
Quanshui Li; Zhili Zhang
2016-01-01
Bonding and anti-bonding modes of plasmon coupling effects are numerically investigated in TiO2-Ag core-shell nano dimers. First, splitting phenomena of the coupled anti-bonding modes are observed under the longitudinal polarization when the distance between the monomers decreases to a certain level. Second, one of the split resonance modes is identified to be formed by the dipole anti-bonding mode of the monomers from charge density distribution patterns. Those split modes have similar redsh...
Superradiant modes in Fibonacci quantum wells under resonant conditions
Chang, C. H.; Tsao, C. W.; Hsueh, W. J.
2014-11-01
It is first presented that superradiant modes exist in Fibonacci quantum wells within the exact regions that are obtained using the gap map diagram, rather than the traditional resonant Bragg condition. The results show that three limited regions are derived from the diagram, which correspond to bandgaps with widths that differ from each other. The regions in which the superradiant modes do not occur are also defined clearly. Moreover, the proposed method can be used to determine whether superradiant modes occur in multiple quantum wells that have non-periodical arrangements, including quasiperiodic sequences and correlated disorder sequences.
Laser modes and threshold condition i N-mirror resonator
Pedersen, Christian; Skettrup, Torben
1996-01-01
Two formal methods for finding laser modes and threshold conditions in laser resonators containing as many as N mirrors are presented. The first method is based on an analysis determining the reflectivity and the transmittivity of an N-mirror system with gain. This is an extension of the classica...
The dynamics of large-scale arrays of coupled resonators
Borra, Chaitanya; Pyles, Conor S.; Wetherton, Blake A.; Quinn, D. Dane; Rhoads, Jeffrey F.
2017-03-01
This work describes an analytical framework suitable for the analysis of large-scale arrays of coupled resonators, including those which feature amplitude and phase dynamics, inherent element-level parameter variation, nonlinearity, and/or noise. In particular, this analysis allows for the consideration of coupled systems in which the number of individual resonators is large, extending as far as the continuum limit corresponding to an infinite number of resonators. Moreover, this framework permits analytical predictions for the amplitude and phase dynamics of such systems. The utility of this analytical methodology is explored through the analysis of a system of N non-identical resonators with global coupling, including both reactive and dissipative components, physically motivated by an electromagnetically-transduced microresonator array. In addition to the amplitude and phase dynamics, the behavior of the system as the number of resonators varies is investigated and the convergence of the discrete system to the infinite-N limit is characterized.
Resonant transmission and mode modulation of acoustic waves in H-shaped metallic gratings
Deng, Yu-Qiang; Fan, Ren-Hao; Zhang, Kun; Peng, Ru-Wen, E-mail: rwpeng@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: dongxiang87@gmail.com [National Laboratory of solid State Microstructures and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Qi, Dong-Xiang, E-mail: rwpeng@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: dongxiang87@gmail.com [National Laboratory of solid State Microstructures and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)
2015-04-15
In this work, we demonstrate that resonant full transmission of acoustic waves exists in subwavelength H-shaped metallic gratings, and transmission peaks can be efficiently tuned by adjusting the grating geometry. We investigate this phenomenon through both numerical simulations and theoretical calculations based on rigorous-coupled wave analysis. The transmission peaks are originated from Fabry-Perot resonances together with the couplings between the diffractive wave on the surface and the multiple guided modes in the slits. Moreover, the transmission modes can be efficiently tuned by adjusting the cavity geometry, without changing the grating thickness. The mechanism is analyzed based on an equivalent circuit model and verified by both the theoretical calculations and the numerical simulations. This research has potential application in acoustic-device miniaturization over a wide range of wavelengths.
Resonant Raman scattering theory for Kitaev models and their Majorana fermion boundary modes
Perreault, Brent; Knolle, Johannes; Perkins, Natalia B.; Burnell, F. J.
2016-09-01
We study the inelastic light scattering response in two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) Kitaev spin-liquid models with Majorana spinon band structures in the symmetry classes BDI and D leading to protected gapless surface modes. We present a detailed calculation of the resonant Raman/Brillouin scattering vertex relevant to iridate and ruthenate compounds whose low-energy physics is believed to be proximate to these spin-liquid phases. In the symmetry class BDI, we find that while the resonant scattering on thin films can detect the gapless boundary modes of spin liquids, the nonresonant processes do not couple to them. For the symmetry class D, however, we find that the coupling between both types of light-scattering processes and the low-energy surface states is strongly suppressed. Additionally, we describe the effect of weak time-reversal symmetry breaking perturbations on the bulk Raman response of these systems.
Synchrobetatron resonant coupling mechanism in a storage ring
Kouichi Jimbo
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A clear synchrobetatron resonant coupling of Mg ion beam was observed experimentally in the horizontal laser beam cooling experiment in small laser equipped storage ring. Synchrotron and horizontal betatron motions were intentionally coupled in a rf cavity. Using the Hamiltonian which is composed of coasting, synchrotron and betatron motions, physical mechanism of the coupling is analyzed to explain the observed horizontal betatron tune jump near the synchrobetatron resonant coupling point. There energy exchange between the synchrotron oscillation and the horizontal betatron oscillation was mediated by coasting particles and the freedom of the horizontal direction is connected with the freedom of the longitudinal direction.
Experimental verification of microbending theory using mode coupling to discrete cladding modes
Probst, C. B.; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Andreasen, S. B.
1989-01-01
a microbending theory in which coupling between the guided mode and a number of discrete cladding modes is considered. Very good agreement between theory and measurement is achieved. The consequences of the existence of discrete cladding modes with regard to the proper choice of artificial microbending spectrum...
Stochastic Resonance in a Coupled Array Without Periodic Driving
钱敏; 张雪娟
2002-01-01
We manifest a stochastic resonance in a two-dimensional square array of coupled oscillators subjected only to white noise and constant driving forces. The result shows that the coherent output of every single oscillator plays the role of periodic input to its neighbours. Even without periodic driving, the cooperation of the white noise and the coupling can also result in the array enhanced stochastic resonance effect. In our investigation, global as well as local noise perturbation is taken into account.
Monitoring microbial metabolites using an inductively coupled resonance circuit
Karnaushenko, Daniil; Baraban, Larysa; Ye, Dan; Uguz, Ilke; Mendes, Rafael G.; Rümmeli, Mark H.; Visser, de Arjan; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Makarov, Denys
2015-01-01
We present a new approach to monitor microbial population dynamics in emulsion droplets via changes in metabolite composition, using an inductively coupled LC resonance circuit. The signal measured by such resonance detector provides information on the magnetic field interaction with the bacteria
Modeling quasi-dark states with Temporal Coupled-Mode Theory
Souza, Mario C M M; Barea, Luis A M; Wiederhecker, Gustavo S; Frateschi, Newton C
2016-01-01
Coupled resonators are commonly used to achieve tailored spectral responses and allow novel functionalities in a broad range of applications, from optical modulation and filtering in integrated photonic circuits to the study of nonlinear dynamics in arrays of resonators. The Temporal Coupled-Mode Theory (TCMT) provides a simple and general tool that is widely used to model these devices and has proved to yield very good results in many different systems of low-loss, weakly coupled resonators. Relying on TCMT to model coupled resonators might however be misleading in some circumstances due to the lumped-element nature of the model. In this article, we report an important limitation of TCMT related to the prediction of dark states. Studying a coupled system composed of three microring resonators, we demonstrate that TCMT predicts the existence of a dark state that is in disagreement with experimental observations and with the more general results obtained with the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM) and the Finite-Dif...
Adato, Ronen; Artar, Alp; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Altug, Hatice
2013-06-12
Coupled plasmonic resonators have become the subject of significant research interest in recent years as they provide a route to dramatically enhanced light-matter interactions. Often, the design of these coupled mode systems draws intuition and inspiration from analogies to atomic and molecular physics systems. In particular, they have been shown to mimic quantum interference effects, such as electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and Fano resonances. This analogy also been used to describe the surface-enhanced absorption effect where a plasmonic resonance is coupled to a weak molecular resonance. These important phenomena are typically described using simple driven harmonic (or linear) oscillators (i.e., mass-on-a-spring) coupled to each other. In this work, we demonstrate the importance of an essential interdependence between the rate at which the system can be driven by an external field and its damping rate through radiative loss. This link is required in systems exhibiting time-reversal symmetry and energy conservation. Not only does it ensure an accurate and physically consistent description of resonant systems but leads directly to interesting new effects. Significantly, we demonstrate this dependence to predict a transition between EIT and electromagnetically induced absorption that is solely a function of the ratio of the radiative to intrinsic loss rates in coupled resonator systems. Leveraging the temporal coupled mode theory, we introduce a unique and intuitive picture that accurately describes these effects in coupled plasmonic/molecular and fully plasmonic systems. We demonstrate our approach's key features and advantages analytically as well as experimentally through surface-enhanced absorption spectroscopy and plasmonic metamaterial applications.
Broadband second harmonic generation in whispering gallery mode resonators
Lin, Guoping; Strekalov, Dmitry V; Yu, Nan
2013-01-01
Optical frequency conversion processes in nonlinear materials are limited in wavelength by the accessible phase matching and the required high pump powers. In this letter, we report a novel broadband phase matching (PM) technique in high quality factor (Q) whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators made of birefringent crystalline materials. This technique relies on two interacting WGMs, one with constant and the other with spatially oscillating phase velocity. Thus, phase matching occurs cyclically. The technique can be implemented with a WGM resonator with its disk plane parallel to the optic axis of the crystal. With a single beta barium borate (BBO) resonator in that configuration, we experimentally demonstrated efficient second harmonic generation (SHG) to harmonic wavelengths from 780 nm in the near infrared to 317 nm in the ultraviolet (UV). The observed SHG conversion efficiency is as high as 4.6% (mW)-1. This broadband PM technique opens a new way for nonlinear optics applications in WGM resonators. Th...
Förtsch, Michael; Fürst, Josef U; Strekalov, Dmitry; Gerrits, Thomas; Stevens, Martin J; Sedlmeir, Florian; Schwefel, Harald G L; Nam, Sae Woo; Leuchs, Gerd; Marquardt, Christoph
2014-01-01
We report a highly efficient source of narrow-band photon pairs based on parametric down-conversion in a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator. Remarkably, each photon of a pair is strictly emitted into a single spatial and temporal mode, as witnessed by Glaubers autocorrelation function. We explore the phase-matching conditions in spherical geometries, and determine the requirements of the single-mode operation. Understanding these conditions has allowed us to experimentally demonstrate a single-mode pair-detection rate of $0.97 \\cdot 10^6$ pairs/s per mW pump power per 20 MHz bandwidth without the need of additional filter cavities.
Topological phononic states of underwater sound based on coupled ring resonators
He, Cheng; Li, Zheng; Ni, Xu; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Yu, Si-Yuan [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Lu, Ming-Hui, E-mail: luminghui@nju.edu.cn; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Yan-Feng [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)
2016-01-18
We report a design of topological phononic states for underwater sound using arrays of acoustic coupled ring resonators. In each individual ring resonator, two degenerate acoustic modes, corresponding to clockwise and counter-clockwise propagation, are treated as opposite pseudospins. The gapless edge states arise in the bandgap resulting in protected pseudospin-dependent sound transportation, which is a phononic analogue of the quantum spin Hall effect. We also investigate the robustness of the topological sound state, suggesting that the observed pseudospin-dependent sound transportation remains unless the introduced defects facilitate coupling between the clockwise and counter-clockwise modes (in other words, the original mode degeneracy is broken). The topological engineering of sound transportation will certainly promise unique design for next generation of acoustic devices in sound guiding and switching, especially for underwater acoustic devices.
Mode coupling in hybrid square-rectangular lasers for single mode operation
Ma, Xiu-Wen; Huang, Yong-Zhen; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Weng, Hai-Zhong; Xiao, Zhi-Xiong
2016-08-01
Mode coupling between a square microcavity and a Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity is proposed and demonstrated for realizing single mode lasers. The modulations of the mode Q factor as simulation results are observed and single mode operation is obtained with a side mode suppression ratio of 46 dB and a single mode fiber coupling loss of 3.2 dB for an AlGaInAs/InP hybrid laser as a 300-μm-length and 1.5-μm-wide FP cavity connected to a vertex of a 10-μm-side square microcavity. Furthermore, tunable single mode operation is demonstrated with a continuous wavelength tuning range over 10 nm. The simple hybrid structure may shed light on practical applications of whispering-gallery mode microcavities in large-scale photonic integrated circuits and optical communication and interconnection.
Simple model with damping of the mode-coupling instability
Pestrikov, D.V. [AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki
1996-08-01
In this paper we use a simple model to study the suppression of the transverse mode-coupling instability. Two possibilities are considered. One is due to the damping of particular synchrobetatron modes, and another - due to Landau damping, caused by the nonlinearity of betatron oscillations. (author)
Lithographically defined aluminum nitride cross-sectional Lamé mode resonators
Chen, G.; Cassella, C.; Qian, Z.; Hummel, G. E.; Rinaldi, M.
2017-03-01
This paper reports on aluminum nitride (AlN) cross-sectional Lamé mode resonators (CLMRs) showing high electromechanical coupling coefficient (kt{2} ) in excess of 4% in a lithographically defined 307 MHz frequency range around 920 MHz. In addition, we report the performance of a CLMR showing a figure of merit (FoM, defined as the product of quality factor, Q, and kt{2} ) in excess of 85. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, such FoM value is the highest reported for AlN resonators using interdigitated metal electrodes (IDTs).
Control of cavity modes in coupled periodic waveguides
Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Ha, Sangwoo
2009-01-01
are brought closer. We show that the longitudinal shift enables flexible control over the fundamental modes, which frequency detuning can be reduced down to zero. Our coupled-mode theory analysis reveals an intrinsic link between the mode tuning and the transformation of slow-light dispersion at the photonic...... band-edge. We illustrate our approach through direct numerical modelling of cavities created in arrays of dielectric rods, nanobeam structures, and two-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides....
A study of trapped mode resonances in asymmetric X-shape resonator for frequency selective surface
Chen, Kejian; Liu, Hong; Wang, Yiqi; Zhu, Yiming
2013-08-01
FSS is a two-dimensional periodic array of resonating metallic-dielectric structures, When FSS device steps into Terahertz range from microwave range, it is studied as THz functional components (such as Terahertz filter, Terahertz biochemical sensor, etc.) to promote the functionality of the THz spectroscopy/imaging system. When the device requires a narrow band transmission window for frequency selecting or a high electric field concentration in certain area to improve its sensitivity for sensing, normally, a high quality (Q) resonant structure can give helps. Recently, high-Q resonance induced by trapped mode resonance i studied widely in FSS research areas. To induce trapped mode resonance, one can simply break the symmetric of the unit structure of FSS. In this paper, several asymmetric X-shaped resonators for FSS working in terahertz range have been studied numerically. To compare the behaviour of X-shape resonator under different conditions (with additional part: Heart lines, Shoulder lines, Wrap or Shoes squares), a common platform (θ=60, θis angle of X shape) which is suitable for most of cases was used to make the study more meaningful. As the field enhancement behaviour is related to the trapped mode introduced by the asymmetric structure, we propose such kind of device to be used as a high quality filter or as a sensing element for biochemical samples.
Electric and magnetic dipole couplings in split ring resonator metamaterials
Fan Jing; Sun Guang-Yong; and Zhu Wei-Ren
2011-01-01
In this paper,the electric and the magnetic dipole couplings between the outer and the inner rings of a single split ring resonator (SRR) are investigated.We numerically demonstrate that the magnetic resonance frequency can be substantially modified by changing the couplings of the electric and magnetic dipoles,and give a theoretical expression of the magnetic resonance frequency.The results in this work are expected to be conducive to a deeper understanding of the SRR and other similar metamaterials,and provide new guidance for complex metamaterials design with a tailored electromagnetic response.
Mode-Coupling in Realistic Rotating Gravitational Collapse
Hod, S
2000-01-01
We analyze the mode-coupling phenomena in realistic rotating gravitational collapse. Physically, this phenomena is caused by the dragging of reference frames, due to the black-hole (or star's) rotation. It is shown that different modes become coupled during the rotating collapse. As a consequence, the asymptotic late-time tails are dominated by modes which, in general, have an angular distribution different from the original one. We show that a rotating Kerr black hole becomes ``bald'' slower than a spherically-symmetric Schwarzschild black hole. This paper considers gravitational, electromagnetic and neutrino fields propagating on a Kerr background.
Zhang, Xiang; Hu, Zhiqiu; Yang, Wentao; Su, Likun
2017-09-01
We demonstrate the influence on mode features with introducing typical intracavity perturbation and results of aberrated wavefront compensation in a folded-type unstable resonator used in high energy lasers. The mode properties and aberration coefficient with intracavity misalignment are achieved by iterative calculation and Zernike polynomial fitting. Experimental results for the relation of intracavity maladjustment and mode characteristics are further obtained in terms of S-H detection and model wavefront reconstruction. It indicates that intracavity phase perturbation has significant influence on out coupling beam properties, and the uniform and symmetry of the mode is rapidly disrupted even by a slight misalignment of the resonator mirrors. Meanwhile, the far-field beam patterns will obviously degrade with increasing the distance between the convex mirror and the phase perturbation position even if the equivalent disturbation is inputted into such the resonator. The closed-loop device for compensating intracavity low order aberration is successfully fabricated. Moreover, Zernike defocus aberration is also effectively controlled by precisely adjusting resonator length, and the beam quality is noticeably improved.
Negative coupling and coupling phase dispersion in a silicon quadrupole micro-racetrack resonator.
Bachman, Daniel; Tsay, Alan; Van, Vien
2015-07-27
We report the first experimental study of the effects of coupling phase dispersion on the spectral response of a two-dimensionally coupled quadrupole micro-racetrack resonator. Negative coupling in the system is observed to manifest itself in the sharp stop band transition and deep extinction in the pseudo-elliptic filter response of the quadrupole. The results demonstrate the feasibility of realizing advanced silicon microring devices based on the 2D coupling topology with general complex coupling coefficients.
Quantum Light from a Whispering-Gallery-Mode Disk Resonator
Fürst, J. U.; Strekalov, D. V.; Elser, D.;
2011-01-01
Optical parametric down-conversion has proven to be a valuable source of nonclassical light. The process is inherently able to produce twin-beam correlations along with individual intensity squeezing of either parametric beam, when pumped far above threshold. Here, we present for the first time...... the direct observation of intensity squeezing of -1.2 dB of each of the individual parametric beams in parametric down-conversion by use of a high quality whispering-gallery-mode disk resonator. In addition, we observed twin-beam quantum correlations of -2.7 dB with this cavity. Such resonators feature...
Stochastic Resonance in Linear Regime of a Single- Mode Laser
ZHANG Liang-Ying; CAO Li; WU Da-Jin; WANG Jun
2003-01-01
We present an analytic investigation of the signal-to-noise ratio by studying the linear model of a single-mode laser driven by coloured pump noise (TI) and coloured quantum noise (TZ) with coloured cross-correlation (TS), and obtain an exact analytic expression of the signal-to-noise ratio. We detect that the stochastic resonance occurs when the noise correlation coefficient A < 0. Furthermore, we analyse the effect of TI , T2 and Ta on the signal-to-noise ratio, and derive the condition under which the stochastic resonance occurs.
Thermal effects on parallel resonance energy of whistler mode wave
Devendraa Siingh; Shubha Singh; R P Singh
2006-02-01
In this short communication, we have evaluated the effect of thermal velocity of the plasma particles on the energy of resonantly interacting energetic electrons with the propagating whistler mode waves as a function of wave frequency and -value for the normal and disturbed magnetospheric conditions. During the disturbed conditions when the magnetosphere is depleted in electron density, the resonance energy of the electron enhances by an order of magnitude at higher latitudes, whereas the effect is small at low latitudes. An attempt is made to explain the enhanced wave activity observed during magnetic storm periods.
Yang, Yong; Kasumie, Sho; Ward, Jonathan M; Chormaic, Síle Nic
2016-01-01
In whispering gallery mode resonator sensing applications, the conventional way to detect a change in the parameter to be measured is by observing the steady state transmission spectrum through the coupling waveguide. Alternatively, cavity ring-up spectroscopy (CRUS) sensing can be achieved transiently. In this work, we investigate CRUS using coupled mode equations and find analytical solutions with a large spectral broadening approximation of the input pulse. The relationships between the frequency detuning, coupling gap and ring-up peak height are determined and experimentally verified using an ultrahigh \\textit{Q}-factor silica microsphere. This work shows that distinctive dispersive and dissipative transient sensing can be realised by simply measuring the peak height of the CRUS signal, which might improve the data collection rate.
Diffractively coupled Fabry-Perot resonator with power-recycling
Britzger, Michael; Kroker, Stefanie; Brückner, Frank; Burmeister, Oliver; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman
2011-01-01
We demonstrate the optical coupling of two cavities without light transmission through a substrate. Compared to a conventional coupling component, that is a partially transmissive mirror, an all-reflective coupler avoids light absorption in the substrate and therefore associated thermal problems, and even allows the use of opaque materials with possibly favourable mechanical and thermal properties. Recently, the all-reflective coupling of two cavities with a low-efficiency 3-port diffraction grating was theoretically investigated. Such a grating has an additional (a third) port. However, it was shown that the additional port does not necessarily decrease the bandwidth of the coupled cavities. Such an all-reflective scheme for cavity coupling is of interest in the field of gravitational wave detection. In such detectors light that is resonantly enhanced inside the so-called power-recycling cavity is coupled to (kilometre-scale) Fabry-Perot resonators representing the arms of a Michelson interferometer. In orde...
Towards achieving strong coupling in three-dimensional-cavity with solid state spin resonance
Le Floch, J.-M.; Delhote, N.; Aubourg, M.; Madrangeas, V.; Cros, D.; Castelletto, S.; Tobar, M. E.
2016-04-01
We investigate the microwave magnetic field confinement in several microwave three-dimensional (3D)-cavities, using a 3D finite-element analysis to determine the best design and achieve a strong coupling between microwave resonant cavity photons and solid state spins. Specifically, we design cavities for achieving strong coupling of electromagnetic modes with an ensemble of nitrogen vacancy (NV) defects in diamond. We report here a novel and practical cavity design with a magnetic filling factor of up to 4 times (2 times higher collective coupling) than previously achieved using one-dimensional superconducting cavities with a small mode volume. In addition, we show that by using a double-split resonator cavity, it is possible to achieve up to 200 times better cooperative factor than the currently demonstrated with NV in diamond. These designs open up further opportunities for studying strong and ultra-strong coupling effects on spins in solids using alternative systems with a wider range of design parameters. The strong coupling of paramagnetic spin defects with a photonic cavity is used in quantum computer architecture, to interface electrons spins with photons, facilitating their read-out and processing of quantum information. To achieve this, the combination of collective coupling of spins and cavity mode is more feasible and offers a promising method. This is a relevant milestone to develop advanced quantum technology and to test fundamental physics principles.
Analysis of modes in an unstable strip laser resonator
Rowley, J. E.
1980-12-01
The mode eigenvalue equation for an unstable strip laser resonator is developed from scalar diffraction theory. The field distributions are expressed as a series and the integral is then evaluated using a first order approximation to the method of stationary phase. The resulting approximate closed form is rearranged to form an eigenvalue polynomial, the roots of which are the mode eigenvalues. Eigenfunction expressions are then developed using second order approximation to the method of stationary phase. Modifications to these expressions are then made to account for the presence of uniform gain in the resonator. The results of a computer program using the derived expressions are presented. Comparisons to previously published results are made for the bare cavity case, and results for the loaded cavity case follow.
Scissors Mode of 162Dy Studied from Resonance Neutron Capture
Baramsai B.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Multi-step cascade γ-ray spectra from the neutron capture at isolated resonances of 161Dy nucleus were measured at the LANSCE/DANCE time-of-flight facility in Los Alamos National Laboratory. The objectives of this experiment were to confirm and possibly extend the spin assignment of s-wave neutron resonances and get new information on photon strength functions with emphasis on the role of the M1 scissors mode vibration. The preliminary results show that the scissors mode plays a significant role in all transitions between accessible states of the studied nucleus. The photon strength functions describing well our data are compared to results from 3He-induced reactions, (n,γ experiments on Gd isotopes, and (γ,γ’ reactions.
Scissors Mode of 162Dy Studied from Resonance Neutron Capture
Baramsai, B.; Bečvář, F.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Kroll, J.; Krtička, M.; Mitchell, G. E.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Valenta, S.; Wilhelmy, J. B.
2015-05-01
Multi-step cascade γ-ray spectra from the neutron capture at isolated resonances of 161Dy nucleus were measured at the LANSCE/DANCE time-of-flight facility in Los Alamos National Laboratory. The objectives of this experiment were to confirm and possibly extend the spin assignment of s-wave neutron resonances and get new information on photon strength functions with emphasis on the role of the M1 scissors mode vibration. The preliminary results show that the scissors mode plays a significant role in all transitions between accessible states of the studied nucleus. The photon strength functions describing well our data are compared to results from 3He-induced reactions, (n,γ) experiments on Gd isotopes, and (γ,γ') reactions.
Transverse modes of plane-mirror waveguide resonators
Hill, C.A. (Laser Devices and Techniques Div., Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Malvern (GB))
1988-09-01
Large numbers of waveguide gas lasers (CO/sub 2/ ones especially) have found medical, military, industrial, and scientific application in the past few years. The simplest resonator design, with a plane mirror close to each end of a long thin dielectric tube, is still the most common. The authors examine what familiar first-order theory predicts about plane-plane resonator behavior, stressing the similarities and differences between circular-bore and square-bore devices. The effects of moving a mirror away from the guide are discussed, and illustrated with new results for the modes and losses of single-guide and U-folded designs with square bores. It appears that laser performance cannot be accurately predicted by previous treatments which use only a few (1-3) waveguide modes.
Coupling of semiconductor carbon nanotubes emission with silicon photonic micro ring resonators
Sarti, Francesco; Caselli, Niccolò; La China, Federico; Biccari, Francesco; Torrini, Ughetta; Intonti, Francesca; Vinattieri, Anna; Durán-Valdeiglesias, Elena; Zhang, Weiwei; Noury, Adrien; Alonso-Ramos, Carlos; Hoang, ThiHong Cam; Serna, Samuel; Le Roux, Xavier; Cassan, Eric; Izard, Nicolas; Yang, Hongliu; Bezugly, Viktor; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Filoramo, Arianna; Vivien, Laurent; Gurioli, Massimo
2016-05-01
Hybrid structures are needed to fully exploit the great advantages of Si photonics and several approaches have been addressed where Si devices are bonded to different materials and nanostructures. Here we study the use of semiconductor carbon nanotubes for emission in the 1300 nm wavelength range to functionalize Si photonic structures in view of optoelectronic applications. The Si micro-rings are fully characterized by near field forward resonant scattering with 100 nm resolution. We show that both TE and TM modes can be addressed on the top of the micro-rings in a vectorial imaging of the in-plane polarization components. We coupled the Si micro-resonators with selected carbon nanotubes for high photoluminescence emission. Coupling nanotubes with the evanescent tails in air of the electric field localized in the photonic modes of the micro-resonators is demonstrated by sharp resonances over imposed to the nanotube emission bands. By mapping the Si and the nanotube emission we demonstrate that strong enhancement of the nanotube photoluminescence can be achieved both in the photonic modes of micro-disks and slot micro-rings, whenever the spatial overlap between nano-emitters and photonic modes is fulfilled.
Distributed measurement of mode coupling in birefringent fibers with random polarization modes
Xu, Tianhua; Jing, Wencai; Zhang, Hongxia; Jia, Dagong; Zhang, Xuemin; Zhou, Ge; Zhang, Yimo
2016-01-01
A scanning white light interferometer is developed to measure the distributed polarization coupling (DPC) in high birefringence polarization maintaining fibers (PMFs). Traditionally, this technique requests only one polarization mode to be excited or both polarization modes to be excited with equal intensity in the PMF. Thus, an accurate alignment of the polarization direction with the principal axis in PMF is strictly required, which is not facilely realized in practical measurement. This paper develops a method to measure the spatial distribution of polarization mode coupling with random modes excited using a white light Michelson interferometer. The influence of incident polarization extinction ratio (PER) on polarization coupling detection is evaluated theoretically and experimentally. It is also analyzed and validated in corresponding measurement that the sensitivity of the polarization coupling detection system can be improved more than 100 times with the rotation of the analyzer.
Infra red active modes due to coupling of cyclotron excitation and LO phonons in polar semiconductor
Agrawal, Ratna; Dubey, Swati; Ghosh, S.
2013-06-01
Effects of free carrier concentration, external magnetic field and Callen effective charge on infra red active modes in a polar semiconductor have been analytically investigated using simple harmonic oscillator model. Callen effective charge considerably enhances reflectivity and shifts minima towards lower values of energy. Presence of magnetic field leads towards the coupling of collective cyclotron excitations with LO phonon giving rise to maximum reflectivity whereas cyclotron resonance absorption results into minimum reflectivity.
Tearing mode velocity braking due to resonant magnetic perturbations
Frassinetti, L.; Menmuir, S.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.
2012-10-01
The effect of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) on the tearing mode (TM) velocity is studied in EXTRAP T2R. Experimental results show that the RMP produces TM braking until a new steady velocity or wall locking is reached. The braking is initially localized at the TM resonance and then spreads to the other TMs and to the rest of the plasma producing a global velocity reduction via the viscous torque. The process has been used to experimentally estimate the kinematic viscosity profile, in the range 2-40 m2 s-1, and the electromagnetic torque produced by the RMP, which is strongly localized at the TM resonance. Experimental results are then compared with a theoretical model which gives a reasonable qualitative explanation of the entire process.
Koya, Alemayehu Nana; Ji, Boyu; Hao, Zuoqiang; Lin, Jingquan, E-mail: linjingquan@cust.edu.cn [School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China)
2015-09-21
Combined effects of polarization, split gap, and rod width on the resonance hybridization and near field properties of strongly coupled gold dimer-rod nanosystem are comparatively investigated in the light of the constituent nanostructures. By aligning polarization of the incident light parallel to the long axis of the nanorod, introducing small split gaps to the dimer walls, and varying width of the nanorod, we have simultaneously achieved resonance mode coupling, huge near field enhancement, and prolonged plasmon lifetime. As a result of strong coupling between the nanostructures and due to an intense confinement of near fields at the split and dimer-rod gaps, the extinction spectrum of the coupled nanosystem shows an increase in intensity and blueshift in wavelength. Consequently, the near field lifespan of the split-nanosystem is prolonged in contrast to the constituent nanostructures and unsplit-nanosystem. On the other hand, for polarization of the light perpendicular to the long axis of the nanorod, the effect of split gap on the optical responses of the coupled nanosystem is found to be insignificant compared to the parallel polarization. These findings and such geometries suggest that coupling an array of metallic split-ring dimer with long nanorod can resolve the huge radiative loss problem of plasmonic waveguide. In addition, the Fano-like resonances and immense near field enhancements at the split and dimer-rod gaps imply the potentials of the nanosystem for practical applications in localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing.
Zhong, Min; Liu, Shui Jie; Xu, Bang Li; Wang, Jie; Huang, Hua Qing
2017-10-01
In this paper, we design and simulate a metamaterials absorbers based on the resonance of the local surface plasmon (LSP) mode. The damping constant of gold layer is optimized in simulations to eliminate the effect of the inappropriate material parameters on the electromagnetic properties of the proposed metamaterial absorber. The horizontal distance between two metal particles is optimized in simulations and a perfect absorption resonance peak is achieved due to the strong coupling of LSP modes. A new absorption peak is obtained when the horizontal distance is 0 nm. The vertical distance between the new metal particles and the bottom metal layer is reduced, which leads to the absorption peak reduce based on the reduction of the intensity of LSP modes. A new absorption peak is obtained when the new metallic particle and the bottom gold layer form a whole structure.
Microwave Photonics Systems Based on Whispering-gallery-mode Resonators
Coillet, Aurélien; Henriet, Rémi; Phan Huy, Kien; Jacquot, Maxime; Furfaro, Luca; Balakireva, Irina; Larger, Laurent; Chembo, Yanne K.
2013-01-01
Microwave photonics systems rely fundamentally on the interaction between microwave and optical signals. These systems are extremely promising for various areas of technology and applied science, such as aerospace and communication engineering, sensing, metrology, nonlinear photonics, and quantum optics. In this article, we present the principal techniques used in our lab to build microwave photonics systems based on ultra-high Q whispering gallery mode resonators. First detailed in this article is the protocol for resonator polishing, which is based on a grind-and-polish technique close to the ones used to polish optical components such as lenses or telescope mirrors. Then, a white light interferometric profilometer measures surface roughness, which is a key parameter to characterize the quality of the polishing. In order to launch light in the resonator, a tapered silica fiber with diameter in the micrometer range is used. To reach such small diameters, we adopt the "flame-brushing" technique, using simultaneously computer-controlled motors to pull the fiber apart, and a blowtorch to heat the fiber area to be tapered. The resonator and the tapered fiber are later approached to one another to visualize the resonance signal of the whispering gallery modes using a wavelength-scanning laser. By increasing the optical power in the resonator, nonlinear phenomena are triggered until the formation of a Kerr optical frequency comb is observed with a spectrum made of equidistant spectral lines. These Kerr comb spectra have exceptional characteristics that are suitable for several applications in science and technology. We consider the application related to ultra-stable microwave frequency synthesis and demonstrate the generation of a Kerr comb with GHz intermodal frequency. PMID:23963358
Microwave photonics systems based on whispering-gallery-mode resonators.
Coillet, Aurélien; Henriet, Rémi; Phan Huy, Kien; Jacquot, Maxime; Furfaro, Luca; Balakireva, Irina; Larger, Laurent; Chembo, Yanne K
2013-08-05
Microwave photonics systems rely fundamentally on the interaction between microwave and optical signals. These systems are extremely promising for various areas of technology and applied science, such as aerospace and communication engineering, sensing, metrology, nonlinear photonics, and quantum optics. In this article, we present the principal techniques used in our lab to build microwave photonics systems based on ultra-high Q whispering gallery mode resonators. First detailed in this article is the protocol for resonator polishing, which is based on a grind-and-polish technique close to the ones used to polish optical components such as lenses or telescope mirrors. Then, a white light interferometric profilometer measures surface roughness, which is a key parameter to characterize the quality of the polishing. In order to launch light in the resonator, a tapered silica fiber with diameter in the micrometer range is used. To reach such small diameters, we adopt the "flame-brushing" technique, using simultaneously computer-controlled motors to pull the fiber apart, and a blowtorch to heat the fiber area to be tapered. The resonator and the tapered fiber are later approached to one another to visualize the resonance signal of the whispering gallery modes using a wavelength-scanning laser. By increasing the optical power in the resonator, nonlinear phenomena are triggered until the formation of a Kerr optical frequency comb is observed with a spectrum made of equidistant spectral lines. These Kerr comb spectra have exceptional characteristics that are suitable for several applications in science and technology. We consider the application related to ultra-stable microwave frequency synthesis and demonstrate the generation of a Kerr comb with GHz intermodal frequency.
Head-Positioning Control Using Virtual Resonant Modes in a Hard Disk Drive
Atsumi, Takenori
In conventional control systems in hard disk drives, it is difficult to compensate for disturbances above the primary mechanical resonance. In this paper, a design method that uses a virtual resonant mode in head-positioning systems of hard disk drives was developed. The virtual resonant mode is a digital filter that works like a mechanical resonant mode. Using the proposed method, stable resonant modes in a control system can be designed with a high degree of accuracy to compensate for disturbances whose frequencies are higher than that of the primary mechanical resonance. Application of this method to a hard disk drive showed that it significantly suppresses disturbances beyond the primary mechanical resonance.
Wang, Qi; Zhang, Dawei; Huang, Yuanshen; Ni, Zhengji; Chen, Jiabi; Zhong, Yangwan; Zhuang, Songlin
2010-04-15
A narrowband guided-mode resonance filter (GMRF) incorporating polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) is designed. Simulating the characteristics of the filter with rigorous coupled-wave analysis, we find that the resonance wavelength of the new kind of GMRF can be tuned from 672.4 to 698.4 nm by varying the refractive index of the PDLC layer with the applied voltage. Furthermore, the resonance wavelengths vary in a linear fashion with respect to the refractive index of the PDLC layer. Therefore, the desired resonance wavelength can be conveniently selected and tuned in a tuning range of 26 nm by using the applied voltage.
Two-mode model for metal-dielectric guided-mode resonance filters.
Tuambilangana, Christelle; Pardo, Fabrice; Sakat, Emilie; Bouchon, Patrick; Pelouard, Jean-Luc; Haïdar, Riad
2015-12-14
Symmetric metal-dielectric guided-mode resonators (GMR) can operate as infrared band-pass filters, thanks to high-transmission resonant peaks and good rejection ratio. Starting from matrix formalism, we show that the behavior of the system can be described by a two-mode model. This model reduces to a scalar formula and the GMR is described as the combination of two independent Fabry-Perot resonators. The formalism has then been applied to the case of asymmetric GMR, in order to restore the properties of the symmetric system. This result allows designing GMR-on-substrate as efficient as free-standing systems, the same high transmission maximum value and high quality factor being conserved.
ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole mode in three coupled GCMs
YU Yongqiang; LIU Xiying
2004-01-01
The simulated ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) mode events from three coupled GCMs with the same oceanic component model, CPM0, CPM1 and FGCM0, are compared. The only difference between the CPM0 and the CPM1 comes from the coupling scheme at the air-sea interface, e.g., flux anomaly coupling scheme for the former and direct coupling scheme for the latter. The FGCM0 is also a directly coupled GCM, but its atmospheric component model is the NCAR CCM3 rather than the NCC T63AGCM as in the other two coupled GCMs CPM0 and CPM1.All three coupled models show El Nino-like interannual variability in the tropic Pacific, but the FGCM0 shows a bit stronger amplitude of El Nino events and both the CPM0 and the CPM1 show much weaker amplitude than the observed one. In the meanwhile, the quasi-biennial variability dominates in the FGCM0 simulations, and 4 a and longer periods are significant in both the CPM0 and CPM1 models. As the El Nino events simulated by the three coupled GCMs, the simulated Indian Ocean dipole mode events are stronger from the coupled model FGCM0 and weaker from both the CPM0 and CPM1 models than those from observation.
Bergquist, R. R.; Carlson, R. G.; Landgrebe, A. J.; Egolf, T. A.
1974-01-01
This User's Manual was prepared to provide the engineer with the information required to run the coupled mode version of the Normal Modes Rotor Aeroelastic Analysis Computer Program. The manual provides a full set of instructions for running the program, including calculation of blade modes, calculations of variable induced velocity distribution and the calculation of the time history of the response for either a single blade or a complete rotor with an airframe (the latter with constant inflow).
Phonon blockade in a nanomechanical resonator resonantly coupled to a qubit
Xu, Xun-Wei; Liu, Yu-xi
2016-01-01
We study phonon statistics in a nanomechanical resonator (NAMR) which is resonantly coupled to a qubit. We find that there are two different mechanisms for phonon blockade in such a resonantly coupled NAMR-qubit system. One is due to the strong anharmonicity of the NAMR-qubit system with large coupling strength; the other one is due to the destructive interference between different paths for two-phonon excitation in the NAMR-qubit system with a moderate coupling strength. In order to enlarge the mean phonon number for strong phonon antibunching with a moderate NAMR-qubit coupling strength, we assume that two external driving fields are applied to the NAMR and qubit, respectively. In this case, we find that the phonon blockades under two mechanisms can appear at the same frequency regime by optimizing the strength ratio and phase difference of the two external driving fields.
Control of critical coupling in a coiled coaxial cable resonator.
Huang, Jie; Wei, Tao; Wang, Tao; Fan, Jun; Xiao, Hai
2014-05-01
This paper reports a coiled coaxial cable resonator fabricated by cutting a slot in a spring-like coiled coaxial cable to produce a periodic perturbation. Electromagnetic coupling between two neighboring slots was observed. By manipulating the number of slots, critical coupling of the coiled coaxial cable resonator can be well controlled. An ultrahigh signal-to-noise ratio (over 50 dB) at the resonant frequency band was experimentally achieved from a coiled coaxial cable resonator with 38 turns. A theoretic model is developed to understand the device physics. The proposed device can be potentially used as a high quality and flexibly designed band-stop filter or a sensor in structural health monitoring.
Energy Harvesting with Coupled Magnetorestrictive Resonators
2013-09-01
Guyomar, and B. Ducharne. 2011. “Simulation of a Duffing Oscillator for Broadband Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting,” Smart Materials and Structures, vol...electromagnetic technique includes suspended magnets in a coil or a suspended coil in a magnet array that oscillates as it is excited with vibrational motion...coupled systems of non-linear oscillators improve the performance of sensors by increasing sensitivity [1]. This concept can be used to harvest more
Martinez, Luis A.; Castelli, Alessandro R.; Delmas, William; Sharping, Jay E.; Chiao, Raymond
2016-11-01
We present experimental and theoretical results for the excitation of a mechanical oscillator via radiation pressure with a room-temperature system employing a relatively low-(Q) centimeter-size mechanical oscillator coupled to a relatively low-Q standard three-dimensional radio-frequency (RF) cavity resonator. We describe the forces giving rise to optomechanical coupling using the Maxwell stress tensor and show that nanometer-scale displacements are possible and experimentally observable. The experimental system is composed of a 35 mm diameter silicon nitride membrane sputtered with a 300 nm gold conducting film and attached to the end of a RF copper cylindrical cavity. The RF cavity is operated in its {{TE}}011 mode and amplitude modulated on resonance with the fundamental drum modes of the membrane. Membrane motion is monitored using an unbalanced, non-zero optical path difference, optically filtered Michelson interferometer capable of measuring sub-nanometer displacements.
Resonance features of coupled Josephson junctions: radiation and shunting
Shukrinov, Yu M.; Seidel, P.; Il'ichev, E.; Nawrocki, W.; Grajcar, M.; Plecenik, P. A.; Rahmonov, I. R.; Kulikov, K.
2012-11-01
We study the phase dynamics and the resonance features of coupled Josephson junctions in layered superconductors and their manifestations in the current- voltage characteristics and temporal dependence of the electric charge in the superconducting layers. Results on the effect of the external radiation and shunting of the stack of Josephson junctions by LC-elements are presented. We discuss the ideas concerning the experimental observation of these resonances.
Coupled spatial multi-mode solitons in microcavity wires
Slavcheva, G; Pimenov, A
2016-01-01
A modal expansion approach is developed and employed to investigate and elucidate the nonlinear mechanism behind the multistability and formation of coupled multi-mode polariton solitons in microcavity wires. With pump switched on and realistic dissipation parameters, truncating the expansion up to the second-order wire mode, our model predicts two distinct coupled soliton branches: stable and ustable. Modulational stability of the homogeneous solution and soliton branches stability are studied. Our simplified 1D model is in remarkably good agreement with the full 2D mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii model, reproducing correctly the soliton existence domain upon variation of pump amplitude and the onset of multistability.
CHAN DU
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We developed a biosensor that is capable for simultaneous surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensing and hyperspectral fluorescence analysis in this paper. A symmetrical metal-dielectric slab scheme is employed for the excitation of coupled plasmon waveguide resonance (CPWR in the present work. Resonance between surface plasmon mode and the guided waveguide mode generates narrower full width half-maximum of the reflective curves which leads to increased precision for the determination of refractive index over conventional SPR sensors. In addition, CPWR also offers longer surface propagation depths and higher surface electric field strengths that enable the excitation of fluorescence with hyperspectral technique to maintain an appreciable signal-to-noise ratio. The refractive index information obtained from SPR sensing and the chemical properties obtained through hyperspectral fluorescence analysis confirm each other to exclude false-positive or false-negative cases. The sensor provides a comprehensive understanding of the biological events on the sensor chips.
Fauché, Pierre; Kosionis, Spyridon G.; Lalanne, Philippe
2017-05-01
There is considerable interest in collective effects in hybrid systems formed by molecular or atomic ensembles strongly coupled by an electromagnetic resonance. For analyzing such collective effects, we develop an efficient and general theoretical formalism based on the natural modes of the resonator. The main strength of our approach is its generality and the high level of analyticity enabled by modal analysis, which allows one to model complex hybrid systems without any restriction on the resonator shapes or material properties, and to perform statistical computations to predict general properties that are robust to spatial and polarization disorders. Most notably, we establish that super-radiant modes remain even after ensemble averaging and act as an "invisibility cloak" with a spectral bandwidth that scales with the number of oscillators and the spatially averaged Purcell factor.
Li, Jianchao; Hu, Qiming; Ding, Yonghua; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Yu, Qingquan; Yang, Zhoujun; Chen, Zhipeng; Li, Da; Rao, Bo; Wang, Nengchao; Zhuang, Ge; the J-TEXT Team
2017-08-01
The excitation of internal m = 1 mode during application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) is observed on J-TEXT tokamak. It is found that the sawtooth oscillation disappears after RMPs penetration, and subsequently an internal m = 1 mode with a frequency around 2 kHz appears, were m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively. In addition, the internal m = 1 mode often coexists with a rotating m/n = 2/1 tearing mode, and its frequency increases by about 0.5 kHz when the 2/1 tearing mode is locked by RMPs. The bispectrum analysis proves that the m = 1 mode interacts with the rotating 2/1 tearing mode, which implies the mode coupling between these two modes. The frequency of m = 1 mode increases for higher electron density. These results reveal that, the internal m = 1 mode can be excited by RMPs and coexist with both locked and rotating 2/1 mode due to toroidal mode coupling.
Resonance-enhanced optical forces between coupled photonic crystal slabs.
Liu, Victor; Povinelli, Michelle; Fan, Shanhui
2009-11-23
The behaviors of lateral and normal optical forces between coupled photonic crystal slabs are analyzed. We show that the optical force is periodic with displacement, resulting in stable and unstable equilibrium positions. Moreover, the forces are strongly enhanced by guided resonances of the coupled slabs. Such enhancement is particularly prominent near dark states of the system, and the enhancement effect is strongly dependent on the types of guided resonances involved. These structures lead to enhancement of light-induced pressure over larger areas, in a configuration that is directly accessible to externally incident, free-space optical beams.
Characterization of complementary electric field coupled resonant surfaces
Hand, Thomas H.; Gollub, Jonah; Sajuyigbe, Soji; Smith, David R.; Cummer, Steven A.
2008-11-01
We present angle-resolved free-space transmission and reflection measurements of a surface composed of complementary electric inductive-capacitive (CELC) resonators. By measuring the reflection and transmission coefficients of a CELC surface with different polarizations and particle orientations, we show that the CELC only responds to in-plane magnetic fields. This confirms the Babinet particle duality between the CELC and its complement, the electric field coupled LC resonator. Characterization of the CELC structure serves to expand the current library of resonant elements metamaterial designers can draw upon to make unique materials and surfaces.
Limiting Phase Trajectories and Resonance Energy Transfer in a System of Two Coupled Oscillators
L. I. Manevitch
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We study a problem of energy exchange in a system of two coupled oscillators subject to 1 : 1 resonance. Our results exploit the concept of limiting phase trajectories (LPTs. The LPT, associated with full energy transfer, is, in certain sense, an alternative to nonlinear normal modes characterized by conservation of energy. We consider two benchmark examples. As a first example, we construct an LPT and examine the convergence to stationary oscillations for a Duffing oscillator subjected to resonance harmonic excitation. As a second example, we treat resonance oscillations in a system of two nonlinearly coupled oscillators. We demonstrate the reduction of the equations of motion to an equation of a single oscillator. It is shown that the most intense energy exchange and beating arise when motion of the equivalent oscillator is close to an LPT. Damped beating and the convergence to rest in a system with dissipation are demonstrated.
Magnetic-dipolar-mode Fano resonances for microwave spectroscopy of high absorption matter
Vaisman, G.; Kamenetskii, E. O.; Shavit, R.
2015-03-01
The interaction between high absorption matter and microwave radiated energy is a subject of great importance. In particular, this concerns the microwave spectroscopic characterization of biological liquids. The use of effective testing methods to obtain information about physical properties of different liquids on the molecular level is one of the most important problems in biophysics. However, the standard methods based on microwave resonant techniques are not sufficiently suitable for biological liquids because the resonance peak in a resonator with high-loss liquids is so broad that the material parameters cannot be measured correctly. Although molecular vibrations of biomolecules may have microwave frequencies, it is not thought that such resonant coupling is significant due to their low energy compared with thermal energy and the strongly dampening aqueous environment. This paper presents an innovative microwave sensing technique for different types of lossy materials, including biological liquids. The technique is based on the combination of the microwave perturbation method and the Fano resonance effects observed recently in microwave structures with embedded magnetic-dipolar quantum dots. When the frequency of the magnetic dipolar mode (MDM) resonance is not equal to the cavity resonance frequency, one gets Fano transmission intensity. When the MDM resonance frequency is tuned to the cavity resonance frequency, by a bias magnetic field, one observes a Lorentzian line shape. Use of an extremely narrow Lorentzian peak allows exact probing of the resonant frequency of a cavity loaded by a highly lossy material sample. For different kinds of samples, one has different frequencies of Lorentzian peaks. This presents a picture of precise spectroscopic characterization of high absorption matter in microwaves.
Guided-mode resonance nanophotonics in materially sparse architectures
Magnusson, Robert; Niraula, Manoj; Yoon, Jae W.; Ko, Yeong H.; Lee, Kyu J.
2016-03-01
The guided-mode resonance (GMR) concept refers to lateral quasi-guided waveguide modes induced in periodic layers. Whereas these effects have been known for a long time, new attributes and innovations continue to appear. Here, we review some recent progress in this field with emphasis on sparse, or minimal, device embodiments. We discuss properties of wideband resonant reflectors designed with gratings in which the grating ridges are matched to an identical material to eliminate local reflections and phase changes. This critical interface therefore possesses zero refractive-index contrast; hence we call them "zero-contrast gratings." Applying this architecture, we present single-layer, wideband reflectors that are robust under experimentally realistic parametric variations. We introduce a new class of reflectors and polarizers fashioned with dielectric nanowire grids that are mostly empty space. Computed results predict high reflection and attendant polarization extinction for these sparse lattices. Experimental verification with Si nanowire grids yields ~200-nm-wide band of high reflection for one polarization state and free transmission of the orthogonal state. Finally, we present bandpass filters using all-dielectric resonant gratings. We design, fabricate, and test nanostructured single layer filters exhibiting high efficiency and sub-nanometer-wide passbands surrounded by 100-nm-wide stopbands.
Resonant excitation of coupled skyrmions by spin-transfer torque
Dai, Y. Y.; Wang, H.; Yang, T.; Zhang, Z. D.
2016-12-01
Resonant excitations of coupled skyrmions in Co/Ru/Co nanodisks activated by spin-transfer torque (STT) have been studied by micromagnetic simulations. It is found that STT is an effective method to manipulate skyrmion dynamics. Unlike the dynamics driven by a microwave field, two skyrmions with opposite chiralities move synchronously in the same direction when they are driven by STT, which makes it easier to observe the dynamics of coupled skyrmions in experiments. Resonant excitations of coupled skyrmions can be controlled by changing the frequency or amplitude ratio of a dual-frequency alternating current (AC). In addition, the magnetostatic interaction between the two skyrmions plays an important role in the dynamics of coupled skyrmions.
Parameters optimization for magnetic resonance coupling wireless power transmission.
Li, Changsheng; Zhang, He; Jiang, Xiaohua
2014-01-01
Taking maximum power transmission and power stable transmission as research objectives, optimal design for the wireless power transmission system based on magnetic resonance coupling is carried out in this paper. Firstly, based on the mutual coupling model, mathematical expressions of optimal coupling coefficients for the maximum power transmission target are deduced. Whereafter, methods of enhancing power transmission stability based on parameters optimal design are investigated. It is found that the sensitivity of the load power to the transmission parameters can be reduced and the power transmission stability can be enhanced by improving the system resonance frequency or coupling coefficient between the driving/pick-up coil and the transmission/receiving coil. Experiment results are well conformed to the theoretical analysis conclusions.
Parameters Optimization for Magnetic Resonance Coupling Wireless Power Transmission
Changsheng Li
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Taking maximum power transmission and power stable transmission as research objectives, optimal design for the wireless power transmission system based on magnetic resonance coupling is carried out in this paper. Firstly, based on the mutual coupling model, mathematical expressions of optimal coupling coefficients for the maximum power transmission target are deduced. Whereafter, methods of enhancing power transmission stability based on parameters optimal design are investigated. It is found that the sensitivity of the load power to the transmission parameters can be reduced and the power transmission stability can be enhanced by improving the system resonance frequency or coupling coefficient between the driving/pick-up coil and the transmission/receiving coil. Experiment results are well conformed to the theoretical analysis conclusions.
李欣业; 陈予恕; 吴志强
2002-01-01
The nonlinear normal modes (NNMs) associated with integrnal resonance can be classified into two kinds: uncoupled and coupled.The bifurcation problem of the coupled NNM of systems with 1: 2: 5 dual internal resonance is in two variables.The singular analysis of it is presented after separating the two variables by taking advantage of Maple algebra, and some new bifurcation patterns are found.Different from the NNMs of systems with single internal resonance, the number of the NNMs of systems with dual internal resonance may be more or less than the number of the degrees of freedom.At last, it is pointed out that bifurcation problems in two variables can be conveniently solved by separating variables as well as using coupling equations.
A Cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antenna-Coupled Sensor Configuration for 94 GHz Detection
M. Kamran Saleem
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A novel antenna-coupled sensor configuration for millimeter wave detection is presented. The antenna is based on two cylindrical dielectric resonators (CDRs excited by rectangular slots placed below the CDRs. The HEM11Δ mode resonating at 94 GHz is generated within the CDRs and a 3 GHz impedance bandwidth is achieved at center frequency of 94 GHz. The simulated antenna gain is 7.8 dB, with a radiation efficiency of about 40%.
Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Kaoru; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Notomi, Masaya; 10.1364/OE.21.008596
2013-01-01
We demonstrate the generation of quantum-correlated photon pairs from a Si photonic-crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguide. A slow-light supermode realized by the collective resonance of high-Q and small-mode-volume photonic-crystal cavities successfully enhanced the efficiency of the spontaneous four-wave mixing process. The generation rate of photon pairs was improved by two orders of magnitude compared with that of a photonic-crystal line defect waveguide without a slow-light effect.
Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Takesue, Hiroki; Shimizu, Kaoru; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Notomi, Masaya
2013-04-08
We demonstrate the generation of quantum-correlated photon pairs from a Si photonic-crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguide. A slow-light supermode realized by the collective resonance of high-Q and small-mode-volume photonic-crystal cavities successfully enhanced the efficiency of the spontaneous four-wave mixing process. The generation rate of photon pairs was improved by two orders of magnitude compared with that of a photonic-crystal line defect waveguide without a slow-light effect.
Coupled-mode equation of polarization modes of twisted birefringent fibers in a unified coordinate.
Fang, Zujie; Yang, Fei; Cai, Haiwen; Qu, Ronghui
2013-01-20
A coupled-mode equation (CME) of twisted birefringent fiber is presented in this paper, which uses the degenerate polarization modes of single-mode fibers as eigenmodes in a unified coordinate. The inconsistency between the coordinate and the rotating principal axis, existing in the previous CME, is solved by conversion to the lab coordinate. The CME gives self-consistent results for fibers with high birefringence or low birefringence and for single-mode fibers as well. Analyses and simulations show the CME gives characteristics of twisted birefringent fiber coincident with the property of polarization-maintaining fibers.
Observation and characterization of mode splitting in microsphere resonators in aquatic environment
Woosung, Kim; Zhu, Jiangang; Yang, Lan
2011-01-01
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonators utilizing resonance shift (RS) and mode splitting (MS) techniques have emerged as highly sensitive platforms for label-free detection of nano-scale objects. RS method has been demonstrated in various resonators in air and liquid. MS in microsphere resonators has not been achieved in aqueous environment up to date, despite its demonstration in microtoroid resonators. Here, we demonstrate scatterer-induced MS of WGMs in microsphere resonators in water. We determine the size range of particles that induces MS in a microsphere in water as a function of resonator mode volume and quality factor. The results are confirmed by the experimental observations.
Coupling of two defect modes in photonic crystal fibers
Yuntuan Fang; Tinggen Shen
2005-01-01
The coupling characteristics of two defect modes in photonic crystal fibers are investigated theoretically by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The transmission spectrum and eigenmodes of optical wave are found to be very sensitive to the geometrical and physical parameters of the structure, as well as to the relative position of the two defects.
Computation of expectation values from vibrational coupled-cluster at the two-mode coupling level
Zoccante, Alberto; Seidler, Peter; Christiansen, Ove
2011-01-01
In this work we show how the vibrational coupled-cluster method at the two-mode coupling level can be used to calculate zero-point vibrational averages of properties. A technique is presented, where any expectation value can be calculated using a single set of Lagrangian multipliers computed...
Computation of expectation values from vibrational coupled-cluster at the two-mode coupling level
Zoccante, Alberto; Seidler, Peter; Christiansen, Ove
2011-01-01
In this work we show how the vibrational coupled-cluster method at the two-mode coupling level can be used to calculate zero-point vibrational averages of properties. A technique is presented, where any expectation value can be calculated using a single set of Lagrangian multipliers computed...
Underdamped modes in a hydrodynamically coupled microparticle system
Yao, A. M.; Keen, S. A. J.; Burnham, D. R.; Leach, J.; Leonardo, R. Di; McGloin, D.; Padgett, M. J.
2009-05-01
When micron-sized particles are trapped in a linear periodic array, for example, by using optical tweezers, they interact only through the hydrodynamic forces between them. This couples the motion of the spheres and it has been predicted that an extended system might behave as an elastic medium that could support underdamped propagating waves. In practice, these underdamped modes can be observed only with massive particles in very stiff traps and very low viscosity fluids. We have been able to realize these conditions by trapping water droplets in air. Even with a system of just two particles we were able to observe the coupled oscillatory motion predicted: underdamping of the symmetric (collective) mode and overdamping of the asymmetric (relative) mode.
The Theoretical Foundation of 3D Alfvén Resonances: Normal Modes
Wright, Andrew N.; Elsden, Thomas
2016-12-01
We consider the resonant coupling of fast and Alfvén magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in a 3D equilibrium. Numerical solutions to normal modes (\\propto \\exp (-iω t)) are presented, along with a theoretical framework to interpret them. The solutions we find are fundamentally different from those in 1D and 2D. In 3D there exists an infinite number of possible resonant solutions within a “Resonant Zone,” and we show how boundary conditions and locally 2D regions can favor particular solutions. A unique feature of the resonance in 3D is switching between different permissible solutions when the boundary of the Resonant Zone is encountered. The theoretical foundation that we develop relies upon recognizing that, in 3D, the orientation of the resonant surface will not align in a simple fashion with an equilibrium coordinate. We present a method for generating the Alfvén wave natural frequencies for an arbitrarily oriented Alfvén wave, which requires a careful treatment of scale factors describing the background magnetic field geometry.
Method of fabricating a whispering gallery mode resonator
Savchenkov, Anatoliy A. (Inventor); Matkso, Andrey B. (Inventor); Iltchenko, Vladimir S. (Inventor); Maleki, Lute (Inventor)
2011-01-01
A method of fabricating a whispering gallery mode resonator (WGMR) is provided. The WGMR can be fabricated from a particular material, annealed, and then polished. The WGMR can be repeatedly annealed and then polished. The repeated polishing of the WGMR can be carried out using an abrasive slurry. The abrasive slurry can have a predetermined, constant grain size. Each subsequent polishing of the WGMR can use an abrasive slurry having a grain size that is smaller than the grain size of the abrasive slurry of the previous polishing iteration.
Optical sum-frequency generation in whispering gallery mode resonators
Strekalov, Dmitry V; Huang, Yu-Ping; Kumar, Prem
2013-01-01
We demonstrate sum-frequency generation in a nonlinear whispering gallery mode resonator between a telecom wavelength and the Rb D2 line, achieved through natural phase matching. Due to the strong optical field confinement and ultra high Q of the cavity, we achieve a 1000-fold enhancement in the conversion efficiency compared to existing waveguide-based devices. The experimental data are in agreement with the nonlinear dynamics and phase matching theory in the spherical geometry employed. The experimental and theoretical results point to a new platform to manipulate the color and quantum states of light waves toward applications such as atomic memory based quantum networking and logic operations with optical signals.
Design rules for lossy mode resonance based sensors.
Del Villar, Ignacio; Hernaez, Miguel; Zamarreño, Carlos R; Sánchez, Pedro; Fernández-Valdivielso, Carlos; Arregui, Francisco J; Matias, Ignacio R
2012-07-01
Lossy mode resonances can be obtained in the transmission spectrum of cladding removed multimode optical fiber coated with a thin-film. The sensitivity of these devices to changes in the properties of the coating or the surrounding medium can be optimized by means of the adequate parameterization of the coating refractive index, the coating thickness, and the surrounding medium refractive index. Some basic rules of design, which enable the selection of the best parameters for each specific sensing application, are indicated in this work.
Intense energy transfer and superharmonic resonance in a system of two coupled oscillators.
Kovaleva, Agnessa; Manevitch, Leonid; Manevitch, Elina
2010-05-01
The paper presents the analytic study of energy exchange in a system of coupled nonlinear oscillators subject to superharmonic resonance. The attention is given to complete irreversible energy transfer that occurs in a system with definite initial conditions corresponding to a so-called limiting phase trajectory (LPT). We show that the energy imparted in the system is partitioned among the principal and superharmonic modes but energy exchange can be due to superharmonic oscillations. Using the LPT concept, we construct approximate analytic solutions describing intense irreversible energy transfer in a harmonically excited Duffing oscillator and a system of two nonlinearly coupled oscillators. Numerical simulations confirm the accuracy of the analytic approximations.
李森涛; 樊绍胜; 李富林; 蒋大玉
2015-01-01
Abstruct:In order to analyzes and optimize output power of magnetically⁃coupled resonant mode wireless power transfer sys⁃tem,the power output property of this system is analyzed and a simplified model of this system is given in this paper,which is of benefit to the designer to analyze or determine the parameters of the magnetically⁃coupled resonant wireless power transfer sys⁃tem. Moreover,to solve the problem that the output power of magnetically⁃coupled resonant wireless power transfer system varies drastically with the change of relative distance and position of two resonant coils,based on the output property discussed above, a practical maximum power point tracking(MPPT)method is proposed in this paper to stabilize and maximize the power of the system in relatively wide range.%为分析与优化磁耦合谐振式无线电能传输系统的输出功率，对磁耦合谐振式无线电能传输系统的功率输出特性进行分析与试验，并提出一种简化的系统模型，以方便设计者分析或确定磁共振式无线电能传输系统的参数。另外为解决原始系统输出功率随线圈相对位置而急剧变化，在此根据磁耦合谐振式无线电能传输系统的功率输出特性提出了一种可行的最大功率点追踪（MPPT）方法以稳定系统的输出功率，使得负载能够在宽距离范围内实现功率最大化。
R. A. Bosch
2006-09-01
Full Text Available In an electron storage ring, coupling between dipole and quadrupole Robinson oscillations modifies the spectrum of longitudinal beam oscillations driven by radio-frequency (rf generator phase noise. In addition to the main peak at the resonant frequency of the coupled dipole Robinson mode, another peak occurs at the resonant frequency of the coupled quadrupole mode. To describe these peaks analytically for a quadratic synchrotron potential, we include the dipole and quadrupole modes when calculating the beam response to generator noise. We thereby obtain the transfer function from generator-noise phase modulation to beam phase modulation with and without phase feedback. For Robinson-stable bunches confined in a synchrotron potential with a single minimum, the calculated transfer function agrees with measurements at the Aladdin 800-MeV electron storage ring. The transfer function is useful in evaluating phase feedback that suppresses Robinson oscillations in order to obtain quiet operation of an infrared beam line.
Double resonance in the system of coupled Josephson junctions
Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Rahmonov, I. R.; Kulikov, K. V.
2013-01-01
The effect of LC shunting on the phase dynamics of coupled Josephson junctions has been examined. It has been shown that additional ( rc) branches appear in the current-voltage characteristics of the junctions when the Josephson frequency ωJ is equal to the natural frequency of the formed resonance circuit ωrc. The effect of the parameters of the system on its characteristics has been studied. Double resonance has been revealed in the system at ωJ = ωrc = 2ωLPW, where ωLPW is the frequency of a longitudinal plasma wave appearing under the parametric-resonance conditions. In this case, electric charge appears in superconducting layers in the interval of the bias current corresponding to the rc branch. The charge magnitude is determined by the accuracy with which the double resonance condition is satisfied. The possibility of the experimental implementation of the effects under study has been estimated.
Resistive wall mode and neoclassical tearing mode coupling in rotating tokamak plasmas
McAdams, Rachel; Chapman, I T
2013-01-01
A model system of equations has been derived to describe a toroidally rotating tokamak plasma, unstable to Resistive Wall Modes (RWMs) and metastable to Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTMs), using a linear RWM model and a nonlinear NTM model. If no wall is present, the NTM growth shows the typical threshold/saturation island widths, whereas a linearly unstable kink mode grows exponentially in this model plasma system. When a resistive wall is present, the growth of the linearly unstable RWM is accelerated by an unstable island: a form of coupled RWM-NTM mode. Crucially, this coupled system has no threshold island width, giving the impression of a triggerless NTM, observed in high beta tokamak discharges. In addition, increasing plasma rotation at the island location can mitigate its growth, but does not restore the threshold width.
Hund's coupling case sequences in resonant multiphoton transitions
Maïnos, C.; Castex, M. C.; Nkwawo, H.
1990-10-01
Different Hund's coupling case sequences are considered for the n1+n2 near resonant multiphoton rovibronic process in electric dipole allowed transitions of any spin multiplicity. The transitional path interferences strength tensor is introduced. This tensor involves a polarization and rotational dependence as well as a transitional path dependence which couples the electronic vibrational motion with the rotational structure. The intensity of a rotational line may decompose in terms of the matrix element of this tensor and a pure electronic vibrational tensor. The specificity of the coupling case sequence is found condensed in the rotational line factors which are explicitly determined for all the coupling case sequences obtained from the case (a) and case (b) coupling.
Hybrid Quantum System of a Nanofiber Mode Coupled to Two Chains of Optically Trapped Atoms
Zoubi, Hashem
2010-01-01
A tapered optical nanofiber simultaneously used to trap and optically interface of cold atoms through evanescent fields constitutes a new and well controllable hybrid quantum system. The atoms are trapped in two parallel 1D optical lattices generated by suitable far blue and red detuned evanescent field modes very close to opposite sides of the nanofiber surface. Collective electronic excitations (excitons) of each of the optical lattices are resonantly coupled to the second lattice forming symmetric and antisymmetric common excitons. In contrast to the inverse cube dependence of the individual atomic dipole-dipole interaction, we analytically find an exponentially decaying coupling strength with distance between the lattices. The resulting symmetric (bright) excitons strongly interact with the resonant nanofiber photons to form fiber polaritons, which can be observed through linear optical spectra. For large enough wave vectors the polariton decay rate to free space is strongly reduced, which should render t...
Efficient multi-mode to single-mode coupling in a photonic lantern
Noordegraaf, Danny; Skovgaard, Peter M.; Nielsen, Martin D.;
2009-01-01
We demonstrate the fabrication of a high performance multi-mode (MM) to single-mode (SM) splitter or “photonic lantern”, first described by Leon-Saval et al. (2005). Our photonic lantern is a solid all-glass version, and we show experimentally that this device can be used to achieve efficient...... and reversible coupling between a MM fiber and a number of SM fibers, when perfectly matched launch conditions into the MM fiber are ensured. The fabricated photonic lantern has a coupling loss for a MM to SM tapered transition of only 0.32 dB which proves the feasibility of the technology...
Hong-Min Lee
2013-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents investigations into the resonant mode behavior of a lumped-resistor-loaded electric-inductive-capacitive (ELC resonator, which is illuminated with a parallel polarization external electromagnetic wave. An ELC resonator exhibits a negative effective permittivity for both parallel and perpendicular polarizations. In contrast to a common ELC resonator, the lumped-resistor-loaded ELC resonator exhibits a switchable resonant mode behavior, thereby revealing a negative effective permeability. In addition, this resonator exhibits a low quality factor owing to the loaded lumped resistors. A metamaterial absorber, which consists of a lumped-resistor-loaded ELC resonator and a cut-wire strip, is designed to confirm the effectiveness of the resonator.
Electron spin resonance in a two-dimensional Fermi liquid with spin-orbit coupling
Maiti, Saurabh; Imran, Muhammad; Maslov, Dmitrii L.
2016-01-01
Electron spin resonance (ESR) is usually viewed as a single-particle phenomenon protected from the effect of many-body correlations. We show that this is not the case in a two-dimensional Fermi liquid (FL) with spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Depending on whether the in-plane magnetic field is below or above some critical value, ESR in such a system probes up to three chiral-spin collective modes, augmented by the spin mode in the presence of the field, or the Silin-Leggett mode. All the modes are affected by both SOC and FL renormalizations. We argue that ESR can be used as a probe not only for SOC but also for many-body physics.
Zhang Li
2009-01-01
This paper investigates the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in a single-mode laser driven by quadratic pump noise and amplitude-modulated signal.A new linear approximation approach is advanced to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio.In the linear approximation only the drift term is linearized,the multiplicative noise term is unchangeable.It is found that there appears not only the standard form of stochastic resonance but also the broad sense of stochastic resonance,especially stochastic multiresonance appears in the curve of signal-to-noise ratio as a function of coupling strength λ between the real and imaginary parts of the pump noise.
Dynamically creating tripartite resonance and dark modes in a multimode optomechanical system
Damskägg, Erno; Pirkkalainen, Juha-Matti; Sillanpää, Mika A.
2016-10-01
We study a multimode optomechanical system where two mechanical oscillators are coupled to an electromagnetic cavity. Previously it has been shown that if the mechanical resonances have nearly equal frequencies, one can make the oscillators to interact via the cavity by strong pumping with a coherent pump tone. One can view the interaction also as emergence of an electromagnetically dark mode which gets asymptotically decoupled from the cavity and has a linewidth much smaller than that of the bare cavity. The narrow linewidth and long lifetime of the dark mode could be advantageous, for example in information storage and processing. Here we investigate the possibility to create dark modes dynamically using two pump tones. We show that if the mechanical frequencies are intrinsically different, one can bring the mechanical oscillators and the cavity on-resonance and thus create a dark mode by double sideband pumping of the cavity. We realize the scheme in a microwave optomechanical device employing two drum oscillators with unmatched frequencies, {ω }1/2π =8.1 {MHz} and {ω }2/2π =14.2 {MHz}. We also observe a breakdown of the rotating-wave approximation, most pronounced in another device where the mechanical frequencies are close to each other.
Fano-like resonances in strongly coupled binary Coulomb systems
Silvestri, Luciano; Donko, Zoltan; Hartmann, Peter; Kaehlert, Hanno
2014-01-01
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a strongly coupled binary ionic mixture have shown the presence of a sharp minimum in the dynamical density fluctuation spectrum. This phenomenon is reminiscent of the well known Fano anti-resonance, occurring in various physical processes. We give a theoretical analysis using the Quasi Localized Charge Approximation, pointing out that the observed phenomenon in the equilibrium spectrum is the consequence, induced by the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem, of the Fano anti-resonance, whose existence in the system is verified by further MD simulation.
Position-dependent coupling between a channel waveguide and a distorted microsphere resonator
Senthil Murugan, Ganapathy; Panitchob, Yuwapat; Tull, Elizabeth J.; Bartlett, Philip N.; Hewak, Daniel W.; Zervas, Michalis N.; Wilkinson, James S.
2010-03-01
Glass microsphere resonators have the potential to add significant functionality to planar lightwave circuits when coupled to waveguides where they can provide wavelength filtering, delay and low-power switching, and laser functions. Design of such photonic circuits requires precise coupling between spheres and waveguides to allow control of Q-factor and hence of stored energy and resonator bandwidth. In this paper an erbium-doped silicate glass microsphere is coupled to an ion-exchanged glass waveguide, and excitation spectra for the sphere whispering-gallery modes are determined as a function of spatial separation. Modal assignment allows extraction of the physical parameters of the microsphere and the dependence of Q-factor with separation is compared with theory. All practical microspheres exhibit a small degree of ellipticity and the effects of this upon whispering-gallery mode excitation and wavelength splitting are explored. It has been shown that appropriate displacement and orientation of slightly deformed microspheres with respect to the waveguide can be used to control the effective Q-factor and optimize the spectral shape of the optical devices. This can result in either single high-Q peaks or substantially broadened and spectrally flattened resonances.
Vibrational modes of ultrathin carbon nanomembrane mechanical resonators
Zhang, Xianghui, E-mail: zhang@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: elke.scheer@uni-konstanz.de; Angelova, Polina; Gölzhäuser, Armin [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Waitz, Reimar; Yang, Fan; Lutz, Carolin; Scheer, Elke, E-mail: zhang@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: elke.scheer@uni-konstanz.de [Fachbereich Physik, Universität Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz (Germany)
2015-02-09
We report measurements of vibrational mode shapes of mechanical resonators made from ultrathin carbon nanomembranes (CNMs) with a thickness of approximately 1 nm. CNMs are prepared from electron irradiation induced cross-linking of aromatic self-assembled monolayers and the variation of membrane thickness and/or density can be achieved by varying the precursor molecule. Single- and triple-layer freestanding CNMs were made by transferring them onto Si substrates with square/rectangular orifices. The vibration of the membrane was actuated by applying a sinusoidal voltage to a piezoelectric disk on which the sample was glued. The vibrational mode shapes were visualized with an imaging Mirau interferometer using a stroboscopic light source. Several mode shapes of a square membrane can be readily identified and their dynamic behavior can be well described by linear response theory of a membrane with negligible bending rigidity. By applying Fourier transformations to the time-dependent surface profiles, the dispersion relation of the transverse membrane waves can be obtained and its linear behavior verifies the membrane model. By comparing the dispersion relation to an analytical model, the static stress of the membranes was determined and found to be caused by the fabrication process.
A photonic analog of Möbius strips using coupled optical ring resonators
Wu, Li-Ting; Guo, Rui-Peng; Cui, Tie-Jun; Chen, Jing
2017-02-01
A Möbius strip has an intriguing topological property in that it only has one non-orientable side. Here we propose to utilize coupled optical ring resonators (ORRs) to simulate the topological effect of Möbius strips. This scheme is based on the fact that the counter-clockwise mode in an ORR only couples to the clockwise mode of an adjacent ORR. We show that if an odd number of ORRs form a closed loop, after a round trip the handedness of the excited mode does not return to the initial one. Only after a double round trip does the mode come back to its initial state. Such a kind of Möbius-type coupling topology can be observed from the strong backward reflection in a common bus that provides the initial excitation. Eigenmodes, reflection and transmission spectra, and field distributions are calculated and analyzed. We also study the situation without Möbius-type coupling. The difference between these two categories is discussed. COMSOL simulations verify our analysis. The importance of this investigation and potential applications are briefly discussed.
Coupling Between Corotation And Lindblad Mean Motion Resonances
El Moutamid, Maryame; Sicardy, B.; Renner, S.
2012-10-01
We consider the classical Elliptic Restricted Three-Body Problem with two bodies (particle and satellite) orbiting a central planet. If we take into account the oblateness of the central body through the classical additional terms up to J_6, the secular terms causing the orbit precessions appear in the disturbing potential leading to the presence of two critical resonant arguments : Φ = (m+1)λ‧ + mλ + ω and Φ‧ = (m+1)λ‧ + mλ + ω‧ where m is an integer, λ and ω the mean longitude and the longitude of the periapsis of the particle, and the primed quantities apply to the satellite. The arguments Φ‧ and Φ respectively describe the Corotation Eccentric Resonance (CER) and the Lindblad Eccentric Resonance (LER). We developed a new model (the CoraLin model) which encapsulate in a simple adimensional form the coupling between the two resonances. We examine the asymptotic configurations where these resonances are well separated or completely superimposed. Poincaré surfaces of section reveal that in intermediate cases, the strong coupling between the resonances may lead to chaotic behavior. We apply this model to several recently discovered small Saturnian satellites dynamically linked to Mimas through first mean motion resonances : Anthe, Methone, and Aegaeon, all associated with arc material. All satellites are trapped in CER with Mimas and perturbed by the associated LER. We estimate the probability of capturing a satellite into a of CER with Mimas, as the orbit of the latter evolves through tidal effects, and discuss possible scenarios for the the dynamical origin of those moons.
Angerer, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.angerer@tuwien.ac.at; Astner, Thomas; Wirtitsch, Daniel; Majer, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.majer@tuwien.ac.at [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Atominstitut, TU Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Sumiya, Hitoshi [Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., Itami 664-001 (Japan); Onoda, Shinobu [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Isoya, Junichi [Research Centre for Knowledge Communities, University of Tsukuba, 1-2 Kasuga, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8550 (Japan); Putz, Stefan [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Atominstitut, TU Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)
2016-07-18
We design and implement 3D-lumped element microwave cavities that spatially focus magnetic fields to a small mode volume. They allow coherent and uniform coupling to electron spins hosted by nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond. We achieve large homogeneous single spin coupling rates, with an enhancement of more than one order of magnitude compared to standard 3D cavities with a fundamental resonance at 3 GHz. Finite element simulations confirm that the magnetic field distribution is homogeneous throughout the entire sample volume, with a root mean square deviation of 1.54%. With a sample containing 10{sup 17} nitrogen vacancy electron spins, we achieve a collective coupling strength of Ω = 12 MHz, a cooperativity factor C = 27, and clearly enter the strong coupling regime. This allows to interface a macroscopic spin ensemble with microwave circuits, and the homogeneous Rabi frequency paves the way to manipulate the full ensemble population in a coherent way.
Zhang, Zhengren, E-mail: zhrenzhang@126.com [School of Science, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074 (China); Zhang, Liwei [School of Physics and Chemistry, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China); Yin, Pengfei; Han, Xiangyu [School of Science, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074 (China)
2014-08-01
We investigate theoretically the generation process of coupled resonator-induced transparency (CRIT) in surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide system containing two side-coupled cavities, which locate at a symmetric position. The CRIT is original from the destructive interference of the two detuned cavities. In contrast with the existing electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) schemes, the occurrence of the CRIT is caused by the two radiative cavities in waveguide, instead of interference between a dark cavity and radiative cavity. This behavior mimics the quantum interference between two direct excitation pathways in a three-level V-type atom. The transmission lineshape can be tuned between an EIT-like resonant peak and a Lorentzian-like resonant dip by tailoring the detuning of the two cavities. Moreover, we also find that the transparency peak moves to high frequency with a line shift and its Q factor decreases with the increase of coupling distance between the cavities and waveguide.
Franco, A. F.; Landeros, P.
2016-09-01
We present a general model for the coupled magnetic resonances of an exchange interacting multilayer system, which can be implemented without complex analytical calculations or numerical simulations. The model allows one to study the spin wave modes of a multilayer structure with any number of layers, accounting for individual uniaxial and cubic anisotropies, and (static and dynamic) demagnetizing and external fields as well, assuming that only the interlayer exchange coupling mechanism is relevant between such magnetic layers. This scheme is applied to recent measurements of a NiFe/CoFe bilayer, and to studying the influence of the strength of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions and the applied field orientation on the spin wave modes and intensities of the ferromagnetic resonance response. We find that the acoustic oscillation mode tends to stabilize in frequency if the magnetizations of the layers are parallel to each other, while the optical mode stabilizes when the magnetizations are antiparallel. Furthermore, we find that each oscillation mode is governed by either the NiFe or the CoFe. The modes swap the governing layer as the perpendicular field increases, inducing a gap between their frequencies, which appears to be proportional to the exchange coupling. Finally, we find that the field linewidth of the bilayer due to Gilbert damping has a dependence on the frequency very similar to the linear dependence of the linewidth in single layers. The theoretical scheme presented here can be further used to explore magnetization dynamics in different multilayer architectures—such as exchange springs, structures with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, and complex compositions of layer stacks—and can be useful as a basis to study multilayers with chiral and dipolar interactions.
Extra loss due to Fano resonances in inhibited coupling fibers based on a lattice of tubes.
Vincetti, L; Setti, V
2012-06-18
Confinement loss of inhibited coupling fibers with a cladding composed of a lattice of tubes of various shapes is theoretically and numerically investigated. Both solid core and hollow core are taken into account. It is shown that in case of polygonal shaped tubes, confinement loss is affected by extra loss due to Fano resonances between core modes and cladding modes with high spatial dependence. This explains why hollow core Kagome fibers exhibit much higher confinement loss with respect to tube lattice fibers and why hypocycloid core cladding interfaces significantly reduce fiber loss. Moreover it is shown that tube deformations, due for example to fabrication process, affect fiber performances. A relationship between the number of polygon sides and the spectral position of the extra loss is found. This suggests general guide lines for the design and fabrication of fibers free of Fano resonance in the spectral range of interest.
Driven intrinsic localized modes in a coupled pendulum array
Thakur, R Basu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dickinson College, Carlisle, PA 17013 (United States); English, L Q [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dickinson College, Carlisle, PA 17013 (United States); Sievers, A J [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)
2008-01-07
Intrinsic localized modes (ILMs), also called discrete breathers, are directly generated via modulational instability in an array of coupled pendulums. These ILMs can be stabilized over a range of driver frequencies and amplitudes. They are characterized by a {pi}-phase difference between their centre and wings. At higher driver frequencies, these ILMs are observed to disintegrate via a pulsating instability, and the mechanism of this breather instability is investigated.
FUZZY STABILITY ANALYSIS OF MODE COUPLING CHATTER ON CUTTING PROCESS
1998-01-01
The influence of fuzzy uncertainty factors is considered on the analysis of chatter occurring during machine tool cutting process. Using fuzzy mathematics analysis methods, a detailed discussion over fuzzy stability analysis problems is presented related to the mode coupling chatter with respect to intrinsic structure fuzzy factors, and the possibility distribution of the fuzzy stability cutting range and the confidence level expressions of the fuzzy stability cutting width are given.
Bonding and Anti-bonding Modes of Plasmon Coupling Effects in TiO2-Ag Core-shell Dimers
Li, Quanshui; Zhang, Zhili
2016-01-01
Bonding and anti-bonding modes of plasmon coupling effects are numerically investigated in TiO2-Ag core-shell nano dimers. First, splitting phenomena of the coupled anti-bonding modes are observed under the longitudinal polarization when the distance between the monomers decreases to a certain level. Second, one of the split resonance modes is identified to be formed by the dipole anti-bonding mode of the monomers from charge density distribution patterns. Those split modes have similar redshift behaviors as the coupled dipole bonding modes in the same situations. Furthermore, the intensities of those anti-bonding modes weaken with decreasing distance between the monomers, because of the interaction of the induced dipole moment in the monomers and the charge distribution variation on the facing surfaces of the gap by the coulomb attraction. Other split bands are the higher-order mode (octupole-like or triakontadipole-like), which do not have obvious peak-shift behavior, and the intensities have very little attenuation with decreasing distance. Finally, the coupling of the bonding and anti-bonding modes under the longitudinal polarization is symmetric (bonding).
$\\rho$-Nucleon Tensor Coupling and Charge-Exchange Resonances
De Conti, C; Krmpotic, F
2000-01-01
The Gamow-Teller resonances are discussed in the context of a self-consistentRPA, based on the relativistic mean field theory. We inquire on the possibilityof substituting the phenomenological Landau-Migdal force by a microscopicnucleon-nucleon interaction, generated from the rho-nucleon tensor coupling.The effect of this coupling turns out to be very small when the short rangecorrelations are not taken into account, but too large when these correlationsare simulated by the simple extraction of the contact terms from the resultingnucleon-nucleon interaction.
Dyer, Gregory C.; Aizin, Gregory R.; Allen, S. James; Grine, Albert D.; Bethke, Don; Reno, John L.; Shaner, Eric A.
2014-05-01
The device applications of plasmonic systems such as graphene and two dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) in III-V heterostructures include terahertz detectors, mixers, oscillators and modulators. These two dimensional (2D) plasmonic systems are not only well-suited for device integration, but also enable the broad tunability of underdamped plasma excitations via an applied electric field. We present demonstrations of the coherent coupling of multiple voltage tuned GaAs/AlGaAs 2D plasmonic resonators under terahertz irradiation. By utilizing a plasmonic homodyne mixing mechanism to downconvert the near field of plasma waves to a DC signal, we directly detect the spectrum of coupled plasmonic micro-resonator structures at cryogenic temperatures. The 2DEG in the studied devices can be interpreted as a plasmonic waveguide where multiple gate terminals control the 2DEG kinetic inductance. When the gate tuning of the 2DEG is spatially periodic, a one-dimensional finite plasmonic crystal forms. This results in a subwavelength structure, much like a metamaterial element, that nonetheless Bragg scatters plasma waves from a repeated crystal unit cell. A 50% in situ tuning of the plasmonic crystal band edges is observed. By introducing gate-controlled defects or simply terminating the lattice, localized states arise in the plasmonic crystal. Inherent asymmetries at the finite crystal boundaries produce an induced transparency-like phenomenon due to the coupling of defect modes and crystal surface states known as Tamm states. The demonstrated active control of coupled plasmonic resonators opens previously unexplored avenues for sensitive direct and heterodyne THz detection, planar metamaterials, and slow-light devices.
Crystalline Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators: In Search of The Optimal Material
Ilchenko, V S; Matsko, A B; Maleki, L
2014-01-01
Different applications of crystalline whispering gallery mode resonators call for different properties of the resonator host material. We report on our recent study of resonators made out of sapphire, diamond, and quartz crystals and discuss possible applications of these resonators. In particular, we demonstrate Kerr frequency comb generation in sapphire microresonators.
Coupled-resonator-induced-transparency concept for wavelength routing applications.
Mancinelli, M; Guider, R; Bettotti, P; Masi, M; Vanacharla, M R; Pavesi, L
2011-06-20
The presence of coupled resonators induced transparency (CRIT) effects in side-coupled integrated spaced sequence of resonators (SCISSOR) of different radii has been studied. By controlling the rings radii and their center to center distance, it is possible to form transmission channels within the SCISSOR stop-band. Two different methods to exploit the CRIT effect in add/drop filters are proposed. Their performances, e. g. linewidth, crosstalk and losses, are examined also for random variations in the structural parameters. Finally, few examples of high performances mux/demux structures and 2 × 2 routers based on these modified SCISSOR are presented. CRIT based SCISSOR optical devices are particularly promising for ultra-dense wavelength division multiplexing applications.
Coupling a thermal atomic vapor to an integrated ring resonator
Ritter, Ralf; Pernice, Wolfram; Kübler, Harald; Pfau, Tilman; Löw, Robert
2016-01-01
Strongly interacting atom-cavity systems within a network with many nodes constitute a possible realization for a quantum internet which allows for quantum communication and computation on the same platform. To implement such large-scale quantum networks, nanophotonic resonators are promising candidates because they can be scalably fabricated and interconnected with waveguides and optical fibers. By integrating arrays of ring resonators into a vapor cell we show that thermal rubidium atoms above room temperature can be coupled to photonic cavities as building blocks for chip-scale hybrid circuits. Although strong coupling is not yet achieved in this first realization, our approach provides a key step towards miniaturization and scalability of atom-cavity systems.
Heralding efficiency and correlated-mode coupling of near-IR fiber-coupled photon pairs
Dixon, P. Ben; Rosenberg, Danna; Stelmakh, Veronika; Grein, Matthew E.; Bennink, Ryan S.; Dauler, Eric A.; Kerman, Andrew J.; Molnar, Richard J.; Wong, Franco N. C.
2014-10-01
We report on a systematic experimental study of the heralding efficiency and generation rate of telecom-band infrared photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and coupled to single-mode optical fibers. We define the correlated-mode coupling efficiency, an inherent source efficiency, and explain its relation to heralding efficiency. For our experiment, we developed a reconfigurable computer-controlled pump-beam and collection-mode optical apparatus which we used to measure the generation rate and correlated-mode coupling efficiency. The use of low-noise, high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors in this setup allowed us to explore focus configurations with low overall photon flux. The measured data agree well with theory, and we demonstrated a correlated-mode coupling efficiency of 97%±2%, which is the highest efficiency yet achieved for this type of system. These results confirm theoretical treatments and demonstrate that very high overall heralding efficiencies can, in principle, be achieved in quantum optical systems. It is expected that these results and techniques will be widely incorporated into future systems that require, or benefit from, a high heralding efficiency.
Karna, Sanjay; Mahat, Meg; Choi, Tae-Youl; Shimada, Ryoko; Wang, Zhiming; Neogi, Arup
2016-11-01
The light emission from reduced graphene oxide quantum dots (rGO-QDs) exhibit a significant enhancement in photoluminescence (PL) due to localized surface plasmon (LSP) interactions. Silver and gold nanoparticles (NPs) coupled to rGO nanoparticles exhibit the effect of resonant LSP coupling on the emission processes. Enhancement of the radiative recombination rate in the presence of Ag-NPs induced LSP tuned to the emission energy results in a four-fold increase in PL intensity. The localized field due to the resonantly coupled LSP modes induces n-π* transitions that are not observed in the absence of the resonant interaction of the plasmons with the excitons. An increase in the density of the Ag-NPs result in a detuning of the LSP energy from the emission energy of the nanoparticles. The detuning is due to the cumulative effect of the red-shift in the LSP energy and the electrostatic field induced blue shift in the PL energy of the rGO-QDs. The detuning quenches the PL emission from rGO-QDs at higher concentration of Ag NPs due to non-dissipative effects unlike plasmon induced Joule heating that occurs under resonance conditions. An increase in Au nanoparticles concentration results in an enhancement of PL emission due to electrostatic image charge effect.
Karna, Sanjay; Mahat, Meg; Choi, Tae-Youl; Shimada, Ryoko; Wang, Zhiming; Neogi, Arup
2016-11-22
The light emission from reduced graphene oxide quantum dots (rGO-QDs) exhibit a significant enhancement in photoluminescence (PL) due to localized surface plasmon (LSP) interactions. Silver and gold nanoparticles (NPs) coupled to rGO nanoparticles exhibit the effect of resonant LSP coupling on the emission processes. Enhancement of the radiative recombination rate in the presence of Ag-NPs induced LSP tuned to the emission energy results in a four-fold increase in PL intensity. The localized field due to the resonantly coupled LSP modes induces n-π* transitions that are not observed in the absence of the resonant interaction of the plasmons with the excitons. An increase in the density of the Ag-NPs result in a detuning of the LSP energy from the emission energy of the nanoparticles. The detuning is due to the cumulative effect of the red-shift in the LSP energy and the electrostatic field induced blue shift in the PL energy of the rGO-QDs. The detuning quenches the PL emission from rGO-QDs at higher concentration of Ag NPs due to non-dissipative effects unlike plasmon induced Joule heating that occurs under resonance conditions. An increase in Au nanoparticles concentration results in an enhancement of PL emission due to electrostatic image charge effect.
Kim, Gun-Duk; Son, Geun-Sik; Lee, Hak-Soon; Kim, Ki-Do; Lee, Sang-Shin
2009-04-01
A refractometric sensor resorting to a vertically coupled polymeric microdisk resonator was demonstrated, estimating the refractive index (RI) of an analyte by monitoring the resonant wavelength shift in its transfer characteristics. The disk resonator was especially overlaid with a high RI TiO2 film, thereby reinforcing the interaction of the evanescent field of its guided mode with the analyte. The sensitivity of the sensor was theoretically and experimentally confirmed to be enhanced by adjusting the overlay thickness. The fabricated sensor provided the maximum sensitivity of approximately 294 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) with the 40-nm-thick overlay, which is equivalent to an improvement of 150% compared with the case without the overlay.
Zhao, Jinfeng; Bonello, Bernard; Boyko, Olga
2016-05-01
We have investigated the focusing of the lowest-order antisymmetric Lamb mode (A0) behind a positive gradient-index (GRIN) acoustic metalens consisting of air holes drilled in a silicon plate with silicon pillars erected on one face of the lens. We have analyzed the focusing in the near field as the result of the coupling between the flexural resonant mode of the pillars and the vibration mode of the air/silicon phononic crystal. We highlight the role played by the polarization coherence between the resonant mode and the vibration of the plate. We demonstrate both numerically and experimentally the focusing behind the lens over a spot less than half a wavelength, paving a way for performance of acoustic lenses beyond the diffraction limit. Our findings can be easily extended to other types of elastic wave.
Study of node and mass sensitivity of resonant mode based cantilevers with concentrated mass loading
Zhang, Kewei; Chai, Yuesheng; Fu, Jiahui
2015-12-01
Resonant-mode based cantilevers are an important type of acoustic wave based mass-sensing devices. In this work, the governing vibration equation of a bi-layer resonant-mode based cantilever attached with concentrated mass is established by using a modal analysis method. The effects of resonance modes and mass loading conditions on nodes and mass sensitivity of the cantilever were theoretically studied. The results suggested that the node did not shift when concentrated mass was loaded on a specific position. Mass sensitivity of the cantilever was linearly proportional to the square of the point displacement at the mass loading position for all the resonance modes. For the first resonance mode, when mass loading position xc satisfied 0 xc xc ≤ l. Mass sensitivity did not change when concentrated mass was loaded at the rigid end. This work can provide scientific guidance to optimize the mass sensitivity of a resonant-mode based cantilever.
Quantum transport in coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux
Jin, L.
2016-07-01
Quantum transport properties are instrumental to understanding quantum coherent transport processes. Potential applications of quantum transport are widespread, in areas ranging from quantum information science to quantum engineering, and not restricted to quantum state transfer, control and manipulation. Here, we study light transport in a ring array of coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux. The ring configuration, with an arbitrary number of resonators embedded, forms a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer. The influence of magnetic flux on light transport is investigated. Tuning the magnetic flux can lead to resonant transmission, while half-integer magnetic flux quantum leads to completely destructive interference and transmission zeros in an interferometer with two equal arms.
Monitoring microbial metabolites using an inductively coupled resonance circuit
Karnaushenko, Daniil; Baraban, Larysa; Ye, Dan; Uguz, Ilke; Mendes, Rafael G.; Rümmeli, Mark H.; de Visser, J. Arjan G. M.; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Makarov, Denys
2015-08-01
We present a new approach to monitor microbial population dynamics in emulsion droplets via changes in metabolite composition, using an inductively coupled LC resonance circuit. The signal measured by such resonance detector provides information on the magnetic field interaction with the bacterial culture, which is complementary to the information accessible by other detection means, based on electric field interaction, i.e. capacitive or resistive, as well as optical techniques. Several charge-related factors, including pH and ammonia concentrations, were identified as possible contributors to the characteristic of resonance detector profile. The setup enables probing the ionic byproducts of microbial metabolic activity at later stages of cell growth, where conventional optical detection methods have no discriminating power.
Chen, Jing; Mao, Peng; Xu, Rongqing; Tang, Chaojun; Liu, Yuanjian; Wang, Qiugu; Zhang, Labao
2015-06-15
We have demonstrated a straightforward strategy to realize magnetic field enhancement through diffraction coupling of magnetic plasmon (MP) resonances by embedding the metamaterials consisting of a planar rectangular array of U-shaped metallic split-ring resonators (SRRs) into the substrate. Our method provides a more homogeneous dielectric background allowing stronger diffraction coupling of MP resonances among SRRs leading to strong suppression of the radiative damping. We observe that compared to the on-substrate metamaterials, the embedded ones lead to a narrow-band hybridized MP mode, which results from the interference between MP resonances in individual SRRs and an in-plane propagating collective surface mode arising from light diffraction. Associated with the excitation of this hybridized MP mode, a twenty-seven times enhancement of magnetic fields within the inner area of the SRRs is achieved as compared with the pure MP resonance. Moreover, we also found that besides the above requirement of homogeneous dielectric background, only a collective surface mode with its magnetic field of the same direction as the induced magnetic moment in the SRRs could mediate the excitation of such a hybridized MP mode.
Tunable Optical Filters Having Electro-optic Whispering-gallery-mode Resonators
Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor)
2006-01-01
Tunable optical filters using whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators are described. The WGM optical resonator in a filter exhibits an electro-optical effect and hence is tunable by applying a control electrical signal.
Wireless power transfer via strongly coupled magnetic resonances.
Kurs, André; Karalis, Aristeidis; Moffatt, Robert; Joannopoulos, J D; Fisher, Peter; Soljacic, Marin
2007-07-06
Using self-resonant coils in a strongly coupled regime, we experimentally demonstrated efficient nonradiative power transfer over distances up to 8 times the radius of the coils. We were able to transfer 60 watts with approximately 40% efficiency over distances in excess of 2 meters. We present a quantitative model describing the power transfer, which matches the experimental results to within 5%. We discuss the practical applicability of this system and suggest directions for further study.
WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION USING INDUCTIVE RESONANCE COUPLING IN MOBILE CHARGERING
Valarmathi Krishnan*, N. Suyambu, Vijayaragavan. M, Rajalakshmi. S
2016-01-01
The objective of this technical report is to provide electrical energy to remote objects without wires. Wireless energy transfer also known as wireless energy transmission is the process that takes place in any system where electromagnetic energy is transmitted from a power source to an electrical load, without interconnecting wires. The principle of wireless electricity works on the principle of using coupled resonant objects for the transfer of electricity to objects without the use of an...
Mode structure analysis of a Bessel-Gauss resonator
Litvin, IA
2006-08-01
Full Text Available modes under given radius R 0. 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 noitcarffid sessol 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 5 27 Figure 4: The dependence of diffraction losses per pass under expansion from... on mirror L1 of resonator depending on mirror radius L0 (eq. 3) are shown on (fig. 2). 1.44 1.46 1.48 1.5 radius of mirror L1, ´ 10- 4 m edutilpma , r. u. 13 5 7 9 0 6 Figure 2: The dependence of maximums of displaced Gauss intensity...
Quantum transport in coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux
Jin, L., E-mail: jinliang@nankai.edu.cn
2016-07-15
Quantum transport properties are instrumental to understanding quantum coherent transport processes. Potential applications of quantum transport are widespread, in areas ranging from quantum information science to quantum engineering, and not restricted to quantum state transfer, control and manipulation. Here, we study light transport in a ring array of coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux. The ring configuration, with an arbitrary number of resonators embedded, forms a two-arm Aharonov–Bohm interferometer. The influence of magnetic flux on light transport is investigated. Tuning the magnetic flux can lead to resonant transmission, while half-integer magnetic flux quantum leads to completely destructive interference and transmission zeros in an interferometer with two equal arms. -- Highlights: •The light transport is investigated through ring array of coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic field. •Aharonov–Bohm ring interferometer of arbitrary configuration is investigated. •The half-integer magnetic flux quantum leads to destructive interference and transmission zeros for two-arm at equal length. •Complete transmission is available via tuning synthetic magnetic flux.
Orain, François; Bécoulet, M.; Morales, J.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Hoelzl, M.; Garbet, X.; Pamela, S.; Nardon, E.; Passeron, C.; Latu, G.; Fil, A.; Cahyna, P.
2015-01-01
The dynamics of a multi-edge localized mode (ELM) cycle as well as the ELM mitigation by resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) are modeled in realistic tokamak X-point geometry with the non-linear reduced MHD code JOREK. The diamagnetic rotation is found to be a key parameter enabling us to reproduce the cyclical dynamics of the plasma relaxations and to model the near-symmetric ELM power deposition on the inner and outer divertor target plates consistently with experimental measurements. Moreover, the non-linear coupling of the RMPs with unstable modes are found to modify the edge magnetic topology and induce a continuous MHD activity in place of a large ELM crash, resulting in the mitigation of the ELMs. At larger diamagnetic rotation, a bifurcation from unmitigated ELMs—at low RMP current—towards fully suppressed ELMs—at large RMP current—is obtained.
Selective gating to vibrational modes through resonant X-ray scattering
Couto, Rafael C.; Cruz, Vinícius V.; Ertan, Emelie; Eckert, Sebastian; Fondell, Mattis; Dantz, Marcus; Kennedy, Brian; Schmitt, Thorsten; Pietzsch, Annette; Guimarães, Freddy F.; Ågren, Hans; Gel'Mukhanov, Faris; Odelius, Michael; Kimberg, Victor; Föhlisch, Alexander
2017-01-01
The dynamics of fragmentation and vibration of molecular systems with a large number of coupled degrees of freedom are key aspects for understanding chemical reactivity and properties. Here we present a resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) study to show how it is possible to break down such a complex multidimensional problem into elementary components. Local multimode nuclear wave packets created by X-ray excitation to different core-excited potential energy surfaces (PESs) will act as spatial gates to selectively probe the particular ground-state vibrational modes and, hence, the PES along these modes. We demonstrate this principle by combining ultra-high resolution RIXS measurements for gas-phase water with state-of-the-art simulations.
Socorro, A. B.; Corres, J. M.; Del Villar, I.; Matias, I. R.; Arregui, F. J.
2014-05-01
This work presents the development and test of an anti-gliadin antibodies biosensor based on lossy mode resonances (LMRs) to detect celiac disease. Several polyelectrolites were used to perform layer-by-layer assembly processes in order to generate the LMR and to fabricate a gliadin-embedded thin-film. The LMR shifted 20 nm when immersed in a 5 ppm anti-gliadin antibodies-PBS solution, what makes this bioprobe suitable for detecting celiac disease. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that LMRs are used to detect celiac disease and these results suppose promising prospects on the use of such phenomena as biological detectors.
MHD Field Line Resonances and Global Modes in Three-Dimensional Magnetic Fields
C.Z. Cheng
2002-05-30
By assuming a general isotropic pressure distribution P = P (y,a), where y and a are three-dimensional scalar functions labeling the field lines with B = -y x -a, we have derived a set of MHD eigenmode equations for both global MHD modes and field line resonances (FLR). Past MHD theories are restricted to isotropic pressures with P = P (y only). The present formulation also allows the plasma mass density to vary along the field line. The linearized ideal-MHD equations are cast into a set of global differential equations from which the field line resonance equations of the shear Alfvin waves and slow magnetosonic modes are naturally obtained for general three-dimensional magnetic field geometries with flux surfaces. Several new terms associated with the partial derivative of P with respect to alpha are obtained. In the FLR equations, a new term is found in the shear Alfvin FLR equation due to the geodesic curvature and the pressure gradient in the poloidal flux surface. The coupling between the shear Alfvin waves and the magnetosonic waves is through the combined effects of geodesic magnetic field curvature and plasma pressure as previously derived. The properties of the FLR eigenfunctions at the resonance field lines are investigated, and the behavior of the FLR wave solutions near the FLR surface are derived. Numerical solutions of the FLR equations for three-dimensional magnetospheric fields in equilibrium with high plasma pressure will be presented in a future publication.
Matthias C. Krantz
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Resonant bending-mode magnetoelectric (ME coefficients of magnetostrictive-piezoelectric multilayer cantilevers are calculated analytically using a model developed for arbitrary multilayers on a substrate. Without quality factor effects the ME coefficient maxima in the four-dimensional parameter space of layer numbers, layer sequences, piezoelectric volume fractions, and substrate thicknesses are found to be essentially constant for nonzero substrate thickness. Global maxima occur for bilayers without substrates. Vanishing magnetoelectric response regions result from voltage cancellation in piezoelectric layers or absence of bending-mode excitation. They are determined by the neutral plane position in the multilayer stack. With Q-factor effects dominated by viscous air damping ME coefficients strongly increase with cantilever thickness primarily due to increasing resonance frequencies. The results yield a layer specific prediction of ME coefficients, resonance frequencies, and Q-factors in arbitrary multilayers and thus distinction of linear-coupling and Q-factor effects from exchange interaction, interface, or nonlinear ME effects.
Sideways force due to coupled kink modes in tokamaks
Mironov, D. V.; Pustovitov, V. D.
2017-09-01
The paper is devoted to calculation of the sideways force on the vacuum vessel wall in tokamaks at the early stage of disruptions before possible appearance of the halo currents. The theory developed so far predicts quite a large force due to a single-helicity kink mode. This concept is revisited here. It is demonstrated that the existing single-mode models are incompatible with the natural requirement that the sideways force on the plasma must be practically zero. The latter can be satisfied by incorporating a secondary coupled mode, which is the main new element here compared to the earlier analytical approaches. With this difference, the derivations are performed in the standard cylindrical model that is widely used in the resistive wall mode studies. The resistive wall effects are accounted for as determining the wall reaction on the plasma-driven perturbations. The derived expressions explicitly reveal the sideways force dependence on γτw with a maximum at γτw=O (1 ) , where γ is the kink growth rate and τw is the resistive wall time. It is proved that the amplitude of the sideways force produced by the kink modes must be much smaller than expected from the existing scalings.
Mode coupling mechanism for late-time Kerr tails
Burko, Lior M
2013-01-01
We consider the decay rate for scalar fields in Kerr spacetime. We consider pure initial (azimuthal) multipoles $\\ell'$ with respect to the class which includes Boyer-Lindquist coordinates, and focus attention on the decay rate of the multipole $\\ell$. We use an iterative method proposed by Gleiser, Price, and Pullin, and identify the mode coupling mechanism through the iterations in powers of the square of the Kerr black hole's specific angular momentum that gives rise to a decay rate formula recently proposed by Zengino\\u{g}lu, Khanna, and Burko. Modes $\\ell$ may be excited through different channels, each leading to its own decay rate. The asymptotic decay rate of the mode $\\ell$ is the slowest of the decay rate of the various channels. In some cases, more than one channel leads to the same decay rate, and then the amplitude of the mode is the sum of the amplitudes of the partial fields generated by the individual channels. We also show that one may identify the asymptotically-dominant channel of mode exci...
The effect of coupling line loss in microstrip to dielectric resonator coupling
Hearn, C. P.; Bradshaw, E. S.; Trew, R. J.
1990-01-01
The interaction between a dielectric resonator and a microstrip transmission line is fundamentally a field phenomenon. However, the model of Figure 1b widely is used to represent the arrangement in Figure 1a, and predicts the behavior encountered in practice. The microstrip line of length l = n(lambda)/4 between the input and coupling planes and the lambda/4 open-circuit stub usually is assumed to be lossless. This paper considers the effect of coupling line loss on the unloaded-Q and coupling coefficient beta of the combination. It shows that transmission line loss can cause the decrease in unloaded-Q that has been observed to occur with tight coupling, and limits the coupling coefficient to a much lower value than would be obtained with a lossless coupling line.
Calculation of two-fluid resonant modes in spheromaks
Howell, E. C.; Sovinec, C. R.
2010-11-01
Numerical computation is applied to investigate two-fluid effects on resonant modes in spheromaks using the NIMROD code [C.R. Sovinec et. at., Phys. Plasmas 10(2003)]. Earlier whole-device simulations of SSPX show that MHD stability has a strong influence on confinement during the sustained decay phase [E.B. Hooper et. al., POP 15, 032502 (2008)]. Recent computations of spheromak equilibria in a cylindrical domain with prescribed peaked pressure profiles show ideal interchange behavior. A moderate reduction of growth rate (10-70%) for intermediate toroidal mode numbers (n=16˜20) is observed when two-fluid effects are included [E.C. Howell and C.R. Sovinec, APS 2009]. Here, we consider more realistic pressure and safety-factor profiles from 3D self-consistent nonlinear MHD simulations. Linear analyses of axisymmetric equilibria reconstructed from the simulations are performed, and growth rates calculated using both ion gyroviscosity and a two fluid Ohm's law are compared with resistive MHD results.
Barnes, Jack A.; Loock, Hans-Peter
2016-10-01
Several mathematical models exist in the literature to describe the properties of optical resonators. Here, coupled mode theory and coherent superposition theory are compared and their consistency is demonstrated as they are applied to phase-shift cavity ring-down measurements in optical (micro-)cavities. In the particular case of a whispering gallery mode in a microsphere cavity these models are applied to transmission measurements and backscattering measurements through the fiber taper that couples light into the microresonator. It is shown that both models produce identical relations when applied to these traveling wave cavities.
Transmission of asymmetric coupling double-ring resonator
Zhao, C. Y.; Tan, W. H.
2015-02-01
Based on the asymmetry between waveguide and double ring, the transmission and phase characteristics of coupled double-ring resonators are analyzed systemically. It is shown that the initial detuning determines the shape of transmission spectrum. The transmission spectrum of all-optical analog to electromagnetic inducted transparency (EIT) is controlled by tuning the asymmetric coupled parameter and loss. With the increasing of asymmetric coupled parameter, the transmission spectrum changes from EIT-like profile to Lorenz profile. The EIT-like transmission spectrum results from the interference between two Lorenz profiles. With the increasing of the loss, the transmission spectrum full frequency width at half-maximum broadens and its peak declines. The detuning and loss also make significant influences on the phase profile.
Observation of generalized optomechanical coupling and cooling on cavity resonance.
Sawadsky, Andreas; Kaufer, Henning; Nia, Ramon Moghadas; Tarabrin, Sergey P; Khalili, Farid Ya; Hammerer, Klemens; Schnabel, Roman
2015-01-30
Optomechanical coupling between a light field and the motion of a cavity mirror via radiation pressure plays an important role for the exploration of macroscopic quantum physics and for the detection of gravitational waves (GWs). It has been used to cool mechanical oscillators into their quantum ground states and has been considered to boost the sensitivity of GW detectors, e.g., via the optical spring effect. Here, we present the experimental characterization of generalized, that is, dispersive and dissipative, optomechanical coupling, with a macroscopic (1.5 mm)2-size silicon nitride membrane in a cavity-enhanced Michelson-type interferometer. We report for the first time strong optomechanical cooling based on dissipative coupling, even on cavity resonance, in excellent agreement with theory. Our result will allow for new experimental regimes in macroscopic quantum physics and GW detection.
Observation of generalized optomechanical coupling and cooling on cavity resonance
Sawadsky, Andreas; Nia, Ramon Moghadas; Tarabrin, Sergey P; Khalili, Farid Ya; Hammerer, Klemens; Schnabel, Roman
2014-01-01
Optomechanical coupling between a light field and the motion of a cavity mirror via radiation pressure plays an important role for the exploration of macroscopic quantum physics and for the detection of gravitational waves (GWs). It has been used to cool mechanical oscillators into their quantum ground states and has been considered to boost the sensitivity of GW detectors, e.g. via the optical spring effect. Here, we present the experimental characterization of generalized, that is, dispersive and dissipative optomechanical coupling, with a macroscopic (1.5mm)^2-sized silicon nitride (SiN) membrane in a cavity-enhanced Michelson-type interferometer. We report for the first time strong optomechanical cooling based on dissipative coupling, even on cavity resonance, in excellent agreement with theory. Our result will allow for new experimental regimes in macroscopic quantum physics and GW detection.
Exocytosis and endocytosis: modes, functions, and coupling mechanisms.
Wu, Ling-Gang; Hamid, Edaeni; Shin, Wonchul; Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng
2014-01-01
Vesicle exocytosis releases content to mediate many biological events, including synaptic transmission essential for brain functions. Following exocytosis, endocytosis is initiated to retrieve exocytosed vesicles within seconds to minutes. Decades of studies in secretory cells reveal three exocytosis modes coupled to three endocytosis modes: (a) full-collapse fusion, in which vesicles collapse into the plasma membrane, followed by classical endocytosis involving membrane invagination and vesicle reformation; (b) kiss-and-run, in which the fusion pore opens and closes; and (c) compound exocytosis, which involves exocytosis of giant vesicles formed via vesicle-vesicle fusion, followed by bulk endocytosis that retrieves giant vesicles. Here we review these exo- and endocytosis modes and their roles in regulating quantal size and synaptic strength, generating synaptic plasticity, maintaining exocytosis, and clearing release sites for vesicle replenishment. Furthermore, we highlight recent progress in understanding how vesicle endocytosis is initiated and is thus coupled to exocytosis. The emerging model is that calcium influx via voltage-dependent calcium channels at the calcium microdomain triggers endocytosis and controls endocytosis rate; calmodulin and synaptotagmin are the calcium sensors; and the exocytosis machinery, including SNARE proteins (synaptobrevin, SNAP25, and syntaxin), is needed to coinitiate endocytosis, likely to control the amount of endocytosis.
Electromagnetic noise in electric circuits: Ringing and resonance phenomena in the common mode
Shuji Kitora
2014-11-01
Full Text Available It is generally believed that electromagnetic noise originates from the coupling of electric signals in a circuit with electric signals in surrounding materials in the environment. However, the noise phenomenon had not been quantified until now. In order to study the phenomenon of noise, we considered a standard circuit (two transmission lines, to which an additional transmission line was introduced in order to explicitly take into account the effect of conductors in the environment. We performed calculations using a newly developed multiconductor transmission-line theory for the resulting three-line circuit in order to determine the magnitude of the coupling between the circuit and the conductors in the environment under various conditions. We observed ringing and resonance phenomena in the common mode, which influenced the performance of the normal mode as electromagnetic noise. Our findings were confirmed by recent experiments in which conductor lines were arranged in various ways using a printed circuit board (PCB. The ordinary usage of electricity in the standard electric circuit was found to be worst in exciting the common mode noise.
Collective oscillations and coupled modes in confined microfluidic droplet arrays
Schiller, Ulf D.; Fleury, Jean-Baptiste; Seemann, Ralf; Gompper, Gerhard
Microfluidic droplets have a wide range of applications ranging from analytic assays in cellular biology to controlled mixing in chemical engineering. Ensembles of microfluidic droplets are interesting model systems for non-equilibrium many-body phenomena. When flowing in a microchannel, trains of droplets can form microfluidic crystals whose dynamics are governed by long-range hydrodynamic interactions and boundary effects. In this contribution, excitation mechanisms for collective waves in dense and confined microfluidic droplet arrays are investigated by experiments and computer simulations. We demonstrate that distinct modes can be excited by creating specific `defect' patterns in flowing droplet trains. While longitudinal modes exhibit a short-lived cascade of pairs of laterally displacing droplets, transversely excited modes form propagating waves that behave like microfluidic phonons. We show that the confinement induces a coupling between longitudinal and transverse modes. We also investigate the life time of the collective oscillations and discuss possible mechanisms for the onset of instabilities. Our results demonstrate that microfluidic phonons can exhibit effects beyond the linear theory, which can be studied particularly well in dense and confined systems. This work was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under Grant No. SE 1118/4.
Elementary modes of coupled oscillators as whispering-gallery microresonators
Banerjee, Rabin; Mukherjee, Pradip
2015-10-01
We obtain the elementary modes of a system of parity-time reversal (PT)-symmetric coupled oscillators with balanced loss and gain. These modes are used to give a physical picture of the phase transition recently reported [C. M. Bender, M. Gianfreda, B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir and L. Yang, Phys. Rev. A 88, 062111 (2013); L. Yang, S. K. Özdemir and B. Peng, 12th Int. Workshop and Conf. Pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics, Istanbul, Turkey, July 2013; B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender and L. Yang, Nat. Phys. 10, 394 (2014)] in experiments with whispering-gallery microresonators.
Efficient light coupling into a photonic crystal waveguide with flatband slow mode
Säynätjoki, A; Mulot, M; Cassagne, D; Ahopelto, J; Lipsanen, H
2008-01-01
We design an efficient coupler to transmit light from a strip waveguide into the flatband slow mode of a photonic crystal waveguide with ring-shaped holes. The coupler is a section of a photonic crystal waveguide with a higher group velocity, obtained by different ring dimensions. We demonstrate coupling efficiency in excess of 95% over the 8 nm wavelength range where the photonic crystal waveguide exhibits a quasi constant group velocity vg = c/37. An analysis based on the small Fabry-P\\'erot resonances in the simulated transmission spectra is introduced and used for studying the effect of the coupler length and for evaluating the coupling efficiency in different parts of the coupler. The mode conversion efficiency within the coupler is more than 99.7% over the wavelength range of interest. The parasitic reflectance in the coupler, which depends on the propagation constant mismatch between the slow mode and the coupler mode, is lower than 0.6% within this wavelength range.
Strong coupling of in-plane plasmon modes and their control
Kasture, Sachin; Mandal, Prasanta; Gupta, S. Dutta; Achanta, Venu Gopal
2012-01-01
We show anti-crossings due to strong in-plane coupling of plasmon modes in dielectric-metal-dielectric structure with top 2D dielectric pattern. Experimentally measured anti-crossing widths are compared with those calculated by coupled mode theory. It is shown that the coupling strength of the plasmon modes can be controlled by the orientation of the sample.
Second Order Sliding Mode Control of the Coupled Tanks System
Fayiz Abu Khadra
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Four classes of second order sliding mode controllers (2-SMC have been successfully applied to regulate the liquid level in the second tank of a coupled tanks system. The robustness of these classes of 2-SMC is investigated and their performances are compared with a first order controller to show the merits of these controllers. The effectiveness of these controllers is verified through computer simulations. Comparison between the controllers is based on the time domain performance measures such as rise time, settling time, and the integral absolute error. Results showed that controllers are able to regulate the liquid level with small differences in their performance.
Method of coupled mode for long-range bottom reverberation
无
2010-01-01
The theory of coupled mode is used for modeling the long-range bottom reverberation in shallow water caused by bottom roughness. The distant bottom reverberation level and spatial coherence of impulsive source are both derived. The results agree with those from the classical reverberation model, and are compared with the experimental data. The influence of source bandwidth and the distance between sources and receivers on the intensity of bottom reverberation are particularly discussed. The method is shown to be available for both the monoand the bi-static cases.
Neoclassical tearing mode seeding by coupling with infernal modes in low-shear tokamaks
Kleiner, A.; Graves, J. P.; Brunetti, D.; Cooper, W. A.; Halpern, F. D.; Luciani, J.-F.; Lütjens, H.
2016-09-01
A numerical and an analytical study of the triggering of resistive MHD modes in tokamak plasmas with low magnetic shear core is presented. Flat q profiles give rise to fast growing pressure driven MHD modes, such as infernal modes. It has been shown that infernal modes drive fast growing islands on neighbouring rational surfaces. Numerical simulations of such instabilities in a MAST-like configuration are performed with the initial value stability code XTOR-2F in the resistive frame. The evolution of magnetic islands are computed from XTOR-2F simulations and an analytical model is developed based on Rutherford’s theory in combination with a model of resistive infernal modes. The parameter {{Δ }\\prime} is extended from the linear phase to the non-linear phase. Additionally, the destabilising contribution due to a helically perturbed bootstrap current is considered. Comparing the numerical XTOR-2F simulations to the model, we find that coupling has a strong destabilising effect on (neoclassical) tearing modes and is able to seed 2/1 magnetic islands in situations when the standard NTM theory predicts stability.
Wersäll, Martin; Cuadra, Jorge; Antosiewicz, Tomasz J; Balci, Sinan; Shegai, Timur
2017-01-11
Plasmon-exciton interactions are important for many prominent spectroscopic applications such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering, plasmon-mediated fluorescence, nanoscale lasing, and strong coupling. The case of strong coupling is analogous to quantum optical effects studied in solid state and atomic systems previously. In plasmonics, similar observations have been almost exclusively made in elastic scattering experiments; however, the interpretation of these experiments is often cumbersome. Here, we demonstrate mode splitting not only in scattering, but also in photoluminescence of individual hybrid nanosystems, which manifests a direct proof of strong coupling in plasmon-exciton nanoparticles. We achieved these results due to saturation of the mode volume with molecular J-aggregates, which resulted in splitting up to 400 meV, that is, ∼20% of the resonance energy. We analyzed the correlation between scattering and photoluminescence and found that splitting in photoluminescence is considerably less than that in scattering. Moreover, we found that splitting in both photoluminescence and scattering signals increased upon cooling to cryogenic temperatures. These findings improve our understanding of strong coupling phenomena in plasmonics.
Relaxation of a Quantum Emitter Resonantly Coupled to a Metal Nanoparticle
Nerkararyan, Khachatur V
2013-01-01
Presence of a metal nanoparticle near a quantum dipole emitter, when a localized surface plasmon mode is excited via the resonant coupling with an excited quantum dipole, changes dramatically the relaxation dynamics: it is no longer described by an exponential decay but exhibits step-like behavior. The main physical consequence of this relaxation process is that the emission, being largely determined by the metal nanoparticle, comes out with a substantial delay. A large number of system parameters in our analytical description opens new possibilities for controlling quantum emitter dynamics.
Relaxation dynamics of a quantum emitter resonantly coupled to a metal nanoparticle
Nerkararyan, K. V.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.
2014-01-01
The presence of a metal nanoparticle (MNP) near a quantum dipole emitter, when a localized surface plasmon mode is excited via the resonant coupling with an excited quantum dipole, dramatically changes the relaxation dynamics: an exponential decay changes to step-like behavior. The main physical...... consequence of this relaxation process is that the emission, being largely determined by the MNP, comes out with a substantial delay. A large number of system parameters in our analytical description opens new possibilities for controlling quantum emitter dynamics. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America...
Analyzing a Vibrating Wire Transducer using Coupled Resonator Circuits
POP, S.
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This paper intends to be an approach on the vibrating wire transducer from the perspective of the necessary rules used for a correct measurement procedure. There are several studies which analyze the vibrating wire transducer as a mechanical system. However, a comparative time-domain analysis between the mechanical and the electrical model is lacking. The transducer analysis is based on a theoretical analysis of the equivalent circuit, on both excitation and response time intervals. The electrical model consists of two magnetic coupled resonating circuits. When connected to an excitation source, there will be an energy transfer from the coil to the wire. The maximum energy transfer will occur at the vibrating wire's frequency of resonance. Using the transient regime analysis, it has been proven that, in the response time interval - when the wire vibrates freely, the current through the circuit that models the wire describes the oscillating movement of the wire. A complex signal is obtained, that contains both coil's and wire's frequencies of resonance, strongly dependent with theirs parasitic elements. The mathematical analysis highlights the similarity between mechanical and electrical model and the procedures in order to determine the wire frequency of resonance from the output signal.
Analysis of electro-optic switches with series-coupled multiple microring resonators
YAN Xin; MA Chun-sheng; ZHENG Chuan-tao; WANG Xian-yin; ZHANG Da-ming
2009-01-01
In terms of the coupled mode theory, microring resonance and electro-optic modulation princeple, a reasonable project is proposed for designing an electro-optic switch with the series-coupled multiple microring resonators. The simulation and optimization are performed at the resonant wavelength of 1550 nm. The results are as follows: the core size of the microring is 1.6 μm×1.6 μm, the confined layer between the core and the electrode is 1.6 μm, the thickness of the electrode is 0.15 μm, the radius ofthe microring is 15.2 μm, the coupling gap between the microring and the channel is 0.14 μm, and the one between the microring and the microring is 0.6 μm, microring number M is 4, the switching voltage is 4 V, the insertion loss is 5.4 dB, and the crosstalk is -20 dB. The output spectrum is much flatter and much steeper than that of the single microring.
Burger, L
2007-01-01
Full Text Available A simple model of a Porro prism laser resonator has been found to correctly predict the formation of the “petal” mode patterns typical of these resonators. A geometrical analysis of the petals suggests that these petals are the lowest−order modes...
无
2000-01-01
Excess loss on the short wavelength side of the Bragg resonant wavelength caused by cladding mode coupling limits wide use of grating in the fiber communication system, especially in densed wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) system.A novel photosensitive fiber design that have depressed cladding and photosensitive inner cladding in the same fiber is proposed, which can suppress cladding mode coupling greatly.Using MCVD method B/Ge codoped fiber with depressed cladding was fabriceted out, which was also doped in boron and germanium and had the photosensitivity.Finally, the transmission spectrum of written grating in this fiber by phase mask method verified its larger photosensitivity and greatly suppression of cladding mode coupling.
Li, Jiaxiong; Du, Jiangbing; Ma, Lin; Li, Ming-Jun; Jiang, Shoulin; Xu, Xiao; He, Zuyuan
2017-01-01
We study the coupling between two identical weakly-coupled few-mode fibers based on coupled-mode theory. The coupling behavior of non-circular-symmetric modes, such as LP11 and LP21, is investigated analytically and numerically. By carefully choosing the fiber core separation and coupler length, we can design orientation-insensitive fiber couplers for non-circular-symmetric modes at arbitrary coupling ratios. Based on the design method, we propose an orientation-insensitive two-mode fiber coupler at 850 nm working as a mode multiplexer/demultiplexer for two-mode transmission using standard single-mode fiber. Within the band from 845 to 855 nm, the insertion losses of LP01 and LP11 modes are less than 0.03 dB and 0.24 dB, respectively. When the two-mode fiber coupler is used as mode demultiplexer, the LP01/LP11 and LP11/LP01 extinction ratios in the separated branches are respectively above 12.6 dB and 21.2 dB. Our design method can be extended to two-mode communication or sensing systems at other wavelengths.
Observation of the antiferromagnetic resonance of multi-sublattice modes in KCuF 3
Shi, Qingfan; Li, Liangsheng; Mino, Michinobu; Yamada, Isao; Yamazaki, Hitoshi
2006-05-01
We report antiferromagnetic resonance measurements of KCuF 3 at various frequencies from 3.8 to 10 GHz at 4.2 K. A second antiferromagnetic resonance absorption mode is observed in the [1 0 0] p direction and equivalent directions, where [ ] p represents an axis in a unit cell of the perovskite structure. Using the eight-sublattice model proposed by Yamada and Kato [J. Phys. Soc. Japan 63 (1994) 289], the numerical calculation for the antiferromagnetic resonance indicates that this second absorption mode comes from one of the resonance modes of the eight-sublattice system.
Resonance of electromagnetic and mechanic coupling in hydro-generator
YAO Da-kun; ZOU Jing-xiang; QU Da-zhuang; ZHAO Shu-shan; YU Kai-ping
2006-01-01
Electromagnetic and mechanical forces are main reasons of oscillations in hydro-generators. The oscillation is fairly complicated as to the coupling of them. Using the method of multiple scales in nonlinear oscillations, instabilities of hydro-generator rotors caused by the unbalanced magnetic pull, which comes from the eccentricity of the rotor, are discussed. Considering nonlinear properties of the unbalanced magnetic pull, the super-harmonic resonance phenomena are observed as the critical rotating speed of rotors is close to twice of the operating speed. This is verified by a model experiment, and should be considered during the design of hydrogenerator rotors.
Wireless energy transfer through non-resonant magnetic coupling
Peng, Liang; Breinbjerg, Olav; Mortensen, Asger
2010-01-01
We demonstrate by theoretical analysis and experimental verification that mid-range wireless energy transfer systems may take advantage of de-tuned coupling devices, without jeopardizing the energy transfer efficiency. Allowing for a modest de-tuning of the source coil, energy transfer systems...... could be properly designed to minimize undesired energy dissipation in the source coil when the power receiver is out of the range. Our basic observation paves the way for more flexible design and fabrication of non-resonant mid-range wireless energy transfer systems, thus potentially impacting...... practical implementations of wireless energy transfer....
Coupling-induced excitation of a forbidden surface plasmon mode of a gold nanorod
YAO HaoMin; LI Zhi; GONG QiHuang
2009-01-01
Using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we simulate the coupling between a gold nanorod and gold nanoparticles with different plasmonic resonant frequencies/volumes as well as that between the nanorod and a dielectric nanosphere. The influences of coupling with different nanoparti-cles on the excitation of a forbidden longitudinal surface plasmon mode of the nanorod under normal incidence are investigated. It is found that the cause of this excitation is the broken symmetry of the local electric field experienced by the nanorod resulting from the charge pileup on the other nanopar-ticle. This result is valuable for understanding the near-field optical characterization of plasmonic metal nanoparticles.
Coupling-induced excitation of a forbidden surface plasmon mode of a gold nanorod
无
2009-01-01
Using the finite-difference time-domain(FDTD) method,we simulate the coupling between a gold nanorod and gold nanoparticles with different plasmonic resonant frequencies/volumes as well as that between the nanorod and a dielectric nanosphere.The influences of coupling with different nanoparticles on the excitation of a forbidden longitudinal surface plasmon mode of the nanorod under normal incidence are investigated.It is found that the cause of this excitation is the broken symmetry of the local electric field experienced by the nanorod resulting from the charge pileup on the other nanoparticle.This result is valuable for understanding the near-field optical characterization of plasmonic metal nanoparticles.
Resonant Acceleration of Magnetospheric Electrons Driven by the R-X Mode
XIAO Fu-Liang; ZHENG Hui-Nan; WANG Shui
2005-01-01
@@ An extended relativistic model is developed to evaluate the superluminous R-X-mode resonance especially the second-order and third-order resonances with electrons in the Earth's magnetosphere. The potential for stochastic electron acceleration driven by the R-X mode is determined by the dispersive properties of the R-X mode and specifically the resonant harmonic N. In contrast to the limited acceleration at the first harmonic (N = 1)resonance, for the higher harmonic (N ＞ 1) resonances, the R-X mode is capable of accelerating electrons from ～10keV to ～ MeV energies, over a wide range of wave normal angles, in spatial regions extending from the auroral cavity to the latitude (＞30°) outer radiation belt. This indicates that higher-order resonance is essentially important for the electron acceleration for the oblique wave propagation.
Fountaine, Katherine T., E-mail: kfountai@caltech.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Whitney, William S. [Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Atwater, Harry A. [Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)
2014-10-21
We present a unified framework for resonant absorption in periodic arrays of high index semiconductor nanowires that combines a leaky waveguide theory perspective and that of photonic crystals supporting Bloch modes, as array density transitions from sparse to dense. Full dispersion relations are calculated for each mode at varying illumination angles using the eigenvalue equation for leaky waveguide modes of an infinite dielectric cylinder. The dispersion relations along with symmetry arguments explain the selectivity of mode excitation and spectral red-shifting of absorption for illumination parallel to the nanowire axis in comparison to perpendicular illumination. Analysis of photonic crystal band dispersion for varying array density illustrates that the modes responsible for resonant nanowire absorption emerge from the leaky waveguide modes.
A review: aluminum nitride MEMS contour-mode resonator
Yunhong, Hou; Meng, Zhang; Guowei, Han; Chaowei, Si; Yongmei, Zhao; Jin, Ning
2016-10-01
Over the past several decades, the technology of micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) has advanced. A clear need of miniaturization and integration of electronics components has had new solutions for the next generation of wireless communications. The aluminum nitride (AlN) MEMS contour-mode resonator (CMR) has emerged and become promising and competitive due to the advantages of the small size, high quality factor and frequency, low resistance, compatibility with integrated circuit (IC) technology, and the ability of integrating multi-frequency devices on a single chip. In this article, a comprehensive review of AlN MEMS CMR technology will be presented, including its basic working principle, main structures, fabrication processes, and methods of performance optimization. Among these, the deposition and etching process of the AlN film will be specially emphasized and recent advances in various performance optimization methods of the CMR will be given through specific examples which are mainly focused on temperature compensation and reducing anchor losses. This review will conclude with an assessment of the challenges and future trends of the CMR. Project supported by National Natural Science Foundation (Nos. 61274001, 61234007, 61504130), the Nurturing and Development Special Projects of Beijing Science and Technology Innovation Base's Financial Support (No. Z131103002813070), and the National Defense Science and Technology Innovation Fund of CAS (No. CXJJ-14-M32).
Resonant magnetic perturbation effect on tearing mode dynamics
Frassinetti, L.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.
2010-03-01
The effect of a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) on the tearing mode (TM) dynamics is experimentally studied in the EXTRAP T2R device. EXTRAP T2R is equipped with a set of sensor coils and active coils connected by a digital controller allowing a feedback control of the magnetic instabilities. The recently upgraded feedback algorithm allows the suppression of all the error field harmonics but keeping a selected harmonic to the desired amplitude, therefore opening the possibility of a clear study of the RMP effect on the corresponding TM. The paper shows that the RMP produces two typical effects: (1) a weak oscillation in the TM amplitude and a modulation in the TM velocity or (2) a strong modulation in the TM amplitude and phase jumps. Moreover, the locking mechanism of a TM to a RMP is studied in detail. It is shown that before the locking, the TM dynamics is characterized by velocity modulation followed by phase jumps. Experimental results are reasonably explained by simulations obtained with a model.
Protein-based flexible whispering gallery mode resonators
Yilmaz, Huzeyfe; Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Xu, Linhua; Shreiner, Robert; Jung, Huihun; Huang, Steven H.; Özdemir, Sahin K.; Demirel, Melik C.; Yang, Lan
2016-02-01
The idea of creating photonics tools for sensing, imaging and material characterization has long been pursued and many achievements have been made. Approaching the level of solutions provided by nature however is hindered by routine choice of materials. To this end recent years have witnessed a great effort to engineer mechanically flexible photonic devices using polymer substrates. On the other hand, biodegradability and biocompatibility still remains to be incorporated. Hence biomimetics holds the key to overcome the limitations of traditional materials in photonics design. Natural proteins such as sucker ring teeth (SRT) and silk for instance have remarkable mechanical and optical properties that exceed the endeavors of most synthetic and natural polymers. Here we demonstrate for the first time, toroidal whispering gallery mode resonators (WGMR) fabricated entirely from protein structures such as SRT of Loligo vulgaris (European squid) and silk from Bombyx mori. We provide here complete optical and material characterization of proteinaceous WGMRs, revealing high quality factors in microscale and enhancement of Raman signatures by a microcavity. We also present a most simple application of a WGMR as a natural protein add-drop filter, made of SRT protein. Our work shows that with protein-based materials, optical, mechanical and thermal properties can be devised at the molecular level and it lays the groundwork for future eco-friendly, flexible photonics device design.
Efficient estimation of resonant coupling between quantum systems.
Stenberg, Markku P V; Sanders, Yuval R; Wilhelm, Frank K
2014-11-21
We present an efficient method for the characterization of two coupled discrete quantum systems, one of which can be controlled and measured. For two systems with transition frequencies ωq, ωr, and coupling strength g we show how to obtain estimates of g and ωr whose error decreases exponentially in the number of measurement shots rather than as a power law expected in simple approaches. Our algorithm can thereby identify g and ωr simultaneously with high precision in a few hundred measurement shots. This is achieved by adapting measurement settings upon data as it is collected. We also introduce a method to eliminate erroneous estimates with small overhead. Our algorithm is robust against the presence of relaxation and typical noise. Our results are applicable to many candidate technologies for quantum computation, in particular, for the characterization of spurious two-level systems in superconducting qubits or stripline resonators.
Melnikov, Vasily
2012-11-10
We derive transfer functions for an all-pass ring resonator with internal backreflection coupled to a symmetrical Fabry-Perot resonator and demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency-like and Fano-like lineshapes tunable by backreflection in the ring resonator.
Demonstration of whispering-gallery-mode resonant enhancement of optical forces
Li, Yangcheng; Limberopoulos, Nicholaos I; Astratov, Vasily N
2015-01-01
We experimentally studied whispering-gallery modes(WGMs) and demonstrated resonance enhancement of optical forces evanescently exerted on dielectric microspheres. We showed that the resonant light pressure can be used for optical sorting of microparticles with extraordinary uniform resonant properties that is unachievable by conventional sorting techniques.
Brillouin Lasing with a CaF_2 Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator
Grudinin, Ivan S; Maleki, Lute
2008-01-01
Stimulated Brillouin scattering with both pump and Stokes beams in resonance with whispering gallery modes of an ultra high Q CaF_2 resonator is demonstrated for the first time. The resonator is pumped with 1064 nm light and has a Brillouin lasing threshold of 3.5 microwatt. Potential applications include optical generation of microwaves and sensitive gyros.
Modifying Resonance Modes of Dissipative Structures using Magnitude and Phase Information
Peters, H.J.; Tiso, P.; Goosen, J.F.L.; Van Keulen, A.
2014-01-01
Several Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle (FWMAV) designs exploit structural resonance to decrease power consumption. Practical use of most resonating structures requires temporary modifications to the resonance mode (i.e., the eigensolution). This paper presents a systematic design approach to modify
On the fundamental mode of the optical resonator with toroidal mirrors
Serednyakov, S.S.; Vinokurov, N.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
1995-12-31
The fundamental mode of the optical resonator with the toroidal mirrors is investigated. The losses in such resonator with the on-axis holes are low in compare with the case of spherical mirrors. The use of this type of optical resonator is briefly discussed.
Tipikin, D S; Earle, K A; Freed, J H
2010-01-01
The sensitivity of a high frequency electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer depends strongly on the structure used to couple the incident millimeter wave to the sample that generates the ESR signal. Subsequent coupling of the ESR signal to the detection arm of the spectrometer is also a crucial consideration for achieving high spectrometer sensitivity. In previous work, we found that a means for continuously varying the coupling was necessary for attaining high sensitivity reliably and reproducibly. We report here on a novel asymmetric mesh structure that achieves continuously variable coupling by rotating the mesh in its own plane about the millimeter wave transmission line optical axis. We quantify the performance of this device with nitroxide spin-label spectra in both a lossy aqueous solution and a low loss solid state system. These two systems have very different coupling requirements and are representative of the range of coupling achievable with this technique. Lossy systems in particular are a demanding test of the achievable sensitivity and allow us to assess the suitability of this approach for applying high frequency ESR to the study of biological systems at physiological conditions, for example. The variable coupling technique reported on here allows us to readily achieve a factor of ca. 7 improvement in signal to noise at 170 GHz and a factor of ca. 5 at 95 GHz over what has previously been reported for lossy samples.
Liu, Yu-Long; Zhang, Jing; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya; Yang, Lan; Nori, Franco; Liu, Yu-xi
2016-01-01
We theoretically study a strongly-driven optomechanical system which consists of a passive optical cavity and an active mechanical resonator. When the optomechanical coupling strength is varied, phase transitions, which are similar those observed in $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric systems, are observed. We show that the optical transmission can be controlled by changing the gain of the mechanical resonator and loss of the optical cavity mode. Especially, we find that: (i) for balanced gain and loss, optical amplification and absorption can be tuned by changing the optomechanical coupling strength through a control field; (ii) for unbalanced gain and loss, even with a tiny mechanical gain, both optomechanically-induced transparency and anomalous dispersion can be observed around a critical point, which exhibits an ultra-long group delay. The time delay $\\tau$ can be optimized by regulating the optomechanical coupling strength through the control field and improved up to several orders of magnitude ($\\tau\\sim2$ $\\math...
Naqui, J.; Su, L., E-mail: lijuan.suri.su@gmail.com; Mata, J.; Martín, F., E-mail: Ferran.Martin@uab.es
2015-06-01
This paper is focused on the analysis of transmission lines loaded with pairs of magnetically coupled resonators. We have considered two different structures: (i) a microstrip line loaded with pairs of stepped impedance resonators (SIRs), and (ii) a coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line loaded with pairs of split ring resonators (SRRs). In both cases, the line exhibits a single resonance frequency (transmission zero) if the resonators are identical (symmetric structure with regard to the line axis), and this resonance is different to the one of the line loaded with a single resonator due to inter-resonator coupling. If the structures are asymmetric, inter-resonator coupling enhances the distance between the two split resonance frequencies that arise. In spite that the considered lines and loading resonators are very different and are described by different lumped element equivalent circuit models, the phenomenology associated to the effects of coupling is exactly the same, and the resonance frequencies are given by identical expressions. The reported lumped element circuit models of both structures are validated by comparing the circuit simulations with extracted parameters with both electromagnetic simulations and experimental data. These structures can be useful for the implementation of microwave sensors based on symmetry properties. - Highlights: • Magnetic-coupling between resonant elements affects transmission properties. • Inter-resonant coupling enhances the distance of two resonant frequencies. • The structures are useful for sensors and comparators, etc.
Fan, Ying; Honarvar, Farhang; Sinclair, Anthony N; Jafari, Mohammad-Reza
2003-01-01
When an immersed solid elastic cylinder is insonified by an obliquely incident plane acoustic wave, some of the resonance modes of the cylinder are excited. These modes are directly related to the incidence angle of the insonifying wave. In this paper, the circumferential resonance modes of such immersed elastic cylinders are studied over a large range of incidence angles and frequencies and physical explanations are presented for singular features of the frequency-incidence angle plots. These features include the pairing of one axially guided mode with each transverse whispering gallery mode, the appearance of an anomalous pseudo-Rayleigh in the cylinder at incidence angles greater than the Rayleigh angle, and distortional effects of the longitudinal whispering gallery modes on the entire resonance spectrum of the cylinder. The physical explanations are derived from Resonance Scattering Theory (RST), which is employed to determine the interior displacement field of the cylinder and its dependence on insonification angle.
Leaky Modes of Waveguides as a Classical Optics Analogy of Quantum Resonances
Sara Cruz y Cruz
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A classical optics waveguide structure is proposed to simulate resonances of short range one-dimensional potentials in quantum mechanics. The analogy is based on the well-known resemblance between the guided and radiation modes of a waveguide with the bound and scattering states of a quantum well. As resonances are scattering states that spend some time in the zone of influence of the scatterer, we associate them with the leaky modes of a waveguide, the latter characterized by suffering attenuation in the direction of propagation but increasing exponentially in the transverse directions. The resemblance is complete because resonances (leaky modes can be interpreted as bound states (guided modes with definite lifetime (longitudinal shift. As an immediate application we calculate the leaky modes (resonances associated with a dielectric homogeneous slab (square well potential and show that these modes are attenuated as they propagate.
Lan, Jin-long; Gu, Zheng-tian
2015-11-01
Based on coupled-mode theory, the mode transition of the high-order cladding modes in a coated long-period tiber grating (LPFG) has been studied firstly; the mode transition region and non-mode transition region of high-order cladding modes are divided. The response characteristic of cladding mode effective index with increasing the overlay thickness is analyzed; the shift of resonant wavelength in the mode transition region will be larger than that in the non-mode transition region. Further, the changes of the resonant wavelength of some high-order cladding modes with grating period are investigated when the cladding radius are different, the shift between two resonant wavelengths of dual peak in the mode transition region is bigger than that in non-mode transition region when the cladding radius are uniform. And the shift between two resonant wavelengths of dual peak will be increased by the decrease of the cladding radius in both mode transition and non-mode transition regions. Finally, the response characteristics of film refractive index of coated LPFG are investigated for a high-order cladding mode while the cladding radius are different and the overlay thickness is located in mode transition region and non-transition mode region, then the optimized design scheme is come up with. The higher sensitivity dual-peak sensor of coated LPFG than the traditional dual-peak sensor will be obtained when the overlay thickness and refractive index is located in the mode transition region and the grating period close to the phase matching turning points. Further, the resolution power of coated LPFG sensor will further be improved by the appropriate reducing of the cladding radius.
A terahertz study of taurine: Dispersion correction and mode couplings
Dai, Zelin; Xu, Xiangdong; Gu, Yu; Li, Xinrong; Wang, Fu; Lian, Yuxiang; Fan, Kai; Cheng, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhegeng; Sun, Minghui; Jiang, Yadong; Yang, Chun; Xu, Jimmy
2017-03-01
The low-frequency characteristics of polycrystalline taurine were studied experimentally by terahertz (THz) absorption spectroscopy and theoretically by ab initio density-functional simulations. Full optimizations with semi-empirical dispersion correction were performed in spectral computations and vibrational mode assignments. For comparison, partial optimizations with pure density functional theory were conducted in parallel. Results indicate that adding long-range dispersion correction to the standard DFT better reproduces the measured THz spectra than the popular partial optimizations. The main origins of the observed absorption features were also identified. Moreover, a coupled-oscillators model was proposed to explain the experimental observation of the unusual spectral blue-shift with the increase of temperature. Such coupled-oscillators model not only provides insights into the temperature dynamics of non-bonded interactions but also offers an opportunity to better understand the physical mechanisms behind the unusual THz spectral behaviors in taurine. Particularly, the simulation approach and novel coupled-oscillators model presented in this work are applicable to analyze the THz spectra of other molecular systems.
Boucher Yann G.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In terms of Linear Algebra, a directional coupler between a single-mode waveguide and a two-mode waveguide can be thought of as formally equivalent to a set of three mutually coupled single-mode waveguides. Its responses, easily derived in the frame of ternary Coupled-Mode Theory, are used to establish analytically the scattering parameters of a hybrid ring-based modal multiplexer.
Boucher, Yann G.; Parini, Alberto; Féron, Patrice
2017-03-01
In terms of Linear Algebra, a directional coupler between a single-mode waveguide and a two-mode waveguide can be thought of as formally equivalent to a set of three mutually coupled single-mode waveguides. Its responses, easily derived in the frame of ternary Coupled-Mode Theory, are used to establish analytically the scattering parameters of a hybrid ring-based modal multiplexer.
Elnaggar, Sameh Y; Tervo, Richard; Mattar, Saba M
2014-05-01
A cavity (CV) with a dielectric resonator (DR) insert forms an excellent probe for the use in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometers. The probe's coupling coefficient, κ, the quality factor, Q, and the filling factor, η are vital in assessing the EPR spectrometer's performance. Coupled mode theory (CMT) is used to derive general expressions for these parameters. For large permittivity the dominating factor in κ is the ratio of the DR and CV cross sectional areas rather than the dielectric constant. Thus in some cases, resonators with low dielectric constant can couple much stronger with the cavity than do resonators with a high dielectric constant. When the DR and CV frequencies are degenerate, the coupled η is the average of the two uncoupled ones. In practical EPR probes the coupled η is approximately half of that of the DR. The Q of the coupled system generally depends on the eigenvectors, uncoupled frequencies (ω1,ω2) and the individual quality factors (Q1,Q2). It is calculated for different probe configurations and found to agree with the corresponding HFSS® simulations. Provided there is a large difference between the Q1, Q2 pair and the frequencies of DR and CV are degenerate, Q is approximately equal to double the minimum of Q1 and Q2. In general, the signal enhancement ratio, Iwithinsert/Iempty, is obtained from Q and η. For low loss DRs it only depends on η1/η2. However, when the DR has a low Q, the uncoupled Qs are also needed. In EPR spectroscopy it is desirable to excite only a single mode. The separation between the modes, Φ, is calculated as a function of κ and Q. It is found to be significantly greater than five times the average bandwidth. Thus for practical probes, it is possible to excite one of the coupled modes without exciting the other. The CMT expressions derived in this article are quite general and are in excellent agreement with the lumped circuit approach and finite numerical simulations. Hence they can also be
Modelling resonant field amplification due to low-n peeling modes in JET
Liu Yueqiang; Saarelma, S; Gryaznevich, M P; Hender, T C; Howell, D F, E-mail: yueqiang.liu@ukaea.org.u [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)
2010-04-15
The MHD code MARS-F is used to model low-n, low-frequency, large-amplitude resonant field amplification peaks observed in JET low-pressure plasmas. The resonant response of a marginally stable, n = 1 ideal peeling mode is offered as a candidate to explain the experimental observation. It is found that, unlike the response of a stable resistive wall mode, the peeling mode response is not sensitive to the plasma rotation, nor to the kinetic effects.
Coupled fracture modes under anti-plane loading
Les P. Pook
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The linear elastic analysis of homogeneous, isotropic cracked bodies is a Twentieth Century development. It was recognised that the crack tip stress field is a singularity, but it was not until the introduction of the essentially two dimensional stress intensity factor concept in 1957 that widespread application to practical engineering problems became possible. The existence of three dimensional corner point effects in the vicinity of a corner point where a crack front intersects a free surface was investigated in the late 1970s: it was found that modes II and III cannot exist in isolation. The existence of one of these modes always induces the other. An approximate solution for corner point singularities by Bažant and Estenssoro explained some features of corner point effects but there were various paradoxes and inconsistencies. In an attempt to explain these a study was carried out on the coupled in-plane fracture mode induced by a nominal anti-plane (mode III loading applied to plates and discs weakened by a straight crack. The results derived from a large bulk of finite element models showed clearly that Bažant and Estenssoro’s analysis is incomplete. Some of the results of the study are summarised, together with some recent results for a disc under in-plane shear loading. On the basis of these results, and a mathematical argument, the results suggest that the stress field in the vicinity of a corner point is the sum of two singularities: one due to stress intensity factors and the other due to an as yet undetermined corner point singularity.
Nonlinear resonances of three modes in a high-T{sub c} superconducting magnetic levitation system
Sasaki, Masahiko, E-mail: galian@z2.keio.jp; Sakaguchi, Ryunosuke; Sugiura, Toshihiko, E-mail: sugiura@mach.keio.ac.jp
2013-11-15
Highlights: •We studied two nonlinear vibrations of a levitated beam supported by superconductors. •One of the vibrations is combination resonance of the 1st mode and the 3rd mode. •The other vibration is autoparametric resonance of the 2nd mode. •When the amplitude of the 2nd mode is small, the combination resonance is suppressed. •Otherwise, the two resonances can be resonated simultaneously. -- Abstract: In a high-T{sub c} superconducting magnetic levitation system, an object can levitate without control and contact. So it is expected to be applied to magnetically levitated transportation. To use it safely, lightening the levitated object is necessary. But this reduces the bending stiffness of the object. Besides, the system has nonlinearity. Therefore nonlinear elastic vibration can occur. This study focused on how plural nonlinear elastic vibrations of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd modes simultaneously occur. Our numerical calculation and experiment found out that the three modes simultaneously resonate when the amplitude of the 2nd mode is large enough whereas only the 2nd mode resonates when it is small.
Xiong-Hua, Zheng; Bao-Fu, Zhang; Zhong-Xing, Jiao; Biao, Wang
2016-01-01
We present a continuous-wave singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator with 1.5% output coupling of the resonant signal wave, based on an angle-polished MgO-doped periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN), pumped by a commercial Nd:YVO4 laser at 1064 nm. The output-coupled optical parametric oscillator delivers a maximum total output power of 4.19 W with 42.8% extraction efficiency, across a tuning range of 1717 nm in the near- and mid-infrared region. This indicates improvements of 1.87 W in output power, 19.1% in extraction efficiency and 213 nm in tuning range extension in comparison with the optical parametric oscillator with no output coupling, while at the expense of increasing the oscillation threshold by a factor of ˜ 2. Moreover, it is confirmed that the finite output coupling also contributes to the reduction of the thermal effects in crystal. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61308056, 11204044, 11232015, and 11072271), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant Nos. 20120171110005 and 20130171130003), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. 14lgpy07), and the Opening Project of Science and Technology on Reliability Physics and Application Technology of Electronic Component Laboratory, China (Grant No. ZHD201203).
Tkach, Igor; Sicoli, Giuseppe; Höbartner, Claudia; Bennati, Marina
2011-04-01
We present a dual-mode resonator operating at/near 94 GHz (W-band) microwave frequencies and supporting two microwave modes with the same field polarization at the sample position. Numerical analysis shows that the frequencies of both modes as well as their frequency separation can be tuned in a broad range up to GHz. The resonator was constructed to perform pulsed ELDOR experiments with a variable separation of "pump" and "detection" frequencies up to Δ ν = 350 MHz. To examine its performance, test ESE/PELDOR experiments were performed on a representative biradical system.
Broadband optical absorbance spectroscopy using a whispering gallery mode microsphere resonator
Westcott, Sarah L.; Zhang, Jiangquan; Shelton, Robert K.; Bruce, Nellie M. K.; Gupta, Sachin; Keen, Steven L.; Tillman, Jeremy W.; Wald, Lara B.; Strecker, Brian N.; Rosenberger, A. T.; Davidson, Roy R.; Chen, Wei; Donovan, Kevin G.; Hryniewicz, John V.
2008-03-01
We demonstrate the ability to excite and monitor many whispering gallery modes (WGMs) of a microsphere resonator simultaneously in order to make broadband optical absorbance measurements. The 340μm diameter microsphere is placed in a microfluidic channel. A hemispherical prism is used for coupling the WGMs into and out of the microsphere. The flat surface of the prism seals the microfluidic channel. The slight nonsphericity in the microsphere results in coupling to precessed modes whose emission is spatially separated from the reflected excitation light. The evanescent fields of the light trapped in WGMs interact with the surrounding environment. The change in transmission observed in the precessed modes is used to determine the absorbance of the surrounding environment. In contrast to our broadband optical absorbance measurements, previous WGM sensors have used only a single narrow mode to measure properties such as refractive index. With the microfluidic cell, we have measured the absorbance of solutions of dyes (lissamine green B, sunset yellow, orange G, and methylene blue), aromatic molecules (benzylamine and benzoic acid), and biological molecules (tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and o-phospho-L-tyrosine) at visible and ultraviolet wavelengths. The microsphere surface was reacted with organosilane molecules to attach octadecyl groups, amino groups, and fluorogroups to the surface. Both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions were observed between the analytes and the microsphere surface, as indicated by changes in the measured effective pathlength with different organosilanes. For a given analyte and coated microsphere, the pathlength measurement was repeatable within a few percent. Methylene blue dye had a very strong interaction with the surface and pathlengths of several centimeters were measured. Choosing an appropriate surface coating to interact with a specific analyte should result in the highest sensitivity detection.
Dubowik, J.; Kuświk, P.; Matczak, M.; Bednarski, W.; Stobiecki, F.; Aleshkevych, P.; Szymczak, H.; Kisielewski, M.; Kisielewski, J.
2016-06-01
We present ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) investigations of 20 nm thick permalloy (Ni80Fe20 ) elements (width W =200 nm, length L =470 nm, period a =500 nm) arranged in open and closed artificial kagome lattices. The measurements were done at 9.4 and 34 GHz to ensure a saturated or near-saturated magnetic state of the kagome structures. The FMR data are analyzed in the framework of an analytical macrospin model which grasps the essential features of the bulk and edge modes at these microwave frequencies and is in agreement with the results of micromagnetic simulations. Polar plots of the resonance fields versus the field angle made by the direction of the magnetic field with respect to the main symmetry directions of the kagome lattice are compared with the results of the analytical model. The measured FMR spectra with a sixfold rotational symmetry qualitatively reproduce the structure expected from the theory. Magnetic dipolar interactions between the elements of the kagome lattices result in the mixing of edge and bulklike excitations at 9.4 GHz and in a systematic deviation from the model, especially for the closed kagome lattice.
Investigation of ELM [edge localized mode] Dynamics with the Resonant Magnetic Perturbation Effects
Pankin, Alexei Y.; Kritz, Arnold H.
2011-07-19
Topics covered are: anomalous transport and E x B flow shear effects in the H-mode pedestal; RMP (resonant magnetic perturbation) effects in NSTX discharges; development of a scaling of H-mode pedestal in tokamak plasmas with type I ELMs (edge localized modes); and divertor heat load studies.
Coupling Mode of Dual-Core Micro Structured Fibers
Debbal, Mohammed
2015-01-01
The photonic crystal fibers (PCF) or air-silica microstructured fibers consist of a periodic array of dielectric transverse. By introducing a defect in this structure, it is possible to guide the light by a photonic bandgap effect, whose properties are different fundamentally from the guide by total internal reflection that takes place in conventional fibers. PCF with two cores have significant potential, and this is one of the main motivations witches led us to approach this theme in this article. Analysis of the inter-core coupling was also necessary to study the problem of crosstalk. Their knowledge is important because it is a preliminary work to the study and understanding of multi-core PCF or an array of guides in the microstructured cladding. It then presents the main results on the effects of beating between the various modes under linear conditions.
Tests of mode-coupling theory in two dimensions.
Weysser, Fabian; Hajnal, David
2011-04-01
We analyze the glassy dynamics of binary mixtures of hard disks in two dimensions. Predictions of the mode-coupling theory (MCT) are tested with extensive Brownian dynamics simulations. Measuring the collective particle density correlation functions in the vicinity of the glass transition, we verify four predicted mixing effects. For instance, for large size disparities, adding a small amount of small particles at a fixed packing fraction leads to a speedup in the long-time dynamics, while for small size disparities it leads to a slowing-down. Qualitative features of the nonergodicity parameters and the β relaxation, which both depend in a nontrivial way on the mixing ratio, are found in the simulated correlators. Studying one system in detail, we are able to determine its ideal MCT glass transition point as φ(c)=0.7948 and test MCT predictions quantitatively.
A novel vibration mode testing method for cylindrical resonators based on microphones.
Zhang, Yongmeng; Wu, Yulie; Wu, Xuezhong; Xi, Xiang; Wang, Jianqiu
2015-01-16
Non-contact testing is an important method for the study of the vibrating characteristic of cylindrical resonators. For the vibratory cylinder gyroscope excited by piezo-electric electrodes, mode testing of the cylindrical resonator is difficult. In this paper, a novel vibration testing method for cylindrical resonators is proposed. This method uses a MEMS microphone, which has the characteristics of small size and accurate directivity, to measure the vibration of the cylindrical resonator. A testing system was established, then the system was used to measure the vibration mode of the resonator. The experimental results show that the orientation resolution of the node of the vibration mode is better than 0.1°. This method also has the advantages of low cost and easy operation. It can be used in vibration testing and provide accurate results, which is important for the study of the vibration mode and thermal stability of vibratory cylindrical gyroscopes.
A Novel Vibration Mode Testing Method for Cylindrical Resonators Based on Microphones
Yongmeng Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Non-contact testing is an important method for the study of the vibrating characteristic of cylindrical resonators. For the vibratory cylinder gyroscope excited by piezo-electric electrodes, mode testing of the cylindrical resonator is difficult. In this paper, a novel vibration testing method for cylindrical resonators is proposed. This method uses a MEMS microphone, which has the characteristics of small size and accurate directivity, to measure the vibration of the cylindrical resonator. A testing system was established, then the system was used to measure the vibration mode of the resonator. The experimental results show that the orientation resolution of the node of the vibration mode is better than 0.1°. This method also has the advantages of low cost and easy operation. It can be used in vibration testing and provide accurate results, which is important for the study of the vibration mode and thermal stability of vibratory cylindrical gyroscopes.
On spurious resonant modes in the MOT solution of time domain EFIE
Shi, Yifei
2013-07-01
Theoretically, internal resonant modes should not be induced in the marching-on-in-time (MOT) solution of the time domain electric field integral equation since zero initial conditions are enforced at the beginning of time marching and the internal resonant modes do not satisfy these initial conditions. However, these spurious modes are always observed in the MOT solution. It has been conjectured in the past that numerical errors might establish the necessary initial conditions and allow the incident field to induce the internal resonant modes. Systematic numerical experiments carried out in this work prove this conjecture by demonstrating that the internal resonant modes\\' amplitudes are indeed dictated by the numerical errors and the spectrum of the incident field. © 2013 IEEE.
Onset and Saturation of a Non-resonant Internal Mode in NSTX and Implications For AT Modes in ITER
J.A. Breslau, M.S. Chance, J. Chen, G.Y. Fu, S,. Gerhardt, N. Gorelenkov, S.C. Jardin and J. Manickam
2011-08-01
Motivated by experimental observations of apparently triggerless tearing modes, we have performed linear and nonlinear MHD analysis showing that a non-resonant mode with toroidal mode number n = 1 can develop in the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) at moderate normalized βN when the shear is low and the central safety factor q0 is close to but greater than one. This mode, which is related to previously identified ‘infernal’ modes, will saturate and persist, and can develop poloidal mode number m = 2 magnetic islands in agreement with experiments. We have also extended this analysis by performing a free-boundary transport simulation of an entire discharge and showing that, with reasonable assumptions, we can predict the time of mode onset. __________________________________________________
Mitskovets, Anya; Gopinath, Ashwin; Rothemund, Paul; Atwater, Harry A.
2016-09-01
Interfacing of single photon emitters, such as quantum dots, with photonic nanocavities enables study of fundamental quantum electrodynamic phenomena. In such experiments, the inability to precisely position quantum emitters at the nanoscale usually limits the ability to control spontaneous emission, despite sophisticated control of optical density of states by cavity design. Thus, effective light-matter interactions in photonic nanostructures strongly depend on deterministic positioning of quantum emitters. In this work by using directed self-assembly of DNA origami we demonstrate deterministic coupling of quantum dots with gallium phosphide (GaP) dielectric whispering gallery mode resonators design to enhance CdSe quantum dot emission at 600nm-650nm. GaP microdisk and microring resonators are dry-etched through 200nm layer of gallium phosphide on silicon dioxide/silicon substrates. Our simulations show that such GaP resonators may have quality factors up to 10^5, which ensures strong light-matter interaction. On the top surface of microresonators, we write binding sites in the shape of DNA origami using electron beam lithography, and use oxygen plasma exposure to chemically activate these binding sites. DNA origami self-assembly is accomplished by placing DNA origami - quantum dot complexes into these binding sites. This approach allows us to achieve deterministic placement of the quantum dots with a few nm precision in position relative to the resonator. We will report photoluminescence spectroscopy and lifetime measurements of quantum dot - resonator deterministic coupling to probe the cavity-enhanced spontaneous emission rate. Overall, this approach offers precise control of emitter positioning in nanophotonic structures, which is a critical step for scalable quantum information processing.
Berendt, Martin Ole; Grüne-Nielsen, Lars; Soccolich, C.F.
1998-01-01
to reduce this problem. None of these designs seems to give complete solutions. In particular, the otherwise promising depressed cladding design gives a pronounced coupling to one LP01 mode, this has been referred to as a Ghost grating. To find the modes of the fiber we have established a numerical mode......-solver based on the staircase-approximation method. The Bragg grating causes coupling between the fundamental LP01 mode and higher order LP1p modes that satisfy phase-matching. The coupling strength is determined by the overlap integral of the LP01, the LP1p mode, and the UV-induced index perturbation. For LP0...
Emergence of multiple synchronization modes in hydrodynamically-coupled cilia
Guo, Hanliang; Kanso, Eva
2016-11-01
Motile cilia and flagella exhibit different phase coordinations. For example, closely swimming spermatozoa are observed to synchronize together; bi-flagellates Chlamydomonas regulate the flagella in a "breast-stroke" fashion; cilia on the surface of Paramecium beat in a fixed phase lag in an orchestrated wave like fashion. Experimental evidence suggests that phase coordinations can be achieved solely via hydrodynamical interactions. However, the exact mechanisms behind it remain illusive. Here, adapting a "geometric switch" model, we observe different synchronization modes in pairs of hydrodynamically-coupled cilia by changing physical parameters such as the strength of the cilia internal motor and the separation distance between cilia. Interestingly, we find regions in the parameter space where the coupled cilia reach stable phase coordinations and regions where the phase coordinations are sensitive to perturbations. We also find that leaning into the fluid reduces the sensitivity to perturbations, and produces stable phase coordination that is neither in-phase nor anti-phase, which could explain the origin of metachronal waves in large cilia populations.
Jianfa Gu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The low-mode shell asymmetry and high-mode hot spot mixing appear to be the main reasons for the performance degradation of the National Ignition Facility (NIF implosion experiments. The effects of the mode coupling between low-mode P2 radiation flux asymmetry and intermediate-mode L = 24 capsule roughness on the implosion performance of ignition capsule are investigated by two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations. It is shown that the amplitudes of new modes generated by the mode coupling are in good agreement with the second-order mode coupling equation during the acceleration phase. The later flow field not only shows large areal density P2 asymmetry in the main fuel, but also generates large-amplitude spikes and bubbles. In the deceleration phase, the increasing mode coupling generates more new modes, and the perturbation spectrum on the hot spot boundary is mainly from the strong mode interactions rather than the initial perturbation conditions. The combination of the low-mode and high-mode perturbations breaks up the capsule shell, resulting in a significant reduction of the hot spot temperature and implosion performance.
Victor M. García-Chocano
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Transmission of ultrasonic waves through a slit between two water immersed brass plates is studied for sub-wavelength plate thicknesses and slit apertures. Extraordinary high absorption is observed at discrete frequencies corresponding to resonant excitation of Rayleigh waves on the both sides of the channel. The coupling of the Rayleigh waves occurs through the fluid and the corresponding contribution to the dispersion has been theoretically derived and also experimentally confirmed. Symmetric and anti-symmetric modes are predicted but only the symmetric mode resonances have been observed. It follows from the dispersion equation that the coupled Rayleigh waves cannot be excited in a channel with apertures less than the critical one. The calculated critical aperture is in a good agreement with the measured acoustic spectra. These findings could be applied to design a broadband absorptive metamaterial.
Li, Guang-Can; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Lei, Dang Yuan
2016-03-01
Plasmonic gap modes sustained by metal film-coupled nanostructures have recently attracted extensive research attention due to flexible control over their spectral response and significantly enhanced field intensities at the particle-film junction. In this work, by adopting an improved dark field spectroscopy methodology - polarization resolved spectral decomposition and colour decoding - we are able to ``visualize'' and distinguish unambiguously the spectral and far field radiation properties of the complex plasmonic gap modes in metal film-coupled nanosphere monomers and dimers. Together with full-wave numerical simulation results, it is found that while the monomer-film system supports two hybridized dipole-like plasmon modes having different oscillating orientations and resonance strengths, the scattering spectrum of the dimer-film system features two additional peaks, one strong yet narrow resonant mode corresponding to a bonding dipolar moment and one hybridized higher order resonant mode, both polarized along the dimer axis. In particular, we demonstrate that the polarization dependent scattering radiation of the film-coupled nanosphere dimer can be used to optically distinguish from monomers and concurrently determine the spatial orientation of the dimer with significantly improved accuracy at the single-particle level, illustrating a simple yet highly sensitive plasmon resonance based nanometrology method.Plasmonic gap modes sustained by metal film-coupled nanostructures have recently attracted extensive research attention due to flexible control over their spectral response and significantly enhanced field intensities at the particle-film junction. In this work, by adopting an improved dark field spectroscopy methodology - polarization resolved spectral decomposition and colour decoding - we are able to ``visualize'' and distinguish unambiguously the spectral and far field radiation properties of the complex plasmonic gap modes in metal film-coupled
Petefish, Joseph W; Hillier, Andrew C
2014-03-04
Surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy is an attractive method for increasing the prominence of vibrational modes in infrared spectroscopy. To date, the majority of reports associated with SEIRA utilize localized surface plasmon resonance from metal nanoparticles to enhance electromagnetic fields in the region of analytes. Limited work has been performed using propagating surface plasmons as a method for SEIRA excitation. In this report, we demonstrate angle-tunable enhancement of vibrational stretching modes associated with a thin poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film that is coupled to a silver-coated diffraction grating. Gratings are fabricated using laser interference lithography to achieve precise surface periodicities, which can be used to generate surface plasmons that overlap with specific vibrational modes in the polymer film. Infrared reflection absorption spectra are presented for both bare silver and PMMA-coated silver gratings at a range of angles and polarization states. In addition, spectra were obtained with the grating direction oriented perpendicular and parallel to the infrared source in order to isolate plasmon enhancement effects. Optical simulations using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis method were used to identify the origin of the plasmon-induced enhancement. Angle-dependent absorption measurements achieved signal enhancements of more than 10-times the signal in the absence of the plasmon.
Anomalous couplings, resonances and unitarity in vector boson scattering
Sekulla, Marco
2015-12-04
The Standard Model of particle physics has proved itself as a reliable theory to describe interactions of elementary particles. However, many questions concerning the Higgs sector and the associated electroweak symmetry breaking are still open, even after (or because) a light Higgs boson has been discovered. The 2→2 scattering amplitude of weak vector bosons is suppressed in the Standard Model due to the Higgs boson exchange. Therefore, weak vector boson scattering processes are very sensitive to additional contributions beyond the Standard Model. Possible new physics deviations can be studied model-independently by higher dimensional operators within the effective field theory framework. In this thesis, a complete set of dimension six and eight operators are discussed for vector boson scattering processes. Assuming a scenario where new physics in the Higgs/Goldstone boson decouples from the fermion-sector and the gauge-sector in the high energy limit, the impact of the dimension six operator L{sub HD} and dimension eight operators L{sub S,0} and L{sub S,1} to vector boson scattering processes can be studied separately for complete processes at particle colliders. However, a conventional effective field theory analysis will violate the S-matrix unitarity above a certain energy limit. The direct T-matrix scheme is developed to allow a study of effective field theory operators consistent with basic quantum-mechanical principles in the complete energy reach of current and future colliders. Additionally, this scheme can be used preventively for any model, because it leaves theoretical predictions invariant, which already satisfies unitarity. The effective field theory approach is further extended by allowing additional generic resonances coupling to the Higgs/Goldstone boson sector, namely the isoscalar-scalar, isoscalar-tensor, isotensor-scalar and isotensor-tensor. In particular, the Stueckelberg formalism is used to investigate the impact of the tensor degree of
Kaplan, Alex; Carmon, Tal; Kozlov, Maxim; Cohen, Oren; Bartal, Guy; Schwefel, Harald G L
2013-01-01
We present an optical mode solver for a whispering gallery resonator coupled to an adjacent arbitrary shaped nano-particle that breaks the axial symmetry of the resonator. Such a hybrid resonator-nanoparticle is similar to what was recently used for bio-detection and for field enhancement. We demonstrate our solver by parametrically studying a toroid-nanoplasmonic device and get the optimal nano-plasmonic size for maximal enhancement. We investigate cases near a plasmonic resonance as well as far from a plasmonic resonance. Unlike common plasmons that typically benefit from working near their resonance, here working far from plasmonic resonance provides comparable performance. This is because the plasmonic resonance enhancement is accompanied by cavity quality degradation through plasmonic absorption.
Wireless actuation of bulk acoustic modes in micromechanical resonators
Mateen, Farrukh; Brown, Benjamin; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Mohanty, Pritiraj
2016-08-01
We report wireless actuation of a Lamb wave micromechanical resonator from a distance of over 1 m with an efficiency of over 15%. Wireless actuation of conventional micromechanical resonators can have broad impact in a number of applications from wireless communication and implantable biomedical devices to distributed sensor networks.
Coupler for coupling gyrotron whispering gallery mode RF into HE11 waveguide
Neilson, Jeffrey M
2015-02-24
A cylindrical waveguide with a mode converter transforms a whispering gallery mode from a gyrotron cylindrical waveguide with a helical cut launch edge to a quasi-Gaussian beam suitable for conveyance through a corrugated waveguide. This quasi-Gaussian beam is radiated away from the waveguide using a spiral cut launch edge, which is in close proximity to a first mode converting reflector. The first mode converting reflector is coupled to a second mode converting reflector which provides an output free-space HE11 mode wave suitable for direct coupling into a corrugated waveguide. The radiated beam produced at the output of the second mode converting reflector is substantially circular.
Universal Distribution of Would-be Topological Zero Modes in Coupled Chiral Systems
Mielke, Adam
2016-01-01
We consider two quenched, chiral ensembles which are coupled in such a way that a combined chiral symmetry is preserved. The coupling also links the topology of the two systems such that the number of exact zero modes in the coupled system equals the sum of the number of zero modes in the two uncoupled systems counted with sign. The canceled modes that turn non-topological due to the coupling become near-zero modes at small coupling. We analyze the distribution of these would-be zero modes using effective field theory. The distribution is universal and, in the limit of small coupling, the would-be zero modes are distributed according to a finite size chiral Gaussian ensemble, where the width of the distribution scales as the inverse square root of the volume.
Single-photon all-optical switching using coupled microring resonators
Wenge Yang; Amitabh Joshi; Min Xiao
2007-08-01
We study the nonlinear phase response of a microring resonator coupled to a bus waveguide and the use of this nonlinear phase shift to store information in the microring resonator and enhance the switching characteristics of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI). By introducing coupling between adjacent microring resonators, the switching characteristics of the MZI can be exponentially enhanced as a function of the number of microring resonators, when compared to the linear enhancement for uncoupled resonators. With only a few moderate-finesse microring resonators, the switching power can be reduced to attowatt level, allowing for photonic switching devices that operate at single-photon level in ordinary optical waveguides.
Frequency tuning of single photons from a whispering-gallery mode resonator to MHz-wide transitions
Schunk, G.; Vogl, U.; Sedlmeir, F.
2016-01-01
Quantum repeaters rely on interfacing flying qubits with quantum memories. The most common implementations include a narrowband single photon matched in bandwidth and central frequency to an atomic system. Previously, we demonstrated the compatibility of our versatile source of heralded single...... photons, which is based on parametric down-conversion in a triply resonant whispering-gallery mode resonator, with alkaline transitions [Schunk et al., Optica 2015, 2, 773]. In this paper, we analyse our source in terms of phase matching, available wavelength-tuning mechanisms and applications...... to narrowband atomic systems. We resonantly address the D1 transitions of caesium and rubidium with this optical parametric oscillator pumped above its oscillation threshold. Below threshold, the efficient coupling of single photons to atomic transitions heralded by single telecom-band photons is demonstrated...
Analysis and engineering of coupled cavity waveguides based on coupled-mode theory
Lin Xu-Sheng; Chen Xiong-Wen; Lan Sheng
2005-01-01
The analytical expression for the transmission spectra of coupled cavity waveguides (CCWs) in photonic crystals (PCs) is derived based on the coupled-mode theory (CMT). Parameters in the analytical expression can be extracted by simple numerical simulations. We reveal that it is the phase shift between the two adjacent PC defects that uniquely determines the flatness of the impurity bands of CCWs. In addition, it is found that the phase shift also greatly affects the bandwidth of CCWs. Thus, the engineering of the impurity bands of CCWs can be realized through the adjustment of the phase shift. Based on the theoretical results, an interesting phenomenon in which a CCW acts as a single PC defect and its impurity band possesses a Lorentz lineshape is predicted. Very good agreement between the analytical results and the numerical simulations based on transfer matrix method has been achieved.
Influence of spherical aberrations on fundamental mode beam quality under different laser resonators
Xiang Zhen; Hu Miao; Ge Jian-Hong; Zhao Zhi-Gang; Wang Sha; Liu Chong; Chen Jun
2009-01-01
Spherical aberrations of the thermal lens of the active media are severe when solid state lasers are strongly pumped.The fundamental mode profile deteriorates due to the aberrations. Self-consistent modes of a resonator with aberrations are calculated by using the Fox-Li diffraction iterative algorithm. Calculation results show that the aberration induced fundamental mode beam quality deterioration depends greatly on the resonator design. The tolerance of a flat-flat resonator to the aberration coefficient is about 30λ in the middle of stability, where λ is the wavelength of laser beam. But for a dynamically stable resonator, 2λ of spherical aberration will create diffraction loss of more than 40%, if inappropriate design criteria are used. A birefringence compensated laser resonator with two Nd:YAG rods is experimentally studied. The experimental data are in quite good agreement with simulation results.
Development and Application of a Three-dimensional Seismo-acoustic Coupled-mode Model
2014-09-30
model with stepwise coupled-modes [Ballard (2014)] was applied to calculate propagation in set of submarine canyons . The model is formulated in a...calculate acoustic propagation in a set of canyon environments, (2) evaluation of the effects of environmental uncertainty on source range estimates...3D coupled-mode model to the canyon environment The 3D coupled-mode model was applied to model propagation in two canyon environments. First, a
Coupled-mode analysis for single-helix chiral fiber gratings with small core-offset
Li Yang; Linlin Xue; Jue Su; Jingren Qian
2011-01-01
Using conventional coupled-mode theory,a set of coupled-mode equations are formulated for single-helix chiral fiber long-period gratings.A helical-core fiber is analyzed as an example.The analysis is simple in mathematical form and intuitive in physical concept.Based on the analysis,the polarization independence of mode coupling in special fiber gratings is revealed.The transmission characteristics of helical-core fibers are also simulated and discussed.
Tuan, P. H.; Wen, C. P.; Yu, Y. T.; Liang, H. C.; Huang, K. F.; Chen, Y. F.
2014-02-01
Experimentally resonant modes are commonly presumed to correspond to eigenmodes in the same bounded domain. However, the one-to-one correspondence between theoretical eigenmodes and experimental observations is never reached. Theoretically, eigenmodes in numerous classical and quantum systems are the solutions of the homogeneous Helmholtz equation, whereas resonant modes should be solved from the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation. In the present paper we employ the eigenmode expansion method to derive the wave functions for manifesting the distinction between eigenmodes and resonant modes. The derived wave functions are successfully used to reconstruct a variety of experimental results including Chladni figures generated from the vibrating plate, resonant patterns excited from microwave cavities, and lasing modes emitted from the vertical cavity.
Center mode of a doubly resonant optical periodic structure
Alagappan, G.; Png, C. E.
2016-07-01
An optical periodic structure with a single spatial resonance exhibits a stopband. When a second spatial resonance very close to the first one is added, the resulting doubly resonant structure exhibits a Gaussian enveloped, high quality factor transmission state right at the center of the original stopband. Using a slowly varying envelope approximation, we describe the optical characteristics of this transmission state analytically. The transmission state exists despite an optical structure of low refractive index contrast, and has potential applications in nano-optics, and photonics.
Strong and Coherent Coupling of a Plasmonic Nanoparticle to a Subwavelength Fabry-Pérot Resonator.
Konrad, Alexander; Kern, Andreas M; Brecht, Marc; Meixner, Alfred J
2015-07-08
A major aim in experimental nano- and quantum optics is observing and controlling the interaction between light and matter on a microscopic scale. Coupling molecules or atoms to optical microresonators is a prominent method to alter their optical properties such as luminescence spectra or lifetimes. Until today strong coupling of optical resonators to such objects has only been observed with atom-like systems in high quality resonators. We demonstrate first experiments revealing strong coupling between individual plasmonic gold nanorods (GNR) and a tunable low quality resonator by observing cavity-length-dependent nonlinear dephasing and spectral shifts indicating spectral anticrossing of the luminescent coupled system. These phenomena and experimental results can be described by a model of two coupled oscillators representing the plasmon resonance of the GNR and the optical fields of the resonator. The presented reproducible and accurately tunable resonator allows us to precisely control the optical properties of individual particles.
Wide dynamic range microwave planar coupled ring resonator for sensing applications
Zarifi, Mohammad Hossein; Daneshmand, Mojgan
2016-06-01
A highly sensitive, microwave-coupled ring resonator with a wide dynamic range is studied for use in sensing applications. The resonator's structure has two resonant rings and, consequently, two resonant frequencies, operating at 2.3 and 2.45 GHz. Inductive and capacitive coupling mechanisms are explored and compared to study their sensing performance. Primary finite element analysis and measurement results are used to compare the capacitive and inductive coupled ring resonators, demonstrating sensitivity improvements of up to 75% and dynamic range enhancement up to 100% in the capacitive coupled structure. In this work, we are proposing capacitive coupled planar ring resonators as a wide dynamic range sensing platform for liquid sensing applications. This sensing device is well suited for low-cost, real-time low-power, and CMOS compatible sensing technologies.
Zhidong Zhang
2016-05-01
Full Text Available A refractive index sensor based on metal-insulator-metal (MIM waveguides coupled double rectangular cavities is proposed and investigated numerically using the finite element method (FEM. The transmission properties and refractive index sensitivity of various configurations of the sensor are systematically investigated. An asymmetric Fano resonance lineshape is observed in the transmission spectra of the sensor, which is induced by the interference between a broad resonance mode in one rectangular and a narrow one in the other. The effect of various structural parameters on the Fano resonance and the refractive index sensitivity of the system based on Fano resonance is investigated. The proposed plasmonic refractive index sensor shows a maximum sensitivity of 596 nm/RIU.
Saetchnikov, Vladimir A.; Tcherniavskaia, Elina A.; Saetchnikov, Anton V.; Schweiger, Gustav; Ostendorf, Andreas
2014-03-01
Experimental data on detection and identification of variety of biochemical agents, such as proteins (albumin, interferon, C reactive protein), microelements (Na+, Ca+), antibiotic of different generations, in both single and multi component solutions under varied in wide range concentration are represented. Analysis has been performed on the light scattering parameters of whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonance based sensor with dielectric microspheres from glass and PMMA as sensitive elements fixed by spin - coating techniques in adhesive layer on the surface of substrate or directly on the coupling element. Sensitive layer was integrated into developed fluidic cell with a digital syringe. Light from tuneable laser strict focusing on and scattered by the single microsphere was detected by a CMOS camera. The image was filtered for noise reduction and integrated on two coordinates for evaluation of integrated energy of a measured signal. As the entrance data following signal parameters were used: relative (to a free spectral range) spectral shift of frequency of WGM optical resonance in microsphere and relative efficiency of WGM excitation obtained within a free spectral range which depended on both type and concentration of investigated agents. Multiplexing on parameters and components has been realized using spatial and spectral parameters of scattered by microsphere light with developed data processing. Biochemical component classification and identification of agents under investigation has been performed by network analysis techniques based on probabilistic network and multilayer perceptron. Developed approach is demonstrated to be applicable both for single agent and for multi component biochemical analysis.
Wireless power transfer based on magnetic quadrupole coupling in dielectric resonators
Song, Mingzhao; Iorsh, Ivan; Kapitanova, Polina; Nenasheva, Elizaveta; Belov, Pavel
2016-01-01
We numerically investigate a magnetic resonant wireless power transfer system based on high refractive index dielectric resonators. We propose to operate at magnetic quadrupole mode of the resonators to enlarge the efficiency due to minimization of ohmic and radiation losses. Numerical estimation predicts the 80% efficiency of the wireless power transfer (WPT) system operating at quadrupole mode at 300 MHz. Moreover, the system operating at magnetic quadrupole mode is capable of transferring power with 70% efficiency when the receiver rotates 90°. We verify the simulated results by experimental investigation of the WPT system based on microwave ceramic resonators (ɛ = 80 and tanδ = 10-4).
Saeed Mohammadi
2011-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we report the evidence for the possibility of achieving complex signal processing functionalities such as multiplexing/demultiplexing at high frequencies using phononic crystal (PnC slabs. It is shown that such functionalities can be obtained by appropriate cross-coupling of PnC resonators and waveguides. PnC waveguides and waveguide-based resonators are realized and cross-coupled through two different methods of mechanical coupling (i.e., direct coupling and side coupling. Waveguide-based PnC resonators are employed because of their high-Q, compactness, large spurious-free spectral ranges, and the possibility of better control over coupling to PnC waveguides. It is shown that by modifying the defects in the formation of the resonators, the frequency of the resonance can be tuned.
Study of node and mass sensitivity of resonant mode based cantilevers with concentrated mass loading
Kewei Zhang
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Resonant-mode based cantilevers are an important type of acoustic wave based mass-sensing devices. In this work, the governing vibration equation of a bi-layer resonant-mode based cantilever attached with concentrated mass is established by using a modal analysis method. The effects of resonance modes and mass loading conditions on nodes and mass sensitivity of the cantilever were theoretically studied. The results suggested that the node did not shift when concentrated mass was loaded on a specific position. Mass sensitivity of the cantilever was linearly proportional to the square of the point displacement at the mass loading position for all the resonance modes. For the first resonance mode, when mass loading position xc satisfied 0 < xc < ∼ 0.3l (l is the cantilever beam length and 0 represents the rigid end, mass sensitivity decreased as the mass increasing while the opposite trend was obtained when mass loading satisfied ∼0.3l ≤ xc ≤ l. Mass sensitivity did not change when concentrated mass was loaded at the rigid end. This work can provide scientific guidance to optimize the mass sensitivity of a resonant-mode based cantilever.
High-Q lattice mode matched structural resonances in terahertz metasurfaces
Xu, Ningning; Zhang, Weili, E-mail: weili.zhang@okstate.edu [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States); Singh, Ranjan, E-mail: ranjans@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, The Photonics Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)
2016-07-11
The quality (Q) factor of metamaterial resonances is limited by the radiative and non-radiative losses. At terahertz frequencies, the dominant loss channel is radiative in nature since the non-radiative losses are low due to high conductivity of metals. Radiative losses could be suppressed by engineering the meta-atom structure. However, such suppression usually occurs at the fundamental resonance mode which is typically a closed mode resonance such as an inductive-capacitive resonance or a Fano resonance. Here, we report an order of magnitude enhancement in Q factor of all the structural eigenresonances of a split-ring resonator fueled by the lattice mode matching. We match the fundamental order diffractive mode to each of the odd and even eigenresonances, thus leading to a tremendous line-narrowing of all the resonances. Such precise tailoring and control of the structural resonances in a metasurface lattice could have potential applications in low-loss devices, sensing, and design of high-Q metamaterial cavities.
PCB Slot Based Transformers to Avoid Common-Mode Resonances in Connected Arrays of Dipoles
Cavallo, D.; Neto, A.; Gerini, G.
2010-01-01
The scanning performances of connected arrays are degraded by the excitation of common-mode resonances that are compatible with balanced feeding lines. Here, a strategy to avoid these resonances is outlined. The strategy involves feeding the dipoles via printed circuit board (PCB) based transformers
Maksimovic, Milan; Lohmeyer, Manfred; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.
2008-01-01
Quasi-normal modes are used to characterize transmission resonances in 1D optical defect cavities and the related field approximations. We specialize to resonances inside the bandgap of the periodic multilayer mirrors that enclose the defect cavities. Using a template with the most relevant QNMs a
All-optical Photonic Oscillator with High-Q Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators
Savchenkov, Anatoliy A.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Strekalov, Dmitry; Mohageg, Makan; Iltchenko, Vladimir S.; Maleki, Lute
2004-01-01
We demonstrated low threshold optical photonic hyper-parametric oscillator in a high-Q 10(exp 10) CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator which generates stable 8.5 GHz signal. The oscillations result from the resonantly enhanced four wave mixing occurring due to Kerr nonlinearity of the material.
H-mode inductive coupling plasma for PVC surface treatment
Croccolo, F.; Quintini, A.; Barni, R.; Ripamonti, M.; Malgaroli, A.; Riccardi, C.
2009-08-01
An inductively coupled plasma machine has been modified to be able to apply working powers in the order of 1 kW, thus switching to the real inductive H-mode. The plasma is generated by applying a 13.56 MHz radio-frequency to a λ/4 antenna outside the plasma chamber in low pressure conditions. The working gas is argon at pressure in the range from 10 to 100 Pa. With this high power source we have been able to perform plasma etching on a poly(vinyl-chloride) (PVC) film. In particular the effect of the plasma is the selective removal of hydrogen and chlorine from the sample surface. The action of the high power plasma on the sample has been proved to be much more effective than that of the low power one. Results similar to those obtained with the low power machine at about 300 W for 120 min, have been obtained with the high power source at about 600 W for 30 min. The superficial generation of a conductive layer of double C=C bonds was obtained. The samples have been investigated by means of ATR spectroscopy, FIB/SEM microscopy and micro-electrical measurements, which revealed the change in charge conductivity.
Uncertainty quantification applied to the mode coupling phenomenon
Treimer, Martin; Allert, Baldur; Dylla, Katrin; Müller, Gerhard
2017-02-01
In this study a method for the uncertainty quantification of friction induced vibrations based on the mode coupling phenomenon is shown. The main focus is the assessment of the phenomenon under consideration of uncertain input parameters for the robustness evaluation. Stability assessments of the system under parameter scatter are given. It is pointed out how this is implemented within the scope of the Finite Element method. On the basis of the Euler-Bernoulli beam as a proof-of-concept model a procedure for the assessment of the system's robustness is shown. An objective function is proposed and used to evaluate a design of experiment. By means of a regression analysis an indicator for the robustness of the system is given. Numerical results are presented on the basis of the Euler-Bernoulli beam and a Finite Element brake model. A universal procedure is shown, the approach of which can be used for robustness assessments in different fields of interest. The algorithm that has an optimal efficiency is validated by a comparison with an algorithm which has an optimal quality of prediction. The procedure is applied on the robustness' assessment of brake squeal.
Zhai, Wu-Chao; Qiao, Tie-Zhu; Cai, Dong-Jin; Wang, Wen-Jie; Chen, Jing-Dong; Chen, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Shao-Ding
2016-11-28
Third-harmonic generation with metallic or dielectric nanoparticles often suffer from, respectively, small modal volumes and weak near-field enhancements. This study propose and demonstrate that a metallic/dielectric hybrid nanostructure composed of a silver double rectangular nanoring and a silicon square nanoplate can be used to overcome these obstacles for enhanced third-harmonic generation. It is shown that the nonradiative anapole mode of the Si plate can be used as a localized source to excite the dark subradiant octupole mode of the Ag ring, and the mode hybridization leads to the formation of an antibonding and a bonding subradiant collective mode, thereby forming anticrossing double Fano resonances. With the strong coupling between individual particles and the effectively suppressed radiative losses of the Fano resonances, several strong hot spots are generated around the Ag ring due to the excitation of the octupole mode, and electromagnetic fields within the Si plate are also strongly amplified, making it possible to confine more incident energy inside the dielectric nanoparticle. Calculation results reveal that the confined energy inside the Si plate and the Ag ring for the hybrid structures can be about, respectively, more than three times and four orders stronger than that of the corresponding isolated nanoparticles, which makes the designed hybrid nanostructure a promising platform for enhanced third-harmonic generation.
Disentangling the Spin-Parity of a Resonance via the Gold-Plated Decay Mode
Modak, Tanmoy; Sinha, Rahul; Cheng, Hai-Yang; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang
2014-01-01
Searching for new resonances and finding out their properties is an essential part of any existing or future particle physics experiment. The nature of a new resonance is characterized by its spin, charge conjugation, parity, and its couplings with the existing particles of the Standard Model. If a new resonance is found in the four lepton final state produced via two intermediate $Z$ bosons, the resonance could be a new heavy scalar or a $Z'$ boson or even a higher spin particle. In such cases the step by step methodology as enunciated in this paper can be followed to determine the spin, parity and the coupling to two $Z$ bosons of the parent particles, in a fully model-independent way. In our approach we show how three uni-angular distributions and few experimentally measurable observables can conclusively tell us about the spin, parity as well as the couplings of the new resonance to two $Z$ bosons.
Second-harmonic mode coupling in microresonator-based optical frequency comb generation
Xue, Xiaoxiao; Xuan, Yi; Jaramillo-Villegas, Jose A; Wang, Pei-Hsun; Leaird, Daniel E; Erkintalo, Miro; Qi, Minghao; Weiner, Andrew M
2016-01-01
Microresonator-based optical frequency comb (microcomb) generation can potentially achieve ultra-compact volume and low power consumption for portable applications. The comb formation is a consequence of cascaded four-wave-mixing due to the third-order Kerr nonlinearity. Mode coupling can affect the comb self-starting and mode-locking behaviors, resulting in complex dynamics that is far from well understood. Understanding the mechanism of mode coupling in comb generation proves highly important to achieve stable and robust microcomb sources. Here, we report a nonlinear mode coupling mechanism in microresonators with simultaneous second- and third-order nonlinearities. The nonlinear dynamics governed by the third-order nonlinearity is altered by second-harmonic mode coupling. As a demonstration of this effect, second-harmonic assisted coherent comb generation is achieved in the normal dispersion region, where comb creation is prohibited in the absence of mode coupling. Since second-order nonlinearity has been ...
Zhou, L; Sun, C P; Lu, Jing; Zhou, Lan
2006-01-01
In the first paper of our series of articles on photon transmission in the coupled resonator optical waveguide (CROW), we used the two time Green function approach to study the physical mechanism for the coherent control by doping two-level atoms. In present paper, we propose and study a hybrid mechanism for photon transmission in the CROW by incorporating the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effect in the doping artificial atoms and the band structure of the CROW. Here, the configuration setup of system, similar to that in the first paper, consists of a CROW with homogeneous couplings and the artificial atoms with $\\Lambda$-type three levels doped in each cavity. Unlike the stimulated Raman process used in the first paper to reduce the three level systems into the two level ones, the roles of three levels are completely considered based on a kind of mean field approach where the collection of three-level atoms collectively behave as two-mode spin waves. Then the total system is reduced into an ...
Design of low-cost resonant mode sensors
Kazinczi, Robert; Turmezei, P.; Mollinger, Jeff R.; Bossche, Andre
2001-11-01
This study introduces a novel design for low-cost MEMS devices, which exploit the benefits of resonant operation and maintain stable performance. Resonant devices provide high sensitivity and convenient signal processing. The drawback of the method is the sensitivity to undesired environmental effects and aging. The environment induced degradation processes and the long-term stability of thin film resonators were investigated previously. The two major reliability problems were stiffening effect and degrading shock response, both affecting the mechanical resonance frequency. Based on these results, new, low-cost pressure sensors and accelerometers were designed and fabricated. The structures are based on locally reinforced silicon nitride membranes, and double-clamped 3-D silicon nitride bridges as sensing elements. This double mechanical structure allows separate optimization of the membrane and the bridges for the workload and for the most efficient driving and sensing. The 3-D bridges work as mechanical amplifiers, resulting in higher detection efficiency. The reliability tests indicated, that a low-cost atmospheric packaging is efficient, thus the bridges do not require vacuum encapsulation with multiple-wafer process. External mechanical and thermal excitation combined with piezoresistive and optical detection methods are implemented in the different sensors. Differential detection using reference resonators allow compensation for thermal, environment- and aging-induced stresses.
Zijia Zhang(张自嘉); Wenkang Shi(施文康)
2003-01-01
The characteristics of the transmission spectrum of the Long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs) based on thecoupling of core mode to a higher order cladding mode (HE mode) are investigated using the coupled modetheory. This kind of LPFGs is different from that based on the coupling of core mode to a lower ordercladding mode because of the effect of the coupling of core mode to EH cladding mode. When the claddingmode order is higher, the coupling coefficients of core mode to HE and EH cladding modes are comparableand both of the propagation constants of HE and EH cladding modes approach, so the spectrum has anadditional loss peak. The bandwidth of LPFG based on the coupling of core mode to different claddingmode differs greatly. With the change of the mode orders from lower to higher, the transmission spectrumchanges from narrow to wide and more narrow.
Hu, Hang; Agmon, Ariel
2015-07-01
Precise spike synchrony has been widely reported in the central nervous system, but its functional role in encoding, processing, and transmitting information is yet unresolved. Of particular interest is firing synchrony between inhibitory cortical interneurons, thought to drive various cortical rhythms such as gamma oscillations, the hallmark of cognitive states. Precise synchrony can arise between two interneurons connected electrically, through gap junctions, chemically, through fast inhibitory synapses, or dually, through both types of connections, but the properties of synchrony generated by these different modes of connectivity have never been compared in the same data set. In the present study we recorded in vitro from 152 homotypic pairs of two major subtypes of mouse neocortical interneurons: parvalbumin-containing, fast-spiking (FS) interneurons and somatostatin-containing (SOM) interneurons. We tested firing synchrony when the two neurons were driven to fire by long, depolarizing current steps and used a novel synchrony index to quantify the strength of synchrony, its temporal precision, and its dependence on firing rate. We found that SOM-SOM synchrony, driven solely by electrical coupling, was less precise than FS-FS synchrony, driven by inhibitory or dual coupling. Unlike SOM-SOM synchrony, FS-FS synchrony was strongly firing rate dependent and was not evident at the prototypical 40-Hz gamma frequency. Computer simulations reproduced these differences in synchrony without assuming any differences in intrinsic properties, suggesting that the mode of coupling is more important than the interneuron subtype. Our results provide novel insights into the mechanisms and properties of interneuron synchrony and point out important caveats in current models of cortical oscillations.
Guided-mode resonant filters and reflectors: Principles, design, and fabrication
Niraula, Manoj
In this dissertation, we overview the operational principles of these resonant periodic structures, discuss the methods of their design and fabrication, and propose and demonstrate novel functionalities for spatial and spectral filtering, and unpolarized wideband reflection. Fashioned with materially sparse gratings, these optical devices are easy to fabricate and integration friendly compared to their traditional multi-layer counterparts making their research and development critical for practical applications. We study, theoretically, modal properties and parametric dependence of resonant periodic bandpass filters operating in the mid- and near-infrared spectral domains. We investigate three different device architectures consisting of single, double, and triple layers based on all-transparent dielectric and semiconductor thin films. We present three modal coupling configurations forming complex mixtures of two or three distinct leaky modes coupling at different evanescent diffraction orders. Our modal analysis demonstrates key attributes of subwavelength periodic thin-film structures in multiple-modal blending to achieve desired transmission spectra. We provide the first experimental demonstration of high-efficiency and narrow-linewidth resonant bandpass filter applying a single patterned silicon layer on a quartz substrate. Its performance corresponds to bandpass filters requiring 15 traditional Si/SiO2 thin-film layers. The feasibility of sparse narrowband, high-efficiency bandpass filters with extremely wide, flat, and low sidebands is thereby demonstrated. The proposed technology is integration-friendly and opens doors for further development in various disciplines and spectral regions where thin-film solutions are traditionally applied. We demonstrate concurrent spatial and spectral filtering as a new outstanding attribute of resonant periodic devices. This functionality is enabled by a unique, near-complete, reflection state that is discrete in both
Westra, H.J.R.; Karabacak, D.M.; Brongersma, S.H.; Crego-Calama, M.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Venstra, W.J.
2011-01-01
The interactions between parametrically- and directly-driven vibration modes of a clamped-clamped beam resonator are studied. An integrated piezoelectric transducer is used for direct and parametric excitation. First, the parametric amplification and oscillation of a single mode are analyzed by the
Normalization of quasinormal modes in leaky optical cavities and plasmonic resonators
Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Hughes, Stephen
2015-01-01
We discuss three formally different formulas for normalization of quasinormal modes currently in use for modeling optical cavities and plasmonic resonators and show that they are complementary and provide the same result. Regardless of the formula used for normalization, one can use the norm to define an effective mode volume for use in Purcell factor calculations.
Pulse mode actuation-readout system based on MEMS resonator for liquid sensing
Tang, Meng; Cagliani, Alberto; Davis, Zachary James
2014-01-01
A MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) bulk disk resonator is applied for mass sensing under its dynamic mode. The classical readout circuitry involves sophisticated feedback loop and feedthrough compensation. We propose a simple straightforward non-loop pulse mode actuation and capacitive rea...
Westra, H.J.R.; Karabacak, D.M.; Brongersma, S.H.; Crego-Calama, M.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Venstra, W.J.
2011-01-01
The interactions between parametrically- and directly-driven vibration modes of a clamped-clamped beam resonator are studied. An integrated piezoelectric transducer is used for direct and parametric excitation. First, the parametric amplification and oscillation of a single mode are analyzed by the
Aspects of stochastic resonance in Josephson junction, bimodal maps and coupled map lattice
G Ambika; Kamala Menon; K P Harikrishnan
2005-04-01
We present the results of extensive numerical studies on stochastic resonance and its characteristic features in three model systems, namely, a model for Josephson tunnel junctions, the bistable cubic map and a coupled map lattice formed by coupling the cubic maps. Some interesting features regarding the mechanism including multisignal amplification and spatial stochastic resonance are shown.
Identification of matrix conditions that give rise to the linear coupling resonances
Gardner,C.J.
2009-03-01
General definitions of horizontal and vertical amplitudes for linear coupled motion are developed from the normal form of the one-turn matrix. This leads to the identification of conditions on the matrix that give rise to the linear coupling sum and difference resonances. The correspondence with the standard hamiltonian treatment of the resonances is discussed.
Nonlinear interaction of two trapped-mode resonances in a bilayer "fish-scale" metamaterial
Tuz, Vladimir R; Mladyonov, Pavel L; Prosvirnin, Sergey L; Novitsky, Andrey V
2014-01-01
We report on a bistable light transmission through a bilayer "fish-scale" (meander-line) metamaterial. It is demonstrated that an all-optical switching may be achieved nearly the frequency of the high-quality-factor Fano-shaped trapped-mode resonance excitation. The nonlinear interaction of two closely spaced trapped-mode resonances in the bilayer structure composed with a Kerr-type nonlinear dielectric slab is analyzed in both frequency and time domains. It is demonstrated that these two resonances react differently on the applied intense light which leads to destination of a multistable transmission.
Inequivalence of direct and converse magnetoelectric coupling at electromechanical resonance
Wu, Gaojian; Nan, Tianxiang; Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Ning; Li, Shandong; Sun, Nian X.
2013-10-01
Resonant direct and converse magnetoelectric (ME) effects have been investigated experimentally and theoretically in FeGa/PZT/FeGa sandwich laminate composites under the same electric and magnetic bias conditions. Resonant direct ME effect (DME) occurs at antiresonance frequency while resonant converse ME effect (CME) occurs at resonance frequency. The antiresonance and resonance frequencies have close but different values under identical bias conditions. The magnitudes of resonant effective ME coefficients for direct and converse ME effects are also not equal. A model was developed to describe the frequency response of DME and CME in laminate composite, which was in good agreement with experimental results.
Length control of an optical resonator using second-order transverse modes
Miller, John
2014-01-01
We present the analysis of an unorthodox technique for locking a laser to a resonant optical cavity. Error signals are derived from the interference between the fundamental cavity mode and higher-order spatial modes of order two excited by mode mismatch. This scheme is simple, inexpensive and, in contrast to similar techniques, first-order-insensitive to beam jitter. After mitigating sources of technical noise, performance is fundamentally limited by quantum shot-noise.
Schneeweiss, Philipp; Hoinkes, Thomas; Rauschenbeutel, Arno; Volz, Jürgen
2016-01-01
We experimentally realize an optical fiber ring resonator that includes a tapered section with subwavelength-diameter waist. In this section, the guided light exhibits a significant evanescent field which allows for efficient interfacing with optical emitters. A commercial tunable fiber beam splitter provides simple and robust coupling to the resonator. Key parameters of the resonator such as its out-coupling rate, free spectral range, and birefringence can be adjusted. Thanks to the low taper- and coupling-losses, the resonator exhibits an unloaded finesse of F=75+/-1, sufficient for reaching the regime of strong coupling for emitters placed in the evanescent field. The system is ideally suited for trapping ensembles of laser-cooled atoms along the nanofiber section. Based on measured parameters, we estimate that the system can serve as a platform for optical multimode strong coupling experiments. Finally, we discuss the possibilities of using the resonator for applications based on chiral quantum optics.
Modeling of ICRH H-minority-driven n = 1 Resonant Modes in JET
N.N. Gorelenkov; M.J. Mantsinen; S.E. Sharapov; C.Z. Cheng; the JET-EFDA Contributors
2003-08-21
A nonperturbative code NOVA-KN (Kinetic Nonperturbative) has been developed to account for finite orbit width (FOW) effects in nonperturbative resonant modes such as the low-frequency MHD modes observed in the Joint European Torus (JET). The NOVA-KN code was used to show that the resonant modes with frequencies in the observed frequency range are ones having the characteristic toroidal precession frequency of H-minority ions. Results are similar to previous theoretical studies of fishbone instabilities, which were found to exist at characteristic precession frequencies of hot ions.
Systematization of All Resonance Modes in Circular Dielectric Cavities
Dettmann, C.P.; Morozov, G.V.; Sieber, M.; Waalkens, H.
2009-01-01
Circular dielectric cavities are key components for the construction of optic microresonators and microlasers. They are one of very few cases where the transcendental equations for complex eigenmodes (resonances) of an open system (dielectric cavity) can be found analytically in an exact manner. The
Quantum kinetics of ultracold fermions coupled to an optical resonator
Piazza, Francesco; Strack, Philipp
2014-10-01
We study the far-from-equilibrium statistical mechanics of periodically driven fermionic atoms in a lossy optical resonator. We show that the interplay of the Fermi surface with cavity losses leads to subnatural cavity linewidth narrowing, squeezed light, and nonthermal quantum statistics of the atoms. Adapting the Keldysh approach, we set up and solve a quantum kinetic Boltzmann equation in a systematic 1/N expansion with N the number of atoms. In the strict thermodynamic limit N ,V→∞,N/V=const. we find that the atoms (fermions or bosons) remain immune against cavity-induced heating or cooling. At next-to-leading order in 1/N, we find a "one-way thermalization" of the atoms determined by cavity decay. In absence of an equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation, the long-time limit Δt →∞ does not commute with the thermodynamic limit N →∞, such that for the physically relevant case of large but finite N, the dynamics ultimately becomes strongly coupled, especially close to the superradiance phase transition.
Parallel-coupled dual racetrack silicon micro-resonators for quadrature amplitude modulation.
Integlia, Ryan A; Yin, Lianghong; Ding, Duo; Pan, David Z; Gill, Douglas M; Jiang, Wei
2011-08-01
A parallel-coupled dual racetrack silicon micro-resonator structure is proposed and analyzed for M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation. The over-coupled, critically coupled, and under-coupled scenarios are systematically studied. Simulations indicate that only the over-coupled structures can generate arbitrary M-ary quadrature signals. Analytic study shows that the large dynamic range of amplitude and phase of a modulated over-coupled structure stems from the strong cross-coupling between two resonators, which can be understood through a delicate balance between the direct sum and the "interaction" terms. Potential asymmetries in the coupling constants and quality factors of the resonators are systematically studied. Compensations for these asymmetries by phase adjustment are shown feasible.
Issues in nanophotonics: coupling and phase in resonant tunneling
Tsu, Raphael
2013-01-01
Modern Nano electronics involves the use of heterojunctions in forming energy steps based on band-edge alignments in effecting quantum confinements. When the electron meanfree- path exceeds couple of periods, man-made quantum states appeared, mimicking natural solids with sharpness determined by the degree of coherence dictated by a relatively long meanfree- path. When a single quantum well is involved, the structure is represented by resonant tunneling. This process can further be extended to 3D (3-dimension), known as QD, for quantum dot, however, thus far only few systems have been found possible, mostly involving InAs, or InN. However, the real problem lies in I/O, making contact to a single quantum dot, seems to be impractical on account of difficulties in making contacts in Nano scale regime. The issue with impedance matching, is the most important aspect for efficient devices, whether as detectors, or as generator in frequencies between THz to visible light. As size shrinks to Nano-regime, even the wavelength of IR is too large for effective coupling to the quantum dots without some sort of coupling such as the use of Fabry-Perrot mirrors, which is in fact unsuited for quantum dots, unless these dots are arranged in an array mimicking a solid with translational symmetry, which in fact defeating the purpose of going to quantum dots, except when the distribution of these quantum dots are arranged either representable by some distribution functions suitable for arriving at a meaningful average, or periodically mimicking a solid, such as the man-made superlattice, SL, originally proposed by Esaki and Tsu. [1, 2]. Interestingly Esaki and Tsu were asked to remove the reference on doping in the barrier region for increased mobility by the reviewer for the IBM's own J. of Research and Development. We did protest to the Editor-in- Chief of the Journal to no avail! Because of this experience, it did occur to me of requiring something beyond the regular reviewing
Li, Hai-ming; Liu, Shao-bin, E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn; Liu, Si-yuan; Zhang, Hai-feng; Bian, Bo-rui; Kong, Xiang-kun [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wang, Shen-yun [Research Center of Applied Electromagnetics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China)
2015-03-16
In this paper, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like spectral response with magnetic resonance near field coupling to electric resonance. Six split-ring resonators and a cut wire are chosen as the bright and dark resonator, respectively. An EIT-like transmission peak located between two dips can be observed with incident magnetic field excitation. A large delay bandwidth product (0.39) is obtained, which has potential application in quantum optics and communications. The experimental results are in good agreement with simulated results.
Multimode filter composed of single-mode surface acoustic wave/bulk acoustic wave resonators
Huang, Yulin; Bao, Jingfu; Tang, Gongbin; Wang, Yiling; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-ya
2017-07-01
This paper discusses the possibility of realizing multimode filters composed of multiple single-mode resonators by using radio frequency surface and bulk acoustic wave (SAW/BAW) technologies. First, the filter operation and design principle are given. It is shown that excellent filter characteristics are achievable by combining multiple single-mode resonators with identical capacitance ratios provided that their resonance frequencies and clamped capacitances are set properly. Next, the effect of balun performance is investigated. It is shown that the total filter performance is significantly degraded by balun imperfections such as the common-mode rejection. Then, two circuits are proposed to improve the common-mode rejection, and their effectiveness is demonstrated.