Electric-field-induced interferometric resonance of a one-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled electron
Fan, Jingtao; Chen, Yuansen; Chen, Gang; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang; Nori, Franco
2016-01-01
The efficient control of electron spins is of crucial importance for spintronics, quantum metrology, and quantum information processing. We theoretically formulate an electric mechanism to probe the electron spin dynamics, by focusing on a one-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled nanowire quantum dot. Owing to the existence of spin-orbit coupling and a pulsed electric field, different spin-orbit states are shown to interfere with each other, generating intriguing interference-resonant patterns. We also reveal that an in-plane magnetic field does not affect the interval of any neighboring resonant peaks, but contributes a weak shift of each peak, which is sensitive to the direction of the magnetic field. We find that this proposed external-field-controlled scheme should be regarded as a new type of quantum-dot-based interferometry. This interferometry has potential applications in precise measurements of relevant experimental parameters, such as the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit-coupling strengths, as well as the Landé factor. PMID:27966598
Electric-field-induced interferometric resonance of a one-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled electron
Fan, Jingtao; Chen, Yuansen; Chen, Gang; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang; Nori, Franco
2016-12-01
The efficient control of electron spins is of crucial importance for spintronics, quantum metrology, and quantum information processing. We theoretically formulate an electric mechanism to probe the electron spin dynamics, by focusing on a one-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled nanowire quantum dot. Owing to the existence of spin-orbit coupling and a pulsed electric field, different spin-orbit states are shown to interfere with each other, generating intriguing interference-resonant patterns. We also reveal that an in-plane magnetic field does not affect the interval of any neighboring resonant peaks, but contributes a weak shift of each peak, which is sensitive to the direction of the magnetic field. We find that this proposed external-field-controlled scheme should be regarded as a new type of quantum-dot-based interferometry. This interferometry has potential applications in precise measurements of relevant experimental parameters, such as the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit-coupling strengths, as well as the Landé factor.
Electron spin resonance in a two-dimensional Fermi liquid with spin-orbit coupling
Maiti, Saurabh; Imran, Muhammad; Maslov, Dmitrii L.
2016-01-01
Electron spin resonance (ESR) is usually viewed as a single-particle phenomenon protected from the effect of many-body correlations. We show that this is not the case in a two-dimensional Fermi liquid (FL) with spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Depending on whether the in-plane magnetic field is below or above some critical value, ESR in such a system probes up to three chiral-spin collective modes, augmented by the spin mode in the presence of the field, or the Silin-Leggett mode. All the modes are affected by both SOC and FL renormalizations. We argue that ESR can be used as a probe not only for SOC but also for many-body physics.
Orbital resonances around black holes.
Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja
2015-02-27
We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Cun-Xi; Nie Yi-Hang; Liang Jiu-Qing
2008-01-01
We have investigated theoretically the field-driven electron-transport through a double-quantum-well semiconductor-heterostructure with spin-orbit coupling. The numerical results demonstrate that the transmission spectra are divided into two sets due to the bound-state level-splitting and each set contains two asymmetric resonance peaks which may be selectively suppressed by changing the difference in phase between two driving fields. When the phase difference changes from O to π, the dip of asymmetric resonance shifts from one side of resonance peak to the other side and the asymmetric Fano resonance degenerates into the symmetric Breit-Wigner resonance at a critical value of phase difference. Within a given range of incident electron energy, the spin polarization of transmission current is completely governed by the phase difference which may be used to realize the tunable spin filtering.
Spin-orbit ferromagnetic resonance
Ferguson, Andrew
2013-03-01
In conventional magnetic resonance techniques the magnitude and direction of the oscillatory magnetic field are (at least approximately) known. This oscillatory field is used to probe the properties of a spin ensemble. Here, I will describe experiments that do the inverse. I will discuss how we use a magnetic resonance technique to map out the current-induced effective magnetic fields in the ferromagnetic semiconductors (Ga,Mn)As and (Ga,Mn)(As,P). These current-induced fields have their origin in the spin-orbit interaction. Effective magnetic fields are observed with symmetries which resemble the Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit interactions and which depend on the diagonal and off-diagonal strain respectively. Ferromagnetic semiconductor materials of different strains, annealing conditions and concentrations are studied and the results compared with theoretical calculations. Our original study measured the rectification voltage coming from the product of the oscillatory magnetoresistance, during magnetisation precession, and the alternating current. More recently we have developed an impedance matching technique which enables us to extract microwave voltages from these high resistance (10 k Ω) samples. In this way we measure the microwave voltage coming from the product of the oscillating magneto-resistance and a direct current. The direct current is observed to affect the magnetisation precession, indicating that anti-damping as well as field-like torques can originate from the spin-orbit interaction.
Electron paramagnetic resonance
Al'tshuler, S A
2013-01-01
Electron Paramagnetic Resonance is a comprehensive text on the field of electron paramagnetic resonance, covering both the theoretical background and the results of experiment. This book is composed of eight chapters that cover theoretical materials and experimental data on ionic crystals, since these are the materials that have been most extensively studied by the methods of paramagnetic resonance. The opening chapters provide an introduction to the basic principles of electron paramagnetic resonance and the methods of its measurement. The next chapters are devoted to the theory of spectra an
Holonomy invariance, orbital resonances, and kilohertz QPOs
Abramowicz, M A; Kluzniak, W; Thampan, A V; Wallinder, F
2002-01-01
Quantized orbital structures are typical for many aspects of classical gravity (Newton's as well as Einstein's). The astronomical phenomenon of orbital resonances is a well-known example. Recently, Rothman, Ellis and Murugan (2001) discussed quantized orbital structures in the novel context of a holonomy invariance of parallel transport in Schwarzschild geometry. We present here yet another example of quantization of orbits, reflecting both orbital resonances and holonomy invariance. This strong-gravity effect may already have been directly observed as the puzzling kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the X-ray emission from a few accreting galactic black holes and several neutron stars.
Objects orbiting the Earth in deep resonance
Sampaio, J C; de Moraes, R Vilhena; Fernandes, S S
2012-01-01
The increasing number of objects orbiting the Earth justifies the great attention and interest in the observation, spacecraft protection and collision avoidance. These studies involve different disturbances and resonances in the orbital motions of these objects distributed by the distinct altitudes. In this work, the TLE (Two-Line Elements) of the NORAD are studied observing the resonant period of the objects orbiting the Earth and the main resonance in the LEO region. The time behavior of the semi-major axis, eccentricity and inclination of some space debris are studied. Possible irregular motions are observed by the frequency analysis and by the presence of different resonant angles describing the orbital dynamics of these objects.
Mercury's resonant rotation from secular orbital elements
Stark, Alexander; Oberst, Jürgen; Hussmann, Hauke
2015-01-01
We used recently produced Solar System ephemerides, which incorporate 2 years of ranging observations to the MESSENGER spacecraft, to extract the secular orbital elements for Mercury and associated uncertainties. As Mercury is in a stable 3:2 spin-orbit resonance, these values constitute an important reference for the planet’s measured rotational parameters, which in turn strongly bear on physical interpretation of Mercury’s interior structure. In particular, we derive a mean orbital period o...
Dissipative Divergence of Resonant Orbits
Batygin, Konstantin
2012-01-01
A considerable fraction of multi-planet systems discovered by the observational surveys of extrasolar planets reside in mild proximity to first-order mean motion resonances. However, the relative remoteness of such systems from nominal resonant period ratios (e.g. 2:1, 3:2, 4:3) has been interpreted as evidence for lack of resonant interactions. Here we show that a slow divergence away from exact commensurability is a natural outcome of dissipative evolution and demonstrate that libration of critical angles can be maintained tens of percent away from nominal resonance. We construct an analytical theory for the long-term dynamical evolution of dissipated resonant planetary pairs and confirm our calculations numerically. Collectively, our results suggest that a significant fraction of the near-commensurate extrasolar planets are in fact resonant and have undergone significant dissipative evolution.
DISSIPATIVE DIVERGENCE OF RESONANT ORBITS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Batygin, Konstantin [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Morbidelli, Alessandro, E-mail: kbatygin@gps.caltech.edu [Departement Cassiopee, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, F-06304 Nice (France)
2013-01-01
A considerable fraction of multi-planet systems discovered by the observational surveys of extrasolar planets reside in mild proximity to first-order mean-motion resonances. However, the relative remoteness of such systems from nominal resonant period ratios (e.g., 2:1, 3:2, and 4:3) has been interpreted as evidence for lack of resonant interactions. Here, we show that a slow divergence away from exact commensurability is a natural outcome of dissipative evolution and demonstrate that libration of critical angles can be maintained tens of percent away from nominal resonance. We construct an analytical theory for the long-term dynamical evolution of dissipated resonant planetary pairs and confirm our calculations numerically. Collectively, our results suggest that a significant fraction of the near-commensurate extrasolar planets are in fact resonant and have undergone significant dissipative evolution.
Managing resonant trapped orbits in our Galaxy
Binney, James
2016-01-01
Galaxy modelling is greatly simplified by assuming the existence of a global system of angle-action coordinates. Unfortunately, global angle-action coordinates do not exist because some orbits become trapped by resonances, especially where the radial and vertical frequencies coincide. We show that in a realistic Galactic potential such trapping occurs only on thick-disc and halo orbits (speed relative to the guiding centre >~80 km/s). We explain how the Torus Mapper code (TM) behaves in regions of phase space in which orbits are resonantly trapped, and we extend TM so trapped orbits can be manipulated as easily as untrapped ones. The impact that the resonance has on the structure of velocity space depends on the weights assigned to trapped orbits. The impact is everywhere small if each trapped orbit is assigned the phase space density equal to the time average along the orbit of the DF for untrapped orbits. The impact could be significant with a different assignment of weights to trapped orbits.
Orbital Feshbach Resonance in Alkali-Earth Atoms.
Zhang, Ren; Cheng, Yanting; Zhai, Hui; Zhang, Peng
2015-09-25
For a mixture of alkali-earth atomic gas in the long-lived excited state ^{3}P_{0} and the ground state ^{1}S_{0}, in addition to nuclear spin, another "orbital" index is introduced to distinguish these two internal states. In this Letter we propose a mechanism to induce Feshbach resonance between two atoms with different orbital and nuclear spin quantum numbers. Two essential ingredients are the interorbital spin-exchange process and orbital dependence of the Landé g factors. Here the orbital degrees of freedom plays a similar role as the electron spin degree of freedom in magnetic Feshbach resonance in alkali-metal atoms. This resonance is particularly accessible for the ^{173}Yb system. The BCS-BEC crossover in this system requires two fermion pairing order parameters, and displays a significant difference compared to that in an alkali-metal system.
Physics of orbital degree of freedom - resonant X-ray scattering for observation of orbital ordering
Hirota, K
2003-01-01
Orbital degree of freedom plays very important roles in electric and magnetic properties in strongly correlated electron systems. The method for measurement of orbital ordering, however, has been limited so far. Recently it has been pointed out that the resonant X-ray scattering (RXS) technique is a very powerful tool to observe the ordering. In ths paper, the principle of RXS and the recent development are described after the general introduction of orbital degree of freedom. Finally the future in orbital physics will be discussed. (author)
Homoclinic Bifurcation of Orbit Flip with Resonant Principal Eigenvalues
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tian Si ZHANG; De Ming ZHU
2006-01-01
Codimension-3 bifurcations of an orbit-flip homoclinic orbit with resonant principal eigenvalues are studied for a four-dimensional system. The existence, number, co-existence and non-coexistence of 1-homoclinic orbit, 1-periodic orbit, 2n-homoclinic orbit and 2n-periodic orbit are obtained. The bifurcation surfaces and existence regions are also given.
Mercury's resonant rotation from secular orbital elements
Stark, Alexander; Hussmann, Hauke
2015-01-01
We used recently produced Solar System ephemeris, which incorporate two years of ranging observations to the MESSENGER spacecraft, to extract the secular orbital elements for Mercury and associated uncertainties. As Mercury is in a stable 3:2 spin-orbit resonance these values constitute an important reference for the planet's measured rotational parameters, which in turn strongly bear on physical interpretation of Mercury's interior structure. In particular, we derive an mean orbital period of 87.96934962 $\\pm$ 0.00000037 days and (assuming the perfect resonance) a spin rate of 6.138506839 $\\pm$ 0.000000028 degree/day. The difference between this rotation rate and the currently adopted rotation rate (Archinal et al, 2011) corresponds to a longitudinal displacement of approx. 67 m per year at the equator. Moreover, we present a basic approach for the calculation of the orientation of the instantaneous Laplace and Cassini planes of Mercury. The analysis allows us to assess the uncertainties in physical paramete...
Bodily tides near spin-orbit resonances
Efroimsky, Michael
2012-03-01
Spin-orbit coupling can be described in two approaches. The first method, known as the "MacDonald torque", is often combined with a convenient assumption that the quality factor Q is frequency-independent. This makes the method inconsistent, because derivation of the expression for the MacDonald torque tacitly fixes the rheology of the mantle by making Q scale as the inverse tidal frequency. Spin-orbit coupling can be treated also in an approach called "the Darwin torque". While this theory is general enough to accommodate an arbitrary frequency-dependence of Q, this advantage has not yet been fully exploited in the literature, where Q is often assumed constant or is set to scale as inverse tidal frequency, the latter assertion making the Darwin torque equivalent to a corrected version of the MacDonald torque. However neither a constant nor an inverse-frequency Q reflect the properties of realistic mantles and crusts, because the actual frequency-dependence is more complex. Hence it is necessary to enrich the theory of spin-orbit interaction with the right frequency-dependence. We accomplish this programme for the Darwin-torque-based model near resonances. We derive the frequency-dependence of the tidal torque from the first principles of solid-state mechanics, i.e., from the expression for the mantle's compliance in the time domain. We also explain that the tidal torque includes not only the customary, secular part, but also an oscillating part. We demonstrate that the lmpq term of the Darwin-Kaula expansion for the tidal torque smoothly passes zero, when the secondary traverses the lmpq resonance (e.g., the principal tidal torque smoothly goes through nil as the secondary crosses the synchronous orbit). Thus, we prepare a foundation for modeling entrapment of a despinning primary into a resonance with its secondary. The roles of the primary and secondary may be played, e.g., by Mercury and the Sun, correspondingly, or by an icy moon and a Jovian planet. We also
Rotation Axis Variation Due To Spin Orbit Resonance
Gallavotti, G
1993-01-01
Abstract: rotation axis variation due to spin orbit resonance: conference report; keywords: planetary precession, rigid body, chaos, KAM, Arnold diffusion, averaging, celestial mechanics, classical mechanics, large deviations
The rehybridization of electronic orbitals in carbon nanotubes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ouyang Yu; Peng Jing-Cui; Wang Hui; Peng Zhi-Hua
2008-01-01
Rehybridization of electronic orbitals in carbon nanotubes contains tilting angles of π orbital, electrons wavefunc-tions of π orbital and σ orbital, degrees of hybridization, etc. In this paper, we have obtained analytical formulas of tilting angle of π orbital relative to tube surface, electrons wavefunctions of π orbital and σ orbital, degrees of hybridization, separately, as well as the numerical results.
Resonant Orbital Dynamics in LEO Region: Space Debris in Focus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. C. Sampaio
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The increasing number of objects orbiting the earth justifies the great attention and interest in the observation, spacecraft protection, and collision avoidance. These studies involve different disturbances and resonances in the orbital motions of these objects distributed by the distinct altitudes. In this work, objects in resonant orbital motions are studied in low earth orbits. Using the two-line elements (TLE of the NORAD, resonant angles and resonant periods associated with real motions are described, providing more accurate information to develop an analytical model that describes a certain resonance. The time behaviors of the semimajor axis, eccentricity, and inclination of some space debris are studied. Possible irregular motions are observed by the frequency analysis and by the presence of different resonant angles describing the orbital dynamics of these objects.
Electronic structure interpolation via atomic orbitals.
Chen, Mohan; Guo, G-C; He, Lixin
2011-08-17
We present an efficient scheme for accurate electronic structure interpolation based on systematically improvable optimized atomic orbitals. The atomic orbitals are generated by minimizing the spillage value between the atomic basis calculations and the converged plane wave basis calculations on some coarse k-point grid. They are then used to calculate the band structure of the full Brillouin zone using the linear combination of atomic orbitals algorithms. We find that usually 16-25 orbitals per atom can give an accuracy of about 10 meV compared to the full ab initio calculations, and the accuracy can be systematically improved by using more atomic orbitals. The scheme is easy to implement and robust, and works equally well for metallic systems and systems with complicated band structures. Furthermore, the atomic orbitals have much better transferability than Shirley's basis and Wannier functions, which is very useful for perturbation calculations.
Cyclotron resonance of figure-of-eight orbits in a type-II Weyl semimetal
Koshino, Mikito
2016-07-01
We study the cyclotron resonance in the electron-hole joint Fermi surface of a type-II Weyl semimetal. In magnetic field, the electron and hole pockets touching at the Weyl node are hybridized to form quantized Landau levels corresponding to semiclassical 8-shaped orbits. We calculate the dynamical conductivities for the electric fields oscillating in x and y directions and find that the resonant frequencies in x and y differ by a factor of two, reflecting the figure-of-eight electron motion in real space. The peculiar anisotropy in the cyclotron resonance serves as a unique characteristic of the dumbbell-like Fermi surface.
Local orbitals in electron scattering calculations*
Winstead, Carl L.; McKoy, Vincent
2016-05-01
We examine the use of local orbitals to improve the scaling of calculations that incorporate target polarization in a description of low-energy electron-molecule scattering. After discussing the improved scaling that results, we consider the results of a test calculation that treats scattering from a two-molecule system using both local and delocalized orbitals. Initial results are promising. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.
Managing resonant-trapped orbits in our Galaxy
Binney, James
2016-11-01
Galaxy modelling is greatly simplified by assuming the existence of a global system of angle-action coordinates. Unfortunately, global angle-action coordinates do not exist because some orbits become trapped by resonances, especially where the radial and vertical frequencies coincide. We show that in a realistic Galactic potential such trapping occurs only on thick-disc and halo orbits (speed relative to the guiding centre ≳ 80 km s- 1). We explain how the TORUS MAPPER code (TM) behaves in regions of phase space in which orbits are resonantly trapped, and we extend TM so that trapped orbits can be manipulated as easily as untrapped ones. The impact that the resonance has on the structure of velocity space depends on the weights assigned to trapped orbits. The impact is everywhere small if each trapped orbit is assigned the phase space density equal to the time average along the orbit of the DF for untrapped orbits. The impact could be significant with a different assignment of weights to trapped orbits.
An orbital angular momentum spectrometer for electrons
Harvey, Tyler; Grillo, Vincenzo; McMorran, Benjamin
2016-05-01
With the advent of techniques for preparation of free-electron and neutron orbital angular momentum (OAM) states, a basic follow-up question emerges: how do we measure the orbital angular momentum state distribution in matter waves? Control of both the energy and helicity of light has produced a range of spectroscopic applications, including molecular fingerprinting and magnetization mapping. Realization of an analogous dual energy-OAM spectroscopy with matter waves demands control of both initial and final energy and orbital angular momentum states: unlike for photons, final state post-selection is necessary for particles that cannot be annihilated. We propose a magnetic field-based mechanism for quantum non-demolition measurement of electron OAM. We show that OAM-dependent lensing is produced by an operator of form U =exp iLzρ2/ℏb2 where ρ =√{x2 +y2 } is the radial position operator, Lz is the orbital angular momentum operator along z, and b is the OAM dispersion length. We can physically realize this operator as a term in the time evolution of an electron in magnetic round lens. We discuss prospects and practical challenges for implementation of a lensing orbital angular momentum measurement. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (BES), under the Early Career Research Program Award # DE-SC0010466.
Orbital Models and Electronic Structure Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Linderberg, Jan
2012-01-01
This tribute to the work by Carl Johan Ballhausen focuses on the emergence of quantitative means for the study of the electronic properties of complexes and molecules. Development, refinement and application of the orbital picture elucidated electric and magnetic features of ranges of molecules...
Imaging Cyclotron Orbits of Electrons in Graphene.
Bhandari, Sagar; Lee, Gil-Ho; Klales, Anna; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Heller, Eric; Kim, Philip; Westervelt, Robert M
2016-03-09
Electrons in graphene can travel for several microns without scattering at low temperatures, and their motion becomes ballistic, following classical trajectories. When a magnetic field B is applied perpendicular to the plane, electrons follow cyclotron orbits. Magnetic focusing occurs when electrons injected from one narrow contact focus onto a second contact located an integer number of cyclotron diameters away. By tuning the magnetic field B and electron density n in the graphene layer, we observe magnetic focusing peaks. We use a cooled scanning gate microscope to image cyclotron trajectories in graphene at 4.2 K. The tip creates a local change in density that casts a shadow by deflecting electrons flowing nearby; an image of flow can be obtained by measuring the transmission between contacts as the tip is raster scanned across the sample. On the first magnetic focusing peak, we image a cyclotron orbit that extends from one contact to the other. In addition, we study the geometry of orbits deflected into the second point contact by the tip.
Bithiophene radical cation: Resonance Raman spectroscopy and molecular orbital calculations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grage, M.M.-L.; Keszthelyi, T.; Offersgaard, J.F.
1998-01-01
The resonance Raman spectrum of the photogenerated radical cation of bithiophene is reported. The bithiophene radical cation was produced via a photoinduced electron transfer reaction between excited bithiophene and the electron acceptor fumaronitrile in a room temperature acetonitrile solution a...
Bifurcations of double homoclinic flip orbits with resonant eigenvalues
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Concerns double homoclinic loops with orbit flips and two resonant eigenvalues in a four-dimensional system. We use the solution of a normal form system to construct a singular map in some neighborhood of the equilibrium, and the solution of a linear variational system to construct a regular map in some neighborhood of the double culation gives explicitly an expression of the associated successor function. By a delicate analysis of the bifurcation equation, we obtain the condition that the original double homoclinic loops are kept, and prove the existence and the existence regions of the large 1-homoclinic orbit bifurcation surface, 2-fold large 1-periodic orbit bifurcation surface,large 2-homoclinic orbit bifurcation surface and their approximate expressions. We also locate the large periodic orbits and large homoclinic orbits and their number.
Perez, Uzziel; Sugon, Quirino M; McNamara, Daniel J; Yoshikawa, Akimasa
2015-01-01
We studied the orbit of an electron revolving around an infinitely massive nucleus of a large classical Hydrogen atom subject to an AC electric field oscillating perpendicular to the electron's circular orbit. Using perturbation theory in geometric algebra, we show that the equation of motion of the electron perpendicular to the unperturbed orbital plane satisfies a forced simple harmonic oscillator equation found in Lorentz dispersion law in Optics. We show that even though we did not introduce a damping term, the initial orbital position and velocity of the electron results to a solution whose absorbed energies are finite at the dominant resonant frequency $\\omega=\\omega_0$; the electron slowly increases its amplitude of oscillation until it becomes ionized. We computed the average power absorbed by the electron both at the perturbing frequency and at the electron's orbital frequency. We graphed the trace of the angular momentum vector at different frequencies. We showed that at different perturbing frequen...
Electron vortices: Beams with orbital angular momentum
Lloyd, S. M.; Babiker, M.; Thirunavukkarasu, G.; Yuan, J.
2017-07-01
The recent prediction and subsequent creation of electron vortex beams in a number of laboratories occurred after almost 20 years had elapsed since the recognition of the physical significance and potential for applications of the orbital angular momentum carried by optical vortex beams. A rapid growth in interest in electron vortex beams followed, with swift theoretical and experimental developments. Much of the rapid progress can be attributed in part to the clear similarities between electron optics and photonics arising from the functional equivalence between the Helmholtz equations governing the free-space propagation of optical beams and the time-independent Schrödinger equation governing freely propagating electron vortex beams. There are, however, key differences in the properties of the two kinds of vortex beams. This review is primarily concerned with the electron type, with specific emphasis on the distinguishing vortex features: notably the spin, electric charge, current and magnetic moment, the spatial distribution, and the associated electric and magnetic fields. The physical consequences and potential applications of such properties are pointed out and analyzed, including nanoparticle manipulation and the mechanisms of orbital angular momentum transfer in the electron vortex interaction with matter.
Runaway electron drift orbits in magnetostatic perturbed fields
Papp, G.; Drevlak, M.; Fülöp, T.; Helander, P.
2011-04-01
Disruptions in large tokamaks can lead to the generation of a relativistic runaway electron beam that may cause serious damage to the first wall. To mitigate the disruption and suppress the runaway beam the application of resonant magnetic perturbations has been suggested. In this work we investigate the effect of resonant magnetic perturbations on the confinement of runaway electrons by simulating their drift orbits in magnetostatic perturbed fields and calculating the orbit losses for various initial energies and magnetic perturbation magnitudes. In the simulations we use a TEXTOR-like configuration and solve the relativistic, gyro-averaged drift equations for the runaway electrons including synchrotron radiation and collisions. The results indicate that runaway electrons are well confined in the core of the device, but the onset time of runaway losses closer to the edge is dependent on the magnetic perturbation level and thereby can affect the maximum runaway current. However, the runaway current damping rate is not sensitive to the magnetic perturbation level, in agreement with experimental observations.
Orientation and resonance locks for satellites in the elliptic orbit.
Liu, H.-S.
1972-01-01
In order to achieve the maximum strength of higher resonance locks for satellites in the elliptic orbit, the condition of satellite orientation during the process of deployment is established. It is shown that for maximum strength locks the axis of the minimum moment of inertia of satellites should point toward the attracting body at plus or minus (5/8) pi and 0 values of the true anomaly f. This condition of deployment is applicable to all cases of resonance rotation regardless of the value of lock number k and orbit eccentricity e.
Stabilities of asteroid orbits in resonances
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
A map of the asteroid motion is studied carefully. An exponential diffusion law in the chaotic sea and an algebraic law in the mixed region are observed. The effects of perturbations on diffusion are also discussed. The fixed points, their stabilities and the diffusion properties of the map give qualitative explanations of the distribution of asteroids, i.e. the depletion and accumulation of asteroids in the outer main belt, particularly in the first order mean motion resonances with Jupiter.
Planar resonant periodic orbits in Kuiper belt dynamics
Voyatzis, G; Voyatzis, George; Kotoulas, Thomas
2005-01-01
In the framework of the planar restricted three body problem we study a considerable number of resonances associated to the Kuiper Belt dynamics and located between 30 and 48 a.u. Our study is based on the computation of resonant periodic orbits and their stability. Stable periodic orbits are surrounded by regular librations in phase space and in such domains the capture of trans-Neptunian object is possible. All the periodic orbits found are symmetric and there is evidence for the existence of asymmetric ones only in few cases. In the present work first, second and third order resonances are under consideration. In the planar circular case we found that most of the periodic orbits are stable. The families of periodic orbits are temporarily interrupted by collisions but they continue up to relatively large values of the Jacobi constant and highly eccentric regular motion exists for all cases. In the elliptic problem and for a particular eccentricity value of the primary bodies the periodic orbits are isolated...
Numerical simulation study on spin resonant depolarization due to spin-orbit coupling
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lan Jie-Qin; Xu Hong-Liang
2012-01-01
The spin polarization phenomenon in lepton circular accelerators had been known for many years.It provides a new approach for physicists to study the spin feature of fundamental particles and the dynamics of spin-orbit coupling,such as spin resonances.We use numerical simulation to study the features of spin under the modulation of orbital motion in an electron storage ring.The various cases of depolarization due to spin-orbit coupling through an emitting photon and misalignment of magnets in the ring are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rouben, D.C
1997-11-28
A semiclassical method for resonant tunneling in a quantum well in the presence of a magnetic field tilted with regard to an electric field is developed. In particular a semiclassical formula is derived for the total current of electrons after the second barrier of the quantum well. The contribution of the stable and unstable orbits is studied. It appears that the parameters which describe the classical chaos in the quantum well have an important effect on the tunneling current. A numerical experiment is led, the contributions to the current of some particular orbits are evaluated and the results are compared with those given by the quantum theory. (A.C.) 70 refs.
Disruption of co-orbital (1:1) planetary resonances during gas-driven orbital migration
Pierens, Arnaud
2014-01-01
Planets close to their stars are thought to form farther out and migrate inward due to angular momentum exchange with gaseous protoplanetary disks. This process can produce systems of planets in co-orbital (Trojan or 1:1) resonance, in which two planets share the same orbit, usually separated by 60 degrees. Co-orbital systems are detectable among the planetary systems found by the Kepler mission either directly or by transit timing variations. However, no co-orbital systems have been found within the thousands of Kepler planets and candidates. Here we study the orbital evolution of co-orbital planets embedded in a protoplanetary disk using a grid-based hydrodynamics code. We show that pairs of similar-mass planets in co-orbital resonance are disrupted during large-scale orbital migration. Destabilization occurs when one or both planets is near the critical mass needed to open a gap in the gaseous disk. A confined gap is opened that spans the 60 degree azimuthal separation between planets. This alters the torq...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barber, D.P.; Vogt, M.
2006-12-15
Here, and in a sequel, we invoke the invariant spin field to provide an in-depth study of spin motion at and near low order orbital resonances in a simple model for the effects of vertical betatron motion in a storage ring with Siberian Snakes. This leads to a clear understanding, within the model, of the behaviour of the beam polarization at and near so-called snake resonances in proton storage rings. (orig.)
Barber, D P
2006-01-01
Here, and in a sequel, we invoke the invariant spin field to provide an in--depth study of spin motion at and near low order orbital resonances in a simple model for the effects of vertical betatron motion in a storage ring with Siberian Snakes. This leads to a clear understanding, within the model, of the behaviour of the beam polarisation at and near so--called snake resonances in proton storage rings.
Libration of arguments of circumbinary-planet orbits at resonance
Schubart, Joachim
2017-02-01
The paper refers to fictitious resonant orbits of planet type that surround both components of a binary system. In case of 16 studied examples a suitable choice of the starting values leads to a process of libration of special angular arguments and to an evolution with an at least temporary stay of the planet in the resonant orbit. The ratio of the periods of revolution of the binary and a planet is equal to 1:5. Eight orbits depend on the ratio 1:5 of the masses of the binary components, but two other ratios appear as well. The basis of this study is the planar, elliptic or circular restricted problem of three bodies, but remarks at the end of the text refer to a four-body problem.
Orbital resonances in discs around braneworld Kerr black holes
Stuchlik, Zdenek; 10.1007/s10714-008-0709-2
2008-01-01
Rotating black holes in the brany universe of the Randall-Sundrum type are described by the Kerr geometry with a tidal charge b representing the interaction of the brany black hole and the bulk spacetime. For b1 are allowed. We investigate the role of the tidal charge b in the orbital resonance model of QPOs in black hole systems. The orbital Keplerian, the radial and vertical epicyclic frequencies of the equatorial, quasicircular geodetical motion are given and their radial profiles are discussed. The resonant conditions are given in three astrophysically relevant situations: for direct (parametric) resonances, for the relativistic precession model, and for some trapped oscillations of the warped discs, with resonant combinational frequencies. It is shown, how b could influence matching of the observational data indicating the 3:2 frequency ratio observed in GRS 1915+105 microquasar with prediction of the orbital resonance model; limits on allowed range of the black hole parameters a and b are established. T...
Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stano, P.
2007-01-15
Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)
Zhang, Ke; Hamilton, Douglas P.
2008-01-01
We investigate the orbital history of the small neptunian satellites discovered by Voyager 2. Over the age of the Solar System, tidal forces have caused the satellites to migrate radially, bringing them through mean-motion resonances with one another. In this paper, we extend our study of the largest satellites Proteus and Larissa [Zhang, K., Hamilton, D.P., 2007. Icarus 188, 386-399] by adding in mid-sized Galatea and Despina. We test the hypothesis that these moons all formed with zero inclinations, and that orbital resonances excited their tilts during tidal migration. We find that the current orbital inclinations of Proteus, Galatea, and Despina are consistent with resonant excitation if they have a common density 0.4<ρ¯<0.8 g/cm. Larissa's inclination, however, is too large to have been caused by resonant kicks between these four satellites; we suggest that a prior resonant capture event involving either Naiad or Thalassa is responsible. Our solution requires at least three past resonances with Proteus, which helps constrain the tidal migration timescale and thus Neptune's tidal quality factor: 9000resonant capture condition, and work out a resonant overlap criterion relevant to satellite orbital evolution around an oblate primary.
Testing Lorentz invariance in orbital electron capture
Vos, K K; Timmermans, R G E
2015-01-01
Searches for Lorentz violation were recently extended to the weak sector, in particular neutron and nuclear $\\beta$ decay [1]. From experiments on forbidden $\\beta$-decay transitions strong limits in the range of $10^{-6}$-$10^{-8}$ were obtained on Lorentz-violating components of the $W$-boson propagator [2]. In order to improve on these limits strong sources have to be considered. In this Brief Report we study isotopes that undergo orbital electron capture and allow experiments at high decay rates and low dose. We derive the expressions for the Lorentz-violating differential decay rate and discuss the options for competitive experiments and their required precision.
Orbital order of spinless fermions near an optical Feshbach resonance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hauke, Philipp [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Parc Mediterrani de la Tecnologia, E-08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Zhao, Erhai [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States); Goyal, Krittika; Deutsch, Ivan H. [Center for Quantum Information and Control (CQuIC), and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Liu, W. Vincent [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Lewenstein, Maciej [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Parc Mediterrani de la Tecnologia, E-08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); ICREA-Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Lluis Companys 23, E-08010 Barcelona (Spain)
2011-11-15
We study the quantum phases of a three-color Hubbard model that arises in the dynamics of the p-band orbitals of spinless fermions in an optical lattice. Strong, color-dependent interactions are induced by an optical Feshbach resonance. Starting from the microscopic scattering properties of ultracold atoms, we derive the orbital exchange constants at 1/3 filling on the cubic optical lattice. Using this, we compute the phase diagram in a Gutzwiller ansatz. We find phases with ''axial orbital order'' in which p{sub z} and p{sub x}+ip{sub y} (or p{sub x}-ip{sub y}) orbitals alternate.
Hybrid simulation of electron cyclotron resonance heating
Ropponen, T; Suominen, P; Koponen, T K; Kalvas, T; Koivisto, H
2008-01-01
Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heating is a fundamentally important aspect in understanding the physics of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS). Absorption of the radio frequency (RF) microwave power by electron heating in the resonance zone depends on many parameters including frequency and electric field strength of the microwave, magnetic field structure and electron and ion density profiles. ECR absorption has been studied in the past by e.g. modelling electric field behaviour in the resonance zone and its near proximity. This paper introduces a new ECR heating code that implements damping of the microwave power in the vicinity of the resonance zone, utilizes electron density profiles and uses right hand circularly polarized (RHCP) electromagnetic waves to simulate electron heating in ECRIS plasma.
Hybrid simulation of electron cyclotron resonance heating
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ropponen, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)], E-mail: tommi.ropponen@phys.jyu.fi; Tarvainen, O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Suominen, P. [CERN Geneve 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Koponen, T.K. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, Nanoscience Center, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland); Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)
2008-03-11
Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heating is a fundamentally important aspect in understanding the physics of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS). Absorption of the radio frequency (RF) microwave power by electron heating in the resonance zone depends on many parameters including frequency and electric field strength of the microwave, magnetic field structure and electron and ion density profiles. ECR absorption has been studied in the past by e.g. modelling electric field behaviour in the resonance zone and its near proximity. This paper introduces a new ECR heating code that implements damping of the microwave power in the vicinity of the resonance zone, utilizes electron density profiles and uses right hand circularly polarized (RHCP) electromagnetic waves to simulate electron heating in ECRIS plasma.
Theoretical foundations of electron spin resonance
Harriman, John E
2013-01-01
Theoretical Foundations of Electron Spin Resonance deals with the theoretical approach to electron paramagnetic resonance. The book discusses electron spin resonance in applications related to polyatomic, probably organic, free radicals in condensed phases. The book also focuses on essentially static phenomena, that is, the description and determination of stationary-state energy levels. The author reviews the Dirac theory of the electron in which a four-component wave function is responsible for the behavior of the electron. The author then connects this theory with the nonrelativistic wave f
Bifurcations of lunisolar secular resonances for space debris orbits
Celletti, Alessandra; Pucacco, Giuseppe
2015-01-01
Using bifurcation theory, we study the secular resonances induced by Sun and Moon on space debris orbits around the Earth. In particular, we concentrate on a special class of secular resonances, which depends just on the debris' orbital inclination. This class is typically subdivided into three distinct types of secular resonances: those occurring at the critical inclination, those corresponding to polar orbits and a third type resulting from a linear combination of the rates of variation of the argument of perigee and the longitude of the ascending node. The model describing the dynamics of space debris includes the effects of the geopotential, as well as Sun's and Moon's attractions, and it is defined in terms of suitable action-angle variables. We consider the system averaged over both the mean anomaly of the debris and those of Sun and Moon. Such multiply-averaged Hamiltonian is used to study the lunisolar resonances which depend just on the inclination. Borrowing the technique from the theory of bifurcat...
Spin-orbital interaction of photons and fine splitting of levels in ring dielectric resonator
Bliokh, K Y
2004-01-01
We consider eigen modes of a ring resonator made of a circular dielectric waveguide. Taking into account the polarization corrections, which are responsible for the interaction of polarization and orbital properties of electromagnetic waves (spin-orbital interaction of photons), results in fine splitting of the levels of scalar approximation. The basic features of this fine structure of the levels are quite similar to that of electron levels in an atom. Namely: 1) sublevels of the fine structure are defined by an additional quantum number: product of helicity of the wave and its orbital moment; 2) each level of the scalar approximation splits into N sublevels (N is the principal quantum number); 3) each level of the fine structure remains twice degenerated due to local axial symmetry of the waveguide. Numerical estimations show that the described fine splitting of levels may be observed in optic-fiber ring resonators.
Molecular orbital theory of ballistic electron transport through molecules
Ernzerhof, Matthias; Rocheleau, Philippe; Goyer, Francois
2009-03-01
Electron transport through molecules occurs, for instance, in STM imaging and in conductance measurements on molecular electronic devices (MEDs). To model these phenomena, we use a non-Hermitian model Hamiltonian [1] for the description of open systems that exchange current density with their environment. We derive qualitative, molecular-orbital-based rules relating molecular structure and conductance. We show how side groups attached to molecular conductors [2] can completely suppress the conductance. We discuss interference effects in aromatic molecules [3] that can also inhibit electron transport. Rules are developed [1] for the prediction of Fano resonances. All these phenomena are explained with a molecular orbital theory [1,4] for molecules attached to macroscopic reservoirs. [1] F. Goyer, M. Ernzerhof, and M. Zhuang, JCP 126, 144104 (2007); M. Ernzerhof, JCP 127, 204709 (2007). [2] M. Ernzerhof, M. Zhuang, and P. Rocheleau, JCP 123, 134704 (2005); G. C. Solomon, D Q. Andrews, R P. Van Duyne, and M A. Ratner, JACS 130, 7788 (2008). [3] M. Ernzerhof, H. Bahmann, F. Goyer, M. Zhuang, and P. Rocheleau, JCTC 2, 1291 (2006); G. C. Solomon, D. Q. Andrews, R. P. Van Duyne, and M. A. Ratner, JCP 129, 054701 (2008). [4] B.T. Pickup, P.W. Fowler, CPL 459, 198 (2008); P. Rocheleau and M. Ernzerhof, JCP, submitted.
[Orbital vasculonervous network and orbital surgical compartments by high field magnetic resonance].
Hernández González, L C; Suárez Suárez, E; Dos Santos Bernardo, V; Junceda Moreno, J; Recio Rodríguez, M; Martínez De Vega, V; Viaño López, J
2003-10-01
To elucidate the possibilities and indications of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the study of the orbit and its contents. Orbital anatomy was studied in sliced specimens of fifteen fresh frozen cadavers and the results were compared with those obtained in thirty asymptomatic subjects who underwent a magnetic resonance with 1.5 Tesla equipment. The information obtained was used to interpret the findings in twenty-two patients with various orbital diseases. High-resolution MRI allows visualization of structures difficult to assess previously, like the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surrounding the optic nerve, the complete intraorbital route and the exit of the third cranial nerve, the ophthalmic artery and the intraorbital relationships of the sixth cranial nerve, which can be clearly differentiated from the lateral rectus muscle. High-resolution MRI is a very useful tool for the study of the orbit and its content. It provides accurate diagnoses through non-invasive procedures and facilitates the planning of the surgical approaches by improving the visualization of pathologic orbital structures. lcarlos@correo.uniovi.es
Photoassociation of Trilobite Rydberg Molecules via Resonant Spin-Orbit Coupling
Kleinbach, K. S.; Meinert, F.; Engel, F.; Kwon, W. J.; Löw, R.; Pfau, T.; Raithel, G.
2017-06-01
We report on a novel method for the photoassociation of strongly polar trilobite Rydberg molecules. This exotic ultralong-range dimer, consisting of a ground-state atom bound to the Rydberg electron via electron-neutral scattering, inherits its polar character from the admixture of high-angular-momentum electronic orbitals. The absence of low-L character hinders standard photoassociation techniques. Here, we show that for suitable principal quantum numbers the resonant coupling of the orbital motion with the nuclear spin of the perturber, mediated by electron-neutral scattering, hybridizes the trilobite molecular potential with the more conventional S -type molecular state. This provides a general path to associate trilobite molecules with large electric dipole moments, as demonstrated via high-resolution spectroscopy. We find a dipole moment of 135(45) D for the trilobite state. Our results are compared to theoretical predictions based on a Fermi model.
Spin-Orbit Coupling Controlled J =3 /2 Electronic Ground State in 5 d3 Oxides
Taylor, A. E.; Calder, S.; Morrow, R.; Feng, H. L.; Upton, M. H.; Lumsden, M. D.; Yamaura, K.; Woodward, P. M.; Christianson, A. D.
2017-05-01
Entanglement of spin and orbital degrees of freedom drives the formation of novel quantum and topological physical states. Here we report resonant inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of the transition metal oxides Ca3 LiOsO6 and Ba2 YOsO6 , which reveals a dramatic spitting of the t2 g manifold. We invoke an intermediate coupling approach that incorporates both spin-orbit coupling and electron-electron interactions on an even footing and reveal that the ground state of 5 d3-based compounds, which has remained elusive in previously applied models, is a novel spin-orbit entangled J =3 /2 electronic ground state. This work reveals the hidden diversity of spin-orbit controlled ground states in 5 d systems and introduces a new arena in the search for spin-orbit controlled phases of matter.
Spin orbit torque based electronic neuron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sengupta, Abhronil, E-mail: asengup@purdue.edu; Choday, Sri Harsha; Kim, Yusung; Roy, Kaushik [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)
2015-04-06
A device based on current-induced spin-orbit torque (SOT) that functions as an electronic neuron is proposed in this work. The SOT device implements an artificial neuron's thresholding (transfer) function. In the first step of a two-step switching scheme, a charge current places the magnetization of a nano-magnet along the hard-axis, i.e., an unstable point for the magnet. In the second step, the SOT device (neuron) receives a current (from the synapses) which moves the magnetization from the unstable point to one of the two stable states. The polarity of the synaptic current encodes the excitatory and inhibitory nature of the neuron input and determines the final orientation of the magnetization. A resistive crossbar array, functioning as synapses, generates a bipolar current that is a weighted sum of the inputs. The simulation of a two layer feed-forward artificial neural network based on the SOT electronic neuron shows that it consumes ∼3× lower power than a 45 nm digital CMOS implementation, while reaching ∼80% accuracy in the classification of 100 images of handwritten digits from the MNIST dataset.
Hyperfine selectivity using multiquantum electron-nuclear-electron triple resonance
Christidis, T. C.; Mchaourab, Hassane S.; Hyde, James S.
1996-06-01
Hyperfine selectivity is demonstrated in a continuous wave electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) experiment. A multiquantum electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) signal is monitored as a function of the nuclear radio frequency. The signs and relative intensities of the ENDOR lines permit separating the case where both ELDOR and ENDOR frequencies match hyperfine couplings from the cases where this condition is not satisfied.
Electronic dipole resonance in smoky quartz
Kerssen, J.; Volger, J.
1967-01-01
Microwave absorption in smoky quartz mono-crystal is ascribed to resonance transitions of trapped electrons between initially configurational degenerated states, which are Stark-splitted by a polarizing electric field.
Quantum Effect in Mesoscopic Open Electron Resonator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAN Zhan-Yuan; ZHANG Xiao-Hong; HAN Ying-Hui
2008-01-01
The open electron resonator is a mesoscopic device that has attracted considerable attention due to its remarkable behavior: conductance oscillations. In this paper, using an improved quantum theory to mesoscopic circuits developed recently by Li and Chen, the mesoscopic electron resonator is quantized based on the fundamental fact that the electric charge takes discrete value. With presentation transformation and unitary transformation, the Schrodinger equation becomes an standard Mathieu equation. Then, the detailed energy spectrum and wave functions in the system are obtained, which will be helpful to the observation of other characters of electron resonator. The average of currents and square of the current are calculated, the results show the existence of the current fluctuation, which causes the noise in the circuits, the influence of inductance to the noise is discussed. With the results achieved, the stability characters of mesoscopic electron resonator are studied firstly, these works would be benefit to the design and control of integrate circuit.
Transfer of optical orbital angular momentum to a bound electron
Schmiegelow, Christian T.; Schulz, Jonas; Kaufmann, Henning; Ruster, Thomas; Poschinger, Ulrich G.; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand
2016-10-01
Photons can carry angular momentum, not only due to their spin, but also due to their spatial structure. This extra twist has been used, for example, to drive circular motion of microscopic particles in optical tweezers as well as to create vortices in quantum gases. Here we excite an atomic transition with a vortex laser beam and demonstrate the transfer of optical orbital angular momentum to the valence electron of a single trapped ion. We observe strongly modified selection rules showing that an atom can absorb two quanta of angular momentum from a single photon: one from the spin and another from the spatial structure of the beam. Furthermore, we show that parasitic ac-Stark shifts from off-resonant transitions are suppressed in the dark centre of vortex beams. These results show how light's spatial structure can determine the characteristics of light-matter interaction and pave the way for its application and observation in other systems.
Resonance fluorescence and electron spin in semiconductor quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Yong
2009-11-18
The work presented in this dissertation contains the first observation of spin-resolved resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot and its application of direct measurement of electron spin dynamics. The Mollow triplet and the Mollow quintuplet, which are the hallmarks of resonance fluorescence, are presented as the non-spin-resolved and spin-resolved resonance fluorescence spectrum, respectively. The negligible laser background contribution, the near pure radiative broadened spectrum and the anti-bunching photon statistics imply the sideband photons are background-free and near transform-limited single photons. This demonstration is a promising step towards the heralded single photon generation and electron spin readout. Instead of resolving spectrum, an alternative spin-readout scheme by counting resonance fluorescence photons under moderate laser power is demonstrated. The measurements of n-shot time-resolved resonance fluorescence readout are carried out to reveal electron spin dynamics of the measurement induced back action and the spin relaxation. Hyperfine interaction and heavy-light hole mixing are identified as the relevant mechanisms for the back action and phonon-assistant spin-orbit interaction dominates the spin relaxation. After a detailed discussion on charge-spin configurations in coupled quantum dots system, the single-shot readout on electron spin are proposed. (orig.)
Observation of orbital resonance Hall effect in (TMTSF)2ClO4.
Kobayashi, Kaya; Satsukawa, H; Yamada, J; Terashima, T; Uji, S
2014-03-21
We report the observation of a Hall effect driven by orbital resonance in the quasi-1-dimensional (q1D) organic conductor (TMTSF)2ClO4. Although a conventional Hall effect is not expected in this class of materials due to their reduced dimensionality, we observed a prominent Hall response at certain orientations of the magnetic field B corresponding to lattice vectors of the constituent molecular chains, known as the magic angles (MAs). We show that this Hall effect can be understood as the response of conducting planes generated by an effective locking of the orbital motion of the charge carriers to the MA driven by an electron-trajectory resonance. This phenomenon supports a class of theories describing the rich behavior of MA phenomena in q1D materials based on altered dimensionality. Furthermore, we observed that the effective carrier density of the conducting planes is exponentially suppressed in large B, which indicates possible density wave formation.
Pulsed electron-nuclear-electron triple resonance spectroscopy
Thomann, Hans; Bernardo, Marcelino
1990-05-01
A new experimental technique, pulsed electron-nuclear-electron triple resonance spectroscopy, is demonstrated. It is based on a modification of the pulse sequence for electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) in which two EPR and one NMR transition are irradiated. The irradiation of one EPR transition is detected via a second EPR transition. The nuclear hyperfine coupling, which separates these EPR transition frequencies, is the irradiated NMR transition. The major advantages of triple resonance spectroscopy include the ability to resolve overlapping nuclear resonances in the ENDOR spectrum and a more direct quantitative assignment of nuclear hyperfine and quadrupole couplings. The triple resonance experiment is an alternative to the recently proposed method of employing rapid magnetic field jumps between microwave pulses for generating hyperfine selective ENDOR spectra.
Electron cyclotron resonance heating on TEXTOR
Westerhof, E.; Hoekzema, J. A.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Schüller, F. C.; Barth, C. J.; Bongers, W. A.; Donne, A. J. H.; Dumortier, P.; van der Grift, A. F.; van Gorkom, J. C.; Kalupin, D.; Koslowski, H. R.; Kramer-Flecken, A.; Kruijt, O. G.; Cardozo, N. J. L.; Mantica, P.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Merkulov, A.; Messiaen, A.; Oosterbeek, J. W.; Oyevaar, T.; Poelman, A. J.; Polman, R. W.; Prins, P. R.; Scholten, J.; Sterk, A. B.; Tito, C. J.; Udintsev, V.S.; Unterberg, B.; Vervier, M.; van Wassenhove, G.
2003-01-01
The 110 GHz and the new 140 GHz gyrotron systems for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and ECCD on TEXTOR are described and results of ECRH experiments with the 110 GHz system are reported. Central ECRH on Ohmic plasmas shows the presence of an internal electron transport barrier near q =
Magnetic Resonance Imaging and DWI Features of Orbital Rhabdomyosarcoma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xuetao Mu; Hong Wang; Yueyue Li; Yuwen Hao; Chunnan Wu; Lin Ma
2014-01-01
Purpose:.To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of orbital rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Methods:.Thirty-nine patients with histopathologically con-firmed orbital RMS were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent orbital conventional MRI, including axial,.sagittal, and coronal T1-weighted,.T2-weighted,.and postcontrast T1-weighted sequences. The location, shape, margin, and MRI signal of the 39 lesions were reviewed..DWI in 15 patients and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) in 2 patients were also analyzed. Results:.Orbital MRI was available in 39 patients and re-vealed a soft tissue mass in the orbital region in all cases..Of the 39 patients,.the primary tumor sites were limited to the orbital proper in 31 cases, while 28 cases had extraocular muscle invasion and 8 cases had extraorbital invasion..All le-sions were unilateral..Thirty-three cases were well-defined soft tissue masses and 6 cases appeared as less well-defined soft-tissue masses..Thirty-four cases showed homogeneous isoin-tense or slightly hypointense signals on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and hyperintense signal on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) compared with extraocular muscles. Five cases had heterogeneous signals with focal areas of increased signal on T1WI or decreased signal on T2WI, including 1 case with hy-pointense signal on SWI..The mean apparent diffusion coeffi-cient (ADC) value of the viable part of tumors was (0.925 ± 0.09)×10-3 mm2/s. All cases showed moderate to marked en-hancement after contrast administration. Conclusion:Several MRI features-including homogeneous isointense or slightly hypointense signal on T1WI and slightly hyperintense signal on T2WI, relative low ADC values, and moderate to marked enhancement,.extraocular muscles inva-sion, and extraorbital extensionare helpful in the diagnosis of orbital RMS. (Eye Science 2014; 29:6-11).
Orbital cavernous hemangiomas: ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation.
Diamantopoulou, A; Damianidis, Ch; Kyriakou, V; Kotziamani, N; Emmanouilidou, M; Goutsaridou, F; Tsitouridis, I
2010-03-01
Cavernous hemangioma is the most common intraorbital lesion in adults. The aim of our study was to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) characteristics of cavernous hemangioma and their role in the differential diagnosis of orbital tumors. Eight patients with orbital cavernous hemangiomas, five women and three men with a mean age of 48 years were examined in a period of six years. All patients underwent MRI examination and four patients were also evaluated by US. In all cases MRI depicted a well-defined intraconal tumor. The lesions were homogeneous, isointense to muscle on T1-weighted sequence and hyperintense to muscle on T2-weighted sequence in six patients. In one patient the mass was isointense on T1WI with heterogeneous signal intensity on T2WI and in one patient the lesion had heterogeneous signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences. After intravenous contrast medium administration, the tumors showed initial inhomogeneous enhancement with progressive accumulation of contrast material on delayed images in seven patients and initial homogeneous enhancement in one patient. On ultrasonography, the orbital masses appeared slightly hyperechoic, heterogeneous with small areas of slow blood flow. The analysis of imaging characteristics of a well-defined intraconal lesion in an adult patient with painless progressive proptosis can be highly suggestive of the diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma.
Gräfenstein, Jürgen; Cremer, Dieter
2004-12-22
For the first time, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-spin coupling mechanism is decomposed into one-electron and electron-electron interaction contributions to demonstrate that spin-information transport between different orbitals is not exclusively an electron-exchange phenomenon. This is done using coupled perturbed density-functional theory in conjunction with the recently developed J-OC-PSP [=J-OC-OC-PSP: Decomposition of J into orbital contributions using orbital currents and partial spin polarization)] method. One-orbital contributions comprise Ramsey response and self-exchange effects and the two-orbital contributions describe first-order delocalization and steric exchange. The two-orbital effects can be characterized as external orbital, echo, and spin transport contributions. A relationship of these electronic effects to zeroth-order orbital theory is demonstrated and their sign and magnitude predicted using simple models and graphical representations of first order orbitals. In the case of methane the two NMR spin-spin coupling constants result from totally different Fermi contact coupling mechanisms. (1)J(C,H) is the result of the Ramsey response and the self-exchange of the bond orbital diminished by external first-order delocalization external one-orbital effects whereas (2)J(H,H) spin-spin coupling is almost exclusively mitigated by a two-orbital steric exchange effect. From this analysis, a series of prediction can be made how geometrical deformations, electron lone pairs, and substituent effects lead to a change in the values of (1)J(C,H) and (2)J(H,H), respectively, for hydrocarbons.
Efficient Sorting of Free Electron Orbital Angular Momentum
McMorran, Benjamin J; Lavery, Martin P J
2016-01-01
We propose a method for sorting electrons by orbital angular momentum (OAM). Several methods now exist to prepare electron wavefunctions in OAM states, but no technique has been developed for efficient, parallel measurement of pure and mixed electron OAM states. The proposed technique draws inspiration from the recent demonstration of the sorting of OAM through modal transformation. We show that the same transformation can be performed with electrostatic electron optical elements. Specifically, we show that a charged needle and an array of electrodes perform the transformation and phase correction necessary to sort orbital angular momentum states. This device may enable the analysis of the spatial mode distribution of inelastically scattered electrons.
Trapped 173Yb Fermi gas across an orbital Feshbach resonance
Iskin, M.
2017-01-01
Starting with the two-band description of an orbital Feshbach resonance, we study superfluid properties of a trapped 173Yb Fermi gas under the assumptions of a local-density approximation for the trapping potential and a mean-field approximation for the intraband Cooper pairings. In particular, we investigate the competition and interplay between the pair-breaking effect that is caused by the interband detuning energy, and the pair-breaking and thermal-broadening effects that are simultaneously caused by the temperature. We predict several experimental signatures that are directly caused by this interplay including a spatial separation of superfluid and normal phases within the trap, and could play decisive roles in probing two-band superfluidity in these systems.
Kobori, Tomoki; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Otsuka, Takao; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Tsuneyuki, Shinji
2013-09-07
The fragment molecular orbital (FMO)-linear combination of molecular orbitals (LCMO) method incorporates as an efficient post-process calculation of one-electron orbitals of the whole system after the FMO total energy calculation. A straightforward way to increase the accuracy is inclusion of the trimer effect. Here, we derive a comprehensive formulation called the FMO3-LCMO method. To keep the computational costs of the trimer term low enough, we use a matrix-size reduction technique. We evaluated the accuracy and efficiency of the FMO3-LCMO scheme in model biological systems (alanine oligomer and chignolin). The results show that delocalized electronic orbitals with covalent and hydrogen bonds are better described at the trimer level, and the FMO3-LCMO method is applicable to quantitative evaluations of a wide range of frontier orbitals in large biosystems.
Stability of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance
Asch, Joachim; Bourget, Olivier; Meresse, Cédric
2015-12-01
We consider the magnetic AC Stark effect for the quantum dynamics of a single particle in the plane under the influence of an oscillating homogeneous electric and a constant perpendicular magnetic field. We prove that the electron cyclotron resonance is insensitive to impurity potentials.
Undergraduate Electron-Spin-Resonance Experiment.
Willis, James S.
1980-01-01
Describes the basic procedures for use of an electron-spin resonance spectrometer and potassium azide (KN3) in an experiment which extends from the phase of sample preparation (crystal growth, sample mounting, and orientation) through data taking to the stages of calculation and theoretical explanation. (Author/DS)
Numerical methods in electron magnetic resonance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soernes, A.R
1998-07-01
The focal point of the thesis is the development and use of numerical methods in the analysis, simulation and interpretation of Electron Magnetic Resonance experiments on free radicals in solids to uncover the structure, the dynamics and the environment of the system.
Quantum defect theory for the orbital Feshbach resonance
Cheng, Yanting; Zhang, Ren; Zhang, Peng
2017-01-01
In the ultracold gases of alkali-earth-metal-like atoms, a new type of Feshbach resonance, i.e., the orbital Feshbach resonance (OFR), has been proposed and experimentally observed in ultracold 173Yb atoms [R. Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 135301 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.135301]. When the OFR of the 173Yb atoms occurs, the energy gap between the open and closed channels is smaller by two orders of magnitude than the van der Waals energy. As a result, quantitative accurate results for the low-energy two-body problems can be obtained via multichannel quantum defect theory (MQDT), which is based on the exact solution of the Schrödinger equation with the van der Waals potential. In this paper we use MQDT to calculate the two-atom scattering length, effective range, and binding energy of two-body bound states for the systems with OFR. With these results we further study the clock-transition spectrum for the two-body bound states, which can be used to experimentally measure the binding energy. Our results are helpful for the quantitative theoretical and experimental research for the ultracold gases of alkali-earth-metal-like atoms with OFR.
Resonant electron capture by orotic acid molecules
Muftakhov, M. V.; Shchukin, P. V.; Khatymov, R. V.
2017-09-01
Resonant electron attachment by orotic acid molecules (6-COOH-uracil) are studied in the energy range of 0-14 eV via negative ion mass spectrometry. Molecular ions, whose lifetimes relative to electron autodetachment are found to be 300 μs are recorded in the region of thermal electron energies; they form in the valence state through a vibration-excited resonance mechanism. Unlike unsubstituted uracil, most dissociative processes occur in the low-energy region of <4 eV and are due to carboxylic anions. An absolute cross section of 2.4 × 10-17 cm2 is found for the most intense fragment ions [M-H]- at an output energy of 1.33 eV. The kinetics of decarboxylation is considered for these ions. This could be a model reaction for the last stage of uridine monophosphate biosynthesis.
The role of solar apsidal resonance in the evolution of geostationary transfer orbits
Wang, Yue; Gurfil, Pini
2017-04-01
Subjected to multiple perturbations and their complex interplay, the dynamical evolution of geostationary transfer orbits (GTOs) is sensitive to initial conditions and model parameters. As one of the most remarkable outcomes of multiple perturbations, the solar apsidal resonance, i.e., the 1:1 resonance between the solar orbital motion and the rotation of the orbital apsidal line caused by Earth's oblateness, is an important feature of the GTO evolution. It occurs when the semi-major axis is reduced by the atmospheric drag to the critical value, with which the rotation of the orbital apsidal line is commensurate with the solar orbital motion. In the present paper, we show that the solar apsidal resonance plays an important role in the evolution and decay of GTOs. To do so, we first explain the underlying dynamical mechanism of the solar apsidal resonance, which is the U-turn of the solar azimuth with respect to the orbital apsidal line and the resulting monotonic increase or decrease of the eccentricity. The resonance is then classified into three kinds, and their causes and effects are analyzed. Previous studies have regarded the solar apsidal resonance as a mechanism extending the orbital lifetime. However, we find that in most cases the GTO will re-enter Earth's atmosphere soon or only several years after the resonance, and so the solar apsidal resonance can be regarded as the prelude to the GTO final re-entry. Finally, the sensitivity of orbital dynamics is studied through numerical simulations. It is shown that the high sensitivity of the dynamics can be attributed to the resonance, which is difficult to predict or manage. With the initial state, it is possible to predict the orbit evolution of GTO only before the solar apsidal resonance. To predict the lifetime of GTO, new measurements on the orbit after the resonance are required.
Electron paramagnetic resonance of transition ions
Abragam, A
2012-01-01
This book is a reissue of a classic Oxford text, and provides a comprehensive treatment of electron paramagnetic resonance of ions of the transition groups. The emphasis is on basic principles, with numerous references to publications containing further experimental results and more detailed developments of the theory. An introductory survey gives a general understanding, and a general survey presents such topics as the classical and quantum resonance equations, thespin-Hamiltonian, Endor, spin-spin and spin-lattice interactions, together with an outline of the known behaviour of ions of each
Modelling resonances and orbital chaos in disk galaxies. Application to a Milky Way spiral model
Michtchenko, Tatiana A; Barros, Douglas A; Lépine, Jacques R D
2016-01-01
Context: Resonances in the stellar orbital motion under perturbations from spiral arms structure play an important role in the evolution of the disks of spiral galaxies. The epicyclic approximation allows the determination of the corresponding resonant radii on the equatorial plane (for nearly circular orbits), but is not suitable in general. Aims: To expand the study of resonant orbits by analysing stellar motions perturbed by spiral arms with Gaussian-shaped profiles, without any restriction on the stellar orbital configurations, and expand the concept of Lindblad (epicyclic) resonances for orbits with large radial excursions. Methods: We define a representative plane of initial conditions, which covers the whole phase space of the system. Dynamical maps on representative planes are constructed numerically, in order to characterize the phase-space structure and identify the precise location of the resonances. The study is complemented by the construction of dynamical power spectra, which provide the identif...
Project ECHO: Electronic Communications from Halo Orbit
Borrelli, Jason; Cooley, Bryan; Debole, Marcy; Hrivnak, Lance; Nielsen, Kenneth; Sangmeister, Gary; Wolfe, Matthew
1994-01-01
The design of a communications relay to provide constant access between the Earth and the far side of the Moon is presented. Placement of the relay in a halo orbit about the L2 Earth-Moon Lagrange point allows the satellite to maintain constant simultaneous communication between Earth and scientific payloads on the far side of the Moon. The requirements of NASA's Discovery-class missions adopted and modified for this design are: total project cost should not exceed $150 million excluding launch costs, launch must be provided by Delta-class vehicle, and the satellite should maintain an operational lifetime of 10 to 15 years. The spacecraft will follow a transfer trajectory to the L2 point, after launch by a Delta II 7925 vehicle in 1999. Low-level thrust is used for injection into a stationkeeping-free halo orbit once the spacecraft reaches the L2 point. The shape of this halo orbit is highly elliptical with the maximum excursion from the L2 point being 35000 km. A spun section and despun section connected through a bearing and power transfer assembly (BAPTA) compose the structure of the spacecraft. Communications equipment is placed on the despun section to provide for a stationary dual parabolic offset-feed array antenna system. The dual system is necessary to provide communications coverage during portions of maximum excursion on the halo orbit. Transmissions to the NASA Deep Space Network 34 m antenna include six channels (color video, two voice, scientific data from lunar payloads, satellite housekeeping and telemetry and uplinked commands) using the S- and X-bands. Four radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) provide a total of 1360 W to power onboard systems and any two of the four Hughes 13 cm ion thrusters at once. Output of the ion thrusters is approximately 17.8 mN each with xenon as the propellant. Presence of torques generated by solar pressure on the antenna dish require the addition of a 'skirt' extending from the spun section of the satellite
Orbital-dependent Electron-Hole Interaction in Graphene and Associated Multi-Layer Structures
Deng, Tianqi; Su, Haibin
2015-11-01
We develop an orbital-dependent potential to describe electron-hole interaction in materials with structural 2D character, i.e. quasi-2D materials. The modulated orbital-dependent potentials are also constructed with non-local screening, multi-layer screening, and finite gap due to the coupling with substrates. We apply the excitonic Hamiltonian in coordinate-space with developed effective electron-hole interacting potentials to compute excitons’ binding strength at M (π band) and Γ (σ band) points in graphene and its associated multi-layer forms. The orbital-dependent potential provides a range-separated property for regulating both long- and short-range interactions. This accounts for the existence of the resonant π exciton in single- and bi-layer graphenes. The remarkable strong electron-hole interaction in σ orbitals plays a decisive role in the existence of σ exciton in graphene stack at room temperature. The interplay between gap-opening and screening from substrates shed a light on the weak dependence of σ exciton binding energy on the thickness of graphene stacks. Moreover, the analysis of non-hydrogenic exciton spectrum in quasi-2D systems clearly demonstrates the remarkable comparable contribution of orbital dependent potential with respect to non-local screening process. The understanding of orbital-dependent potential developed in this work is potentially applicable for a wide range of materials with low dimension.
Electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) with a loop-gap resonator
Hyde, James S.; Yin, Jun-Jie; Froncisz, W.; Feix, Jimmy B.
Electron-electron double-resonance (ELDOR) experiments on nitroxide-radical-spin-labeled liposomes have been performed using a loop-gap resonator. The signal-to-noise ratio expressed on a molarity basis is 20-fold over the best that has been achieved using a bimodal cavity. This improvement permits ELDOR experiments on spin-labeled plasma membranes of intact cells, as illustrated by a prototype experiment on red blood cells labeled with stearic acid spin label. Moreover, 20 times greater pumping energy density at the sample is achievable for a given incident pump power, permitting ELDOR experiments on less readily saturated systems. Pump and observing frequencies are introduced directly into the loop-gap resonator, which has a relatively low Q, and the pump electron paramagnetic resonance signal is isolated from the receiver using a high Q trap microwave filter.
Modulation scheme for electron-electron double resonance spectroscopy
Mehlkopf, A. F.; Kuiper, F. G.; Smidt, J.; Tiggelman, T. A.
1983-06-01
A modulation scheme for electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) spectrometers is presented. With this scheme an optimum stabilization signal for locking the pump microwave generator to the pumped electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) line is generated. A separate pump power level and a separate magnetic field modulation amplitude are used for the purpose of locking. In general, such a modulation scheme introduces false ELDOR lines. These false lines disturb the real ELDOR signals, or introduce an ELDOR signal in the absence of any communication between the observed EPR line and the pumped EPR line. With the described modulation scheme the frequencies of the false ELDOR signals are limited to even multiples of the frequency of the wanted ELDOR signals. This makes a suppression of the false ELDOR lines easy.
Electron-Spin Resonance in Boron Carbide
Wood, Charles; Venturini, Eugene L.; Azevedo, Larry J.; Emin, David
1987-01-01
Samples exhibit Curie-law behavior in temperature range of 2 to 100 K. Technical paper presents studies of electron-spin resonance of samples of hot pressed B9 C, B15 C2, B13 C2, and B4 C. Boron carbide ceramics are refractory solids with high melting temperatures, low thermal conductives, and extreme hardnesses. They show promise as semiconductors at high temperatures and have unusually large figures of merit for use in thermoelectric generators.
Microwave Absorption in Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Ming-Hai; HU Xi-Wei; WU Qin-Chong; YU Guo-Yang
2000-01-01
The microwave power absorption in electron cyclotron resonance plasma reactor was investigated with a twodimensional hybrid-code. Simulation results indicated that there are two typical power deposition profiles over the entire parameter region: (1) microwave power deposition peaks on the axis and decreases in radial direction,(2) microwave power deposition has its maximum at some radial position, i.e., a hollow distribution. The spatial distribution of electron temperature resembles always to the microwave power absorption profile. The dependence of plasma parameter on the gas pressure is discussed also.
Electron orbits in the microwave inverse FEL accelerator (MIFELA)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, T.B.; Marshall, T.C. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)
1995-12-31
The MIFELA is a new device based on stimulated absorption of microwaves by electrons moving along an undulator. An intense microwave field is used (a{sub s} = eE{sub s}/k{sub s} m c{sup 2} = 0.2) as well as a large undulator field (a{sub w}/{gamma} = eB{sub {perpendicular}}/{gamma}k{sub w} mc{sup 2} = 1/2) to accelerate electrons emitted at 6MeV from a rf gun to 20MeV in 1.5m. The spiral radius of the electrons in the undulator is 8mm, in a waveguide of diameter 34mm, with undulator period about 10cm. There is a small guiding field, and the electrons move in type I orbits. We describe three problems connected with the orbital motion of the electrons in this structure: (i) injecting the electrons in an increasing undulator field prior to entering the MIFELA; (ii) orbital motion and stability inside the MIFELA; (iii) extraction of electrons from the spiral orbit in the accelerator into an axially-propagating beam, obtaining {Beta}{sub {perpendicular}} < 0.02. These studies have application to a MIFELA which is under construction at Yale University by Omega-P.
Relativistic surfatron process for Landau resonant electrons in radiation belts
Osmane, A
2014-01-01
Recent theoretical studies of the nonlinear wave-particle interactions for relativistic particles have shown that Landau resonant orbits could be efficiently accelerated along the mean background magnetic field for propagation angles $\\theta$ in close proximity to a critical propagation $\\theta_\\textrm{c}$ associated with a Hopf--Hopf bifurcation condition. In this report, we extend previous studies to reach greater modeling capacities for the study of electrons in radiation belts by including longitudinal wave effects and inhomogeneous magnetic fields. We find that even though both effects can limit the surfatron acceleration of electrons in radiation belts, gains in energy of the order of 100 keV, taking place on the order of ten milliseconds, are sufficiently strong for the mechanism to be relevant to radiation belt dynamics.
Soft X-ray Resonant Scattering in Manganites as a Probe of Orbital Order: Theoretical Predictions
Altarelli, Massimo
2001-03-01
The claim of the detection of orbital order [1] in manganites by resonant x-ray scattering at the Mn K-edge has raised considerable controversy [2] because of the indirect mechanism by which properties of the 3d electrons are probed by a process involving excitation into the 4p states. In particular, the possibility that x-ray experiments probe Jahn-Teller displacements, rather than orbital order, has been debated. An alternative proposal [3] is to use resonant scattering at the Mn L2 and L3 edges, with dipole allowed excitation into 3d states, as a more direct probe allowing to separate effects related to the order of the 3d orbitals from lattice displacements. Given the longer wavelength, only order with a period longer than about 0.97 nm is accessible. There are however systems, like La_1-x(Ca,Sr)_xMnO3 for x=0.5, x=0.33, etc., in addition to La_0.5Sr_1.5MnO4 where this condition is fulfilled. Calculations within an atomic multiplet scheme, with inclusion of crystal field effects, which point to an easier separation of orbital order from lattice displacements in the soft x-ray case, are presented and discussed. Different structures in the energy dependence of the scattering intensity are related predominantly to one of the two mechanisms. Other issues, such as the smaller scattering volume due to photoelectric absorption effects, are also addressed. 1. Y. Murakami et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1932 (1998); ibid. 81, 582 (1998). 2. Elfimov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4264 (1998); M. Benfatto et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 636 (1999); M. Takahashi et al., J. Phys. Soc. Japan 68, 2530 (1999). 3. C.W.M. Castleton and M. Altarelli, Phys. Rev B 62, 1033 (2000).
Highly Accurate Measurement of the Electron Orbital Magnetic Moment
Awobode, A M
2015-01-01
We propose to accurately determine the orbital magnetic moment of the electron by measuring, in a Magneto-Optical or Ion trap, the ratio of the Lande g-factors in two atomic states. From the measurement of (gJ1/gJ2), the quantity A, which depends on the corrections to the electron g-factors can be extracted, if the states are LS coupled. Given that highly accurate values of the correction to the spin g-factor are currently available, accurate values of the correction to the orbital g-factor may also be determined. At present, (-1.8 +/- 0.4) x 10-4 has been determined as a correction to the electron orbital g-factor, by using earlier measurements of the ratio gJ1/gJ2, made on the Indium 2P1/2 and 2P3/2 states.
Capture of Planets Into Mean Motion Resonances and the Origins of Extrasolar Orbital Architectures
Batygin, Konstantin
2015-01-01
The early stages of dynamical evolution of planetary systems are often shaped by dissipative processes that drive orbital migration. In multi-planet systems, convergent amassing of orbits inevitably leads to encounters with rational period ratios, which may result in establishment of mean motion resonances. The success or failure of resonant capture yields exceedingly different subsequent evolutions, and thus plays a central role in determining the ensuing orbital architecture of planetary systems. In this work, we employ an integrable Hamiltonian formalism for first order planetary resonances that allows both secondary bodies to have finite masses and eccentricities, and construct a comprehensive theory for resonant capture. Particularly, we derive conditions under which orbital evolution lies within the adiabatic regime, and provide a generalized criterion for guaranteed resonant locking as well as a procedure for calculating capture probabilities when capture is not certain. Subsequently, we utilize the de...
Laser induced electron diffraction: a tool for molecular orbital imaging
Peters, Michel; Charron, Eric; Keller, Arne; Atabek, Osman
2012-01-01
We explore the laser-induced ionization dynamics of N2 and CO2 molecules subjected to a few-cycle, linearly polarized, 800\\,nm laser pulse using effective two-dimensional single active electron time-dependent quantum simulations. We show that the electron recollision process taking place after an initial tunnel ionization stage results in quantum interference patterns in the energy resolved photo-electron signals. If the molecule is initially aligned perpendicular to the field polarization, the position and relative heights of the associated fringes can be related to the molecular geometrical and orbital structure, using a simple inversion algorithm which takes into account the symmetry of the initial molecular orbital from which the ionized electron is produced. We show that it is possible to extract inter-atomic distances in the molecule from an averaged photon-electron signal with an accuracy of a few percents.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ding Xiu-Huan; Zhang Cun-Xi; Wang Rui; Zhou Yun-Qing; Kong Ling-Min
2012-01-01
We have investigated theoretically the field-driven electron transport through a single-quantum-well semiconductor heterostructure with spin-orbit coupling.The splitting of the asymmetric Fano-type resonance peaks due to the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling is found to be highly sensitive to the direction of the incident electron.The splitting of the Fano-type resonance induces the spin-polarization dependent electron current.The location and the line shape of the Fano-type resonance can be controlled by adjusting the energy and the direction of the incident electron,the oscillation frequency,and the amplitude of the external field.These interesting features may be used to devise tunable spin filters and realize pure spin transmission currents.
Beam induced electron cloud resonances in dipole magnetic fields
Calvey, J. R.; Hartung, W.; Makita, J.; Venturini, M.
2016-07-01
The buildup of low energy electrons in an accelerator, known as electron cloud, can be severely detrimental to machine performance. Under certain beam conditions, the beam can become resonant with the cloud dynamics, accelerating the buildup of electrons. This paper will examine two such effects: multipacting resonances, in which the cloud development time is resonant with the bunch spacing, and cyclotron resonances, in which the cyclotron period of electrons in a magnetic field is a multiple of bunch spacing. Both resonances have been studied directly in dipole fields using retarding field analyzers installed in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. These measurements are supported by both analytical models and computer simulations.
The role of orbiting resonances in the vibrational predissociation of Ne-Br{sub 2}(B)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia-Vela, A [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: garciavela@imaff.cfmac.csic.es
2009-10-15
The spectrum of Ne-Br{sub 2}(B,v) orbiting resonances embedded in the continuum of the v=25 vibrational manifold has been studied and compared with the spectrum previously obtained for v=26. The spectra of orbiting resonances are found to be very similar in the two vibrational manifolds, with the resonances located at nearly the same energy positions and with similar widths. The same result was found for the spectra of orbiting resonances of He-I{sub 2}(B,v) for v=59 and 60. This confirms that the nature of the continuum resonances is the same in both van der Waals complexes, and suggests that this type of resonance might be present in other van der Waals rare gas-halogen clusters.
Measuring the Orbital Angular Momentum of Electron Beams
Guzzinati, Giulio; Béché, Armand; Verbeeck, Jo
2014-01-01
The recent demonstration of electron vortex beams has opened up the new possibility of studying orbital angular momentum (OAM) in the interaction between electron beams and matter. To this aim, methods to analyze the OAM of an electron beam are fundamentally important and a necessary next step. We demonstrate the measurement of electron beam OAM through a variety of techniques. The use of forked holographic masks, diffraction from geometric apertures, diffraction from a knife-edge and the application of an astigmatic lens are all experimentally demonstrated. The viability and limitations of each are discussed with supporting numerical simulations.
Pair 2-electron reduced density matrix theory using localized orbitals
Head-Marsden, Kade; Mazziotti, David A.
2017-08-01
Full configuration interaction (FCI) restricted to a pairing space yields size-extensive correlation energies but its cost scales exponentially with molecular size. Restricting the variational two-electron reduced-density-matrix (2-RDM) method to represent the same pairing space yields an accurate lower bound to the pair FCI energy at a mean-field-like computational scaling of O (r3) where r is the number of orbitals. In this paper, we show that localized molecular orbitals can be employed to generate an efficient, approximately size-extensive pair 2-RDM method. The use of localized orbitals eliminates the substantial cost of optimizing iteratively the orbitals defining the pairing space without compromising accuracy. In contrast to the localized orbitals, the use of canonical Hartree-Fock molecular orbitals is shown to be both inaccurate and non-size-extensive. The pair 2-RDM has the flexibility to describe the spectra of one-electron RDM occupation numbers from all quantum states that are invariant to time-reversal symmetry. Applications are made to hydrogen chains and their dissociation, n-acene from naphthalene through octacene, and cadmium telluride 2-, 3-, and 4-unit polymers. For the hydrogen chains, the pair 2-RDM method recovers the majority of the energy obtained from similar calculations that iteratively optimize the orbitals. The localized-orbital pair 2-RDM method with its mean-field-like computational scaling and its ability to describe multi-reference correlation has important applications to a range of strongly correlated phenomena in chemistry and physics.
Origins and demonstrations of electrons with orbital angular momentum
McMorran, Benjamin J.; Agrawal, Amit; Ercius, Peter A.; Grillo, Vincenzo; Herzing, Andrew A.; Harvey, Tyler R.; Linck, Martin; Pierce, Jordan S.
2017-02-01
The surprising message of Allen et al. (Allen et al. 1992 Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.45.8185)) was that photons could possess orbital angular momentum in free space, which subsequently launched advancements in optical manipulation, microscopy, quantum optics, communications, many more fields. It has recently been shown that this result also applies to quantum mechanical wave functions describing massive particles (matter waves). This article discusses how electron wave functions can be imprinted with quantized phase vortices in analogous ways to twisted light, demonstrating that charged particles with non-zero rest mass can possess orbital angular momentum in free space. With Allen et al. as a bridge, connections are made between this recent work in electron vortex wave functions and much earlier works, extending a 175 year old tradition in matter wave vortices. This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.
Scheme for adding electron-nucleus cusps to Gaussian orbitals
Ma, A.; Towler, M. D.; Drummond, N. D.; Needs, R. J.
2008-01-01
A simple scheme is described for introducing the correct cusps at nuclei into orbitals obtained from Gaussian basis set electronic structure calculations. The scheme is tested with all-electron variational quantum Monte Carlo (VMC) and diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (DMC) methods for the Ne atom, the H2 molecule, and 55 molecules from a standard benchmark set. It greatly reduces the variance of the local energy in all cases and slightly improves the variational energy. This scheme yields a gen...
Probing evolution of binaries influenced by the spin-orbit resonances
Gupta, Anuradha
2013-01-01
We evolve isolated comparable mass spinning compact binaries experiencing Schnittman's post-Newtonian spin-orbit resonances in an inertial frame associated with $\\vek j_0$, the initial direction of the total angular momentum. We show that accurate gravitational wave (GW) measurements of the initial orientations of the two spins and orbital angular momentum from $\\vek j_0$ should allow us to distinguish between the two possible families of spin-orbit resonances. Therefore, these measurements have the potential to provide direct observational evidence of possible binary formation scenarios. The above statements should also apply for binaries that do not remain in a resonant plane when they become detectable by GW interferometers. The resonant plane, characterized by the vanishing scalar triple product involving the two spins and the orbital angular momentum, naturally appears in the one parameter family of equilibrium solutions, discovered by Schnittman. It turns out that inspiral templates for binaries residin...
Measuring an electron beam's orbital angular momentum spectrum
Grillo, incenzo; Venturi, Federico; Larocque, Hugo; Balboni, Roberto; Gazzadi, Gian Carlo; Frabboni, Stefano; Lu, Peng-Han; Mafakheri, Erfan; Bouchard, Frédéric; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Boyd, Robert W; Lavery, Martin P J; Padgett, Miles J; Karimi, Ebrahim
2016-01-01
Quantum complementarity states that particles, e.g. electrons, can exhibit wave-like properties such as diffraction and interference upon propagation. \\textit{Electron waves} defined by a helical wavefront are referred to as twisted electrons~\\cite{uchida:10,verbeeck:10,mcmorran:11}. These electrons are also characterised by a quantized and unbounded magnetic dipole moment parallel to their propagation direction, as they possess a net charge of $-|e|$~\\cite{bliokh:07}. When interacting with magnetic materials, the wavefunctions of twisted electrons are inherently modified~\\cite{lloyd:12b,schattschneider:14a,asenjo:14}. Such variations therefore motivate the need to analyze electron wavefunctions, especially their wavefronts, in order to obtain information regarding the material's structure~\\cite{harris:15}. Here, we propose, design, and demonstrate the performance of a device for measuring an electron's azimuthal wavefunction, i.e. its orbital angular momentum (OAM) content. Our device consists of nanoscale h...
Nondestructive Measurement of Orbital Angular Momentum for an Electron Beam
Larocque, Hugo; Bouchard, Frédéric; Grillo, Vincenzo; Sit, Alicia; Frabboni, Stefano; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Padgett, Miles J.; Boyd, Robert W.; Karimi, Ebrahim
2016-10-01
Free electrons with a helical phase front, referred to as "twisted" electrons, possess an orbital angular momentum (OAM) and, hence, a quantized magnetic dipole moment along their propagation direction. This intrinsic magnetic moment can be used to probe material properties. Twisted electrons thus have numerous potential applications in materials science. Measuring this quantity often relies on a series of projective measurements that subsequently change the OAM carried by the electrons. In this Letter, we propose a nondestructive way of measuring an electron beam's OAM through the interaction of this associated magnetic dipole with a conductive loop. Such an interaction results in the generation of induced currents within the loop, which are found to be directly proportional to the electron's OAM value. Moreover, the electron experiences no OAM variations and only minimal energy losses upon the measurement, and, hence, the nondestructive nature of the proposed technique.
Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Study of Pr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tezuka, Keitaro; Hinatsu, Yukio
2001-01-01
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of tetravalent praseodymium ions doped in the cubic perovskite compound BaHfO{sub 3} have been measured at 4.2 K. A very large hyperfine interaction with the {sup 141}Pr nucleus was observed in the spectrum of Pr{sup 4+}/ BaHfO{sub 3}. The results were analyzed based on the weak field approximation, and the g value (|g|=0.619) and a hyperfine coupling constant (A=0.0589 cm{sup {minus}1}) were obtained. The measured g value is much smaller than |-10/7|, which indicates that the crystal field effect on the behavior of a 4f electron is large. These g and A values were compared with the EPR results for other f{sup 1} ions in an octahedral crystal field.
Conditions of Passage and Entrapment of Terrestrial Planets in Spin-Orbit Resonances
2012-06-10
May 25 ABSTRACT The dynamical evolution of terrestrial planets resembling Mercury in the vicinity of spin-orbit resonances is investigated using... planet and assuming a zero obliquity. We find that a Mercury -like planet with a current value of orbital eccentricity (0.2056) is always captured in... Mercury rarely fails to align itself into this state of unstable equilibrium before it traverses 2:1 resonance. Key words: celestial mechanics – planets
Reaching a Fermi-superfluid state near an orbital Feshbach resonance
Xu, Junjun; Zhang, Ren; Cheng, Yanting; Zhang, Peng; Qi, Ran; Zhai, Hui
2016-09-01
We propose to realize a strongly interacting Fermi superfluid near a narrow Feshbach resonance using the recently discovered "orbital Feshbach resonance." The orbital Feshbach resonance is a type of magnetic field tunable scattering resonance theoretically predicted and experimentally observed recently in the alkaline-earth-metal-like 173Yb atom. We first show that the orbital Feshbach resonance is a narrow resonance in energy, while it is hundreds Gauss wide in terms of magnetic field strength, taking the advantage that the magnetic moment difference between the open and closed channels is quite small. Therefore, this is an ideal platform for the experimental realization of a strongly interacting Fermi superfluid with narrow resonance. We further show that the transition temperature for the Fermi superfluid in this system, especially at the BCS side of the resonance, is even higher than that in a wide resonance, which is also due to the narrow character of this resonance. Our results will encourage experimental efforts to realize Fermi superfluid in the alikaline-earth-metal-like 173Yb system, the properties of which will be complementary to extensively studied Fermi superfluids nearby a wide resonance in alkali-metal 40K and 6Li systems.
Simulation of runaway electrons, transport affected by J-TEXT resonant magnetic perturbation
Jiang, Z. H.; Wang, X. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Huang, D. W.; Sun, X. F.; Xu, T.; Zhuang, G.
2016-09-01
The topology of a magnetic field and transport properties of runaway electrons can be changed by a resonant magnetic perturbation field. The J-TEXT magnetic topology can be effectively altered via static resonant magnetic perturbation (SRMP) and dynamic resonant magnetic perturbation (DRMP). This paper studies the effect of resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) on the confinement of runaway electrons via simulating their drift orbits in the magnetic perturbation field and calculating the orbit losses for different runaway initial energies and different runaway electrons, initial locations. The model adopted is based on Hamiltonian guiding center equations for runaway electrons, and the J-TEXT magnetic turbulences and RMP are taken into account. The simulation indicates that the loss rate of runaway electrons is sensitive to the radial position of electrons. The loss of energetic runaway beam is dominated by the shrinkage of the confinement region. Outside the shrinkage region of the runaway electrons are lost rapidly. Inside the shrinkage region the runaway beam is confined very well and is less sensitive to the magnetic perturbation. The experimental result on the response of runaway transport to the application RMP indicates that the loss of runaway electrons is dominated by the shrinkage of the confinement region, other than the external magnetic perturbation.
The positions of secular resonance surfaces. [for major planet orbits
Williams, J. G.; Faulkner, J.
1981-01-01
The surfaces for the three strongest secular resonances have been located as a function of proper semimajor axis, eccentricity, and inclination for semimajor axes between 1.25 and 3.5 AU. The results are presented graphically. The nu5 resonance only occurs at high inclinations (approximately greater than 23 deg). The nu6 resonance passes through both the main belt and Mars-crossing space. The nu16 resonance starts near the inner edge of the belt and, at low inclinations at least, folds around a portion of the Mars-crossing space until it runs nearly parallel with the earth-crossing boundary.
The Orbital Stability of Planets Trapped in the First-Order Mean-Motion Resonances
Matsumoto, Yuji; Ida, Shigeru
2012-01-01
Many extrasolar planetary systems containing multiple super-Earths have been discovered. N-body simulations taking into account standard type-I planetary migration suggest that protoplanets are captured into mean-motion resonant orbits near the inner disk edge at which the migration is halted. Previous N-body simulations suggested that orbital stability of the resonant systems depends on number of the captured planets. In the unstable case, through close scattering and merging between planets, non-resonant multiple systems are finally formed. In this paper, we investigate the critical number of the resonantly trapped planets beyond which orbital instability occurs after disk gas depletion. We find that when the total number of planets ($N$) is larger than the critical number ($N_{\\rm crit}$), crossing time that is a timescale of initiation of the orbital instability is similar to non-resonant cases, while the orbital instability never occurs within the orbital calculation time ($10^8$ Kepler time) for $N\\leq ...
Two-Dimensional Electron-Spin Resonance
Freed, Jack H.
2000-03-01
The extension of the concepts of 2D-NMR to ESR posed significant technological challenges, especially for liquids. ESR relaxation times are very short, as low as 10-15 ns. for T_2's. Spectral bandwidths are 100-250 MHz for nitroxide spin labels. Adequate coverage is obtained with 3-5 ns. π/2 (9-17 GHz) microwave pulses into a small low Q resonator. Dead-times are currently 25-30 ns. Additional requirements are rapid phase shifting for phase cycling, nsec. data acquisition, and fast repetition rates (10-100 kHz). 2D-ELDOR (electron-electron double resonance), which is a 3-pulse 2D-exchange experiment, takes about 30 minutes with just 0.5 nanomole spin-probe in solution (SNR 200). 2D-ELDOR is very useful in studies of molecular dynamics and local structure in complex fluids. For such media, the slow rotational dynamics requires a theory based upon the stochastic Liouville equation which enables quantitative interpretation of 2D-ELDOR experiments. In studies of spin-probes in a liquid crystal new insights could be obtained on the dynamic structure in different phases. One obtains, in addition to ordering and reorientation rates of the probes, details of the local dynamic cage: its orienting potential and (slow) relaxation rate. 2D-ELDOR overcomes the loss of resolution resulting from microscopically ordered but macroscopically disordered complex fluids. This is illustrated by studies of the dynamic structure of lipid membrane vesicles, and the effects of adding a peptide. The short dead times enable the observation of both the bulk lipids and the more immobilized lipids that coat (or are trapped) by the (aggregates of) peptides. Also, new developments of multi-quantum (2D) FT-ESR from nitroxide spin labels interacting by dipolar interactions show considerable promise in measuring distances of ca. 15-70A in macromolecules.
Special Relativity, the Source of Electron Deep Orbits
Paillet, J. L.; Meulenberg, A.
2017-02-01
In this paper, we explicitly point out the reasons why Special Relativity must be considered as the source of electron deep orbits, and dominates their behavior. We show that the cause is the quadratic form of the relativistic expression of energy, and this clearly appears when we explicitly develop the relativistic Schrödinger equation and compare it with the non-relativistic one.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barnes, Rory; Deitrick, Russell; Quinn, Thomas R. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 951580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Greenberg, Richard [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 86716 (United States); Raymond, Sean N., E-mail: rory@astro.washington.edu [NASA Astrobiology Institute-Virtual Planetary Laboratory Lead Team (United States)
2015-03-10
We present N-body simulations of resonant planets with inclined orbits that show chaotically evolving eccentricities and inclinations that can persist for at least 10 Gyr. A wide range of behavior is possible, from fast, low amplitude variations to systems in which eccentricities reach 0.9999 and inclinations 179.°9. While the orbital elements evolve chaotically, at least one resonant argument always librates. We show that the HD 73526, HD 45364, and HD 60532 systems may be in chaotically evolving resonances. Chaotic evolution is apparent in the 2:1, 3:1, and 3:2 resonances, and for planetary masses from lunar- to Jupiter-mass. In some cases, orbital disruption occurs after several gigayears, implying the mechanism is not rigorously stable, just long-lived relative to the main sequence lifetimes of solar-type stars. Planet-planet scattering appears to yield planets in inclined resonances that evolve chaotically in about 0.5% of cases. These results suggest that (1) approximate methods for identifying unstable orbital architectures may have limited applicability, (2) the observed close-in exoplanets may be produced during epochs of high eccentricit induced by inclined resonances, (3) those exoplanets' orbital planes may be misaligned with the host star's spin axis, (4) systems with resonances may be systematically younger than those without, (5) the distribution of period ratios of adjacent planets detected via transit may be skewed due to inclined resonances, and (6) potentially habitable planets may have dramatically different climatic evolution than Earth. The Gaia spacecraft is capable of discovering giant planets in these types of orbits.
Orbital approach to the electronic structure of solids
Canadell, Enric; Iung, Christophe
2012-01-01
This book provides an intuitive yet sound understanding of how structure and properties of solids may be related. The natural link is provided by the band theory approach to the electronic structure of solids. The chemically insightful concept of orbital interaction and the essential machinery of band theory are used throughout the book to build links between the crystal and electronic structure of periodic systems. In such a way, it is shown how important tools for understandingproperties of solids like the density of states, the Fermi surface etc. can be qualitatively sketched and used to ei
Whitenack, Daniel L; Wasserman, Adam
2012-04-28
Aspects of density functional resonance theory (DFRT) [D. L. Whitenack and A. Wasserman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 163002 (2011)], a recently developed complex-scaled version of ground-state density functional theory (DFT), are studied in detail. The asymptotic behavior of the complex density function is related to the complex resonance energy and system's threshold energy, and the function's local oscillatory behavior is connected with preferential directions of electron decay. Practical considerations for implementation of the theory are addressed including sensitivity to the complex-scaling parameter, θ. In Kohn-Sham DFRT, it is shown that almost all θ-dependence in the calculated energies and lifetimes can be extinguished via use of a proper basis set or fine grid. The highest occupied Kohn-Sham orbital energy and lifetime are related to physical affinity and width, and the threshold energy of the Kohn-Sham system is shown to be equal to the threshold energy of the interacting system shifted by a well-defined functional. Finally, various complex-scaling conditions are derived which relate the functionals of ground-state DFT to those of DFRT via proper scaling factors and a non-Hermitian coupling-constant system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. H. Berman
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Resonant behavior involving spin-orbit entangled states occurs for spin transport along a narrow channel defined in a two-dimensional electron gas, including an apparent rapid relaxation of the spin polarization for special values of the channel width and applied magnetic field (so-called ballistic spin resonance. A fully quantum-mechanical theory for transport using multiple subbands of the one-dimensional system provides the dependence of the spin density on the applied magnetic field and channel width and position along the channel. We show how the spatially nonoscillating part of the spin density vanishes when the Zeeman energy matches the subband energy splittings. The resonance phenomenon persists in the presence of disorder.
Electron Momentum Spectroscopy of the Frontier Orbitals of Chlorodifiuoromethane
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐春凯; 陈向军; 贾昌春; 张虚怀; 尹晓峰; 单旭; 魏征; 徐克尊
2002-01-01
We report on the first measurement of the electron momentum distributions of the three outermost valence orbitals for chlorodifluoromethane (CHF2 Cl) by binary (e, 2e) electron momentum spectroscopy. The experimen-tal data are compared with Hartree Fock and density functional theory (DFT) calculations employing 6-31 G,6-311++G** and A UG-cc-p VQZ basis sets. For the summed momentum distribution of 8a＇ + 5a" + 7a＇ orbitals,the DFT/AUG-cc-pVQZ calculation gives the best fit. A very large and diffuse basis set, AUG-cc-pVQZ, isemployed in the calculations to approach the Hartree Fock limit of the basis set, but the improvement of the calculation quality is little in comparison with that calculated with the 6-311++G** basis set. This indicates that the 6-311++G** basis set is nearly saturated for the calculations of these three orbitals of CHF2Cl, and it is unnecessary to employ a larger basis set in the calculations.
Ionization of pyridine: Interplay of orbital relaxation and electron correlation
Trofimov, A. B.; Holland, D. M. P.; Powis, I.; Menzies, R. C.; Potts, A. W.; Karlsson, L.; Gromov, E. V.; Badsyuk, I. L.; Schirmer, J.
2017-06-01
The valence shell ionization spectrum of pyridine was studied using the third-order algebraic-diagrammatic construction approximation scheme for the one-particle Green's function and the outer-valence Green's function method. The results were used to interpret angle resolved photoelectron spectra recorded with synchrotron radiation in the photon energy range of 17-120 eV. The lowest four states of the pyridine radical cation, namely, 2A2(1 a2 -1), 2A1(7 a1 -1), 2B1(2 b1 -1), and 2B2(5 b2 -1), were studied in detail using various high-level electronic structure calculation methods. The vertical ionization energies were established using the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster approach with single, double, and triple excitations (EOM-IP-CCSDT) and the complete basis set extrapolation technique. Further interpretation of the electronic structure results was accomplished using Dyson orbitals, electron density difference plots, and a second-order perturbation theory treatment for the relaxation energy. Strong orbital relaxation and electron correlation effects were shown to accompany ionization of the 7a1 orbital, which formally represents the nonbonding σ-type nitrogen lone-pair (nσ) orbital. The theoretical work establishes the important roles of the π-system (π-π* excitations) in the screening of the nσ-hole and of the relaxation of the molecular orbitals in the formation of the 7a1(nσ)-1 state. Equilibrium geometric parameters were computed using the MP2 (second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory) and CCSD methods, and the harmonic vibrational frequencies were obtained at the MP2 level of theory for the lowest three cation states. The results were used to estimate the adiabatic 0-0 ionization energies, which were then compared to the available experimental and theoretical data. Photoelectron anisotropy parameters and photoionization partial cross sections, derived from the experimental spectra, were compared to predictions obtained with the continuum
Fokker-Planck Study of Tokamak Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHIBingren; LONGYongxing; DONGJiaqi; LIWenzhong; JIAOYiming; WANGAike
2002-01-01
In this study, we add a subroutine for describing the electron cyclotron resonant heating calculation to the Fokker-Planck code. By analyzing the wave-particle resonance condition in tokamak plasma and the fast motion of electrons along magnetic field lines, suitable quasi-linear diffusion coefficients are given.
Berengut, J C; Dzuba, V A; Flambaum, V V; Gribakin, G F
2015-01-01
The strong mixing of many-electron basis states in excited atoms and ions with open $f$ shells results in very large numbers of complex, chaotic eigenstates that cannot be computed to any degree of accuracy. Describing the processes which involve such states requires the use of a statistical theory. Electron capture into these 'compound resonances' leads to electron-ion recombination rates that are orders of magnitude greater than those of direct, radiative recombination, and cannot be described by standard theories of dielectronic recombination. Previous statistical theories considered this as a two-electron capture process which populates a pair of single-particle orbitals, followed by 'spreading' of the two-electron states into chaotically mixed eigenstates. This method is similar to a configuration-average approach, as it neglects potentially important effects of spectator electrons and conservation of total angular momentum. In this work we develop a statistical theory which considers electron capture in...
Modelling resonances and orbital chaos in disk galaxies. Application to a Milky Way spiral model
Michtchenko, T. A.; Vieira, R. S. S.; Barros, D. A.; Lépine, J. R. D.
2017-01-01
Context. Resonances in the stellar orbital motion under perturbations from the spiral arm structure can play an important role in the evolution of the disks of spiral galaxies. The epicyclic approximation allows the determination of the corresponding resonant radii on the equatorial plane (in the context of nearly circular orbits), but is not suitable in general. Aims: We expand the study of resonant orbits by analysing stellar motions perturbed by spiral arms with Gaussian-shaped groove profiles without any restriction on the stellar orbital configurations, and we expand the concept of Lindblad (epicyclic) resonances for orbits with large radial excursions. Methods: We define a representative plane of initial conditions, which covers the whole phase space of the system. Dynamical maps on representative planes of initial conditions are constructed numerically in order to characterize the phase-space structure and identify the precise location of the co-rotation and Lindblad resonances. The study is complemented by the construction of dynamical power spectra, which provide the identification of fundamental oscillatory patterns in the stellar motion. Results: Our approach allows a precise description of the resonance chains in the whole phase space, giving a broader view of the dynamics of the system when compared to the classical epicyclic approach. We generalize the concept of Lindblad resonances and extend it to cases of resonant orbits with large radial excursions, even for objects in retrograde motion. The analysis of the solar neighbourhood shows that, depending on the current azimuthal phase of the Sun with respect to the spiral arms, a star with solar kinematic parameters (SSP) may evolve in dynamically distinct regions, either inside the stable co-rotation resonance or in a chaotic zone. Conclusions: Our approach contributes to quantifying the domains of resonant orbits and the degree of chaos in the whole Galactic phase-space structure. It may serve as a
Electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry using synthetic hydroxyapatite
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Kwon; Kim, Hwi Young; Ye, Sung Joon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hirata, Hiroshi [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Park, Jong Min [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-11-15
The victims exposed doses under 3.5-4.0 Gy have chance to survive if treated urgently. To determine the priority of treatment among a large number of victims, the triage – distinguishing patients who need an urgent treatment from who may not be urgent – is necessary based on radiation biodosimetry. A current gold standard for radiation biodosimetry is the chromosomal assay using human lymphocytes. But this method requires too much time and skilled labors to cover the mass victims in radiation emergencies. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been known for its capability of quantifying radicals in matters. EPR dosimetry is based on the measurement of stable radiation-induced radicals in tooth enamel. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) contained in tooth enamel is a major probe for radiation dose reconstruction. This HAP dosimetry study was performed using a novel EPR spectrometer in Hokkaido University, Japan. The EPR dose-response curve was made using HAP samples. The blind test using 250 cGy samples showed the feasibility of EPR dosimetry for the triage purpose.
A High Earth, Lunar Resonant Orbit for Lower Cost Space Science Missions
Gangestad, Joseph W; Persinger, Randy R; Ricker, George R
2013-01-01
NASA astrophysics robotic science missions often require continuous, unobstructed fields-of view (FOV) of the celestial sphere and orbits that provide stable thermal- and attitude-control environments. To date, the more expensive "flagship" missions use the second Earth/Sun Lagrange point (L2) approximately 1.5 million km from the Earth outside the orbit of the Moon or a "drift away" orbit to distances >10 million km. A High Earth Orbit (HEO) offers similar advantages with regard to continuous, unobstructed FOV and a thermally stable environment with minimal station-keeping requirements. The "P/2-HEO," an orbit in 2:1 resonance with the orbit of the Moon, also provides the opportunity for data downlink at orbit perigee distances close to the Earth allowing for lower-cost communications systems. The P/2-HEO oscillates on the order of 12 years and trades orbit eccentricity for orbit inclination. This orbit variability can be selected for optimum spacecraft performance by proper choice of the conditions using a ...
Interplay between electron spin and orbital pseudospin in double quantum dots
Park, Sooa; Yang, S. -R. Eric
2005-01-01
We investigate theoretically spin and orbital pseudospin magnetic properties of a molecular orbital in parabolic and elliptic double quantum dots (DQDs). In our many body calculation we include intra- and inter-dot electron-electron interactions, in addition to the intradot exchange interaction of `p' orbitals. We find for parabolic DQDs that, except for the half or completely filled molecular orbital, spins in different dots are ferromagnetically coupled while orbital pseudospins are antifer...
Analytical and numerical study of the ground-track resonances of Dawn orbiting Vesta
Delsate, N
2012-01-01
The aim of Dawn mission is the acquisition of data from orbits around two bodies, (4)Vesta and (1)Ceres, the two most massive asteroids. Due to the low thrust propulsion, Dawn will slowly cross and transit through ground-track resonances, where the perturbations on Dawn orbit may be significant. In this context, to safety go the Dawn mission from the approach orbit to the lowest science orbit, it is essential to know the properties of the crossed resonances. This paper analytically investigates the properties of the major ground-track resonances (1:1, 1:2, 2:3 and 3:2) appearing for Vesta orbiters: location of the equilibria, aperture of the resonances and period at the stable equilibria. We develop a general method using an averaged Hamiltonian formulation with a spherical harmonic approximation of the gravity field. If the values of the gravity field coefficient change, our method stays correct and applicable. We also discuss the effect of one uncertainty on the C20 and C22 coefficients on the properties of...
Multifrequency pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance on metalloproteins.
Lyubenova, Sevdalina; Maly, Thorsten; Zwicker, Klaus; Brandt, Ulrich; Ludwig, Bernd; Prisner, Thomas
2010-02-16
Metalloproteins often contain metal centers that are paramagnetic in some functional state of the protein; hence electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy can be a powerful tool for studying protein structure and function. Dipolar spectroscopy allows the determination of the dipole-dipole interactions between metal centers in protein complexes, revealing the structural arrangement of different paramagnetic centers at distances of up to 8 nm. Hyperfine spectroscopy can be used to measure the interaction between an unpaired electron spin and nuclear spins within a distance of 0.8 nm; it therefore permits the characterization of the local structure of the paramagnetic center's ligand sphere with very high precision. In this Account, we review our laboratory's recent applications of both dipolar and hyperfine pulsed EPR methods to metalloproteins. We used pulsed dipolar relaxation methods to investigate the complex of cytochrome c and cytochrome c oxidase, a noncovalent protein-protein complex involved in mitochondrial electron-transfer reactions. Hyperfine sublevel correlation spectroscopy (HYSCORE) was used to study the ligand sphere of iron-sulfur clusters in complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and substrate binding to the molybdenum enzyme polysulfide reductase. These examples demonstrate the potential of the two techniques; however, they also highlight the difficulties of data interpretation when several paramagnetic species with overlapping spectra are present in the protein. In such cases, further approaches and data are very useful to enhance the information content. Relaxation filtered hyperfine spectroscopy (REFINE) can be used to separate the individual components of overlapping paramagnetic species on the basis of differences in their longitudinal relaxation rates; it is applicable to any kind of pulsed hyperfine or dipolar spectroscopy. Here, we show that the spectra of the iron-sulfur clusters in complex I can be separated by this
Isolation systems for electronic black-box transportation to orbit
Jedrich, Nicholas M.; Pendleton, Scott C.
1998-06-01
Servicing the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) requires the safe transportation of electronic Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) on the Space Transportation System (STS) to replace or enhance the capability of existing units. The delicate design of these electronic ORUs makes it imperative to provide isolation from the STS launch random vibration, while maintaining fundamental modes above the transient load environment. Two methods were developed and used exclusively, on Servicing Mission 2 (SM2), to isolate the ORUs from the environmental launch loads imposed by the STS. The first load isolation system utilizes a refined open/closed cell foam design to provide the required damping and corner frequency, while the second method uses an innovative Viscoelastic Material (VEM) design. This paper addresses both systems as initially designed including finite element (FE) model analysis of the VEM system. Vibration testing of prototype systems and modifications to the design resulting from test will be discussed. The final design as flown on HST SM2 with recommendations for future applications of these technologies in transporting electronic black boxes to orbit will conclude the paper.
Circular periodic orbits, resonance capture and inclination excitation during type II migration
Antoniadou, K. I.; Voyatzis, G.
2017-03-01
We consider planetary systems evolving under the effect of a Stokes-type dissipative force mimicking the outcome of a type II migration process. As inward migration proceeds and the planets follow the circular family (they start on circular orbits) and even though they are initially almost coplanar, resonance capture can be realized. Then, at the vertical critical orbits (VCOs), that the circular family possesses, the inclination excitation can abruptly take place. The planets are now guided by the spatial elliptic families, which bifurcate from those critical orbits. We herein, perform a direct link of mutually inclined stable planetary systems on circular orbits trapped in mean-motion resonance (MMR) with the existence of VCOs of high values of multiplicity. It is shown that the more the multiplicity of the periodic orbits of the circular family increases, the more VCOs (corresponding to more MMRs) appear. In this way, we can provide a justification for the existence of resonant planets on circular orbits, which could, even further to that, evolve stably if they were mutually inclined.
Xu, Wenrui; Lai, Dong
2016-07-01
Planets around binary stars and those in multiplanet systems may experience resonant eccentricity excitation and disruption due to perturbations from a distant stellar companion. This `evection resonance' occurs when the apsidal precession frequency of the planet, driven by the quadrupole associated with the inner binary or the other planets, matches the orbital frequency of the external companion. We develop an analytic theory to study the effects of evection resonance on circumbinary planets and multiplanet systems. We derive the general conditions for effective eccentricity excitation or resonance capture of the planet as the system undergoes long-term evolution. Applying to circumbinary planets, we show that inward planet migration may lead to eccentricity growth due to evection resonance with an external perturber, and planets around shrinking binaries may not survive the resonant eccentricity growth. On the other hand, significant eccentricity excitation in multiplanet systems occurs in limited parameter space of planet and binary semimajor axes, and requires the planetary migration to be sufficiently slow.
Xu, Wenrui
2016-01-01
Planets around binary stars and those in multiplanet systems may experience resonant eccentricity excitation and disruption due to perturbations from a distant stellar companion. This "evection resonance" occurs when the apsidal precession frequency of the planet, driven by the quadrupole associated with the inner binary or the other planets, matches the orbital frequency of the external companion. We develop an analytic theory to study the effects of evection resonance on circumbinary planets and multiplanet systems. We derive the general conditions for effective eccentricity excitation or resonance capture of the planet as the system undergoes long-term evolution. Applying to circumbinary planets, we show that inward planet migration may lead to eccentricity growth due to evection resonance with an external perturber, and planets around shrinking binaries may not survive the resonant eccentricity growth. On the other hand, significant eccentricity excitation in multiplanet systems occurs in limited paramete...
Single-electron Spin Resonance in a Quadruple Quantum Dot
Otsuka, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R.; Amaha, Shinichi; Yoneda, Jun; Takeda, Kenta; Allison, Giles; Ito, Takumi; Sugawara, Retsu; Noiri, Akito; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.; Tarucha, Seigo
2016-08-01
Electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are good candidates of quantum bits for quantum information processing. Basic operations of the qubit have been realized in recent years: initialization, manipulation of single spins, two qubit entanglement operations, and readout. Now it becomes crucial to demonstrate scalability of this architecture by conducting spin operations on a scaled up system. Here, we demonstrate single-electron spin resonance in a quadruple quantum dot. A few-electron quadruple quantum dot is formed within a magnetic field gradient created by a micro-magnet. We oscillate the wave functions of the electrons in the quantum dots by applying microwave voltages and this induces electron spin resonance. The resonance energies of the four quantum dots are slightly different because of the stray field created by the micro-magnet and therefore frequency-resolved addressable control of each electron spin resonance is possible.
Resonant capture of multiple planet systems under dissipation and stable orbital configurations
Voyatzis, George
2016-01-01
Migration of planetary systems caused by the action of dissipative forces may lead the planets to be trapped in a resonance. In this work we study the conditions and the dynamics of such resonant trapping. Particularly, we are interested in finding out whether resonant capture ends up in a long-term stable planetary configuration. For two planet systems we associate the evolution of migration with the existence of families of periodic orbits in the phase space of the three-body problem. The family of circular periodic orbits exhibits a gap at the 2:1 resonance and an instability and bifurcation at the 3:1 resonance. These properties explain the high probability of 2:1 and 3:1 resonant capture at low eccentricities. Furthermore, we study the resonant capture of three-planet systems. We show that such a resonant capture is possible and can occur under particular conditions. Then, from the migration path of the system, stable three-planet configurations, either symmetric or asymmetric, can be determined.
18-Electron Resonance Structures in the BCC Transition Metals and Their CsCl-type Derivatives.
Vinokur, Anastasiya I; Fredrickson, Daniel C
2017-03-06
Bonding in elemental metals and simple alloys has long been thought of as involving intense delocalization, with little connection to the localized bonds of covalent systems. In this Article, we show that the bonding in body-centered cubic (bcc) structures of the group 6 transition metals can in fact be represented, via the concepts of the 18-n rule and isolobal bonding, in terms of two balanced resonance structures. We begin with a reversed approximation Molecular Orbital (raMO) analysis of elemental Mo in its bcc structure. The raMO analysis indicates that, despite the low electron count (six valence electrons per Mo atom), nine electron pairs can be associated with any given Mo atom, corresponding to a filled 18-electron configuration. Six of these electron pairs take part in isolobal bonds along the second-nearest neighbor contacts, with the remaining three (based on the t2g d orbitals) interacting almost exclusively with first-nearest neighbors. In this way, each primitive cubic network defined by the second-nearest neighbor contacts comprises an 18-n electron system with n = 6, which essentially describes the full electronic structure of the phase. Of course, either of the two interpenetrating primitive cubic frameworks of the bcc structure can act as a basis for this discussion, leading us to write two resonance structures with equal weights for bcc-Mo. The electronic structures of CsCl-type variants with the same electron count can then be interpreted in terms of changing the relative weights of these two resonance structures, as is qualitatively confirmed with raMO analysis. This combination of raMO analysis with the resonance concept offers an avenue to extend the 18-n rule into other transition metal-rich structures.
Potapov, Alexey; Epel, Boris; Goldfarb, Daniella
2008-02-01
A new, triple resonance, pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) sequence is described. It provides spin links between forbidden electron spin transitions (ΔMS=±1, ΔMI≠0) and allowed nuclear spin transitions (ΔMI=±1), thus, facilitating the assignment of nuclear frequencies to their respective electron spin manifolds and paramagnetic centers. It also yields the relative signs of the hyperfine couplings of the different nuclei. The technique is based on the combination of electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR)-detected NMR experiments in a way similar to the TRIPLE experiment. The feasibility and the information content of the method are demonstrated first on a single crystal of Cu-doped L-histidine and then on a frozen solution of a Cu-histidine complex.
Study of orbitally excited B mesons and evidence for a new Bπ resonance
Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Devoto, F.; D'Errico, M.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Farrington, S.; Feindt, M.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H.; Funakoshi, Y.; Galloni, C.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González López, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hocker, A.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, Y. J.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucà, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Marchese, L.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Martínez, M.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parker, W.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Pranko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo Fernández, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J. L.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Sorin, V.; Song, H.; Stancari, M.; St. Denis, R.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vernieri, C.; Vidal, M.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Waters, D.; Wester, W. C.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W.-M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Zanetti, A. M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhou, C.; Zucchelli, S.; CDF Collaboration
2014-07-01
Using the full CDF Run II data sample, we report evidence for a new resonance, which we refer to as B(5970), found simultaneously in the B0π+ and B+π- mass distributions with a significance of 4.4 standard deviations. We further report the first study of resonances consistent with orbitally excited B+ mesons and an updated measurement of the properties of orbitally excited B0 and Bs0 mesons. We measure the masses and widths of all states, as well as the relative production rates of the B1, B2*, and B(5970) states and the branching fraction of the Bs2*0 state to either B*+K- and B+K-. Furthermore, we measure the production rates of the orbitally excited B0,+ states relative to the B0,+ ground state. The masses of the new B(5970) resonances are 5978±5(stat)±12(syst) MeV/c2 for the neutral state and 5961±5(stat)±12(syst) MeV /c2 for the charged state, assuming that the resonance decays into Bπ final states. The properties of the orbitally excited and the new B(59700,+) states are compatible with isospin symmetry.
Orbital Stability of Solitary Waves of The Long Wave—Short Wave Resonance Equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BolingGUO; LinCHEN
1996-01-01
This paper concerns the orbital stability for soliary waves of the long wave short wave resonance equations.By using a different method from[15] ,applying the abstract rsults of Grillakis et al.[8][9] and detailed spectral analysis.we obtain the necessary and sufficient condition for the stability of the solitary waves.
Quantum Stochastic Resonance in Electron Shelving
Huelga, S F
2000-01-01
Stochastic resonance shows that under some circumstances noise can enhance the response of a system to a periodic force. While this effect has been extensively investigated theoretically and demonstrated experimentally in classical systems, there is complete lack of experimental evidence within the purely quantum mechanical domain. Here we demonstrate that stochastic resonance can be exhibited in a single ion and would be experimentally observable using well mastered experimental techniques. We discuss the use of this scheme for the detection of the frequency difference of two lasers to demonstrate that stochastic resonance may have applications in precision measurements at the quantum limit.
Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating of a High-Density Plasma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, F. Ramskov
1986-01-01
Various schemes for electron cyclotron resonance heating of tokamak plasmas with the ratio of electron plasma frequency to electron cyclotron frequency, "»pe/^ce* larger than 1 on axis, are investigated. In particular, a mode conversion scheme is investigated using ordinary waves at the fundamental...
Resonant thickening of self-gravitating discs: orbital diffusion in the tightly wound limit
Fouvry, Jean-Baptiste; Monk, Laura
2016-01-01
The secular thickening of a self-gravitating stellar galactic disc embedded in a fluctuating potential is investigated. The thick WKB limit for the diffusion coefficient of the corresponding dressed Fokker-Planck equation is found using the epicyclic approximation, while assuming that only radially tightly wound transient spirals are sustained by the disc. This yields a simple quadrature, providing a clear understanding of the positions of maximum vertical orbital diffusion within the disc. This thick limit also offers a consistent derivation of a thick disc Toomre parameter, which is shown to be exponentially boosted by the ratio of the vertical to radial scale heights. When applied to a tepid stable tapered disc perturbed by shot noise, this formalism predicts the formation of ridges of resonant orbits towards larger vertical actions, as found in simulations. Potential fluctuations within the disc statistically induce a vertical bending of a subset of resonant orbits, triggering the corresponding increase i...
Gräfenstein, Jürgen; Tuttle, Tell; Cremer, Dieter
2004-06-01
The theory of the J-OC-PSP (decomposition of J into orbital contributions using orbital currents and partial spin polarization) method is derived to distinguish between the role of active, passive, and frozen orbitals on the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-spin coupling mechanism. Application of J-OC-PSP to the NMR spin-spin coupling constants of ethylene, which are calculated using coupled perturbed density functional theory in connection with the B3LYP hybrid functional and a [7s,6p,2d/4s,2p] basis set, reveal that the well-known pi mechanism for Fermi contact (FC) spin coupling is based on passive pi orbital contributions. The pi orbitals contribute to the spin polarization of the sigma orbitals at the coupling nuclei by mediating spin information between sigma orbitals (spin-transport mechanism) or by increasing the spin information of a sigma orbital by an echo effect. The calculated FC(pi) value of the SSCC (1)J(CC) of ethylene is 4.5 Hz and by this clearly smaller than previously assumed.
Barnes, Rory; Greenberg, Richard; Quinn, Thomas R; Raymond, Sean N
2015-01-01
We present N-body simulations of resonant planets with inclined orbits that show chaotically evolving eccentricities and inclinations that can persist for at least 10 Gyr. A wide range of behavior is possible, from fast, low amplitude variations to systems in which eccentricities reach 0.9999 and inclinations 179.9 degrees. While the orbital elements evolve chaotically, at least one resonant argument always librates. We show that the HD 73526, HD 45364 and HD 60532 systems may be in chaotically-evolving resonances. Chaotic evolution is apparent in the 2:1, 3:1 and 3:2 resonances, and for planetary masses from lunar- to Jupiter-mass. In some cases, orbital disruption occurs after several Gyr, implying the mechanism is not rigorously stable, just long-lived relative to the main sequence lifetimes of solar-type stars. Planet-planet scattering appears to yield planets in inclined resonances that evolve chaotically in about 0.5% of cases. These results suggest that 1) approximate methods for identifying unstable o...
Al-Jarro, Ahmed; Biris, Claudiu G; Panoiu, Nicolae C
2016-04-01
We present an in-depth analysis of the resonant intermixing between optical orbital and spin angular momentum of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams, mediated by chiral clusters made of silicon nanospheres. In particular, we establish a relationship between the spin and orbital quantum numbers characterizing the LG beam and the order q of the rotation symmetry group q of the cluster of nanospheres for which resonantly enhanced coupling between the two components of the optical angular momentum is observed. Thus, similar to the case of diffraction grating-mediated transfer of linear momentum between optical beams, we demonstrate that clusters of nanospheres that are invariant to specific rotation transformations can efficiently transfer optical angular momentum between LG beams with different quantum numbers. We also discuss the conditions in which the resonant interaction between LG beams and a chiral cluster of nanospheres leads to the generation of superchiral light.
Resonant Ultrasound studies of spin- and orbital ordering transitions in RVO3
Koehler, M.; Yan, J.-Q.; Ren, Y.; Sales, B. C.; Mandrus, D.; Keppens, V.
2013-03-01
RVO3 perovskites (R = rare earth) have been shown to undergo multiple spin and orbital transitions due to the Jahn-Teller active V3+ electrons. We have initiated a study of the elastic response of RVO3, (R = Dy, Gd, Ce) as well as Y1-xLaxVO3 (x = 0.05, 0.3, 1) using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. The temperature-dependence of the elastic response is dominated by the ordering transitions, with transition temperatures that change with the size of the rare earth. For CeVO3 and LaVO3, two transitions are observed, separated by 17K and 2K, respectively. DyVO3 and Y0.95La0.05VO3 show three transitions below 220K while GdVO3 only shows one. The full elastic tensor of Y0 . 7 La0.3VO3 has also been determined from 300K to 50K, yielding the temperature dependence of the 9 orthorhombic elastic moduli. Work at ORNL was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.
Thomas, KJ; Grenier, S; Kim, YJ; Abbamonte, P; Rusydi, A; Tomioka, Y; Tokura, Y; McMorrow, DF; Sawatzky, G; van Veenendaal, M; Hill, J.P.; Venema, L.C.
2004-01-01
We have utilized resonant x-ray diffraction at the Mn L(II,III) edges in order to directly compare magnetic and orbital correlations in Pr(0.6)Ca(0.4)MnO(3). Comparing the widths of the magnetic and orbital diffraction peaks, we find that the magnetic correlation length exceeds that of the orbital o
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. E. Sarris
2007-07-01
Full Text Available A long lasting narrow-band (4–7 mHz Pc5 fluctuation event at geosynchronous orbit is presented through measurements from GOES-8 and GOES-10 and the response of energetic electrons with drift frequencies close to the narrow-band pulsation frequency is monitored through a spectral analysis of flux data from the LANL-SOPA energetic electron instrument. This analysis shows electron flux modulations at the magnetospheric pulsation's frequency as well as at various other frequencies in the Pc5 range, related to the particles' drift-frequencies and their harmonics. A drift resonance effect can be seen, with electron flux modulation becoming more evident in the energy channels of electrons with drift frequencies closer to the wave frequency; however no net increase or decrease in energetic electron flux is observed, indicating that the net energy transfer and transport of electrons is not significant. This Pc5 event has a long duration, being observed for more than a couple of days at geosynchronous orbit over several traversals of the two GOES satellites, and is localized in azimuthal extent. Spectral analysis shows that most of the power is in the transverse components. The frequency of the narrow-band event, as observed at geosynchronous orbit shifts during the time of the event from 7±0.5 mHz to about 4±0.5 mHz. On the ground, CARISMA magnetometers record no distinct narrow-band fluctuation in the magnetic field, and neither does Geotail, which is traversing the outer magnetosphere a few R_{E} further out from geosynchronous orbit, at the same UT and LT that GOES-8 and -10 observe the pulsations, suggesting that that there is no connection to external fluctuations originating in the solar wind. An internal generation mechanism is suggested, such as could be provided by energetic ring current particles, even though conclusive evidence could not be provided for this particular event. Through a statistical study, it is
Spin-orbit-induced strong coupling of a single spin to a nanomechanical resonator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pályi, András; Struck, P R; Rudner, Mark
2012-01-01
We theoretically investigate the deflection-induced coupling of an electron spin to vibrational motion due to spin-orbit coupling in suspended carbon nanotube quantum dots. Our estimates indicate that, with current capabilities, a quantum dot with an odd number of electrons can serve as a realiza...
KORC: A Kinetic Orbit Runaway Electrons code for tokamak disruptions
Carbajal Gomez, Leopoldo; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego; Spong, Donald; Seal, Sudip; Baylor, Larry
2016-10-01
Runaway electrons (RE) resulting from the violent termination of tokamak plasmas pose a serious threat to ITER due to the very high energies they can reach and deposit on the plasma facing components. Most of the current modelling of RE in fusion tokamak plasmas rely on reduced models such as the bounce-average and the test particle equations. In some scenarios, the radiation losses in these models might lead to uncertainties in the RE parameters that determine their confinement and energy limit. In order to study this in detail we have developed a new Kinetic Orbit Runaway electrons Code (KORC). KORC follows the dynamics of ensembles of relativistic electrons in the 6D phase space fully resolving gyro-motion under the influence of the Lorentz force, the Landau-Lifshiftz consistent formulation of the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac force for radiation damping, and collisions with impurities and the background plasma. KORC is parallelized using open MP/MPI, and benefits from a modified relativistic leap-frog method along with an operator splitting scheme for solving the RE dynamics in different magnetic fields. The code is robust, conservative, and shows nearly linear strong scaling. Research sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy.
Electronically excited negative ion resonant states in chloroethylenes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khvostenko, O.G., E-mail: khv@mail.ru; Lukin, V.G.; Tuimedov, G.M.; Khatymova, L.Z.; Kinzyabulatov, R.R.; Tseplin, E.E.
2015-02-15
Highlights: • Several novel dissociative negative ion channels were revealed in chloroethylenes. • The electronically excited resonant states were recorded in all chloroethylenes under study. • The states were assigned to the inter-shell types, but not to the core-excited Feshbach one. - Abstract: The negative ion mass spectra of the resonant electron capture by molecules of 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethylene-cis, 1,2-dichloroethylene-trans, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene have been recorded in the 0–12 eV range of the captured electron energy using static magnetic sector mass spectrometer modified for operation in the resonant electron capture regime. As a result, several novel low-intensive dissociation channels were revealed in the compounds under study. Additionally, the negative ion resonant states were recorded at approximately 3–12 eV, mostly for the first time. These resonant states were assigned to the electronically excited resonances of the inter-shell type by comparing their energies with those of the parent neutral molecules triplet and singlet electronically excited states known from the energy-loss spectra obtained by previous studies.
Electron waves and resonances in bounded plasmas
Vandenplas, Paul E
1968-01-01
General theoretical methods and experimental techniques ; the uniform plasma slab-condenser system ; the hollow cylindrical plasma ; scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a plasma column in steady magnetic fields (cold plasma approximation) ; hot non-uniform plasma column ; metallic and dielectric resonance probes, plasma-dielectric coated antenna, general considerations.
Electron Spin Resonance at the Level of 1 04 Spins Using Low Impedance Superconducting Resonators
Eichler, C.; Sigillito, A. J.; Lyon, S. A.; Petta, J. R.
2017-01-01
We report on electron spin resonance measurements of phosphorus donors localized in a 200 μ m2 area below the inductive wire of a lumped element superconducting resonator. By combining quantum limited parametric amplification with a low impedance microwave resonator design, we are able to detect around 2 ×1 04 spins with a signal-to-noise ratio of 1 in a single shot. The 150 Hz coupling strength between the resonator field and individual spins is significantly larger than the 1-10 Hz coupling rates obtained with typical coplanar waveguide resonator designs. Because of the larger coupling rate, we find that spin relaxation is dominated by radiative decay into the resonator and dependent upon the spin-resonator detuning, as predicted by Purcell.
Resonant enhancement of relativistic electron fluxes during geomagnetically active periods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Roth
Full Text Available The strong increase in the flux of relativistic electrons during the recovery phase of magnetic storms and during other active periods is investigated with the help of Hamiltonian formalism and simulations of test electrons which interact with whistler waves. The intensity of the whistler waves is enhanced significantly due to injection of 10-100 keV electrons during the substorm. Electrons which drift in the gradient and curvature of the magnetic field generate the rising tones of VLF whistler chorus. The seed population of relativistic electrons which bounce along the inhomogeneous magnetic field, interacts resonantly with the whistler waves. Whistler wave propagating obliquely to the magnetic field can interact with energetic electrons through Landau, cyclotron, and higher harmonic resonant interactions when the Doppler-shifted wave frequency equals any (positive or negative integer multiple of the local relativistic gyrofrequency. Because the gyroradius of a relativistic electron may be the order of or greater than the perpendicular wavelength, numerous cyclotron, harmonics can contribute to the resonant interaction which breaks down the adiabatic invariant. A similar process diffuses the pitch angle leading to electron precipitation. The irreversible changes in the adiabatic invariant depend on the relative phase between the wave and the electron, and successive resonant interactions result in electrons undergoing a random walk in energy and pitch angle. This resonant process may contribute to the 10-100 fold increase of the relativistic electron flux in the outer radiation belt, and constitute an interesting relation between substorm-generated waves and enhancements in fluxes of relativistic electrons during geomagnetic storms and other active periods.
Key words. Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles · trapped; plasma waves and instabilities; storms and substorms
Erpenbeck, A.; Härtle, R.; Bockstedte, M.; Thoss, M.
2016-03-01
We investigate the role of electronic-vibrational coupling in resonant electron transport through single-molecule junctions, taking into account that the corresponding coupling strengths may depend on the charge and excitation state of the molecular bridge. Within an effective-model Hamiltonian approach for a molecule with multiple electronic states, this requires to extend the commonly used model and include vibrationally dependent electron-electron interaction. We use Born-Markov master equation methods and consider selected models to exemplify the effect of the additional interaction on the transport characteristics of a single-molecule junction. In particular, we show that it has a significant influence on local cooling and heating mechanisms, it may result in negative differential resistance, and it may cause pronounced asymmetries in the conductance map of a single-molecule junction.
Orbital Contributions to the Electron g Factor in Semiconductor Nanowires
Winkler, Georg W.; Varjas, Dániel; Skolasinski, Rafal; Soluyanov, Alexey A.; Troyer, Matthias; Wimmer, Michael
2017-07-01
Recent experiments on Majorana fermions in semiconductor nanowires [S. M. Albrecht, A. P. Higginbotham, M. Madsen, F. Kuemmeth, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, and C. M. Marcus, Nature (London) 531, 206 (2016), 10.1038/nature17162] revealed a surprisingly large electronic Landé g factor, several times larger than the bulk value—contrary to the expectation that confinement reduces the g factor. Here we assess the role of orbital contributions to the electron g factor in nanowires and quantum dots. We show that an L .S coupling in higher subbands leads to an enhancement of the g factor of an order of magnitude or more for small effective mass semiconductors. We validate our theoretical finding with simulations of InAs and InSb, showing that the effect persists even if cylindrical symmetry is broken. A huge anisotropy of the enhanced g factors under magnetic field rotation allows for a straightforward experimental test of this theory.
How terrestrial planets traverse spin-orbit resonances: A camel goes through a needle's eye
Makarov, Valeri V
2011-01-01
The dynamical evolution of terrestrial planets resembling Mercury in the vicinity of spin-orbit resonances is investigated using comprehensive harmonic expansions of the tidal torque with accurate expressions for the frequency-dependent quality factors and Love numbers. The torque equations are integrated numerically with a small step in time, taking into account the oscillating triaxial torque components but neglecting the layered structure of the planet and assuming a zero obliquity. We find that a Mercury-like planet with its current value of orbital eccentricity (0.2056) is always captured in the 3:2 resonance, and invariably traverses all higher resonances. The circumstances of a resonance passage are remarkable, in that it happens very quickly, in a sudden lunge. Considering the phase space parameters at the times of periastron, a Mercury-like planet can traverse the resonance only if its angle with respect to the star is close to $\\pm\\pi/2$, i.e., if the planet is positioned sidewise, with the longest ...
Resonant Production of Color Octet Electron at the Lhec
Sahin, M; Turkoz, S
2010-01-01
In composite models with colored preons leptogluons (l_(8)) has a same status with leptoquarks, excited leptons and quarks etc. We analyze resonant production of color octet electron (e_(8)) at QCD Explorer stage of the Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC). It is shown that the e_(8) discovery at the LHeC will simultaneously determine the compositeness scale.
Calculation of Stark resonance parameters for valence orbitals of the water molecule
Laso, Susana Arias
2016-01-01
An exterior complex scaling technique is applied to compute Stark resonance parameters for two molecular orbitals ($1b_{1}$ and $1b_{2}$) represented in the field-free limit in a single-center expansion. For electric DC field configurations that guarantee azimuthal symmetry of the solution the calculation is carried out by solving a two-dimensional partial differential equation in spherical polar coordinates using a finite-element method. The resonance positions and widths as a function of electric field strengths are shown for field strengths starting in the tunnelling ionization regime, and extending well into the over-barrier ionization region.
Dynamical evolution of space debris on high-elliptical orbits near high-order resonance zones
Kuznetsov, Eduard; Zakharova, Polina
Orbital evolution of objects on Molniya-type orbits is considered near high-order resonance zones. Initial conditions correspond to high-elliptical orbits with the critical inclination 63.4 degrees. High-order resonances are analyzed. Resonance orders are more than 5 and less than 50. Frequencies of perturbations caused by the effect of sectorial and tesseral harmonics of the Earth's gravitational potential are linear combinations of the mean motion of a satellite, angular velocities of motion of the pericenter and node of its orbit, and the angular velocity of the Earth. Frequencies of perturbations were calculated by taking into account secular perturbations from the Earth oblateness, the Moon, the Sun, and a solar radiation pressure. Resonance splitting effect leads to three sub-resonances. The study of dynamical evolution on long time intervals was performed on the basis of the results of numerical simulation. We used "A Numerical Model of the Motion of Artificial Earth's Satellites", developed by the Research Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics of the Tomsk State University. The model of disturbing forces taken into account the main perturbing factors: the gravitational field of the Earth, the attraction of the Moon and the Sun, the tides in the Earth’s body, the solar radiation pressure, taking into account the shadow of the Earth, the Poynting-Robertson effect, and the atmospheric drag. Area-to-mass ratio varied from small values corresponding to satellites to big ones corresponding to space debris. The locations and sizes of resonance zones were refined from numerical simulation. The Poynting-Robertson effect results in a secular decrease in the semi-major axis of a spherically symmetrical satellite. In resonance regions the effect weakens slightly. Reliable estimates of secular perturbations of the semi-major axis were obtained from the numerical simulation. Under the Poynting-Robertson effect objects pass through the regions of high
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fajer, Piotr G [Institute of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biological Science, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States)
2005-05-11
The recent development of site specific spin labelling and advances in pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance(EPR) have established spin labelling as a viable structural biology technique. Specific protein sites or whole domains can be selectively targeted for spin labelling by cysteine mutagenesis. The secondary structure of the proteins is determined from the trends in EPR signals of labels attached to consecutive residues. Solvent accessibility or label mobility display periodicities along the labelled polypeptide chain that are characteristic of {beta}-strands (periodicity of 2 residues) or {alpha}-helices (3.6 residues). Low-resolution 3D structure of proteins is determined from the distance restraints. Two spin labels placed within 60-70 A of each other create a local dipolar field experienced by the other spin labels. The strength of this field is related to the interspin distance, {proportional_to} r{sup -3}. The dipolar field can be measured by the broadening of the EPR lines for the short distances (8-20 A) or for the longer distances (17-70 A) by the pulsed EPR methods, double electron-electron resonance(DEER) and double quantum coherence (DQC). A brief review of the methodology and its applications to the multisubunit muscle protein troponin is presented below.
A Stern-Gerlach-like approach to electron orbital angular momentum measurement
Harvey, Tyler R
2016-01-01
Many methods now exist to prepare free electrons into orbital angular momentum states, and the predicted applications of these electron states as probes of materials and scattering processes are numerous. The development of electron orbital angular momentum measurement techniques has lagged behind. We show that coupling between electron orbital angular momentum and a spatially varying magnetic field produces an angular momentum-dependent focusing effect. We propose a design for an orbital angular momentum measurement device built on this principle. As the method of measurement is non-interferometric, the device works equally well for mixed, superposed and pure final orbital angular momentum states. The energy and orbital angular momentum distributions of inelastically scattered electrons may be simultaneously measurable with this technique.
Electron transport for a laser-irradiated quantum channel with Rashba spin-orbit coupling
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhao Hua; Liao Wen-Hu; Zhou Guang-Hui
2007-01-01
We investigate theoretically the electron transport for a two-level quantum channel (wire) with Rashba spinorbit coupling under the irradiation of a longitudinally-polarized external laser field at low temperatures. Using the method of equation of motion for Keldysh nonequilibrium Green function, we examine the time-averaged spin polarized conductance for the system with photon polarization parallel to the wire direction. By analytical analysis and a few numerical examples, the interplay effects of the external laser field and the Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the spin-polarized conductance for the system are demonstrated and discussed. It is found that the longitudinally-polarized laser field can adjust the spin polarization rate and produce some photon sideband resonances of the conductance for the system.
Kiyama, T; Ohsumi, H; Murakami, Y; Wakabayashi, Y; Izumi, M; Kawasaki, M; Tokura, Y
2003-01-01
We report the results of resonant X-ray scattering (RXS) measurement of superlattices which consist of La sub 0 sub . sub 4 sub 5 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 5 sub 5 MnO sub 3 and La sub 0 sub . sub 6 sub 0 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 4 sub 0 MnO sub 3 multilayers. An interference technique made it possible to observe RXS reflections from ferro-type orbital ordering in the superlattices. RXS can reveal the local circumstances around specific atoms in materials regulated atomically. In this experiment, we observed that the superlattice is actually composed of two kinds of layers with different lattice distortion states, presenting 'orbital superlattices', in which layers with different orbital states are stacked alternately in an atomic scale. (author)
Continuation and stability deduction of resonant periodic orbits in three dimensional systems
Antoniadou, Kyriaki I; Varvoglis, Harry
2014-01-01
In dynamical systems of few degrees of freedom, periodic solutions consist the backbone of the phase space and the determination and computation of their stability is crucial for understanding the global dynamics. In this paper we study the classical three body problem in three dimensions and use its dynamics to assess the long-term evolution of extrasolar systems. We compute periodic orbits, which correspond to exact resonant motion, and determine their linear stability. By computing maps of dynamical stability we show that stable periodic orbits are surrounded in phase space with regular motion even in systems with more than two degrees of freedom, while chaos is apparent close to unstable ones. Therefore, families of stable periodic orbits, indeed, consist backbones of the stability domains in phase space.
Photosynthetic potential of planets in 3 : 2 spin-orbit resonances
Brown, S. P.; Mead, A. J.; Forgan, D. H.; Raven, J. A.; Cockell, C. S.
2014-10-01
Photosynthetic life requires sufficient photosynthetically active radiation to metabolize. On Earth, plant behaviour, physiology and metabolism are sculpted around the night-day cycle by an endogenous biological circadian clock. The evolution of life was influenced by the Earth-Sun orbital dynamic, which generates the photo-environment incident on the planetary surface. In this work, the unusual photo-environment of an Earth-like planet (ELP) in 3 : 2 spin-orbit resonance is explored. Photo-environments on the ELP are longitudinally differentiated, in addition to differentiations related to latitude and depth (for aquatic organisms) which are familiar on Earth. The light environment on such a planet could be compatible with Earth's photosynthetic life although the threat of atmospheric freeze-out and prolonged periods of darkness would present significant challenges. We emphasize the relationship between the evolution of life on a planetary body with its orbital dynamics.
Photosynthetic Potential of Planets in 3:2 Spin Orbit Resonances
Brown, S P; Forgan, D H; Raven, J A; Cockell, C S
2014-01-01
Photosynthetic life requires sufficient photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) to metabolise. On Earth, plant behaviour, physiology and metabolism are sculpted around the night-day cycle by an endogenous biological circadian clock. The evolution of life was influenced by the Earth-Sun orbital dynamic, which generates the photo-environment incident on the planetary surface. In this work the unusual photo-environment of an Earth-like planet (ELP) in 3:2 spin orbit resonance is explored. Photo-environments on the ELP are longitudinally differentiated, in addition to differentiations relating to latitude and depth (for aquatic organisms) which are familiar on Earth. The light environment on such a planet could be compatible with Earth's photosynthetic life although the threat of atmospheric freeze-out and prolonged periods of darkness would present significant challenges. We emphasise the relationship between the evolution of life on a planetary body with its orbital dynamics.
A High-Efficiency Electron Momentum Spectrometer for Direct Imaging of Orbital Electron Density
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
REN Xue-Guang; NING Chuan-Gang; DENG Jing-Kang; ZHANG Shu-Feng; SU Guo-Lin; LI Bin; CHEN Xue-Jun
2005-01-01
@@ Direct three-dimensional images for orbital electron density are obtained by using our newly developed electron momentum spectrometer with simultaneous detection in energy and momentum, and the instruments resolutions of Aθ = ±0.7°, △φ = ±1.9°, △E = 1.2 eV, and △T = 2.0ns. The detection efficiency is about 100 times higher than conventional spectrometers. The design and performance of the apparatus are reported together with the experimental results on argon to show the extensive improvements in experimental resolutions, detection efficiency and versatility.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roshdy Nader
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS in the diagnosis of different orbital masses and their advantages over conventional MRI. Materials and Methods: The study included 20 patients presenting with proptosis. Every patient was subjected to thorough clinical examination, conventional MRI "T1 weighted, T2 weighted, and postcontrast T1 weighted if needed," diffusion-weighted MRI, and proton MRS. Orbitotomy was performed, the orbital mass was excised, and histopathological examination was performed. Results: Diffusion-weighted MRI could differentiate between benign lesions and malignant tumors in 70% of cases; however, overlap occurred in 30% of cases with benign tumors showing restricted diffusion whereas proton MRS could differentiate between benign and malignant tumors in 90% of cases. Conclusion: Diffusion-weighted MRI and proton MRS can potentially increase the accuracy of diagnosis of orbital masses through in vivo tissue characterization. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy seems to be the more accurate modality.
Xie, Ji-Wei
2016-01-01
Many multiple-planet systems have been found by the Kepler transit survey and various radial velocity (RV) surveys. Kepler planets show an asymmetric feature, namely, there are small but significant deficits/excesses of planet pairs with orbital period spacing slightly narrow/wide of the exact resonance, particularly near the first order mean motion resonance (MMR), such as 2:1 and 3:2 MMR. Similarly, if not exactly the same, an asymmetric feature (pileup wide of 2:1 MMR) is also seen in RV planets, but only for massive ones. We analytically and numerically study planets' orbital evolutions near and in the MMR. We find that their orbital period ratios could be asymmetrically distributed around the MMR center regardless of dissipation. In the case of no dissipation, Kepler planets' asymmetric orbital distribution could be partly reproduced for 3:2 MMR but not for 2:1 MMR, implying that dissipation might be more important to the latter. The pileup of massive RV planets just wide of 2:1 MMR is found to be consis...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
V.ZIMMERMANN,M.; NELSON,C.S.; HILL,J.P.; GIBBS,D.; BLUME,M.; CASA,D.; KEIMER,B.; MURAKAMI,Y.; KAO,C.C.; VENKATARAMAN,C.; GOG,T.; TOMIOKA,Y.; TOKURA,Y.
2000-08-14
We present the results of x-ray scattering studies of the charge and orbital ordering in the manganite series Pr{sub 1{minus}z}, Ca{sub x}, MnO{sub 3} with x = 0.25, 0.4 and 0.5. The polarization and azimuthal dependence of the charge and orbital ordering in these compounds is characterized both in the resonant and nonresonant limits, and compared with the predictions of current theories. The results are qualitatively consistent with both cluster and LDA+U calculations of the electronic structure.
Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging: 1. CW-EPR Imaging
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-07-01
Twentieth century bore witness to remarkable scientists whohave advanced our understanding of the brain. Among them,EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) imaging is particularlyuseful in monitoring hypoxic zones in tumors which arehighly resistant to radiation and chemotherapeutic treatment.This first part of the article covers aspects of CW(continuous wave) imaging with details of FT (pulsed FourierTransform)-EPR imaging covered in Part 2, to be publishedin the next issue of Resonance.
WGM resonators for studying orbital angular momentum of a photon, and methods
Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Savchenkov, Anatoliy A. (Inventor); Maleki, Lute (Inventor); Strekalov, Dmitry V. (Inventor)
2009-01-01
An optical system, device, and method that are capable of generating high-order Bessel beams and determining the orbital angular momentum of at least one of the photons of a Bessel beam are provided. The optical system and device include a tapered waveguide having an outer surface defined by a diameter that varies along a longitudinal axis of the waveguide from a first end to an opposing second end. The optical system and device include a resonator that is arranged in optical communication with the first end of the tapered waveguide such that an evanescent field emitted from (i) the waveguide can be coupled with the resonator, or (ii) the resonator can be coupled with the waveguide.
Resonance effects of excitons and electrons. Basics and applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geru, Ion [Moldovan Academy of Sciences, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of). Inst. of Chemistry; Suter, Dieter [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Fakultaet Physik
2013-08-01
Represents the first book on non-traditional resonance effects of excitons in semiconductors. Explains resonance phenomena of excitons and electrons in solids. Presents the Knight shift at the Bose-Einstein condensation of excitons. This book presents the various types of resonance effects on excitons, biexcitons and the local electronic centers (LEC) in solids, such as paramagnetic and paraelectric resonances on excitons, exciton acoustic resonance at intra- and interband transitions, radio-optical double resonance on excitons, hole-nuclear double resonance on localized biexcitons, ENDOR and acoustic ENDOR on LEC. The criteria for the generation of coherent photons, phonons and magnons by excitons are explained. The interactions of excitons and biexcitons with paramagnetic centers and nuclear spins, the indirect interaction between the PC through a field of excitons as well as the quasienergy spectrum of excitons and spin systems are discussed. It is proved that the interaction of paramagnetic centers with excitons increases the spin relaxation rate of paramagnetic centers in comparison with the case of their interaction with free carriers. The giant magneto-optical effects in semi-magnetic semiconductors are theoretically interpreted. In recent years, a new perspective has been added to these systems and their interactions: they can be used for storing and processing information in the form of quantum bits (qubits), the building blocks of quantum computers. The basics of this emerging technology are explained and examples of demonstration-type quantum computers based on localized spins in solids are discussed.
Orbital Magnetism of Bloch Electrons: III. Application to Graphene
Ogata, Masao
2016-10-01
The orbital susceptibility for graphene is calculated exactly up to the first order with respect to the overlap integrals between neighboring atomic orbitals. The general and rigorous theory of orbital susceptibility developed in the preceding paper is applied to a model for graphene as a typical two-band model. It is found that there are contributions from interband, Fermi surface, and occupied states in addition to the Landau-Peierls orbital susceptibility. The relative phase between the atomic orbitals on the two sublattices related to the chirality of Dirac cones plays an important role. It is shown that there are some additional contributions to the orbital susceptibility that are not included in the previous calculations using the Peierls phase in the tight-binding model for graphene. The physical origin of this difference is clarified in terms of the corrections to the Peierls phase.
Electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fidone, I.; Castejon, F.
1992-07-01
A brief summary of the theory and experiments on electron- cyclotron heating and current drive is presented. The general relativistic formulation of wave propagation and linear absorption is considered in some detail. The O-mode and the X-mode for normal and oblique propagation are investigated and illustrated by several examples. The experimental verification of the theory in T-10 and D- III-D is briefly discussed. Quasilinear evolution of the momentum distribution and related applications as, for instance, non linear wave, damping and current drive, are also considered for special cases of wave frequencies, polarization and propagation. In the concluding section we present the general formulation of the wave damping and current drive in the absence of electron trapping for arbitrary values of the wave frequency. (Author) 13 refs.
Electron acceleration by Landau resonance with whistler mode wave packets
Gurnett, D. A.; Reinleitner, L. A.
1983-01-01
Recent observations of electrostatic waves associated with whistler mode chorus emissions provide evidence that electrons are being trapped by Landau resonance interactions with the chorus. In this paper, the trapping, acceleration and escape of electrons in Landau resonance with a whistler mode wave packet are discussed. It is shown that acceleration can occur by both inhomogeneous and dispersive effects. The maximum energy gained is controlled by the points where trapping and escape occur. Large energy changes are possible if the frequency of the wave packet or the magnetic field strength increase between the trapping and escape points. Various trapping and escape mechanisms are discussed.
Electron spin resonance detected by a superconducting qubit
Kubo, Y; Grezes, C; Umeda, T; Isoya, J; Sumiya, H; Yamamoto, T; Abe, H; Onoda, S; Ohshima, T; Jacques, V; Dréau, A; Roch, J -F; Auffeves, A; Vion, D; Esteve, D; Bertet, P
2012-01-01
A new method for detecting the magnetic resonance of electronic spins at low temperature is demonstrated. It consists in measuring the signal emitted by the spins with a superconducting qubit that acts as a single-microwave-photon detector, resulting in an enhanced sensitivity. We implement this new type of electron-spin resonance spectroscopy using a hybrid quantum circuit in which a transmon qubit is coupled to a spin ensemble consisting of NV centers in diamond. With this setup we measure the NV center absorption spectrum at 30mK at an excitation level of \\thicksim15\\,\\mu_{B} out of an ensemble of 10^{11} spins.
Field structure and electron life times in the MEFISTO electron cyclotron resonance ion source
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bodendorfer, M. [EPFL - Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); University of Berne, Institute of Physics, Space Research and Planetary Sciences, Siedlerstrasse 5, 3012 Berne (Switzerland)], E-mail: michael.bodendorfer@space.unibe.ch; Altwegg, K. [University of Berne, Institute of Physics, Space Research and Planetary Sciences, Siedlerstrasse 5, 3012 Berne (Switzerland); Shea, H. [EPFL - Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Wurz, P. [University of Berne, Institute of Physics, Space Research and Planetary Sciences, Siedlerstrasse 5, 3012 Berne (Switzerland)
2008-03-15
The complex magnetic field of the permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source MEFISTO located at the University of Berne has been numerically simulated. For the first time the magnetized volume qualified for electron cyclotron resonance at 2.45 GHz and 87.5 mT has been analyzed in highly detailed 3D simulations with unprecedented resolution. New results were obtained from the numerical simulation of 25,211 electron trajectories. The evident characteristic ion sputtering trident of hexapole confined ECR ion sources has been identified with the field and electron trajectory distribution. Furthermore, unexpected long electron trajectory lifetimes were found.
Field structure and electron life times in the MEFISTO electron cyclotron resonance ion source
Bodendorfer, M.; Altwegg, K.; Shea, H.; Wurz, P.
2008-03-01
The complex magnetic field of the permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source MEFISTO located at the University of Berne has been numerically simulated. For the first time the magnetized volume qualified for electron cyclotron resonance at 2.45 GHz and 87.5 mT has been analyzed in highly detailed 3D simulations with unprecedented resolution. New results were obtained from the numerical simulation of 25,211 electron trajectories. The evident characteristic ion sputtering trident of hexapole confined ECR ion sources has been identified with the field and electron trajectory distribution. Furthermore, unexpected long electron trajectory lifetimes were found.
Field structure and electron life times in the MEFISTO Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source
Bodendorfer, Michael; Shea, Herbert; Wurz, Peter
2008-01-01
The complex magnetic field of the permanent-magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source MEFISTO located at the University of Bern have been numerically simulated. For the first time the magnetized volume qualified for electron cyclotron resonance at 2.45 GHz and 87.5 mT has been analyzed in highly detailed 3D simulations with unprecedented resolution. New results were obtained from the numerical simulation of 25211 electron trajectories. The evident characteristic ion sputtering trident of hexapole confined ECR sources has been identified with the field and electron trajectory distribution. Furthermore, unexpected long electron trajectory lifetimes were found.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gendron, Frederic; Pritchard, Ben; Autschbach, Jochen [Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Paez-Hernandez, Dayan; Bolvin, Helene [Laboratoire de Physique et de Chimie Quantiques, Universite Toulouse 3 (France); Notter, Francois-Paul [Laboratoire de Chimie Quantique, Universite de Strasbourg (France)
2014-06-23
The electronic structure and magnetic properties of neptunyl(VI), NpO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, and two neptunyl complexes, [NpO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}]{sup -} and [NpO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}]{sup 2-}, were studied with a combination of theoretical methods: ab initio relativistic wavefunction methods and density functional theory (DFT), as well as crystal-field (CF) models with parameters extracted from the ab initio calculations. Natural orbitals for electron density and spin magnetization from wavefunctions including spin-orbit coupling were employed to analyze the connection between the electronic structure and magnetic properties, and to link the results from CF models to the ab initio data. Free complex ions and systems embedded in a crystal environment were studied. Of prime interest were the electron paramagnetic resonance g-factors and their relation to the complex geometry, ligand coordination, and nature of the nonbonding 5f orbitals. The g-factors were calculated for the ground and excited states. For [NpO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}]{sup 2-}, a strong influence of the environment of the complex on its magnetic behavior was demonstrated. Kohn-Sham DFT with standard functionals can produce reasonable g-factors as long as the calculation converges to a solution resembling the electronic state of interest. However, this is not always straightforward. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Measuring Traces Of Oxygen By Resonant Electron Attachment
Man, Kin Fung; Boumsellek, Said; Chutjian, Ara
1995-01-01
Method of detecting trace amounts of oxygen based on dissociative attachment of electrons to oxygen molecules followed by measurement of resulting flux of negative oxygen ions in mass spectrometer. High sensitivity achieved in method by exploiting resonance in dissociative attachment of electrons to oxygen molecules: electron-attachment cross section rises to high peak at incident electron kinetic energy of 6.2 eV. Relative concentrations below 1 ppb detected. Devised to increase sensitivity of detection of oxygen in processing chambers in which oxygen regarded as contaminant; for example, chambers used in making semiconductor devices and in growing high-purity crystals.
Xu, Guochang
2008-01-01
This is the first book of the satellite era which describes orbit theory with analytical solutions of the second order with respect to all possible disturbances. Based on such theory, the algorithms of orbits determination are completely revolutionized.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hu Li-Yun; Zhou Bin
2011-01-01
We theoretically investigate the electron transmission through a seven-layer semiconductor heterostructure with the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling under two applied oscillating fields. Numerical results show that both of the spindependent symmetric Breit-Wigner and the asymmetric Fano resonances appear and that the properties of these two types of resonance peaks are dependent on the amplitude and the relative phases of the two applied oscillating fields.The modulation of the spin-polarization efficiency of transmitted electrons by the relative phase is also discussed.
JOSLYN, S.; Richards, S.; Boroffka, S.A.E.B.; Mitchell, M.; Hammond, G.; Sullivan, M.T.
2013-01-01
Enhancement of extra-ocular muscles has been reported in cases of orbital pathology in both veterinary and medical magnetic resonance imaging.We have also observed this finding in the absence of orbital disease. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe extra-ocular muscle contrast enh
JOSLYN, S.; Richards, S.; Boroffka, S.A.E.B.; Mitchell, M.; Hammond, G.; Sullivan, M.T.
2013-01-01
Enhancement of extra-ocular muscles has been reported in cases of orbital pathology in both veterinary and medical magnetic resonance imaging.We have also observed this finding in the absence of orbital disease. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe extra-ocular muscle contrast enh
Electron paramagnetic resonance of material properties and processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brower, K. L.
1980-01-01
This paper demonstrates, primarily for the non-specialist and within the context of new and recent achievements, the diagnostic value of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in the study of material properties and processes. I have selected three EPR studies which demonstrate the elegance and uniqueness of EPR in atomic defect studies and exemplify unusual achievements through the use of new techniques for material measurement and preparation. A brief introduction into the origin, interaction, and detection of unpaired electrons is included.
Resonance electron attachment to plant hormones and its likely connection with biochemical processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pshenichnyuk, Stanislav A., E-mail: sapsh@anrb.ru [Institute of Molecule and Crystal Physics, Ufa Research Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospekt Oktyabrya 151, 450075 Ufa (Russian Federation); Modelli, Alberto [Dipartimento di Chimica “G. Ciamician”, Università di Bologna, via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna, Italy and Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca in Scienze Ambientali, via S. Alberto 163, 48123 Ravenna (Italy)
2014-01-21
Gas-phase formation of temporary negative ion states via resonance attachment of low-energy (0–6 eV) electrons into vacant molecular orbitals of salicylic acid (I) and its derivatives 3-hydroxy- (II) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (III), 5-cloro salicylic acid (IV) and methyl salicylate (V) was investigated for the first time by electron transmission spectroscopy. The description of their empty-level structures was supported by density functional theory and Hartree-Fock calculations, using empirically calibrated linear equations to scale the calculated virtual orbital energies. Dissociative electron attachment spectroscopy (DEAS) was used to measure the fragment anion yields generated through dissociative decay channels of the parent molecular anions of compounds I–V, detected with a mass filter as a function of the incident electron energy in the 0–14 eV energy range. The most intense negative fragment produced by DEA to isomers I–III is the dehydrogenated molecular anion [M–H]{sup −}, mainly formed at incident electron energies around 1 eV. The vertical and adiabatic electron affinities were evaluated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level as the anion/neutral total energy difference. The same theoretical method was also used for evaluation of the thermodynamic energy thresholds for production of the negative fragments observed in the DEA spectra. The gas-phase DEAS data can provide support for biochemical reaction mechanisms in vivo.
Resonance electron attachment to plant hormones and its likely connection with biochemical processes
Pshenichnyuk, Stanislav A.; Modelli, Alberto
2014-01-01
Gas-phase formation of temporary negative ion states via resonance attachment of low-energy (0-6 eV) electrons into vacant molecular orbitals of salicylic acid (I) and its derivatives 3-hydroxy- (II) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (III), 5-cloro salicylic acid (IV) and methyl salicylate (V) was investigated for the first time by electron transmission spectroscopy. The description of their empty-level structures was supported by density functional theory and Hartree-Fock calculations, using empirically calibrated linear equations to scale the calculated virtual orbital energies. Dissociative electron attachment spectroscopy (DEAS) was used to measure the fragment anion yields generated through dissociative decay channels of the parent molecular anions of compounds I-V, detected with a mass filter as a function of the incident electron energy in the 0-14 eV energy range. The most intense negative fragment produced by DEA to isomers I-III is the dehydrogenated molecular anion [M-H]-, mainly formed at incident electron energies around 1 eV. The vertical and adiabatic electron affinities were evaluated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level as the anion/neutral total energy difference. The same theoretical method was also used for evaluation of the thermodynamic energy thresholds for production of the negative fragments observed in the DEA spectra. The gas-phase DEAS data can provide support for biochemical reaction mechanisms in vivo.
Pauling resonant structures in real space through electron number probability distributions.
Pendas, A Martín; Francisco, E; Blanco, M A
2007-02-15
A general hierarchy of the coarsed-grained electron probability distributions induced by exhaustive partitions of the physical space is presented. It is argued that when the space is partitioned into atomic regions the consideration of these distributions may provide a first step toward an orbital invariant treatment of resonant structures. We also show that, in this case, the total molecular energy and its components may be partitioned into structure contributions, providing a fruitful extension of the recently developed interacting quantum atoms approach (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2005, 1, 1096). The above ideas are explored in the hydrogen molecule, where a complete statistical and energetic decomposition into covalent and ionic terms is presented.
Introduction to Spin Label Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Proteins
Melanson, Michelle; Sood, Abha; Torok, Fanni; Torok, Marianna
2013-01-01
An undergraduate laboratory exercise is described to demonstrate the biochemical applications of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The beta93 cysteine residue of hemoglobin is labeled by the covalent binding of 3-maleimido-proxyl (5-MSL) and 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1-oxyl-3-methyl methanethiosulfonate (MTSL), respectively. The excess…
Electron beam imaging and spectroscopy of plasmonic nanoantenna resonances
Vesseur, P.C.
2011-01-01
Nanoantennas are metal structures that provide strong optical coupling between a nanoscale volume and the far field. This coupling is mediated by surface plasmons, oscillations of the free electrons in the metal. Increasing the control over the resonant plasmonic field distribution opens up a wide r
Introduction to Spin Label Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Proteins
Melanson, Michelle; Sood, Abha; Torok, Fanni; Torok, Marianna
2013-01-01
An undergraduate laboratory exercise is described to demonstrate the biochemical applications of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The beta93 cysteine residue of hemoglobin is labeled by the covalent binding of 3-maleimido-proxyl (5-MSL) and 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1-oxyl-3-methyl methanethiosulfonate (MTSL), respectively. The excess…
Asymmetric Wave Transmission During Electron-Cyclotron Resonant Heating
Peeters, A.G.; Smits, F. M. A.; Giruzzi, G.; Oomens, A. A. M.; Westerhof, E.
1995-01-01
In low density plasmas in the RTP tokamak the single-pass absorption of O-mode waves at the fundamental electron cyclotron resonance is observed to be toroidally asymmetric. The absorption is highest for waves travelling in the direction opposite to the toroidal plasma current. Fokker-Planck
Resonator design for a visible wavelength free-electron laser (*)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhowmik, A.; Lordi, N. (Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.); Ben-Zvi, I.; Gallardo, J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))
1990-01-01
Design requirements for a visible wavelength free-electron laser being developed at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented along with predictions of laser performance from 3-D numerical simulations. The design and construction of the optical resonator, its alignment and control systems are also described. 15 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.
Coupling of spin and orbital motion of electrons in carbon nanotubes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Ilani, S; Ralph, D C
2008-01-01
Electrons in atoms possess both spin and orbital degrees of freedom. In non-relativistic quantum mechanics, these are independent, resulting in large degeneracies in atomic spectra. However, relativistic effects couple the spin and orbital motion, leading to the well-known fine structure in their......Electrons in atoms possess both spin and orbital degrees of freedom. In non-relativistic quantum mechanics, these are independent, resulting in large degeneracies in atomic spectra. However, relativistic effects couple the spin and orbital motion, leading to the well-known fine structure...... in their spectra. The electronic states in defect-free carbon nanotubes are widely believed to be four-fold degenerate, owing to independent spin and orbital symmetries, and also to possess electron–hole symmetry. Here we report measurements demonstrating that in clean nanotubes the spin and orbital motion...... of electrons are coupled, thereby breaking all of these symmetries. This spin–orbit coupling is directly observed as a splitting of the four-fold degeneracy of a single electron in ultra-clean quantum dots. The coupling favours parallel alignment of the orbital and spin magnetic moments for electrons...
The effects of geopotential resonance on orbit determination for Landsat-4
Hoge, S. L.; Casteel, D. O.; Phenneger, M. C.; Smith, E. A.
1988-01-01
Analysis is presented demonstrating improved performance for Landsat-4 orbit determination using the Goddard Trajectory Determination System with an adjusted Goddard Earth Model-9 (GEM-9) for geopotential coefficients of the 15th degree and order. The orbital state is estimated along with the sine and cosine coefficients of degree and order 15, (C, S) sub 15,15. The estimates are made for two 5-day intervals of range and doppler data, primarily from the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, during a period of low solar activity in January 1987. The average values of the estimated coefficients (C, S) sub 15,15 are used to modify the GEM-9 model, and orbit determination performance is tested on 17 consecutive 34-hour operational tracking data arcs in January 1987. Significant reductions in the mean values and standard deviations of the along-track position difference and the drag model scaling parameter from solution to solution are observed. The approach is guided by the shallow resonance theory of geopotential orbit perturbations.
Spin-Orbit Coupling and Novel Electronic States at the Interfaces of Heavy Fermion Materials
2016-02-22
spin-orbit coupling (SOC) may induce new electronic phases that are difficult to realize in bulk materials . With the support of this STIR grant, we have...Report: Spin-Orbit Coupling and Novel Electronic States at the Interfaces of Heavy Fermion Materials Report Title This report summarizes the progress...regime in the correlated- electron “global” phase diagram of heavy fermion materials and, in addition, paving the way for interactions between the
Suzuki, Hiroshi
1967-01-01
Electronic Absorption Spectra and Geometry of Organic Molecules: An Application of Molecular Orbital Theory focuses on electronic absorption spectra of organic compounds and molecules. The book begins with the discussions on molecular spectra, electronic absorption spectra of organic compounds, and practical measures of absorption intensity. The text also focuses on molecular orbital theory and group theory. Molecular state functions; fundamental postulates of quantum theory; representation of symmetry groups; and symmetry operations and symmetry groups are described. The book also dis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Samanta, Kousik [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Yeager, Danny L. [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)
2015-01-22
Resonances are temporarily bound states which lie in the continuum part of the Hamiltonian. If the electronic coordinates of the Hamiltonian are scaled (“dilated”) by a complex parameter, η = αe{sup iθ} (α, θ real), then its complex eigenvalues represent the scattering states (resonant and non-resonant) while the eigenvalues corresponding to the bound states and the ionization and the excitation thresholds remain real and unmodified. These make the study of these transient species amenable to the bound state methods. We developed a quadratically convergent multiconfigurational self-consistent field method (MCSCF), a well-established bound-state technique, combined with a dilated Hamiltonian to investigate resonances. This is made possible by the adoption of a second quantization algebra suitable for a set of “complex conjugate biorthonormal” spin orbitals and a modified step-length constraining algorithm to control the walk on the complex energy hypersurface while searching for the stationary point using a multidimensional Newton-Raphson scheme. We present our computational results for the {sup 2}PBe{sup −} shape resonances using two different computationally efficient methods that utilize complex scaled MCSCF (i.e., CMCSCF). These two methods are to straightforwardly use CMCSCF energy differences and to obtain energy differences using an approximation to the complex multiconfigurational electron propagator. It is found that, differing from previous computational studies by others, there are actually two {sup 2}PBe{sup −} shape resonances very close in energy. In addition, N{sub 2} resonances are examined using one of these methods.
Controllable spin-orbit couplings of trapped electrons for distant quantum manipulations
Zhang, Miao
2012-01-01
Spin-orbit interactions of carriers yield various many-body quantum effects in the semiconducting physics. Here, we propose an approach to coherently manipulate spin-orbit interactions of electrons trapped on the liquid Helium at a single quantum level. The configuration consists of single electrons, confined individually on the liquid Helium by the micro-electrodes, moving along the surface as the harmonic oscillators. The spin of an electron could be coupled to its orbit (i.e., the vibrational motion) by properly applying a magnetic field. Interestingly, a Jaynes-Cummings (JC) type interaction between the spin of an electron and the vibrational motion of another distant electron is induced by virtually exciting the vibrational motion of the electron. With the present JC model, the quantum information processing between the spin qubits of the distant electrons could be effectively realized without moving the electrons. The proposal could be generlizedly applied to the other Fermi-Bosonic systems.
Mercury's capture into the 3/2 spin-orbit resonance including the effect of core-mantle friction
Correia, Alexandre C M; 10.1016/j.icarus.2008.12.034
2009-01-01
The rotation of Mercury is presently captured in a 3/2 spin-orbit resonance with the orbital mean motion. The capture mechanism is well understood as the result of tidal interactions with the Sun combined with planetary perturbations. However, it is now almost certain that Mercury has a liquid core, which should induce a contribution of viscous friction at the core-mantle boundary to the spin evolution. This last effect greatly increases the chances of capture in all spin-orbit resonances, being 100% for the 2/1 resonance, and thus preventing the planet from evolving to the presently observed configuration. Here we show that for a given resonance, as the chaotic evolution of Mercury's orbit can drive its eccentricity to very low values during the planet's history, any previous capture can be destabilized whenever the eccentricity becomes lower than a critical value. In our numerical integrations of 1000 orbits of Mercury over 4 Gyr, the spin ends 99.8% of the time captured in a spin-orbit resonance, in partic...
Spin-orbit-induced resonances and threshold anomalies in a reduced dimension Fermi gas
Wang, Su-Ju
2016-01-01
We calculate the reflection and transmission probabilities in a one-dimensional Fermi gas with an equal mixing of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling (RD-SOC) produced by an external Raman laser field. These probabilities are computed over multiple relevant energy ranges within the pseudo-potential approximation. Strong scattering resonances are found whenever the incident energy approaches either a scattering threshold or a quasi-bound state attached to one of the energetically closed higher dispersion branches. A striking difference is demonstrated between two very different regimes set by the Raman laser intensity, namely between scattering for the single- minimum dispersion versus the double-minimum dispersion at the lowest threshold. The presence of RD-SOC together with the Raman field fundamentally changes the scattering behavior and enables the realization of very different one-dimensional theoretical models in a single experimental setup when combined with a confinement-induced resonance.
Electron Plasmas Cooled by Cyclotron-Cavity Resonance
Povilus, A P; Evans, L T; Evetts, N; Fajans, J; Hardy, W N; Hunter, E D; Martens, I; Robicheaux, F; Shanman, S; So, C; Wang, X; Wurtele, J S
2016-01-01
We observe that high-Q electromagnetic cavity resonances increase the cyclotron cooling rate of pure electron plasmas held in a Penning-Malmberg trap when the electron cyclotron frequency, controlled by tuning the magnetic field, matches the frequency of standing wave modes in the cavity. For certain modes and trapping configurations, this can increase the cooling rate by factors of ten or more. In this paper, we investigate the variation of the cooling rate and equilibrium plasma temperatures over a wide range of parameters, including the plasma density, plasma position, electron number, and magnetic field.
Kortenkamp, Stephen J.
2016-10-01
We use numerical integrations to model the orbital evolution of IDPs decaying from the asteroid belt into the inner solar system under the influence of radiation pressure, Poynting-Roberston light drag, and solar wind drag. In our models the ratio of radiation pressure to solar gravity ranges from 0.0025 up to 0.02, corresponding to IDP diameters ranging from about 200 microns down to about 25 microns, respectively. In this size range nearly 100% of IDPs become temporarily trapped in mean-motion resonances just outside Earth's orbit. While trapped in these outer resonances the orbital eccentricities of IDPs significantly increases. This causes most IDPs to eventually escape the resonances, allowing their orbits to continue decaying inwards past 1 AU. We've shown previously (Kortenkamp, Icarus 226, 1550-1558, 2013) that significant fractions of IDPs in this size range can subsequently become trapped in Earth's co-orbital horseshoe and quasi-satellite resonance regions, with semi-major axes just inside of 1 AU. Here, we present new results on the long-term effects of Earth's varying orbital eccentricity and inclination on the trapping and evolution of these co-orbital IDPs.
Analysis of two-orbital correlations in wave functions restricted to electron-pair states
Boguslawski, Katharina; Tecmer, Paweł; Legeza, Örs
2016-10-01
Wave functions constructed from electron-pair states can accurately model strong electron correlation effects and are promising approaches especially for larger many-body systems. In this article, we analyze the nature and the type of electron correlation effects that can be captured by wave functions restricted to electron-pair states. We focus on the pair-coupled-cluster doubles (pCCD) ansatz also called the antisymmetric product of the 1-reference orbital geminal (AP1roG) method, combined with an orbital optimization protocol presented in Boguslawski et al. [Phys. Rev. B 89, 201106(R) (2014)], 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.201106, whose performance is assessed against electronic structures obtained form density-matrix renormalization-group reference data. Our numerical analysis covers model systems for strong correlation: the one-dimensional Hubbard model with a periodic boundary condition as well as metallic and molecular hydrogen rings. Specifically, the accuracy of pCCD/AP1roG is benchmarked using the single-orbital entropy, the orbital-pair mutual information, as well as the eigenvalue spectrum of the one-orbital and two-orbital reduced density matrices. Our study indicates that contributions from singly occupied states become important in the strong correlation regime which highlights the limitations of the pCCD/AP1roG method. Furthermore, we examine the effect of orbital rotations within the pCCD/AP1roG model on correlations between orbital pairs.
Abou-Hamad, E
2011-05-24
We report on the electronic properties of Cs-intercalated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). A detailed analysis of the 13C and 133Cs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra reveals an increased metallization of the pristine SWNTs under Cs intercalation. The \\'metallization\\' of CsxC materials where x=0–0.144 is evidenced from the increased local electronic density of states (DOS) n(EF) at the Fermi level of the SWNTs as determined from spin–lattice relaxation measurements. In particular, there are two distinct electronic phases called α and β and the transition between these occurs around x=0.05. The electronic DOS at the Fermi level increases monotonically at low intercalation levels x<0.05 (α-phase), whereas it reaches a plateau in the range 0.05≤x≤0.143 at high intercalation levels (β-phase). The new β-phase is accompanied by a hybridization of Cs(6s) orbitals with C(sp2) orbitals of the SWNTs. In both phases, two types of metallic nanotubes are found with a low and a high local n(EF), corresponding to different local electronic band structures of the SWNTs.
Bodily tides near the 1:1 spin-orbit resonance. Correction to Goldreich's dynamical model
Williams, James G
2012-01-01
Spin-orbit coupling is often described in the "MacDonald torque" approach which has become the textbook standard. Within this method, a concise expression for the additional tidal potential, derived by MacDonald (1964; Rev. Geophys. 2, 467), is combined with an assumption that the Q factor is frequency-independent (i.e., that the geometric lag angle is constant in time). This makes the approach unphysical because MacDonald's derivation of the said formula was implicitly based on keeping the time lag frequency-independent, which is equivalent to setting Q to scale as the inverse tidal frequency. The contradiction requires the MacDonald treatment of both non-resonant and resonant rotation to be rewritten. The non-resonant case was reconsidered by Efroimsky & Williams (2009; CMDA 104, 257), in application to spin modes distant from the major commensurabilities. We continue this work by introducing the necessary alterations into the MacDonald-torque-based model of falling into a 1:1 resonance. (For the origin...
On the orbital evolution of a pair of giant planets in mean motion resonance
André, Q.; Papaloizou, J. C. B.
2016-10-01
Pairs of extrasolar giant planets in a mean motion commensurability are common with 2:1 resonance occurring most frequently. Disc-planet interaction provides a mechanism for their origin. However, the time-scale on which this could operate in particular cases is unclear. We perform 2D and 3D numerical simulations of pairs of giant planets in a protoplanetary disc as they form and maintain a mean motion commensurability. We consider systems with current parameters similar to those of HD 155358, 24 Sextantis and HD 60532, and disc models of varying mass, decreasing mass corresponding to increasing age. For the lowest mass discs, systems with planets in the Jovian mass range migrate inwards maintaining a 2:1 commensurability. Systems with the inner planet currently at around 1 au from the central star could have originated at a few au and migrated inwards on a time-scale comparable to protoplanetary disc lifetimes. Systems of larger mass planets such as HD 60532 attain 3:1 resonance as observed. For a given mass accretion rate, results are insensitive to the disc model for the range of viscosity prescriptions adopted, there being good agreement between 2D and 3D simulations. However, in a higher mass disc a pair of Jovian mass planets passes through 2:1 resonance before attaining a temporary phase lasting a few thousand orbits in an unstable 5:3 resonance prior to undergoing a scattering. Thus, finding systems in this commensurability is unlikely.
Steady state obliquity of a rigid body in the spin-orbit resonant problem: application to Mercury
Lhotka, Christoph
2017-09-01
We investigate the stable Cassini state 1 in the p : q spin-orbit resonant problem. Our study includes the effect of the gravitational potential up to degree and order 4 and p : q spin-orbit resonances with p,q≤ 8 and p≥ q . We derive new formulae that link the gravitational field coefficients with its secular orbital elements and its rotational parameters. The formulae can be used to predict the orientation of the spin axis and necessary angular momentum at exact resonance. We also develop a simple pendulum model to approximate the dynamics close to resonance and make use of it to predict the libration periods and widths of the oscillatory regime of motions in phase space. Our analytical results are based on averaging theory that we also confirm by means of numerical simulations of the exact dynamical equations. Our results are applied to a possible rotational history of Mercury.
Exact equations of motion for natural orbitals of strongly driven two-electron systems
Rapp, J; Bauer, D
2014-01-01
Natural orbital theory is a computationally useful approach to the few and many-body quantum problem. While natural orbitals are known and applied since many years in electronic structure applications, their potential for time-dependent problems is being investigated only since recently. Correlated two-particle systems are of particular importance because the structure of the two-body reduced density matrix expanded in natural orbitals is known exactly in this case. However, in the time-dependent case the natural orbitals carry time-dependent phases that allow for certain time-dependent gauge transformations of the first kind. Different phase conventions will, in general, lead to different equations of motion for the natural orbitals. A particular phase choice allows us to derive the exact equations of motion for the natural orbitals of any (laser-) driven two-electron system explicitly, i.e., without any dependence on quantities that, in practice, require further approximations. For illustration, we solve th...
Relativistic electron flux enhancement at synchronous orbit during SEP event on July 14, 2000
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵华; 朱光武; 王世金; 高玉芬; 刘振兴
2002-01-01
Relativistic (E >1.6 MeV) electron flux enhancements during Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events as observed by the synchronous FY-2 satellite at orbit located at 105°E are investigated. Energetic protons during SEP events heavily contaminate relativistic electron flux measurements. The ratio of the contamination in the original measurement of relativistic electron flux was over 30% during most of the SEP event on July 14, 2000. A method has been developed to eliminate the contamination caused by the energetic protons, and a "corrected" relativistic electron flux has been obtained. The "cleaned-up" relativistic electron flux measurement shows that relativistic electron flux enhancement at synchronous orbit is well correlated with SEP events during which the IMF Bz has some southward periods. The enhancement could arise as the transport of relativistic electrons from the upstream solar wind into synchronous orbit via the magnetotail.
Coupling of spin and orbital motion of electrons in carbon nanotubes.
Kuemmeth, F; Ilani, S; Ralph, D C; McEuen, P L
2008-03-27
Electrons in atoms possess both spin and orbital degrees of freedom. In non-relativistic quantum mechanics, these are independent, resulting in large degeneracies in atomic spectra. However, relativistic effects couple the spin and orbital motion, leading to the well-known fine structure in their spectra. The electronic states in defect-free carbon nanotubes are widely believed to be four-fold degenerate, owing to independent spin and orbital symmetries, and also to possess electron-hole symmetry. Here we report measurements demonstrating that in clean nanotubes the spin and orbital motion of electrons are coupled, thereby breaking all of these symmetries. This spin-orbit coupling is directly observed as a splitting of the four-fold degeneracy of a single electron in ultra-clean quantum dots. The coupling favours parallel alignment of the orbital and spin magnetic moments for electrons and antiparallel alignment for holes. Our measurements are consistent with recent theories that predict the existence of spin-orbit coupling in curved graphene and describe it as a spin-dependent topological phase in nanotubes. Our findings have important implications for spin-based applications in carbon-based systems, entailing new design principles for the realization of quantum bits (qubits) in nanotubes and providing a mechanism for all-electrical control of spins in nanotubes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. E. Woodfield
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Jupiter has the most intense radiation belts of all the outer planets. It is not yet known how electrons can be accelerated to energies of 10 MeV or more. It has been suggested that cyclotron-resonant wave-particle interactions by chorus waves could accelerate electrons to a few MeV near the orbit of Io. Here we use the chorus wave intensities observed by the Galileo spacecraft to calculate the changes in electron flux as a result of pitch angle and energy diffusion. We show that, when the bandwidth of the waves and its variation with L are taken into account, pitch angle and energy diffusion due to chorus waves is a factor of 8 larger at L-shells greater than 10 than previously shown. We have used the latitudinal wave intensity profile from Galileo data to model the time evolution of the electron flux using the British Antarctic Survey Radiation Belt (BAS model. This profile confines intense chorus waves near the magnetic equator with a peak intensity at ∼5° latitude. Electron fluxes in the BAS model increase by an order of magnitude for energies around 3 MeV. Extending our results to L = 14 shows that cyclotron-resonant interactions with chorus waves are equally important for electron acceleration beyond L = 10. These results suggest that there is significant electron acceleration by cyclotron-resonant interactions at Jupiter contributing to the creation of Jupiter's radiation belts and also increasing the range of L-shells over which this mechanism should be considered.
Quantum resonances in reflection of relativistic electrons and positrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eykhorn, Yu.L.; Korotchenko, K.B. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Pivovarov, Yu.L. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Takabayashi, Y. [SAGA Light Source, 8-7 Yayoigaoka, Tosu, Saga 841-0005 (Japan)
2015-07-15
Calculations based on the use of realistic potential of the system of crystallographic planes confirm earlier results on existence of resonances in reflection of relativistic electrons and positrons by the crystal surface, if the crystallographic planes are parallel to the surface.The physical reason of predicted phenomena, similar to the band structure of transverse energy levels, is connected with the Bloch form of the wave functions of electrons (positrons) near the crystallographic planes, which appears both in the case of planar channeling of relativistic electrons (positrons) and in reflection by a crystal surface. Calculations show that positions of maxima in reflection of relativistic electrons and positrons by crystal surface specifically depend on the angle of incidence with respect to the crystal surface and relativistic factor of electrons/positrons. These maxima form the Darwin tables similar to that in ultra-cold neutron diffraction.
Bonora, Marco; Becker, James; Saxena, Sunil
2004-10-01
We show the use of the observer blind spots effect for the elimination of electron spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) peaks in double quantum coherence (DQC) electron spin resonance (ESR). The suppression of ESEEM facilitates the routine and unambiguous extraction of distances from DQC-ESR spectra. This is also the first demonstration of this challenging methodology on commercial instrumentation.
Study of orbitally excited $B$ mesons and evidence for a new $B\\pi$ resonance
Aaltonen, Timo Antero; Amidei, Dante E; Anastassov, Anton Iankov; Annovi, Alberto; Antos, Jaroslav; Apollinari, Giorgio; Appel, Jeffrey A; Arisawa, Tetsuo; Artikov, Akram Muzafarovich; Asaadi, Jonathan A; Ashmanskas, William Joseph; Auerbach, Benjamin; Aurisano, Adam J; Azfar, Farrukh A; Badgett, William Farris; Bae, Taegil; Barbaro-Galtieri, Angela; Barnes, Virgil E; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Barria, Patrizia; Bartos, Pavol; Bauce, Matteo; Bedeschi, Franco; Behari, Satyajit; Bellettini, Giorgio; Bellinger, James Nugent; Benjamin, Douglas P; Beretvas, Andrew F; Bhatti, Anwar Ahmad; Bland, Karen Renee; Blumenfeld, Barry J; Bocci, Andrea; Bodek, Arie; Bortoletto, Daniela; Boudreau, Joseph Francis; Boveia, Antonio; Brigliadori, Luca; Bromberg, Carl Michael; Brucken, Erik; Budagov, Ioulian A; Budd, Howard Scott; Burkett, Kevin Alan; Busetto, Giovanni; Bussey, Peter John; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buzatu, Adrian; Calamba, Aristotle; Camarda, Stefano; Campanelli, Mario; Canelli, Florencia; Carls, Benjamin; Carlsmith, Duncan L; Carosi, Roberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Casal Larana, Bruno; Casarsa, Massimo; Castro, Andrea; Catastini, Pierluigi; Cauz, Diego; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Chen, Yen-Chu; Chertok, Maxwell Benjamin; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chlachidze, Gouram; Cho, Kihyeon; Chokheli, Davit; Clark, Allan Geoffrey; Clarke, Christopher Joseph; Convery, Mary Elizabeth; Conway, John Stephen; Corbo, Matteo; Cordelli, Marco; Cox, Charles Alexander; Cox, David Jeremy; Cremonesi, Matteo; Cruz Alonso, Daniel; Cuevas Maestro, Javier; Culbertson, Raymond Lloyd; D'Ascenzo, Nicola; Datta, Mousumi; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demortier, Luc M; Marchese, Luigi; Deninno, Maria Maddalena; Devoto, Francesco; D'Errico, Maria; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Dittmann, Jay Richard; D'Onofrio, Monica; Donati, Simone; Dorigo, Mirco; Driutti, Anna; Ebina, Koji; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Elagin, Andrey L; Erbacher, Robin D; Errede, Steven Michael; Esham, Benjamin; Farrington, Sinead Marie; Feindt, Michael; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Field, Richard D; Flanagan, Gene U; Forrest, Robert David; Franklin, Melissa EB; Freeman, John Christian; Frisch, Henry J; Funakoshi, Yujiro; Galloni, Camilla; Garfinkel, Arthur F; Garosi, Paola; Gerberich, Heather Kay; Gerchtein, Elena A; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Gibson, Karen Ruth; Ginsburg, Camille Marie; Giokaris, Nikos D; Giromini, Paolo; Giurgiu, Gavril A; Glagolev, Vladimir; Glenzinski, Douglas Andrew; Gold, Michael S; Goldin, Daniel; Golossanov, Alexander; Gomez, Gervasio; Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim T; González López, Oscar; Gorelov, Igor V; Goshaw, Alfred T; Goulianos, Konstantin A; Gramellini, Elena; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grosso-Pilcher, Carla; Group, Robert Craig; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; Hahn, Stephen R; Han, Ji-Yeon; Happacher, Fabio; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Matthew Frederick; Harr, Robert Francis; Harrington-Taber, Timothy; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Hays, Christopher Paul; Heinrich, Joel G; Herndon, Matthew Fairbanks; Hocker, James Andrew; Hong, Ziqing; Hopkins, Walter Howard; Hou, Suen Ray; Hughes, Richard Edward; Husemann, Ulrich; Hussein, Mohammad; Huston, Joey Walter; Introzzi, Gianluca; Iori, Maurizio; Ivanov, Andrew Gennadievich; James, Eric B; Jang, Dongwook; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha Anjalike; Jeon, Eun-Ju; Jindariani, Sergo Robert; Jones, Matthew T; Joo, Kyung Kwang; Jun, Soon Yung; Junk, Thomas R; Kambeitz, Manuel; Kamon, Teruki; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kasmi, Azeddine; Kato, Yukihiro; Ketchum, Wesley Robert; Keung, Justin Kien; Kilminster, Benjamin John; Kim, DongHee; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Soo Bong; Kim, Shin-Hong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kim, Young-Jin; Kimura, Naoki; Kirby, Michael H; Knoepfel, Kyle James; Kondo, Kunitaka; Kong, Dae Jung; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Kotwal, Ashutosh Vijay; Kreps, Michal; Kroll, IJoseph; Kruse, Mark Charles; Kuhr, Thomas; Kurata, Masakazu; Laasanen, Alvin Toivo; Lammel, Stephan; Lancaster, Mark; Lannon, Kevin Patrick; Latino, Giuseppe; Heck, Martin; Lee, Hyun Su; Lee, Jaison; Leo, Sabato; Leone, Sandra; Lewis, Jonathan D; Limosani, Antonio; Lipeles, Elliot David; Lister, Alison; Liu, Hao; Liu, Qiuguang; Liu, Tiehui Ted; Lockwitz, Sarah E; Loginov, Andrey Borisovich; Lucà, Alessandra; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lueck, Jan; Lujan, Paul Joseph; Lukens, Patrick Thomas; Lungu, Gheorghe; Lys, Jeremy E; Lysak, Roman; Madrak, Robyn Leigh; Maestro, Paolo; Malik, Sarah Alam; Manca, Giulia; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marino, Christopher Phillip; Martínez-Perez, Mario; Matera, Keith; Mattson, Mark Edward; Mazzacane, Anna; Mazzanti, Paolo; McNulty, Ronan; Mehta, Andrew; Mehtala, Petteri; Mesropian, Christina; Miao, Ting; Mietlicki, David John; Mitra, Ankush; Miyake, Hideki; Moed, Shulamit; Moggi, Niccolo; Moon, Chang-Seong; Moore, Ronald Scott; Morello, Michael Joseph; Mukherjee, Aseet; Muller, Thomas; Murat, Pavel A; Mussini, Manuel; Nachtman, Jane Marie; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Naganoma, Junji; Nakano, Itsuo; Napier, Austin; Nett, Jason Michael; Neu, Christopher Carl; Nigmanov, Turgun S; Nodulman, Lawrence J; Noh, Seoyoung; Norniella Francisco, Olga; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oh, Seog Hwan; Oh, Young-do; Oksuzian, Iuri Artur; Okusawa, Toru; Orava, Risto Olavi; Ortolan, Lorenzo; Pagliarone, Carmine Elvezio; Palencia, Jose Enrique; Palni, Prabhakar; Papadimitriou, Vaia; Parker, William Chesluk; Pauletta, Giovanni; Paulini, Manfred; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Phillips, Thomas J; Piacentino, Giovanni M; Pianori, Elisabetta; Pilot, Justin Robert; Pitts, Kevin T; Plager, Charles; Pondrom, Lee G; Poprocki, Stephen; Potamianos, Karolos Jozef; Prokoshin, Fedor; Pranko, Aliaksandr Pavlovich; Ptohos, Fotios K; Punzi, Giovanni; Ranjan, Niharika; Redondo Fernández, Ignacio; Renton, Peter B; Rescigno, Marco; Rimondi, Franco; Ristori, Luciano; Robson, Aidan; Rodriguez, Tatiana Isabel; Rolli, Simona; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roser, Robert Martin; Rosner, Jonathan L; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Russ, James S; Rusu, Vadim Liviu; Sakumoto, Willis Kazuo; Sakurai, Yuki; Santi, Lorenzo; Sato, Koji; Saveliev, Valeri; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schlabach, Philip; Schmidt, Eugene E; Schwarz, Thomas A; Scodellaro, Luca; Scuri, Fabrizio; Seidel, Sally C; Seiya, Yoshihiro; Semenov, Alexei; Sforza, Federico; Shalhout, Shalhout Zaki; Shears, Tara G; Shepard, Paul F; Shimojima, Makoto; Shochet, Melvyn J; Tecker-Shreyber, Irina; Simonenko, Alexander V; Sliwa, Krzysztof Jan; Smith, John Rodgers; Snider, Frederick Douglas; Sorin, Maria Veronica; Song, Hao; Stancari, Michelle Dawn; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stentz, Dale James; Strologas, John; Sudo, Yuji; Sukhanov, Alexander I; Suslov, Igor M; Takemasa, Ken-ichi; Takeuchi, Yuji; Tang, Jian; Tecchio, Monica; Teng, Ping-Kun; Thom, Julia; Thomson, Evelyn Jean; Thukral, Vaikunth; Toback, David A; Tokar, Stanislav; Tollefson, Kirsten Anne; Tomura, Tomonobu; Tonelli, Diego; Torre, Stefano; Torretta, Donatella; Totaro, Pierluigi; Trovato, Marco; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Uozumi, Satoru; Vázquez-Valencia, Elsa Fabiola; Velev, Gueorgui; Vellidis, Konstantinos; Vernieri, Caterina; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Vizán Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Vogel, Marcelo; Volpi, Guido; Wagner, Peter; Wallny, Rainer S; Wang, Song-Ming; Waters, David S; Wester, William Carl; Whiteson, Daniel O; Wicklund, Arthur Barry; Wilbur, Scott; Williams, Hugh H; Wilson, Jonathan Samuel; Wilson, Peter James; Winer, Brian L; Wittich, Peter; Wolbers, Stephen A; Wolfe, Homer; Wright, Thomas Roland; Wu, Xin; Wu, Zhenbin; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Yamato, Daisuke; Yang, Tingjun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yu Chul; Yao, Wei-Ming; Yeh, Gong Ping; Yi, Kai; Yoh, John; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Takuo; Yu, Geum Bong; Yu, Intae; Zanetti, Anna Maria; Zeng, Yu; Zhou, Chen; Zucchelli, Stefano
2014-07-28
Using the full CDF Run II data sample, we report evidence for a new resonance, which we refer to as B(5970), found simultaneously in the $B^0\\pi^+$ and $B^+\\pi^-$ mass distributions with a significance of 4.4 standard deviations. We further report the first study of resonances consistent with orbitally excited $B^{+}$ mesons and an updated measurement of the properties of orbitally excited $B^0$ and $B_s^0$ mesons. Using samples of approximately 8400 $B^{**0}$, 3300 $B^{**+}$, 1350 $B^{**0}_s$, 2600 $B(5970)^0$, and 1400 $B(5970)^+$ decays, we measure the masses and widths of all states, as well as the product of the relative production rate of $B_1$ and $B_2^*$ states times the branching fraction into a $B^{0,+}$ meson and a charged particle. Furthermore, we measure the branching fraction of the $B_{s2}^{*0} \\rightarrow B^{*+} K^-$ decay relative to the $B_{s2}^{*0} \\rightarrow B^{+} K^-$ decay, the production rate times the branching fraction of the B(5970) state relative to the $B_{2}^{*0,+}$ state, and th...
A Detailed Derivation of Gaussian Orbital-Based Matrix Elements in Electron Structure Calculations
Petersson, T.; Hellsing, B.
2010-01-01
A detailed derivation of analytic solutions is presented for overlap, kinetic, nuclear attraction and electron repulsion integrals involving Cartesian Gaussian-type orbitals. It is demonstrated how s-type orbitals can be used to evaluate integrals with higher angular momentum via the properties of Hermite polynomials and differentiation with…
A Detailed Derivation of Gaussian Orbital-Based Matrix Elements in Electron Structure Calculations
Petersson, T.; Hellsing, B.
2010-01-01
A detailed derivation of analytic solutions is presented for overlap, kinetic, nuclear attraction and electron repulsion integrals involving Cartesian Gaussian-type orbitals. It is demonstrated how s-type orbitals can be used to evaluate integrals with higher angular momentum via the properties of Hermite polynomials and differentiation with…
Dynamical sequestration of the Moon-forming impactor in co-orbital resonance with Earth
Kortenkamp, Stephen J.; Hartmann, William K.
2016-09-01
Recent concerns about the giant impact hypothesis for the origin of the Moon, and an associated "isotope crisis" may be assuaged if the impactor was a local object that formed near Earth. We investigated a scenario that may meet this criterion, with protoplanets assumed to originate in 1:1 co-orbital resonance with Earth. Using N-body numerical simulations we explored the dynamical consequences of placing Mars-mass companions in various co-orbital configurations with a proto-Earth of 0.9 Earth-masses (M⊕). We modeled 162 different configurations, some with just the four terrestrial planets and others that included the four giant planets. In both the 4- and 8-planet models we found that a single Mars-mass companion typically remained a stable co-orbital of Earth for the entire 250 million year (Myr) duration of our simulations (59 of 68 unique simulations). In an effort to destabilize such a system we carried out an additional 94 simulations that included a second Mars-mass co-orbital companion. Even with two Mars-mass companions sharing Earth's orbit about two-thirds of these models (66) also remained stable for the entire 250 Myr duration of the simulations. Of the 28 2-companion models that eventually became unstable 24 impacts were observed between Earth and an escaping co-orbital companion. The average delay we observed for an impact of a Mars-mass companion with Earth was 102 Myr, and the longest delay was 221 Myr. In 40% of the 8-planet models that became unstable (10 out of 25) Earth collided with the nearly equal mass Venus to form a super-Earth (loosely defined here as mass ≥1.7 M⊕). These impacts were typically the final giant impact in the system and often occurred after Earth and/or Venus has accreted one or more of the other large objects. Several of the stable configurations involved unusual 3-planet hierarchical co-orbital systems.
Li, Daohai
2016-01-01
The gravitational interaction between two objects on similar orbits can effect noticeable changes in the orbital evolution even if the ratio of their masses to that of the central body is vanishingly small. Christou (2005) observed an occasional resonant lock in the differential node $\\Delta \\Omega$ between two members in the Himalia irregular satellite group of Jupiter in the $N$-body simulations (corresponding mass ratio $\\sim 10^{-9}$). Using a semianalytical approach, we have reproduced this phenomenon. We also demonstrate the existence of two additional types of resonance, involving angle differences $\\Delta\\omega$ and $\\Delta (\\Omega+\\varpi)$ between two group members. These resonances cause secular oscillations in eccentricity and/or inclination on timescales $\\sim$ 1 Myr. We locate these resonances in $(a,e,i)$ space and analyse their topological structure. In subsequent $N$-body simulations, we confirm these three resonances and find a fourth one involving $\\Delta \\varpi$. In addition, we study the o...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, D.P.; Kevan, L.
1977-05-19
Electron--electron double resonance (ELDOR) has been used to test the validity of the noninteracting spin packet model for inhomogeneously broadened ESR lines. For trapped electrons in 10M NaOD/D/sub 2/O glassy ice the saturation of field-swept ELDOR spectra fits the above mentioned model in contrast to earlier work on trapped electrons in protiated matrices. In the protiated matrix spin diffusion produces significant interaction between the spin packets. The difference between the protiated and deuterated matrices suggests that nuclear relaxation is the mechanism for spin diffusion. The deuterated matrices show no structure in frequency-swept ELDOR spectra due to deuteron spin--flip transitions whereas structure due to proton spin--flips is seen in protiated matrices.
Inversion of electron spin resonance signal in coals
Poklonski, N. A.; Vyrko, S. A.; Poklonskaya, O. N.; Lapchuk, N. M.; Munkhtsetseg, S.
2013-07-01
Samples of coal from the Donetsk basin (carbon content ~90 mass%) in both lump and powder forms were studied by continuous-wave electron spin resonance (ESR) at room temperature in air. Inversion of the ESR signal (being in phase with modulation of the constant magnetic field) with an increase of lump size along the magnetic component of the microwave field was observed in the cavity of the radiospectrometer.
Study of metalloproteins using continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).
Gambarelli, Serge; Maurel, Vincent
2014-01-01
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is an invaluable tool when studying systems with paramagnetic centers. It is a sensitive spectroscopic method, which can be used with dilute samples in aqueous buffer solutions. Here, we describe the basic procedure for recording an X-band EPR spectrum of a metalloprotein sample at low temperature. We also discuss basic optimization techniques to provide spectra with a high signal to noise ratio and minimum distortion.
Electron paramagnetic resonance of some {gamma}-irradiated drugs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koeseoglu, R.; Koeseoglu, E.; Koeksal, F. E-mail: koksalf@ttnet.net.tr
2003-01-01
Some drugs, used mainly in treatment of some neurological diseases and hypertension were exposed to {gamma}-irradiation, and the samples were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The observed spectra were interpreted in terms of some type of alkyl and amine radical fragments. The spectra were computer simulated and the g values of the radicals and the hyperfine structure constants of the free electron with nearby protons were determined. The species were found to be stable at room temperature for more than a year. The samples were found to display no EPR signal without irradiation.
Investigation of Relativistic Electron Resonance with EMIC Waves
Woodger, L. A.; Millan, R. M.; Denton, R. E.
2008-12-01
Wave-particle interaction of relativistic electrons with EMIC waves has been proposed as an important loss mechanism for radiation belt electrons (e.g. Thorne and Andreoli, 1980). Lorentzen et al (2000) and Millan et al (2002) suggested this mechanism to be responsible for dusk side relativistic electron precipitation (REP) detected by balloon borne instrumentation. This study will use the linear electromagnetic dispersion code WHAMP to investigate the effects of density, magnetic field, anisotropy, and heavy ions on the minimum resonance energy for relativistic electrons with EMIC waves. Results will be compared with observations of REP during the MAXIS balloon campaign on Jan. 19, 2000 and the MINIS balloon campaign on Jan. 21, 2005.
Orbital Feshbach resonances with a small energy gap between open and closed channels
Cheng, Yanting; Zhang, Ren; Zhang, Peng
2016-04-01
Recently, a new type of Feshbach resonance, i.e., orbital Feshbach resonance (OFR), was proposed for the ultracold alkaline-earth-metal-like atoms and was experimentally observed in the ultracold gases of 173Yb atoms. Unlike most of the magnetic Feshbach resonances of ultracold alkali atoms, when the OFR of 173Yb atoms appears, the energy gap between the thresholds of the open channel (OC) and the closed channel (CC) is much smaller than the characteristic energy of the interatomic interaction, i.e., the van der Waals energy. In this paper we study the OFR in systems with a small CC-OC threshold gap. We show that in these systems the OFR can be induced by the coupling between the OC and either an isolated bound state of the CC or the scattering states of the CC. Moreover, we also show that in each case the two-channel Huang-Yang pesudopotential is always applicable for the approximate calculation of the low-energy scattering amplitude. Our results imply that in the two-channel theoretical calculations for these systems it is appropriate to take into account the contributions from the scattering states of the CC.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koide, M. [Department of Science and Technology, Meisei University, Tokyo 191-8656 (Japan)]. E-mail: mkoide@galaxy.ocn.ne.jp; Koike, F. [School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Kanagawa 228-8555 (Japan); Azuma, Y. [PhotonFactory, IMSS, KEK, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Nagata, T. [Department of Science and Technology, Meisei University, Tokyo 191-8656 (Japan)
2005-06-15
We study the origin of dual window-type 3s->4p photoexcitation resonances of potassium atoms that have been observed previously [M. Koide et al., J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 71 (2002) 1676] by means of photoion spectroscopy. We also consider the sub-valence shell photoexcitations of other alkali metal atoms. In potassium 3p photoionizations, the photoion energy levels may be labeled by their total angular momenta, and they are well separated due to the spin-orbit couplings in 3p subshells. The system of a photoion and a photoelectron is therefore a superposition of different total spin states if expressed in terms of the LS-coupling scheme. The ionization continuum may couple with several intermediate discrete states with different total spin quantum numbers, giving a possibility to observe split resonance structures in the spectra of 3s->np photoexcitations and in other alkali-atom photoexcitations. We discuss the dual window-type resonances in potassium, rubidium, and cesium atoms.
Orbital magnetic resonance imaging is useful in age-related distance esotropia.
Gómez de Liaño Sanchez, Pilar; Olavarri González, Gloria; Merino Sanz, Pilar; Escribano Villafruela, Jose C
2017-06-07
To describe findings for orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with age-related distance esotropia (ARDE). We compared 31 orbital MRI from patients with ARDE (77±7 SD years) with 2 control groups: 32 orbits from individuals aged 18-50 years (33±8 SD years) and 16 orbits from individuals aged >60 years (77±7 SD years). MRI scans were acquired using 3D fast field echo in T1 sequence without fat saturation. Exclusion criteria for all groups were neurological or thyroid disease and a relevant ophthalmological history (e.g., high myopia, diplopia from another etiology, complicated cataract surgery, etc.). Muscle displacement and characteristics of the lateral rectus-superior rectus (LR-SR) intermuscular band were analyzed. The analysis of the muscles and angles revealed a series of statistically significant differences (p<0.07) between the groups. Subjects with ARDE had LR pulley positions 1.32±0.19mm lower than in younger controls, and the medial rectus (MR) pulley positions were 0.68±0.19mm lower than in younger. Older controls had LR and MR pulley positions 0.85±0.20mm and 0.49±0.23mm lower than in younger. ARDE subjects had LR pulley positions 0.46±0.26mm lower than in older control group. The LR-SR band was absent in 35.5% of ARDE patients and in 12.5% of older control group (p=0.168). MRI showed that displacements of LR and LR-SR band degeneration could facilitate the diagnosis of patients with ARDE. Copyright © 2017 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Commensurability oscillations by snake-orbit magnetotransport in two-dimensional electron gases
Leuschner, A.; Schluck, J.; Cerchez, M.; Heinzel, T.; Pierz, K.; Schumacher, H. W.
2017-04-01
Commensurate magnetoresistance periodic oscillations generated by transversal electron snake orbits are found experimentally. A two-dimensional electron gas is exposed to a magnetic field that changes sign along the current longitudinal direction and is homogeneous in the transverse direction. The change in sign of the magnetic field directs the electron flow along the transversal direction, in snake orbits. This generates resistance oscillations with a predictable periodicity that is commensurate with the width of the electron gas. Numerical simulations are used to reveal the character of the oscillations.
Coupling of spin and orbital motion of electrons in carbon nanotubes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Ilani, S; Ralph, D C;
2008-01-01
Electrons in atoms possess both spin and orbital degrees of freedom. In non-relativistic quantum mechanics, these are independent, resulting in large degeneracies in atomic spectra. However, relativistic effects couple the spin and orbital motion, leading to the well-known fine structure...... in their spectra. The electronic states in defect-free carbon nanotubes are widely believed to be four-fold degenerate, owing to independent spin and orbital symmetries, and also to possess electron–hole symmetry. Here we report measurements demonstrating that in clean nanotubes the spin and orbital motion...... and antiparallel alignment for holes. Our measurements are consistent with recent theories that predict the existence of spin–orbit coupling in curved graphene and describe it as a spin dependent topological phase in nanotubes. Our findings have important implications for spin-based applications in carbon- based...
Quantum-orbit analysis of high-order harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement
Shaaran, T; Lewenstein, M
2012-01-01
We perform a detailed analysis of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in atoms within the strong field approximation (SFA) by considering spatially inhomogeneous monochromatic laser fields. We investigate how the individual pairs of quantum orbits contribute to the harmonic spectra. We show that in the case of inhomogeneous fields, the electron tunnels with two different canonical momenta. One of them leads to a higher cutoff and the other one develops a lower cutoff. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the quantum orbits have a very different behavior in comparison to the homogeneous field. We also conclude that in the case of the inhomogeneous fields, both odd and even harmonics are present in the HHG spectra. Within our model, we show that the HHG cutoff extends far beyond the semiclassical cutoff as a function of inhomogeneity strength. Our findings are in good agreement both with quantum mechanical and classical models.
Failla, M.; Myronov, M.; Morrison, C.; Leadley, D. R.; Lloyd-Hughes, J.
2015-07-01
The spin-orbit interaction was found to split the cyclotron resonance of heavy holes confined in high-mobility, compressively strained germanium quantum wells. The interference between coherent spin-split cyclotron resonances was tracked on picosecond time scales using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Analysis in the time domain, or using a time-frequency decomposition based on the Gabor-Morlet wavelet, was necessary when the difference between cyclotron frequencies was comparable to the linewidth. The cubic Rashba spin-orbit coefficient β was determined via two methods: (i) the magnetic-field dependence of the cyclotron frequencies, and (ii) the spin-resolved subband densities. An enhanced β and spin polarization was created by tailoring the strain to enhance the spin-orbit interaction. The amplitude modulation of the narrow, interfering cyclotron resonances is a signature of spin coherences persisting for more than 10 ps.
Tada, Tomofumi; Yoshizawa, Kazunari
2015-12-28
In this study, we report our viewpoint of single molecular conductance in terms of frontier orbitals. The orbital rule derived from orbital phase and amplitude is a powerful guideline for the qualitative understanding of molecular conductance in both theoretical and experimental studies. The essence of the orbital rule is the phase-related quantum interference, and on the basis of this rule a constructive or destructive pathway for electron transport is easily predicted. We have worked on the construction of the orbital rule for more than ten years and recently found from its application that π-stacked molecular junctions fabricated experimentally are in line with the concept for conductance-decay free junctions. We explain the orbital rule using benzene molecular junctions with the para-, meta- and ortho-connections and discuss linear π-conjugated chains and π-stacked molecular junctions with respect to their small decay factors in this manuscript.
Electron spin resonance and spin-valley physics in a silicon double quantum dot.
Hao, Xiaojie; Ruskov, Rusko; Xiao, Ming; Tahan, Charles; Jiang, HongWen
2014-05-14
Silicon quantum dots are a leading approach for solid-state quantum bits. However, developing this technology is complicated by the multi-valley nature of silicon. Here we observe transport of individual electrons in a silicon CMOS-based double quantum dot under electron spin resonance. An anticrossing of the driven dot energy levels is observed when the Zeeman and valley splittings coincide. A detected anticrossing splitting of 60 MHz is interpreted as a direct measure of spin and valley mixing, facilitated by spin-orbit interaction in the presence of non-ideal interfaces. A lower bound of spin dephasing time of 63 ns is extracted. We also describe a possible experimental evidence of an unconventional spin-valley blockade, despite the assumption of non-ideal interfaces. This understanding of silicon spin-valley physics should enable better control and read-out techniques for the spin qubits in an all CMOS silicon approach.
Injection of electron beam into a toroidal trap using chaotic orbits near magnetic null.
Nakashima, C; Yoshida, Z; Himura, H; Fukao, M; Morikawa, J; Saitoh, H
2002-03-01
Injection of charged particle beam into a toroidal magnetic trap enables a variety of interesting experiments on non-neutral plasmas. Stationary radial electric field has been produced in a toroidal geometry by injecting electrons continuously. When an electron gun is placed near an X point of magnetic separatrix, the electron beam spreads efficiently through chaotic orbits, and electrons distribute densely in the torus. The current returning back to the gun can be minimized less than 1% of the total emission.
Zhang, Shengke; Kopas, Cameron; Wagner, Brian; Queen, Daniel; Newman, N.
2016-09-01
The physical nature and concentration of paramagnetic point defects in the dielectrics of superconducting planar microwave resonators have been determined using in-situ electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. To perform this work, the quality factor of parallel plate and stripline resonators was measured as a function of the magnitude of a magnetic-field applied parallel to the electrode surfaces. YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin film electrodes proved to be a preferred choice over Nb and MgB2 because they are readily available and have a small surface resistance (Rs) up to high temperatures (˜77 K) and magnetic fields (i.e., dielectric, Co2+-doped Ba(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3, are shown to have losses dominated by d-electron spin-excitations in exchange-coupled Co2+ point-defect clusters, even in the absence of an applied magnetic field. A significant enhanced microwave loss in stripline and parallel plate resonators is found to correlate with the presence of paramagnetic Mn2+ dopants in Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3)O3 ceramics and dangling bond states in amorphous Si thin films, although the identification of the dominant loss mechanism(s) in these dielectrics requires further investigation.
Design study for electronic system for Jupiter Orbit Probe (JOP)
Elero, B. P., Jr.; Carignan, G. R.
1978-01-01
The conceptual design of the Jupiter probe spectrometer is presented. Block and circuit diagrams are presented along with tabulated parts lists. Problem areas are considered to be (1) the schedule, (2) weight limitations for the electronic systems, and (3) radiation hardness of the electronic devices.
Bodily tides near the 1:1 spin-orbit resonance: correction to Goldreich's dynamical model
Williams, James G.; Efroimsky, Michael
2012-12-01
Spin-orbit coupling is often described in an approach known as " the MacDonald torque", which has long become the textbook standard due to its apparent simplicity. Within this method, a concise expression for the additional tidal potential, derived by MacDonald (Rev Geophys 2:467-541, 1994), is combined with a convenient assumption that the quality factor Q is frequency-independent (or, equivalently, that the geometric lag angle is constant in time). This makes the treatment unphysical because MacDonald's derivation of the said formula was, very implicitly, based on keeping the time lag frequency-independent, which is equivalent to setting Q scale as the inverse tidal frequency. This contradiction requires the entire MacDonald treatment of both non-resonant and resonant rotation to be rewritten. The non-resonant case was reconsidered by Efroimsky and Williams (Cel Mech Dyn Astron 104:257-289, 2009), in application to spin modes distant from the major commensurabilities. In the current paper, we continue this work by introducing the necessary alterations into the MacDonald-torque-based model of falling into a 1-to-1 resonance. (The original version of this model was offered by Goldreich (Astron J 71:1-7, 1996). Although the MacDonald torque, both in its original formulation and in its corrected version, is incompatible with realistic rheologies of minerals and mantles, it remains a useful toy model, which enables one to obtain, in some situations, qualitatively meaningful results without resorting to the more rigorous (and complicated) theory of Darwin and Kaula. We first address this simplified model in application to an oblate primary body, with tides raised on it by an orbiting zero-inclination secondary. (Here the role of the tidally-perturbed primary can be played by a satellite, the perturbing secondary being its host planet. A planet may as well be the perturbed primary, its host star acting as the tide-raising secondary). We then extend the model to a
Reaching the quantum limit of sensitivity in electron spin resonance
Bienfait, A.; Pla, J. J.; Kubo, Y.; Stern, M.; Zhou, X.; Lo, C. C.; Weis, C. D.; Schenkel, T.; Thewalt, M. L. W.; Vion, D.; Esteve, D.; Julsgaard, B.; Mølmer, K.; Morton, J. J. L.; Bertet, P.
2016-03-01
The detection and characterization of paramagnetic species by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is widely used throughout chemistry, biology and materials science, from in vivo imaging to distance measurements in spin-labelled proteins. ESR relies on the inductive detection of microwave signals emitted by the spins into a coupled microwave resonator during their Larmor precession. However, such signals can be very small, prohibiting the application of ESR at the nanoscale (for example, at the single-cell level or on individual nanoparticles). Here, using a Josephson parametric microwave amplifier combined with high-quality-factor superconducting microresonators cooled at millikelvin temperatures, we improve the state-of-the-art sensitivity of inductive ESR detection by nearly four orders of magnitude. We demonstrate the detection of 1,700 bismuth donor spins in silicon within a single Hahn echo with unit signal-to-noise ratio, reduced to 150 spins by averaging a single Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence. This unprecedented sensitivity reaches the limit set by quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field instead of thermal or technical noise, which constitutes a novel regime for magnetic resonance. The detection volume of our resonator is ˜0.02 nl, and our approach can be readily scaled down further to improve sensitivity, providing a new versatile toolbox for ESR at the nanoscale.
Electron cyclotron resonance heating in a short cylindrical plasma system
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Vipin K Yadav; D Bora
2004-09-01
Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma is produced and studied in a small cylindrical system. Microwave power is delivered by a CW magnetron at 2.45 GHz in TE10 mode and launched radially to have extraordinary (X) wave in plasma. The axial magnetic field required for ECR in the system is such that the first two ECR surfaces ( = 875.0 G and = 437.5 G) reside in the system. ECR plasma is produced with hydrogen with typical plasma density e as 3.2 × 1010 cm-3 and plasma temperature e between 9 and 15 eV. Various cut-off and resonance positions are identified in the plasma system. ECR heating (ECRH) of the plasma is observed experimentally. This heating is because of the mode conversion of X-wave to electron Bernstein wave (EBW) at the upper hybrid resonance (UHR) layer. The power mode conversion efficiency is estimated to be 0.85 for this system. The experimental results are presented in this paper.
Randomized benchmarking of quantum gates implemented by electron spin resonance
Park, Daniel K.; Feng, Guanru; Rahimi, Robabeh; Baugh, Jonathan; Laflamme, Raymond
2016-06-01
Spin systems controlled and probed by magnetic resonance have been valuable for testing the ideas of quantum control and quantum error correction. This paper introduces an X-band pulsed electron spin resonance spectrometer designed for high-fidelity coherent control of electron spins, including a loop-gap resonator for sub-millimeter sized samples with a control bandwidth ∼40 MHz. Universal control is achieved by a single-sideband upconversion technique with an I-Q modulator and a 1.2 GS/s arbitrary waveform generator. A single qubit randomized benchmarking protocol quantifies the average errors of Clifford gates implemented by simple Gaussian pulses, using a sample of gamma-irradiated quartz. Improvements in unitary gate fidelity are achieved through phase transient correction and hardware optimization. A preparation pulse sequence that selects spin packets in a narrowed distribution of static fields confirms that inhomogeneous dephasing (1 / T2∗) is the dominant source of gate error. The best average fidelity over the Clifford gates obtained here is 99.2 % , which serves as a benchmark to compare with other technologies.
Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of branched gap plasmon resonators
Raza, Søren; Esfandyarpour, Majid; Koh, Ai Leen; Mortensen, N. Asger; Brongersma, Mark L.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.
2016-12-01
The miniaturization of integrated optical circuits below the diffraction limit for high-speed manipulation of information is one of the cornerstones in plasmonics research. By coupling to surface plasmons supported on nanostructured metallic surfaces, light can be confined to the nanoscale, enabling the potential interface to electronic circuits. In particular, gap surface plasmons propagating in an air gap sandwiched between metal layers have shown extraordinary mode confinement with significant propagation length. In this work, we unveil the optical properties of gap surface plasmons in silver nanoslot structures with widths of only 25 nm. We fabricate linear, branched and cross-shaped nanoslot waveguide components, which all support resonances due to interference of counter-propagating gap plasmons. By exploiting the superior spatial resolution of a scanning transmission electron microscope combined with electron energy-loss spectroscopy, we experimentally show the propagation, bending and splitting of slot gap plasmons.
Characteristics of surface sterilization using electron cyclotron resonance plasma
Yonesu, Akira; Hara, Kazufumi; Nishikawa, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Nobuya
2016-07-01
The characteristics of surface sterilization using electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma were investigated. High-energy electrons and oxygen radicals were observed in the ECR zone using electric probe and optical emission spectroscopic methods. A biological indicator (BI), Geobacillus stearothermophilus, containing 1 × 106 spores was sterilized in 120 s by exposure to oxygen discharges while maintaining a temperature of approximately 55 °C at the BI installation position. Oxygen radicals and high-energy electrons were found to be the sterilizing species in the ECR region. It was demonstrated that the ECR plasma could be produced in narrow tubes with an inner diameter of 5 mm. Moreover, sterilization tests confirmed that the spores present inside the narrow tube were successfully inactivated by ECR plasma irradiation.
The Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in the study of tissue specimens
Stefaniuk, Ireneusz; Skrȩt, Andrzej; Skrȩt-Magierło, Joanna; Góra, Tomasz; Szczerba, Piotr
2014-01-01
The Electron Paramagnetic Spectroscopy (EPR) is the most direct and powerful method for the detection and identification of free radicals and other species with unpaired electrons. Statistics disorders are a common gynaecological disorder occurring in women. The condition afflicts around 15% of women to the extent of impairing the quality of living. According to scientific reports as many as 50% of women experiencing problems related to genital statistics disorders. The aim of this work was to investigate tissue taken from women with genital statistics disorders using the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance method. The studies on the tissue of women is one of the first studies in this area. In this work we observed a close relationship between the observed EPR signal and the consumption of omega 3 acids.
Resonance effects in electron-impact ionization of helium
Fang, Yanghua; Bartschat, Klaus
2001-07-01
We have extended our recent work on electron-impact ionization and ionization-excitation of helium (Fang Y and Bartschat K 2001 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 34 L19) to investigate resonance structures in the ejected-electron-residual-ion interaction. The calculations were performed using a second-order perturbative model for a `fast' incident projectile together with a convergent R-matrix with pseudo-states close-coupling model for the initial bound state and the scattering of a `slow' ejected electron in the field of the ion. The agreement with previous calculations by Marchalant et al using a similar model is satisfactory and confirms the importance of the `two-step' mechanism in these processes. However, significant discrepancies remain with experimental data by Lower and Weigold and, to a lesser extent, by McDonald and Crowe.
Li, Daohai; Christou, Apostolos A.
2016-06-01
The gravitational interaction between two objects on similar orbits can effect noticeable changes in the orbital evolution even if the ratio of their masses to that of the central body is vanishingly small. Christou (Icarus 174:215-229, 2005) observed an occasional resonant lock in the differential node Δ Ω between two members in the Himalia irregular satellite group of Jupiter in the N-body simulations (corresponding mass ratio ˜ 10^{-9}). Using a semianalytical approach, we have reproduced this phenomenon. We also demonstrate the existence of two additional types of resonance, involving angle differences Δ ω and Δ (Ω +π) between two group members. These resonances cause secular oscillations in eccentricity and/or inclination on timescales ˜ 1 Myr. We locate these resonances in ( a, e, i) space and analyse their topological structure. In subsequent N-body simulations, we confirm these three resonances and find a fourth one involving Δ π. In addition, we study the occurrence rates and the stability of the four resonances from a statistical perspective by integrating 1000 test particles for 100 Myr. We find ˜ 10 to 30 librators for each of the resonances. Particularly, the nodal resonance found by Christou is the most stable: 2 particles are observed to stay in libration for the entire integration.
Studies of Beam Induced Electron Cloud Resonances in Dipole Magnetic Fields
Calvey, J R; Makita, J; Venturini, M
2016-01-01
The buildup of low energy electrons in an accelerator, known as electron cloud, can be severely detrimental to machine performance. Under certain beam conditions, the beam can become resonant with the cloud dynamics, accelerating the buildup of electrons. This paper will examine two such effects: multipacting resonances, in which the cloud development time is resonant with the bunch spacing, and cyclotron resonances, in which the cyclotron period of electrons in a magnetic field is a multiple of bunch spacing. Both resonances have been studied directly in dipole fields using retarding field analyzers installed in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR). These measurements are supported by both analytical models and computer simulations.
Plasma production for electron acceleration by resonant plasma wave
Anania, M. P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Croia, M.; Curcio, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G. P.; Filippi, F.; Ghigo, A.; Lollo, V.; Pella, S.; Pompili, R.; Romeo, S.; Ferrario, M.
2016-09-01
Plasma wakefield acceleration is the most promising acceleration technique known nowadays, able to provide very high accelerating fields (10-100 GV/m), enabling acceleration of electrons to GeV energy in few centimeter. However, the quality of the electron bunches accelerated with this technique is still not comparable with that of conventional accelerators (large energy spread, low repetition rate, and large emittance); radiofrequency-based accelerators, in fact, are limited in accelerating field (10-100 MV/m) requiring therefore hundred of meters of distances to reach the GeV energies, but can provide very bright electron bunches. To combine high brightness electron bunches from conventional accelerators and high accelerating fields reachable with plasmas could be a good compromise allowing to further accelerate high brightness electron bunches coming from LINAC while preserving electron beam quality. Following the idea of plasma wave resonant excitation driven by a train of short bunches, we have started to study the requirements in terms of plasma for SPARC_LAB (Ferrario et al., 2013 [1]). In particular here we focus on hydrogen plasma discharge, and in particular on the theoretical and numerical estimates of the ionization process which are very useful to design the discharge circuit and to evaluate the current needed to be supplied to the gas in order to have full ionization. Eventually, the current supplied to the gas simulated will be compared to that measured experimentally.
Plasma production for electron acceleration by resonant plasma wave
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anania, M.P., E-mail: maria.pia.anania@lnf.infn.it [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Cianchi, A. [University of Rome Tor Vergata - INFN, via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); INFN, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Croia, M.; Curcio, A. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); University of Rome La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.P. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Filippi, F. [University of Rome La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Ghigo, A.; Lollo, V.; Pella, S.; Pompili, R. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Romeo, S. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); University of Rome La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Ferrario, M. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy)
2016-09-01
Plasma wakefield acceleration is the most promising acceleration technique known nowadays, able to provide very high accelerating fields (10–100 GV/m), enabling acceleration of electrons to GeV energy in few centimeter. However, the quality of the electron bunches accelerated with this technique is still not comparable with that of conventional accelerators (large energy spread, low repetition rate, and large emittance); radiofrequency-based accelerators, in fact, are limited in accelerating field (10–100 MV/m) requiring therefore hundred of meters of distances to reach the GeV energies, but can provide very bright electron bunches. To combine high brightness electron bunches from conventional accelerators and high accelerating fields reachable with plasmas could be a good compromise allowing to further accelerate high brightness electron bunches coming from LINAC while preserving electron beam quality. Following the idea of plasma wave resonant excitation driven by a train of short bunches, we have started to study the requirements in terms of plasma for SPARC-LAB (Ferrario et al., 2013 [1]). In particular here we focus on hydrogen plasma discharge, and in particular on the theoretical and numerical estimates of the ionization process which are very useful to design the discharge circuit and to evaluate the current needed to be supplied to the gas in order to have full ionization. Eventually, the current supplied to the gas simulated will be compared to that measured experimentally.
Spin-to-Orbital Angular Momentum Conversion and Spin-Polarization Filtering in Electron Beams
Karimi, Ebrahim; Grillo, Vincenzo; Santamato, Enrico; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.044801
2012-01-01
We propose the design of a space-variant Wien filter for electron beams that induces a spin half-turn and converts the corresponding spin angular momentum variation into orbital angular momentum of the beam itself by exploiting a geometrical phase arising in the spin manipulation. When applied to a spatially coherent input spin-polarized electron beam, such a device can generate an electron vortex beam, carrying orbital angular momentum. When applied to an unpolarized input beam, the proposed device, in combination with a suitable diffraction element, can act as a very effective spin-polarization filter. The same approach can also be applied to neutron or atom beams.
Zhao, Xin; Geskin, Victor; Stadler, Robert
2017-03-01
Destructive quantum interference (DQI) in single molecule electronics is a purely quantum mechanical effect and is entirely defined by the inherent properties of the molecule in the junction such as its structure and symmetry. This definition of DQI by molecular properties alone suggests its relation to other more general concepts in chemistry as well as the possibility of deriving simple models for its understanding and molecular device design. Recently, two such models have gained a wide spread attention, where one was a graphical scheme based on visually inspecting the connectivity of the carbon sites in conjugated π systems in an atomic orbital (AO) basis and the other one puts the emphasis on the amplitudes and signs of the frontier molecular orbitals (MOs). There have been discussions on the range of applicability for these schemes, but ultimately conclusions from topological molecular Hamiltonians should not depend on whether they are drawn from an AO or a MO representation, as long as all the orbitals are taken into account. In this article, we clarify the relation between both models in terms of the zeroth order Green's function and compare their predictions for a variety of systems. From this comparison, we conclude that for a correct description of DQI from a MO perspective, it is necessary to include the contributions from all MOs rather than just those from the frontier orbitals. The cases where DQI effects can be successfully predicted within a frontier orbital approximation we show them to be limited to alternant even-membered hydrocarbons, as a direct consequence of the Coulson-Rushbrooke pairing theorem in quantum chemistry.
Dineykhan, M; Zhaugasheva, S A; Al Farabi Kazakh State National University. Almaty
2005-01-01
Multilayer nanocrystalline structure is represented by the electrostatic field inducted by total image charge, and the confinement potential for electrons is determined. Assuming that at a given distance the confinement potential is equal to the Coulomb repulsion and an interaction between electrons becomes spin-orbit, the constant of the spin-orbit interaction of electrons in nanostructures is determined. The dependence of the constant of the spin-orbit interaction on environment parameters and the distance between electrons is studied.
Sound waves and resonances in electron-hole plasma
Lucas, Andrew
2016-06-01
Inspired by the recent experimental signatures of relativistic hydrodynamics in graphene, we investigate theoretically the behavior of hydrodynamic sound modes in such quasirelativistic fluids near charge neutrality, within linear response. Locally driving an electron fluid at a resonant frequency to such a sound mode can lead to large increases in the electrical response at the edges of the sample, a signature, which cannot be explained using diffusive models of transport. We discuss the robustness of this signal to various effects, including electron-acoustic phonon coupling, disorder, and long-range Coulomb interactions. These long-range interactions convert the sound mode into a collective plasmonic mode at low frequencies unless the fluid is charge neutral. At the smallest frequencies, the response in a disordered fluid is quantitatively what is predicted by a "momentum relaxation time" approximation. However, this approximation fails at higher frequencies (which can be parametrically small), where the classical localization of sound waves cannot be neglected. Experimental observation of such resonances is a clear signature of relativistic hydrodynamics, and provides an upper bound on the viscosity of the electron-hole plasma.
Spin-orbit-induced strong coupling of a single spin to a nanomechanical resonator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Palyi, Andras [University of Konstanz (Germany); Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Struck, Philipp R.; Burkard, Guido [University of Konstanz (Germany); Rudner, Mark [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Flensberg, Karsten [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)
2012-07-01
We theoretically investigate the coupling of electron spin to vibrational motion due to curvature-induced spin-orbit coupling in suspended carbon nanotube quantum dots. Our estimates indicate that, with current capabilities, a quantum dot with an odd number of electrons can serve as a realization of the Jaynes-Cummings model of quantum electrodynamics in the strong-coupling regime. A quantized flexural mode of the suspended tube plays the role of the optical mode and we identify two distinct two-level subspaces, at small and large magnetic field, which can be used as qubits in this setup. The strong intrinsic spin-mechanical coupling allows for detection, as well as manipulation of the spin qubit, and may yield enhanced performance of nanotubes in sensing applications.
Visualization of Distance Distribution from Pulsed Double Electron-Electron Resonance Data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bowman, Michael K.; Maryasov, Alexander G.; Kim, Nak-Kyoon; DeRose, Victoria J.
2004-01-01
Double electron-electron resonance (DEER), also known as pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR), is a time-domain electron paramagnetic resonance method that can measure the weak dipole-dipole interactions between unpaired electrons. DEER has been applied to discrete pairs of free radicals in biological macromolecules and to clusters containing small numbers of free radicals in polymers and irradiated materials. The goal of such work is to determine the distance or distribution of distances between radicals, which is an underdetermined problem. That is, the spectrum of dipolar interactions can be readily calculated for any distribution of free radicals, but there are many, quite different distributions of radicals that could produce the same experimental dipolar spectrum. This paper describes two methods that are useful for approximating the distance distributions for the large subset of cases in which the mutual orientations of the free radicals are uncorrelated and the width of the distribution is more than a few percent of its mean. The first method relies on a coordinate transformation and is parameter free, while the second is based on iterative least-squares with Tikhonov regularization. Both methods are useful in DEER studies of spin labeled biomolecules containing more than two labels.
Unified dynamics of electrons and photons via Zitterbewegung and spin-orbit interaction
Leary, C. C.; Smith, Karl H.
2014-02-01
We show that when an electron or photon propagates in a cylindrically symmetric waveguide, it experiences both a Zitterbewegung effect and a spin-orbit interaction leading to identical propagation dynamics for both particles. Applying a unified perturbative approach to both particles simultaneously, we find that to first order in perturbation theory, their Hamiltonians each contain identical Darwin (Zitterbewegung) and spin-orbit terms, resulting in the unification of their dynamics. The presence of the Zitterbewegung effect may be interpreted physically as the delocalization of the electron on the scale of its Compton wavelength, or the delocalization of the photon on the scale of its wavelength in the waveguide. The presence of the spin-orbit interaction leads to the prediction of several rotational effects: the spatial or time evolution of either particle's spin or polarization vector is controlled by the sign of its orbital angular momentum quantum number or, conversely, its spatial wave function is controlled by its spin angular momentum.
Handbook of multifrequency electron paramagnetic resonance data and techniques
Misra, Sushil K
2014-01-01
This handbook is aimed to deliver an up-to-date account of some of the recently developed experimental and theoretical methods in EPR, as well as a complete up-to-date listing of the experimentally determined values of multifrequency transition-ion spin Hamiltonian parameters by Sushil Misra, reported in the past 20 years, extending such a listing published by him in the Handbook on Electron Spin Resonance, volume 2. This extensive data tabulation makes up roughly 60% of the book`s content. It is complemented by the first full compilation of hyperfine splittings and g-factors for aminoxyl (nit
Potential applications of an electron cyclotron resonance multicusp plasma source
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsai, C.C.; Berry, L.A.; Gorbatkin, S.M.; Haselton, H.H.; Roberto, J.B.; Stirling, W.L. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (USA))
1990-05-01
An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) multicusp plasmatron has been developed by feeding a multicusp bucket arc chamber with a compact ECR plasma source. This novel source produces large (about 25 cm diam), uniform (to within {plus minus}10%), dense ({gt}10{sup 11} cm{sup {minus}3}) plasmas of argon, helium, hydrogen, and oxygen. It has been operated to produce an oxygen plasma for etching 12.7 cm (5 in.) positive photoresist-coated silicon wafers with uniformity within {plus minus}8%. Results and potential applications of this new ECR plasma source for plasma processing of thin films are discussed.
Electronically Tunable Fully Integrated Fractional-Order Resonator
Tsirimokou, Georgia
2017-03-20
A fully integrated implementation of a parallel fractional-order resonator which employs together a fractional order capacitor and a fractional-order inductor is proposed in this paper. The design utilizes current-controlled Operational Transconductance Amplifiers as building blocks, designed and fabricated in AMS 0:35m CMOS process, and based on a second-order approximation of a fractional-order differentiator/ integrator magnitude optimized in the range 10Hz–700Hz. An attractive benefit of the proposed scheme is its electronic tuning capability.
Resonance electronic Raman scattering in rare earth crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Williams, G.M.
1988-11-10
The intensities of Raman scattering transitions between electronic energy levels of trivalent rare earth ions doped into transparent crystals were measured and compared to theory. A particle emphasis was placed on the examination of the effect of intermediate state resonances on the Raman scattering intensities. Two specific systems were studied: Ce/sup 3 +/(4f/sup 1/) in single crystals of LuPO/sub 4/ and Er/sup 3 +/(4f/sup 11/) in single crystals of ErPO/sub 4/. 134 refs., 92 figs., 33 tabs.
Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy of Polydopamine Radicals.
Mrówczyński, Radosław; Coy, L Emerson; Scheibe, Błażej; Czechowski, Tomasz; Augustyniak-Jabłokow, Maria; Jurga, Stefan; Tadyszak, Krzysztof
2015-08-13
A thorough investigation of biomimetic polydopamine (PDA) by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) is shown. In addition, temperature dependent spectroscopic EPR data are presented in the range 3.8-300 K. Small discrepancies in magnetic susceptibility behavior are observed between previously reported melanin samples. These variations were attributed to thermally acitivated processes. More importantly, EPR spatial-spatial 2D imaging of polydopamine radicals on a phantom is presented for the first time. In consequence, a new possible application of polydopamine as EPR imagining marker is addressed.
Orbital disproportionation of electronic density is a universal feature of alkali-doped fullerides
Iwahara, Naoya; Chibotaru, Liviu F.
2016-10-01
Alkali-doped fullerides show a wide range of electronic phases in function of alkali atoms and the degree of doping. Although the presence of strong electron correlations is well established, recent investigations also give evidence for dynamical Jahn-Teller instability in the insulating and the metallic trivalent fullerides. In this work, to reveal the interplay of these interactions in fullerides with even electrons, we address the electronic phase of tetravalent fulleride with accurate many-body calculations within a realistic electronic model including all basic interactions extracted from first principles. We find that the Jahn-Teller instability is always realized in these materials too. In sharp contrast to the correlated metals, tetravalent system displays uncorrelated band-insulating state despite similar interactions present in both fullerides. Our results show that the Jahn-Teller instability and the accompanying orbital disproportionation of electronic density in the degenerate lowest unoccupied molecular orbital band is a universal feature of fullerides.
Codimension 3 Non-resonant Bifurcations of Rough Heteroclinic Loops with One Orbit Flip
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shuliang SHUI; Deming ZHU
2006-01-01
Heteroclinic bifurcations in four dimensional vector fields are investigated by setting up a local coordinates near a rough heteroclinic loop. This heteroclinic loop has a principal heteroclinic orbit and a non-principal heteroclinic orbit that takes orbit flip. The existence, nonexistence, coexistence and uniqueness of the 1-heteroclinic loop, 1-homoclinic orbit and 1-periodic orbit are studied. The existence of the two-fold or three-fold 1-periodic orbit is also obtained.
Laser-Induced Electron Diffraction: Inversion of Photoelectron Spectra for Molecular Orbital Imaging
Puthumpally-Joseph, R; Peters, M; Nguyen-Dang, T T; Atabek, O; Charron, E
2016-01-01
In this paper, we discuss the possibility of imaging molecular orbitals from photoelectron spectra obtained via Laser Induced Electron Diffraction (LIED) in linear molecules. This is an extension of our work published recently in Physical Review A \\textbf{94}, 023421 (2016) to the case of the HOMO-1 orbital of the carbon dioxide molecule. We show that such an imaging technique has the potential to image molecular orbitals at different internuclear distances in a sub-femtosecond time scale and with a resolution of a fraction of an Angstr\\"om.
Interaction induced staggered spin-orbit order in two-dimensional electron gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Das, Tanmoy [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-06-05
Decoupling spin and charge transports in solids is among the many prerequisites for realizing spin electronics, spin caloritronics, and spin-Hall effect. Beyond the conventional method of generating and manipulating spin current via magnetic knob, recent advances have expanded the possibility to optical and electrical method which are controllable both internally and externally. Yet, due to the inevitable presence of charge excitations and electrical polarizibility in these methods, the separation between spin and charge degrees of freedom of electrons remains a challenge. Here we propose and formulate an interaction induced staggered spin-orbit order as a new emergent phase of matter. We show that when some form of inherent spin-splitting via Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling renders two helical Fermi surfaces to become significantly nested, a Fermi surface instability arises. To lift this degeneracy, a spontaneous symmetry breaking spin-orbit density wave develops, causing a surprisingly large quasiparticle gapping with chiral electronic states, with no active charge excitations. Since the staggered spin-orbit order is associated with a condensation energy, quantified by the gap value, destroying such spin-orbit interaction costs sufficiently large perturbation field or temperature or de-phasing time. BiAg2 surface state is shown to be a representative system for realizing such novel spin-orbit interaction with tunable and large strength, and the spin-splitting is decoupled from charge excitations.
Resonance enhanced electron impact excitation of Cu-like gadolinium
Li, Shuang; Si, Ran; Zhang, Chun yu; Guo, Xue Ling; Chen, Zhan Bin; Wang, Kai; Chen, Chong Yang; Yan, Jun
2017-06-01
Employing the independent processes and isolated resonances approximation using distorted-waves (IPIRDW), we perform a large calculation and a detail investigation on resonance enhanced electron impact excitation (EIE) among the 27 singly excited levels from n ≤ 6 configurations of Cu-like gadolinium (Gd, Z = 64). We take into account the RE contributions from both the relevant Zn-like doubly excited series [Ne]3 l 18 n' l' n'' l'' with n' = 4-7, and the series [Ne]3 l 174 l4 l' n'' l''. Results show that the RE contributions are significant and enhance effective collision strengths ( Υ) of certain excitations by even up to an order of magnitude at low temperature (105.8 K), and still important at relative high temperature (106.8 K), where the fraction abundance of Gd XXXVI is expected at peak. We expect present resonance enhanced EIE results among the 27 levels, which is the first results with the RE contributions from n = 3 → 4 core excitation for Cu-like isoelectronic sequence, are more accurate due to our consideration of RE contributions for this ion for the first time.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laffon, J.L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1963-12-15
After a few generalities about electron paramagnetic resonance, a consideration of different experimental techniques authorises the choice of a particular type of apparatus. An EPR superheterodyne spectrometer built in the laboratory and having a novel circuit is described in detail. With this apparatus, many experimental results have been obtained and some of these are described as example. (author) [French] Apres quelques generalites sur le phenomene de resonance paramagnetique electronique, une synthese des differentes techniques experimentales, permet de fixer le choix d'un type d'appareillage. Un spectrometre de RPE superheterodyne realise en laboratoire et comportant un circuit original est expose dans le detail. Cet appareil a permis de nombreux resultats experimentaux dont quelques-uns sont decrits a titre d'exemple. (auteur)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sidabras, Jason W.; Varanasi, Shiv K.; Hyde, James S. [Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 (United States); Mett, Richard R. [Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 (United States); Department of Physics and Chemistry, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202 (United States); Swarts, Steven G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32610 (United States); Swartz, Harold M. [Department of Radiology, Geisel Medical School at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)
2014-10-15
A microwave Surface Resonator Array (SRA) structure is described for use in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The SRA has a series of anti-parallel transmission line modes that provides a region of sensitivity equal to the cross-sectional area times its depth sensitivity, which is approximately half the distance between the transmission line centers. It is shown that the quarter-wave twin-lead transmission line can be a useful element for design of microwave resonators at frequencies as high as 10 GHz. The SRA geometry is presented as a novel resonator for use in surface spectroscopy where the region of interest is either surrounded by lossy material, or the spectroscopist wishes to minimize signal from surrounding materials. One such application is in vivo spectroscopy of human finger-nails at X-band (9.5 GHz) to measure ionizing radiation dosages. In order to reduce losses associated with tissues beneath the nail that yield no EPR signal, the SRA structure is designed to limit depth sensitivity to the thickness of the fingernail. Another application, due to the resonator geometry and limited depth penetration, is surface spectroscopy in coating or material science. To test this application, a spectrum of 1.44 μM of Mg{sup 2+} doped polystyrene 1.1 mm thick on an aluminum surface is obtained. Modeling, design, and simulations were performed using Wolfram Mathematica (Champaign, IL; v. 9.0) and Ansys High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS; Canonsburg, PA; v. 15.0). A micro-strip coupling circuit is designed to suppress unwanted modes and provide a balanced impedance transformation to a 50 Ω coaxial input. Agreement between simulated and experimental results is shown.
Sidabras, Jason W.; Varanasi, Shiv K.; Mett, Richard R.; Swarts, Steven G.; Swartz, Harold M.; Hyde, James S.
2014-10-01
A microwave Surface Resonator Array (SRA) structure is described for use in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The SRA has a series of anti-parallel transmission line modes that provides a region of sensitivity equal to the cross-sectional area times its depth sensitivity, which is approximately half the distance between the transmission line centers. It is shown that the quarter-wave twin-lead transmission line can be a useful element for design of microwave resonators at frequencies as high as 10 GHz. The SRA geometry is presented as a novel resonator for use in surface spectroscopy where the region of interest is either surrounded by lossy material, or the spectroscopist wishes to minimize signal from surrounding materials. One such application is in vivo spectroscopy of human finger-nails at X-band (9.5 GHz) to measure ionizing radiation dosages. In order to reduce losses associated with tissues beneath the nail that yield no EPR signal, the SRA structure is designed to limit depth sensitivity to the thickness of the fingernail. Another application, due to the resonator geometry and limited depth penetration, is surface spectroscopy in coating or material science. To test this application, a spectrum of 1.44 μM of Mg2+ doped polystyrene 1.1 mm thick on an aluminum surface is obtained. Modeling, design, and simulations were performed using Wolfram Mathematica (Champaign, IL; v. 9.0) and Ansys High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS; Canonsburg, PA; v. 15.0). A micro-strip coupling circuit is designed to suppress unwanted modes and provide a balanced impedance transformation to a 50 Ω coaxial input. Agreement between simulated and experimental results is shown.
Sidabras, Jason W; Varanasi, Shiv K; Mett, Richard R; Swarts, Steven G; Swartz, Harold M; Hyde, James S
2014-10-01
A microwave Surface Resonator Array (SRA) structure is described for use in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The SRA has a series of anti-parallel transmission line modes that provides a region of sensitivity equal to the cross-sectional area times its depth sensitivity, which is approximately half the distance between the transmission line centers. It is shown that the quarter-wave twin-lead transmission line can be a useful element for design of microwave resonators at frequencies as high as 10 GHz. The SRA geometry is presented as a novel resonator for use in surface spectroscopy where the region of interest is either surrounded by lossy material, or the spectroscopist wishes to minimize signal from surrounding materials. One such application is in vivo spectroscopy of human finger-nails at X-band (9.5 GHz) to measure ionizing radiation dosages. In order to reduce losses associated with tissues beneath the nail that yield no EPR signal, the SRA structure is designed to limit depth sensitivity to the thickness of the fingernail. Another application, due to the resonator geometry and limited depth penetration, is surface spectroscopy in coating or material science. To test this application, a spectrum of 1.44 μM of Mg(2+) doped polystyrene 1.1 mm thick on an aluminum surface is obtained. Modeling, design, and simulations were performed using Wolfram Mathematica (Champaign, IL; v. 9.0) and Ansys High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS; Canonsburg, PA; v. 15.0). A micro-strip coupling circuit is designed to suppress unwanted modes and provide a balanced impedance transformation to a 50 Ω coaxial input. Agreement between simulated and experimental results is shown.
Huang, Yan R; Ning, Chuan G; Deng, Jing K; Deleuze, Michael S
2008-05-07
A complete study of the valence electronic structure and related electronic excitation properties of cyclopentene in its C(s) ground state geometry is presented. Ionization spectra obtained from this compound by means of photoelectron spectroscopy (He I and He II) and electron momentum spectroscopy have been analyzed in details up to electron binding energies of 30 eV using one-particle Green's function (1p-GF) theory along with the outer-valence (OVGF) and the third-order algebraic diagrammatic construction [ADC(3)] schemes. The employed geometries derive from DFT/B3LYP calculations in conjunction with the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set, and closely approach the structures inferred from experiments employing microwave spectroscopy or electron diffraction in the gas phase. The 1p-GF/ADC(3) calculations indicate that the orbital picture of ionization breaks down at electron binding energies larger than approximately 17 eV in the inner-valence region, and that the outer-valence 7a' orbital is also subject to a significant dispersion of the ionization intensity over shake-up states. This study confirms further the rule that OVGF pole strengths smaller than 0.85 foretell a breakdown of the orbital picture of ionization at the ADC(3) level. Spherically averaged (e, 2e) electron momentum distributions at an electron impact energy of 1200 eV that were experimentally inferred from an angular analysis of EMS intensities have been interpreted by comparison with accurate simulations employing ADC(3) Dyson orbitals. Very significant discrepancies were observed with momentum distributions obtained from several outer-valence ionization bands using standard Kohn-Sham orbitals.
Rechargeable Mg battery cathode TiS3 with d-p orbital hybridized electronic structures
Taniguchi, Kouji; Gu, Yunpeng; Katsura, Yukari; Yoshino, Takafumi; Takagi, Hidenori
2016-01-01
Rechargeable performance is realized in Mg batteries using a TiS3 cathode without the nanometer-scale downsizing of electrode particles. The specific capacity is about 80 mAh/g for the first 50 cycles at room temperature. This observed specific capacity is comparable to that of the prototype cathode for Mg batteries. First-principles calculation indicates that TiS3 is a semiconductor with d-p orbital hybridized electronic structures around the Fermi level. The reversible electrode performance is likely assisted by the delocalized electronic distribution over metal-ligand units through d-p orbital hybridization.
Spin current and polarization in impure two-dimensional electron systems with spin-orbit coupling.
Mishchenko, E G; Shytov, A V; Halperin, B I
2004-11-26
We derive the transport equations for two-dimensional electron systems with Rashba spin-orbit interaction and short-range spin-independent disorder. In the limit of slow spatial variations, we obtain coupled diffusion equations for the electron density and spin. Using these equations we calculate electric-field induced spin accumulation and spin current in a finite-size sample for an arbitrary ratio between spin-orbit energy splitting Delta and elastic scattering rate tau(-1). We demonstrate that the spin-Hall conductivity vanishes in an infinite system independent of this ratio.
Giant magnetic quadrupole resonance studied with 180 deg. electron scattering
Neumann-Cosel, P V
1999-01-01
The nuclei sup 4 sup 8 Ca and sup 9 sup 0 Zr were investigated in 180 deg. high-resolution inelastic electron scattering for momentum transfers q approx =0.35-0.8 fm sup - sup 1. Complete M2 strength distributions could be extracted in both nuclei up to excitation energies of about 15 MeV utilizing a fluctuation analysis technique. Second-RPA calculations successfully describe the experimentally observed strong fragmentation of the M2 mode. The quenching of the spin part is found to be comparable to the M1 case, contrary to previous claims suggesting a stronger reduction. A quantitative reproduction of the data requires the presence of appreciable orbital strength which can be interpreted as a torsional elastic vibration (the so-called twist mode).
Marumoto, K.; Kato, M.; Kondo, H.; Kuroda, S.; Greenham, N. C.; Friend, R. H.; Shimoi, Y.; Abe, S.
2009-06-01
Electron spin resonance (ESR) and electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) of photogenerated polarons in poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) and its composite with fullerene (C60) using variable photoexcitation energy up to 4.1 eV are reported. For PFO, a light-induced ESR (LESR) signal (g=2.003) is observed below 60 K, and its transient response and excitation spectrum indicate that the observed spins are photogenerated polarons on PFO. For the PFO-C60 composite, two LESR signals of photogenerated positive polarons on PFO (g1=2.003) and radical anions on C60 (g2=1.999) , respectively, are observed below 120 K, which are caused by photoinduced electron transfer from PFO to C60 . A remarkable enhancement of the LESR signals in the excitation spectrum at ˜2.8eV is observed compared with the case of pure PFO. The bimolecular-recombination kinetics of photogenerated charge carriers in the composite are confirmed by the dependence of the LESR on excitation-light intensity and by the decay dynamics. Light-induced ENDOR (LENDOR) signals are clearly observed for excitation around 2.8 eV owing to the highly efficient photoinduced electron transfer in the composite. Broad LENDOR shifts directly reflect the spin-density distribution of the polarons in PFO. We have determined its maximum shift using LENDOR-induced ESR, and have evaluated the maximum spin density on the carbon site coupled to the proton as 0.032. This value is consistent with the theoretical result obtained by Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) model, where the spatial extent of the polarons is calculated as ˜3 monomer units of PFO. The calculated LESR spectra of PFO based on the PPP model are consistent with the experimental spectra, which confirm the above spatial extension of the polaron in PFO.
Seo, Dong-Kyun
2007-11-14
We present a theoretical scheme for a semiquantitative analysis of electronic structures of magnetic transition metal dimer complexes within spin density functional theory (DFT). Based on the spin polarization perturbational orbital theory [D.-K. Seo, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 154105 (2006)], explicit spin-dependent expressions of the spin orbital energies and coefficients are derived, which allows to understand how spin orbitals form and change their energies and shapes when two magnetic sites are coupled either ferromagnetically or antiferromagnetically. Upon employment of the concept of magnetic orbitals in the active-electron approximation, a general mathematical formula is obtained for the magnetic coupling constant J from the analytical expression for the electronic energy difference between low-spin broken-symmetry and high-spin states. The origin of the potential exchange and kinetic exchange terms based on the one-electron picture is also elucidated. In addition, we provide a general account of the DFT analysis of the magnetic exchange interactions in compounds for which the active-electron approximation is not appropriate.
Assessments and applications of Terra and Aqua MODIS on-orbit electronic calibration
Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chen, Na; Li, Yonghong; Wilson, Truman
2016-09-01
MODIS has 36 spectral bands located on four focal plane assemblies (FPAs), covering wavelengths from 0.41 to 14.4 μm. MODIS bands 1-30 collect data using photovoltaic (PV) detectors and, therefore, are referred to as the PV bands. Similarly, bands 31-36 using photoconductive (PC) detectors are referred to as the PC bands. The MODIS instrument was built with a set of on-board calibrators (OBCs) in order to track on-orbit changes of its radiometric, spatial, and spectral characteristics. In addition, an electronic calibration (ECAL) function can be used to monitor on-orbit changes of its electronic responses (gains). This is accomplished via a series of stair step signals generated by the ECAL function. These signals, in place of the FPA detector signals, are amplified and digitized just like the detector signals. Over the entire mission of both Terra and Aqua MODIS, the ECAL has been performed for the PV bands and used to assess their on-orbit performance. This paper provides an overview of MODIS on-orbit calibration activities with a focus on the PV ECAL, including its calibration process and approaches used to monitor the electronic performance. It presents the results derived and lessons learned from Terra and Aqua MODIS on-orbit ECAL. Also discussed are some of the applications performed with the information provided by the ECAL data.
Valence orbitals of W(CO)6 using electron momentum spectroscopy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shi Le-Lei; Liu Kun; Luo Zhi-Hong; Ning Chuan-Gang; Deng Jing-Kang
2011-01-01
The binding energy spectra and the momentum distributions of the outer valence orbitals of W(CO)6 have been studied by using electron momentum spectroscopy as well as non-relativistic,scalar relativistic and spin-orbital relativistic DFT-B3LYP calculations.The experimental momentum profiles of the outer valence orbitals obtained with the impact energies of 1200 eV and 2400 eV were compared with various theoretical calculation results.The relativistic calculations could provide better descriptions for the experimental momentum distributions than the non-relativistic ones.Moreover,a new ordering of orbitals 10t1u,3t2g,and 7eg,i.e.,10t1u ＜ 3t2g ＜7eg ＜10a1g,is established in this work.
Measurement of resonance parameters of orbitally excited narrow B0 mesons.
Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; González, B Alvarez; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzurri, P; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burke, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Chwalek, T; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Almenar, C Cuenca; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Derwent, P F; di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Gessler, A; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; da Costa, J Guimaraes; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kurata, M; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lucchesi, D; Luci, C; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlok, J; Fernandez, P Movilla; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Neubauer, S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Griso, S Pagan; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Peiffer, T; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Renz, M; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Ttito-Guzmán, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Tourneur, S; Trovato, M; Tsai, S-Y; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Weinelt, J; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Würthwein, F; Wynne, S M; Xie, S; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S
2009-03-13
We report a measurement of resonance parameters of the orbitally excited (L=1) narrow B0 mesons in decays to B;{(*)+}pi;{-} using 1.7 fb;{-1} of data collected by the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The mass and width of the B_{2};{*0} state are measured to be m(B_{2};{*0})=5740.2_{-1.8};{+1.7}(stat)-0.8+0.9(syst) MeV/c;{2} and Gamma(B_{2};{*0})=22.7_{-3.2};{+3.8}(stat)-10.2+3.2(syst) MeV/c;{2}. The mass difference between the B_{2};{*0} and B10 states is measured to be 14.9_{-2.5};{+2.2}(stat)-1.4+1.2(syst) MeV/c;{2}, resulting in a B10 mass of 5725.3_{-2.2};{+1.6}(stat)-1.5+1.4(syst) MeV/c;{2}. This is currently the most precise measurement of the masses of these states and the first measurement of the B_{2};{*0} width.
Configuration interaction with Kohn Sham orbitals and their relation to excited electronic states
Bouř, Petr
2001-09-01
Kohn-Sham (KS) orbitals in CH 2, formaldehyde and acetone molecules were used as reference states for configuration interaction (CI) instead of the usual Hartree-Fock (HF) orbitals. A little difference in overall accuracy of electronic excitation energies was found between these schemes. However, analysis of the wave functions indicated that Slater determinant with the KS orbitals is more suitable for construction of the electronic states. Typically, the main expansion coefficients for the CI/KS procedure were closer to unity than those for HF. The difference was most pronounced for the lowest-energy transitions, while the two methods provided more comparable results for the higher-energy states. Similar behaviour of singlet and triplet states was observed. The results justify the common practice of using the KS determinant as a wave function, for example in sum-over-states theories.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gu, Seuli [Department of Nanoscale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Yu-Sin; Chang, Yoon-Min; Chung, Chin-Wook, E-mail: joykang@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Deuk-Chul [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-06-15
The electron bounce resonance was experimentally investigated in a low pressure planar inductively coupled plasma. The electron energy probability functions (EEPFs) were measured at different chamber heights and the energy diffusion coefficients were calculated by the kinetic model. It is found that the EEPFs begin to flatten at the first electron bounce resonance condition, and the plateau shifts to a higher electron energy as the chamber height increases. The plateau which indicates strong electron heating corresponds not only to the electron bounce resonance condition but also to the peaks of the first component of the energy diffusion coefficients. As a result, the plateau formation in the EEPFs is mainly due to the electron bounce resonance in a finite inductive discharge.
Electron-positron pair production by an electron in a magnetic field in the resonant case
Novak, O P
2012-01-01
Resonant e+e- pair production by an electron in a magnetic field near the process threshold has been analytically studied. Using the Nikishov's theorem an estimation of the number of events has been made in the magnetic field equivalent to laser wave in the SLAC experiment [D.Burke et.al. Phys. Rev. Lett.79, 1626 (1997)]. The obtained estimation is in reasonable agreement with the experimental data.
Electron cyclotron resonance breakdown studies in a linear plasma system
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Vipin K Yadav; K Sathyanarayana; D Bora
2008-03-01
Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma breakdown is studied in a small linear cylindrical system with four different gases - hydrogen, helium, argon and nitrogen. Microwave power in the experimental system is delivered by a magnetron at 2.45 ± 0.02 GHz in TE10 mode and launched radially to have extra-ordinary (X) wave in plasma. The axial magnetic field required for ECR in the system is such that the fundamental ECR surface ( = 875.0 G) resides at the geometrical centre of the plasma system. ECR breakdown parameters such as plasma delay time and plasma decay time from plasma density measurements are carried out at the centre using a Langmuir probe. The operating parameters such as working gas pressure (1 × 10-5 -1 × 10-2 mbar) and input microwave power (160{800 W) are varied and the corresponding effect on the breakdown parameters is studied. The experimental results obtained are presented in this paper.
Multicusp type Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source for plasma processing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amemiya, Hiroshi; Shigueoka, Yoshyuki (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)); Ishii, Shigeyuki
1991-02-01
A multi-cusp type ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) ion source is built with use of SmCo magnets and 2.45 GHz-TE{sub 11} circular mode microwave. The ion source is operated at pressures from 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -3} Torr with the input microwave power from 100 to 400 W. In hydrogen, the current density of H{sup +} is higher than those of H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +}. The dependence of the fraction of each ion species on the power and pressure is measured and explained by rate equations. The source is operated also in other gases. Mass spectra in He, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, Ar and CH{sub 4} are shown together with the pressure and power dependences. Multicharged state of up to 3 has been obtained. (author).
Numerical model of electron cyclotron resonance ion source
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Mironov
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Important features of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS operation are accurately reproduced with a numerical code. The code uses the particle-in-cell technique to model the dynamics of ions in ECRIS plasma. It is shown that a gas dynamical ion confinement mechanism is sufficient to provide the ion production rates in ECRIS close to the experimentally observed values. Extracted ion currents are calculated and compared to the experiment for a few sources. Changes in the simulated extracted ion currents are obtained with varying the gas flow into the source chamber and the microwave power. Empirical scaling laws for ECRIS design are studied and the underlying physical effects are discussed.
Thermal History of Archaeological Objects, Studied by Electron Spin Resonance
Bartoll, Jens; Tani, Atsushi
Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a sensitive tool for distinguishing between "burned" and "unburned" states of archaeological objects. Prehistoric heating conditions, such as the temperature, atmosphere, time of exposure to heat, and when the heating took place, can be studied by this method with some success. ESR "reporters," such as (a) radiation defects, (b) pyrolytic defects, and (c) transition metal ions, can even reflect changes induced at relatively low temperatures (e.g., in the range of 200° C for objects containing organic compounds). Several ESR heating markers are so stable that samples dating back to the ages when fire first began to be used can be analyzed today. An overview is presented of the literature concerning objects, such as stone, soil, pottery, and plant and animal products.
Electron spin resonance from semiconductor-metal separated SWCNTs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Havlicek, M.; Jantsch, W. [Institut fuer Halbleiter- und Festkoerperphysik, Johannes Kepler Universitaet, 4040 Linz (Austria); Ruemmeli, M.; Schoenfelder, R. [Leibniz Institute fuer Festkoerperphysik und Werkstoffforschung, Dresden (Germany); Yanagi, K. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo (Japan); Miyata, Y. [Department of Chemistry, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Kataura, H. [Nanotechnology Research Institute, AIST, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8562 (Japan); Simon, F.; Peterlik, H.; Kuzmany, H. [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Wien, Strudlhofgasse 4, 1090 Wien (Austria)
2010-12-15
Electron spin resonance in the X band is reported for fully metal-semiconductor separated SWCNTs. For the experiments samples were immersed in ethanol or wrapped into a teflon foil. The response from the metallic tubes exhibits a strong asymmetry in the line shape whereas the asymmetry for the semiconducting (SC) tubes is comparatively small. In both cases the line widths are unusual small, of the order of 4 G. Particular attention is paid to SC nanotubes which exhibit a much stronger signal as compared to the metallic tubes. The signal intensity is nearly Curie like with a small enhancement beyond 1/T in the low temperature range. The 1/T behavior renders the ESR response unobservable at 300 K. The finite value for the asymmetry parameter in the SC tubes is assumed to originate from charges picked up during exposure to air or to ethanol. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Egyptian limestone for gamma dosimetry: an electron paramagnetic resonance study
Salama, E.
2014-04-01
The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) properties of limestone from a certain Egyptian site were investigated in order to propose an efficient and low-cost gamma dosimeter. Radiation-induced free radicals were of one type which was produced in the limestone samples at g=2.0066 after exposure to gamma radiation (60Co). EPR spectrum was recorded and analyzed. The microwave power saturation curve and the effect of changing modulation amplitude on peak-to- peak signal height were investigated. The response of limestone to different radiation doses (0.5-20 kGy) was studied. Except for the decrease in signal intensities during the first five hours following irradiation, over the period of two months fair stabilities of signal intensities were noticed. From the current results, it is possible to conclude that natural limestone may be a suitable material for radiation dosimetry in the range of irradiation processing.
Electron Spin Resonance Measurement with Microinductor on Chip
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akio Kitagawa
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The detection of radicals on a chip is demonstrated. The proposed method is based on electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy and the measurement of high-frequency impedance of the microinductor fabricated on the chip. The measurement was by using a frequency sweep of approximately 100 MHz. The ESR spectra of di(phenyl-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyliminoazanium (DPPH dropped on the microinductor which is fabricated with CMOS 350-nm technology were observed at room temperature. The volume of the DPPH ethanol solution was 2 μL, and the number of spins on the micro-inductor was estimated at about 1014. The sensitivity is not higher than that of the standard ESR spectrometers. However, the result indicates the feasibility of a near field radical sensor in which the microinductor as a probe head and ESR signal processing circuit are integrated.
Electron magnetic resonance investigation of chromium diffusion in yttria powders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biasi, R.S. de, E-mail: rsbiasi@ime.eb.b [Secao de Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais, Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Pr. General Tiburcio, 80, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Grillo, M.L.N., E-mail: mluciag@uerj.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2010-03-01
The electron magnetic resonance (EMR) technique was used to investigate the diffusion of chromium in yttria (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) powders. The EMR absorption intensity was measured for several annealing times and three different temperatures of isothermal annealing: 1273, 1323 and 1373 K. The activation temperature for diffusion, calculated from the experimental data using a theoretical model based on the Fick equation, was found to be E{sub A}=342+-5 kJ mol{sup -1}. This value is larger than the activation energy for the diffusion of chromium in rutile (TiO{sub 2}), periclase (MgO) and cobalt monoxide (CoO) and smaller than the activation energy for the diffusion of chromium in chrysoberyl (BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}).
Pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) as EPR spectroscopy in nanometre range
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsvetkov, Yu D; Milov, A D; Maryasov, A G [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
2008-06-30
The results of development of pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) method and its applications in structural studies are generalised and described systematically. The foundations of the theory of the method are outlined, some methodological features and applications are considered, in particular, determination of the distances between spin labels in the nanometre range for iminoxyl biradicals, spin-labelled biomacromolecules, radical ion pairs and peptide-membrane complexes. The attention is focussed on radical systems that form upon self-assembly of nanosized complexes (in particular, peptide complexes), spatial effects, and radical pairs in photolysis and photosynthesis. The position of PELDOR among other structural EPR techniques is analysed.
1984-10-19
a molecular orbital approximation to the electron delocalization energy.1 8 The ASED theory is derived from the Hellmann- Feynman formula for...34 . . 4.•" " ., .7% . r .- - - . , .-. - . . _ .-.- :.- .- . v ._ . _ . " - . ’ " _ _ 12. Wheeler , B. L.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Bard, A. J
Electron spin coherence and electron nuclear double resonance of Bi donors in natural Si.
George, Richard E; Witzel, Wayne; Riemann, H; Abrosimov, N V; Nötzel, N; Thewalt, Mike L W; Morton, John J L
2010-08-06
Donors in silicon hold considerable promise for emerging quantum technologies, due to their uniquely long electron spin coherence times. Bismuth donors in silicon differ from more widely studied group V donors, such as phosphorous, in several significant respects: They have the strongest binding energy (70.98 meV), a large nuclear spin (I=9/2), and a strong hyperfine coupling constant (A=1475.4 MHz). These larger energy scales allow us to perform a detailed test of theoretical models describing the spectral diffusion mechanism that is known to govern the electron spin decoherence of P donors in natural silicon. We report the electron-nuclear double resonance spectra of the Bi donor, across the range 200 MHz to 1.4 GHz, and confirm that coherence transfer is possible between electron and nuclear spin degrees of freedom at these higher frequencies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yip, Frank L; McCurdy, C. William; Rescigno, Thomas N
2010-04-19
A general approach for ab initio calculations of electronic continuum processes is described in which the many-electron wave function is expanded using a combination of orbitals at short range and the finite-element discrete variable representation(FEM-DVR) at larger distances. The orbital portion of the basis allows the efficient construction of many-electron configurations in which some of the electrons are bound, but because the orbitals are constructed from an underlying FEM-DVR grid, the calculation of two-electron integrals retains the efficiency of the primitive FEM-DVR approach. As an example, double photoionization of beryllium is treated in a calculation in which the 1s{sup 2} core is frozen. This approach extends the use of exterior complex scaling (ECS) successfully applied to helium and H{sub 2} to calculations with two active electrons on more complicated targets. Integrated, energy-differential and triply-differential cross sections are exhibited, and the results agree well with other theoretical investigations.
Bounce resonance scattering of radiation belt electrons by H+ band EMIC waves
Cao, Xing; Ni, Binbin; Summers, Danny; Bortnik, Jacob; Tao, Xin; Shprits, Yuri Y.; Lou, Yuequn; Gu, Xudong; Fu, Song; Shi, Run; Xiang, Zheng; Wang, Qi
2017-02-01
We perform a detailed analysis of bounce-resonant pitch angle scattering of radiation belt electrons due to electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. It is found that EMIC waves can resonate with near-equatorially mirroring electrons over a wide range of L shells and energies. H+ band EMIC waves efficiently scatter radiation belt electrons of energy >100 keV from near 90° pitch angles to lower pitch angles where the cyclotron resonance mechanism can take over to further diffuse electrons into the loss cone. Bounce-resonant electron pitch angle scattering rates show a strong dependence on L shell, wave normal angle distribution, and wave spectral properties. We find distinct quantitative differences between EMIC wave-induced bounce-resonant and cyclotron-resonant diffusion coefficients. Cyclotron-resonant electron scattering by EMIC waves has been well studied and found to be a potentially crucial electron scattering mechanism. The new investigation here demonstrates that bounce-resonant electron scattering may also be very important. We conclude that bounce resonance scattering by EMIC waves should be incorporated into future modeling efforts of radiation belt electron dynamics.
Orbital degeneracy near the itinerant electron limit in CoV2 O4
Reig-I-Plessis, D.; Casavant, D.; Garlea, V. O.; Aczel, A. A.; Feygenson, M.; Neuefeind, J.; Zhou, H. D.; Nagler, S. E.; MacDougall, G. J.
Vanadium spinels, AV2O4 have both magnetic frustration and orbital degeneracy on the V3+ sublattice, which lead to strong coupling of the orbital, lattice and spin degrees of freedom. Additionally, upon decreasing the V-V distance, the material is predicted to go from a Mott insulator to a metallic phase. Of all the materials in the AV2O4 series, CoV2O4 is closest to the predicted transition, and it's debated whether it may be fully described by either localized or itinerant electrons pictures. In all other studied vanadium spinels, there is a cubic to tetragonal transition associated with ordering of the degenerate V3+ orbitals, consistent with a local orbital picture but, this transition is surprisingly absent from CoV2O4 despite being an insulator with local spins. In this talk we present recent high resolution neutron diffraction and inelastic scattering measurements by our group on powders of CoV2O4. Diffraction data show there is small but clear first order structural transition present which correlates with canting of the V3+ spins, while inelastic data are well described by a local spinwave picture. We discuss how these results contribute evidence of a local orbital ordering phase in the region near electron itinerancy. This work was sponsored by NSF Grant DMR-145526.
Mafakheri, E.; Tavabi, A. H.; Lu, P.-H.; Balboni, R.; Venturi, F.; Menozzi, C.; Gazzadi, G. C.; Frabboni, S.; Sit, A.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; Karimi, E.; Grillo, V.
2017-02-01
Free electron beams that carry high values of orbital angular momentum (OAM) possess large magnetic moments along the propagation direction. This makes them an ideal probe for measuring the electronic and magnetic properties of materials, as well as for fundamental experiments in magnetism. However, their generation requires the use of complex diffractive elements, which usually take the form of nano-fabricated holograms. Here, we show how the limitations of the current fabrication of such holograms can be overcome by using electron beam lithography. We demonstrate experimentally the realization of an electron vortex beam with the largest OAM value that has yet been reported to the first diffraction order (L = 1000 ℏ), paving the way for even more demanding demonstrations and applications of electron beam shaping.
Dou, Wenjie; Subotnik, Joseph E
2016-08-07
We present a very general form of electronic friction as present when a molecule with multiple orbitals hybridizes with a metal electrode. To develop this picture of friction, we embed the quantum-classical Liouville equation (QCLE) within a classical master equation (CME). Thus, this article extends our previous work analyzing the case of one electronic level, as we may now treat the case of multiple levels and many electronic molecular states. We show that, in the adiabatic limit, where electron transitions are much faster than nuclear motion, the QCLE-CME reduces to a Fokker-Planck equation, such that nuclei feel an average force as well as friction and a random force-as caused by their interaction with the metallic electrons. Finally, we show numerically and analytically that our frictional results agree with other published results calculated using non-equilibrium Green's functions. Numerical recipes for solving this QCLE-CME will be provided in a subsequent paper.
ATLAS 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source upgrade project
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moehs, D. P. [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Vondrasek, R. [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Pardo, R. C. [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Xie, D. [Berkeley Ion Equipment Inc., Santa Clara, California 95054 (United States)
2000-02-01
A major upgrade of the first ATLAS 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, which began operations in 1987, is in the planning and procurement phase. The new design will convert the old two-stage source into a single-stage source with an electron donor disk and high gradient magnetic field that preserves radial access for solid material feeds and pumping of the plasma chamber. The new magnetic-field profile allows for the possibility of a second ECR zone at a frequency of 14 GHz. An open hexapole configuration, using a high-energy-product Nd-Fe-B magnet material, having an inner diameter of 8.8 cm and pole gaps of 2.4 cm, has been adopted. Models indicate that the field strengths at the chamber wall, 4 cm in radius, will be 9.3 kG along the magnet poles and 5.6 kG along the pole gaps. The individual magnet bars will be housed in austenitic stainless steel, allowing the magnet housing within the aluminum plasma chamber to be used as a water channel for direct cooling of the magnets. Eight solenoid coils from the existing ECR will be enclosed in an iron yoke to produce the axial mirror. Based on a current of 500 A, the final model predicts a minimum B field of 3 kG with injection and extraction mirror ratios of 4.4 and 2.9, respectively. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.
Tetrachloridocuprates(II—Synthesis and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR Spectroscopy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Strauch
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Ionic liquids (ILs on the basis of metal containing anions and/or cations are of interest for a variety of technical applications e.g., synthesis of particles, magnetic or thermochromic materials. We present the synthesis and the results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopic analyses of a series of some new potential ionic liquids based on tetrachloridocuprates(II, [CuCl4]2−, with different sterically demanding cations: hexadecyltrimethylammonium 1, tetradecyltrimethylammonium 2, tetrabutylammonium 3 and benzyltriethylammonium 4. The cations in the new compounds were used to achieve a reasonable separation of the paramagnetic Cu(II ions for EPR spectroscopy. The EPR hyperfine structure was not resolved. This is due to the exchange broadening, resulting from still incomplete separation of the paramagnetic Cu(II centers. Nevertheless, the principal values of the electron Zeemann tensor (g║ and g┴ of the complexes could be determined. Even though the solid substances show slightly different colors, the UV/Vis spectra are nearly identical, indicating structural changes of the tetrachloridocuprate moieties between solid state and solution. The complexes have a promising potential e.g., as high temperature ionic liquids, as precursors for the formation of copper chloride particles or as catalytic paramagnetic ionic liquids.
ATLAS 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source upgrade project
Moehs, D P; Pardo, R C; Xie, D
2000-01-01
A major upgrade of the first ATLAS 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, which began operations in 1987, is in the planning and procurement phase. The new design will convert the old two-stage source into a single-stage source with an electron donor disk and high gradient magnetic field that preserves radial access for solid material feeds and pumping of the plasma chamber. The new magnetic-field profile allows for the possibility of a second ECR zone at a frequency of 14 GHz. An open hexapole configuration, using a high-energy-product Nd-Fe-B magnet material, having an inner diameter of 8.8 cm and pole gaps of 2.4 cm, has been adopted. Models indicate that the field strengths at the chamber wall, 4 cm in radius, will be 9.3 kG along the magnet poles and 5.6 kG along the pole gaps. The individual magnet bars will be housed in austenitic stainless steel, allowing the magnet housing within the aluminum plasma chamber to be used as a water channel for direct cooling of the magnets. Eight solenoid...
Potapov, Alexander; Ryzhakova, Larisa; Tsegmed, Battuulai
2016-09-01
So-called "killer" electrons are electrons of relativistic energies (more than 1-2 MeV) forming the outer radiation belt. Their fluxes present a serious threat for on-board electronics of spacecraft orbiting in geosynchronous orbit. This provides actuality of the problem of electron flux forecast. The population of energetic electrons grows after immersion of the Earth's magnetosphere into a high-speed stream of the solar wind. One of the main mechanisms of acceleration of magnetospheric electrons to relativistic energies assumed to be their wave-particle interaction with the ultra-low-frequency or very-low-frequency waves. Accordingly, the previously proposed prognostic methods were based on the connection of the outer radiation belt population with the speed of the solar wind and the activity of the low-frequency waves in the magnetosphere. In this paper, we propose to build a forecast based on a new kind of the multiple regressions model with sliding window of predictors. A set of predictors used in the successful multiple regressions model include parameters that reflect processes of replenishment of the outer radiation belt due to the acceleration of seed electrons as well as processes of the devastation of the electron flux in the geosynchronous region due to outward adiabatic transport and outward radial diffusion. To characterize these processes, we use the following set of parameters measured on the ground and in situ: the solar wind speed, density and dynamic pressure of the interplanetary plasma, the intensity of ultra-low-frequency oscillations in front of the magnetosphere and on the ground, the flux of seed electrons (of hundreds eV energy) at geosynchronous orbit, the actual values of the magnetic field at L=6.6, and interplanetary electric field. Coefficients in the model equation are derived from experimental data using the least-squares method. Test calculations using the proposed model have shown promising results.
ON THE HOMOCLINIC ORBITS IN A CLASS OF TWO-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEMS UNDER THE RESONANCE CONDITIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王茂南; 徐振源
2001-01-01
A class of two-degree-of-freedom systems in resonance with an external,parametric excitation is investigated, the existence of the periodic solutions locked to Ω is proved by the use of the method of multiple scales. This systems can be transformed into the systems of Wiggins under some conditions. A calculating formula which determines the existence of homoclinic orbits of the systems is given.
Frontier orbital interactions of electron pushing and drawing substituents with ferrocenyl group
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
姜月顺; 柴向东; 杨文胜; 张东; 曹云伟; 诸真家; 李铁津; Jean-Marie Lehn
1997-01-01
The frontier orbital interactions of electron pushing and drawing substituents with ferrocenyl group were analyzed based on the electrochemical,UV visible spectral and spectroelectrochemical results of five ferrocene derivatives,R-Fc-A1(PⅠ),A1-Fc-A1(PⅡ),D-Fc-R (PⅢ),D-Kc-A1(PIV) and D-Fc-A2(PV)(R,CH2OH;A1 CHO;A2,CH=C(CN)2 and D,(C18H37)2N-C6H4-CH=CH) It was found that there are strong interactions of the LUMO (πA) of electron drawing substituents with le2g(dxy,dx2 y2)and e2u of the ferroeenyl group because the energy levels of πA and e2g,C2U of (Cp )2 are close,which lower not only the energy levels of bonded orbits,πA+ and dx2-y2+[πA] of PⅠ,PⅡ,PⅣ and PⅤobviously,but also those of their non-bonded orbu dxy For PⅢ,PⅣ and PⅤ,there are strong interactions of HOMO(πD) of the electron pushing substituent with le of the ferrocenyl group because the levels of πD and e of (Cp)2 are close,which result in the formation of anti-bonded orbit,πD- and bonded orbit
Rashid, M.
2011-01-01
A circularly orbiting electromagnetic harmonic wave may appear when a 1S electron encounters a decelerating stopping positively charged hole inside a semiconductor. The circularly orbiting electromagnetic harmonic wave can have an interaction with a conducting electron which has a constant time inde
Rashid, M.
2011-01-01
A circularly orbiting electromagnetic harmonic wave may appear when a 1S electron encounters a decelerating stopping positively charged hole inside a semiconductor. The circularly orbiting electromagnetic harmonic wave can have an interaction with a conducting electron which has a constant time
Vibrational effects on the electron momentum distributions of valence orbitals of formamide
Miao, Y. R.; Deng, J. K.; Ning, C. G.
2012-03-01
The ionization energy spectra and electron momentum distributions of formamide were investigated using the high-resolution electron momentum spectrometer in combination with high level calculations. The observed ionization energy spectra and electron momentum distributions were interpreted using symmetry adapted cluster-configuration interaction theory, outer valence Green function, and DFT-B3LYP methods. The ordering of 10a' and 2a″ orbitals of formamide was assigned unambiguously by comparing the experimental electron momentum distributions with the corresponding theoretical results, i.e., 10a' has a lower binding energy. In addition, it was found that the low-frequency wagging vibration of the amino group at room temperature has noticeable effects on the electron momentum distributions. The equilibrium-nuclear-positions-approximation, which was widely used in electron momentum spectroscopy, is not accurate for formamide molecule. The calculations based on the thermal average can evidently improve the agreement with the experimental momentum distributions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Tie-Cheng; NING Chuan-Gang; SU Guo-Lin; DENG Jing-Kang; ZHANG Shu-Feng; REN Xue-Guang; HUANG Yan-Ru
2006-01-01
@@ The binding energy spectrum of all valence orbitals and the momentum distributions of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO: 8ag), 7bu + 7ag, 4bu, 2bg + 4ag and 2au in 1, 4-dioxane are investigated by electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS) with 600 e V impact energy. The experimental results are consistent with theoretical calculations of C2h chair conformation using the Hartree-Fock method and density functional theory with 6-311++G**and A UG-CC-PVTZ basis sets.
Investigation of electronic order using resonant soft X-ray diffraction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlappa, J.
2006-12-01
The aim of this PhD work was the application of resonant soft X-ray diffraction technique for the investigation of electronic order in transition metal oxides at the TM L{sub 2,3}-edge, trying to obtain a quantitative understanding of the data. The method was first systematically explored through application to a model system in order to test the feasibility of the technique and to understand of how X-ray optical effects have to be taken into account. Two more complex systems were investigated; stripe order in La{sub 1.8}Sr{sub 0.2}NiO{sub 4} and charge and orbital order in Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The main focus of the work was on the spectroscopic potential of the technique, trying to obtain a level of quantitative description of the data. For X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) from transition metal oxides, cluster configuration interaction calculation provides a powerful and realistic microscopic theory. In the frame work of this thesis cluster theory, considering explicit hybridization effects between the TM-ion and the surrounding oxygen ligands, has been applied for the first time to describe resonant diffraction data. (orig.)
Electron paramagnetic resonance: a powerful tool to support magnetic resonance imaging research.
Danhier, Pierre; Gallez, Bernard
2015-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to describe some of the areas where electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has provided unique information to MRI developments. The field of application mainly encompasses the EPR characterization of MRI paramagnetic contrast agents (gadolinium and manganese chelates, nitroxides) and superparamagnetic agents (iron oxide particles). The combined use of MRI and EPR has also been used to qualify or disqualify sources of contrast in MRI. Illustrative examples are presented with attempts to qualify oxygen sensitive contrast (i.e. T1 - and T2 *-based methods), redox status or melanin content in tissues. Other areas are likely to benefit from the combined EPR/MRI approach, namely cell tracking studies. Finally, the combination of EPR and MRI studies on the same models provides invaluable data regarding tissue oxygenation, hemodynamics and energetics. Our description will be illustrative rather than exhaustive to give to the readers a flavour of 'what EPR can do for MRI'.
Kordbacheh, A.; Ghahremaninezhad, Roghayeh; Maraghechi, B.
2012-09-01
A three-dimensional analysis of a novel free-electron laser (FEL) based upon a rectangular hybrid wiggler (RHW) is presented. This RHW is designed in a configuration composed of rectangular rings with alternating ferrite and dielectric spacers immersed in a solenoidal magnetic field. An analytic model of RHW is introduced by solution of Laplace's equation for the magnetostatic fields under the appropriate boundary conditions. The single-electron orbits in combined RHW and axial guide magnetic fields are studied when only the first and the third spatial harmonic components of the RHW field are taken into account and the higher order terms are ignored. The results indicate that the third spatial harmonic leads to group III orbits with a strong negative mass regime particularly in large solenoidal magnetic fields. RHW is found to be a promising candidate with favorable characteristics to be used in microwave FEL.
Casey, Thomas M.; Fanucci, Gail E.
2016-01-01
An understanding of macromolecular conformational equilibrium in biological systems is oftentimes essential to understand function, dysfunction, and disease. For the past few years, our lab has been utilizing site-directed spin labeling (SDSL), coupled with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, to characterize the conformational ensemble and ligand-induced conformational shifts of HIV-1 protease (HIV-1PR). The biomedical importance of characterizing the fractional occupancy of states within the conformational ensemble critically impacts our hypothesis of a conformational selection mechanism of drug-resistance evolution in HIV-1PR. The purpose of the following chapter is to give a timeline perspective of our SDSL EPR approach to characterizing conformational sampling of HIV-1PR. We provide detailed instructions for the procedure utilized in analyzing distance profiles for HIV-1PR obtained from pulsed electron–electron double resonance (PELDOR). Specifically, we employ a version of PELDOR known as double electron–electron resonance (DEER). Data are processed with the software package “DeerAnalysis” (http://www.epr.ethz.ch/software), which implements Tikhonov regularization (TKR), to generate a distance profile from electron spin-echo amplitude modulations. We assign meaning to resultant distance profiles based upon a conformational sampling model, which is described herein. The TKR distance profiles are reconstructed with a linear combination of Gaussian functions, which is then statistically analyzed. In general, DEER has proven powerful for observing structural ensembles in proteins and, more recently, nucleic acids. Our goal is to present our advances in order to aid readers in similar applications. PMID:26477251
Two-resonance probe for measuring electron density in low-pressure plasmas
Kim, D. W.; You, S. J.; Kim, S. J.; Kim, J. H.; Oh, W. Y.
2017-04-01
A technique for measuring double-checked electron density using two types of microwave resonance is presented. Simultaneous measurement of the resonances (plasma and quarter-wavelength resonator resonances), which were used for the cutoff probe (CP) and hairpin probe (HP), was achieved by the proposed microwave resonance probe. The developed two-resonance probe (TRP) consists of parallel separated coaxial cables exposing the radiation and detection tips. The structure resembles that of the CP, except the gapped coaxial cables operate not only as a microwave feeder for the CP but also as a U- shaped quarter-wavelength resonator for the HP. By virtue of this structure, the microwave resonances that have typically been used for measuring the electron density for the CP and HP were clearly identified on the microwave transmission spectrum of the TRP. The two types of resonances were measured experimentally under various power and pressure conditions for the plasma. A three-dimensional full-wave simulation model for the TRP is also presented and used to investigate and reproduce the resonances. The electron densities inferred from the resonances were compared and showed good agreement. Quantitative differences between the densities were attributed to the effects of the sheath width and spatial density gradient on the resonances. This accessible technique of using the TRP to obtain double-checked electron densities may be useful for comparative study and provides complementary uses for the CP and HP.
Kotrlova, Andrea; Torok, Gabriel
2013-01-01
The multi-resonance orbital model of high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HF QPOs) enables precise determination of the black hole dimensionless spin a if observed set of oscillations demonstrates three (or more) commensurable frequencies. The black hole spin is related to the frequency ratio only, while its mass M is related to the frequency magnitude. The model is applied to the triple frequency set of HF QPOs observed in Sgr A* source with frequency ratio 3:2:1. Acceptable versions of the multi-resonance model are determined by the restrictions on the Sgr A* supermassive black hole mass. Among the best candidates the version of strong resonances related to the black hole "magic" spin a=0.983 belongs. However, the version demonstrating the best agreement with the mass restrictions predicts spin a=0.980.
Resonant Acceleration of Magnetospheric Electrons Driven by the R-X Mode
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIAO Fu-Liang; ZHENG Hui-Nan; WANG Shui
2005-01-01
@@ An extended relativistic model is developed to evaluate the superluminous R-X-mode resonance especially the second-order and third-order resonances with electrons in the Earth's magnetosphere. The potential for stochastic electron acceleration driven by the R-X mode is determined by the dispersive properties of the R-X mode and specifically the resonant harmonic N. In contrast to the limited acceleration at the first harmonic (N = 1)resonance, for the higher harmonic (N ＞ 1) resonances, the R-X mode is capable of accelerating electrons from ～10keV to ～ MeV energies, over a wide range of wave normal angles, in spatial regions extending from the auroral cavity to the latitude (＞30°) outer radiation belt. This indicates that higher-order resonance is essentially important for the electron acceleration for the oblique wave propagation.
Observation of orbiting resonances in He(3S1) + NH3 Penning ionization
Jankunas, Justin; Jachymski, Krzysztof; Hapka, Michal; Osterwalder, Andreas
2014-01-01
Resonances are among the clearest quantum mechanical signatures of scattering processes. Previously, shape resonances and Feshbach resonances have been observed in inelastic and reactive collisions involving atoms or diatomic molecules. Structure in the integral cross section has been observed in a handful of elastic collisions involving polyatomic molecules. The present paper presents the observation of shape resonances in the reactive scattering of a polyatomic molecule, NH3. A merged-beam ...
A cubic Henon-like map in the unfolding of degenerate homoclinic orbit with resonance
Martens, M; Naudot, [No Value; Yang, JZ
2005-01-01
In this Note, we study the unfolding of a vector field that possesses a degenerate homoclinic (of inclination-flip type) to a hyperbolic equilibrium point where its linear part possesses a resonance. For the unperturbed system, the resonant term associated with the resonance vanishes. After suitable
An Overview of Electron-Proton and High Energy Telescopes of Solar Orbiter
Kulkarni, S. R.; Grunau, J.; Boden, S.; Steinhagen, J.; Martin, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Boettcher, S.; Seimetz, L.; Ravanbakhsh, A.; Elftmann, R.; Rodriguez-Pacheco, J.; Prieto, M.; Gomez-Herrero, R.
2013-12-01
The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) suite for ESA's Solar Orbiter will provide key measurements to address particle acceleration at and near the Sun. The EPD suite consists of five sensors (STEP, SIS, EPT, and HET). The University of Kiel in Germany is also responsible for the design, development, and build of EPT and HET which are presented here. The Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) is designed to cleanly separate and measure electrons in the energy range from 20 - 400 keV and protons from 20 - 7000 keV. The Solar Orbiter EPT electron measurements from 20 - 400 keV will cover the gap with some overlap between suprathermal electrons measured by STEP and high energy electrons measured by HET. The proton measurements from 20 -7000 keV will partially cover the gap between STEP and HET. The Electron and Proton Telescope relies on the magnet/foil-technique. The High-Energy Telescope (HET) on ESA's Solar Orbiter mission, will measure electrons from 300 keV up to about 30 MeV, protons from 10 -100 MeV, and heavy ions from ~20 to 200 MeV/nuc. Thus, HET covers the energy range which is of specific interest for studies of the space environment and will perform the measurements needed to understand the origin of high-energy events at the Sun which occasionally accelerate particles to such high energies that they can penetrate the Earth's atmosphere and be measured at ground level. Here we present the current development status of EPT-HET units and calibration results of demonstration models and present plans for future activities.
Pichierri, Gabriele; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Lai, Dong
2017-09-01
Context. It is well known that asteroids and comets fall into the Sun. Metal pollution of white dwarfs and transient spectroscopic signatures of young stars like β-Pic provide growing evidence that extra solar planetesimals can attain extreme orbital eccentricities and fall into their parent stars. Aims: We aim to develop a general, implementable, semi-analytical theory of secular eccentricity excitation of small bodies (planetesimals) in mean motion resonances with an eccentric planet valid for arbitrary values of the eccentricities and including the short-range force due to General Relativity. Methods: Our semi-analytic model for the restricted planar three-body problem does not make use of series expansion and therefore is valid for any eccentricity value and semi-major axis ratio. The model is based on the application of the adiabatic principle, which is valid when the precession period of the longitude of pericentre of the planetesimal is much longer than the libration period in the mean motion resonance. In resonances of order larger than 1 this is true except for vanishingly small eccentricities. We provide prospective users with a Mathematica notebook with implementation of the model allowing direct use. Results: We confirm that the 4:1 mean motion resonance with a moderately eccentric (e' ≲ 0.1) planet is the most powerful one to lift the eccentricity of planetesimals from nearly circular orbits to star-grazing ones. However, if the planet is too eccentric, we find that this resonance is unable to pump the planetesimal's eccentricity to a very high value. The inclusion of the General Relativity effect imposes a condition on the mass of the planet to drive the planetesimals into star-grazing orbits. For a planetesimal at 1 AU around a solar mass star (or white dwarf), we find a threshold planetary mass of about 17 Earth masses. We finally derive an analytical formula for this critical mass. Conclusions: Planetesimals can easily fall into the central star
Electron dynamics in graphene with spin–orbit couplings and periodic potentials
Seshadri, Ranjani; Sen, Diptiman
2017-04-01
We use both continuum and lattice models to study the energy-momentum dispersion and the dynamics of a wave packet for an electron moving in graphene in the presence of spin–orbit couplings and either a single potential barrier or a periodic array of potential barriers. Both Kane–Mele and Rashba spin–orbit couplings are considered. A number of special things occur when the Kane–Mele and Rashba couplings are equal in magnitude. In the absence of a potential, the dispersion then consists of both massless Dirac and massive Dirac states. A periodic potential is known to generate additional Dirac points; we show that spin–orbit couplings generally open gaps at all those points, but if the two spin–orbit couplings are equal, some of the Dirac points remain gapless. We show that the massless and massive states respond differently to a potential barrier; the massless states transmit perfectly through the barrier at normal incidence while the massive states reflect from it. In the presence of a single potential barrier, we show that there are states localized along the barrier. Finally, we study the time evolution of a wave packet in the presence of a periodic potential. We discover special points in momentum space where there is almost no spreading of a wave packet; there are six such points in graphene when the spin–orbit couplings are absent.
Spin-orbit-coupled two-electron Fermi gases of ytterbium atoms
Song, Bo; He, Chengdong; Zhang, Shanchao; Hajiyev, Elnur; Huang, Wei; Liu, Xiong-Jun; Jo, Gyu-Boong
2016-12-01
We demonstrate all-optical implementation of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in a two-electron Fermi gas of 173Yb atoms by coupling two hyperfine ground states with a narrow optical transition. Due to the SU (N ) symmetry of the S10 ground-state manifold which is insensitive to external magnetic fields, an optical ac Stark effect is applied to split the ground spin states, which exhibits a high stability compared with experiments on alkali-metal and lanthanide atoms, and separate out an effective spin-1/2 subspace from other hyperfine levels for the realization of SOC. The dephasing spin dynamics when a momentum-dependent spin-orbit gap is suddenly opened and the asymmetric momentum distribution of the spin-orbit-coupled Fermi gas are observed as a hallmark of SOC. The realization of all-optical SOC for ytterbium fermions should offer a route to a long-lived spin-orbit-coupled Fermi gas and greatly expand our capability of studying spin-orbit physics with alkaline-earth-metal-like atoms.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Oosterbeek, J.W.; Bürger, A.; Westerhof, E.;
2008-01-01
An electron cyclotron emission (ECE) receiver inside the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) transmission line has been brought into operation. The ECE is extracted by placing a quartz plate acting as a Fabry-Perot interferometer under an angle inside the electron cyclotron wave (ECW) beam...
Electron spin resonance in Eu-based iron pnictides
Krug von Nidda, H.-A.; Kraus, S.; Schaile, S.; Dengler, E.; Pascher, N.; Hemmida, M.; Eom, M. J.; Kim, J. S.; Jeevan, H. S.; Gegenwart, P.; Deisenhofer, J.; Loidl, A.
2012-09-01
The phase diagrams of EuFe2-xCoxAs2 (0≤x≤0.4) and EuFe2As2-yPy (0≤y≤0.43) are investigated by Eu2+ electron spin resonance (ESR) in single crystals. From the temperature dependence of the linewidth ΔH(T) of the exchange narrowed ESR line, the spin-density wave (SDW) (TTSDW) are clearly distinguished. At T>TSDW the isotropic linear increase of the linewidth is driven by the Korringa relaxation which measures the conduction-electron density of states at the Fermi level. For Trate from 8 Oe/K at x=y=0 down to 3 Oe/K at the onset of superconductivity. For x>0.2 and y>0.3 it remains nearly constant. Comparative ESR measurements on single crystals of the Eu diluted SDW compound Eu0.2Sr0.8Fe2As2 and superconducting (SC) Eu0.22Sr0.78Fe1.72Co0.28As2 corroborate the leading influence of the ligand field on the Eu2+ spin relaxation in the SDW regime as well as the Korringa relaxation in the normal metallic regime. A coherence peak is not detected in the latter compound below Tc=21 K, which is in agreement with the expected complex anisotropic SC gap structure. In contrast, indications for phase coexistence and BCS-type superconductivity are found in EuFe2As1.57P0.43.
Study of the Enhancement Events of Relativistic Electron at the Geosynchronous Orbit
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
B. S. Xue
2005-01-01
The high flux of energetic electron on geostationary orbit can induce many kinds of malfunction of the satellite there, within which the bulk-charging is the most significant that several broadcast satellite failures were confirmed to be due to this effect. The electron flux on geostationary orbit varies in a large range even up to three orders accompanied the passage of interplanetary magnetic cloud and the following geomagnetic disturbances. Upon the investigation of electron flux enhancement events, two types of events were partitioned as recurrent events and random ones. Both of the two kinds of events relate to the interplanetary conditions such as solar wind parameters, IMF etc and their evolution characters as well. As for the recurrent events, we found that, (1) all of the events exhibits periodic recurrence about 27 days, (2) significant increase of electron flux relates to interplanetary index and characters of their distribution, (3) the electron flux also has relation to solar activity index. An artificial neural network was constructed to estimate the flux I day ahead. The random electron flux enhancement events are rare and present different distribution figures to the recurrent ones. The figure of the random events and the conditions of their occurrence is also discussed in this paper.
Reconstruction of images from radiofrequency electron paramagnetic resonance spectra.
Smith, C M; Stevens, A D
1994-12-01
This paper discusses methods for obtaining image reconstructions from electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra which constitute object projections. An automatic baselining technique is described which treats each spectrum consistently; rotating the non-horizontal baselines which are caused by stray magnetic effects onto the horizontal axis. The convolved backprojection method is described for both two- and three-dimensional reconstruction and the effect of cut-off frequency on the reconstruction is illustrated. A slower, indirect, iterative method, which does a non-linear fit to the projection data, is shown to give a far smoother reconstructed image when the method of maximum entropy is used to determine the value of the final residual sum of squares. Although this requires more computing time than the convolved backprojection method, it is more flexible and overcomes the problem of numerical instability encountered in deconvolution. Images from phantom samples in vitro are discussed. The spectral data for these have been accumulated quickly and have a low signal-to-noise ratio. The results show that as few as 16 spectra can still be processed to give an image. Artifacts in the image due to a small number of projections using the convolved backprojection reconstruction method can be removed by applying a threshold, i.e. only plotting contours higher than a given value. These artifacts are not present in an image which has been reconstructed by the maximum entropy technique. At present these techniques are being applied directly to in vivo studies.
A new electron paramagnetic resonance method to identify irradiated soybean.
Sanyal, Bhaskar; Sharma, Arun
2009-10-01
Low-dose gamma irradiation causes minimal changes in food matrix making identification of radiation-processed foods a challenging task. In the present study, soybean samples were irradiated with commercially permitted gamma radiation dose in the 0.25 to 1.0 kGy range for insect disinfestations of food. Immediately after irradiation electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of the skin part of soybean showed a triplet signal (g = 2.0046, hyperfine coupling constant hfcc = 3.0 mT) superimposed on naturally present singlet. These signals were characterized as cellulose and phenoxyl radicals using EPR spectrum simulation technique. Kernel part of the samples exhibited a short-lived, radiation-induced singlet of carbon-centered radical superimposed on naturally present sextet signal of Mn2+. A detailed study on relaxation and thermal behavior of induced radicals in skin part was carried out using EPR spectroscopy. These findings revealed that progressive saturation and thermal characteristics of the induced radicals may be the most suitable parameters to distinguish soybean subjected to radiation dose as low as 0.25 kGy from thermally treated and nonirradiated samples, even after a prolonged period of storage.
Identification of irradiated cashew nut by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Sanyal, Bhaskar; Sajilata, M G; Chatterjee, Suchandra; Singhal, Rekha S; Variyar, Prasad S; Kamat, M Y; Sharma, Arun
2008-10-01
Cashew nut samples were irradiated at gamma-radiation doses of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 kGy, the permissible dose range for insect disinfestation of food commodities. A weak and short-lived triplet (g = 2.004 and hfcc = 30 G) along with an anisotropic signal (g perpendicular = 2.0069 and g parallel = 2.000) were produced immediately after irradiation. These signals were assigned to that of cellulose and CO 2 (-) radicals. However, the irradiated samples showed a dose-dependent increase of the central line (g = 2.0045 +/- 0.0002). The nature of the free radicals formed during conventional processing such as thermal treatment was investigated and showed an increase in intensity of the central line (g = 2.0045) similar to that of irradiation. Characteristics of the free radicals were studied by their relaxation and thermal behaviors. The present work explores the possibility to identify irradiated cashew nuts from nonirradiated ones by the thermal behaviors of the radicals beyond the period, when the characteristic electron paramagnetic resonance spectral lines of the cellulose free radicals have essentially disappeared. In addition, this study for the first time reports that relaxation behavior of the radicals could be a useful tool to distinguish between roasted and irradiated cashew nuts.
Two dimensional electron spin resonance: Structure and dynamics of biomolecules
Saxena, Sunil; Freed, Jack H.
1998-03-01
The potential of two dimensional (2D) electron spin resonance (ESR) for measuring the structural properties and slow dynamics of labeled biomolecules will be presented. Specifically, it will be shown how the recently developed method of double quantum (DQ) 2D ESR (S. Saxena and J. H. Freed, J. Chem. Phys. 107), 1317, (1997) can be used to measure large interelectron distances in bilabeled peptides. The need for DQ ESR spectroscopy, as well as the challenges and advantages of this method will be discussed. The elucidation of the slow reorientational dynamics of this peptide (S. Saxena and J. H. Freed, J. Phys. Chem. A, 101) 7998 (1997) in a glassy medium using COSY and 2D ELDOR ESR spectroscopy will be demonstrated. The contributions to the homogeneous relaxation time, T_2, from the overall and/or internal rotations of the nitroxide can be distinguished from the COSY spectrum. The growth of spectral diffusion cross-peaks^2 with mixing time in the 2D ELDOR spectra can be used to directly determine a correlation time from the experiment which can be related to the rotational correlation time.
Uniform spinning sampling gradient electron paramagnetic resonance imaging.
Johnson, David H; Ahmad, Rizwan; Liu, Yangping; Chen, Zhiyu; Samouilov, Alexandre; Zweier, Jay L
2014-02-01
To improve the quality and speed of electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) acquisition by combining a uniform sampling distribution with spinning gradient acquisition. A uniform sampling distribution was derived for spinning gradient EPRI acquisition (uniform spinning sampling, USS) and compared to the existing (equilinear spinning sampling, ESS) acquisition strategy. Novel corrections were introduced to reduce artifacts in experimental data. Simulations demonstrated that USS puts an equal number of projections near each axis whereas ESS puts excessive projections at one axis, wasting acquisition time. Artifact corrections added to the magnetic gradient waveforms reduced noise and correlation between projections. USS images had higher SNR (85.9 ± 0.8 vs. 56.2 ± 0.8) and lower mean-squared error than ESS images. The quality of the USS images did not vary with the magnetic gradient orientation, in contrast to ESS images. The quality of rat heart images was improved using USS compared to that with ESS or traditional fast-scan acquisitions. A novel EPRI acquisition which combines spinning gradient acquisition with a uniform sampling distribution was developed. This USS spinning gradient acquisition offers superior SNR and reduced artifacts compared to prior methods enabling potential improvements in speed and quality of EPR imaging in biological applications. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Electron paramagnetic resonance in Cu-doped ZnO
Buchheit, R.; Acosta-Humánez, F.; Almanza, O.
2016-04-01
In this work, ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles (Zn1-xCuxO, x = 3%), with a calcination temperature of 500∘C were synthesized using the sol-gel method. The particles were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at X-band, measurement in a temperature range from 90 K to room temperature. AAS confirmed a good correspondence between the experimental doping concentration and the theoretical value. XRD reveals the presence of ZnO phase in hexagonal wurtzite structure and a nanoparticle size for the samples synthesized. EPR spectroscopy shows the presence of point defects in both samples with g-values of g = 1.959 for shallow donors and g = 2.004 for ionized vacancies. It is important when these materials are required have been used as catalysts, as suggested that it is not necessary prepare them at higher temperature. A simulation of the Cu EPR signal using an anisotropic spin Hamiltonian was performed and showed good coincidence with the experimental spectra. It was shown that Cu2+ ions enter interstitial octahedral sites of orthorhombic symmetry in the wurtzite crystal structure. Temperature dependence of the EPR linewidth and signal intensity shows a paramagnetic behavior of the sample in the measurement range. A Néel temperature TN = 78 ± 19 K was determined.
Mechanical detection of electron spin resonance beyond 1 THz
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takahashi, Hideyuki [Organization of Advanced Science and Technology, Kobe University, 1-1, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Ohmichi, Eiji [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Ohta, Hitoshi [Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)
2015-11-02
We report the cantilever detection of electron spin resonance (ESR) in the terahertz (THz) region. This technique mechanically detects ESR as a change in magnetic torque that acts on the cantilever. The ESR absorption of a tiny single crystal of Co Tutton salt, Co(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}⋅6H{sub 2}O, was observed in frequencies of up to 1.1 THz using a backward travelling wave oscillator as a THz-wave source. This is the highest frequency of mechanical detection of ESR till date. The spectral resolution was evaluated with the ratio of the peak separation to the sum of the half-width at half maximum of two absorption peaks. The highest resolution value of 8.59 ± 0.53 was achieved at 685 GHz, while 2.47 ± 0.01 at 80 GHz. This technique will not only broaden the scope of ESR spectroscopy application but also lead to high-spectral-resolution ESR imaging.
Electron magnetic resonance of gadolinium-doped calcium fluoride
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biasi, R.S. de, E-mail: rsbiasi@ime.eb.br [Secao de Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais, Instituto Militar de Engenharia, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Grillo, M.L.N., E-mail: mluciag@uerj.br [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2012-06-15
Electron magnetic resonance (EMR) spectra of gadolinium-doped calcium fluoride have been studied at room temperature for Gd concentrations between 0.01 and 2.00 mol%. Gd{sup 3+} ions in sites with two different symmetries were observed. One of the sites, with cubic symmetry, is unstable at room temperature and decays with a time constant of 2.2 day{sup -1}. The other site, with tetragonal symmetry, is stable and is attributed to Gd{sup 3+} ions in substitutional sites next to a charge-compensating F{sup -} interstitial ion. The linewidth and intensity of the EMR spectrum with tetragonal symmetry increase with increasing Gd concentration. A theoretical calculation based on the concentration dependence of the EMR linewidth yields an effective range of the exchange interaction between Gd{sup 3+} ions in CaF{sub 2} of 0.774 nm, of the same order as that of Gd{sup 3+} ions in other cubic ionic compounds.
Influence of orbital symmetry on diffraction imaging with rescattering electron wave packets
Pullen, M G; Le, A -T; Baudisch, M; Sclafani, M; Pires, H; Schröter, C D; Ullrich, J; Moshammer, R; Pfeifer, T; Lin, C D; Biegert, J
2016-01-01
The ability to directly follow and time resolve the rearrangement of the nuclei within molecules is a frontier of science that requires atomic spatial and few-femtosecond temporal resolutions. While laser induced electron diffraction can meet these requirements, it was recently concluded that molecules with particular orbital symmetries (such as {\\pi}g) cannot be imaged using purely backscattering electron wave packets without molecular alignment. Here, we demonstrate, in direct contradiction to these findings, that the orientation and shape of molecular orbitals presents no impediment for retrieving molecular structure with adequate sampling of the momentum transfer space. We overcome previous issues by showcasing retrieval of the structure of randomly oriented O2 and C2H2 molecules, with {\\pi}g and {\\pi}u symmetries, respectively, and where their ionisation probabilities do not maximise along their molecular axes. While this removes a serious bottleneck for laser induced diffraction imaging, we find unexpec...
Tuning Electron Spin States in Quantum Dots by Spin-Orbit Interactions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Yu; CHENG Fang
2011-01-01
@@ We theoretically investigate the influence of both Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI) and Dresselhaus spin- orbit interaction (DSOI) on electron spin states, electron distribution and the optical absorption of a quantum dot.Our theoretical results show that the interplay between RSOI and DSOI results in an effective periodic potential, which consequently breaks the rotational symmetry and makes the quantum dot behave like two laterally coupled quantum dots.In the presence of RSOI and/or DSOI the spin is no longer a conserved quantity and its magnitude can be tuned by changing the strength of RSOI and/or DSOI.By reversing the direction of the perpendicular electric field, we can rotate the spatial distribution.This property provides us with a new way to control quantum states in a quantum dot by electrical means.
Electron dynamics in the carbon atom induced by spin-orbit interaction
Rey, H F
2014-01-01
We use R-Matrix theory with Time dependence (RMT) to investigate multiphoton ionization of ground-state atomic carbon with initial orbital magnetic quantum number $M_L$=0 and $M_L$=1 at a laser wavelength of 390 nm and peak intensity of 10$^{14}$ W cm$^{-2}$. Significant differences in ionization yield and ejected-electron momentum distribution are observed between the two values for $M_L$. We use our theoretical results to model how the spin-orbit interaction affects electron emission along the laser polarization axis. Under the assumption that an initial C atom is prepared at zero time delay with $M_L=0$, the dynamics with respect to time delay of an ionizing probe pulse modelled using RMT theory is found to be in good agreement with available experimental data.
Rey, H. F.; van der Hart, H. W.
2014-09-01
We use R-matrix theory with time dependence (RMT) to investigate multiphoton ionization of ground-state atomic carbon with initial orbital magnetic quantum number ML=0 and ML=1 at a laser wavelength of 390 nm and peak intensity of 1014W/cm2. Significant differences in ionization yield and ejected-electron momentum distribution are observed between the two values for ML. We use our theoretical results to model how the spin-orbit interaction affects electron emission along the laser polarization axis. Under the assumption that an initial C atom is prepared at zero time delay with ML=0, the dynamics with respect to time delay of an ionizing probe pulse modeled by using RMT theory is found to be in good agreement with available experimental data.
Strongly anisotropic spin-orbit splitting in a two-dimensional electron gas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Michiardi, Matteo; Bianchi, Marco; Dendzik, Maciej
2015-01-01
Near-surface two-dimensional electron gases on the topological insulator Bi$_2$Te$_2$Se are induced by electron doping and studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. A pronounced spin-orbit splitting is observed for these states. The $k$-dependent splitting is strongly anisotropic...... Rashba Hamiltonian. However, a $\\mathbf{k} \\cdot \\mathbf{p}$ model that includes the possibility of band structure anisotropy as well as both isotropic and anisotropic third order Rashba splitting can explain the results. The isotropic third order contribution to the Rashba Hamiltonian is found...... to be negative, reducing the energy splitting at high $k$. The interplay of band structure, higher order Rashba effect and tuneable doping offers the opportunity to engineer not only the size of the spin-orbit splitting but also its direction....
Jónsson, Elvar Ö; Puska, Martti; Jónsson, Hannes
2016-01-01
An implementation of the generalized Pipek-Mezey method [Lehtola, S.; J\\'onsson, H. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2014, 10, 642] for generating localized orbitals in periodic systems, i.e. Wannier functions, is described. The projector augmented wave (PAW) formalism for the representation of atomic core electrons is included in the implementation, which has been developed within the atomic simulation environment (ASE) software library. The implementation supports several different kinds of representations for the wave function, including real-space grids, plane waves or a linear combination of atomic orbitals. The implementation is tailored to the GPAW program but can easily be adapted to use output from various other electronic structure software packages such as ABINIT, NWChem, or VASP through interfaces in ASE. Generalized Pipek-Mezey Wannier functions (PMWF) are presented for both isolated molecules, as well as systems with periodicity in one, two and three dimensions. The method gives a set of highly localized...
van Meer, R.; Gritsenko, O. V.; Baerends, E. J.
2015-10-01
Linear response density matrix functional theory has been shown to solve the main problems of time-dependent density functional theory (deficient in case of double, charge transfer and bond breaking excitations). However, the natural orbitals preclude the description of excitations as (approximately) simple orbital-to-orbital transitions: many weakly occupied 'virtual' natural orbitals are required to describe the excitations. Kohn-Sham orbitals on the other hand afford for many excitations such a simple orbital description. In this communication we show that a transformation of the set of weakly occupied NOs can be defined such that the resulting natural excitation orbitals (NEOs) restore the single orbital transition structure for excitations generated by the linear response DMFT formalism.
Pardini, Lorenzo; Löffler, Stefan; Biddau, Giulio; Hambach, Ralf; Kaiser, Ute; Draxl, Claudia; Schattschneider, Peter
2016-07-15
Transmission electron microscopy has been a promising candidate for mapping atomic orbitals for a long time. Here, we explore its capabilities by a first-principles approach. For the example of defected graphene, exhibiting either an isolated vacancy or a substitutional nitrogen atom, we show that three different kinds of images are to be expected, depending on the orbital character. To judge the feasibility of visualizing orbitals in a real microscope, the effect of the optics' aberrations is simulated. We demonstrate that, by making use of energy filtering, it should indeed be possible to map atomic orbitals in a state-of-the-art transmission electron microscope.
Lin, Lin
2012-01-01
We describe how to apply the recently developed pole expansion plus selected inversion (PEpSI) technique to Kohn-Sham density function theory (DFT) electronic structure calculations that are based on atomic orbital discretization. We give analytic expressions for evaluating charge density, total energy, Helmholtz free energy and atomic forces without using the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian. We also show how to update the chemical potential without using Kohn-Sham...
Electron spin resonance and transient photocurrent measurements on microcrystalline silicon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dylla, T.
2004-09-01
The electronic properties of microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si:H) films have been studied using electron spin resonance (ESR), transient photocurrent time-of-flight (TOF) techniques, and electrical conductivity measurements. Structural properties were determined by Raman spectroscopy. A wide range of structure compositions, from highly crystalline films with no discernable amorphous content, to predominantly amorphous films with no crystalline phase contributions, was investigated. Models and possible explanations concerning the nature and energetic distribution of electronic defects as a function of film composition are discussed. It is shown that the spin density N{sub S} in {mu}c-Si:H films is linked strongly to the structure composition of the material. Both reversible and irreversible changes in the ESR signal and dark conductivity due to atmospheric effects are found in {mu}c-Si:H. The porous structure of highly crystalline material facilitates in-diffusion of atmospheric gases, which strongly affects the character and/or density of surface states. Two contributing processes have been identified, namely adsorption and oxidation. Both processes lead to an increase of N{sub S}. Measurements on n-type {mu}c-Si:H films were used as a probe of the density of gap states, confirming that the spin density NS is related to the density of defects. The results confirm that for a wide range of structural compositions, the doping induced Fermi level shift in {mu}c-Si:H is governed by compensation of defect states, for doping concentrations up to the dangling bond spin density. At higher concentrations a doping efficiency close to unity was found, confirming that in {mu}c-Si:H the measured spin densities represent the majority of gap states (N{sub S}=N{sub DB}). By applying the TOF technique to study pin solar cells based on {mu}c-Si:H, conclusive hole drift mobility data were obtained. Despite the predominant crystallinity of these samples, the temperature-dependence of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Delahaye, P.; Jardin, P.; Maunoury, L.; Traykov, E.; Varenne, F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Galata, A.; Porcellato, A. M.; Prete, G. F. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Angot, J.; Lamy, T.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T. [LPSC Grenoble, 53, rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Ban, G. [LPC Caen, 6 bd Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Celona, L.; Lunney, D. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Choinski, J.; Gmaj, P.; Jakubowski, A.; Steckiewicz, O. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5a, 02 093 Warsaw (Poland); Kalvas, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, PB 35 (YFL) 40351 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); and others
2012-02-15
As the most ambitious concept of isotope separation on line (ISOL) facility, EURISOL aims at producing unprecedented intensities of post-accelerated radioactive isotopes. Charge breeding, which transforms the charge state of radioactive beams from 1+ to an n+ charge state prior to post-acceleration, is a key technology which has to overcome the following challenges: high charge states for high energies, efficiency, rapidity and purity. On the roadmap to EURISOL, a dedicated R and D is being undertaken to push forward the frontiers of the present state-of-the-art techniques which use either electron cyclotron resonance or electron beam ion sources. We describe here the guidelines of this R and D.
Full-orbit effects in the dynamics of runaway electrons in toroidal geometry
Del-Castillo-Negrete, D.; Carbajal-Gomez, L.; Spong, D. A.; Baylor, L.; Seal, S. K.
2016-10-01
The dynamics of RE (runaway electrons) in fusion plasmas spans a wide range of temporal scales from the fast gyro-motion 10-11 sec to the observational time scales 10-2 -> 1 sec. To cope with this scale separation RE are usually studied within the bounce-average or the guiding center approximations. Although these approximations have yielded valuable insights, a study with predictive capabilities of RE in fusion plasmas calls for the incorporation of full-orbits effects in configuration space in the presence of 3-D integrable and stochastic magnetic fields. Here we present numerical results on this problem using the Kinetic Orbit Runaway electrons Code (KORC) that follows relativistic electrons in general electric and magnetic fields under the full Lorentz force and collisions. At relativistic energies, the main energy loss is due to synchrotron radiation, which we incorporate using the Landau-Lifshitz formulation of the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac force. Following a study of potential limitations of the bounce-average and the guiding center approximations, we discuss the role of full-orbit effects on the evolution of the pitch-angle, the RE energy limit, the critical electric field, and the emission patterns of synchrotron radiation in toroidal geometry. Research sponsored by the LDRD Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. DOE.
Wang, Feng
2015-01-01
Ionization process of ferrocene (Fc) to produce ferrocenium cation (Fc+) has been debated as much as the eclipsed and staggered ferrocene conformers. The present quantum mechanical study reveals that removal of an electron does not apparently affect the geometry and symmetry of the cation, as the geometric changes are < 2% with respect to neutral Fc, but produce the fingerprint orbital 8a1 of Fc+. The excess orbital energy spectrum (EOES) of the \\alpha- and \\beta-electrons reveals that the electrons originated from the transition metal Fe in both core and valence shells experience significant energy changes in the cation with respect to the neutral ferrocene counterparts, indicating that the Fe-electrons correlate stronger than electrons from other atoms such as carbons in ferrocene. The EOES also exhibits that the orbital energies of the \\alpha-electrons in ferrocenium change more significantly than the \\beta-electrons after one \\beta-electron being ionized with respect to ferrocene. The most significant ...
Formation of Field-reversed-Configuration Plasma with Punctuated-betatron-orbit Electrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Welch, D. R.; Cohen, S. A.; Genoni, T. C.; Glasser, A. H.
2010-06-28
We describe ab initio, self-consistent, 3D, fully electromagnetic numerical simulations of current drive and field-reversed-configuration plasma formation by odd-parity rotating magnetic fields (RMFo). Magnetic-separatrix formation and field reversal are attained from an initial mirror configuration. A population of punctuated-betatron-orbit electrons, generated by the RMFo, carries the majority of the field-normal azimuthal electrical current responsible for field reversal. Appreciable current and plasma pressure exist outside the magnetic separatrix whose shape is modulated by the RMFo phase. The predicted plasma density and electron energy distribution compare favorably with RMFo experiments. __________________________________________________
Effect of the electron lenses on the RHIC proton beam closed orbit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gu, X.; Luo, Y.; Pikin, A.; Okamura, M.; Fischer, W.; Montag, C.; Gupta, R.; Hock, J.; Jain, A.; Raparia, D.
2011-02-01
We are designing two electron lenses (E-lens) to compensate for the large beam-beam tune spread from proton-proton interactions at IP6 and IP8 in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). They will be installed at RHIC IR10. The transverse fields of the E-lenses bending solenoids and the fringe field of the main solenoids will shift the proton beam. We calculate the transverse kicks that the proton beam receives in the electron lens via Opera. Then, after incorporating the simplified E-lens lattice in the RHIC lattice, we obtain the closed orbit effect with the Simtrack Code.
Cahill, Katharine J; Johnson, Richard P
2013-03-01
Polar bimolecular reactions often begin as charge-transfer complexes and may proceed with a high degree of electron transfer character. Frontier molecular orbital (FMO) theory is predicated in part on this concept. We have developed an electron transfer model (ETM) in which we systematically transfer one electron between reactants and then use density functional methods to model the resultant radical or radical ion intermediates. Sites of higher reactivity are revealed by a composite spin density map (SDM) of odd electron character on the electron density surface, assuming that a new two-electron bond would occur preferentially at these sites. ETM correctly predicts regio- and stereoselectivity for a broad array of reactions, including Diels-Alder, dipolar and ketene cycloadditions, Birch reduction, many types of nucleophilic additions, and electrophilic addition to aromatic rings and polyenes. Conformational analysis of radical ions is often necessary to predict reaction stereochemistry. The electronic and geometric changes due to one-electron oxidation or reduction parallel the reaction coordinate for electrophilic or nucleophilic addition, respectively. The effect is more dramatic for one-electron reduction.
Perveaux, A; Lasorne, B; Gatti, F; Robb, M A; Halász, G J; Vibók, Á
2014-01-01
A nonadiabatic scheme for the description of the coupled electron and nuclear motions in the ozone molecule was proposed recently. An initial coherent nonstationary state was prepared as a superposition of the ground state and the excited Hartley band. In this situation neither the electrons nor the nuclei are in a stationary state. The multiconfiguration time dependent Hartree method was used to solve the coupled nuclear quantum dynamics in the framework of the adiabatic separation of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation. The resulting wave packet shows an oscillation of the electron density between the two chemical bonds. As a first step for probing the electronic motion we computed the time-dependent molecular dipole and the Dyson orbitals. The latter play an important role in the explanation of the photoelectron angular distribution. Calculations of the Dyson orbitals are presented both for the time-independent as well as the time-dependent situations. We limited our description of the electronic mot...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cortázar, O. D. [ESS Bilbao, Edificio Cosimet, Landabarri 2, 48940-Leioa, Vizcaya (Spain); Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, ETSII, C.J. Cela s/n, 13170 Ciudad Real (Spain); Megía-Macías, A.; Vizcaíno-de-Julián, A. [ESS Bilbao, Edificio Cosimet, Landabarri 2, 48940-Leioa, Vizcaya (Spain)
2013-09-15
Time resolved electron temperature and density measurements during the decay stage in a hydrogen electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma are presented for a resonance and off-resonance magnetic field configurations. The measurements are conducted on a ECR plasma generator excited at 2.45 GHz denominated test-bench for ion-sources plasma studies at ESS Bilbao. The plasma parameters evolution is studied by Langmuir probe diagnostic with synchronized sample technique developed for repetitive pulsed plasmas with a temporal resolution of 200 ns in typical decay processes of about 40 μs. An afterglow transient is clearly observed in the reflected microwave power signal from the plasma. Simultaneously, the electron temperature evolution shows rebounding peaks that may be related to the interplay between density drop and microwave coupling with deep impact on the Electron Energy Distribution Function. The correlation of such structures with the plasma absorbed power and the coupling quality is also reported.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oh, S.Y.
2001-02-02
The SUGGEL computer code has been developed to suggest a value for the orbital angular momentum of a neutron resonance that is consistent with the magnitude of its neutron width. The suggestion is based on the probability that a resonance having a certain value of g{Gamma}{sub n} is an l-wave resonance. The probability is calculated by using Bayes' theorem on the conditional probability. The probability density functions (pdf's) of g{Gamma}{sub n} for up to d-wave (l=2) have been derived from the {chi}{sup 2} distribution of Porter and Thomas. The pdf's take two possible channel spins into account. This code is a tool which evaluators will use to construct resonance parameters and help to assign resonance spin. The use of this tool is expected to reduce time and effort in the evaluation procedure, since the number of repeated runs of the fitting code (e.g., SAMMY) may be reduced.
On Cu(II) Cu(II) distance measurements using pulsed electron electron double resonance
Yang, Zhongyu; Becker, James; Saxena, Sunil
2007-10-01
The effects of orientational selectivity on the 4-pulse electron electron double resonance (PELDOR) ESR spectra of coupled Cu(II)-Cu(II) spins are presented. The data were collected at four magnetic fields on a poly-proline peptide containing two Cu(II) centers. The Cu(II)-PELDOR spectra of this peptide do not change appreciably with magnetic field at X-band. The data were analyzed by adapting the theory of Maryasov, Tsvetkov, and Raap [A.G. Maryasov, Y.D. Tsvetkov, J. Raap, Weakly coupled radical pairs in solids:ELDOR in ESE structure studies, Appl. Magn. Reson. 14 (1998) 101-113]. Simulations indicate that orientational effects are important for Cu(II)-PELDOR. Based on simulations, the field-independence of the PELDOR data for this peptide is likely due to two effects. First, for this peptide, the Cu(II) g-tensor(s) are in a very specific orientation with respect to the interspin vector. Second, the flexibility of the peptide washes out the orientation effects. These effects reduce the suitability of the poly-proline based peptide as a good model system to experimentally probe orientational effects in such experiments. An average Cu(II)-Cu(II) distance of 2.1-2.2 nm was determined, which is consistent with earlier double quantum coherence ESR results.
Ejected-electron spectroscopy of autoionizing resonances of helium excited by fast-electron impact
Zhang, Zhe; Shan, Xu; Wang, Enliang; Chen, Xiangjun
2012-06-01
The autoionizing resonances (2s2)1S, (2p2)1D, and (2s2p)1P of helium have been investigated employing ejected-electron spectroscopy by fast-electron impact at incident energies of 250-2000 eV and ejected angles of 26°-116°. Shore parameters of the line shapes for these three resonances have been obtained in such high incident energy regime except at 250 eV. Distinct discrepancies between the present results at 250 eV and those of McDonald and Crowe at 200 eV [D. G. McDonald and A. Crowe, J. Phys. BJPAMA40953-407510.1088/0953-4075/25/9/018 25, 2129 (1992); D. G. McDonald and A. Crowe, J. Phys. BJPAMA40953-407510.1088/0953-4075/25/20/024 25, 4313 (1992)] and Sise at 250 eV [O. Sise, M. Dogan, I. Okur, and A. Crowe, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.84.022705 84, 022705 (2011)], especially for 1D and 1P states, are also observed.
2017-01-20
AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0012 The Strength of Chaos: accurate simulation of resonant electron scattering by many-electron ions and atoms in the presence...SUBTITLE The Strength of Chaos: accurate simulation of resonant electron scattering by many- electron ions and atoms in the presence of quantum chaos...Strength of Chaos: accurate simulation of resonant electron scattering by many-electron ions and atoms in the presence of quantum chaos” Date 13
Van Compernolle, B; Bortnik, J; Pribyl, P; Gekelman, W; Nakamoto, M; Tao, X; Thorne, R M
2014-04-11
Resonant interactions between energetic electrons and whistler mode waves are an essential ingredient in the space environment, and in particular in controlling the dynamic variability of Earth's natural radiation belts, which is a topic of extreme interest at the moment. Although the theory describing resonant wave-particle interaction has been present for several decades, it has not been hitherto tested in a controlled laboratory setting. In the present Letter we report on the first laboratory experiment to directly detect resonant pitch angle scattering of energetic (∼keV) electrons due to whistler mode waves. We show that the whistler mode wave deflects energetic electrons at precisely the predicted resonant energy, and that varying both the maximum beam energy, and the wave frequency, alters the energetic electron beam very close to the resonant energy.
Tipikin, D S; Earle, K A; Freed, J H
2010-01-01
The sensitivity of a high frequency electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer depends strongly on the structure used to couple the incident millimeter wave to the sample that generates the ESR signal. Subsequent coupling of the ESR signal to the detection arm of the spectrometer is also a crucial consideration for achieving high spectrometer sensitivity. In previous work, we found that a means for continuously varying the coupling was necessary for attaining high sensitivity reliably and reproducibly. We report here on a novel asymmetric mesh structure that achieves continuously variable coupling by rotating the mesh in its own plane about the millimeter wave transmission line optical axis. We quantify the performance of this device with nitroxide spin-label spectra in both a lossy aqueous solution and a low loss solid state system. These two systems have very different coupling requirements and are representative of the range of coupling achievable with this technique. Lossy systems in particular are a demanding test of the achievable sensitivity and allow us to assess the suitability of this approach for applying high frequency ESR to the study of biological systems at physiological conditions, for example. The variable coupling technique reported on here allows us to readily achieve a factor of ca. 7 improvement in signal to noise at 170 GHz and a factor of ca. 5 at 95 GHz over what has previously been reported for lossy samples.
Statistical reconstruction algorithms for continuous wave electron spin resonance imaging
Kissos, Imry; Levit, Michael; Feuer, Arie; Blank, Aharon
2013-06-01
Electron spin resonance imaging (ESRI) is an important branch of ESR that deals with heterogeneous samples ranging from semiconductor materials to small live animals and even humans. ESRI can produce either spatial images (providing information about the spatially dependent radical concentration) or spectral-spatial images, where an extra dimension is added to describe the absorption spectrum of the sample (which can also be spatially dependent). The mapping of oxygen in biological samples, often referred to as oximetry, is a prime example of an ESRI application. ESRI suffers frequently from a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which results in long acquisition times and poor image quality. A broader use of ESRI is hampered by this slow acquisition, which can also be an obstacle for many biological applications where conditions may change relatively quickly over time. The objective of this work is to develop an image reconstruction scheme for continuous wave (CW) ESRI that would make it possible to reduce the data acquisition time without degrading the reconstruction quality. This is achieved by adapting the so-called "statistical reconstruction" method, recently developed for other medical imaging modalities, to the specific case of CW ESRI. Our new algorithm accounts for unique ESRI aspects such as field modulation, spectral-spatial imaging, and possible limitation on the gradient magnitude (the so-called "limited angle" problem). The reconstruction method shows improved SNR and contrast recovery vs. commonly used back-projection-based methods, for a variety of simulated synthetic samples as well as in actual CW ESRI experiments.
Theory of electron spin resonance in bulk topological insulators Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3
Ly, O.; Basko, D. M.
2016-04-01
We report a theoretical study of electron spin resonance in bulk topological insulators, such as Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3. Using the effective four-band model, we find the electron energy spectrum in a static magnetic field and determine the response to electric and magnetic dipole perturbations, represented by oscillating electric and magnetic fields perpendicular to the static field. We determine the associated selection rules and calculate the absorption spectra. This enables us to separate the effective orbital and spin degrees of freedom and to determine the effective g factors for electrons and holes.
Electron Transport Through a Quantum Wire with a Side-Coupled Quantum Dot:Fano Resonance
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
熊永建; 贺舟波
2004-01-01
The Fano resonance of a quantum wire (QW) with a side-coupled quantum dot (QD) is investigated. The QD has multilevel and is in the Coulomb blockade regime. We show that there are two aspects in contribution to asymmetric Fano dip line shape of conductance: (1) the quantum interference between the resonant level and non-resonant levels, (2) the asymmetric electron occupation of levels in the two sides of a resonant level in the QD. The smearing of the asymmetry of the dip structure with the increasing temperature is partially attributed to fluctuation of electron state in the QD.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elston, S.B.
1978-01-01
Inner-shell excitation occurring in low and moderate (keV range) energy collisions between light atomic and ionic systems is frequently describable in terms of molecular promotion mechanisms, which were extensively explored both theoretically and experimentally. The bulk of such studies have concentrated on processes understandable through the use of single- and independent-electron models. Nonetheless, it is possible to find cases of inner-shell excitation in relatively simple collision systems which involve nearly simultaneous multiple-electron transitions and transitions induced by inherently two-electron interactions. Evidence for these many- and nonindependent-electron phenomena in inner-shell excitation processes and the importance of considering such effects in the interpretation of collisionally induced excitation spectra is discussed. 13 references.
Spin-orbit coupled two-electron Fermi gases of ytterbium atoms
Song, Bo; Zhang, Shanchao; Zou, Yueyang; Haciyev, Elnur; Huang, Wei; Liu, Xiong-Jun; Jo, Gyu-Boong
2016-01-01
We demonstrate the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in a two-electron Fermi gas of $^{173}$Yb atoms by coupling two hyperfine ground states via the two-photon Raman transition. Due to the SU($N$) symmetry of the $^1$S$_0$ ground-state manifold which is insensitive to external magnetic field, an optical AC Stark effect is applied to split the ground spin states and separate an effective spin-1/2 subspace out from other hyperfine levels for the realization of SOC. With a momentum-dependent spin-orbit gap being suddenly opened by switching on the Raman transition, the dephasing of spin dynamics is observed, as a consequence of the momentum-dependent Rabi oscillations. Moreover, the momentum asymmetry of the spin-orbit coupled Fermi gas is also examined after projection onto the bare spin state and the corresponding momentum distribution is measured for different two-photon detuning. The realization of SOC for Yb fermions may open a new avenue to the study of novel spin-orbit physics with alkaline-earth-like atoms.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lo, C. C.; Lang, V.; George, R. E.; Morton, J. J. L.; Tyryshkin, A. M.; Lyon, A.; Bokor, J.; Schenkel, T.
2011-04-20
We have measured the electrically detected magnetic resonance of donor-doped silicon field-effect transistors in resonant X- (9.7 GHz) and W-band (94 GHz) microwave cavities. The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) resonance signal increases by two orders of magnitude from X- to W-band, while the donor resonance signals are enhanced by over one order of magnitude. Bolometric effects and spin-dependent scattering are inconsistent with the observations. We propose that polarization transfer from the donor to the 2DEG is the main mechanism giving rise to the spin resonance signals.
On the Coupling of Photon Spin to Electron Orbital Angular Momentum
Fischer, Ulrich C; Fuchs, Harald; Salut, Roland; Lefier, Yannick; Grosjean, Thierry
2016-01-01
Partially gold coated 90 degree glass wedges and a semi - infinite slit in a thin film of gold ending in a conducting nano-junction serve as samples to investigate the transfer of photon spin to electron orbital angular momentum. These structures were specifically designed as samples where an incident beam of light is retroreflected. Since in the process of retroreflection the turning sense of a circularly polarized beam of light does not change and the direction of propagation is inverted, the photon spin is inverted. Due to conservation of angular momentum a transfer of photon spin to electron orbital angular momentum of conduction electrons occurs. In the structures a circular movement of electrons is blocked and therefore the transfered spin can be detected as a photovoltage due to an electromotive force which is induced by the transfer of angular momentum. Depending on the polarization of the incident beam, a maximum photovoltage of about 0,2 micro V was measured for both structures. The results are inte...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Volino, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1969-07-01
We show that helices can be used as resonant systems. Their properties are theoretically and experimentally studied. We describe resonant helices for electron paramagnetic resonance in X-band and develop a comparison between their sensitivity and the sensitivity of a normal resonant cavity. For cylindrical samples less than 3 mm diameter, the helix is more sensitive and can produce more intense microwave magnetic fields. (author) [French] Il est montre que les helices peuvent etre utilisees comme systeme resonnant. Leurs proprietes sont discutees theoriquement et experimentalement. Des helices resonnantes en bande X pour la resonance paramagnetique electronique sont decrites et leur sensibilite est comparee a celle des cavites resonnantes. Pour des echantillons cylindriques de moins de 3 mm de diametre, l'helice est plus sensible et peut produire des champs magnetiques hyper fins plus intenses. (auteur)
Bagus, Paul S.; Broer, R; Graaf, C. de; Nieuwpoort, W.C.
1999-01-01
The electronic structure of NiO, with emphasis on the Ni 3s-hole ionic states, is studied using non-orthogonal configuration interaction, NOCI, wavefunctions for an NiO6 model of the crystal. Orbital sets are relaxed, or optimized, separately for each configuration used in the NOCI and orbital
Critical analysis of fragment-orbital DFT schemes for the calculation of electronic coupling values.
Schober, Christoph; Reuter, Karsten; Oberhofer, Harald
2016-02-07
We present a critical analysis of the popular fragment-orbital density-functional theory (FO-DFT) scheme for the calculation of electronic coupling values. We discuss the characteristics of different possible formulations or "flavors" of the scheme which differ by the number of electrons in the calculation of the fragments and the construction of the Hamiltonian. In addition to two previously described variants based on neutral fragments, we present a third version taking a different route to the approximate diabatic state by explicitly considering charged fragments. In applying these FO-DFT flavors to the two molecular test sets HAB7 (electron transfer) and HAB11 (hole transfer), we find that our new scheme gives improved electronic couplings for HAB7 (-6.2% decrease in mean relative signed error) and greatly improved electronic couplings for HAB11 (-15.3% decrease in mean relative signed error). A systematic investigation of the influence of exact exchange on the electronic coupling values shows that the use of hybrid functionals in FO-DFT calculations improves the electronic couplings, giving values close to or even better than more sophisticated constrained DFT calculations. Comparing the accuracy and computational cost of each variant, we devise simple rules to choose the best possible flavor depending on the task. For accuracy, our new scheme with charged-fragment calculations performs best, while numerically more efficient at reasonable accuracy is the variant with neutral fragments.
Critical analysis of fragment-orbital DFT schemes for the calculation of electronic coupling values
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schober, Christoph; Reuter, Karsten; Oberhofer, Harald, E-mail: harald.oberhofer@ch.tum.de [Chair for Theoretical Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstr. 4, D-85747 Garching (Germany)
2016-02-07
We present a critical analysis of the popular fragment-orbital density-functional theory (FO-DFT) scheme for the calculation of electronic coupling values. We discuss the characteristics of different possible formulations or “flavors” of the scheme which differ by the number of electrons in the calculation of the fragments and the construction of the Hamiltonian. In addition to two previously described variants based on neutral fragments, we present a third version taking a different route to the approximate diabatic state by explicitly considering charged fragments. In applying these FO-DFT flavors to the two molecular test sets HAB7 (electron transfer) and HAB11 (hole transfer), we find that our new scheme gives improved electronic couplings for HAB7 (−6.2% decrease in mean relative signed error) and greatly improved electronic couplings for HAB11 (−15.3% decrease in mean relative signed error). A systematic investigation of the influence of exact exchange on the electronic coupling values shows that the use of hybrid functionals in FO-DFT calculations improves the electronic couplings, giving values close to or even better than more sophisticated constrained DFT calculations. Comparing the accuracy and computational cost of each variant, we devise simple rules to choose the best possible flavor depending on the task. For accuracy, our new scheme with charged-fragment calculations performs best, while numerically more efficient at reasonable accuracy is the variant with neutral fragments.
Spin-orbit and electron correlation effects on the structure of EF3 (E = I, At, and element 117).
Kim, Hyoseok; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Yoon Sup
2008-12-18
Structures and vibrational frequencies of group 17 fluorides EF3 (E = I, At, and element 117) are calculated at the density functional theory (DFT) level of theory using relativistic effective core potentials (RECPs) with and without spin-orbit terms in order to investigate the effects of spin-orbit interactions and electron correlations on the structures and vibrational frequencies of EF3. Various tests imply that spin-orbit and electron correlation effects estimated presently from Hartree-Fock (HF) and DFT calculations with RECPs with and without spin-orbit terms are quite reasonable. Spin-orbit and electron correlation effects generally increase bond lengths and/or angles in both C2v and D3h structures. For IF3, the C2v structure is a global minimum, and the D3h structure is a second-order saddle point in both HF and DFT calculations with and without spin-orbit interactions. Spin-orbit effects for IF3 are negligible in comparison to electron correlation effects. The D3h global minimum is the only minimum structure for (117)F3 in all RECP calculations, and the C2v structure is neither a local minimum nor a saddle point. In the case of AtF3, the C2v structure is found to be a local minimum in all RECP calculations without spin-orbit terms, and the D3h structure becomes a local minimum at the DFT level of theory with and without spin-orbit interactions. In the HF calculation with spin-orbit terms, the D3h structure of AtF3 is a second-order saddle point. AtF3 is a borderline case between the valence-shell-electron-pair-repulsion (VSEPR) structure of IF3 and the non-VSEPR structure of (117)F3. Relativistic effects, including scalar relativistic and spin-orbit effects, and electron correlation effects together or separately stabilize the D3h structures more than the C2v structures. As a result, one may suggest that the VSEPR predictions agree very well with the structures optimized by the nonrelativistic HF level of theory even for heavy-atom molecules but not so
Lee, J.-H.
1985-01-01
This paper examines the vibrational excitation rate processes expected in the flow field of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTVs). An analysis of the multiple-quantum vibrational excitation processes by electron impact is made to predict the vibrational excitation cross sections, rate coefficients, and relaxation times which control vibrational temperature. The expression for the rate of electron-vibration energy transfer is derived by solving the system of master equations which account for the multiple-level transitions. The vibrational excitation coefficients, which are the prerequisite physical quantities in solving the obtained vibrational equation, are calculated based on the theoretically predicted cross sections. These cross sections are obtained from quantum mechanical calculations, based on the concept that vibrational excitation of molecules by electron impact occurs through formation of an intermediate negative ion state. Finally, the modified Landau-Teller-type rate equation, which is suitable for the numerical calculations for the AOTV flow fields, is suggested.
Zimmermann, Frank
2002-01-01
In this report, I address 4 different items: (1) the trapping of electrons in a quadrupole field, (2) the electron- cloud build up inside an HER dipole magnet, (3) the closed orbit drift with SVD correction, and (4) the transverse tune shifts and horizontal instability in the HER. The appendix presents preliminary electron-cloud simulations for the two JKJ rings.
Landau, Arie; Kaprálová-Žďánská, Petra Ruth; Moiseyev, Nimrod
2015-01-01
Complex eigenvalues, resonances, play an important role in large variety of fields in physics and chemistry. For example, in cold molecular collision experiments and electron scattering experiments, autoionizing and pre-dissociative metastable resonances are generated. However, the computation of complex resonance eigenvalues is difficult, since it requires severe modifications of standard electronic structure codes and methods. Here we show how resonance eigenvalues, positions and widths, can be calculated using the standard, widely used, electronic-structure packages. Our method enables the calculations of the complex resonance eigenvalues by using analytical continuation procedures (such as Pad\\'{e}). The key point in our approach is the existence of narrow analytical passages from the real axis to the complex energy plane. In fact, the existence of these analytical passages relies on using finite basis sets. These passages become narrower as the basis set becomes more complete, whereas in the exact limit,...
Electron paramagnetic resonance parameters and local structure for Gd3+ in KY3F10
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Shao-Yi Wu; Hua-Ming Zhang; Guang-Duo Lu; Zhi-Hong Zhang
2007-09-01
The electron paramagnetic resonance parameters, zero-ﬁeld splittings (ZFSs) b$_{2}^{0}$, b$_{4}^{0}$, b$_{4}^{4}$, b$_{6}^{0}$, b$_{6}^{4}$ and the factors for Gd3+ on the tetragonal Y3+ site in KY3F10 are theoretically studied from the superposition model for the ZFSs and the approximation formula for the factor containing the admixture of the ground 8S7/2 and the excited 6L7/2 (L=P, D, F, G) states via the spin–orbit coupling interactions, respectively. By analysing the above ZFSs, the local structure information for the impurity Gd3+ is obtained, i.e., the impurity–ligand bonding angles related to the four-fold (C4) axis for the impurity Gd3+ center are found to be about 0.6° larger than those for the host Y3+ site in KY3F10. The calculated ZFSs based on the above angular distortion as well as the factors are in reasonable agreement with the observed values. The present studies on the ZFSs and the local structure would be helpful to understand the optical and magnetic properties of this material with Gd dopants.
Brorsen, Kurt R.; Sirjoosingh, Andrew; Pak, Michael V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon
2015-06-01
The nuclear electronic orbital (NEO) reduced explicitly correlated Hartree-Fock (RXCHF) approach couples select electronic orbitals to the nuclear orbital via Gaussian-type geminal functions. This approach is extended to enable the use of a restricted basis set for the explicitly correlated electronic orbitals and an open-shell treatment for the other electronic orbitals. The working equations are derived and the implementation is discussed for both extensions. The RXCHF method with a restricted basis set is applied to HCN and FHF- and is shown to agree quantitatively with results from RXCHF calculations with a full basis set. The number of many-particle integrals that must be calculated for these two molecules is reduced by over an order of magnitude with essentially no loss in accuracy, and the reduction factor will increase substantially for larger systems. Typically, the computational cost of RXCHF calculations with restricted basis sets will scale in terms of the number of basis functions centered on the quantum nucleus and the covalently bonded neighbor(s). In addition, the RXCHF method with an odd number of electrons that are not explicitly correlated to the nuclear orbital is implemented using a restricted open-shell formalism for these electrons. This method is applied to HCN+, and the nuclear densities are in qualitative agreement with grid-based calculations. Future work will focus on the significance of nonadiabatic effects in molecular systems and the further enhancement of the NEO-RXCHF approach to accurately describe such effects.
Electron-phonon coupling of light-actinides. Effect of spin-orbit coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez-Castelazo, Paola; Pena-Seaman, Omar de la [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (BUAP), Institute of Physics (IFUAP) (Mexico); Heid, Rolf; Bohnen, Klaus-Peter [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik (IFP) (Germany)
2014-07-01
The physics of actinide metals is quite complex and rich due to the behavior of 5f electrons in the valence region: it goes from itinerant on the early stages of the actinide series to highly localized for the elements with a higher number of 5f electrons involved. In addition, in this systems should be mandatory the inclusion of spin-orbit coupling (SOC). However, only in few cases on electronic and lattice dynamical properties the SOC has been taking into account, while for the electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling such analysis has not been performed so far. Thus, as a first approach we have systematically studied the SOC influence on the full-phonon dispersion and the e-ph coupling for the simplest light-actinide metals: Ac and Th. These elements have been studied within the framework of density functional perturbation theory, using a mixed-basis pseudopotential method. The full-phonon dispersion as well as the Eliashberg spectral function and the electron-phonon coupling parameter have been calculated with and without SOC. The observed effects of SOC in the full-phonon dispersion and Eliashberg function are discussed in detail, together with an analysis of the differences on the electronic properties due to the SOC inclusion in the calculations.
Effect of Spin-Orbit Coupling on Kondo Phenomena in f7-Electron Systems
Hotta, Takashi
2015-11-01
In order to promote our basic understanding of the Kondo behavior recently observed in europium compounds, we analyze an impurity Anderson model with seven f electrons at an impurity site by employing a numerical renormalization group method. The local part of the model consists of Coulomb interactions among f electrons, spin-orbit coupling λ, and crystalline electric field (CEF) potentials, while we consider the hybridization V between local f electrons and single-band conduction electrons with au symmetry. For λ = 0, we observe underscreening Kondo behavior for appropriate values of V, characterized by an entropy change from ln 8 to ln 7, in which one of the seven f electrons is screened by conduction electrons. When λ is increased, we obtain two types of behavior depending on the value of V. For large V, we find an entropy release of ln 7 at low temperatures, determined by the level splitting energy due to the hybridization. For small V, we also observe an entropy change from ln 8 to ln 2 by the level splitting due to the hybridization, but at low temperatures, ln 2 entropy is found to be released, leading to the Kondo effect. We emphasize that the Kondo behavior for small V is observed for realistic values of λ on the order of 0.1 eV. We also discuss the effect of CEF potentials and the multipole properties in the Kondo behavior reported in this paper.
Electron Spin Resonance and Related Phenomena in Low-Dimensional Structures
Fanciulli, Marco
2009-01-01
Deals with the discussion of the development of spin resonance in low dimensional structures, such as two-dimensional electron systems, quantum wires, and quantum dots. This title discusses opportunities for spin resonance techniques, with emphasis on fundamental physics, nanoelectronics, spintronics, and quantum information processing
Danon, J.; Nazarov, Y.V.
2008-01-01
We study nuclear spin dynamics in a quantum dot close to the conditions of electron spin resonance. We show that at a small frequency mismatch, the nuclear field detunes the resonance. Remarkably, at larger frequency mismatch, its effect is opposite: The nuclear system is bistable, and in one of the
Investigation of outer valence orbital of CF2Cl2 by a new type of electron momentum spectrometer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ning Chuan-Gang; Ren Xue-Guang; Deng Jing-Kang; Su Guo-Lin; Zhang Shu-Feng; Huang Feng; Li Gui-Qin
2005-01-01
Electronic states of CF2Cl2 (dichlorodifluoromethane, Freon 12) have been studied using a new type of electron momentum spectrometer with a very high efficiency at an impact energy of 1200 eV plus binding energy. The experimental electron momentum profiles are compared with the density functional theory (DFT) and Hartree-Fock (HF)calculations. The relationship between orbital assignments in different coordinate systems is discussed. A new method of difference analysis based on the new type of electron momentum spectrometer is used to clarify the ambiguities regarding the orbital ordering.
Schüler, M
2016-01-01
Recent experimental progress in creating and controlling singular electron beams that carry orbital angular momentum allows for new types of local spectroscopies. We theoretically investigate the twisted-electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) from the C60 fullerene. Of particular interest are the strong multipolar collective excitations and their selective response to the orbital angular momentum of the impinging electron beam. Based on ab-initio calculations for the collective response we compute EELS signals with twisted electron beams and uncover the interplay between the plasmon polarity and the amount of angular momentum transfer.
Electron Spin Resonance of Tetrahedral Transition Metal Oxyanions (MO4n-) in Solids.
Greenblatt, M.
1980-01-01
Outlines general principles in observing sharp electron spin resonance (ESR) lines in the solid state by incorporating the transition metal ion of interest into an isostructural diamagnetic host material in small concentration. Examples of some recent studies are described. (CS)
Thakur, PrabhatK.; Biswas, Parthapratim
We present here a detailed multifractal scaling study for the electronic transmission resonances with the system size for an infinitely large one-dimensional perfect and imperfect quasiperiodic system represented by a sequence of δ-function potentials. The electronic transmission resonances in the energy minibands manifest more and more fragmented nature of the transmittance with the change of system size. We claim that when a small perturbation is randomly present at a few number of sites or layers, the nature of electronic states will change and this can be understood by studying the electronic transmittance with the change of system size. We report the different critical states manifested in the size variation of the transmittance corresponding to the resonant energies for both perfect and imperfect cases through multifractal scaling study for few of these resonances.
Benchmark of ACCSIM-ORBIT codes for space charge and electron-lens compensation
Masamitsu, Aiba
2008-01-01
Numerical simulation is a possible approach to evaluate and to understand space charge effects in the CERN injector chain for the LHC. Several codes to simulate space charge effects have been developed, and we performed a benchmark of ACCSIM [1] and ORBIT [2] in this study. The study is highly motivated since beam losses and/or deteriorations in beam quality due to space charge effects are not negligible or sometimes considerable in the complex, especially in the Proton Synchrotron Booster. We also discuss a possibility of compensation of space charge effects by applying “electron-lens”.
An Overview of the Electron-Proton and High Energy Telescopes for Solar Orbiter
Boden, Sebastian; Kulkarni, Shrinivasrao R.; Tammen, Jan; Steinhagen, Jan; Martin, César; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Böttcher, Stephan I.; Seimetz, Lars; Ravanbakhsh, Ali; Elftmann, Robert; Rodriguez-Pacheco, Javier; Prieto Mateo, Manuel; Gomez Herrero, Rául
2014-05-01
The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) suite for ESA's Solar Orbiter will provide key measurements to address particle acceleration at and near the Sun. The EPD suite consists of four sensors (STEP, SIS, EPT, and HET). The University of Kiel in Germany is responsible for the design, development, and building of STEP, EPT and HET. This poster will focus on the last two. The Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) is designed to cleanly separate and measure electrons in the energy range from 20 - 400 keV and protons from 20 - 7000 keV. To separate electrons and protons EPT relies on the magnet/foil-technique. EPT is intended to close the gap between the supra-thermal particles measured by STEP and the high energy range covered by HET. The High-Energy Telescope (HET) will measure electrons from 300 keV up to about 30 MeV, protons from 10 to 100 MeV, and heavy ions from ~20 to 200 MeV/nuc. To achieve this performance HET consists of a series of silicon detectors in a telescope configuration with a scintillator calorimeter to stop high energy protons and ions. It uses the dE/dx vs. total E technique . In this way HET covers an energy range which is of interest for studies of the space radiation environment and will perform measurements needed to understand the origin of high-energy particle events at the Sun. EPT and HET share a common Electronics Box, there are two EPT-HET sensors on Solar Orbiter to allow rudimentary pitch-angle coverage. Here we present the current development status of EPT-HET units and calibration results of demonstration models as well as plans for future activities.
Resonance-like structure for soliton characteristics in an electron beam-plasma system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gell, Y.; Nakach, R.
1978-08-01
The characteristics of ion acoustic solitons in an electron beam-plasma system are considered. The dependence of the amplitude of the soliton on the density of the beam electrons is found to exhibit a pronounced resonance-like structure. A numerical analysis of the analytic expressions for the soliton characteristics (amplitude and width) is performed for different values of the relevant parameters of the system. The existence and origin of the resonance structure is discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HAO Dong-shan; L(U) Jian
2005-01-01
The evolution of the electron phase orbits based on the multi-photon nonlinear Compton scattering with the high power laser-plasma is discussed by using Kroll-Morton-Rosenbluth theory. The random evolution of the un-captured electron phase orbits from periodicity to non-periodicity is found after the energy has been exchanged between the electron and photons. With the increase of the absorbed photon number n by an electron,this evolution will be more and more intense, while which is rapidly decreased with the enhancement of the collision non-flexibility ξ and their initial speeds of the electrons and photons, but this evolution is lower than that in the high power laser field. When the electrons are captured by the laser field, the evolution is finished, and the electrons will stably transport,and the photons don't provide the energy for these electrons any more.
Gunina, Anastasia O; Krylov, Anna I
2016-12-15
We apply high-level ab initio methods to describe the electronic structure of small clusters of ammonia and dimethyl ether (DME) doped with sodium, which provide a model for solvated electrons. We investigate the effect of the solvent and cluster size on the electronic states. We consider both energies and properties, with a focus on the shape of the electronic wave function and the related experimental observables such as photoelectron angular distributions. The central quantity in modeling photoionization experiments is the Dyson orbital, which describes the difference between the initial N-electron and final (N-1)-electron states of a system. Dyson orbitals enter the expression of the photoelectron matrix element, which determines total and partial photoionization cross-sections. We compute Dyson orbitals for the Na(NH3)n and Na(DME)m clusters using correlated wave functions (obtained with equation-of-motion coupled-cluster model for electron attachment with single and double substitutions) and compare them with more approximate Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham orbitals. We also analyze the effect of correlation and basis sets on the shapes of Dyson orbitals and the experimental observables.
Resonant and non-resonant internal kink modes excited by the energetic electrons on HL-2A tokamak
Yu, L. M.; Chen, W.; Jiang, M.; Shi, Z. B.; Ji, X. Q.; Ding, X. T.; Li, Y. G.; Ma, R. R.; Shi, P. W.; Song, S. D.; Yuan, B. S.; Zhou, Y.; Ma, R.; Song, X. M.; Dong, J. Q.; Xu, M.; Liu, Y.; Yan, L. W.; Yang, Q. W.; Xu, Y. H.; Duan, X. R.; HL-2A Team
2017-03-01
Strong resonant and non-resonant internal kink modes (abbreviated as RKs and NRKs, respectively), which are also called resonant and non-resonant fishbones, are observed on HL-2A tokamak with high-power ECRH + ECCD‑ (or ECRH) and ECRH + ECCD+, respectively. (‘Resonant’ derives from the existence of q = 1 surface (the resonant surface), and ‘non-resonant’ originates from the absence of q = 1 surface ({{q}\\text{min}}>1 ). ECCD+ and ECCD‑ mean the driving direction of energetic electrons is the same and opposite to plasma current, respectively.) RK has features of periodic strong bursting amplitude and rapid chirping-down frequency, but NRK usually has the saturated amplitude, slow changed or constant frequency and long-lasting time. The NRK excited by energetic electrons is found for the first time. The reversed q-profiles are formed, and q min decreases during plasma current ramp-up. The value of q min is slightly smaller and a bit bigger than unity for RK and NRK conditions, respectively. The internal kink mode (IKM) structures of RKs and NRKs are confirmed by the ECEI system. Although there are different current drive directions of ECCD for excitation of RK and NRK, they all propagate in electron diamagnetic directions in poloidal. The radial mode structures, frequency and growth rate for IKMs are obtained by solving the dispersion relationship. The NRK is stable when q min is larger than a certain value, and with the decreasing q min the frequency drops, but the growth rate almost keeps constant when {{q}\\text{min}}>1 . This result is in agreement with experimental observation. Studying IKMs excited by energetic electrons can provide important experimental experiences for ITER, because the NRKs may be excited by high-power non-inductive drive of ECCD or ECRH in the operation of hybrid scenarios.
Integrated Analysis of Piezoelectric Resonators as Components of Electronic Systems
2015-09-07
10.1016/S0894-9166(13)60012-9 Huijing He, Jinxi Liu, Jiashi Yang. Thickness-shear and thickness- twist vibrations of an AT-Cut quartz mesa resonator...2013 09/11/2013 09/11/2013 09/11/2013 09/11/2013 09/16/2013 Received Paper Haifeng Zhang, John A. Kosinski, Yuan Xie, and Joseph A. Turner. Drive -Level...Turner,, John A. Kosinski.. Drive level dependence of doubly rotated langasite resonators with different configurations, 2011 International Frequency
Ukhorskiy, A Y; Sitnov, M I; Millan, R M; Kress, B T; Smith, D C
2014-01-01
[1]Relativistic electron intensities in Earth's outer radiation belt can vary by multiple orders of magnitude on the time scales ranging from minutes to days. One fundamental process contributing to dynamic variability of radiation belt intensities is the radial transport of relativistic electrons across their drift shells. In this paper we analyze the properties of three-dimensional radial transport in a global magnetic field model driven by variations in the solar wind dynamic pressure. We use a test particle approach which captures anomalous effects such as drift orbit bifurcations. We show that the bifurcations lead to an order of magnitude increase in radial transport rates and enhance the energization at large equatorial pitch angles. Even at quiet time fluctuations in dynamic pressure, radial transport at large pitch angles exhibits strong deviations from the diffusion approximation. The radial transport rates are much lower at small pitch angle values which results in a better agreement with the diffusion approximation.
The McClelland approximation and the distribution of π-electron molecular orbital energy levels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
IVAN GUTMAN
2007-10-01
Full Text Available The total π-electron energy E of a conjugated hydrocarbon with n carbon atoms and m carbon–carbon bonds can be approximately calculated by means of the McClelland formula E = g SQRT(2mr, where g is an empirical ﬁtting constant, g ≈ 0.9. It was claimed that the good quality of the McClelland approximation is a consequence of the fact that the π-electron molecular orbital energy levels are distributed in a nearly uniform manner. It will now be shown that the McClelland approximation does not depend on the nature of the distribution of energy levels, i.e., that it is compatible with a large variety of such distributions.
Electron paramagnetic resonance study on n-type electron-irradiated 3C-SiC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carlsson, P; Rabia, K; Son, N T; Janzen, E [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Ohshima, T; Morishita, N; Itoh, H [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Takasaki 370-1292 (Japan); Isoya, J [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8550 (Japan)], E-mail: paca@ifm.liu.se
2008-03-15
Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) was used to study defects in n-type 3C-SiC films irradiated by 3-MeV electrons at room temperature with a dose of 2x10{sup 18} cm{sup -2}. After electron irradiation, two new EPR spectra with an effective spin S = 1, labeled L5 and L6, were observed. The L5 center has C{sub 3v} symmetry with g = 2.004 and a fine-structure parameter D = 436.5x10{sup -4} cm{sup -1}. The L5 spectrum was only detected under light illumination and it could not be detected after annealing at {approx}550{sup 0}C. The principal z-axis of the D tensor is parallel to the <111>-directions, indicating the location of spins along the Si-C bonds. Judging from the symmetry and the fact that the signal was detected under illumination in n-type material, the L5 center may be related to the divacancy in the neutral charge state. The L6 center has a C{sub 2v}-symmetry with an isotropic g-value of g = 2.003 and the fine structure parameters D = 547.7x10{sup -4} cm{sup -1} and E = 56.2x10{sup -4} cm{sup -1}. The L6 center disappeared after annealing at a rather low temperature ({approx}200 deg. C), which is substantially lower than the known annealing temperatures for vacancy-related defects in 3C-SiC. This highly mobile defect may be related to carbon interstitials.
Electron Cloud Density Measurements in Accelerator Beam-pipe Using Resonant Microwave Excitation
Sikora, John P
2013-01-01
An accelerator beam can generate low energy electrons in the beam-pipe, generally called electron cloud, that can produce instabilities in a positively charged beam. One method of measuring the electron cloud density is by coupling microwaves into and out of the beam-pipe and observing the response of the microwaves to the presence of the electron cloud. This paper describes a technique in which the beam-pipe is resonantly excited with microwaves and the electron cloud density calculated from the change that it produces in the resonant frequency of the beam-pipe. The resonant technique has the advantage that measurements can be localized to sections of beam-pipe that are a meter or less in length, as well as greatly improving the signal to noise ratio.
Effect of the third π ∗ resonance on the angular distributions for electron-pyrimidine scattering
Mašín, Zdeněk; Gorfinkiel, Jimena D.
2016-07-01
We present a detailed analysis of the effect of the well known third π∗ resonance on the angular behaviour of the elastic cross section in electron scattering from pyrimidine. This resonance, occurring approximately at 4.7 eV, is of mixed shape and core-excited character. Experimental and theoretical results show the presence of a peak/dip behaviour in this energy range, that is absent for other resonances. Our investigations show that the cause of the peak/dip is an interference of background p-wave to p-wave scattering amplitudes with the amplitudes for resonant scattering. The equivalent resonance in pyrazine shows the same behaviour and the effect is therefore likely to appear in other benzene-like molecules. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.
Electron- and neutrino-nucleus scattering from the quasielastic to the resonance region
Leitner, T; Alvarez-Ruso, L; Mosel, U
2008-01-01
We present a model for electron- and neutrino-scattering off nucleons and nuclei focussing on the quasielastic and resonance region. The lepton-nucleon reaction is described within a relativistic formalism that includes, besides quasielastic scattering, the excitation of 13 N* and Delta resonances and a non-resonant single-pion background. Recent electron-scattering data is used for the state-of-the-art parametrizations of the vector form factors; the axial couplings are determined via PCAC and, in the case of the Delta resonance, the axial form factor is refitted using neutrino-scattering data. Scattering off nuclei is treated within the GiBUU framework that takes into account various nuclear effects: the local density approximation for the nuclear ground state, mean-field potentials and in-medium spectral functions. Results for inclusive scattering off Oxygen are presented and, in the case of electron-induced reactions, compared to experimental data and other models.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
K. Joo
2003-05-01
The polarized longitudinal-transverse structure function sigma_LT'in the p(e,e'p)pi^0 reaction has been measured for the first time in the Delta(1232) resonance region for invariant mass W = 1.1 - 1.3 GeV and at four-momentum transfer Q^2 = 0.40 and 0.65 GeV^2. Data were taken at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) using longitudinally polarized electrons at an energy of 1.515 GeV. This newly measured sigma_LT' provides new and unique information on the interference between resonant and non-resonant amplitudes in the Delta(1232) resonance region. The comparison to recent phenomenological calculations shows sensitivity to the description of non-resonant amplitudes and higher resonances.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
K. Joo
2003-05-01
The polarized longitudinal-transverse structure function sigma_LT'in the p(e,e'p)pi^0 reaction has been measured for the first time in the Delta(1232) resonance region for invariant mass W = 1.1 - 1.3 GeV and at four-momentum transfer Q^2 = 0.40 and 0.65 GeV^2. Data were taken at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) using longitudinally polarized electrons at an energy of 1.515 GeV. This newly measured sigma_LT' provides new and unique information on the interference between resonant and non-resonant amplitudes in the Delta(1232) resonance region. The comparison to recent phenomenological calculations shows sensitivity to the description of non-resonant amplitudes and higher resonances.
Re-Visiting the Electronic Energy Map of the Copper Dimer by Double-Resonant Four-Wave Mixing
Visser, Bradley; Bornhauser, Peter; Beck, Martin; Knopp, Gregor; Marquardt, Roberto; Gourlaouen, Christophe; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A.; Radi, Peter
2017-06-01
The copper dimer is one of the most studied transition metal (TM) diatomics due to its alkali-metal like electronic shell structure, strongly bound ground state and chemical reactivity. The high electronic promotion energy in the copper atom yields numerous low-lying electronic states compared to TM dimers with d)-hole electronic configurations. Thus, through extensive study the excited electronic structure of Cu_2 is relatively well known, however in practice few excited states have been investigated with rotational resolution or even assigned term symbols or dissociation limits. The spectroscopic methods that have been used to investigate the copper dimer until now have not possessed sufficient spectral selectivity, which has complicated the analysis of the often overlapping transitions. Resonant four-wave mixing is a non-linear absorption based spectroscopic method. In favorable cases, the two-color version (TC-RFWM) enables purely optical mass selective spectral measurements in a mixed molecular beam. Additionally, by labelling individual rotational levels in the common intermediate state the spectra are dramatically simplified. In this work, we report on the rotationally resolved characterization of low-lying electronic states of dicopper. Several term symbols have been assigned unambiguously. De-perturbation studies performed shed light on the complex electronic structure of the molecule. Furthermore, a new low-lying electronic state of Cu_2 is discovered and has important implications for the high-level theoretical structure calculations performed in parallel. In fact, the ab initio methods applied yield relative energies among the electronic levels that are almost quantitative and allow assignment of the newly observed state that is governed by spin-orbit interacting levels.
Tkach, Igor; Sicoli, Giuseppe; Höbartner, Claudia; Bennati, Marina
2011-04-01
We present a dual-mode resonator operating at/near 94 GHz (W-band) microwave frequencies and supporting two microwave modes with the same field polarization at the sample position. Numerical analysis shows that the frequencies of both modes as well as their frequency separation can be tuned in a broad range up to GHz. The resonator was constructed to perform pulsed ELDOR experiments with a variable separation of "pump" and "detection" frequencies up to Δ ν = 350 MHz. To examine its performance, test ESE/PELDOR experiments were performed on a representative biradical system.
Ernst, Wolfgang E.
2009-06-01
Droplets of about 10^{4} helium atoms generated in a supersonic expansion, represent a nanometer-sized superfluid medium of 0.4 K temperature and can be doped with one or several atoms or molecules that may form complexes in this cold environment. Using two-laser excitation schemes, we were able to identify the alkali trimers K_3, Rb_3, K_2Rb and KRb_2 in their lowest quartet states formed on helium droplets loaded with potassium and rubidium atoms and assign several excited states that underlie both Jahn-Teller and spin-orbit coupling. As helium provides a gentle and only weakly perturbing matrix, it appeared desirable to look for ways to measure fine and hyperfine structure directly in the microwave or radiofrequency regime. In preparation for experiments involving optical detection of electron spin transitions in cold molecules, we studied the electronic spin relaxation in alkali atoms and molecules that reside on the surface of a droplet. Measurements of the circular dichroism in the presence of a magnetic field showed that the populations of Zeeman sublevels in alkali atoms are not thermalized, while for dimers and trimers a temperature of 0.4 K was found, implicitly providing a first determination of the droplet's surface temperature. Optical detection of spin resonance is achieved in an optical pump-probe experiment with the electron spin transition induced in a microwave cavity in a magnetic field between the pump and probe regions. With the pump laser depleting a particular spin state by desorption of the species from the droplet beam or by optical pumping, the probe laser detects the successful spin flip induced by the microwave field. Examples will be presented showing up to 50 Rabi cycles of an electron spin transition on an alkali doped helium droplet during the flight time of 57 μs through the cavity. J. Nagl, G. Auböck, A. W. Hauser, O. Allard, C. Callegari, and W. E. Ernst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 063001(2008)} G. Auböck, J. Nagl, C. Callegari, and
Ferrari, Eugenio; Spezzani, Carlo; Fortuna, Franck; Delaunay, Renaud; Vidal, Franck; Nikolov, Ivaylo; Cinquegrana, Paolo; Diviacco, Bruno; Gauthier, David; Penco, Giuseppe; Ribič, Primož Rebernik; Roussel, Eleonore; Trovò, Marco; Moussy, Jean-Baptiste; Pincelli, Tommaso; Lounis, Lounès; Manfredda, Michele; Pedersoli, Emanuele; Capotondi, Flavio; Svetina, Cristian; Mahne, Nicola; Zangrando, Marco; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Demidovich, Alexander; Giannessi, Luca; De Ninno, Giovanni; Danailov, Miltcho Boyanov; Allaria, Enrico; Sacchi, Maurizio
2016-01-13
The advent of free-electron laser (FEL) sources delivering two synchronized pulses of different wavelengths (or colours) has made available a whole range of novel pump-probe experiments. This communication describes a major step forward using a new configuration of the FERMI FEL-seeded source to deliver two pulses with different wavelengths, each tunable independently over a broad spectral range with adjustable time delay. The FEL scheme makes use of two seed laser beams of different wavelengths and of a split radiator section to generate two extreme ultraviolet pulses from distinct portions of the same electron bunch. The tunability range of this new two-colour source meets the requirements of double-resonant FEL pump/FEL probe time-resolved studies. We demonstrate its performance in a proof-of-principle magnetic scattering experiment in Fe-Ni compounds, by tuning the FEL wavelengths to the Fe and Ni 3p resonances.
Few-Electron Lateral Resonant Tunneling Semiconductor Devices
1991-04-01
QPC and spectrometer dc’ teos. rcsi)’ clively . To foni-i electrostatic tunnel harriers for the lateral resonant tunneling transistor, we ctiimo\\cd a 15...the basis for the estab- sions with J. R. Barker , R. T. Bate, C. D. Cantrell, D. K. lished theories of irreversibility and dissipation. The Ferry, K...superoperator in the Wigner-Weyl repre- will be shifted across the heterojunction, and this effect is sentation ( Barker , Lowe, and Murray, 1984). A
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Uskov, Alexander; Protsenko, Igor E.; Mortensen, N. Asger
2014-01-01
We present a quantum mechanical approach to calculate broadening of plasmonic resonances in metallic nanostructures due to collisions of electrons with the surface of the structure. The approach is applicable if the characteristic size of the structure is much larger than the de Broglie electron ...
Electron nuclear double resonance with donor-bound excitons in silicon
Franke, David P; Riemann, Helge; Abrosimov, Nikolai V; Becker, Peter; Pohl, Hans-Joachim; Itoh, Kohei M; Thewalt, Michael L W; Brandt, Martin S
2016-01-01
We measure electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) of phosphorus in isotopically purified $^{28}$Si by optical-electrical hybrid detection via the donor-bound exciton transitions. This allows for the control of both nuclear and electron spin of donors in samples, where the hyperfine splitting is not resolved in the optical spectrum and hence significantly relaxes the requirements on the experimental setup.
Extensive ab initio study of the electronic states of BSe radical including spin-orbit coupling
Liu, Siyuan; Zhai, Hongsheng; Liu, Yufang
2016-06-01
The internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction method (MRCI) with Davidson modification and the Douglas-Kroll scalar relativistic correction has been used to calculate the BSe molecule at the level of aug-cc-pV5Z basis set. The calculated electronic states, including 9 doublet and 6 quartet Λ-S states, are correlated to the dissociation limit of B(2Pu) + Se(3Pg) and B(2Pu) + Se(1Dg). The Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) interaction is taken into account via the state interaction approach with the full Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian operator, which causes the entire 15 Λ-S states to split into 32 Ω states. This is the first time that the spin-orbit coupling calculation has been carried out on BSe. The potential energy curves of the Λ-S and Ω electronic states are depicted with the aid of the avoided crossing rule between electronic states of the same symmetry. The spectroscopic constants of the bound Λ-S and Ω states were determined, which are in good agreement with the experimental data. The transition dipole moments (TDMs) and the Franck-Condon factors (FCs) of the transitions from the low-lying bound Ω states A2Π(I)3/2, B2Π(I)1/2 and C2Δ(I)3/2 to the ground state X2Σ+1/2 have also been presented. Based on the previous calculations, the radiative lifetimes of the A2Π(I)3/2, B2Π(I)1/2 and C2Δ(I)3/2 were evaluated.
High resolution electron momentum spectroscopy of the valence orbitals of water
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ning, C.G. [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular NanoSciences of MOE, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Hajgato, B. [Research Group of Theoretical Chemistry, Department SBG, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Gebouw D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Huang, Y.R. [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular NanoSciences of MOE, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Research Group of Theoretical Chemistry, Department SBG, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Gebouw D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Zhang, S.F.; Liu, K.; Luo, Z.H. [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular NanoSciences of MOE, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Knippenberg, S. [Research Group of Theoretical Chemistry, Department SBG, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Gebouw D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Deng, J.K. [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular NanoSciences of MOE, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: djk-dmp@tsinghua.edu.cn; Deleuze, M.S. [Research Group of Theoretical Chemistry, Department SBG, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Gebouw D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)], E-mail: michael.deleuze@uhasselt.be
2008-01-22
The development of a third-generation electron momentum spectrometer with significantly improved energy and momentum resolutions at Tsinghua University ({delta}E = 0.45-0.68 eV, {delta}{theta} = {+-}0.53{sup o} and {delta}{phi} = {+-}0.84{sup o}) has enabled a reinvestigation of the valence orbital electron momentum distributions of H{sub 2}O with improved statistical accuracy. The measurements have been conducted at impact energies of 1200 eV and 2400 eV in order to check the validity of the plane wave impulse approximation. The obtained ionization spectra and electron momentum distributions have been compared with the results of computations carried out with Hartree Fock [HF] theory, density functional theory in conjunction with the standard B3LYP functional, one-particle Green's function [1p-GF] theory along with the third-order algebraic diagrammatic construction scheme [ADC(3)], symmetry adapted cluster configuration interaction [SAC-CI] theory, and a variety of multi-reference [MR-SDCI, MR-RSPT2, MR-RSPT3] theories. The influence of the basis set on the computed momentum distributions has been investigated further, using a variety of basis sets ranging from 6-31G to the almost complete d-aug-cc-pV6Z basis set. A main issue in the present work pertains to a shake-up band of very weak intensity at 27.1 eV, of which the related momentum distribution was analyzed for the first time. The experimental evidences and the most thorough theoretical calculations demonstrate that this band borrows its ionization intensity from the 2a{sub 1} orbital.
Electronic Raman scattering and the Fano resonance in metallic carbon nanotubes
Hasdeo, Eddwi H.; Nugraha, Ahmad R. T.; Sato, Kentaro; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Saito, Riichiro
2013-09-01
The Fano resonance spectra for the G band in metallic carbon nanotubes are calculated as a function of laser excitation energy, in which the origin of the resonance is given by an interference between the continuous electronic Raman spectra and the discrete phonon spectra. We found that the second-order scattering process of the q≠0 electron-electron interaction is more relevant to the continuous spectra rather than the q=0 first-order process because the q=0 direct Coulomb interaction vanishes due to the symmetry of the two sublattices of a carbon nanotube.
Resonance mechanism of the production of electron-positron pairs in a strong magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rumyantsev, D. A., E-mail: rda@uniyar.ac.ru [Yaroslavl State Universiry (Russian Federation)
2013-12-15
The Compton-like process γe{sup ±} → e{sup ±}e{sup +}e{sup −} involving the production of an electron-positron pair in the interaction of an ultrarelativistic electron with a soft x-ray photon in the vicinity of the polar cap of a magnetar is considered. It is shown that the amplitude for this reaction has a resonance character. A simple analytic expression is obtained for the electron-absorption coefficient. Possible astrophysical implications of the resonance process γe{sup ±} → e{sup ±}e{sup +}e{sup −} are discussed.
Electron emission induced by resonant coherent ion-surface interaction at grazing incidence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia de Abajo, F.J. (Departamento de Ciencias de la Computacion e Inteligencia Artificial, Facultad de Informatica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 649, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain)); Ponce, V.H. (Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)); Echenique, P.M. (Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain))
1992-10-19
A new spectroscopy based on the resonant coherently induced electron loss to the continuum in ion-surface scattering under grazing incidence is proposed. A series of peaks, corresponding to the energy differences determined by the resonant interaction with the rows of atoms in the surface, is predicted to appear in the energy distribution of electrons emitted from electronic states bound to the probe. Calculations for MeV He{sup +} ions scattered at a W(001) surface along the {l angle}100{r angle} direction with a glancing angle of 0--2 mrad show a total yield close to 1.
Lee, M. C.; Kuo, S. P.
1986-01-01
The theory of resonant electron diffusion as an effective saturation process of the auroral kilometric radiation has been formulated. The auroral kilometric radiation is assumed to be amplified by the synchrotron maser instability that is driven by an electron distribution of the loss-cone type. The calculated intensity of the saturated radiation is found to have a significantly lower value in comparison with that caused by the quasi-linear diffusion process as an alternative saturation process. This indicates that resonant electron diffusion dominates over quasi-linear diffusion in saturating the synchrotron maser instability.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng, Junwei
1999-11-08
Surface plasmon resonance was utilized to enhance the electron transfer at silver/solution interfaces. Photoelectrochemical reductions of nitrite, nitrate, and CO{sub 2} were studied on electrochemically roughened silver electrode surfaces. The dependence of the photocurrent on photon energy, applied potential and concentration of nitrite demonstrates that the photoelectrochemical reduction proceeds via photoemission process followed by the capture of hydrated electrons. The excitation of plasmon resonances in nanosized metal structures resulted in the enhancement of the photoemission process. In the case of photoelectrocatalytic reduction of CO{sub 2}, large photoelectrocatalytic effect for the reduction of CO{sub 2} was observed in the presence of surface adsorbed methylviologen, which functions as a mediator for the photoexcited electron transfer from silver metal to CO{sub 2} in solution. Photoinduced reduction of microperoxidase-11 adsorbed on roughened silver electrode was also observed and attributed to the direct photoejection of free electrons of silver metal. Surface plasmon assisted electron transfer at nanostructured silver particle surfaces was further determined by EPR method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng, Junwei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
1999-11-08
Surface plasmon resonance was utilized to enhance the electron transfer at silver/solution interfaces. Photoelectrochemical reductions of nitrite, nitrate, and CO_{2} were studied on electrochemically roughened silver electrode surfaces. The dependence of the photocurrent on photon energy, applied potential and concentration of nitrite demonstrates that the photoelectrochemical reduction proceeds via photoemission process followed by the capture of hydrated electrons. The excitation of plasmon resonances in nanosized metal structures resulted in the enhancement of the photoemission process. In the case of photoelectrocatalytic reduction of CO_{2}, large photoelectrocatalytic effect for the reduction of CO_{2} was observed in the presence of surface adsorbed methylviologen, which functions as a mediator for the photoexcited electron transfer from silver metal to CO_{2} in solution. Photoinduced reduction of microperoxidase-11 adsorbed on roughened silver electrode was also observed and attributed to the direct photoejection of free electrons of silver metal. Surface plasmon assisted electron transfer at nanostructured silver particle surfaces was further determined by EPR method.
Cho, Franklin; Takahashi, Susumu
2014-03-01
Nano-sized diamond or nanodiamond is a fascinating material for potential applications of fluorescence imaging and magnetic sensing of biological systems via nitrogen-vacancy defect centers in diamonds. Sensitivity of the magnetic sensing strongly depends on coupling to surrounding environmental noises, thus understanding of the environment is critical to realize the application. In the present study, we employ multi-frequency (X-band, 115 GHz and 230 GHz) continuous-wave (cw) and pulsed electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy to investigate impurity contents and spin relaxation properties in various sizes of nanodiamonds. Spectra taken with our home-built 230/115 GHz cw/pulsed ESR spectrometer shows presence of two major impurity contents; single substitutional nitrogen impurities (P1) also common in bulk diamonds and paramagnetic impurities (denoted as X) unique to nanodiamonds. The ESR measurement also shows a strong dependence of the population ratio between P1 and X on particle size. Furthermore, we will discuss the nature of spin-lattice relaxation time T1 of nanodiamonds studied by pulsed ESR measurements at X-band, 115 GHz and 230 GHz.
Orbital-exchange and fractional quantum number excitations in an f-electron metal, Yb2Pt2Pb
Wu, L. S.; Gannon, W. J.; Zaliznyak, I. A.; Tsvelik, A. M.; Brockmann, M.; Caux, J.-S.; Kim, M. S.; Qiu, Y.; Copley, J. R. D.; Ehlers, G.; Podlesnyak, A.; Aronson, M. C.
2016-06-01
Exotic quantum states and fractionalized magnetic excitations, such as spinons in one-dimensional chains, are generally expected to occur in 3d transition metal systems with spin 1/2. Our neutron-scattering experiments on the 4f-electron metal Yb2Pt2Pb overturn this conventional wisdom. We observe broad magnetic continuum dispersing in only one direction, which indicates that the underlying elementary excitations are spinons carrying fractional spin-1/2. These spinons are the emergent quantum dynamics of the anisotropic, orbital-dominated Yb moments. Owing to their unusual origin, only longitudinal spin fluctuations are measurable, whereas the transverse excitations such as spin waves are virtually invisible to magnetic neutron scattering. The proliferation of these orbital spinons strips the electrons of their orbital identity, resulting in charge-orbital separation.
Low-Lying Resonance States of Slow Electron Collisions With Atomic Oxygen
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴建华; 袁建民
2003-01-01
A 39-target state close-coupling calculation of low-energy electron scattering from atomic oxygen is carried out with core-valence electron correlation by using R-matrix method. It is shown that the elastic cross section has a huge and sharp increase with the electron energy going down below 1eV. This remarkable structure is attributed to a few very low-lying potential resonances and the features of these resonances are given with partial cross sections. It is also shown that after considering excitations of two electrons from 2s shell, the three lowest atomic energy levels are in agreement with experimental results better than that just considering excitations of two electrons from the 2p shell as well as only one electron from the 2s shell. Elastic and two excitation (3P → 1 D and 3p → 1S) cross sections are given and compared with the other theoretical and experimental results.
The Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in the study of tissue specimens
Stefaniuk, Ireneusz; Wróbel, Dagmara; Skrȩt, Andrzej; Skrȩt-Magierło, Joanna; Góra, Tomasz; Szczerba, Piotr
2014-01-01
The Electron Paramagnetic Spectroscopy (EPR) is the most direct and powerful method for the detection and identification of free radicals and other species with unpaired electrons. Statistics disorders are a common gynaecological disorder occurring in women. The condition afflicts around 15% of women to the extent of impairing the quality of living. According to scientific reports as many as 50% of women experiencing problems related to genital statistics disorders. The aim of this work was t...
Electronic structures of TiN and TiC-Extension of Molecular Orbital Method into Crystals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bin Song; Gaoling Zhao
2000-01-01
Density of states and theoretical X-ray emission spectra for the valence bands of TiN and TiC are obtained with a molecular orbital method. In order to describe electronic structures of crystals, local clusters for the molecular orbital calculations are extended, including the effects from the outside of the cluster in the crystal. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental ones.
Two Transiting Earth-size Planets Near Resonance Orbiting a Nearby Cool Star
Petigura, Erik A; Crossfield, Ian J M; Howard, Andrew W; Deck, Katherine M; Ciardi, David R; Sinukoff, Evan; Allers, Katelyn N; Best, William M J; Liu, Michael C; Beichman, Charles A; Isaacson, Howard; Hansen, Brad M S; Lépine, Sébastien
2015-01-01
Discoveries from the prime Kepler mission demonstrated that small planets (< 3 Earth-radii) are common outcomes of planet formation. While Kepler detected many such planets, all but a handful orbit faint, distant stars and are not amenable to precise follow up measurements. Here, we report the discovery of two small planets transiting EPIC-206011691, a bright (K = 9.4) M0 dwarf located 65$\\pm$6 pc from Earth. We detected the transiting planets in photometry collected during Campaign 3 of NASA's K2 mission. Analysis of transit light curves reveals that the planets have small radii compared to their host star, 2.60 $\\pm$ 0.14% and 3.15 $\\pm$ 0.20%, respectively. We obtained follow up NIR spectroscopy of \\epic to constrain host star properties, which imply planet sizes of 1.59 $\\pm$ 0.43 Earth-radii and 1.92 $\\pm$ 0.53 Earth-radii, respectively, straddling the boundary between high-density, rocky planets and low-density planets with thick gaseous envelopes. The planets have orbital periods of 9.32414 days and...
Constraints on Planet Nine’s Orbit and Sky Position within a Framework of Mean-motion Resonances
Millholland, Sarah; Laughlin, Gregory
2017-03-01
A number of authors have proposed that the statistically significant orbital alignment of the most distant Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) is evidence of an as-yet undetected planet in the outer solar system, now referred to colloquially as “Planet Nine.” Dynamical simulations by Batygin & Brown have provided constraints on the range of the planet’s possible orbits and sky locations. We extend these investigations by exploring the suggestion of Malhotra et al. that Planet Nine is in small integer ratio mean-motion resonances (MMRs) with several of the most distant KBOs. We show that the observed KBO semimajor axes present a set of commensurabilities with an unseen planet at ˜654 au (P ˜ 16,725 years) that has a greater than 98% chance of stemming from a sequence of MMRs rather than from a random distribution. We describe and implement a Monte-Carlo optimization scheme that drives billion-year dynamical integrations of the outer solar system to pinpoint the orbital properties of perturbers that are capable of maintaining the KBOs’ apsidal alignment. This optimization exercise suggests that the unseen planet is most consistently represented with mass, m ˜ 6-12 M ⊕, semimajor axis, a ˜ 654 au, eccentricity, e ˜ 0.45, inclination, i ˜ 30°, argument of periastron, ω ˜ 150°, longitude of ascending node, Ω ˜ 50°, and mean anomaly, M ˜ 180°. A range of sky locations relative to this fiducial ephemeris are possible. We find that the region 30° ≲ R.A. ≲ 50°, -20° ≲ decl. ≲ 20° is promising.
Sasikala, V.; Sajan, D.; Job Sabu, K.; Arumanayagam, T.; Murugakoothan, P.
2015-03-01
Single crystals of guanidinium 4-nitrobenzoate (GPNB) have been grown by slow evaporation method. Grown crystals were characterized by FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Vis absorption and UV-Vis transmission spectroscopies. Crystal defects and surface morphology were studied by etching method. Dielectric properties of the crystal such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss and AC electrical conductivity as function of frequency (50 Hz-5 MHz) at two temperatures (35 °C and 100 °C) were measured. The frequency and temperature dependence of dielectric behaviour were investigated. The equilibrium geometry, vibrational spectral analysis, intramolecular charge transfer interactions using NBO method, first order hyperpolarizability, molecular electrostatic potential and frontier molecular orbital analysis for GPNB have been studied using density functional theory at B3LYP/cc-pVTZ level. Vibrational spectral study reveals the presence of moderate and weak Nsbnd H⋯O bonds in GPNB. NBO analysis also confirms the presence of intramolecular Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonding and investigates the stability as well as the intervening orbital interactions. The electronic absorption spectrum of the gas and water phases of GPNB were simulated using time dependent density functional theory and NBO transitions for the three lowest excited states were assigned and studied.
EUV-driven ionospheres and electron transport on extrasolar giant planets orbiting active stars
Chadney, J M; Koskinen, T T; Miller, S; Sanz-Forcada, J; Unruh, Y C; Yelle, R V
2016-01-01
The composition and structure of the upper atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets (EGPs) are affected by the high-energy spectrum of their host stars from soft X-rays to EUV. This emission depends on the activity level of the star, which is primarily determined by its age. We focus upon EGPs orbiting K- and M-dwarf stars of different ages. XUV spectra for these stars are constructed using a coronal model. These spectra are used to drive both a thermospheric model and an ionospheric model, providing densities of neutral and ion species. Ionisation is included through photo-ionisation and electron-impact processes. We find that EGP ionospheres at all orbital distances considered and around all stars selected are dominated by the long-lived H$^+$ ion. In addition, planets with upper atmospheres where H$_2$ is not substantially dissociated have a layer in which H$_3^+$ is the major ion at the base of the ionosphere. For fast-rotating planets, densities of short-lived H$_3^+$ undergo significant diurnal variation...
Corsetti, Fabiano
2014-01-01
The implementation of the orbital minimization method (OMM) for solving the self-consistent Kohn-Sham (KS) problem for electronic structure calculations in a basis of non-orthogonal numerical atomic orbitals of finite-range is reported. We explore the possibilities for using the OMM as an exact cubic-scaling solver for the KS problem, and compare its performance with that of explicit diagonalization in realistic systems. We analyze the efficiency of the method depending on the choice of line search algorithm and on two free parameters, the scale of the kinetic energy preconditioning and the eigenspectrum shift. The results of several timing tests are then discussed, showing that the OMM can achieve a noticeable speedup with respect to diagonalization even for minimal basis sets for which the number of occupied eigenstates represents a significant fraction of the total basis size (>15%). We investigate the hard and soft parallel scaling of the method on multiple cores, finding a performance equal to or better ...
Orbital angular momentum in electron diffraction and its use to determine chiral crystal symmetries
Juchtmans, Roeland; Verbeeck, Jo
2015-10-01
In this work we present an alternative way to look at electron diffraction in a transmission electron microscope. Instead of writing the scattering amplitude in Fourier space as a set of plane waves, we use the cylindrical Fourier transform to describe the scattering amplitude in a basis of orbital angular momentum (OAM) eigenstates. We show how working in this framework can be very convenient when investigating, e.g., rotation and screw-axis symmetries. For the latter we find selection rules on the OAM coefficients that unambiguously reveal the handedness of the screw axis. Detecting the OAM coefficients of the scattering amplitude thus offers the possibility to detect the handedness of crystals without the need for dynamical simulations, the thickness of the sample, nor the exact crystal structure. We propose an experimental setup to measure the OAM components where an image of the crystal is taken after inserting a spiral phase plate in the diffraction plane and perform multislice simulations on α quartz to demonstrate how the method indeed reveals the chirality. The experimental feasibility of the technique is discussed together with its main advantages with respect to chirality determination of screw axes. The method shows how the use of a spiral phase plate can be extended from a simple phase imaging technique to a tool to measure the local OAM decomposition of an electron wave, widening the field of interest well beyond chiral space group determination.
Gorcester, Jeff; Rananavare, Shankar B.; Freed, Jack H.
1989-05-01
Electron spin-echo (ESE) and two-dimensional electron-electron double resonance (2D ELDOR) experiments have been performed as a function of director orientation and temperature in the smectic A phase of the liquid crystal S2 for the spin-probe PD-tempone(2×10-3 M). Over the entire temperature range studied (288-323 K) we observe significant 2D ELDOR cross peaks only for ΔMI =±1 indicative of 14N spin-relaxation and negligible Heisenberg exchange. From the angular dependent 14N spin-relaxation rates we obtain the dipolar spectral densities at the hyperfine (hf) frequency, whereas from a combination of ESE and 2D ELDOR we obtain the dipolar and Zeeman-dipolar spectral densities at zero frequency. The angular dependent spectral densities were successfully decomposed into their basic components in accordance with theory. The angular dependent spectral densities at the hf frequency are not predicted by a model of anisotropic rotational diffusion in a nematic orienting potential, but are consistent with predictions of a model due to Moro and Nordio of solute rototranslational diffusion in a McMillan-type potential. The angular dependence also indicates that order director fluctuations in the smectic phase are suppressed at frequencies on the order of 10 MHz. An additional contribution to solute reorientation due to cooperative hydrocarbon chain fluctuations is suggested to account for the behavior of the observed spectral densities at zero frequency. An evaluation of the relevance of several other dynamical models to this experimental work is also presented.
Performance characteristics of an energy selective electron refrigerator with double resonances
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Xiao-Min; He Ji-Zhou; Tang Wei
2009-01-01
This paper establishes the energy selective electron (ESE) engine with double resonances as a refrigerator in one dimensional (ID) system. It consists of two infinitely large electron reservoirs with different temperatures and chemical potentials, and they are perfectly thermally insulated from each other and interaction only via a double 'idealized energy filter' whose widths are all finite. Taking advantage of the density of state and Fermi distribution in the ID system, the heat flux into each reservoir may then be calculated. Moreover, the coefficient of performance may be derived from the expressions for the heat flux into the hot and cold reservoirs. The performance characteristic curves are plotted by numerical analysis. The influences of the resonances widths, the energy position of resonance and the space of two resonances on performance of the ESE refrigerator are discussed. The results obtained here have theoretical significance for the understanding of thermodynamic performance of the micro-nano devices.
On the orbital evolution of a pair of giant planets in mean motion resonance
André, Q
2016-01-01
Pairs of extrasolar giant planets in a mean motion commensurability are common with 2:1 resonance occurring most frequently. Disc-planet interaction provides a mechanism for their origin. However, the time scale on which this could operate in particular cases is unclear. We perform 2D and 3D numerical simulations of pairs of giant planets in a protoplanetary disc as they form and maintain a mean motion commensurability. We consider systems with current parameters similar to those of HD 155358, 24 Sextantis and HD 60532, and disc models of varying mass, decreasing mass corresponding to increasing age. For the lowest mass discs, systems with planets in the Jovian mass range migrate inwards maintaining a 2:1 commensurability. Systems with the inner planet currently at around 1 au from the central star could have originated at a few au and migrated inwards on a time scale comparable to protoplanetary disc lifetimes. Systems of larger mass planets such as HD 60532 attain 3:1 resonance as observed. For a given mass...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azorin N, J. [UAM-I, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)
2005-07-01
In this work, some historical and theoretical aspects about the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), its characteristics, the resonance detection, the paramagnetic species, the radiation effects on inorganic and organic materials, the diagrams of the instrumentation for the EPR detection, the performance of an EPR spectrometer, the coherence among EPR and dosimetry and, practical applications as well as in the food science there are presented. (Author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Murugesan; Cook; Devasahayam
1997-01-01
Imaging of free radicals by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using time domain acquisition as in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has not been attempted because of the short spin-spin relaxation times, typically under 1 μs, of most biologically relevant paramagnetic species...... to minimize motional artifacts from cardiac and lung motion that cause significant problems in frequency-domain spectral acquisition, such as in continuous wave (cw) EPR techniques...
Cooling Torsional Nanomechanical Vibration by Spin-Orbit Interactions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Nan; ZHOU Duan-Lu; ZHU Jia-Lin
2008-01-01
We propose and study a spin-orbit interaction based mechanism to actively cool down the torsional vibration of a nanomechanical resonator made by semiconductor materials. We show that the spin-orbit interactions of electrons can induce a coherent coupling between the electron spins and the torsional modes of nanomechanical vibration. This coupling leads to an active cooling for the torsional modes through the dynamical thermalization of the resonator by the spin ensemble.
Lv, Bo; Ma, Zhongshui
2013-01-01
The negative refracted transmission and retroreflection of electrons in low-electron-density semiconductors, in the presence of spin-orbit coupling, are theoretically predicted. It is shown that negative electronic transport may occur owing to the occurrence of additional states whose wave vectors are antiparallel to their group velocities. We conclude that the transport emerges as negative in nature in the scattering process if the sign of its ray equation is reversed with respect to that of the incidence's. We demonstrate this finding in the hybrid of two-dimensional electron gases with different Rashba spin-orbit couplings. We also show that the fundamental of negative electric transport is promising to focus a divergent electronic beam in a spintronic sandwich structure with flat surfaces.
Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of branched gap plasmon resonators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raza, Søren; Esfandyarpour, Majid; Koh, Ai Leen
2016-01-01
The miniaturization of integrated optical circuits below the diffraction limit for high-speed manipulation of information is one of the cornerstones in plasmonics research. By coupling to surface plasmons supported on nanostructured metallic surfaces, light can be confined to the nanoscale...... microscope combined with electron energy-loss spectroscopy, we experimentally show the propagation, bending and splitting of slot gap plasmons....
Tripathi, A. K.; Singhal, R. P.; Khazanov, G. V.; Avanov, L. A.
2016-04-01
Electron pitch angle (Dαα) and momentum (Dpp) diffusion coefficients have been calculated due to resonant interactions with electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) and whistler mode chorus waves. Calculations have been performed at two spatial locations L = 4.6 and 6.8 for electron energies ≤10 keV. Landau (n = 0) resonance and cyclotron harmonic resonances n = ±1, ±2, … ±5 have been included in the calculations. It is found that diffusion coefficient versus pitch angle (α) profiles show large dips and oscillations or banded structures. The structures are more pronounced for ECH and lower band chorus (LBC) and particularly at location 4.6. Calculations of diffusion coefficients have also been performed for individual resonances. It is noticed that the main contribution of ECH waves in pitch angle diffusion coefficient is due to resonances n = +1 and n = +2. A major contribution to momentum diffusion coefficients appears from n = +2. However, the banded structures in Dαα and Dpp coefficients appear only in the profile of diffusion coefficients for n = +2. The contribution of other resonances to diffusion coefficients is found to be, in general, quite small or even negligible. For LBC and upper band chorus waves, the banded structures appear only in Landau resonance. The Dpp diffusion coefficient for ECH waves is one to two orders smaller than Dαα coefficients. For chorus waves, Dpp coefficients are about an order of magnitude smaller than Dαα coefficients for the case n ≠ 0. In case of Landau resonance, the values of Dpp coefficient are generally larger than the values of Dαα coefficients particularly at lower energies. As an aid to the interpretation of results, we have also determined the resonant frequencies. For ECH waves, resonant frequencies have been estimated for wave normal angle 89° and harmonic resonances n = +1, +2, and +3, whereas for whistler mode waves, the frequencies have been calculated for angle 10° and Landau
Potential applications of an electron cyclotron resonance multicusp plasma source
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsai, C.C.; Berry, L.A.; Gorbatkin, S.M.; Haselton, H.H.; Roberto, J.B.; Schechter, D.E.; Stirling, W.L.
1990-03-01
An electric cyclotron resonance (ECR) multicusp plasmatron has been developed by feeding a multicusp bucket arc chamber with a compact ECR plasma source. This novel source produces large (about 25-cm- diam), uniform (to within {plus minus}10%), dense (>10{sup 11}--cm{sup {minus}3}) plasmas of argon, helium, hydrogen, and oxygen. It has been operated to produce an oxygen plasma for etching 12.7-cm (5-in.) positive photoresist-coated silicon wafers with uniformity within {plus minus}8%. Following a brief review of the large plasma source developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the configuration and operation of the source are described and a discharge model is presented. Results from this new ECR plasma source and potential applications for plasma processing of thin films are discussed. 21 refs., 10 figs.
Setzler, S D; Fernelius, N C; Scripsick, M P; Edwards, G J; Halliburton, L E
2003-01-01
Electron paramagnetic resonance and electron-nuclear double resonance have been used to characterize four Ti sup 3 sup + centres in undoped crystals of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO sub 4 or KTP). These 3d sup 1 defects (S = 1/2) are produced by ionizing radiation (either 60 kV x-rays or 355 nm photons from a tripled Nd:YAG laser), and form when the regular Ti sup 4 sup + ions in the crystal trap an electron. Two of these trapped-electron centres are only observed in hydrothermally grown KTP and the other two are dominant in flux-grown KTP. Both of the Ti sup 3 sup + centres in hydrothermally grown crystals have a neighbouring proton (i.e. an OH sup - molecule). In the flux-grown crystals, one of the Ti sup 3 sup + centres is adjacent to an oxygen vacancy and the other centre is tentatively attributed to a self-trapped electron (i.e. a Ti sup 3 sup + centre with no stabilizing entity nearby). The g matrix and phosphorus hyperfine matrices are determined for all four Ti sup 3 sup + centres, and the proto...
Smith-Purcell free electron laser based on the semi-elliptical resonator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Meng xian-Zhu; Wang Ming-Hong; Ren Zhong-Min
2011-01-01
A novel Smith-Purcell (S-P) free electron laser composed of an electron gun, a semi-elliptical resonator, a metallic reflecting grating and a collector, is presented for the first time. This paper studies the characteristics of this device by theoretical analysis and particle-in-cell simulation method. Results indicate that tunable coherent S-P radiation with a high output peak power at millimeter wavelengths can be generated by adjusting the length of the grating period,or adjusting the voltage of the electron beam. The present scheme has the following advantages: the semi-elliptical resonator can reflect all radiation with the emission angle θ and random azimuthal angles, back onto the electron beam with same-phase and causes the electrons to be modulated, so the output power and efficiency are improved.
Microwave power coupling with electron cyclotron resonance plasma using Langmuir probe
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S K Jain; V K Senecha; P A Naik; P R Hannurkar; S C Joshi
2013-07-01
Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma was produced at 2.45 GHz using 200 – 750 W microwave power. The plasma was produced from argon gas at a pressure of 2 × 10−4 mbar. Three water-cooled solenoid coils were used to satisfy the ECR resonant conditions inside the plasma chamber. The basic parameters of plasma, such as electron density, electron temperature, floating potential, and plasma potential, were evaluated using the current–voltage curve using a Langmuir probe. The effect of microwave power coupling to the plasma was studied by varying the microwave power. It was observed that the optimum coupling to the plasma was obtained for ∼ 600 W microwave power with an average electron density of ∼ 6 × 1011 cm−3 and average electron temperature of ∼ 9 eV.
Foltin, M.; Grill, V.; Märk, T. D.
1992-01-01
An additional electron attachment resonance peak, not observable in pure oxygen cluster anions, has been found at an energy of about 11.5 eV for both the stoichiometric Ar m(O 2) n- and the nonstoichiometric Ar m(O 2) n-1 O - cluster anions (produced by electron attachment to mixed argon-oxygen clusters). Two possible competing mechanisms are proposed to explain the appearance of these resonance peaks, i.e. the multiple-collision electron-scavenging mechanism and the core-excited resonance attachment mechanism. From the peak-width analysis it follows that in Ar m(O 2) 2- the first mechanism is dominant, while in Ar m(O 2) n-1 O - the second mechanism seems to be the only one occurring.
Resonant two-photon annihilation of an electron-positron pair in a pulsed electromagnetic wave
Voroshilo, A. I.; Roshchupkin, S. P.; Nedoreshta, V. N.
2016-09-01
Two-photon annihilation of an electron-positron pair in the field of a plane low-intensity circularly polarized pulsed electromagnetic wave was studied. The conditions for resonance of the process which are related to an intermediate particle that falls within the mass shell are studied. In the resonant approximation the probability of the process was obtained. It is demonstrated that the resonant probability of two-photon annihilation of an electron-positron pair may be several orders of magnitude higher than the probability of this process in the absence of the external field. The obtained results may be experimentally verified by the laser facilities of the international megaprojects, for example, SLAC (National Accelerator Laboratory), FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), and XFEL (European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser).
Gallium-assisted growth of silicon nanowires by electron cyclotron resonance plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hernandez, M J; Cervera, M; Ruiz, E; Pau, J L; Piqueras, J [Laboratorio de Microelectronica, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Avella, M; Jimenez, J, E-mail: maria.jesus.hernandez@uam.es [Fisica de la Materia Condensada, ETSII, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)
2010-11-12
The use of gallium droplets for growing Si nanowires (SiNWs) by electron cyclotron resonance plasmas is investigated. First, the relationship between evaporation time and resultant size of the gallium droplets is studied. Through the use of spectroscopic ellipsometry, the dependence of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) energy on the droplet size is determined. From these gallium droplets, SiNWs were grown at 300 and 550 deg. C in electron cyclotron resonance plasmas containing SiH{sub 4}, Ar, and H{sub 2}. Scanning electron microscopy results show that tapered NWs are obtained for a wide range of growth conditions. Besides, it is found that H{sub 2} plays an important role in the parasitic axial growth of the SiNWs. Namely, H{sub 2} inhibits the radial growth and contributes dramatically to increasing the SiNW defects.
Ishmuratov, I. K.; Baibekov, E. I.
2016-12-01
We investigate the possibility to restore transient nutations of electron spin centers embedded in the solid using specific composite pulse sequences developed previously for the application in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We treat two types of systematic errors simultaneously: (i) rotation angle errors related to the spatial distribution of microwave field amplitude in the sample volume, and (ii) off-resonance errors related to the spectral distribution of Larmor precession frequencies of the electron spin centers. Our direct simulations of the transient signal in erbium- and chromium-doped CaWO4 crystal samples with and without error corrections show that the application of the selected composite pulse sequences can substantially increase the lifetime of Rabi oscillations. Finally, we discuss the applicability limitations of the studied pulse sequences for the use in solid-state electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Suvorova, Alla V; Huang, Chien-Ming
2014-01-01
The work concerns a problem of electron-induced contaminant at relatively low latitudes to high-energy astrophysical measurements on board the low-orbiting satellites. We show the results of a statistical analysis of the energetic electron enhancements in energy range 30-300 keV observed by a fleet of NOAA/POES low-orbiting satellites over the time period from 1999 to 2012. We demonstrate geographical distributions of great and moderate long-lasting enhancements caused by different type of the solar wind drivers.
Distinguishing 3He and 4He with the Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) on Solar Orbiter
Boden, S.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Steinhagen, J.; Tammen, J.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Boettcher, S. I.; Seimetz, L.; Ravanbakhsh, A.; Elftmann, R.; Schuster, B.; Kulemzin, A.; Kolbe, S.; Mahesh, Y.; Knieriem, V.; Yu, J.; Kohler, J.; Panitzsch, L.; Terasa, C.; Boehm, E.; Rodriguez-Pacheco, J.; Prieto, M.; Gomez-Herrero, R.
2015-12-01
The Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) is one of the sensors of the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) for the Solar Orbiter mission, which will provide key measurements to address particle acceleration at and near the Sun. The EPD suite consists of four different sensors (STEP, SIS, EPT and HET) which together will resolve the energetic particle spectrum from 2 keV to 20 MeV for electrons, 3 keV to 100 MeV for protons and circa 100 keV/nuc to 100 MeV/nuc for heavier ions.EPT itself is primarily designed to cleanly separate and measure electrons in the energy range from 20 - 400 keV and protons from 20 - 7000 keV. To achieve this, EPT uses two back-to-back solid state detectors with a magnet system to deflect electrons on one side and a Polyimide foil to stop protons below ~400 keV on the other side. The two detectors then serve as each other's anti-coincidence. Additionally this setup also allows us to measure penetrating particles with deposited energies in the 1 MeV to 40 MeV range. Looking at the ratio of deposited energy in the two detectors versus total deposited energy allows us to differentiate between protons and alpha particles. Distinguishing 3He from 4He will be challenging, but possible provided good knowledge of the instrument, high-fidelity modeling and a precise calibration of EPT. Here, we will present feasibility studies leading to a determination of the 3He / 4He ratio with EPT.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Filip, Valeriu, E-mail: vfilip@gmail.com [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, 405 Atomistilor Str., Magurele 077125, P.O. Box MG-11 (Romania); Institute of Microelectronics and Photonics, Zhejiang University, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Wong, Hei, E-mail: xiwang@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Microelectronics and Photonics, Zhejiang University, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China)
2016-06-01
A simple model of a layered hetero-structure was developed and used to simultaneously compute and compare resonant and sequential electron field emission currents. It was found that, while various slope changes appear in both current-field characteristics, for the sequential tunneling type of emission, such features are merely interference effects. They occur in parts of the structure, prior to the electrons' lingering in the quasi-bound states from which field emission proceeds. These purely quantum effects further combine with the flow effects resulting from the steady current requirement and give corresponding field variations of the electron population of the quasi-bound states, which further react on the resonant part of the current. A spectral approach of the two types of field emission is also considered by computing the total energy distribution of electrons in each case. The differences between these possible spectra are pointed out and discussed. - Highlights: • The relationship between resonant and sequential field emission is studied. • Sequential current–voltage characteristics show barrier-controlled undulations. • Resonant characteristics depend mainly on the width/shape of the topmost well. • The resonant and sequential total energy distributions differ widely.
Electron specific track fitters and Jpsi resonance studies in ATLAS
Cheatham, Susan
This thesis discusses the reconstruction of J/psi to electron pairs based on fully simulated ATLAS Monte Carlo samples. A possible trigger strategy is described, taking advantage of the possible presence of a muon in the final state in bb production once one b-hadron decays into J/psi+X, followed by J/psi decay into e+e-. The tracks belonging to low-energy electrons are reconstructed using a dedicated algorithm, taking into account bremsstrahlung effects. The performance of this algorithm is compared with the other ATLAS track fitters and the potential of using this tracking algorithm to map the Inner Detector material is presented. The improvement in separation of indirect from prompt J/psi, by separately considering two kinematical configurations, `cowboys' and `sailors', is also presented, along with a feasibility study of measuring the ratio of indirect to prompt J/psi.
Critical Electron-Paramagnetic-Resonance Spin Dynamics in NiCl2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birgeneau, R.J.; Rupp, L.W.; Guggenheim, H.J.;
1973-01-01
We have studied the critical behavior of the electron-paramagnetic-resonance linewidth in the planar XY antiferromagnet NiCl2; it is found that the linewidth diverges like ξ∼(T-TN)-0.7 rather than ξ5/2 predicted by the current random-phase-approximation theory.......We have studied the critical behavior of the electron-paramagnetic-resonance linewidth in the planar XY antiferromagnet NiCl2; it is found that the linewidth diverges like ξ∼(T-TN)-0.7 rather than ξ5/2 predicted by the current random-phase-approximation theory....
Carbon monoxide dissociative attachment and resonant dissociation by electron-impact
Laporta, V.; Tennyson, J.; Celiberto, R.
2016-02-01
Low-energy dissociative electron attachment and resonant electron impact dissociation of CO molecule are considered. Ro-vibrationally resolved cross sections and rate coefficients for both the processes are calculated using an ab-initio model based on the low-lying \\text{X}{{}2}\\Pi resonance of CO-. Final results show that the cross sections increases very rapidly as a function of the ro-vibrational level; these cross sections should be useful for understanding kinetic dissociation of CO in strongly non-equilibrium plasmas.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Strikwerda, Andrew C.;
2015-01-01
Summary form only given. Ultrafast electron field emission from gold resonant antennas induced by strong terahertz (THz) transient is investigated using two THz pulse experiments. It is shown that UV emission from nitrogen plasma generated by liberated electrons is a good indication of the local...... electric field at the antenna tip. Using this method resonant properties of antennas fabricated on high resistivity silicon are investigated in the strong field regime. Decrease of antenna Q-factor due to ultrafast carrier multiplication in the substrate is observed....
Inclusive results for electron and photon scattering in the resonance region
Buss, O; Mosel, U; Alvarez-Ruso, L
2008-01-01
We present a model for electron scattering off nuclei and photon absorption in the resonance energy region (W <= 2 GeV). The elementary gamma/gamma* N-vertex is described using in-medium kinematics and up-to-date form factors for QE-scattering, pion-production form-factors and resonance helicity amplitudes of the MAID analysis. We find good agreement with inclusive data on electron scattering off Oxygen. For photon absorption in Carbon we find a large impact of the momentum dependent mean-field acting on initial- and final-state baryons.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Efthimion, P.C.; Arunasalam, V.; Hosea, J.C.
1979-11-01
Fundamental electron cyclotron resonance damping for 4 mm waves with ordinary polarization is measured for propagation along the major radius traversing the midplane of the plasma in the Princeton Large Torus (PLT). Optical depths obtained from the data are in good agreement with those predicted by the relativistic hot plasma theory. Near blackbody emission over much of the plasma midplane is obtained and, in conjunction with the damping measurements, indicates that the vessel reflectivity is high. The practical use of ordinary mode fundamental electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in existing and future toroidal devices is supported by these results.
Cyclotron resonance in two-dimensional electron system with self-organized antidots
Suchalkin, S D; Zundel, M; Nachtwei, G; Klitzing, K V; Eberl, K
2001-01-01
The data on the experimental study on the cyclotron resonance in the two-dimensional electron system with the random scattering potential, conditioned by the massif of the AlInAs self-organized quantum islands, formed in the AlGaAs/GaAs heterotransition plane, are presented. The sharp narrowing of the cyclotron resonance with increase in the magnetic field, explained by the charge scattering peculiarities in the given potential is established. The obtained results suggest the strongly correlated electron state in the strong magnetic fields by the carriers concentrations lesser than the antidots concentrations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E.I. Kondratyeva, K.R. Safiullin, I.G. Motygullin, A.V. Klochkov, M.S. Tagirov, V.V. Kuzmin
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The effect of the heat treatment duration on the electron paramagnetic resonance signal amplitude of free radicals for various wood species was observed. It was found that the amplitude of the electron paramagnetic resonance signal grows linearly with the vacuum heat treatment duration. The quantitative measurements of color changes for various wood species (pine, spruce, larch, birch and small-leaved lime were performed. It is found that results of EPR experiments and color measurements of heat treated samples correlate with each other.
Kinetic instabilities in pulsed operation mode of a 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tarvainen, O., E-mail: olli.tarvainen@jyu.fi; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Laulainen, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, 40500 Jyväskylä (Finland); Izotov, I.; Mansfeld, D. [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ul‘yanova St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Skalyga, V. [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ul‘yanova St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)
2016-02-15
The occurrence of kinetic plasma instabilities is studied in pulsed operation mode of a 14 GHz A-electron cyclotron resonance type electron cyclotron resonance ion source. It is shown that the temporal delay between the plasma breakdown and the appearance of the instabilities is on the order of 10-100 ms. The most important parameters affecting the delay are magnetic field strength and neutral gas pressure. It is demonstrated that kinetic instabilities limit the high charge state ion beam production in the unstable operating regime.
Orbital angular momentum in electron diffraction and its use to determine chiral crystal symmetries
Juchtmans, Roeland
2015-01-01
In this work we present an alternative way to look at electron diffraction in a transmission electron microscope. In stead of writing the scattering amplitude in Fourier space as a set of plane waves, we use the cylindrical Fourier transform to describe the scattering amplitude in a basis of orbital angular momentum (OAM) eigenstates. We show how working in this framework can be very convenient when investigating e.g. rotation and screw axis symmetries. For the latter we find selection rules on the OAM-coefficients that unambiguously reveal the handedness of the screw axis. Detecting the OAM-coefficients of the scattering amplitude thus offers the possibility to detect the handedness of crystals without the need for dynamical simulations, the thickness of the sample nor the exact crystal structure. We propose an experimental setup to measure the OAM-components where an image of the crystal is taken after inserting a spiral phase plate in the diffraction plane and perform mulsti-slice simulations on $\\alpha$-q...
Mikajlo, E A; Ford, M J
2003-01-01
This paper presents an experimental measurement of the electronic structure of Na sub 2 O in the solid phase using electron momentum spectroscopy and compares the results with ab initio calculations performed within the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) approximation. While Hartree-Fock (HF) can reproduce elastic properties we find it overestimates splitting of the oxygen valence bands by around 30% and the width of the O 2p band by a factor of 2. Our experimental values are 15.85 +- 0.2 and 0.6 +- 0.2 eV for these two quantities, respectively. Density functional methods are significantly better, with the hybrid functional PBE0 predicting the oxygen bandgap to within the experimental error. PBE0 also gives the best estimate of the Na core level energies. In contrast, HF performs best for the splitting between the oxygen and sodium bands. Our experimental values of 32.85 +- 0.2 and 27.45 +- 0.2 eV for the Na 2p-Na 2s and O 2p-Na 2p splittings agree well with previous measurements. Distribution of el...
Ding, Ze-Min; Chen, Lin-Gen; Ge, Yan-Lin; Sun, Feng-Rui
2016-04-01
A theoretical model for energy selective electron (ESE) heat pumps operating with two-dimensional electron reservoirs is established in this study. In this model, a double-resonance energy filter operating with a total momentum filtering mechanism is considered for the transmission of electrons. The optimal thermodynamic performance of the ESE heat pump devices is also investigated. Numerical calculations show that the heating load of the device with two resonances is larger, whereas the coefficient of performance (COP) is lower than the ESE heat pump when considering a single-resonance filter. The performance characteristics of the ESE heat pumps in the total momentum filtering condition are generally superior to those with a conventional filtering mechanism. In particular, the performance characteristics of the ESE heat pumps considering a conventional filtering mechanism are vastly different from those of a device with total momentum filtering, which is induced by extra electron momentum in addition to the horizontal direction. Parameters such as resonance width and energy spacing are found to be associated with the performance of the electron system.
Electron spin resonance characterization of a multi-nitrogen complex in diamond
Iakoubovskii, K
2002-01-01
The W27 centre has been characterized by means of electron spin resonance in natural diamond. The centre exhibits spin S=1, a large spin-spin coupling constant D=99 mT, and a complex hyperfine interaction structure interpreted as originating from interaction of an S=1 electronic system with five nitrogen atoms: two of these sites are equivalent and are located near the S = 1 electrons; three others are nearly equivalent and more remote. The centre is suggested to include a divacancy, where one vacancy, bound to two nitrogen atoms and one carbon atom, has trapped an extra electron, while the second vacancy is bound to three substitutional nitrogen atoms.
Resonant Transmission of Electron Spin States through Multiple Aharonov-Bohm Rings
Cutright, Jim; Hedin, Eric; Joe, Yong
2011-10-01
An Aharonov-Bohm (AB) ring with embedded quantum dots (QD) in each arm and one -dimensional nanowires attached as leads acts as a primitive cell in this analysis. When a tunable, external magnetic field is parallel to the surface area of the ring it causes Zeeman splitting in the energy levels of the QDs. An electron that traverses these energy levels has the potential to interfere with other electrons and to produce spin polarized output. It is already known that upon output the transmission of the electrons through this system will have a resonant peak at each Zeeman split energy level. A system where multiple AB rings are connected in series is studied, to see how having the electrons pass through multiple, identical rings effects the resonant peaks in the transmission and the degree of spin polarization.
The new Resonating Valence Bond Method for ab-initio Electronic Simulations
Sorella, Sandro
2013-01-01
The Resonating Valence Bond theory of the chemical bond was introduced soon after the discovery of quantum mechanics and has contributed to explain the role of electron correlation within a particularly simple and intuitive approach where the chemical bond between two nearby atoms is described by one or more singlet electron pairs. In this chapter Pauling's resonating valence bond theory of the chemical bond is revisited within a new formulation, introduced by P.W. Anderson after the discovery of High-Tc superconductivity. It is shown that this intuitive picture of electron correlation becomes now practical and efficient, since it allows us to faithfully exploit the locality of the electron correlation, and to describe several new phases of matter, such as Mott insulators, High-Tc superconductors, and spin liquid phases.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Fen-Ce; HE Xian-Tu; SHENG Zheng-Mao; QIAO Bin; ZHANG Hong
2006-01-01
@@ Using the single electron model, the acceleration of electrons in combined circularly polarized intense laser fields and the spontaneous quasistatic fields (including axial and azimuthal magnetic fields, the axial and transverse electric fields) produced in intense laser plasma interaction is investigated analytically and numerically by fitting the proper parameters of the quasistatic fields based on the data from the experiment and numerical calculation.A new resonant condition is given. It is found that the resonance acceleration of electron depends not only on laser field, but also on the bounce frequency oscillating in the quasistatic magnetic field and electric field. The net energy gained by electron does not increase monotonously with axial electric field, but there are some optimal axial electric fields.
Patil, Urvesh; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran
2017-01-01
The use of an asymmetric broadening in the transport distribution, a characteristic of resonant structures, is proposed as a route to engineer a decrease in electronic thermal conductivity thereby enhancing the electronic figure of merit in nanostructured thermoelectrics. Using toy models, we first demonstrate that a decrease in thermal conductivity resulting from such an asymmetric broadening may indeed lead to an electronic figure of merit well in excess of 1000 in an idealized situation and in excess of 10 in a realistic situation. We then substantiate with realistic resonant structures designed using graphene nano-ribbons by employing a tight binding framework with edge correction that match density functional theory calculations under the local density approximation. The calculated figure of merit exceeding 10 in such realistic structures further reinforces the concept and sets a promising direction to use nano-ribbon structures to engineer a favorable decrease in the electronic thermal conductivity.
Resonance between coherent whistler mode waves and electrons in the topside ionosphere
Neubert, T.; Bell, T. F.; Storey, L. R. O.
1987-01-01
Landau resonance and cyclotron resonance of coherent whistler mode waves and energetic electrons are explored for magnetoplasmas with appreciable gradients in the plasma density and magnetic field strength. It is shown that in the topside ionosphere of the earth near the ion transition height the gradients in plasma density and magnetic field strength along a magnetic field line may match in a way which enhances both Landau and cyclotron interactions between waves and electrons at the loss cone pitch angle. The pitch angle scattering induced by a signal from a ground-based VLF transmitter in the ionosphere above the transmitter has been estimated and compared to the pitch angle scattering induced by naturally occurring ELF hiss through cyclotron resonance. It is found that the expected scattering due to plasmapheric hiss is an order of magnitude larger than that due to Landau resonance in the topside ionosphere. Pitch angle scattering due to cyclotron resonance in the topside ionosphere, however, may be larger by a factor of 2. It is suggested that the 'fast Trimpi' effect may be caused by a cyclotron resonance interaction in the topside ionosphere.
Phonon-electron interactions in piezoelectric semiconductor bulk acoustic wave resonators.
Gokhale, Vikrant J; Rais-Zadeh, Mina
2014-07-08
This work presents the first comprehensive investigation of phonon-electron interactions in bulk acoustic standing wave (BAW) resonators made from piezoelectric semiconductor (PS) materials. We show that these interactions constitute a significant energy loss mechanism and can set practical loss limits lower than anharmonic phonon scattering limits or thermoelastic damping limits. Secondly, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that phonon-electron interactions, under appropriate conditions, can result in a significant acoustic gain manifested as an improved quality factor (Q). Measurements on GaN resonators are consistent with the presented interaction model and demonstrate up to 35% dynamic improvement in Q. The strong dependencies of electron-mediated acoustic loss/gain on resonance frequency and material properties are investigated. Piezoelectric semiconductors are an extremely important class of electromechanical materials, and this work provides crucial insights for material choice, material properties, and device design to achieve low-loss PS-BAW resonators along with the unprecedented ability to dynamically tune resonator Q.
Multicusp type electron cyclotron resonance plasma with arrangement of permanent magnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amemiya, H.; Maeda, M. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)
1995-09-01
ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) plasmas are generated in a multicusp field of 12-pole formed by permanent magnets, where the polarity of the magnetic field at the end sections is reversed to reflect axially drifting electrons as in the mirror field. Furthermore, the radius of multicusp is contracted below the cut-off radius of the waveguide in vacuum. This is effective in increasing the microwave power absorbed in the plasma and the ion density. (author).
A New Class of Resonances at the Edge of the Two Dimensional Electron Gas
Zhitenev, N. B.; Brodsky, M; Ashoori, R. C.; Melloch, M. R.
1996-01-01
We measure the frequency dependent capacitance of a gate covering the edge and part of a two-dimensional electron gas in the quantum Hall regime. In applying a positive gate bias, we create a metallic puddle under the gate surrounded by an insulating region. Charging of the puddle occurs via electron tunneling from a metallic edge channel. Analysis of the data allows direct extraction of this tunneling conductance. Novel conductance resonances appear as a function of gate bias. Samples with g...
Mangion, Ian; Liu, Yizhou; Reibarkh, Mikhail; Williamson, R Thomas; Welch, Christopher J
2016-08-19
As new chemical methodologies driven by single-electron chemistry emerge, process and analytical chemists must develop approaches to rapidly solve problems in this nontraditional arena. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy has been long known as a preferred technique for the study of paramagnetic species. However, it is only recently finding application in contemporary pharmaceutical development, both to study reactions and to track the presence of undesired impurities. Several case studies are presented here to illustrate its utility in modern pharmaceutical development efforts.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pascal R. Ewen
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The improvement of molecular electronic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes requires fundamental knowledge about the structural and electronic properties of the employed molecules as well as their interactions with neighboring molecules or interfaces. We show that highly resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM and spectroscopy (STS are powerful tools to correlate the electronic properties of phosphorescent complexes (i.e., triplet emitters with their molecular structure as well as the local environment around a single molecule. We used spectroscopic mapping to visualize several occupied and unoccupied molecular frontier orbitals of Pt(II complexes adsorbed on Au(111. The analysis showed that the molecules exhibit a peculiar localized strong hybridization that leads to partial depopulation of a dz² orbital, while the ligand orbitals are almost unchanged. We further found that substitution of functional groups at well-defined positions can alter specific molecular orbitals without influencing the others. The results open a path toward the tailored design of electronic and optical properties of triplet emitters by smart ligand substitution, which may improve the performance of future OLED devices.
DEPENDENCE OF ELECTRON-CAPTURE FROM NA-ASTERISK(3P) ON ORBITAL ALIGNMENT - A KINEMATIC EFFECT
SCHLATMANN, AR; MORGENSTERN, R
1993-01-01
Recent experimental data of electron capture into He+(4l) states from SIGMA and PI aligned Na*(3p) orbitals are interpreted. Calculations of the overlap integral of the initial Na*(3p) and the final He+(4l) wavefunctions in momentum space reproduce the velocity dependence of the measured cross secti
Aguiar-Hualde, J. M.; Chiappe, G.; Louis, E.
2007-08-01
The effects of the on-site electron-electron (e-e) interaction U on the electronic transport across two longitudinally embedded quantum dots in the regime in which the antibonding (AB) state of the isolated composite system is aligned with the Fermi level at the leads are investigated. This regime occurs when the dot orbital energy γd is negative and equal in magnitude to the hopping probability between the orbitals on the two dots. In the noninteracting case, the conductance approaches asymptotically the conductance quantum G0=2e2/h as γd decreases; in addition, the contribution of the AB channel to the conductance tends to 1. As shown here, this picture is substantially modified by the e-e interaction. For finite U , the conductance versus γd shows a maximum at which the value G0 is reached, being supported in this case by the two channels (bonding and antibonding); the relative weight of each channel depends on the actual value of the e-e interaction. In the limit γd=-∞ , the conductance is supported only by the AB channel (as in the noninteracting case), but it is always smaller than G0 . While the mechanism underlying these results is mainly one body for small U , the Kondo effect and quantum interference come into play at large U . The effects of the e-e interaction increase significantly as the leads-dots coupling decreases, in particular, the range over which the conductance is non-negligible is significantly narrowed. The possible implications on a physically related system, a hydrogen molecule longitudinally bridging two Pt electrodes, are discussed.
Electron spin resonance studies on PS, PP and PS/PP blends under gamma irradiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reyes, Jacobo E-mail: reyesj@camelot.rect.ucv.ve; Albano, Carmen E-mail: calbano@ivic.vealbanoc@camelot.rect.ucv.ve; Claro, Marjorie; Moronta, Delfin
2003-06-01
Electron spin resonance studies on polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP) and on 80/20 PS/PP blends with and without compatibilizer (block SBS), at 7.5 wt%, irradiated with gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co source at a dose rate of 4.8 kGy/h and at integral irradiation doses of 10, 25, 50, 60, 70, 400, 800 and 1300 kGy in the presence of air and at room temperature are reported. Dependence of resonance line width, Hpp, resonance line shapes, K, and resonance line intensity, Ipp, on the integral dose of irradiation is investigated. Nature of free radicals after 10 days of air storage is discussed.
Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of beta-alumina, a prototype glass
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurtz, Steven Ross
1980-01-01
Electron paramagnetic resonance techniques are used to study single crystal Na, K, and Li beta-alumina. Color centers are introduced into this material by irradiating the samples with electrons at liquid nitrogen temperature. Using electron paramagnetic resonance and electron nuclear double resonance, the color centers generated in this manner are identified, and their location within the material is determined. For one of these centers, an F/sup +/ center, the electron spin relaxation rate is measured over the range 2 to 20/sup 0/K using the pulse saturation and recovery technique. These measurements reveal an exceptionally fast relaxation rate with anomalous temperature and microwave frequency dependence. Beta-alumina is a structurally unique system. It is partially disordered and consists of ordered blocks of aluminum oxide separated by planar disordered regions. Extensive measurements have shown that beta-alumina displays properties identical to those observed for glasses at low temperature as a result of this limited structural disorder. These glass-like properties have been explained by proposing that atomic tunneling occurs in beta-alumina at low temperature producing a system of localized two level states. A model is developed which quantitatively describes the electron spin relaxation data. The proposed relaxation mechanism couples the color center spin to the phonon induced relaxation of a nearby localized two level tunneling state. A detailed comparison shows that this model is in good agreement with earlier heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and dielectric susceptibility measurements in beta-alumina.
Tarvainen, O; Laulainen, J; Komppula, J; Kronholm, R; Kalvas, T; Koivisto, H; Izotov, I; Mansfeld, D; Skalyga, V
2015-02-01
Electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plasmas are prone to kinetic instabilities due to anisotropy of the electron energy distribution function stemming from the resonant nature of the electron heating process. Electron cyclotron plasma instabilities are related to non-linear interaction between plasma waves and energetic electrons resulting to strong microwave emission and a burst of energetic electrons escaping the plasma, and explain the periodic oscillations of the extracted beam currents observed in several laboratories. It is demonstrated with a minimum-B 14 GHz ECRIS operating on helium, oxygen, and argon plasmas that kinetic instabilities restrict the parameter space available for the optimization of high charge state ion currents. The most critical parameter in terms of plasma stability is the strength of the solenoid magnetic field. It is demonstrated that due to the instabilities the optimum Bmin-field in single frequency heating mode is often ≤0.8BECR, which is the value suggested by the semiempirical scaling laws guiding the design of modern ECRISs. It is argued that the effect can be attributed not only to the absolute magnitude of the magnetic field but also to the variation of the average magnetic field gradient on the resonance surface.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tarvainen, O., E-mail: olli.tarvainen@jyu.fi; Laulainen, J.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, 40500 Jyväskylä (Finland); Izotov, I.; Mansfeld, D. [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ul‘yanova St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Skalyga, V. [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ul‘yanova St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)
2015-02-15
Electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plasmas are prone to kinetic instabilities due to anisotropy of the electron energy distribution function stemming from the resonant nature of the electron heating process. Electron cyclotron plasma instabilities are related to non-linear interaction between plasma waves and energetic electrons resulting to strong microwave emission and a burst of energetic electrons escaping the plasma, and explain the periodic oscillations of the extracted beam currents observed in several laboratories. It is demonstrated with a minimum-B 14 GHz ECRIS operating on helium, oxygen, and argon plasmas that kinetic instabilities restrict the parameter space available for the optimization of high charge state ion currents. The most critical parameter in terms of plasma stability is the strength of the solenoid magnetic field. It is demonstrated that due to the instabilities the optimum B{sub min}-field in single frequency heating mode is often ≤0.8B{sub ECR}, which is the value suggested by the semiempirical scaling laws guiding the design of modern ECRISs. It is argued that the effect can be attributed not only to the absolute magnitude of the magnetic field but also to the variation of the average magnetic field gradient on the resonance surface.
Results of RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with 28 GHz.
Higurashi, Y; Ohnishi, J; Nakagawa, T; Haba, H; Tamura, M; Aihara, T; Fujimaki, M; Komiyama, M; Uchiyama, A; Kamigaito, O
2012-02-01
We measured the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions and x-ray heat load for RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with 28 GHz microwaves under the various conditions. The beam intensity of Xe(20+) became maximum at B(min) ∼ 0.65 T, which was ∼65% of the magnetic field strength of electron cyclotron resonance (B(ECR)) for 28 GHz microwaves. We observed that the heat load of x-ray increased with decreasing gas pressure and field gradient at resonance zone. It seems that the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions with 28 GHz is higher than that with 18 GHz at same RF power.
Kato, Yushi; Watanabe, Takeyoshi; Matsui, Yuuki; Hirai, Yoshiaki; Kutsumi, Osamu; Sakamoto, Naoki; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki
2010-02-01
A new concept on magnetic field with all magnets on plasma production and confinement has been proposed to enhance efficiency of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma for broad and dense ion beam source under the low pressure. The magnetic field configuration is constructed by a pair of magnets assembly, i.e., comb-shaped magnet which cylindrically surrounds the plasma chamber. The resonance zones corresponding to the fundamental ECR for 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz frequencies are constructed at different positions. The profiles of the plasma parameters in the ECR ion source are different from each frequency of microwave. Large bore extractor is set at the opposite side against the microwave feeds. It is found that differences of their profiles also appear at those of ion beam profiles. We conducted to launch simultaneously multiplex frequencies microwaves controlled individually, and tried to control the profiles of the plasma parameters and then those of extracted ion beam.
Dissociative Electron Attachment to Carbon Dioxide via the 8.2 eV Feshbach resonance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Slaughter, Dan; Adaniya, Hidihito; Rescigno, Tom; Haxton, Dan; Orel, Ann; McCurdy, Bill; Belkacem, Ali
2011-08-17
Momentum imaging experiments on dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to CO{sub 2} are combined with the results of ab initio calculations to provide a detailed and consistent picture of the dissociation dynamics through the 8.2 eV resonance, which is the major channel for DEA in CO{sub 2}. The present study resolves several puzzling misconceptions about this system.
The Effect of Electronic Paramagnetism on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Frequencies in Metals
Townes, C. H.; Herring, C.; Knight, W. D.
1950-09-22
Observations on the shifts of nuclear resonances in metals ( Li{sup 7}, Na{sup 23}, Cu {sup 63}, Be{sup 9}, Pb{sup 207}, Al{sup 27}, and Ca{sup 69} ) due to free electron paramagnetism; comparison with theoretical values.
Isotopic anomaly for carbon ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source
Drentje, A. G.; Kitagawa, A.; Muramatsu, M.
2010-01-01
In many experiments methods were applied to increase the highly charged ion output from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source; the gas-mixing method is still generally being applied. The dominant role of the masses of the ions in the gas-mixture was apparent. Two basically differing mechanisms
Techniques and mechanisms applied in electron cyclotron resonance sources for highly charged ions
Drentje, AG
2003-01-01
Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are delivering beams of highly charged ions for a wide range of applications in many laboratories. For more than two decades, the development of these ion sources has been to a large extent an intuitive and experimental enterprise. Much effort has been spent
Temperature Regulating System for Use with an Electron Spin Resonance Spectrometer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fenger, J.
1965-01-01
A servosystem that controls the sample temperature in an electron spin resonance spectrometer is described. It is based upon the regulation of the combination of two nitrogen gas flows of different temperatures. The temperature can be preset with an accuracy to about 1 degC between -140 and 100°C...
Status of the PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder at ISOLDE, CERN.
Barton, Charles; Cederkall, Joakim; Delahaye, Pierre; Kester, Oliver; Lamy, Thierry; Marie-Jeanne, Mélanie
2008-02-01
We report here on the last progresses made with the PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder test bench at ISOLDE. Recently, an experiment was performed to test the trapping of (61)Fe daughter nuclides from the decay of (61)Mn nuclides. Preliminary results are given.
Three-wave interaction during electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Hansen, Søren Kjer
2016-01-01
Non-linear wave-wave interactions in fusion plasmas, such as the parametric decay instability (PDI) of gyrotron radiation, can potentially hamper the use of microwave diagnostics. Here we report on anomalous scattering in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak during electron cyclotron resonance heating...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reigue, Antoine; Iles-Smith, Jake; Lux, Fabian
2017-01-01
We investigate the temperature dependence of photon coherence properties through two-photon interference (TPI) measurements from a single quantum dot (QD) under resonant excitation. We show that the loss of indistinguishability is related only to the electron-phonon coupling and is not affected...
van Geuns, RJM; Oudkerk, M; Rensing, BJWM; Bongaerts, AHH; de Bruin, Hein G.; Wielopolski, PA; van Ooijen, P; de Feyter, PJ; Serruys, PW
2002-01-01
In 27 patients, we compared the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) for noninvasive detection of coronary artery stenosis using conventional coronary angiography as the "gold standard." The overall sensitivity and specificity for EBCT to
Modeling and analysis of harmonic resonance in a power electronics based AC power system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe
2013-01-01
The dynamic interactions among the interconnected power converters may bring in harmonic resonance in a power electronics based power system. This paper addresses this issue in a power system dominated by multiple current- and voltage-controlled inverters with LCL- and LC-filters. The impedance-b...
Techniques and mechanisms applied in electron cyclotron resonance sources for highly charged ions
Drentje, AG
Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are delivering beams of highly charged ions for a wide range of applications in many laboratories. For more than two decades, the development of these ion sources has been to a large extent an intuitive and experimental enterprise. Much effort has been spent
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Babicheva, Viktoriia; Uskov, Alexander
2014-01-01
effects in the formation of plasmonic resonance is diminished. We also show that 5-20 times increase of photoemission can be achieved on embedding of nanoparticles without taking into account dynamics of ballistic electrons. The results obtained can be used to increase efficiency of plasmon...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bamzai, K.K., E-mail: kkbamz@yahoo.com [Crystal Growth and Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu, Jammu (India); Kour, Gurbinder; Kaur, Balwinder [Crystal Growth and Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu, Jammu (India); Arora, Manju; Pant, R.P. [National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi (India)
2013-11-15
Dysprosium substituted magnesium ferrite with composition MgDy{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 4} with 0.00≤x≤0.07 synthesized by the solid state reaction technique was subjected to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance studies. Infrared spectrum analysis were carried out to confirm the spinel phase formation and to ascertain the cation distribution in the ferrite phase. The absorption spectra show two significant absorption bands between 400 and 1000 cm{sup −1} which are attributed to tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) sites of the spinel phase. The positions of bands were found to be composition dependent. Splitting of bands as well as appearance of shoulders shows the presence of Fe{sup 2+} ions in the system. The force constants for tetrahedral and octahedral sites were calculated and found to vary with Dy{sup 3+} ions content. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of these samples exhibit broad, asymmetric resonance signal due to Fe{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+} ions present in the host lattice. The spectra become broader with Dy{sup 3+} ions substitution in pure Mg-ferrite and this broadening is attributed to surface spin disorder (spin frustration) possibly coming from mainly antiferromagnetic interactions between the neighbouring spins in the magnetic grains. The weak superexchange interactions results in the broadening of the resonance line width and large g-value as compared to the free electron value. - Highlights: • Absorption bands between 400 and 1000 cm{sup −1} reveal the formation of spinel phase. • The force constant on tetrahedral and octahedral site is used to explain the bond length. • Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra exhibit broad, asymmetric resonance peaks. • Spin frustration in spinel ferrites is explained by the broadening of line width.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gutierrez T, C.; Hernandez A, O. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)
1999-07-01
The study of the different schemes of plasma heating by radiofrequency waves is a very actual problem related with the plasma heating in different machines and the particle acceleration mechanisms. In this work, it is obtained the expression for the temporal evolution of the energy absorbed in the cyclotron resonance of electrons where it is showed the stochastic character of the energy absorption. It is obtained the stochastic criteria in a magnetic configuration of an Ecr type plasma source. (Author)
Sato, Kazuo; Nakazawa, Shigeki; Rahimi, Robabeh D.; Nishida, Shinsuke; Ise, Tomoaki; Shimoi, Daisuke; Toyota, Kazuo; Morita, Yasushi; Kitagawa, Masahiro; Carl, Parick; Höfner, Peter; Takui, Takeji
2009-06-01
Electrons with the spin quantum number 1/2, as physical qubits, have naturally been anticipated for implementing quantum computing and information processing (QC/QIP). Recently, electron spin-qubit systems in organic molecular frames have emerged as a hybrid spin-qubit system along with a nuclear spin-1/2 qubit. Among promising candidates for QC/QIP from the materials science side, the reasons for why electron spin-qubits such as molecular spin systems, i.e., unpaired electron spins in molecular frames, have potentialities for serving for QC/QIP will be given in the lecture (Chapter), emphasizing what their advantages or disadvantages are entertained and what technical and intrinsic issues should be dealt with for the implementation of molecular-spin quantum computers in terms of currently available spin manipulation technology such as pulse-based electron-nuclear double resonance (pulsed or pulse ENDOR) devoted to QC/QIP. Firstly, a general introduction and introductory remarks to pulsed ENDOR spectroscopy as electron-nuclear spin manipulation technology is given. Super dense coding (SDC) experiments by the use of pulsed ENDOR are also introduced to understand differentiating QC ENDOR from QC NMR based on modern nuclear spin technology. Direct observation of the spinor inherent in an electron spin, detected for the first time, will be shown in connection with the entanglement of an electron-nuclear hybrid system. Novel microwave spin manipulation technology enabling us to deal with genuine electron-electron spin-qubit systems in the molecular frame will be introduced, illustrating, from the synthetic strategy of matter spin-qubits, a key-role of the molecular design of g-tensor/hyperfine-(A-)tensor molecular engineering for QC/QIP. Finally, important technological achievements of recently-emerging CD ELDOR (Coherent-Dual ELectron-electron DOuble Resonance) spin technology enabling us to manipulate electron spin-qubits are described.
Stevens, K T; Setzler, S D; Schünemann, P G; Pollak, T M
2003-01-01
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electron-nuclear double resonance have been used to characterize the neutral copper acceptor in ZnGeP sub 2 crystals. The copper substitutes for zinc and behaves as a conventional acceptor (i.e. the 3d electrons do not play a dominant role). Because of a high degree of compensation from native donors, the copper acceptors in our samples were initially in the nonparamagnetic singly ionized state (Cu sub Z sub n sup -). The paramagnetic neutral state (Cu sub Z sub n sup 0) was observed when the crystals were exposed to 632.8 nm or 1064 nm laser light while being held at a temperature below 50 K. The g matrix of the neutral copper acceptor is axial g sub p sub a sub r = 2.049 and g sub p sub e sub r sub p = 2.030), with the unique principal direction parallel to the tetragonal c axis of the crystal. The hyperfine and nuclear quadrupole matrices also exhibit c-axis symmetry (A sub p sub a sub r = 87.6 MHz, A sub p sub e sub r sub p = 34.8 MHz and P = 0.87 MHz for sup 6 su...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McColl, W.; Brooks, C.; Brake, M.L.
1992-12-31
This progress report consists of an article, the abstract of which follows, and apparently the references and vita from a proposal. A review of perturbation diagnostics applied to microwave resonant cavity discharges is presented. The classical microwave perturbation technique examines the shift in the resonant frequency and cavity quality factor of the resonant cavity caused by low electron density discharges. However, modifications presented here allow the analysis to be applied to discharges with electron densities beyond the limit predicted by perturbation theory. An {open_quote}exact{close_quote} perturbation analysis is presented which models the discharge as a separate dielectric, thereby removing the restrictions on electron density imposed by the classical technique. The {open_quote}exact{close_quote} method also uses measurements of the shifts in the resonant conditions of the cavity. Thirdly, an electromagnetic analysis is presented which uses a characteristic equation, based upon Maxwell`s laws, and predicts the discharge conductivity based upon measurements of a complex axial wave number. By allowing the axial wave number of the electromagnetic fields to be complex, the fields are experimentally and theoretically shown to be spatially attenuated. The diagnostics are applied to continuous-wave microwave (2.45 GHz) discharges produced in an Asmussen resonant cavity. Double Langmuir probes, placed directly in the discharge at the point where the radial electric field is zero, act as a comparison with the analytic diagnostics. Microwave powers ranging from 30 to 100 watts produce helium and nitrogen discharges with pressures ranging from 0.5 to 6 torr. Analysis of the data predicts electron temperatures from 5 to 20 eV, electron densities from 10{sup 11} to 3 {times} 10{sup 12} cm{sup {minus}3}, and collision frequencies from 10{sup 9} to 10{sup 11} sec{sup {minus}1}.
Shrestha, Kushal; Virgil, Kyle A; Jakubikova, Elena
2016-07-28
Tetrapyrrole-based pigments play a crucial role in photosynthesis as principal light absorbers in light-harvesting chemical systems. As such, accurate theoretical descriptions of the electronic absorption spectra of these pigments will aid in the proper description and understanding of the overall photophysics of photosynthesis. In this work, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) at the CAM-B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory is employed to produce the theoretical absorption spectra of several tetrapyrrole-based pigments. However, the application of TD-DFT to large systems with several hundreds of atoms can become computationally prohibitive. Therefore, in this study, TD-DFT calculations with reduced orbital spaces (ROSs) that exclude portions of occupied and virtual orbitals are pursued as a viable, computationally cost-effective alternative to conventional TD-DFT calculations. The effects of reducing orbital space size on theoretical spectra are qualitatively and quantitatively described, and both conventional and ROS results are benchmarked against experimental absorption spectra of various tetrapyrrole-based pigments. The orbital reduction approach is also applied to a large natural pigment assembly that comprises the principal light-absorbing component of the reaction center in purple bacteria. Overall, we find that TD-DFT calculations with proper and judicious orbital space reductions can adequately reproduce conventional, full orbital space, TD-DFT results of all pigments studied in this work.
Electron states in a quantum dot in an effective-bond-orbital model
Nair, Selvakumar V.; Ramaniah, Lavanya M.; Rustagi, Kailash C.
1992-03-01
The electronic-level structure in semiconductor quantum dots is investigated in a tight-binding framework. The energy levels and wave functions of GaAs and CdS crystallites containing up to ~4000 atoms are calculated using an effective-bond-orbital model. The results obtained for GaAs crystallites by using parameters that accurately reproduce the band structure near the Γ point are compared with those obtained by calculations based on a multiband effective-mass theory. The effective-mass approximation (EMA) is found to correctly describe the qualitative features of the level structure, such as the bunching of levels and the spatial dependence of the wave functions. However, for very small particles the EMA grossly overestimates the confinement energies mainly because of the deviation of the bulk band structure from parabolic dispersion at high energies. For CdS crystallites we use a parametrization scheme that reproduces the main features of the bulk band structure throughout the Brillouin zone, and compare the results with those obtained by the multiband EMA, as well as with experimental data on interband transitions.
Lin, Lin; Yang, Chao; He, Lixin
2012-01-01
We describe how to apply the recently developed pole expansion plus selected inversion (PEpSI) technique to Kohn-Sham density function theory (DFT) electronic structure calculations that are based on atomic orbital discretization. We give analytic expressions for evaluating charge density, total energy, Helmholtz free energy and atomic forces without using the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian. We also show how to update the chemical potential without using Kohn-Sham eigenvalues. The advantage of using PEpSI is that it has a much lower computational complexity than that associated with the matrix diagonalization procedure. We demonstrate the performance gain by comparing the timing of PEpSI with that of diagonalization on insulating and metallic nanotubes. For these quasi-1D systems, the complexity of PEpSI is linear with respect to the number of atoms. This linear scaling can be observed in our computational experiments when the number of atoms in a nanotube is larger than a few hundr...
Juchtmans, Roeland
2015-01-01
The orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light and matter waves is a parameter that is getting increasingly more attention over the past couple of years. Beams with a well defined OAM, the so-called vortex beams, are applied already in e.g. telecommunication, astrophysics, nanomanipulation and chiral measurements in optics and electron microscopy. Also the OAM of a wave induced by the interaction with a sample, shows great potential of interest. In all these experiments it is crucial to measure the exact (local) OAM content of the wave, whether it is an incoming vortex beam or an exit wave after interacting with a sample. In this work we investigate the use of spiral phase plates as an alternative to the programmable phase plates used in optics to measure OAM. We derive analytically how these can be used to study the local OAM components of any wave function. By means of numerical simulations we illustrate how the OAM of a pure vortex beam can be measured. We also look at a sum of misaligned vortex beams and sho...
A High Power Density Power System Electronics for NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter
Hernandez-Pellerano, A.; Stone, R.; Travis, J.; Kercheval, B.; Alkire, G.; Ter-Minassian, V.
2009-01-01
A high power density, modular and state-of-the-art Power System Electronics (PSE) has been developed for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission. This paper addresses the hardware architecture and performance, the power handling capabilities, and the fabrication technology. The PSE was developed by NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and is the central location for power handling and distribution of the LRO spacecraft. The PSE packaging design manages and distributes 2200W of solar array input power in a volume less than a cubic foot. The PSE architecture incorporates reliable standard internal and external communication buses, solid state circuit breakers and LiIon battery charge management. Although a single string design, the PSE achieves high reliability by elegantly implementing functional redundancy and internal fault detection and correction. The PSE has been environmentally tested and delivered to the LRO spacecraft for the flight Integration and Test. This modular design is scheduled to flight in early 2009 on board the LRO and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) spacecrafts and is the baseline architecture for future NASA missions such as Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) and Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Lin; Chen, Mohan; Yang, Chao; He, Lixin
2012-02-10
We describe how to apply the recently developed pole expansion plus selected inversion (PEpSI) technique to Kohn-Sham density function theory (DFT) electronic structure calculations that are based on atomic orbital discretization. We give analytic expressions for evaluating charge density, total energy, Helmholtz free energy and atomic forces without using the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian. We also show how to update the chemical potential without using Kohn-Sham eigenvalues. The advantage of using PEpSI is that it has a much lower computational complexity than that associated with the matrix diagonalization procedure. We demonstrate the performance gain by comparing the timing of PEpSI with that of diagonalization on insulating and metallic nanotubes. For these quasi-1D systems, the complexity of PEpSI is linear with respect to the number of atoms. This linear scaling can be observed in our computational experiments when the number of atoms in a nanotube is larger than a few hundreds. Both the wall clock time and the memory requirement of PEpSI is modest. This makes it even possible to perform Kohn-Sham DFT calculations for 10,000-atom nanotubes on a single processor. We also show that the use of PEpSI does not lead to loss of accuracy required in a practical DFT calculation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, Albert A.; Corzilius, Björn; Haze, Olesya; Swager, Timothy M.; Griffin, Robert G., E-mail: rgg@mit.edu [Department of Chemistry and Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2013-12-07
We present electron paramagnetic resonance experiments for which solid effect dynamic nuclear polarization transitions were observed indirectly via polarization loss on the electron. This use of indirect observation allows characterization of the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) process close to the electron. Frequency profiles of the electron-detected solid effect obtained using trityl radical showed intense saturation of the electron at the usual solid effect condition, which involves a single electron and nucleus. However, higher order solid effect transitions involving two, three, or four nuclei were also observed with surprising intensity, although these transitions did not lead to bulk nuclear polarization—suggesting that higher order transitions are important primarily in the transfer of polarization to nuclei nearby the electron. Similar results were obtained for the SA-BDPA radical where strong electron-nuclear couplings produced splittings in the spectrum of the indirectly observed solid effect conditions. Observation of high order solid effect transitions supports recent studies of the solid effect, and suggests that a multi-spin solid effect mechanism may play a major role in polarization transfer via DNP.
Smith, Albert A; Corzilius, Björn; Haze, Olesya; Swager, Timothy M; Griffin, Robert G
2013-12-01
We present electron paramagnetic resonance experiments for which solid effect dynamic nuclear polarization transitions were observed indirectly via polarization loss on the electron. This use of indirect observation allows characterization of the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) process close to the electron. Frequency profiles of the electron-detected solid effect obtained using trityl radical showed intense saturation of the electron at the usual solid effect condition, which involves a single electron and nucleus. However, higher order solid effect transitions involving two, three, or four nuclei were also observed with surprising intensity, although these transitions did not lead to bulk nuclear polarization--suggesting that higher order transitions are important primarily in the transfer of polarization to nuclei nearby the electron. Similar results were obtained for the SA-BDPA radical where strong electron-nuclear couplings produced splittings in the spectrum of the indirectly observed solid effect conditions. Observation of high order solid effect transitions supports recent studies of the solid effect, and suggests that a multi-spin solid effect mechanism may play a major role in polarization transfer via DNP.
Kuo, S. P.
2008-10-01
An optimal approach reducing the population of MeV electrons in the magnetosphere is presented. Under a double resonance condition, whistler wave is simultaneously in cyclotron resonance with keV and MeV electrons. The injected whistler waves is first amplified by the background keV electrons via loss-cone negative mass instability to become effective in precipitating MeV electrons via cyclotron resonance elevated chaotic scattering. The numerical results show that a small amplitude whistler wave can be amplified by more than 25 dB. The amplification factor reduces only about 10 dB with a 30 dB increase of the initial wave intensity. Use of an amplified whistler wave to scatter 1.5 MeV electrons from an initial pitch angle of 86.5°to a pitch angle <50° is demonstrated. The ratio of the required wave magnetic field to the background magnetic field is calculated to be about 8×10-4.
Mode conversion and electron heating near the upper hybrid resonance frequency
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, B.L.; Okuda, H.; Abe, H.
1983-11-01
Mode conversion near the upper hybrid resonance frequency and electron heating are studied using a one-dimensional electromagnetic relativistic particle code. It is found that for a sufficiently small pump field E/sub 0/, E/sub 0//sup 2//4..pi..nT/sub e/ less than or equal to 0.01, electron heating is localized in a region near the electron cyclotron layer where the pump frequency is equal to the local electron gyrofrequency. For stronger pump fields, electron heating takes place more or less uniformly across a region between the upper hybrid resonance layer and the cyclotron layer. In addition, a significant fraction of electromagnetic energy associated with the pump is found to be reflected back into the vacuum from a region in the plasma near the upper hybrid resonance layer for both strong (E/sub 0//sup 2//4..pi..nT/sub e/ approx. = 1) and weak pumps (E/sub 0//sup 2//4..pi..nT/sub e/ << 1).
Electrically detected electron spin resonance in a high-mobility silicon quantum well.
Matsunami, Junya; Ooya, Mitsuaki; Okamoto, Tohru
2006-08-11
The resistivity change due to electron spin resonance (ESR) absorption is investigated in a high-mobility two-dimensional electron system formed in a Si/SiGe heterostructure. Results for a specific Landau level configuration demonstrate that the primary cause of the ESR signal is a reduction of the spin polarization, not the effect of electron heating. The longitudinal spin relaxation time T1 is obtained to be of the order of 1 ms in an in-plane magnetic field of 3.55 T. The suppression of the effect of the Rashba fields due to high-frequency spin precession explains the very long T1.
Conduction electron spin resonance in Mg 1 - x Al x B2
Likodimos, V.; Koutandos, S.; Pissas, M.; Papavassiliou, G.; Prassides, K.
2003-01-01
Conduction electron spin resonance is employed to study the interplay of the electronic and structural properties in the normal state of Mg 1 - x Al x B2 alloys as a function of Al-doping for 0 <= x <= 1. The x-dependence of the spin susceptibility reveals considerable reduction of the total density of states N(EF) with increasing Al concentration, complying with theoretical predictions for a predominant filling effect of the hole σ bands by electron doping. The CESR linewidth exhibits significant broadening, especially prominent in the high-Al-content region, indicative of the presence of enhanced structural disorder, consistent with the presence of compositional fluctuations.
Dry cleaning of fluorocarbon residues by low-power electron cyclotron resonance hydrogen plasma
Lim, S H; Yuh, H K; Yoon Eui Joon; Lee, S I
1988-01-01
A low-power ( 50 W) electron cyclotron resonance hydrogen plasma cleaning process was demonstrated for the removal of fluorocarbon residue layers formed by reactive ion etching of silicon dioxide. The absence of residue layers was confirmed by in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction and cross-sectional high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The ECR hydrogen plasma cleaning was applied to contact cleaning of a contact string structure, resulting in comparable contact resistance arising during by a conventional contact cleaning procedure. Ion-assisted chemical reaction involving reactive atomic hydrogen species generated in the plasma is attributed for the removal of fluorocarbon residue layers.
Preliminary Analysis of the Hysteresis Phenomenon in Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Ming-Hai; HU Xi-Wei; YU Guo-Yang; WU Qin-Chong; PAN Yuan
2001-01-01
The hysteresis phenomenon in electron cyclotron resonance plasma has been investigated theoretically by solvingthe equations of the density and energy balance of electrons and by taking the effects of several collisions suchas ionization and recombination into account. The results show that multiple steady states in experimentalmeasurements can be characterized by considering the fact that the energy balance function has three differentreal roots in certain regions of parameters. One root represents a saddle point and other roots represent stablepoints, that is, the system is bistable. The effects of ionization and the energy transformation due to the collisionsbetween the electron and neutral gas are also discussed.