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Sample records for resonance spectroscopy 1h-mrs

  1. Glutamatergic system dysfunction in schizophrenia. A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulc, A.; Galinska, B.; Czernikiewicz, A.; Tarasow, E.; Kubas, B.; Dzienis, W.; Walecki, J.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether there are any differences in metabolite levels as measured by 1 H MRS between chronic and first-episode schizophrenic patients. 17 patients with the diagnosis of chronic schizophrenia and 31 patients with first-episode schizophrenia (ICD-10) were included into the study. The patients were assessed by means of PANSS, CGI and Calgary scales.We also examined 13 healthy persons as control group. MRI and MRS procedures: Proton resonance spectroscopy was performed on a 1,5 MR scanner, PRESS sequence, TR=1500 ms, TE=35 ms, number of repetition=192 and included suppression of water by MOIST sequence. Each volume element (voxel) had dimension of 2x2x2 cm and was localised in the left frontal lobe, in the left temporal lobe and in left thalamus. Complex containing glutamine (Gln), glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was measured. Ratios of metabolite to creatine and unsuppressed water signal were analysed. We didn't find any significant differences in Glx levels between chronic and first-episode patients and between chronic patients and controls in all studied regions.In the left temporal lobe Glx/Cr ratio was significantly higher in first-episode patients in comparison to controls.We observed significant positive correlation between Glx/Cr level in the left temporal lobe and CGI and PANSS-Negative scores, and negative correlation between Glx/H 2 0 level in the left temporal lobe and PANSS-Positive score. Increased Glx level in the left temporal lobe in first-episode patients suggest that altered glutamatergic activity in this region is present at the onset of disease and doesn't progress over time. (author)

  2. Detection of inflammatory bowel disease by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS using an animal model

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    Dolenko Brion

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to analyze the potential of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS in diagnosing early inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Methods Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were fed 2% carrageenan in their diet for either 1 or 2 weeks. 1H MRS was performed ex-vivo on colonic mucosal samples (n = 123 and the spectra were analyzed by a multivariate method of analysis. The results of the multivariate analysis were correlated with histological analysis performed using H & E stain for the presence of inflammation in the samples from each group. Results Multivariate analysis classified the samples in their respective groups with an accuracy of 82%. Our region selection algorithm identified four regions in the spectra as being discriminatory. The metabolites assigned to these regions include creatine, phosphatidylcholine, the -CH2HC= group in fatty acyl chain, and the glycerol backbone of lipids. The differences in concentration of these metabolites in each group offer insight into the biochemical changes occurring during IBD and confer diagnostic potential to 1H MRS as a tool to study colonic inflammation in conjunction with biopsy. Conclusion 1H MRS is a sensitive tool to detect early colonic inflammation in an animal model of IBD.

  3. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H-MRS reveals geniculocalcarine and striate area degeneration in primary glaucoma.

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    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is a collection of neurodegenerative diseases that affect both the retina and the central visual pathway. We investigated whether metabolites' concentrations changed in the geniculocalcarine (GCT and the striate area of occipital lobe by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H-MRS, suggesting neurodegeneration of the central visual pathway in primary glaucoma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 20 patients with glaucoma in both eyes were paired with 20 healthy volunteers in same gender and an age difference less than 3 years. All the participants were examined by MR imaging including T1 Flair, T2 FSE and (1H-MRS. The T1 intensity and T2 intensity of their GCTs and striate areas were measured. The ratio of N-acetylaspartate (NAA/Creatine (Cr, Choline (Cho/Cr, glutamine and glutamate (Glx/Cr were derived by multi-voxels (1H-MRS in the GCT and the striate area of each brain hemisphere. The T1 intensity and T2 intensity had no difference between the groups. Significant decreases in NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr but no difference in Glx/Cr was found between the groups in both the GCT and the striate area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Primary glaucoma affects metabolites' concentrations in the GCT and the striate area suggesting there is ongoing neurodegenerative process.

  4. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) for the evaluation of treatment of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houkin, K.; Kamada, K.; Sawamura, Y.; Iwasaki, Y.; Abe, H.; Kashiwaba, T.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated metabolic changes in brain tumours following treatment, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In meningiomas, effective therapeutic embolisation led to an acute increase in lactate. In radiosensitive tumours such as malignant lymphoma, a decrease in lactate and in increase in N-acetyl-aspartate occurred after radiotherapy, which preceded changes observed on magnetic resonance imaging. On the other hand, no significant changes in spectral patterns were observed in malignant gliomas resistant to therapy. Tissue characterisation of brain tumours by spectral patterns on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy remains controversial. However, we have shown it to be sensitive to metabolic changes following treatment, which may reflect the efficacy of the therapy. (orig.)

  5. Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy-proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS ) in evaluation of myocardial metabolism. Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalak, M.; Walecki, J.; Michalak, E.; Bilinska, Z.; Ruzyllo, W.

    2002-01-01

    Primary dilated cardiomyopathy is a disease of unknown etiology and it leads to serious cardiac insufficiency. Abnormalities in cardiac metabolism can play an important role in clinical manifestation and prognosis in this group. The aim of this study was an attempt to assess cardiac metabolism using proton spectroscopy magnetic resonance method (1H MRS) and to find a relationship between cardiac metabolites and functional class NYHA and left ventricular function parameters obtained by echocardiography. Proton spectroscopy magnetic resonance was performed in 15 patients with angiographically documented idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and 12 healthy volunteers with voxel localized at interventricular septum area. The contents of total creatine (CR) e.g. creatine+phosphocreatine, lipids (LIP) lactates (LAC) and their ratios (CR1A, CR2A, CR1/H20, CR2/H20, CR2/CR1, LIPA, LIP/H20, LIP/CR1, LACA, LAC/H20, LAC/CR1) were examined. Patents with dilated cardiomyopathy had significantly lower level of creatine CR1A (5.04I0.88 vs. 5.94I1.15, p<0.02) and ratios LIP/H20 (4.34I2.3 vs. 15.46I20.39, p<0.04) and LIP/CR1 (24.49I21.26 vs. 34.08I13.36, p<0.05) compared to healthy volunteers. Significant correlations between NYHA functional class and ratios CR2/CR1, CR2/H20 (r=0.59 p<0.038, r=0.59 p<0.02) and between %EFLV and LIP/CR1 (r=0.64, p<0.036), as well as between the duration of the disease (CTCH) and LIP/CR1 (r=0.67, p<0.046) were found. Preliminary study with proton spectroscopy magnetic resonance (1H MRS) showed impairment cardiac metabolism in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. A tendency to lowered values of creatine, lipids and some ratios of these metabolites were observed in dilated cardiomyopathy group compared to healthy subjects. Our results needs further study. (author)

  6. The Relation between Non-adipose Muscle Fat and Hepatic Steatosis Studied with Localized 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H MRS) and LC-MS Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginneken, van V.J.T.; Booms, Ronald; Verheij, Elwin; Vries, Evert De; Greef, Der Jan Van

    2016-01-01

    Aim/objective: In this study we investigated ectopic fat storage in the muscle and the liver using 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS). The inability to store fat in adipose tissue leads to ectopic Triacylglycerol (TG) accumulation in muscle followed by the liver: the so called “overflow

  7. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) evaluation of the metabolite concentration of optic radiation in primary open angle glaucoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidek, Sabrilhakim [University of Malaya, Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (UMRIC), Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Universiti Teknologi MARA, Medical Imaging Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Sg Buloh, Selangor (Malaysia); Ramli, Norlisah; Rahmat, Kartini; Kuo, Tan Li [University of Malaya, Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (UMRIC), Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ramli, Norlina Mohd; Abdulrahman, Fadzlina [University of Malaya, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-12-15

    To compare the metabolite concentration of optic radiation in glaucoma patients with that of healthy subjects using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS). 1H-MRS utilising the Single-Voxel Spectroscopy (SVS) technique was performed using a 3.0Tesla MRI on 45 optic radiations (15 from healthy subjects, 15 from mild glaucoma patients, and 15 from severe glaucoma patients). A standardised Volume of Interest (VOI) of 20 x 20 x 20 mm was placed in the region of optic radiation. Mild and severe glaucoma patients were categorised based on the Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson (HPA) classification. Mean and multiple group comparisons for metabolite concentration and metabolite concentration ratio between glaucoma grades and healthy subjects were obtained using one-way ANOVA. The metabolite concentration and metabolite concentration ratio between the optic radiations of glaucoma patients and healthy subjects did not demonstrate any significant difference (p > 0.05). Our findings show no significant alteration of metabolite concentration associated with neurodegeneration that could be measured by single-voxel 1H-MRS in optic radiation among glaucoma patients. (orig.)

  8. Correlations between Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H MRS in schizophrenic patients and normal controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Johnny

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that white matter integrity may play an underlying pathophysiological role in schizophrenia. N-acetylaspartate (NAA, as measured by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS, is a neuronal marker and is decreased in white matter lesions and regions of axonal loss. It has also been found to be reduced in the prefrontal and temporal regions in patients with schizophrenia. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI allows one to measure the orientations of axonal tracts as well as the coherence of axonal bundles. DTI is thus sensitive to demyelination and other structural abnormalities. DTI has also shown abnormalities in these regions. Methods MRS and DTI were obtained on 42 healthy subjects and 40 subjects with schizophrenia. The data was analyzed using regions of interests in the Dorso-Lateral Prefrontal white matter, Medial Temporal white matter and Occipital white matter using both imaging modalities. Results NAA was significantly reduced in the patient population in the Medial Temporal regions. DTI anisotropy indices were also reduced in the same Medial Temporal regions. NAA and DTI-anisotropy indices were also correlated in the left medial temporal region. Conclusion Our results implicate defects in the medial temporal white matter in patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, MRS and DTI are complementary modalities for the study of white matter disruptions in patients with schizophrenia.

  9. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels in selected areas of the brain in patients with chronic schizophrenia treated with typical and atypical neuroleptics: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Agata; Galińska, Beata; Tarasów, Eugeniusz; Kubas, Bozena; Dzienis, Wojciech; Konarzewska, Beata; Poplawska, Regina; Tomczak, Anna A; Czernikiewicz, Andrzej; Walecki, Jerzy

    2007-05-01

    NAA, marker of neurons integrity and viability, is one of the most important brain metabolites visible in 1H MRS. In most studies of schizophrenia, the decrease of NAA level was observed in the temporal, frontal lobes and in the thalamus. This finding was observed more often among chronic patients, what suggests the influence of disease duration or the effect of neuroleptic treatment. The aim of the present study was the comparison of NAA levels in brain of schizophrenic patients taking typical and atypical neuroleptics. We analyzed the NAA levels in selected brain areas in 58 schizophrenic patients and 21 healthy controls. 10 patients were treated with typical neuroleptics, 10 patients with clozapine, 17 received olanzapine and 21 - risperidone. 1H MRS was performed on a 1,5 MR scanner with PRESS sequence. Voxels of 2x2x2 cm were localized in the left frontal, left temporal lobe and left thalamus. There were no differences in NAA levels between patients on typical and atypical medications analyzed together and separately (olanzapine, clozapine and risperidone groups). We also did not find any differences between patients taking selected atypical neuroleptics and controls. The NAA level in the thalamus in the group of patients receiving typical antipsychotics was the lowest among all groups and differed significantly from healthy controls. The results of our study suggest that atypical neuroleptics may have favorable effect on NAA concentration in brain of schizophrenic patients. Decrease in NAA level in patients taking typical medication may be caused by the progression of the disease or by the direct action of these drugs.

  10. (1) H-MRS processing parameters affect metabolite quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhogal, Alex A; Schür, Remmelt R; Houtepen, Lotte C

    2017-01-01

    investigated the influence of model parameters and spectral quantification software on fitted metabolite concentration values. Sixty spectra in 30 individuals (repeated measures) were acquired using a 7-T MRI scanner. Data were processed by four independent research groups with the freedom to choose their own...... + NAAG/Cr + PCr and Glu/Cr + PCr, respectively. Metabolite quantification using identical (1) H-MRS data was influenced by processing parameters, basis sets and software choice. Locally preferred processing choices affected metabolite quantification, even when using identical software. Our results......Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) can be used to quantify in vivo metabolite levels, such as lactate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (Glu). However, there are considerable analysis choices which can alter the accuracy or precision of (1) H-MRS metabolite quantification...

  11. 1H-MRS processing parameters affect metabolite quantification : The urgent need for uniform and transparent standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhogal, Alex A.; Schür, Remmelt; Houtepen, Lotte C.; van de Bank, B.L.; Boer, Vincent O.; Marsman, Anouk; Barker, Peter B.; Scheenen, Tom W. J.; Wijnen, Jannie P.; Vinkers, Christiaan H.; Klomp, Dennis W.J.

    2017-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) can be used to quantify in vivo metabolite levels, such as lactate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (Glu). However, there are considerable analysis choices which can alter the accuracy or precision of 1H-MRS metabolite quantification. It is

  12. (1) H-MRS processing parameters affect metabolite quantification: The urgent need for uniform and transparent standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhogal, A.A.; Schur, R.R.; Houtepen, L.C.; Bank, B.L. van de; Boer, V.O.; Marsman, A.; Barker, P.B.; Scheenen, T.W.J.; Wijnen, J.P.; Vinkers, C.H.; Klomp, D.W.J.

    2017-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) can be used to quantify in vivo metabolite levels, such as lactate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (Glu). However, there are considerable analysis choices which can alter the accuracy or precision of (1) H-MRS metabolite

  13. A novel approach for baseline correction in 1H-MRS signals based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parto Dezfouli, Mohammad Ali; Dezfouli, Mohsen Parto; Rad, Hamidreza Saligheh

    2014-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic tool for measuring biochemical changes in the human body. Acquired (1)H-MRS signals may be corrupted due to a wideband baseline signal generated by macromolecules. Recently, several methods have been developed for the correction of such baseline signals, however most of them are not able to estimate baseline in complex overlapped signal. In this study, a novel automatic baseline correction method is proposed for (1)H-MRS spectra based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD). This investigation was applied on both the simulated data and the in-vivo (1)H-MRS of human brain signals. Results justify the efficiency of the proposed method to remove the baseline from (1)H-MRS signals.

  14. Evaluation of acute radiation damage of the human brain by 1H-MRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, Shigeru; Kinosada, Yasutomi.

    1993-01-01

    Fourteen patients (17 cases) were treated with the whole brain irradiation. Physiological changes in white matter were measured by in vivo 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). Phantom examination proved the accuracy of our 1 H-MRS method to be valid. The measurement was performed 2 or 3 times in each case at the radiation doses ranging from 0 to 40 Gy with 2 Gy daily fractionation. For the measurement of 1 H-MRS, 1.5 T whole body MR system was used and stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) with chemical shift selective (CHESS) pulse was applied. Volume of the interest (VOI) was 2.5x2.5x2.5 cm 3 , and the repetition time and echo time were 2000 ms and 272 ms, respectively. Acute radiation damage of the brain was evaluated by the change of peak area ratio (PAR) of choline, creatine and N-acetyl aspartate (NAA). 1 H-MRS spectra before irradiation were different from those observed during irradiation. There were statistically significant (p 1 H-MRS is a powerful modality, detecting the subtle physiological change which is difficult to evaluate with conventional images. (author)

  15. Radiation dose-dependent change in brain 1H-MRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, Shigeru; Muroka, Mamoru; Uchiyama, Yukio; Morita, Kozo; Nomoto, Yoshihito; Kinosada, Yasutomi.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the usefulness of 1 H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) for the assessment of acute radiation damage of the human brain. Nineteen patients were treated with the whole brain irradiation. Biochemical changes in white matter were measured by in vivo 1 H-MRS. The measurement was performed 1 or 2 times in each case at radiation doses ranging from 0 to 44.4 Gy with conventional fractionation (2 Gy per fraction, once a day) or accelerated hyperfractionation (1.5 Gy per fraction, twice a day). For the measurement of 1 H-MRS, 1.5T whole body MR system was used and stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) with chemical shift selective (CHESS) pulse was applied. Volume of the interest (VOI) was 2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5 cm 3 , and the repetition time and echo time were 2000 ms and 272 ms, respectively. The acute radiation damage of the brain was evaluated by the change of peak area ratio (PAR) of choline, creatine and N-acetylaspartate (NAA). 1 H-MR spectra obtained before irradiation were different from those observed during irradiation. There were statistically significant (p 1 H-MRS can be useful for assessment of acute radiation damage. (author)

  16. Prefrontal NAA and Glx Levels in Different Stages of Psychotic Disorders : a 3T 1H-MRS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liemburg, Edith; Sibeijn-Kuiper, Anita; Bais, Leonie; Pijnenborg, Gerdina; Knegtering, Henderikus; van der Velde, Jorien; Opmeer, Esther; de Vos, Annerieke; Dlabac-De Lange, Jozarni; Wunderink, Lex; Aleman, André

    2016-01-01

    H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) can offer insights in various neuropathologies by measuring metabolite levels in the brain. In the current study we investigated the levels of glutamate + glutamine (Glx, neurotransmitter and precursor) and N-Acetyl Aspartate + glutamic acid (NAA + NAAG;

  17. Brain GABA levels across psychiatric disorders : A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of 1H-MRS studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schür, Remmelt R.; Draisma, Luc W R; Wijnen, Jannie P.; Boks, Marco P.; Koevoets, Martijn G J C; Joëls, Marian; Klomp, Dennis W.; Kahn, René S.; Vinkers, Christiaan H.

    2016-01-01

    The inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system is involved in the etiology of most psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). It is therefore not surprising that proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is

  18. Comparison of 1H-MRS-detected metabolic characteristics in single metastatic brain tumors of different origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernov, M.F.; Ono, Yuko; Kubo, Osami; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2006-01-01

    Various types of intracranial metastases exhibit different growth patterns, which can be reflected in their metabolic characteristics and investigated noninvasively by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). The objective of the present study was comparison of the 1 H-MRS-detected metabolic parameters in brain metastases of different origin. Twenty-five patients (15 men and 10 women; mean age, 62.0 years) with single, previously nontreated metastatic brain tumors were investigated by long-echo single-voxel volume-selected 1 H-MRS. The primary cancer was located in the lungs (10 cases), colon and rectum (8 cases), breast (3 cases), kidney (2 cases), prostate (1 case), and cardiac muscle (1 case). Comparison of clinical and radiological variables, including type of tumor contrast enhancement and extension of peritumoral edema, did not disclose statistically significant differences in metastatic brain tumors of different origin. At the same time, comparison of 1 H-MRS-detected metabolic characteristics revealed that metastases of colorectal carcinoma have greater content of mobile lipids (Lip) compared to other neoplasms. In conclusion, high Lip content in the viable brain metastases of colorectal carcinoma can be used as an additional diagnostic clue for noninvasive identification of these tumors and should be taken into consideration in cases of 1 H-MRS-based differentiation of their recurrence and radiation-induced necrosis after radiosurgical or radiotherapeutic treatment. (author)

  19. Clinical research on alterations of brain MRI and 1H-MRS in chronic hepatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Liling; Li Xiangrong; Hong Zhongkui

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the abnormal findings and metabolic alterations of the brain in chronic hepatic disease with MRI and 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) for better understanding the clinical significance of pallidal hyperintensity and the role in the diagnosis and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Methods: Brain MRI and 1 H-MRS examination were performed in 50 patients with chronic hepatic disease and 20 healthy volunteers. The pallidus index (PI) was calculated and the height of resonance peaks of Glx was measured. The correlation between PI and Child/Pugh classification, and the association between blood ammonia and the spectroscopic alterations were studied. Pre-and post-therapeutic comparative study was also conducted in 5 cases with chronic HE. Results: PI was gradually increased from healthy volunteers to patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis (1.01± 0.04, 1.06±0.09, and 1.18±0.09), and the differences in PI value among them were significant (F=22.294, P 1 -weighted MRI disappeared and the abnormal metabolic alterations returned to normal range 5 to 6 months after successful liver transplantation. However, the normalization of 1 H-MRS alterations preceded the disappearance of pallidal hyperintensities. Conclusion: PI can be an index of reference for liver dysfunction. Glx is more sensitive than blood ammonia in detecting the brain dysfunction. MRI and 1 H-MRS are reliable techniques in the diagnosis and evaluation of therapy for hepatic encephalopathy. (authors)

  20. A comprehensive review of the 1H-MRS metabolite spectrum in autism spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitha eFord

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies of neuropsychiatric behaviour biomarkers across spectrum disorders are typically based on diagnosis, thus failing to account for the heterogeneity of multi-dimensional spectrum disorders such as autism (ASD. Control group trait phenotypes are also seldom reported. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS measures the abundance of neurochemicals such as neurotransmitters and metabolites and hence can probe disorder phenotypes at clinical and sub-clinical levels. This detailed review summarises and critiques the current 1H-MRS research in ASD. The literature reports reduced N-acetylaspartate (NAA, glutamate and glutamine (Glx, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, creatine and choline, and increased glutamate for children with ASD. Adult studies are few and results are inconclusive. Overall, the literature has several limitations arising from differences in 1H-MRS methodology and sample demographics. We argue that more consistent methods and greater emphasis on phenotype studies will advance understanding of underlying cortical metabolite disturbance in ASD, and the detection, diagnosis and treatment of ASD and other multi-dimensional psychiatric disorders.

  1. Serial 1H-MRS of thalamus during deep brain stimulation of bilateral globus pallidus internus for primary generalized dystonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernov, Mikhail F.; Iseki, Hiroshi; Takakura, Kintomo; Ochiai, Taku; Taira, Takaomi; Hori, Tomokatsu; Ono, Yuko; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Muragaki, Yoshihiro

    2008-01-01

    The physiological mechanisms of deep brain stimulation (DBS) are not completely clear. Our understanding of them may be facilitated with the use of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). Serial 1 H-MRS of both thalami was performed during the course of DBS of bilateral globus pallidus internus in a patient with primary generalized dystonia. Two days after microelectrode implantation, a pulse frequency of 185 Hz was applied for stimulation. It resulted in relief of symptoms and a decrease of Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia rating scale (BFMDRS) scores, and was accompanied by a prominent increase of N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/choline-containing compounds (Cho) ratio, a mild increase of NAA/creatine (Cr) ratio, and a moderate decrease of Cho/Cr ratio. Two weeks later, for a search of the optimal stimulation mode, the pulse frequency was switched to 60 Hz, which resulted in clinical deterioration and significant increase of BFMDRS scores. At that time, all investigated 1 H-MRS-detected metabolic parameters had nearly returned to the pretreatment levels. Use of serial 1 H-MRS investigations of various brain structures during DBS in cases of movement disorders permits detailed evaluation of the treatment response, has a potential for its possible prediction, and may facilitate understanding of the physiological mechanisms of stimulation. (orig.)

  2. A multicenter reproducibility study of single-voxel {sup 1}H-MRS of the medial temporal lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeber, Frank; Block, Wolfgang; Guer, Okan; Schild, Hans H. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Freymann, Nikolaus; Heun, Reinhard; Jessen, Frank [University of Bonn, Department of Psychiatry, Bonn (Germany); Kucinski, Thomas [University of Hamburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Hammen, Thilo [University of Erlangen, Department of Psychiatry, Erlangen (Germany); Ende, Gabriele [Central Institute of Mental Health, NMR Research in Psychiatry, Mannheim (Germany); Pilatus, Ulrich [University of Frankfurt, Department of Neuroradiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Hampel, Harald [University of Munich, Department of Psychiatry, Munich (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) has provided evidence for a reduction of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in cerebral disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease. Within the {sup 1}H-MRS study of the German Research Network on Dementia, we determined the multicenter reproducibility of single-voxel {sup 1}H-MRS of the MTL. At five sites with 1.5T MR systems, single-voxel {sup 1}H spectra from the MTL of an identical healthy subject were measured. The same subject was also examined at one of the sites five times to assess intracenter stability. The protocol included water-suppressed spectra with TE 272 ms and TE 30 ms and unsuppressed spectra for absolute quantification of metabolite concentrations. The intracenter reproducibility of absolute NAA concentration, expressed as coefficient of variation (CV), was 1.8%. CV for the concentrations of creatine (Cr), choline (Cho), and myoinositol (MI) and for the ratios NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, and MI/NAA varied by 11-16%. Intercenter CV was 3.9% for NAA and were below 10% for all other metabolites and metabolic ratios. Our study demonstrates that quantitative assessment of NAA with single-voxel MRS can be performed with high intercenter reproducibility. This is the basis for applying {sup 1}H-MRS in large-scale early recognition and treatment studies in MTL affecting disorders. (orig.)

  3. A multicenter reproducibility study of single-voxel 1H-MRS of the medial temporal lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traeber, Frank; Block, Wolfgang; Guer, Okan; Schild, Hans H.; Freymann, Nikolaus; Heun, Reinhard; Jessen, Frank; Kucinski, Thomas; Hammen, Thilo; Ende, Gabriele; Pilatus, Ulrich; Hampel, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) has provided evidence for a reduction of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in cerebral disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease. Within the 1 H-MRS study of the German Research Network on Dementia, we determined the multicenter reproducibility of single-voxel 1 H-MRS of the MTL. At five sites with 1.5T MR systems, single-voxel 1 H spectra from the MTL of an identical healthy subject were measured. The same subject was also examined at one of the sites five times to assess intracenter stability. The protocol included water-suppressed spectra with TE 272 ms and TE 30 ms and unsuppressed spectra for absolute quantification of metabolite concentrations. The intracenter reproducibility of absolute NAA concentration, expressed as coefficient of variation (CV), was 1.8%. CV for the concentrations of creatine (Cr), choline (Cho), and myoinositol (MI) and for the ratios NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, and MI/NAA varied by 11-16%. Intercenter CV was 3.9% for NAA and were below 10% for all other metabolites and metabolic ratios. Our study demonstrates that quantitative assessment of NAA with single-voxel MRS can be performed with high intercenter reproducibility. This is the basis for applying 1 H-MRS in large-scale early recognition and treatment studies in MTL affecting disorders. (orig.)

  4. N-acetylaspartate, choline and myoinositol concentration changes in MR spectroscopy (1H MRS) of hippocampal formation in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) - preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowska, A.; Cwikla, J.; Walecki, J.; Gabryelewicz, T.; Barcikowska, M.

    2004-01-01

    Cognitive and memory impairment are very common problems in elderly patients. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is known as a transitional clinical state between normal ('successful') aging and dementia. In some cases MCI may be a precursor to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Early neuronal loss and metabolic changes have been documented in previous studies in AD patients in some 'strategic ' regions of the brain, mainly in hippocampal formation. Our goal was to determine whether there are statistically significant changes in hippocampal N-acetylaspartate, choline and myoinositol levels obtained by single-voxel spectroscopy in MCI patients and normal aging and to evaluate its clinical diagnostic utility. 30 patients with MCI and 15 cognitively normal elderly subjects underwent proton MR spectroscopy at 1.5 T system. MR spectra were obtained from anterior and posterior part of hippocampal formation bilaterally, using the point-resolved spectroscopy sequence. Metabolite ratios of NAA/H 2 O, Cho/H 2 O and mI/H 2 O were calculated from the peak height measurements. Relative to the control group, patients with MCI demonstrated elevated mI/H 2 O and Cho/H 2 O ratios in both hippocampal formations. The most significant increase was observed in mI/H 2 O ratio in anterior part of left hippocampus and in Cho/H 2 O ratio in posterior part of right hippocampus, in MCI patients vs.cognitively normal elderly. There were no significant differences between mean NAA/H 2 O ratios measured in hippocampal formation in both groups. Proton MRS may be used as valuable additional tool in the evaluation of regional metabolic changes in patients with MCI. Increase of mI and Cho levels in hippocampal formation may be an early sign of cognitive impairment in elderly subjects that can be measured using MRS. (author)

  5. Cerebral (1)H MRS alterations in recreational 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L; Ernst, T; Grob, C S; Poland, R E

    1999-10-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is an illicit drug that has been associated with serotonergic axonal degeneration in animals. This study evaluates neurochemical abnormalities in recreational MDMA users. Twenty-two MDMA users and 37 normal subjects were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) in the mid-frontal, mid-occipital, and parietal brain regions. (1)H MRS showed normal N-acetyl (NA) compounds in all brain regions. The myo-inositol (MI) concentration (+16.3%, P = 0.04) and the MI to creatine (CR) ratio (+14.1%, P = 0. 01) were increased in the parietal white matter of MDMA users. The cumulative lifetime MDMA dose showed significant effects on [MI] in the parietal white matter and the occipital cortex. The normal NA concentration suggests a lack of significant neuronal injury in recreational MDMA users. However, the usage-related increase in MI suggests that exposure to MDMA, even at recreational doses, may cause increased glial content. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 1999;10:521-526. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. [(1)H-MRS study of auditory cortex in patients with presbycusis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xian-ming; Dou, Xiao-qing; Liang, Yong-hui; Zhang, Li-wei; Luo, Bi-qiang; Deng, Yi-hong

    2012-10-01

    To study the metabolic changes of auditory cortex in patients with presbycusis by using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). Ten normal hearing volunteers (youth group), 10 normal hearing of elderly (aged group) and 8 patients with presbycusis (presbycusis group) were checked with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid (Glu) compound were measured. The differences between the groups were semi-quantitatively analyzed. When compared with youth group, reduced NAA/Cr, increased Cho/Cr were found in the aged group and presbycusis group (P presbycusis group and youth group (P 0.05). When compared with aged group, the metabolic changes of auditory cortex in patients with presbycusis were remarkable (P presbycusis.

  7. Detection of radiation brain injury of malignant glioma by 1H-MRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mao; Jin Haiguo; Sun Shuquan; Bu Mingwei; Su Qingxiu; Liu Guigang; Sun Baosheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) method, to evaluate the difference of radiation brain injury between volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) in patients with postoperative glioma after radiation therapy. Methods: 24 patients with malignant glioma (WHOII-IV grade glioma) confirmed with clinical surgery were selected, among them 12 patients were treated with VMAT technique, and another 12 patients with 3DCRT technique, all received DT60-66GY/30-33F dose prescriptions. 1 H-MRS examination was performed to analyze the change of metabolites in the brain tissues of region of interest (ROI) before and after radiotherapy,and the ratios of NAA/ Cr, Cho / Cr, NAA / Cho were computed. Results: The dose distribution of VMAT group was superior to 3DCRT group, the NAA/Cr in two groups after radiation were decreased compared with before radiation, there was a statistically difference in NAA/Cr after radiation between two groups (P<0.01). The Cho / Cr and NAA / Cho in two groups were increased compared with before radiation;after radiation, only NAA/Cho had a statistical difference between two groups (P<0.01). Conclusion: VMAT technique is superior to 3DCTR to reduce radiation brain injury in patients with postoperative glioma. (authors)

  8. Occipital Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) Reveals Normal Metabolite Concentrations in Retinal Visual Field Defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boucard, Christine C.; Hoogduin, Johannes M.; van der Grond, Jeroen; Cornelissen, Frans W.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Progressive visual field defects, such as age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma, prevent normal stimulation of visual cortex. We investigated whether in the case of visual field defects, concentrations of metabolites such as N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a marker for degenerative

  9. Neuronal degeneration in the hippocampus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in depressive disorder Correlation between 1H-MRS and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Xia; Minjie Yang; Yi Lei; Yicheng Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies using magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)and functional MRI to study depression have primarily focused on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy(1H-MRS)appearance in various areas of the brain and volume measurements in the limbic system.However,results have not been consistent.To the best of our knowledge,very little is known about the relationship between 1H-MRS appearance and depression inventory.In the present study,the relationship between 1H-MRS appearance in depressive patients and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 scale was analyzed.MRI and 1H-MRS exhibited widened sulci and cisterns,as well as an absence of abnormal signals in depressive patients.In addition,N-acetyl aspartate/total creatine ratios in bilateral hippocampi and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were significantly less in depressive patients than in control subjects(P < 0.01).In contrast,choline-containing compounds/total creatine ratios in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were significantly greater in depressive patients than in control subjects(P < 0.01).These ratios significantly and positively correlated with patient total depression scores as assessed using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 scale(r=0.934 7,0.878 7,P < 0.01).These results suggested that 1H-MRS could be used to reveal a reduced number of neurons in the hippocampus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex,as well as altered membrane phospholipid metabolism in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex,in patients with depressive disorder.Abnormal mechanisms partially reflected severity of depressive disorder.

  10. Studies on hippocampal sclerosis by 1H MRS and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Jing; Du Xiangke; Luan Guoming; Wang Dehang

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relative utility of 1 H MRS and MRI for pre-surgical diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis by the study on metabolic abnormalities and anatomical alterations in the brain of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Methods: 1 H MRS and MRI were performed on 8 patients with pathologically confirmed hippocampal sclerosis and 8 healthy volunteers on 2.0 T 1 H MRS/MRI system. The values of NAA, Cr and Cho were calculated by integration of their peaks and the ratios of NAA/Cr, NAA/(Cr + Cho), and Cho/Cr were measured. The volumes of both hippocampal formations in every case were observed and the differences of hippocampal formation (DHF) were analyzed. Results: The ratios of NAA/Cr, NAA/(Cr + Cho), and Cho/Cr in ipsilateral side were 0.55, 1.77 and 1.38, and in control subjects were 0.77, 1.38 and 1.06 separately. The ratios of NAA/Cr and NAA/(Cr + Cho) were decreased on ipsilateral side (t = 2.15, 4.83 separately, P 1 H MRS and MRI, seven of eight cases could be lateralized. Conclusion: 1 H MRS is sensitive to the diagnosis of neuron abnormality and coincident well with the pathological results 1 H MRS and MRI correctly lateralize most patients with hippocampal sclerosis and complement each other in final lateralization. The combination of 1 H MRS and MRI can provide useful information for pre-surgical diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis

  11. Diffusion tensor imaging and 1H-MRS study on radiation-induced brain injury after nasopharyngeal carcinoma radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H-Z; Qiu, S-J; Lv, X-F; Wang, Y-Y; Liang, Y; Xiong, W-F; Ouyang, Z-B

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the metabolic characteristics of the temporal lobes following radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). DTI and (1)H-MRS were performed in 48 patients after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma and in 24 healthy, age-matched controls. All patients and controls had normal findings on conventional MRI. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA), three eigenvalues λ1, λ2, λ3, N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA)/choline (Cho), NAA/creatinine (Cr), and Cho/Cr were measured in both temporal lobes. Patients were divided into three groups according to time after completion of radiotherapy: group 1, less than 6 months; group 2, 6-12 months; group 3, more than 12 months. Mean values for each parameter were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Mean FA in group 1 was significantly lower compared to group 3 and the control group (p < 0.05). Group-wise comparisons of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values among all the groups were not significantly different. Eigenvalue λ1 was significantly lower in groups 1 and 3 compared to the control group (p < 0.05). NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr were significantly lower in each group compared to the control group (p < 0.01 for both). The decrease in NAA/Cho was greatest in group 1. There were no significant between-group differences regarding Cho/Cr. A combination of DTI and (1)H-MRS can be used to detect radiation-induced brain injury, in patients treated for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Age-related differences in metabolites in the posterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus of normal ageing brain: A 1H-MRS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyngoudt, Harmen; Claeys, Tom; Vlerick, Leslie; Verleden, Stijn; Acou, Marjan; Deblaere, Karel; De Deene, Yves; Audenaert, Kurt; Goethals, Ingeborg; Achten, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study age-related metabolic changes in N-acetylaspartate (NAA), total creatine (tCr), choline (Cho) and myo-inositol (Ins). Materials and methods: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) was performed in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the left hippocampus (HC) of 90 healthy subjects (42 women and 48 men aged 18–76 years, mean ± SD, 48.4 ± 16.8 years). Both metabolite ratios and absolute metabolite concentrations were evaluated. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and linear regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: Metabolite ratios Ins/tCr and Ins/H 2 O were found significantly increased with age in the PCC (P 2 O was only observed in the PCC (P 1 H-MRS results in these specific brain regions can be important to differentiate normal ageing from age-related pathologies such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Brain GABA levels across psychiatric disorders: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of (1) H-MRS studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schür, Remmelt R; Draisma, Luc W R; Wijnen, Jannie P; Boks, Marco P; Koevoets, Martijn G J C; Joëls, Marian; Klomp, Dennis W; Kahn, René S; Vinkers, Christiaan H

    2016-09-01

    The inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system is involved in the etiology of most psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). It is therefore not surprising that proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) is increasingly used to investigate in vivo brain GABA levels. However, integration of the evidence for altered in vivo GABA levels across psychiatric disorders is lacking. We therefore systematically searched the clinical (1) H-MRS literature and performed a meta-analysis. A total of 40 studies (N = 1,591) in seven different psychiatric disorders were included in the meta-analysis: MDD (N = 437), schizophrenia (N = 517), ASD (N = 150), bipolar disorder (N = 129), panic disorder (N = 81), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (N = 104), and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (N = 173). Brain GABA levels were lower in ASD (standardized mean difference [SMD] = -0.74, P = 0.001) and in depressed MDD patients (SMD = -0.52, P = 0.005), but not in remitted MDD patients (SMD = -0.24, P = 0.310) compared with controls. In schizophrenia this finding did not reach statistical significance (SMD = -0.23, P = 0.089). No significant differences in GABA levels were found in bipolar disorder, panic disorder, PTSD, and ADHD compared with controls. In conclusion, this meta-analysis provided evidence for lower brain GABA levels in ASD and in depressed (but not remitted) MDD patients compared with healthy controls. Findings in schizophrenia were more equivocal. Even though future (1) H-MRS studies could greatly benefit from a longitudinal design and consensus on the preferred analytical approach, it is apparent that (1) H-MRS studies have great potential in advancing our understanding of the role of the GABA system in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3337-3352, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals

  14. Specificity of choline metabolites for in vivo diagnosis of breast cancer using 1H MRS at 1.5 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanwell, Peter; Gluch, Laurence; Lean, Cynthia; Malycha, Peter; Mountford, Carolyn; Clark, David; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Baker, Luke; Giuffre, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The purpose was to determine if in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) at 1.5 T can accurately provide the correct pathology of breast disease. Forty-three asymptomatic volunteers including three lactating mothers were examined and compared with 21 breast cancer patients. Examinations were undertaken at 1.5 T using a purpose-built transmit-receive single breast coil. Single voxel spectroscopy was undertaken using echo times of 135 and 350 ms. The broad composite resonance at 3.2 ppm, which includes contributions from choline, phosphocholine (PC), glycerophosphocholine (GPC), myo-inositol and taurine, was found not to be a unique marker for malignancy providing a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 80.0 and 86.0%, respectively. This was due to three of the asymptomatic volunteers and all of the lactating mothers also generating the broad composite resonance at 3.2 ppm. Optimised post-acquisitional processing of the spectra resolved a resonance at 3.22 ppm, consistent with PC, in patients with cancer. In contrast the spectra recorded for three false-positive volunteers, and the three lactating mothers had a resonance centred at 3.28 ppm (possibly taurine, myo-inositol or GPC). This improved the specificity of the test to 100%. Careful referencing of the spectra and post-acquisitional processing intended to optimise spectral resolution of in vivo MR proton spectra from human breast tissue resolves the composite choline resonance. This allows the distinction of patients with malignant disease from volunteers with a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 100%. Therefore, resolution of the composite choline resonance into its constituent components improves the specificity of the in vivo 1 H MRS method, but does not overcome the problem of 20% false-negatives. (orig.)

  15. Primary somatosensory cortex in chronic low back pain – a 1H-MRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma KN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Neena K Sharma1, Kenneth McCarson2, Linda Van Dillen5, Angela Lentz1, Talal Khan3, Carmen M Cirstea1,41Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, 2Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, 3Department of Anesthesiology, 4Hoglund Brain Imaging Center, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA; 5Program in Physical Therapy and Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USAAbstract: The goal of this study was to investigate whether certain metabolites, specific to neurons, glial cells, and the neuronal-glial neurotransmission system, in the primary somatosensory cortex (SSC, are altered and correlated with clinical characteristics of pain in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP. Eleven LBP patients and eleven age-matched healthy controls were included. N-acetylaspartate (NAA, choline (Cho, myo-inositol (mI, and glutamine/glutamate (Glx were measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS in left and right SSC. Differences in metabolite concentrations relative to those of controls were evaluated as well as analyses of metabolite correlations within and between SSCs. Relationships between metabolite concentrations and pain characteristics were also evaluated. We found decreased NAA in the left SSC (P = 0.001 and decreased Cho (P = 0.04 along with lower correlations between all metabolites in right SSC (P = 0.007 in LBP compared to controls. In addition, we found higher and significant correlations between left and right mI (P < 0.001 in LBP vs P = 0.1 in controls and between left mI and right Cho (P = 0.048 vs P = 0.6. Left and right NAA levels were negatively correlated with pain duration (P = 0.04 and P = 0.02 respectively while right Glx was positively correlated with pain severity (P = 0.04. Our preliminary results demonstrated significant altered neuronal-glial interactions in SSC, with left neural alterations related to pain duration

  16. Prefrontal NAA and Glx Levels in Different Stages of Psychotic Disorders: a 3T 1H-MRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemburg, Edith; Sibeijn-Kuiper, Anita; Bais, Leonie; Pijnenborg, Gerdina; Knegtering, Henderikus; van der Velde, Jorien; Opmeer, Esther; de Vos, Annerieke; Dlabac-De Lange, Jozarni; Wunderink, Lex; Aleman, André

    2016-02-23

    H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) can offer insights in various neuropathologies by measuring metabolite levels in the brain. In the current study we investigated the levels of glutamate + glutamine (Glx, neurotransmitter and precursor) and N-Acetyl Aspartate + glutamic acid (NAA + NAAG; neuronal viability) in the prefrontal cortex of patients with a psychotic disorder and people at Ultra High Risk (UHR) for psychosis. A (1)H-MRS spectrum was acquired in 31 patients with a recent onset psychotic disorder and 60 with a chronic state, 16 UHR patients and 36 healthy controls. Absolute metabolite levels were calculated using LCModel with a reference water peak. Groups were compared while taking into account age and partial volume effects. Moreover, we investigated associations with positive and negative symptoms, duration of illness, and antipsychotic treatment in patients. The most notable finding is that chronicity of schizophrenia was related to decreased levels of Glx and NAA. On the other hand, although on an exploratory note, UHR showed increased levels of prefrontal Glx and NAA levels with increasing age. Our results may indicate an initial Glx and NAA increase and subsequent decrease during illness progression that may be related to the neurotoxic effects of glutamate.

  17. {sup 1}H-MRS is useful to reinforce the suspicion of primary central nervous system lymphoma prior to surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, Paloma [Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Department of Radiology, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Majos, Carles; Aguilera, Carles [Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Department of Radiology, Institut de Diagnostic per la Imatge (IDI), Centre Bellvitge, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Centro de Investigacion en Red en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Castaner, Sara; Sanchez, Juan J. [Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Department of Radiology, Institut de Diagnostic per la Imatge (IDI), Centre Bellvitge, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Gabarros, Andreu [Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Department of Neurosurgery, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Muntane, Amadeo [Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Department of Radiology, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Arus, Carles [Centro de Investigacion en Red en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Department de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Unitat de Bioquimica de Biociencies, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    To assess whether {sup 1}H-MRS may be useful to reinforce the radiological suspicion of PCNSL. In this retrospective study, we included 546 patients with untreated brain tumours in which single-voxel spectroscopy at TE 30 ms and 136 ms had been performed. The patients were split into two subgroups: ''training set'' and ''test set.'' Differences between PCNSL and five other types of intracranial tumours were assessed in the test set of patients using the Mann-Whitney U nonparametric test and cut-off values for pair-wise comparisons defined by constructing receiver operating characteristic curves. These thresholds were used to construct classifiers for binary comparison between PCNSL and non-PCNSL. The performance of the obtained classifiers was assessed in the independent test set of patients. Significant differences were found between PCNSL and the other groups evaluated. All bilateral comparisons performed in the test set obtained accuracy values above 70 % (71-89 %). Lipids were found to be useful to discriminate between PCNSL and glioblastoma/metastasis at short TE. Myo-inositol resonance was found to be very consistent for discriminating between PCNSL and astrocytomas at short TE. {sup 1}H-MRS is useful to reinforce diagnostic suspicion of PCNSL on MRI. (orig.)

  18. 1H-MRS is useful to reinforce the suspicion of primary central nervous system lymphoma prior to surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Paloma; Majos, Carles; Aguilera, Carles; Castaner, Sara; Sanchez, Juan J.; Gabarros, Andreu; Muntane, Amadeo; Arus, Carles

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether 1 H-MRS may be useful to reinforce the radiological suspicion of PCNSL. In this retrospective study, we included 546 patients with untreated brain tumours in which single-voxel spectroscopy at TE 30 ms and 136 ms had been performed. The patients were split into two subgroups: ''training set'' and ''test set.'' Differences between PCNSL and five other types of intracranial tumours were assessed in the test set of patients using the Mann-Whitney U nonparametric test and cut-off values for pair-wise comparisons defined by constructing receiver operating characteristic curves. These thresholds were used to construct classifiers for binary comparison between PCNSL and non-PCNSL. The performance of the obtained classifiers was assessed in the independent test set of patients. Significant differences were found between PCNSL and the other groups evaluated. All bilateral comparisons performed in the test set obtained accuracy values above 70 % (71-89 %). Lipids were found to be useful to discriminate between PCNSL and glioblastoma/metastasis at short TE. Myo-inositol resonance was found to be very consistent for discriminating between PCNSL and astrocytomas at short TE. 1 H-MRS is useful to reinforce diagnostic suspicion of PCNSL on MRI. (orig.)

  19. Brain Function, Structure, and Neurochemistry After Tamoxifen/Chemotherapy Assessed by Neuropsychologic Testing and H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ernst, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    ...). On magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS), women who received tamoxifen (average 4.4 years) had no statistically significant differences in brain metabolite ratios compared to the negative control group...

  20. Neuroimaging in autism spectrum disorders: 1H-MRS and NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kenji; Toda, Yoshihiro; Ito, Hiromichi; Mori, Tatsuo; Mori, Keiko; Goji, Aya; Hashimoto, Hiroko; Tani, Hiroe; Miyazaki, Masahito; Harada, Masafumi; Kagami, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), we measured chemical metabolites in the left amygdala and the bilateral orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in these regions of ASD were significantly decreased compared to those in the control group. In the autistic patients, the NAA concentrations in these regions correlated with their social quotient. These findings suggest the presence of neuronal dysfunction in the amygdala and OFC in ASD. Dysfunction in the amygdala and OFC may contribute to the pathogenesis of ASD. We performed a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) study to evaluate the mirror neuron system in children with ASD. The concentrations of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) were measured with frontal probes using a 34-channel NIRS machine while the subjects imitated emotional facial expressions. The increments in the concentration of oxy-Hb in the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus in autistic subjects were significantly lower than those in the controls. However, the concentrations of oxy-Hb in this area were significantly elevated in autistic subjects after they were trained to imitate emotional facial expressions. The results suggest that mirror neurons could be activated by repeated imitation in children with ASD.

  1. Oral administration of choline does not affect metabolic characteristics of gliomas and normal-appearing white matter, as detected with single-voxel 1H-MRS at 1.5 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernov, Mikhail F.; Iseki, Hiroshi; Takakura, Kintomo; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Maruyama, Takashi; Ono, Yuko; Usukura, Masao; Yoshida, Shigetoshi; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Kubo, Osami; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2009-01-01

    The present study was done for evaluation of the possible influence of the oral administration of choline on metabolic characteristics of gliomas detected with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). Thirty patients (22 men and eight women; mean age 38±15 years) with suspicious intracranial gliomas underwent single-voxel long-echo (TR 2,000 ms, TE 136 ms, 128-256 acquisitions) 1 H-MRS of the tumor, peritumoral brain tissue, and distant normal-appearing white matter before and several hours (median, 3 h; range, 1.2-3.7 h) after ingestion of choline with prescribed dose of 50 mg/kg (median actual dose, 52 mg/kg; range, 48-78 mg/kg). Investigations were done using 1.5 T clinical magnetic resonance imager. The volume of the rectangular 1 H-MRS voxel was either 3.4 or 8 cm 3 . At the time of both spectroscopic examinations, similar voxels' positioning and size and technical parameters of 1 H-MRS were used. Surgery was done in 27 patients within 1 to 68 days thereafter. In all cases, more than 80% resection of the neoplasm was attained. There were 12 low-grade gliomas and 15 high-grade gliomas. MIB-1 index varied from 0% to 51.7% (median, 13.8%). Statistical analysis did not disclose significant differences of any investigated metabolic parameter of the tumor, peritumoral brain tissue and distant normal-appearing white matter between two spectroscopic examinations. Single-voxel 1 H-MRS at 1.5 T could not detect significant changes of the metabolic characteristics of gliomas, peritumoral brain tissue, and distant normal-appearing white matter after oral administration of choline. (orig.)

  2. Associations between Dietary Nutrient Intakes and Hepatic Lipid Contents in NAFLD Patients Quantified by 1H-MRS and Dual-Echo MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary habits are crucial in the progression of hepatic lipid accumulation and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. However, there are limited studies using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS and dual-echo in-phase and out-phase magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging (dual-echo MRI to assess the effects of dietary nutrient intakes on hepatic lipid contents. In the present study, we recruited 36 female adults (NAFLD:control = 19:17 to receive questionnaires and medical examinations, including dietary intakes, anthropometric and biochemical measurements, and 1H-MRS and dual-echo MRI examinations. NAFLD patients were found to consume diets higher in energy, protein, fat, saturated fatty acid (SFA, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA. Total energy intake was positively associated with hepatic fat fraction (HFF and intrahepatic lipid (IHL after adjustment for age and body-mass index (BMI (HFF: β = 0.24, p = 0.02; IHL: β = 0.38, p = 0.02. Total fat intake was positively associated with HFF and IHL after adjustment for age, BMI and total energy intake (HFF: β = 0.36, p = 0.03; IHL: β = 0.42, p = 0.01. SFA intake was positively associated with HFF and IHL after adjustments (HFF: β = 0.45, p = 0.003; IHL: β = 1.16, p = 0.03. In conclusion, hepatic fat content was associated with high energy, high fat and high SFA intakes, quantified by 1H-MRS and dual-echo MRI in our population. Our findings are useful to provide dietary targets to prevent the hepatic lipid accumulation and NAFLD.

  3. Volumetric MRI and {sup 1}H MRS study of hippocampus in unilateral MCAO patients: Relationship between hippocampal secondary damage and cognitive disorder following stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Xiangyu; Wang, Chengyuan; Xia, Liming [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Jiefang Dadao 1095, Wuhan 430030 (China); Zhu, Wenhao [Department of Neurology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Jiefang Dadao 1095, Wuhan 430030 (China); Zhao, Lingyun [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Jiefang Dadao 1095, Wuhan 430030 (China); Zhu, Wenzhen, E-mail: zhuwenzhen@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Jiefang Dadao 1095, Wuhan 430030 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Objective: To determine whether hippocampi alter in patients at the recovery stage of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and whether the changes of hippocampi involve in the cognitive impairment in such patients. Meterials and methods: Forty-four patients with unilateral infarction solely in MCAO territory and 44 age-, sex- and education background-matched healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. All subjects underwent 3-dimensional fast spoiled gradient-echo (3D FSPGR) and sing-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) protocols at a 1.5 T MR scanner. The ratios of n-acetylaspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr) and myo-inositol/creatine (mI/Cr) were obtained by using software integrated in the MR scanner. The hippocampal volumes were estimated by manually measurement. Results: The volume and NAA/Cr ratio were found significantly decreased and mI/Cr ratio significantly increased in the hippocampus ipsilateral to occluded middle cerebral artery (MCA) as compared with values in the contralateral hippocampus or healthy control. A reduced NAA/Cr ratio was also observed in contralateral hippocampus compared to controls. The shrinkage ratio of hippocampus ipsilateral to MCAO was found related to the Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE) score. Conclusion: Our study identified that the hippocampal secondary damage occurred in patients after MCAO, and it could be evaluated noninvasively by volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and {sup 1}H MRS. Moreover, the hippocampal secondary damage in MCAO patients indeed contributed to their cognitive impairment.

  4. Volumetric MRI and 1H MRS study of hippocampus in unilateral MCAO patients: Relationship between hippocampal secondary damage and cognitive disorder following stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xiangyu; Wang, Chengyuan; Xia, Liming; Zhu, Wenhao; Zhao, Lingyun; Zhu, Wenzhen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether hippocampi alter in patients at the recovery stage of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and whether the changes of hippocampi involve in the cognitive impairment in such patients. Meterials and methods: Forty-four patients with unilateral infarction solely in MCAO territory and 44 age-, sex- and education background-matched healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. All subjects underwent 3-dimensional fast spoiled gradient-echo (3D FSPGR) and sing-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) protocols at a 1.5 T MR scanner. The ratios of n-acetylaspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr) and myo-inositol/creatine (mI/Cr) were obtained by using software integrated in the MR scanner. The hippocampal volumes were estimated by manually measurement. Results: The volume and NAA/Cr ratio were found significantly decreased and mI/Cr ratio significantly increased in the hippocampus ipsilateral to occluded middle cerebral artery (MCA) as compared with values in the contralateral hippocampus or healthy control. A reduced NAA/Cr ratio was also observed in contralateral hippocampus compared to controls. The shrinkage ratio of hippocampus ipsilateral to MCAO was found related to the Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE) score. Conclusion: Our study identified that the hippocampal secondary damage occurred in patients after MCAO, and it could be evaluated noninvasively by volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 1 H MRS. Moreover, the hippocampal secondary damage in MCAO patients indeed contributed to their cognitive impairment

  5. Prognostic value of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings in near drowning patients: reversibility of the early metabolite abnormalities relates with a good outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragao, Maria de Fatima Vasco; Law, Meng; Prola Netto, Joao; Naidich, Thomas [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology], e-mail: aragao@truenet.com; Valenca, Marcelo Moraes [Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. of Neuropsychiatry and Behavioral Studies

    2009-03-15

    In two children with near drowning hypoxic encephalopathy and normal-appearing structural MRI, acute proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) showed biochemical alterations that correctly indicated prognosis and helped to guide management decisions. Elevation of the lipid-lactate and glutamine-glutamate peaks, on the early (72 hour) {sup 1}H MRS, predicts a poor prognosis. Absence of lipid-lactate and glutamine-glutamate peaks on the early {sup 1}H MRS and reversibility of early mild metabolite abnormalities on follow up examination relates with good outcome. (author)

  6. Prognostic value of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings in near drowning patients: reversibility of the early metabolite abnormalities relates with a good outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragao, Maria de Fatima Vasco; Law, Meng; Prola Netto, Joao; Naidich, Thomas; Valenca, Marcelo Moraes

    2009-01-01

    In two children with near drowning hypoxic encephalopathy and normal-appearing structural MRI, acute proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) showed biochemical alterations that correctly indicated prognosis and helped to guide management decisions. Elevation of the lipid-lactate and glutamine-glutamate peaks, on the early (72 hour) 1 H MRS, predicts a poor prognosis. Absence of lipid-lactate and glutamine-glutamate peaks on the early 1 H MRS and reversibility of early mild metabolite abnormalities on follow up examination relates with good outcome. (author)

  7. Specificity of choline metabolites for in vivo diagnosis of breast cancer using {sup 1}H MRS at 1.5 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanwell, Peter; Gluch, Laurence; Lean, Cynthia; Malycha, Peter; Mountford, Carolyn [Royal North Shore Hospital, Institute for Magnetic Resonance Research and Department of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, University of Sydney, St Leonards, NSW (Australia); Clark, David [Breast Centre, Waratah, NSW (Australia); Tomanek, Boguslaw [National Research Council Canada, Institute for Biodiagnostics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Baker, Luke [Sydney Adventist Hospital, Department of Radiology, Wahroonga, NSW (Australia); Giuffre, Bruno [Royal North Shore Hospital, Department of Radiology, St Leonards, NSW (Australia)

    2005-05-01

    The purpose was to determine if in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) at 1.5 T can accurately provide the correct pathology of breast disease. Forty-three asymptomatic volunteers including three lactating mothers were examined and compared with 21 breast cancer patients. Examinations were undertaken at 1.5 T using a purpose-built transmit-receive single breast coil. Single voxel spectroscopy was undertaken using echo times of 135 and 350 ms. The broad composite resonance at 3.2 ppm, which includes contributions from choline, phosphocholine (PC), glycerophosphocholine (GPC), myo-inositol and taurine, was found not to be a unique marker for malignancy providing a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 80.0 and 86.0%, respectively. This was due to three of the asymptomatic volunteers and all of the lactating mothers also generating the broad composite resonance at 3.2 ppm. Optimised post-acquisitional processing of the spectra resolved a resonance at 3.22 ppm, consistent with PC, in patients with cancer. In contrast the spectra recorded for three false-positive volunteers, and the three lactating mothers had a resonance centred at 3.28 ppm (possibly taurine, myo-inositol or GPC). This improved the specificity of the test to 100%. Careful referencing of the spectra and post-acquisitional processing intended to optimise spectral resolution of in vivo MR proton spectra from human breast tissue resolves the composite choline resonance. This allows the distinction of patients with malignant disease from volunteers with a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 100%. Therefore, resolution of the composite choline resonance into its constituent components improves the specificity of the in vivo {sup 1}H MRS method, but does not overcome the problem of 20% false-negatives. (orig.)

  8. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Breast at 3T: Pre- and Post-Contrast Evaluation for Breast Lesion Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kousi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine whether in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3T can provide accurate breast lesion characterization, and to determine the effect of gadolinium on the resonance of tCho. Methods. Twenty-four positive-mammogram patients were examined on a 3T MR scanner. 1H-MRS was performed before and after gadolinium administration. tCho peak was qualitatively evaluated before and after contrast injection. Results. Fourteen out of 27 lesions proved to be malignant after histopathological diagnosis. Using 1H-MRS, before contrast injection, 6/14 confirmed malignancies and 11/13 benign lesions were correctly classified; while, after contrast injection, 11/14 confirmed malignancies and 12/13 benign processes were correctly classified. Post gadolinium 1H-MRS proved useful in picking up tCho signal, improving the overall accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity by 35%, 83%, and 9%, respectively. Conclusion. 1H-MRS overall accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity in detecting breast lesion’s malignancy were increased after gadolinium administration. It is prudent to perform 1H-MRS before contrast injection in large breast lesions to avoid choline underestimation. In cases of small or non-mass lesions, it is recommended to perform 1H-MRS after contrast injection for better voxel prescription to enable a reliable preoperative diagnosis.

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism in patients with transient global amnesia. A study using SPECT and {sup 1}H-MRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Tetsuya; Hirata, Koichi; Tatsumoto, Muneto; Yamazaki, Kaoru [Dokkyo Univ., Tochigi (Japan). School of Medicine; Sato, Toshihiko

    1997-06-01

    In 13 patients with transient global amnesia (TGA), we studied the clinical course and changes over time by means of imaging techniques such as SPECT. MRI, and proton MR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS). In the case of SPECT, a cerebral blood flow decrease at the time center of the temporal lobe persisted at least for more than one month. In many patients, no abnormal signs were found on MRI. Despite the presence of intracranial impairment of energy metabolism, no evidence of cerebral ischemia was obtained using {sup 1}H-MRS at the acute and subacute stages. There were thus discrepancies between the symptoms and the findings of SPECT as well as the findings of {sup 1}H-MRS. These data suggest that TGA may not necessarily be caused by cerebra1 ischemia. (author)

  10. Regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism in patients with transient global amnesia. A study using SPECT and 1H-MRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Tetsuya; Hirata, Koichi; Tatsumoto, Muneto; Yamazaki, Kaoru; Sato, Toshihiko.

    1997-01-01

    In 13 patients with transient global amnesia (TGA), we studied the clinical course and changes over time by means of imaging techniques such as SPECT. MRI, and proton MR spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). In the case of SPECT, a cerebral blood flow decrease at the time center of the temporal lobe persisted at least for more than one month. In many patients, no abnormal signs were found on MRI. Despite the presence of intracranial impairment of energy metabolism, no evidence of cerebral ischemia was obtained using 1 H-MRS at the acute and subacute stages. There were thus discrepancies between the symptoms and the findings of SPECT as well as the findings of 1 H-MRS. These data suggest that TGA may not necessarily be caused by cerebra1 ischemia. (author)

  11. Glutamate in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia: A 1H MRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćurčić-Blake, Branislava; Bais, Leonie; Sibeijn-Kuiper, Anita; Pijnenborg, Hendrika Maria; Knegtering, Henderikus; Liemburg, Edith; Aleman, André

    2017-08-01

    Glutamatergic models of psychosis propose that dysfunction of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and associated excess of glutamate, may underlie psychotic experiences in people with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the specific relation between glutamate and auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in patients with psychosis. In this study, levels of glutamate+glutamine (Glx) in the left lateral prefrontal lobe were determined using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) to calculate their association with AVH. Sixty-seven patients with schizophrenia and thirty healthy control participants (HC) underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to estimate levels of Glx in the white matter of the left prefrontal lobe. The spectrum was estimated from an 8mm 3 voxel placed in the left lateral prefrontal region, belonging to both the cingulum and forceps minor. Patients with lifetime AVH (AVH group; n=45) and patients without lifetime AVH were compared (NoAVH group; n=22) to control participants. Levels of Glx were significantly different between the groups (F(2,94)=5.27, p=0.007). Planned comparisons showed that higher Glx levels were found in control participants than in the total patient group (p=0.010). However, patients with lifetime AVH had higher levels of Glx compared to patients without lifetime AVH (p=0.019). Creatin levels were similar in all three groups. We found no association between Glx and the severity of symptoms (item P3 of the PANSS or PANSS positive subscale). The higher Glx levels in patients with lifetime AVH as compared to patients without lifetime AVH suggest a mediating role for Glx in AVH. Our results are consistent with a previous study that found similar decreased levels of Glx in patients with schizophrenia, and increased levels in an AVH group as compared to a NoAVH group. The role of the glutamatergic system deserves further investigation, for example in different brain regions and in relation to clinical variables

  12. Glutamatergic Effects of Divalproex in Adolescents with Mania: A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawn, Jeffrey R.; Patel, Nick C.; Chu, Wen-Jang; Lee, Jing-Huei; Adler, Caleb M.; Kim, Mi Jung; Bryan, Holly S.; Alfieri, David C.; Welge, Jeffrey A.; Blom, Thomas J.; Nandagopal, Jayasree J.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; DelBello, Melissa P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ([superscript 1]H MRS) to evaluate the in vivo effects of extended-release divalproex sodium on the glutamatergic system in adolescents with bipolar disorder, and to identify baseline neurochemical predictors of clinical remission. Method: Adolescents with bipolar disorder who were…

  13. In Vivo Assessment of Neurotransmitters and Modulators with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Application to Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtenburg, S. Andrea; Yang, Shaolin; Fischer, Bernard A.; Rowland, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    In vivo measurement of neurotransmitters and modulators is now feasible with advanced proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) techniques. This review provides a basic tutorial of MRS, describes the methods available to measure brain glutamate, glutamine, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutathione, N-acetylaspartylglutamate, glycine, and serine at magnetic field strengths of 3Tesla or higher, and summarizes the neurochemical findings in schizophrenia. Overall, 1H-MRS holds great promise for producing biomarkers that can serve as treatment targets, prediction of disease onset, or illness exacerbation in schizophrenia and other brain diseases. PMID:25614132

  14. [Possibilities in the differential diagnosis of brain neoplasms using the long and short time sequences of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gajewicz, W.; Goraj, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Currently to perform proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) with single voxel spectroscopy (SVS) technique long and/or short echo time sequences are used in order to provide complementary information. PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of STEAM (time echo, TE, 20

  15. Pregenual Anterior Cingulate Dysfunction Associated with Depression in OCD: An Integrated Multimodal fMRI/1H MRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayonnejad, Reza; Deshpande, Rangaprakash; Ajilore, Olusola; Moody, Teena; Morfini, Francesca; Ly, Ronald; O'Neill, Joseph; Feusner, Jamie D

    2018-04-01

    Depression is a commonly occurring symptom in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and is associated with worse functional impairment, poorer quality of life, and poorer treatment response. Understanding the underlying neurochemical and connectivity-based brain mechanisms of this important symptom domain in OCD is necessary for development of novel, more globally effective treatments. To investigate biopsychological mechanisms of comorbid depression in OCD, we examined effective connectivity and neurochemical signatures in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC), a structure known to be involved in both OCD and depression. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) data were obtained from participants with OCD (n=49) and healthy individuals of equivalent age and sex (n=25). Granger causality-based effective (directed) connectivity was used to define causal networks involving the right and left pACC. The interplay between fMRI connectivity, 1 H MRS and clinical data was explored by applying moderation and mediation analyses. We found that the causal influence of the right dorsal anterior midcingulate cortex (daMCC) on the right pACC was significantly lower in the OCD group and showed significant correlation with depressive symptom severity in the OCD group. Lower and moderate levels of glutamate (Glu) in the right pACC significantly moderated the interaction between right daMCC-pACC connectivity and depression severity. Our results suggest a biochemical-connectivity-psychological model of pACC dysfunction contributing to depression in OCD, particularly involving intracingulate connectivity and glutamate levels in the pACC. These findings have implications for potential molecular and network targets for treatment of this multi-faceted psychiatric condition.

  16. The study of 1H-MRS on monkey of resuscitation after cerebral selection ultra-profound hypothermic blood flow occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Jun; Xu Wei; Fang Shaolong; Zhao Xinxiang; Feng Zhongtang; Jiang Jiyao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the appearance and feature of 1 H/protion magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) on resuscitation after cerebral selective ultra-profound hypothermic and blood flow occlusion. To study effects of cerebral biochemical metabolism after cerebral selective ultra-profound hypothermia and blood flow occlusion and to explore the validity and feasibility of it. Methods: Bilateral carotid arteries and jugular veins were clipped about 10 minutes before perfusion. Then selective cerebral circulation was established by perfusion of cooling lingers liquid through right internal carotid artery and flow out of left jugular vein with clip of other carotid arteries and jugular veins. Brain temperature reached (15.1 ± 0.9) degree C, while the body temperature maintained (32.50 ± 0.58) degree C. Cerebral blood recovered after 60 minutes of cerebral ischemia and monkey came back. The cerebral MAI and DWI as well as 1 H-MRS were examined 4, 24, 72 h, 21 days before and after cerebral selective ultro-profound hypothermia and blood flow occlusion. The peak of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), Choline (Cho), creatine and phosphocreatine (Cr, PCr) of VOL were compare with those of control group in different time. Results: MRI T 1 WI, MRI T 2 WI and DWI is normal in different time in different region; there was not a significant difference in the ratio of NAA/(Cr+PCr), Cho/(Cr+PCr) in ROI in different time in the different region in the light of statistical analysis (P>0.05). Conclusion: The light of cerebral biochemical metabolism, selective ultra-profound hypothermia is safety and may provide effective protective effects and safety during cerebral ischemia. (authors)

  17. In vivo (1)H MRS study of potential associations between glutathione, oxidative stress and anhedonia in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidus, Kyle A B; Gabbay, Vilma; Mao, Xiangling; Johnson, Amy; Murrough, James W; Mathew, Sanjay J; Shungu, Dikoma C

    2014-05-21

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are important mechanisms that have been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant antioxidant in human tissue, and a key index of antioxidant capacity and, hence, of oxidative stress. The aims of this investigation were to examine possible relationships between occipital GSH and dimensional measures of depressive symptom severity, including anhedonia - the reduced capacity to experience pleasure - and fatigue. We hypothesized that the magnitude of anhedonia and fatigue will be negatively correlated with occipital GSH levels in subjects with MDD and healthy controls (HC). Data for eleven adults with MDD and ten age- and sex-matched HC subjects were included in this secondary analysis of data from a previously published study. In vivo levels of GSH in a 3cm×3cm×2cm voxel of occipital cortex were obtained by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) on a 3T MR system, using the standard J-edited spin-echo difference technique. Anhedonia was assessed by combining interest items from depression and fatigue rating scales, and fatigue by use of the multidimensional fatigue inventory. Across the full sample of participants, anhedonia severity and occipital GSH levels were negatively correlated (r=-0.55, p=0.01). No associations were found between fatigue severity and GSH in this sample. These preliminary findings are potentially consistent with a pathophysiological role for GSH and oxidative stress in anhedonia and MDD. Larger studies in anhedonic depressed patients are indicated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Brain white matter 1 H MRS in Leber optic neuropathy mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostojic, Jelena; Jancic, Jasna; Kozic, Dusko

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted in order to test the hypothesis that proton MR spectroscopic (1H MRS) profile of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) mutation carriers group (including both symptomatic and asymptomatic) differs from group of healthy individuals and to determine metabolite...... or ratio that contributes most to differentiation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed single voxel 1H MRS in normal appearing white matter of eighteen LHON mtDNA mutation carriers bearing one of three LHON mtDNA point mutations and in fifty control subjects. RESULTS: ANOVA showed significant difference...

  19. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in schizophrenia. Possibilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobrock, T.; Scherk, H.; Falkai, P.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a noninvasive investigative technique for in vivo detection of biochemical changes in neuropsychiatric disorders for which especially proton ( 1 H-MRS) and phosphorus ( 31 P-MRS) magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been used. In this review we explain the principles of MRS and summarize the studies in schizophrenia. A systematic literature review was carried out for 1 H-MRS studies investigating schizophrenic patients compared to controls. The inconsistent results in the cited studies may be due to different study population, specific neuroimaging technique, and selected brain regions. Frequent findings are decreased PME and increased PDE concentrations ( 31 P-MRS) linked to altered metabolism of membrane phospholipids and decreased N-acetylaspartate (NAA) or NAA/choline ratio ( 1 H-MRS) linked to neuronal damage in frontal (DLPFC) or temporal regions in patients with schizophrenia. These results contribute to the disturbed frontotemporal-thalamic network assumed in schizophrenia and are supported by additional functional neuroimaging, MRI morphometry, and neuropsychological evaluation. The combination of the described investigative techniques with MRS in follow-up studies may provide more specific clues for understanding the pathogenesis and disease course in schizophrenia. (orig.) [de

  20. Noninvasive quantification of hepatic steatosis inrats using 3.0 T (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, H. A.; van Werven, J. R.; Nederveen, A. J.; ten Kate, F. J.; Heger, M.; Stoker, J.; van Gulik, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE:: To assess the accuracy of noninvasive 3.0 T (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in an experimental steatosis model for the discrimination of clinically relevant macrovesicular steatosis degrees and to evaluate three different (1)H-MR spectrum-based fat quantification methods.

  1. N-Acetylcysteine Normalizes Glutamate Levels in Cocaine-Dependent Patients: A Randomized Crossover Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmaal, L.; Veltman, D.J.; Nederveen, A.; van den Brink, W.; Goudriaan, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) normalizes glutamate (Glu) homeostasis and prevents relapse in drug-dependent animals. However, the effect of NAC on brain Glu levels in substance-dependent humans has not yet been investigated. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MRS) was used to

  2. Non-invasive assessment of hepatic fat accumulation in chronic hepatitis C by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krssak, Martin; Hofer, Harald; Wrba, Fritz; Meyerspeer, Martin; Brehm, Attila; Lohninger, Alfred; Steindl-Munda, Petra; Moser, Ewald; Ferenci, Peter; Roden, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background: Liver biopsy is the standard method for diagnosis of hepatic steatosis, but is invasive and carries some risk of morbidity. Aims and methods: Quantification of hepatocellular lipid content (HCL) with non-invasive single voxel 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 3 T was compared with histological grading and biochemical analysis of liver biopsies in 29 patients with chronic hepatitis C. Body mass index, indices of insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment index, HOMA-IR), serum lipids and serum liver transaminases were also quantified. Results: HCL as assessed by 1 H MRS linearly correlated (r = 0.70, p 1 H MRS (r = 0.63, p 1 H MRS is a valid and useful method for quantification of HCL content in patients with chronic hepatitis C and can be easily applied to non-invasively monitoring of steatosis during repeated follow-up measurements in a clinical setting.

  3. 31P MRSI and 1H MRS at 7 T: initial results in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomp, Dennis W J; van de Bank, Bart L; Raaijmakers, Alexander; Korteweg, Mies A; Possanzini, Cecilia; Boer, Vincent O; van de Berg, Cornelius A T; van de Bosch, Maurice A A J; Luijten, Peter R

    2011-12-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of the noninvasive determination of important biomarkers of human (breast) tumor metabolism using high-field (7-T) MRI and MRS. (31) P MRSI at this field strength was used to provide a direct method for the in vivo detection and quantification of endogenous biomarkers. These encompass phospholipid metabolism, phosphate energy metabolism and intracellular pH. A double-tuned, dual-element transceiver was designed with focused radiofrequency fields for unilateral breast imaging and spectroscopy tuned for optimized sensitivity at 7 T. T(1) -weighted three-dimensional MRI and (1) H MRS were applied for the localization and quantification of total choline compounds. (31) P MRSI was obtained within 20 min per subject and mapped in three dimensions over the breast with pixel volumes of 10 mL. The feasibility of monitoring in vivo metabolism was demonstrated in two patients with breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy, validated by ex vivo high-resolution magic angle spinning NMR and compared with data from an age-matched healthy volunteer. Concentrations of total choline down to 0.4 mM could be detected in the human breast in vivo. Levels of adenosine and other nucleoside triphosphates, inorganic phosphate, phosphocholine, phosphoethanolamine and their glycerol diesters detected in glandular tissue, as well as in tumor, were mapped over the entire breast. Altered levels of these compounds were observed in patients compared with an age-matched healthy volunteer; modulation of these levels occurred in breast tumors during neoadjuvant chemotherapy. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive MRI and MRS study in patients with breast cancer, which reveals detailed information on the morphology and phospholipid metabolism from volumes as small as 10 mL. This endogenous metabolic information may provide a new method for the noninvasive assessment of prognostic and predictive biomarkers in breast cancer treatment. Copyright

  4. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in disturbances of cortical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminaga, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Abe, T.

    2001-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy( 1 H-MRS) can be used for looking at cerebral metabolites in vivo. However, measurement of concentrations of cerebral metabolites in patients with disturbances of cerebral development have not been successful. Our purpose was to measure the concentrations of cerebral metabolites in such patients. We carried out quantitative 1 H-MRS in eight patients with cortical dysplasia, four with lissencephaly and three with heterotopic grey matter and six age-matched normal controls. Regions of interest for 1 H-MRS were set over the affected cortex in the patients and the occipital cortex in controls. The calculated concentration of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) was significantly lower in the affected cortex in patients with cortical dysplasia (P < 0.05), lissencephaly (P < 0.01), and heterotopia (P < 0.05) than in controls, idnicating a decreased number and/or immaturity or dysfunction of neurones in the affected cortex. The concentration of choline (Cho) was significantly lower in patients with lissencephaly (P < 0.01) than in controls, indicating glial proliferation and/or membrane abnormality. (orig.)

  5. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in ecstasy (MDMA) users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumann, Jörg; Fischermann, Thomas; Pilatus, Ulrich; Thron, Armin; Moeller-Hartmann, Walter; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne

    2004-05-20

    The popular recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) has well-recognized neurotoxic effects upon central serotonergic systems in animal studies. In humans, the use of MDMA has been linked to cognitive problems, particularly to deficits in long-term memory and learning. Recent studies with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) have reported relatively low levels of the neuronal marker N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in MDMA users, however, these results have been ambiguous. Moreover, the only available 1H MRS study of the hippocampus reported normal findings in a small sample of five MDMA users. In the present study, we compared 13 polyvalent ecstasy users with 13 matched controls. We found no differences between the NAA/creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr) ratios of users and controls in neocortical regions, and only a tendency towards lower NAA/Cr ratios in the left hippocampus of MDMA users. Thus, compared with cognitive deficits, 1H MRS appears to be a less sensitive marker of potential neurotoxic damage in ecstasy users. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Intramyocellular lipid dependence on skeletal muscle fiber type and orientation characterized by diffusion tensor imaging and 1H-MRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valaparla, Sunil K.; Gao, Feng; Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad; Clarke, Geoffrey D.

    2014-03-01

    When muscle fibers are aligned with the B0 field, intramyocellular lipids (IMCL), important for providing energy during physical activity, can be resolved in proton magnetic resonance spectra (1H-MRS). Various muscles of the leg differ significantly in their proportion of fibers and angular distribution. This study determined the influence of muscle fiber type and orientation on IMCL using 1H-MRS and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Muscle fiber orientation relative to B0 was estimated by pennation angle (PA) measurements from DTI, providing orientation-specific extramyocellular lipid (EMCL) chemical shift data that were used for subject-specific IMCL quantification. Vastus lateralis (VL), tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SO) muscles of 6 healthy subjects (21-40 yrs) were studied on a Siemens 3T MRI system with a flex 4-channel coil. 1H-MRS were acquired using stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM, TR=3s, TE=270ms). DTI was performed using single shot EPI (b=600s/mm2, 30 directions, TR=4.5s, TE=82ms, and ten×5mm slices) with center slice indexed to the MRS voxel. The average PA's measured from ROI analysis of primary eigenvectors were PA=19.46+/-5.43 for unipennate VL, 15.65+/-3.73 for multipennate SO, and 7.04+/-3.34 for bipennate TA. Chemical shift (CS) was calculated using [3cos2θ-1] dependence: 0.17+/-0.02 for VL, 0.18+/-0.01 for SO and 0.19+/-0.004 ppm for TA. IMCL-CH2 concentrations from spectral analysis were 12.77+/-6.3 for VL, 3.07+/-1.63 for SO and 0.27+/-0.08 mmol/kg ww for TA. Small PA's were measured in TA and large CS with clear separation between EMCL and IMCL peaks were observed. Larger variations in PA were measured VL and SO resulting in an increased overlap of the EMCL on IMCL peaks.

  7. Localised proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain after perinatal hypoxia: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateil, J.F.; Quesson, B.; Thiaudiere, E.; Delalande, C.; Canioni, P.; Brun, M.; Diard, F.; Sarlangue, J.; Billeaud, C.

    1999-01-01

    Objectives. Perinatal hypoxic ischaemic injury is a significant cause of neurodevelopmental impairment. The aim of this study was to evaluate localised proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) after birth asphyxia. Materials and methods. Thirty newborn infants suspected of having perinatal asphyxia (Apgar score 1 H-MRS was recorded in a single voxel, localised in white matter, using a STEAM sequence. Results. Image quality was good in 25 of 30 babies. 1 H-MRS was performed in 19 of 30 subjects, with adequate quality in 16. Choline, creatine/phosphocreatine and N-acetylaspartate peaks and peak-area ratios were analysed. Lactate was detected in four infants. The N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio was lower in infants with an impaired neurological outcome, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions. This study suggests that 1 H-MRS may be useful for assessing cerebral metabolism in the neonate. A raised lactate level and decreased N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio may be predictive of a poor outcome. However, in our experience this method is limited by the difficulty in performing the examination during the first hours after birth in critically ill babies, the problems related to use of a monovoxel sequence, the dispersion of the ratios and the lack of determination of the absolute concentration of the metabolites. (orig.)

  8. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy: normal findings in the cerebellar hemisphere in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Maria Olivia R.; Lacerda, Maria Teresa C.; Garcia Otaduy, Maria C.; Cerri, Giovanni Guido; Costa Leite, Claudia de

    2002-01-01

    The cerebellar hemispheres (CER) are different from the supratentorial white and gray matter embryologically, in cytoarchitecture, and probably in metabolic activity. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) can provide a noninvasive biochemical analysis of this region.Objective. To study, with 1 H MRS, metabolite concentrations in CER as a function of age and compare these metabolic data with those of parietoccipital white matter (PO WM) in healthy children.Materials and methods. Using single-voxel 1 H MRS, we studied 37 volunteers (3-18 years) with normal MRI scans of the brain. 1 H MRS was performed using the PRESS technique in CER and PO WM. The NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, NAA/H 2 O, Cr/H 2 O, and Cho/H 2 O ratios were analyzed as a function of age. Metabolic data from these regions were compared.Results. The NAA/Cr ratio tended to increase with age in CER. Mean NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios were found to be lower in CER than in PO WM. Mean NAA/H 2 O, Cr/H 2 O, and Cho/H 2 O ratios in CER were higher than in the PO WM.Conclusion. Our data confirm the regional variations between CER and PO WM metabolite ratios, and demonstrate a tendency of age-dependent change of the NAA/Cr ratio in CER. The creatine concentration was significantly higher in the cerebellum than in the PO WM. (orig.)

  9. Hippocampal volume MRI and 1H-MRS study in chronic alcohol dependent patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Huanmin; Chen Jun; Zha Yunfei; Zhang Yu; Liu Changsheng; Pan Ewu

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To observe the changes of the bilateral hippocampal volume (BHV) and 1 H- MRS appearance of chronic alcohol dependent (CAD) patients and to provide quantitative information for the clinical diagnosis of CAD. Methods: The conventional MR imaging including three-dimensional fast spoiled gradient recalled echo (3D-FSPGR) and 1 H-MRS were performed on 16 patients with CAD (CAD group) and 18 cases of volunteer (control group). The BHV were measured in both groups and the standardized BHV in CAD group and control group were compared. 1 H-MRS metabolites including N-acetylaspartate (NAA), Choline compounds (Cho), Creatine (Cr), and myoinositol (mI) of the bilateral cephalic hippocampus were acquired. The ratios of Cho/Ci, Cho/NAA, NAA/Cr and mI/Ci within the bilateral cephalic hippocampus of the two groups were compared. The t test was used to compare the BHV and the ratios of 1 H-MRS in the bilateral cephalic hippocampus between the two groups. Results: In CAD group, the left and the right hippocampal volume were 1.881±0.292, 2.139±0.328 respectively while they were 2.106±0.245 and 2.267±0.271 respectively in the control group. The BHV had no significant difference between the left and the right in either the CAD group or the control group (t=0.232, 0.147 respectively, P>0.05). The BHV had no significant difference between the CAD group and control group (t=0.424, 0.131 respectively, P>0.05). The Cho/Cr and NAA/Cr in the right cephalic hippocampus of the CAD group were 1.225±0.210 and 1.145±0.034 respectively, while they were 1.429±0.286, 1.612±0.444 respectively in the control group (t=0.321, 0.408, P 1 H-MRS could potentially provide early diagnostic evidence for CAD patients before the onset of cerebral morphological changes. (authors)

  10. In-Vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of 2-Hydroxyglutarate in Isocitrate Dehydrogenase-Mutated Gliomas: A Technical Review for Neuroradiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyeonjin; Kim, Sungjin; Lee, Hyeong Hun; Heo, Hwon

    2016-01-01

    The diagnostic and prognostic potential of an onco-metabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) as a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) detectable biomarker of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutated (IDH-MT) gliomas has drawn attention of neuroradiologists recently. However, due to severe spectral overlap with background signals, quantification of 2HG can be very challenging. In this technical review for neuroradiologists, first, the biochemistry of 2HG and its significance in the diagnosis of IDH-MT gliomas are summarized. Secondly, various 1H-MRS methods used in the previous studies are outlined. Finally, wereview previous in vivo studies, and discuss the current status of 1H-MRS in the diagnosis of IDH-MT gliomas

  11. In-Vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of 2-Hydroxyglutarate in Isocitrate Dehydrogenase-Mutated Gliomas: A Technical Review for Neuroradiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeonjin [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sungjin [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyeong Hun; Heo, Hwon [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    The diagnostic and prognostic potential of an onco-metabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) as a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) detectable biomarker of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutated (IDH-MT) gliomas has drawn attention of neuroradiologists recently. However, due to severe spectral overlap with background signals, quantification of 2HG can be very challenging. In this technical review for neuroradiologists, first, the biochemistry of 2HG and its significance in the diagnosis of IDH-MT gliomas are summarized. Secondly, various 1H-MRS methods used in the previous studies are outlined. Finally, wereview previous in vivo studies, and discuss the current status of 1H-MRS in the diagnosis of IDH-MT gliomas.

  12. Migraine and magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younis, Samaira; Hougaard, Anders; Vestergaard, Mark B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review: To present an updated and streamlined overview of the metabolic and biochemical aspect of the migraine pathophysiology based on findings from phosphorous (31P) and hydrogen (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies. Recent findings: Despite of the variation in the meth......Purpose of review: To present an updated and streamlined overview of the metabolic and biochemical aspect of the migraine pathophysiology based on findings from phosphorous (31P) and hydrogen (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies. Recent findings: Despite of the variation...... in the methodology and quality of the MRS migraine studies over time, some results were consistent and reproducible. 31P-MRS studies suggested reduced availability of neuronal energy and implied a mitochondrial dysfunction in the migraine brain. 1H-MRS studies reported interictal abnormalities in the excitatory...... and inhibitory neurotransmitters, glutamate and g-aminobutyric acid (GABA), suggesting persistent altered excitability in migraine patients. N-Acetylaspartate levels were decreased in migraine, probably due to a mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal energy metabolism. The reported abnormalities may increase...

  13. An 1H-MRS study on radioencephalopathy caused by radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuelin; Jiang Meng; Qiu Shijun; Zhang Yuzhong; Wen Ge

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To understand the rules of NAA, Cr, and Cho changes in 1 H-MRS of radioencephalopathy (RE) caused by radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and to offer the proof to make RE be detected as early as possible. Methods: Chemical shift image 1 H-MRS examinations were acquired from ten healthy volunteers (control group) and twenty-one cases (patient group) with nasopharyngeal carcinomas confirmed by pathology who were diagnosed as RE with nasopharyngeal carcinoma by symptoms and imaging diagnosis after radical radiotherapy. The integral of NAA, Cr, and Cho in pixels were observed, the metabolite maps were drawn, and the ratios of NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho were evaluated. Results: The concentrations of NAA, Cr, and Cho were rarely observed in the necrosis and liquefaction, and there were no signals displayed in their metabolite maps. In the visible lesions, except necrosis and liquefactions, the integral of NAA increased slightly, whereas that of Cr or Cho decreased obviously or was zero. There was an area around the lesion where the integral of NAA decreased, whereas that of Cr or Cho increased. The signal in metabolite maps could not be distinguished. The ratios of NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho were less than 1. Further from the visible lesions, the integral of NAA, Cr, and Cho were normal, and the ratios of NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho were no less than 1. Conclusion: There are rules of metabolite changes in RE. The area of abnormal metabolite found in RE with 1 H-MRS is larger than in the visible lesion with MRI. This provides the possibility of earlier detection

  14. Personality and neurochemicals in the human brain: A preliminary study using 1H MRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shiyong; PENG Danling; JIN Zhen; LIU Hongyan; YANG Jie

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the neuro-biological bases of introversion-extraversion personality traits, the concentra- tion of four neurochemicals (Cho, mI, α-Glx and NAA) in anterior cigulate gyrus between normal extroverts and introverts were examined using non-invasive 1H MRS technique. Our study revealed that introverts have significantly higher level of α-Glx, Cho and mI in the anterior cingulate gyrus than extroverts. This result provides new evidence that the anterior cingulate gyrus is related to personality traits partly in support of Eysenck's supposition that introverts have higher arousal level than extroverts. Moreover, this result offers neurochemical data for psychobiological theories of personality.

  15. Evaluation of brain metabolism in autism. A {sup 1}H-MRS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Hideki; Harada, Masafumi; Mori, Kenji; Taoka, Yoshiaki; Nishitani, Hiromu [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-01-01

    We performed a {sup 1}H-MRS study on 13 autistic patients (2-15 y.o., 10 males, 3 females) and 10 normal children (6-14 y.o., 4 males, 6 females). An MR spectra of the bilateral amygdaloid-hippocampal regions, which play a very important role in the limbic system, was obtained for each subject using STEAM sequence (TR=5000 ms, TE=18 ms). In addition to the evaluation of signal intensity ratios, the absolute concentrations of 3 major metabolites, N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr) and choline-containing substances (Cho), were quantified by means of an internal reference method using unsuppressed tissue water. The concentration of NAA was decreased in autistic patients, and the difference between patients and normal controls was significant (right sided NAA level: autistic group-8.6{+-}2.1 mM, control group-11.0{+-}1.1 mM; left sided NAA level: autistic group-8.9{+-}1.8 mM, control group-10.5{+-}1.4 mM). We speculate that the decrease in NAA levels in the autistic patients reflects neuronal hypofunction or immature neurons. {sup 1}H-MRS may provide useful clinical information which is not readily obtainable with other imaging methods. (author)

  16. Evaluation of brain metabolism in autism. A 1H-MRS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Hideki; Harada, Masafumi; Mori, Kenji; Taoka, Yoshiaki; Nishitani, Hiromu

    1998-01-01

    We performed a 1 H-MRS study on 13 autistic patients (2-15 y.o., 10 males, 3 females) and 10 normal children (6-14 y.o., 4 males, 6 females). An MR spectra of the bilateral amygdaloid-hippocampal regions, which play a very important role in the limbic system, was obtained for each subject using STEAM sequence (TR=5000 ms, TE=18 ms). In addition to the evaluation of signal intensity ratios, the absolute concentrations of 3 major metabolites, N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr) and choline-containing substances (Cho), were quantified by means of an internal reference method using unsuppressed tissue water. The concentration of NAA was decreased in autistic patients, and the difference between patients and normal controls was significant (right sided NAA level: autistic group-8.6±2.1 mM, control group-11.0±1.1 mM; left sided NAA level: autistic group-8.9±1.8 mM, control group-10.5±1.4 mM). We speculate that the decrease in NAA levels in the autistic patients reflects neuronal hypofunction or immature neurons. 1 H-MRS may provide useful clinical information which is not readily obtainable with other imaging methods. (author)

  17. Correlation between memory, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and interictal epileptiform discharges in temporal lobe epilepsy related to mesial temporal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantoan, Marcele Araújo Silva; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; de Figueiredo Ferreira Guilhoto, Laura Maria; Lin, Katia; da Silva Noffs, Maria Helena; de Souza Silva Tudesco, Ivanda; Belzunces, Erich; Carrete, Henrique; Bussoletti, Renato Tavares; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Sakamoto, Américo Ceiki; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the study described here was to examine the relationship between memory function, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) abnormalities, and interictal epileptiform discharge (IED) lateralization in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) related to unilateral mesial temporal sclerosis. We assessed performance on tests of memory function and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 29 right-handed outpatients and 24 controls. IEDs were assessed on 30-minute-awake and 30-minute-sleep EEG samples. Patients had (1)H-MRS at 1.5 T. There was a negative correlation between IQ (P=0.031) and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test results (P=0.022) and epilepsy duration; between(1)H-MRS findings and epilepsy duration (P=0.027); and between N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels and IEDs (P=0.006) in contralateral mesial temporal structures in the left MTS group. (1)H-MRS findings, IEDs, and verbal function were correlated. These findings suggest that IEDs and NAA/(Cho+Cr) ratios reflecting neural metabolism are closely related to verbal memory function in mesial temporal sclerosis. Higher interictal activity on the EEG was associated with a decline in total NAA in contralateral mesial temporal structures.

  18. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in schizophrenia. Possibilities and limitations; Magnetresonanzspektroskopie bei Schizophrenie. Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wobrock, T. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie; Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Scherk, H.; Falkai, P. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie

    2005-02-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a noninvasive investigative technique for in vivo detection of biochemical changes in neuropsychiatric disorders for which especially proton ({sup 1}H-MRS) and phosphorus ({sup 31}P-MRS) magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been used. In this review we explain the principles of MRS and summarize the studies in schizophrenia. A systematic literature review was carried out for {sup 1}H-MRS studies investigating schizophrenic patients compared to controls. The inconsistent results in the cited studies may be due to different study population, specific neuroimaging technique, and selected brain regions. Frequent findings are decreased PME and increased PDE concentrations ({sup 31}P-MRS) linked to altered metabolism of membrane phospholipids and decreased N-acetylaspartate (NAA) or NAA/choline ratio ({sup 1}H-MRS) linked to neuronal damage in frontal (DLPFC) or temporal regions in patients with schizophrenia. These results contribute to the disturbed frontotemporal-thalamic network assumed in schizophrenia and are supported by additional functional neuroimaging, MRI morphometry, and neuropsychological evaluation. The combination of the described investigative techniques with MRS in follow-up studies may provide more specific clues for understanding the pathogenesis and disease course in schizophrenia. (orig.) [German] Die Magnetresonanzspektroskopie (MRS) stellt ein nichtinvasives Verfahren dar, mit dem in vivo biochemische Veraenderungen spezifischer Hirnregionen bei verschiedenen psychiatrischen Erkrankungen untersucht werden koennen. Dabei werden insbesondere die Protonenmagnetresonanzspektroskopie ({sup 1}H-MRS) sowie die Phosphormagnetresonanzspektroskopie ({sup 31}P-MRS) verwendet. In der vorliegenden Uebersichtsarbeit werden die methodischen Grundlagen erlaeutert sowie die Befundlage bei der Schizophrenie referiert. Fuer die Darstellung der Studien zur {sup 1}H-MRS bei schizophrenen Patienten im Vergleich zu einer Kontrollgruppe

  19. Application of routine MRI and 1H-MRS in evaluating the central neurological damages caused by occupational manganese exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiangrong; Long Liling; Jiang Muliang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: MRI and MR hydrogen proton spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) were used to detect the abnormal signal and alteration of metabolites, in order to explore the efficacy of these method in evaluating the damages of central nervous system (CNS) induced by occupational manganese exposure. Methods: Eighteen workers exposed to manganese without any manganism symptoms, 12 workers with slightly chronic manganese poisoning, and 19 healthy workers were scanned using routine MRI sequence and 1 H-MRS. The blood manganese concentration was also collected for each subject. On cerebral axial T 1 WI, the signal intensities of ipsilateral globus pallidus and frontal white matter were measured in the visually brightest area (try to select the signal homogeneous region), and the globus pallidus index (PI) was then calculated. The 1 H-MRS data was calculated to get the values of the peak height of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), inositol (mI) and creatine (Cr) and the ratios of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and mL/Cr were also calculated. One way ANOVA was used to compare the values of PI, NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, mI/Cr and MnB among the three groups, and the correlations between PI and the time span of manganese exposure or blood manganese concentration were analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis. Eight workers exposed to manganese were followed up one year, and their PI, NAA/Cr before and after follow-up were compared by t test. Results: Fourteen of 18 cases exposed to manganese without any manganism symptoms showed symmetrically high intensity signal on T 1 WI, while the T 2 WI were normal. No high signal intensity was obseerved on T 1 WI in any of the healthy workers or manganese poisoning workers. We found that the average PI in manganese exposed group (1.16 ± 0.09) was significantly higher (F=24.79,P=0.000) than those of the poisoning (1.05±0.07) and control groups (1.01±0.05). The blood manganese concentration in manganese exposed group, the poisoning group and the control group were (0

  20. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reflects metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heindel, W. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Kugel, H. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Wendel, U. [Children`s Hospital, Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany); Roth, B. [Children`s Hospital, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Benz-Bohm, G. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Koeln (Germany)

    1995-06-01

    Using localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS), accumulation of branchedchain amino acids (BCAA) and their corresponding 2-oxo acids (BCOA) could be non-invasively demonstrated in the brain of a 9-year-old girl suffering from classical maple syrup urine disease. During acute metabolic decompensation, the compounds caused a signal at a chemical shift of 0.9 ppm which was assigned by in vitro experiments. The brain tissue concentration of the sum of BCAA and BCOA could be estimated as 0.9 mmol/l. Localized {sup 1}H-MRS of the brain appears to be suitable for examining patients suffering from maple syrup urine disease in different metabolic states. (orig.)

  1. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reflects metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindel, W.; Kugel, H.; Wendel, U.; Roth, B.; Benz-Bohm, G.

    1995-01-01

    Using localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS), accumulation of branchedchain amino acids (BCAA) and their corresponding 2-oxo acids (BCOA) could be non-invasively demonstrated in the brain of a 9-year-old girl suffering from classical maple syrup urine disease. During acute metabolic decompensation, the compounds caused a signal at a chemical shift of 0.9 ppm which was assigned by in vitro experiments. The brain tissue concentration of the sum of BCAA and BCOA could be estimated as 0.9 mmol/l. Localized 1 H-MRS of the brain appears to be suitable for examining patients suffering from maple syrup urine disease in different metabolic states. (orig.)

  2. Altered metabolites of the rat hippocampus after mild and moderate traumatic brain injury - a combined in vivo and in vitro 1 H-MRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kavita; Trivedi, Richa; Verma, Ajay; D'souza, Maria M; Koundal, Sunil; Rana, Poonam; Baishya, Bikash; Khushu, Subash

    2017-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been shown to affect hippocampus-associated learning, memory and higher cognitive functions, which may be a consequence of metabolic alterations. Hippocampus-associated disorders may vary depending on the severity of injury [mild TBI (miTBI) and moderate TBI (moTBI)] and time since injury. The underlying hippocampal metabolic irregularities may provide an insight into the pathological process following TBI. In this study, in vivo and in vitro proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) data were acquired from the hippocampus region of controls and TBI groups (miTBI and moTBI) at D0 (pre-injury), 4 h, Day 1 and Day 5 post-injury (PI). In vitro MRS results indicated trauma-induced changes in both miTBI and moTBI; however, in vivo MRS showed metabolic alterations in moTBI only. miTBI and moTBI showed elevated levels of osmolytes indicating injury-induced edema. Altered levels of citric acid cycle intermediates, glutamine/glutamate and amino acid metabolism indicated injury-induced aberrant bioenergetics, excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. An overall similar pattern of pathological process was observed in both miTBI and moTBI, with the distinction of depleted N-acetylaspartate levels (indicating neuronal loss) at 4 h and Day 1 and enhanced lactate production (indicating heightened energy depletion leading to the commencement of the anaerobic pathway) at Day 5 in moTBI. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the hippocampus metabolic profile in miTBI and moTBI simultaneously using in vivo and in vitro MRS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. 1H MR spectroscopy in histopathological subgroups of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, Milan; Dezortova, Monika; Krsek, Pavel; Komarek, Vladimir; Marusic, Petr; Tomasek, Martin; Krijtova, Hana; Zamecnik, Josef; Kyncl, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the lateralizing value of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) in histopathologically different subgroups of mesial temporal lobe epilepsies (MTLE) and to correlate results with clinical, MRI and seizure outcome data. A group of 35 patients who underwent resective epilepsy surgery was retrospectively studied. Hippocampal 1 H MR spectra were evaluated. Metabolite concentrations were obtained using LCModel and NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, NAA/(Cr+Cho), Cho/Cr ratios and coefficients of asymmetry were calculated. MRI correctly lateralized 89% of subjects and 1 H MRS 83%. MRI together with 1 H MRS correctly lateralized 100% of patients. Nineteen subjects had ''classical'' hippocampal sclerosis (HS), whereas the remaining 16 patients had ''mild'' HS. Nineteen patients had histopathologically proven malformation of cortical development (MCD) in the temporal pole; 16 subjects had only HS. No difference in 1 H MRS findings was found between patients in different histopathological subgroups of MTLE. Our results support the hypothesis that 1 H MRS abnormalities do not directly reflect histopathological changes in MTLE patients. Subjects with non-lateralized 1 H MRS abnormalities did not have a worse postoperative seizure outcome. We found no significant impact of contralateral 1 H MRS abnormality on post-surgical seizure outcome. (orig.)

  4. {sup 1}H MR spectroscopy in histopathological subgroups of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajek, Milan; Dezortova, Monika [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, MR Unit, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Prague (Czech Republic); Krsek, Pavel; Komarek, Vladimir [Charles University, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Prague 5 (Czech Republic); Marusic, Petr; Tomasek, Martin; Krijtova, Hana [Charles University, Department of Neurology, Prague (Czech Republic); Zamecnik, Josef [Charles University, Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Prague (Czech Republic); Kyncl, Martin [Charles University, Department of Radiology, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2009-02-15

    The aim of the study was to analyze the lateralizing value of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) in histopathologically different subgroups of mesial temporal lobe epilepsies (MTLE) and to correlate results with clinical, MRI and seizure outcome data. A group of 35 patients who underwent resective epilepsy surgery was retrospectively studied. Hippocampal {sup 1}H MR spectra were evaluated. Metabolite concentrations were obtained using LCModel and NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, NAA/(Cr+Cho), Cho/Cr ratios and coefficients of asymmetry were calculated. MRI correctly lateralized 89% of subjects and {sup 1}H MRS 83%. MRI together with {sup 1}H MRS correctly lateralized 100% of patients. Nineteen subjects had 'classical' hippocampal sclerosis (HS), whereas the remaining 16 patients had 'mild' HS. Nineteen patients had histopathologically proven malformation of cortical development (MCD) in the temporal pole; 16 subjects had only HS. No difference in {sup 1}H MRS findings was found between patients in different histopathological subgroups of MTLE. Our results support the hypothesis that {sup 1}H MRS abnormalities do not directly reflect histopathological changes in MTLE patients. Subjects with non-lateralized {sup 1}H MRS abnormalities did not have a worse postoperative seizure outcome. We found no significant impact of contralateral {sup 1}H MRS abnormality on post-surgical seizure outcome. (orig.)

  5. A high fat diet alters metabolic and bioenergetic function in the brain: A magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    OpenAIRE

    Raider, Kayla; Ma, Delin; Harris, Janna L.; Fuentes, Isabella; Rogers, Robert S.; Wheatley, Joshua L.; Geiger, Paige C.; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Choi, In-Young; Brooks, William M.; Stanford, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic effects can lead to neurological dysfunction and increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite these risks, the effects of a high-fat diet on the central nervous system are not well understood. To better understand the mechanisms underlying the effects of high fat consumption on brain regions affected by AD and PD, we used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to measure neurochemicals in ...

  6. Novel use of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS to non-invasively assess placental metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona C Denison

    Full Text Available Placental insufficiency is a major cause of antepartum stillbirth and fetal growth restriction (FGR. In affected pregnancies, delivery is expedited when the risks of ongoing pregnancy outweigh those of prematurity. Current tests are unable to assess placental function and determine optimal timing for delivery. An accurate, non-invasive test that clearly defines the failing placenta would address a major unmet clinical need. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H MRS can be used to assess the metabolic profile of tissue in-vivo. In FGR pregnancies, a reduction in N-acetylaspartate (NAA/choline ratio and detection of lactate methyl are emerging as biomarkers of impaired neuronal metabolism and fetal hypoxia, respectively. However, fetal brain hypoxia is a late and sometimes fatal event in placental compromise, limiting clinical utility of brain (1H MRS to prevent stillbirth. We hypothesised that abnormal placental (1H MRS may be an earlier biomarker of intrauterine hypoxia, affording the opportunity to optimise timing of delivery in at-risk fetuses.We recruited three women with severe placental insufficiency/FGR and three matched controls. Using a 3T MR system and a combination of phased-array coils, a 20×20×40 mm(1H MRS voxel was selected along the 'long-axis' of the placenta with saturation bands placed around the voxel to prevent contaminant signals. A significant choline peak (choline/lipid ratio 1.35-1.79 was detected in all healthy placentae. In contrast, in pregnancies complicated by FGR, the choline/lipid ratio was ≤0.02 in all placentae, despite preservation of the lipid peak (p<0.001.This novel proof-of-concept study suggests that in severe placental insufficiency/FGR, the observed 60-fold reduction in the choline/lipid ratio by (1H MRS may represent an early biomarker of critical placental insufficiency. Further studies will determine performance of this test and the potential role of 1H-MRS in the in-vivo assessment of

  7. Sequential observations of brain edema with proton magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Kyousuke

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between morphological and metabolic changes in brain edema using proton magnetic resonance systems. The serial changes during the first 24 hours in the cold-injury trauma rat brain model were investigated by proton magnetic resonance imaging ( 1 H MRI) and high-resolution proton MR spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS). We also analyzed the efficacy of AVS 1,2-bis (nicotinamide)-propane which can scavenge free radicals to the edema in this experiment. The edema was developing extensively via the corpus callosum in ipsi- and contralateral hemispheres as shown by gradually increased signal intensity on 1 H MRI. 1 H MRS initially showed accumulation of acetate and lactate, and transient increasing of glutamine. After 24 hours, the increased glutamine decreased below the control, alanine increased, and N-acetyl aspartate decreased with the edema development. AVS-treatment significantly suppressed edema development, increases of lactate and alanine and decreases of N-acetyl aspartate. We suggest that the cold-induced lesion contains anaerobic glycolysis deterioration and results in severe brain tissue breakdown. AVS is proved valuable for the treatment of this edema lesion. Clinical 1 H MRS showed prolonged lactate elevation and significant decreases of other metabolites in human ischemic stroke edema. In peritumoral edema, decreased N-acetyl aspartate gradually improved, and slightly elevated lactate disappeared after tumor removal. 1 H MRS feasibly characterizes the ischemic and peritumoral edema and makes a quantitative analysis in human brain metabolism. We believe the combined 1 H MRI and MRS study is a practical method to monitor the brain conditions and will make it easy and possible to find new therapeutic agents to some brain disorders. (author)

  8. Localised proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain after perinatal hypoxia: a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chateil, J.F. [Service de Radiologie A, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)]|[Unite de Radiopediatrie, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Quesson, B.; Thiaudiere, E.; Delalande, C.; Canioni, P. [Resonance Magnetique des Systemes Biologiques, CNRS, Bordeaux (France); Brun, M.; Diard, F. [Service de Radiologie A, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Sarlangue, J.; Billeaud, C. [Service de Neonatalogie, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)

    1999-03-01

    Objectives. Perinatal hypoxic ischaemic injury is a significant cause of neurodevelopmental impairment. The aim of this study was to evaluate localised proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) after birth asphyxia. Materials and methods. Thirty newborn infants suspected of having perinatal asphyxia (Apgar score < 3) were studied. The mean gestational age was 37 weeks, mean age at the MR examination was 18 days and mean weight was 2.9 kg. A 1.5-T unit was used for imaging and spectroscopy. None of the babies had mechanically assisted ventilation. No sedation was used. Axial T1-weighted and T2-weighted images were obtained. {sup 1}H-MRS was recorded in a single voxel, localised in white matter, using a STEAM sequence. Results. Image quality was good in 25 of 30 babies. {sup 1}H-MRS was performed in 19 of 30 subjects, with adequate quality in 16. Choline, creatine/phosphocreatine and N-acetylaspartate peaks and peak-area ratios were analysed. Lactate was detected in four infants. The N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio was lower in infants with an impaired neurological outcome, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions. This study suggests that {sup 1}H-MRS may be useful for assessing cerebral metabolism in the neonate. A raised lactate level and decreased N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio may be predictive of a poor outcome. However, in our experience this method is limited by the difficulty in performing the examination during the first hours after birth in critically ill babies, the problems related to use of a monovoxel sequence, the dispersion of the ratios and the lack of determination of the absolute concentration of the metabolites. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 20 refs.

  9. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the canine brain at 3.0 T and 7.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Vaquero, Paula; da Costa, Ronaldo C; Echandi, Rita L; Sammet, Christina L; Knopp, Michael V; Sammet, Steffen

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) to study the concentration of metabolites in the brain of dogs at 3.0 and 7.0 T. Four healthy male beagles were scanned using 3.0 T and 7.0 T human magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) units. The results obtained showed that all dogs had excellent quality spectra for a small (1 cm3) and large (8 cm3) voxel at 3.0 T, whereas only 2 dogs had high quality spectra at 7.0 T due to insufficient water suppression. 1H MRS at 3.0 T appears to be a reliable method to study metabolite concentrations in the canine brain. The development of more advanced water suppression techniques is necessary to improve the results at 7.0 T. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Brain GABA Detection in vivo with the J-editing 1H MRS Technique: A Comprehensive Methodological Evaluation of Sensitivity Enhancement, Macromolecule Contamination and Test-Retest Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shungu, Dikoma C.; Mao, Xiangling; Gonzales, Robyn; Soones, Tacara N.; Dyke, Jonathan P.; van der Veen, Jan Willem; Kegeles, Lawrence S.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in brain γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been implicated in various neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. However, in vivo GABA detection by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) presents significant challenges arising from low brain concentration, overlap by much stronger resonances, and contamination by mobile macromolecule (MM) signals. This study addresses these impediments to reliable brain GABA detection with the J-editing difference technique on a 3T MR system in healthy human subjects by (a) assessing the sensitivity gains attainable with an 8-channel phased-array head coil, (b) determining the magnitude and anatomic variation of the contamination of GABA by MM, and (c) estimating the test-retest reliability of measuring GABA with this method. Sensitivity gains and test-retest reliability were examined in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), while MM levels were compared across three cortical regions: the DLPFC, the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the occipital cortex (OCC). A 3-fold higher GABA detection sensitivity was attained with the 8-channel head coil compared to the standard single-channel head coil in DLPFC. Despite significant anatomic variation in GABA+MM and MM across the three brain regions (p GABA+MM was relatively stable across the three voxels, ranging from 41% to 49%, a non-significant regional variation (p = 0.58). The test-retest reliability of GABA measurement, expressed either as ratios to voxel tissue water (W) or total creatine, was found to be very high for both the single-channel coil and the 8-channel phased-array coil. For the 8-channel coil, for example, Pearson’s correlation coefficient of test vs. retest for GABA/W was 0.98 (R2 = 0.96, p = 0.0007), the percent coefficient of variation (CV) was 1.25%, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.98. Similar reliability was also found for the co-edited resonance of combined glutamate and glutamine (Glx) for both coils. PMID

  11. New observations concerning the interpretation of magnetic resonance spectroscopy of meningioma

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    Yue, Qiang [University of Tsukuba, Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki (Japan); West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Huaxi MR Research Center, Department of Radiology, Chengdu (China); Isobe, Tomonori [Kitasato University, Department of Medical Technology, School of Allied Health Sciences, Minato (Japan); Shibata, Yasushi; Kawamura, Hiraku; Yamamoto, Youhei; Takano, Shingo; Matsumura, Akira [University of Tsukuba, Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki (Japan); Anno, Izumi [University of Tsukuba, Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2008-12-15

    This study was aimed to clarify some ambiguities in the interpretation of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) of meningiomas. The cases of 31 meningioma patients (27 benign and 4 nonbenign meningiomas) that underwent single-voxel 1H-MRS (PRESS sequence, TR/TE = 2,000 ms/68, 136, 272 ms) were retrospectively analyzed. To verify the findings of in-vivo study, phantoms were measured, and pathological sections of 11 patients were reviewed. All meningiomas demonstrated increased choline and decreased creatine, except for a lipomatous meningioma that only displayed a prominent lipid (Lip) peak. Alanine (Ala) and lactate (Lac) coexisted in eight cases, indicating an alternative pathway of energy metabolism in meningiomas. They partially overlapped with each other and demonstrated a triplet-like spectral pattern, which was consistent with phantom study. Glutamine/glutamate (Glx) was helpful for the recognition of meningioma when Ala was absent. N-acetyl compounds(NACs) were observed in nine cases whose voxels were completely limited within the tumors, indicating that meningiomas might have endogenous NACs. Lac was indicative of an aggressive meningioma, although not always a nonbenign one. Lip not only represented micronecrosis in nonbenign meningiomas, but also reflected microcystic changes or fatty degeneration in benign meningiomas. 1H-MRS reflects some distinctive biochemical and pathological changes of meningiomas that might be misinterpreted. (orig.)

  12. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with early stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

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    Sivak, Stefan [Comenius University, Clinic of Neurology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Martin (Slovakia); Jessenius Medical Faculty, Clinic of Neurology, Martin (Slovakia); Bittsansky, Michal; Dobrota, Dusan [Comenius University, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Martin (Slovakia); Kurca, Egon; Turcanova-Koprusakova, Monika; Grofik, Milan; Nosal, Vladimir [Comenius University, Clinic of Neurology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Martin (Slovakia); Polacek, Hubert [Comenius University, Clinic of Radiodiagnostics, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Martin (Slovakia)

    2010-12-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder primarily affecting upper and lower motor neurons. Due to relative fast progression of the disease, early diagnosis is essential. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) is used for objectivization of upper motor neuron (UMN) lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the use of {sup 1}H-MRS in the early stages of ALS. Eleven patients with clinically definite (n = 2), probable (n = 7), and probable laboratory-supported (n = 2) diagnosis of ALS with disease duration of less than 14 months were studied. Control group consists of 11 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. All subjects underwent assessment of functional disability using revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) and single-voxel {sup 1}H-MRS examination of both precentral gyri, pons, medulla oblongata, and occipital lobe. Spectra were evaluated with LCModel software. The mean disease duration was 6.5 {+-} 3.5 months. The median ALSFRS-R was 42. Significant decrease between patient and control groups was found in the NAA/Cre ratio in the left and right precentral gyri (p = 0.008, p = 0.040). Other metabolite ratios in other areas did not show significant differences. Total ALSFRS-R score weakly positively correlated with NAA/Cre ratio in the left precentral gyrus (p = 0.047). {sup 1}H-MRS is sensitive to detect metabolic changes caused by neurodegeneration processes during ALS and can be used for detection of UMN dysfunction. These MRS changes in the early stages of ALS are most prominent in motor cortex. (orig.)

  13. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with early stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivak, Stefan; Bittsansky, Michal; Dobrota, Dusan; Kurca, Egon; Turcanova-Koprusakova, Monika; Grofik, Milan; Nosal, Vladimir; Polacek, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder primarily affecting upper and lower motor neurons. Due to relative fast progression of the disease, early diagnosis is essential. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) is used for objectivization of upper motor neuron (UMN) lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the use of 1 H-MRS in the early stages of ALS. Eleven patients with clinically definite (n = 2), probable (n = 7), and probable laboratory-supported (n = 2) diagnosis of ALS with disease duration of less than 14 months were studied. Control group consists of 11 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. All subjects underwent assessment of functional disability using revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) and single-voxel 1 H-MRS examination of both precentral gyri, pons, medulla oblongata, and occipital lobe. Spectra were evaluated with LCModel software. The mean disease duration was 6.5 ± 3.5 months. The median ALSFRS-R was 42. Significant decrease between patient and control groups was found in the NAA/Cre ratio in the left and right precentral gyri (p = 0.008, p = 0.040). Other metabolite ratios in other areas did not show significant differences. Total ALSFRS-R score weakly positively correlated with NAA/Cre ratio in the left precentral gyrus (p = 0.047). 1 H-MRS is sensitive to detect metabolic changes caused by neurodegeneration processes during ALS and can be used for detection of UMN dysfunction. These MRS changes in the early stages of ALS are most prominent in motor cortex. (orig.)

  14. Detection of glucose in the human brain with 1 H MRS at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Lana G; Hirokazu, Kawaguchi; Fukunaga, Masaki; B Matson, Gerald

    2016-12-01

    A new method is proposed for noninvasive detection of glucose in vivo using proton MR spectroscopy at 7 Tesla. The proposed method utilizes J-difference editing to uncover the resonance of beta-glucose (β-glc) at 3.23 ppm, which is strongly overlapped with choline. Calculations using the density matrix formalism are used to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of the β-glc resonance at 3.23 ppm. The calculations are verified using phantom and in vivo data collected at 7 Tesla. The proposed method allows observation of the glucose signal at 3.23 ppm in the human brain spectrum. Additional co-edited resonances of N-acetylaspartylglutamatate and glutathione are also detected in the same experiment. The proposed method does not require carbon ( 13 C)- labeled glucose injections and 13 C hardware; as such, it has a potential to provide valuable information on intrinsic glucose concentration in the human brain in vivo. Magn Reson Med 76:1653-1660, 2016. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  15. Initial study of optimal single-voxel 1H-MR spectroscopy parameters on femoral bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhenhua; Meng Quanfei; Zhou Chunxiang; Lin Erjian; Deng Demao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To choose proper proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) parameters to fit for practical femoral marrow cavity and to produce short-timed, well-repeated and excellent 1 H-MRS images. Methods: The tentative study of 1 H-MRS on the normal femoral bone marrow in 26 volunteers was performed with a 1.5 T MR after the informed consent. The single-voxel spectroscopy and stimulated echo acquisition mode were used for 1 H-MRS collection. 1 H-MRS parameters for 12 volunteers were 128 acquisitions, 1 cm x 1 cm x 1 cm volume of interest (VOI) size and repeatedly 2-3 times within the same location. 1 H-MRS parameters for another 14 volunteers were different numbers of acquisition (128 and 256 times, respectively) and different VOl sizes (2 cm x2 cm x2 cm and 1 cm x 1 cm x 1 cm, respectively). Results: For 1 H-MRS with 1 cm x 1 cm x 1 cm size of VOI and 128 times of acquisition with the full width half max of water ≤8-12 Hz, the base-line was steady and the signal-noise ratio was high up to 11.31. 1 H-MRS was different in the different femoral locations showing the maximum peak sites at near 0.90 ppm( x 10 -6 ) or 1.65 ppm, but 1 H-MRS within the same location was always same or similar with different VOI sizes (1 cm x 1 cm x 1 cm or 2 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm) or different numbers of acquisition(128 or 256 times). 1 H-MRS acquisition time was not related with the size of VOI but with the numbers of acquisition. 128 and 256 times of acquisition cost 199 s and 391 s, respectively. Conclusion: With the technique of small size of VOI(1 cm x 1 cm x 1 cm) and decreased numbers of acquisition (128 times), it is propable to get well-repeated and excellent 1 H-MRS within less time. It is also more practical for clinics to achieve 1 H-MRS of the femoral marrow with the proper technique. (authors)

  16. 1H MRS of a boron neutron capture therapy 10B-carrier, L-p-boronophenylalanine-fructose complex, BPA-F: phantom studies at 1.5 and 3.0 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, S; Kangasmaeki, A; Timonen, M; Kankaanranta, L; Haekkinen, A-M; Lundbom, N; Vaehaetalo, J; Savolainen, S

    2003-01-01

    The quantification of a BNCT 10 B-carrier, L-p-boronophenylalanine-fructose complex (BPA-F), was evaluated using 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) with phantoms at 1.5 and 3.0 T. For proper quantification, relaxation times T 1 and T 2 are needed. While T 1 is relatively easy to determine, the determination of T 2 of a coupled spin system of aromatic protons of BPA is not straightforward with standard MRS sequences. In addition, an uncoupled concentration reference for aromatic protons of BPA must be used with caution. In order to determine T 2 , the response of an aromatic proton spin system to the MRS sequence PRESS with various echo times was calculated and the product of the response curve with exponential decay was fitted to the measured intensities. Furthermore, the response curve can be used to correct the intensities, when an uncoupled resonance is used as a concentration reference. BPA was quantified using both phantom replacement and internal water referencing methods with accuracies of ±5% and ±15%. Our phantom results suggest that in vivo studies on BPA concentration determination will be feasible

  17. Noninvasive monitoring of radiation-induced treatment response using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in a colorectal tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seierstad, Therese; Roe, Kathrine; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: To examine whether in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) can monitor radiation-induced changes in HT29 xenografts in mice. Materials and methods: HT29 xenografts in mice received a dose of 15 Gy. In vivo 1 H MRS and DW-MRI were acquired pretreatment and 1, 3, 6 and 10 days post-irradiation. After imaging, tumors were excised for histological analysis. The amounts of necrosis, fibrosis and viable cells in the cross sections were scored and compared to changes in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and choline/water ratio. Results: Radiation-induced necrosis in the xenografts was observed as increased tumor ADC. In-growth of fibrosis three days post-irradiation restricting water mobility was accompanied by decreased tumor ADC. Choline/water ratio correlated with metabolic activity and tumor growth. Conclusions: ADC and choline/water ratio assessed by in vivo DW-MRI and 1 H MRS depicts radiation-induced changes in HT29 xenografts following irradiation

  18. APOE genotype and age modifies the correlation between cognitive status and metabolites from hippocampus by a 2D 1H-MRS in non-demented elders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Yin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the associations among age, Apolipoprotein E (APOE genotype, metabolic changes in the hippocampus detected by 2D 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, and neuropsychological measures of cognition in non-demented elders.Materials and Methods. We studied a cohort of 16 cognitively normal controls (CN and 11 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI patients between 66 and 88 years old who were genotyped for APOE genetic polymorphism. Measurements of 2D1H-MRS metabolites were obtained in the hippocampus region. Adjusting by age among all subjects, the association between metabolic changes and cognitive function was measured by Spearman partial rank-order correlation. The effect of APOE status was measured by separating the subjects into APOE genotype subgroups, including the APOEε4 carriers and APOEε4 non-carriers.Results. In contrast to the CN group matched with age, gender, and education, aMCI patients showed increased myo-inositol (mI/Creatine (Cr ratio only in the right hippocampus. No differences were noted on N-acetylaspartate (NAA/Cr and mI/NAA from bilateral hippocampus, and so was mI/Cr ratio in left hippocampus between aMCI and CN. The mI/Cr ratio from the right hippocampus in non-demented elders was negatively correlated with Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA scores. Whether ε4 genotype or age was added as a covariate, none of the correlation effects remained significant. Additionally, adjusting for age and APOE genotype together, there was no significant correlation between them.Conclusion. Since the higher mI/Cr from the right hippocampus of the patients with aMCI than those from CN, the mI/Cr could be a more specific predictor of general cognitive function in aMCI patients. There is an association between higher mI/Cr in right hippocampus and worse cognitive function for the non-demented older adults, and the correlation could be modified by APOE status and age. That provided a window on objectively

  19. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism of the patients with a carotid stenosis evaluated by SPECT and 1H-MRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Masaaki; Nishi, Kyouko; Shinno, Kiyohito; Nagahiro, Shinji; Ohtsuka, Hideki; Harada, Masafumi

    1998-01-01

    We examined cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolic states in patients with a severe carotid stenosis by SPECT and proton MRS ( 1 H-MRS). SPECT using 99m Tc-HMPAO and 1 H-MRS were performed in twenty five patients with over 70% carotid stenosis. Moreover, 10 patients were evaluated by these methods after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) on the ipsilateral side was reduced in 17 patients (Group A) while NAA of other 8 patients was not reduced (Group B). In Group A, although regional CBF was reduced in only 4 of 17 patients, 11 patients showed decline of cerebral vasoreactivity evaluated by acetazolamide injection. Concentration of NAA and regional CBF showed significant correlations. After CEA, ipsilateral NAA was increased significantly compared to preoperative NAA level. In 6 of 7 patients in Group A, cerebral vasoreactivity also improved postoperatively. These results indicated that ipsilatereal NAA metabolism and cerebral vasoreactivity can be improved after CEA. SPECT and 1 H-MRS were useful to evaluate CBF and metabolism in patients with carotid stenosis. (author)

  20. The assessment of fetus in distress using MRI and 1H MRS - based on performed observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowska-Matwiejczuk, K.; Tarasow, E.; Walecki, J.; Lemancewicz, A.; Kubas, B.; Urban, R.

    2003-01-01

    Hypoxia is one of the basic factor that cause lesions and intrauterine fetus' death. This is why the recognition of early changes before the appearance of irreversible damages should be the main aim of the assessment and monitoring of a fetus. Apart from the methods of the assessment of a fetus' state that have been applied so far, a new non-invasive imaging technique in obstetrics as MR has appeared. This method makes it possible to assess morphologic structures of a brain, and metabolic processes with use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The study was carried out in 20 pregnant women with pregnancy-induced hypertension (11 cases), chronic hypertension (2 cases), gestational diabetes (6 cases) and IUGR (6 cases). The cardiotocography color Doppler flow assessment of umbilical artery and medial cerebral artery were performed. In cases of abnormal cardiotocography, and Doppler examinations suggested ischemic lesions 5 cases of focal ischemic areas in MR and 6 abnormal MRS spectra were demonstrated. (author)

  1. Brain 1H MRS study in children suffering from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Zhen; Zhang Lei; Zeng Yawei; Wang Yan; Zang Yufeng; Wang Yufeng

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the children suffering from Attention -deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had neurochemical abnormalities in basis ganglia and if the state could be affected by methylphenidate. Methods: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans were performed on bilateral globus pallidum of 12 ADHD body before and after one dose of methylphenidate 10 mg. Spectral peaks of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), myo-inositol (MI), glutamate plus glutamine (α-Glx) and creatine (Cr) were measured and their ratios were compared with 12 age-, handedness-, and IQ-matched healthy boys. Results: In children having ADHD, NAA/Cr ratio decrease significantly in bilateral globus pallidum (left side t = 7.01, P 0.05; right side t = -1.04, P > 0.05). The post-drug NAA/Cr ratios in ADHD children remained significantly different from those in healthy children (left side t = 3.68, P 0.05). Conclusion: In children suffering from ADHD, neuronal loss-dysfunction exists in bilateral striatum. One does of methylphenidate could not affect the state significantly. Further investigations are needed to confirm whether the cholinergic system is involved in ADHD

  2. GABA and glutamate in schizophrenia: A 7 T 1H-MRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk Marsman

    2014-01-01

    In this study, GABA/creatine ratios, and glutamate, NAA, creatine and choline concentrations in the prefrontal and parieto-occipital cortices were measured in 17 patients with schizophrenia and 23 healthy controls using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at an ultra-high magnetic field strength of 7 T. Significantly lower GABA/Cr ratios were found in patients with schizophrenia in the prefrontal cortex as compared to healthy controls, with GABA/Cr ratios inversely correlated with cognitive functioning in the patients. No significant change in the GABA/Cr ratio was found between patients and controls in the parieto-occipital cortex, nor were levels of glutamate, NAA, creatine, and choline differed in patients and controls in the prefrontal and parieto-occipital cortices. Our findings support a mechanism involving altered GABA levels distinguished from glutamate levels in the medial prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia, particularly in high functioning patients. A (compensatory role for GABA through altered inhibitory neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex may be ongoing in (higher functioning patients with schizophrenia.

  3. Detection of Cholangiocarcinoma with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Bile in Patients with and without Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albiin, N.; Smith, I.C.P.; Arnelo, U.; Lindberg, B.; Bergquist, A.; Dolenko, B.; Bryksina, N.; Bezabeh, T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Early detection of cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is very difficult, especially in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) who are at increased risk of developing CC. Purpose: To evaluate 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) of bile as a diagnostic marker for CC in patients with and without PSC. Material and Methods: The institutional review board approved the study, and all patients gave informed consent. Bile from 49 patients was sampled and investigated using 1 H-MRS. MR spectra of bile samples from 45 patients (18 female; age range 22-87 years, mean age 57 years) were analyzed both conventionally and using computerized multivariate analysis. Sixteen of the patients had CC, 18 had PSC, and 11 had other benign findings. Results: The spectra of bile from CC patients differed from the benign group in the levels of phosphatidylcholine, bile acids, lipid, and cholesterol. It was possible to distinguish CC from benign conditions in all patients with malignancy. Two benign non-PSC patients were misclassified as malignant. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 88.9%, 87.1%, and 87.8%, respectively. Conclusion: With 1 H-MRS of bile, cholangiocarcinoma could be discriminated from benign biliary conditions with or without PSC

  4. Brain {sup 1}H MRS study in children suffering from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen, Jin; Lei, Zhang; Yawei, Zeng; Yan, Wang [306 Hospital, Beijing (China). Center for fMRI and Dept. of Radiology; Yufeng, Zang; Yufeng, Wang [Beijing Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Mental Health

    2002-06-01

    Objective: To determine whether the children suffering from Attention -deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had neurochemical abnormalities in basis ganglia and if the state could be affected by methylphenidate. Methods: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans were performed on bilateral globus pallidum of 12 ADHD body before and after one dose of methylphenidate 10 mg. Spectral peaks of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), myo-inositol (MI), glutamate plus glutamine ({alpha}-Glx) and creatine (Cr) were measured and their ratios were compared with 12 age-, handedness-, and IQ-matched healthy boys. Results: In children having ADHD, NAA/Cr ratio decrease significantly in bilateral globus pallidum (left side t = 7.01, P < 0.01; right side t = 4.95, P < 0.01), while only the right globus pallidum shows significant Cho/Cr ratio rise (t = 2.33, P < 0.05). The abnormalities could be improved by one dose of methylphenidate. However, the post-drug NAA/Cr ratios were not significantly different from the pre-drug ratios (left side t = -1.34, P > 0.05; right side t = -1.04, P > 0.05). The post-drug NAA/Cr ratios in ADHD children remained significantly different from those in healthy children (left side t = 3.68, P < 0.01; right side t = 2.50, P < 0.05). The post-drug Cho/Cr ratio was no more significantly differ from controls (t = 0.87, P > 0.05). Conclusion: In children suffering from ADHD, neuronal loss-dysfunction exists in bilateral striatum. One does of methylphenidate could not affect the state significantly. Further investigations are needed to confirm whether the cholinergic system is involved in ADHD.

  5. Hepatic unsaturated fatty acids in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease assessed by 3.0 T MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werven, J.R. van; Schreuder, T.C.M.A.; Nederveen, A.J.; Lavini, C.; Jansen, P.L.M.; Stoker, J.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale and objective: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is related to the metabolic syndrome and obesity. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) is a non-invasive technique to assess hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC) and allows assessment of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). There is increasing evidence that hepatic UFA are associated with the development of NAFLD. Therefore the objective of this study was to assess hepatic UFA in patients with NAFLD using 1 H MRS. Materials and methods: We included 26 consecutive patients with deranged liver enzymes, with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), suspected for NAFLD. Liver function and metabolic parameters were assessed. 1 H MRS measurements were performed at 3.0 T. From the 1 H MR spectra two ratios were calculated: ratio 1 (UFA); unsaturated fatty acid peak vs. reference water peak and ratio 2 (HTGC); total fatty acid peak vs. reference water peak. Results: Twenty-six patients were included. In these patients hepatic UFA (ratio 1) correlated with AST/ALT ratio (r = -0.46, p = 0.02), glucose levels (r = 0.46, p = 0.018), HOMA-IR (r = 0.59, p = 0.004) and HTGC (r = 0.81, p 1 H MRS. 1 H MRS determined hepatic UFA correlate with clinical and metabolic parameters associated with NAFLD. Hepatic UFA are increased in patients with DM2. This study provides evidence for the use of non-invasive 1 H MRS to assess hepatic UFA in vivo.

  6. (1)H MRS assessment of hepatic steatosis in overweight children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Bille, Dorthe S; Thisted, Ebbe

    2012-01-01

    magnetic resonance systems due to limited space. The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of open 1T system to monitor liver fat with proton MRS and to compare hepatic fat fractions (HFFs) obtained using an open 1T system with assessment with 3T proton MRS. METHODS: The study included 23...

  7. Radiation induced early delayed changes in mice brain: a 1h MRS and behavioral evaluation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Mamta; Rana, Poonam; Haridas, Seenu; Manda, Kailash; Hemanth Kumar, B.S.; Khushu, Subash

    2014-01-01

    Radiation induced CNS injury can be classified as acute, early delayed and late delayed. Most of the studies suggest that acute injury is reversible whereas early delayed and late delayed injury is irreversible leading to metabolic and cognitive impairment. Extensive research has been carried out on cranial radiation induced early and late delayed changes, there are no reports on whole body radiation induced early and delayed changes. The present study was designed to observe early delayed effects of radiation during whole body radiation exposure. A total of 20 C57 male mice were divided in two groups of 10 animals each. One group was exposed to a dose of 5 Gy whole body radiation through Tele 60 Co irradiation facility with source operating at 2.496 Gy/min, while other group served as sham irradiated control. Behavioral and MR spectroscopy was carried out 3 months post irradiation. Behavioral parameters such as locomotor activity and working memory were evaluated first then followed by MR spectroscopy at 7T animal MRI system. For MRS, voxel was localised in the cortex-hippocampus region of mouse brain. MR spectra were acquired using PRESS sequence, FID was processed using LC model for quantitation. The data showed impaired cognitive functions and altered metabolite levels during early delayed phase of whole body radiation induced injury. In behavioural experiments, there was a significant impairment in the cognitive as well as exploratory functions at 3 months post irradiation in irradiated group as compared to controls. MRS results explained changes in mI, glutamine and glx levels in irradiated animals compared to controls. Altered mI level has been found to be associated with reduced cognitive abilities in many brain disorders including MCI and Alzheimer's disease. The findings of this study suggest that whole body radiation exposure may have long lasting effect on the cognitive performance. (author)

  8. The diagnostic accuracy of US, CT, MRI and 1H-MRS for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis compared with liver biopsy: a meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohte, Anneloes E.; Werven, Jochem R. van; Bipat, Shandra; Stoker, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    To meta-analyse the diagnostic accuracy of US, CT, MRI and 1 H-MRS for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis. From a comprehensive literature search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane (up to November 2009), articles were selected that investigated the diagnostic performance imaging techniques for evaluating hepatic steatosis with histopathology as the reference standard. Cut-off values for the presence of steatosis on liver biopsy were subdivided into four groups: (1) >0, >2 and >5% steatosis; (2) >10, >15 and >20%; (3) >25, >30 and >33%; (4) >50, >60 and >66%. Per group, summary estimates for sensitivity and specificity were calculated. The natural-logarithm of the diagnostic odds ratio (lnDOR) was used as a single indicator of test performance. 46 articles were included. Mean sensitivity estimates for subgroups were 73.3-90.5% (US), 46.1-72.0% (CT), 82.0-97.4% (MRI) and 72.7-88.5% ( 1 H-MRS). Mean specificity ranges were 69.6-85.2% (US), 88.1-94.6% (CT), 76.1-95.3% (MRI) and 92.0-95.7% ( 1 H-MRS). Overall performance (lnDOR) of MRI and 1 H-MRS was better than that for US and CT for all subgroups, with significant differences in groups 1 and 2. MRI and 1 H-MRS can be considered techniques of choice for accurate evaluation of hepatic steatosis. (orig.)

  9. The diagnostic accuracy of US, CT, MRI and {sup 1}H-MRS for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis compared with liver biopsy: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohte, Anneloes E.; Werven, Jochem R. van; Bipat, Shandra; Stoker, Jaap [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    To meta-analyse the diagnostic accuracy of US, CT, MRI and {sup 1}H-MRS for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis. From a comprehensive literature search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane (up to November 2009), articles were selected that investigated the diagnostic performance imaging techniques for evaluating hepatic steatosis with histopathology as the reference standard. Cut-off values for the presence of steatosis on liver biopsy were subdivided into four groups: (1) >0, >2 and >5% steatosis; (2) >10, >15 and >20%; (3) >25, >30 and >33%; (4) >50, >60 and >66%. Per group, summary estimates for sensitivity and specificity were calculated. The natural-logarithm of the diagnostic odds ratio (lnDOR) was used as a single indicator of test performance. 46 articles were included. Mean sensitivity estimates for subgroups were 73.3-90.5% (US), 46.1-72.0% (CT), 82.0-97.4% (MRI) and 72.7-88.5% ({sup 1}H-MRS). Mean specificity ranges were 69.6-85.2% (US), 88.1-94.6% (CT), 76.1-95.3% (MRI) and 92.0-95.7% ({sup 1}H-MRS). Overall performance (lnDOR) of MRI and {sup 1}H-MRS was better than that for US and CT for all subgroups, with significant differences in groups 1 and 2. MRI and {sup 1}H-MRS can be considered techniques of choice for accurate evaluation of hepatic steatosis. (orig.)

  10. 1H MRS can detect dose dependent effects in irradiated tumor cells and spheroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, S.; Viti, V.; Guidoni, L.; Luciani, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: 1 H MR spectra of tumour cells are often characterised by the presence of intense signals from the methylene fatty acid chains of mobile lipids (ML), mostly triglycerides (TG). In previous work (Magnetic Resonance in Medicine ,1999, 42:248-257), we showed that the intensity of these signals is modulated by cell proliferation. Polyunsaturation levels of the fatty acid chains were also found higher when mobile lipid signals were intense, in agreement with independent findings by other authors (Nat. Med . 1999, 5:1323-1327). Cells from breast carcinoma (MCF 7) were irradiated at increasing doses (5 - 40 Gy) to detect spectral differences in irradiated cells and to relate them to the metabolic breakdown accompanying cell death. Early and late, metabolism mediated , effects were observed. The main effect observed shortly after treatment was a decrease in ML peak intensity, probably from the oxidative damage to the involved lipid structures. On the other hand, when cells were observed after 24, 48 and 72 hours, irradiated cells displayed more intense ML peaks, with a maximum effect after 48 hours, irrespective of the initial intensity of ML signals. The effect was found dose dependent. Also peaks from lipid polyunsaturation were found higher in irradiated samples. Moreover, also phosphorylcholine and glutathione signals were affected by irradiation. Similar effects were found in multicellular spheroids from the same cell strain. Association of the observed changes with apoptotic death is currently under consideration

  11. The study of the volume and 1H MRS of the hippocampus in posttraumatic stress disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Zhou Yicheng; Xia Jun; Xia Liming; Wang Chengyuan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of the hippocampus metabolites and the hippoeampus volume with MRI, and to explore the posibble pathophysiology of the hippocampus injure in posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD). Methods: Seventeen cases of PTSD and 17 age-matched normal subjects (control subjects) were examined on a clinical 1.5 T MRI/MRS system. Proton multi-voxel spectroscopy imaging ( 1 H-MRSI) was obtained from two sides of the hippocampus region. The metabolites included N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine and phosphocreatine (Cr), and choline-containing compounds (Cho). The values of NAA, Cr, and Cho were calculated by integration of their peaks. The volume of the hippocampus of the two sides and the brain volume were measured with volume analysis software, and the resulting data were normalized according to the individual brain volume. Both the value of the metabolites and volume of the hippocampus were compared between the two groups respectively. Results: The volumes of left and right hippocampus were (2130±221 )mm 3 and (2571±190) mm 3 in PTSD cases, and they were (2382±157) mm 3 and (2572±186) mm 3 in the control subjects. The volume of left hippocampus of PTSD was smaller than that of the control subjects (P 0.05). NAA and Cr was significantly reduced in PTSD (Left: NAA= 2.8±0.7, Cr=2.3±0.6; Right: NAA 2.9±0.9, Cr=2.3±0.7) bilaterally when compared with those of control subjects (Left: NAA=3.8±0.8, Cr=2.7±0.5; Right: NAA=3.9±0.8, Cr=2.8±0.5) (P 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study add support to the view that the hippocampus may participate in the pathophysiology of PTSD, and the findings of volume and metabolite changes in the hippocampus has great value in diagnosing PTSD and in exploring the posibble pathophysiology mechanisms of hippocampus injure in PTSD. (authors)

  12. The Use of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the Subacute Evaluation of Athletes Recovering from Single and Multiple Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian; Gay, Michael; Zhang, Kai; Neuberger, Thomas; Horovitz, Silvina G.; Hallett, Mark; Sebastianelli, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Advanced neuroimaging techniques have shown promise in highlighting the subtle changes and nuances in mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) even though clinical assessment has shown a return to pre-injury levels. Here we use 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to evaluate the brain metabolites N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr) in the corpus callosum in MTBI. Specifically, we looked at the NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr, and Cho/Cr ratios in the genu and splenium. We recruited 20 normal volunteers (NV) and 28 student athletes recovering from the subacute phase of MTBI. The MTBI group was categorized based upon the number of MTBIs and time from injury to 1H-MRS evaluation. Significant reductions in NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr ratios were seen in the genu of the corpus callosum, but not in the splenium, for MTBI subjects, regardless of the number of MTBIs. MTBI subjects recovering from their first MTBI showed the greatest alteration in NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr ratios. Time since injury to 1H-MRS acquisition was based upon symptom resolution and did not turn out to be a significant factor. We observed that as the number of MTBIs increased, so did the length of time for symptom resolution. Unexpected findings from this study are that MTBI subjects showed a trend of increasing NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr ratios that coincided with increasing number of MTBIs. PMID:22780855

  13. The long-term effect of erythropoiesis stimulating agents given to preterm infants. A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study on neurometabolites in early childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparovic, Charles; Caprihan, Arvind; Yeo, Ronald A.; Phillips, John; Lowe, Jean R.; Ohls, Robin K.; Campbell, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) are neuroprotective in cell and animal models of preterm birth. Prematurity has been shown to alter neurometabolite levels in children in studies using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). We hypothesized that ESA treatment in premature infants would tend to normalize neurometabolites by 4-6 years of age. Children in a longitudinal study of neurodevelopment underwent MRI and 1H-MRS at approximately 4 years and 6 years of age. Prematurely born children (500-1,250 g birth weight) received ESAs (erythropoietin or darbepoetin) or placebo during their neonatal hospitalization, and these groups were compared to healthy term controls. 1H-MRS spectra were obtained from the anterior cingulate (gray matter) and frontal lobe white matter, assessing combined N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (tNAA), myo-inositol, choline compounds (Cho), combined creatine and phosphocreatine, and combined glutamate and glutamine. No significant (P≤0.5) group differences were observed for any metabolite level. Significant age-related increases in white-matter tNAA and Cho were observed, as well as a trend for increased gray-matter tNAA. Neither prematurity nor neonatal ESA treatment was associated with differences in brain metabolite levels in the children of this study at a significance level of 0.05. These findings suggest that earlier differences that might have existed had normalized by 4-6 years of age or were too small to be statistically significant in the current sample. (orig.)

  14. Application of spectroscopy (1HMRS) to assess liver metabolite concentrations in rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Chen, Pingyang; Bian, Dujun; Chen, Juncao

    2017-04-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) measurement of liver metabolism in intrauterine growth restriction rats has seldom been reported. This study investigated the application of 1 H-MRS in assessing liver metabolism in newborn pups that experienced intrauterine growth restriction. Intra-uterine growth restriction was established by feeding rats low-protein diets during pregnancy. Newborn pups received conventional magnetic resonance imaging and 1 H-MRS using a 3.0T whole body MR scanner at 3, 8 and 12 weeks post birth. The success rate of 1 H-MRS was 83.33%. Significantly lower body weight, BMI and body length at 3 weeks as well as significantly lower body weight, BMI and waist circumference at 8 and 12 weeks were observed in newborn pups of IUGR rats compared with pups of control rats. Significant differences in ACho/H 2 O, ACr/H 2 O, AGlx/H 2 O and ALipid/H 2 O at 3 and 8 weeks as well as significant differences in ACr/H 2 O, ALipid/H 2 O and AGlx/H 2 O at 12 weeks were observed between pups of control rats and pups of IUGR rats. 1 H-MRS allows noninvasive assessment of liver metabolism in the rat and demonstrated the poor liver development of rats that experienced IUGR.

  15. In vivo characterisation of soft tissue tumours by 1.5-T proton MR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, F.; Mazzetti, S.; Grignani, G.; Rosa, G.De; Aglietta, M.; Anselmetti, G.C.; Stasi, M.; Regge, D. [Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCC), Candiolo, Torino (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    To determine whether proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) can help differentiate between benign and malignant soft tissue lesions, and to assess if there is a correlation between 1H-MRS data and the mitotic index. MR measurements were performed in 43 patients with soft tissue tumours >15 mm in diameter. Six cases were excluded for technical failure. Examinations were performed at 1.5 T using a single-voxel point resolved spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) with TR/TE = 2000/150 ms. The volume of interest was positioned within the lesion avoiding inclusion of necrotic regions. In all patients, a histological diagnosis was obtained and the corresponding mitotic index was also computed. 1H-MRS results and histopathological findings were compared using the chi-squared test and correlation coefficient. Choline was detected in 18/19 patients with malignant tumours and in 3/18 patients with benign lesions. The three benign lesions included one desmoid tumour, one ossificans myositis and one eccrine spiradenoma. Choline was not detected in 15 patients with benign lesions or in one patient with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Resulting 1H-MRS sensitivity and specificity were 95% and 83% respectively. Absence of choline peak is highly predictive of benign tumours suggesting that 1H-MRS can help to differentiate malignant from benign tumours. (orig.)

  16. In vivo characterisation of soft tissue tumours by 1.5-T proton MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, F.; Mazzetti, S.; Grignani, G.; Rosa, G.De; Aglietta, M.; Anselmetti, G.C.; Stasi, M.; Regge, D.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) can help differentiate between benign and malignant soft tissue lesions, and to assess if there is a correlation between 1H-MRS data and the mitotic index. MR measurements were performed in 43 patients with soft tissue tumours >15 mm in diameter. Six cases were excluded for technical failure. Examinations were performed at 1.5 T using a single-voxel point resolved spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) with TR/TE = 2000/150 ms. The volume of interest was positioned within the lesion avoiding inclusion of necrotic regions. In all patients, a histological diagnosis was obtained and the corresponding mitotic index was also computed. 1H-MRS results and histopathological findings were compared using the chi-squared test and correlation coefficient. Choline was detected in 18/19 patients with malignant tumours and in 3/18 patients with benign lesions. The three benign lesions included one desmoid tumour, one ossificans myositis and one eccrine spiradenoma. Choline was not detected in 15 patients with benign lesions or in one patient with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Resulting 1H-MRS sensitivity and specificity were 95% and 83% respectively. Absence of choline peak is highly predictive of benign tumours suggesting that 1H-MRS can help to differentiate malignant from benign tumours. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of intracranial neoplasia and noninfectious meningoencephalitis in dogs by use of short echo time, single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3.0 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Inés; Richter, Henning; Beckmann, Katrin; Meier, Dieter; Dennler, Matthias; Kircher, Patrick R

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate metabolite concentrations of the brains of dogs with intracranial neoplasia or noninfectious meningoencephalitis by use of short echo time, single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) at 3.0 T. ANIMALS 29 dogs with intracranial lesions (14 with neoplasia [3 oligodendromas, 3 glioblastomas multiformes, 3 astrocytomas, 2 lymphomas, and 3 meningiomas] and 15 is with noninfectious meningoencephalitis) and 10 healthy control dogs. PROCEDURES Short echo time, single voxel (1)H-MRS at 3.0 T was performed on neoplastic and noninfectious inflammatory intracranial lesions identified with conventional MRI. Metabolites of interest included N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), total choline, creatine, myoinositol, the glutamine-glutamate complex (Glx), glutathione, taurine, lactate, and lipids. Data were analyzed with postprocessing fitting algorithm software. Metabolite concentrations relative to brain water content were calculated and compared with results for the healthy control dogs, which had been previously evaluated with the same (1)H MRS technique. RESULTS NAA, creatine, and Glx concentrations were reduced in the brains of dogs with neoplasia and noninfectious meningoencephalitis, whereas choline concentration was increased. Concentrations of these metabolites differed significantly between dogs with neoplasia and dogs with noninfectious meningoencephalitis. Concentrations of NAA, creatine, and Glx were significantly lower in dogs with neoplasia, whereas the concentration of choline was significantly higher in dogs with neoplasia. Lipids were predominantly found in dogs with high-grade intra-axial neoplasia, meningioma, and necrotizing meningoencephalitis. A high concentration of taurine was found in 10 of 15 dogs with noninfectious meningoencephalitis. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE (1)H MRS provided additional metabolic information about intracranial neoplasia and noninfectious meningoencephalitis in dogs.

  18. Clinical value of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for differentiating recurrent or residual brain tumor from delayed cerebral necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, June S.; Langston, James W.; Reddick, Wilburn E.; Kingsley, Peter B.; Ogg, Robert J.; Pui, Margaret H.; Kun, Larry E.; Jenkins, Jesse J.; Gang, Chen; Ochs, Judith J.; Sanford, Robert A.; Heideman, Richard L.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Delayed cerebral necrosis (DN) is a significant risk for brain tumor patients treated with high-dose irradiation. Although differentiating DN from tumor progression is an important clinical question, the distinction cannot be made reliably by conventional imaging techniques. We undertook a pilot study to assess the ability of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) to differentiate prospectively between DN or recurrent/residual tumor in a series of children treated for primary brain tumors with high-dose irradiation. Methods and Materials: Twelve children (ages 3-16 years), who had clinical and MR imaging (MRI) changes that suggested a diagnosis of either DN or progressive/recurrent brain tumor, underwent localized 1 H MRS prior to planned biopsy, resection, or other confirmatory histological procedure. Prospective 1 H MRS interpretations were based on comparison of spectral peak patterns and quantitative peak area values from normalized spectra: a marked depression of the intracellular metabolite peaks from choline, creatine, and N-acetyl compounds was hypothesized to indicate DN, and median-to-high choline with easily visible creatine metabolite peaks was labeled progressive/recurrent tumor. Subsequent histological studies identified the brain lesion as DN or recurrent/residual tumor. Results: The patient series included five cases of DN and seven recurrent/residual tumor cases, based on histology. The MRS criteria prospectively identified five out of seven patients with active tumor, and four out of five patients with histologically proven DN correctly. Discriminant analysis suggested that the primary diagnostic information for differentiating DN from tumor lay in the normalized MRS peak areas for choline and creatine compounds. Conclusions: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows promising sensitivity and selectivity for differentiating DN from recurrent/progressive brain tumor. A novel diagnostic index based on peak areas for choline and

  19. Alterations in brain metabolism and function following administration of low-dose codeine phosphate: 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Zhen; Lin, Pei-Yin; Shen, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Ren-Hua; Xiao, Ye-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify alterations in brain function following administration of a single, low-dose of codeine phosphate in healthy volunteers using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In addition, the metabolic changes in the two sides of the frontal lobe were identified using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). A total of 20 right-handed healthy participants (10 males, 10 females) were evaluated, and a Signa HDx 1.5T MRI scanner was use...

  20. Hemodynamic and metabolic characterization of orthotopic rat prostate carcinomas using dynamic MRI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiessling, F.; Lichy, M.; Kauczor, H.U.; Schlemmer, H.P.; Grobholz, R.; Heilmann, M.; Meding, J.; Huber, P.E.; Peschke, P.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was the noninvasive characterization of prostate carcinoma orthotopically implanted in rats using Gd-DTPA-assisted dynamic MRI (dMRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). After surgical exposure of the prostate, Dunning R3327 orthotopic prostate carcinoma was induced by injecting cells of the MAT-LyLu subline. Six rats were examined 5 and 14 days after tumor induction with dMRI and 1 H-MRS at 1.5 T. Six tumor-free rats served as controls. Using an open two-compartment model, the parameters A (amplitude) and k ep (exchange rate constants) were calculated from the signal time curves of the dMRI. The relative signal intensities (Cho/Cr) of the resonances of choline (Cho) and the creatine-phosphocreatine complex (Cr) were computed from the MR spectra. Already after 5 days, the tumors in the prostate could be clearly identified based on the decrease in signal intensity to T2w and increase of A and k ep . High Cho/Cr levels and resonances of two lipid fractions (Lip 1 at 0.8-1.5 ppm and Lip 2 at 2.0-2.2 ppm) were observed by MRS in the highly necrotic tumors. The orthotopic rat prostate carcinoma model resembles human prostate carcinoma in regard to MR morphology, dMRI, and 1 H-MRS. The noninvasive characterization of perfusion and metabolism makes a comparative examination of different treatment modalities possible. (orig.) [de

  1. Oxidative stress and depressive symptoms in older adults: A magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Shantel L; Lagopoulos, Jim; Cockayne, Nicole; Hermens, Daniel F; Hickie, Ian B; Naismith, Sharon L

    2015-07-15

    Major depression is common in older adults and associated with greater health care utilisation and increased risk of poor health outcomes. Oxidative stress may be implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and can be measured via the neurometabolite glutathione using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). This study aimed to examine the relationship between glutathione concentration and depressive symptom severity in older adults 'at-risk' of depression. In total, fifty-eight older adults considered 'at-risk' of depression (DEP) and 12 controls underwent (1)H-MRS, medical and neuropsychological assessments. Glutathione was measured in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and calculated as a ratio to creatine. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Compared to controls, DEP patients had increased glutathione/creatine ratios in the ACC (t=2.7, p=0.012). In turn, these increased ratios were associated with greater depressive symptoms (r=0.28, p=0.038), and poorer performance on a verbal learning task (r=-0.28, p=0.040). In conclusion, depressive symptoms in older people are associated with increased glutathione in the ACC. Oxidative stress may be pathophysiologically linked to illness development and may represent an early compensatory response. Further research examining the utility of glutathione as a marker for depressive symptoms and cognitive decline is now required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Absolute quantification of carnosine in human calf muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezdemir, Mahir S; Reyngoudt, Harmen; Deene, Yves de; Sazak, Hakan S; Fieremans, Els; Delputte, Steven; D'Asseler, Yves; Derave, Wim; Lemahieu, Ignace; Achten, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Carnosine has been shown to be present in the skeletal muscle and in the brain of a variety of animals and humans. Despite the various physiological functions assigned to this metabolite, its exact role remains unclear. It has been suggested that carnosine plays a role in buffering in the intracellular physiological pH i range in skeletal muscle as a result of accepting hydrogen ions released in the development of fatigue during intensive exercise. It is thus postulated that the concentration of carnosine is an indicator for the extent of the buffering capacity. However, the determination of the concentration of this metabolite has only been performed by means of muscle biopsy, which is an invasive procedure. In this paper, we utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) in order to perform absolute quantification of carnosine in vivo non-invasively. The method was verified by phantom experiments and in vivo measurements in the calf muscles of athletes and untrained volunteers. The measured mean concentrations in the soleus and the gastrocnemius muscles were found to be 2.81 ± 0.57/4.8 ± 1.59 mM (mean ± SD) for athletes and 2.58 ± 0.65/3.3 ± 0.32 mM for untrained volunteers, respectively. These values are in agreement with previously reported biopsy-based results. Our results suggest that 1 H MRS can provide an alternative method for non-invasively determining carnosine concentration in human calf muscle in vivo

  3. Localized 1H-MR spectroscopy in moyamoya disease before and after revascularization surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Soo Mee; Choi, Hye Young; Suh, Jung Soo; Lee, Jung Hee; Lim, Keun Ho; Suh, Dae Chul; Lee, Ho Kyu; Lim, Tae Hwan; Ra, Young Shin

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate, using localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), the cerebral metabolic change apparent after revascularization surgery in patients with moyamoya disease. Sixteen children with moyamoya disease and eight age-matched normal controls underwent MR imaging, MR angiography, conventional angiography, and 99m Tc- ECD SPECT. Frontal white matter and the basal ganglia of both hemispheres were subjected to localized 1 H-MRS, and after revascularization surgery, four patients underwent follow-up 1 H-MRS. Decreased NAA/Cr ratios (1.35±0.14 in patients vs. 1.55±0.24 in controls) and Cho/Cr ratios (0.96±0.13 in patients vs. 1.10±0.11 in controls) were observed in frontal white matter. After revascularization surgery, NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios in this region increased. In the basal ganglia, there is no abnormal metabolic ratios. Localized 1H-MRS revealed abnormal metabolic change in both hemispheres of children with moyamoya disease. Because of its non-invasive nature, 1 H-MRS is potentially useful for the preoperative evaluation of metabolic abnormalities and their postoperative monitoring

  4. Localized 1H-MR spectroscopy in moyamoya disease before and after revascularization surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Soo Mee; Choi, Hye Young; Suh, Jung Soo [Ewha Womans University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Hee; Lim, Keun Ho; Suh, Dae Chul; Lee, Ho Kyu; Lim, Tae Hwan; Ra, Young Shin [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    To evaluate, using localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), the cerebral metabolic change apparent after revascularization surgery in patients with moyamoya disease. Sixteen children with moyamoya disease and eight age-matched normal controls underwent MR imaging, MR angiography, conventional angiography, and {sup 99m}Tc- ECD SPECT. Frontal white matter and the basal ganglia of both hemispheres were subjected to localized {sup 1}H-MRS, and after revascularization surgery, four patients underwent follow-up {sup 1}H-MRS. Decreased NAA/Cr ratios (1.35{+-}0.14 in patients vs. 1.55{+-}0.24 in controls) and Cho/Cr ratios (0.96{+-}0.13 in patients vs. 1.10{+-}0.11 in controls) were observed in frontal white matter. After revascularization surgery, NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios in this region increased. In the basal ganglia, there is no abnormal metabolic ratios. Localized 1H-MRS revealed abnormal metabolic change in both hemispheres of children with moyamoya disease. Because of its non-invasive nature, {sup 1}H-MRS is potentially useful for the preoperative evaluation of metabolic abnormalities and their postoperative monitoring.

  5. Monitoring temozolomide treatment of low-grade glioma with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, P. S.; Viviers, L; Abson, C

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of low-grade glioma treatment response remains as much of a challenge as the treatment itself. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) and imaging were incorporated into a study of patients receiving temozolomide therapy for low-grade glioma in order to evaluate and monitor...... tumour metabolite and volume changes during treatment. Patients (n=12) received oral temozolomide (200 mg m(-2) day(-1)) over 5 days on a 28-day cycle for 12 cycles. Response assessment included baseline and three-monthly magnetic resonance imaging studies (pretreatment, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months) assessing...... months, a significant reduction in the mean choline signal was observed compared with the pretreatment (P=0.035) and 3-month scan (P=0.021). The reduction in the tumour choline/water signal paralleled tumour volume change and may reflect the therapeutic effect of temozolomide...

  6. 1H MRS Assessment of Hepatic Fat Content. Comparison Between Normal- and Excess-weight Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Bøjsøe, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to obtain a cutoff value of liver fat content for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis by comparing magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy results in children and adolescents with normal and excess weight. Materials and Methods: The study...... steatosis was found to be 1.5%. Based on this cutoff value, hepatic steatosis was diagnosed in 16% of boys with overweight, 11% of girls with overweight, 32% of boys with obesity, and 27% of girls with obesity. Conclusions: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was successfully applied to obtain the cutoff...... value of absolute mass concentration of liver fat for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in children and adolescents. Children and adolescents with obesity have higher risk of hepatic steatosis than their peers with overweight....

  7. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of brain tumors; MR-Spektroskopie bei Hirntumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditter, P.; Hattingen, E. [Universitaetsklinikum Bonn, FE Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Klinik, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) under consideration of clinical information enables the correct diagnosis and therapy for the majority of cerebral space-occupying lesions. Some important differential diagnoses, e. g. low vs. high-grade tumors, require additional MRI methods. This article critically discusses the importance of magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) in brain tumors. The concentration of normal and pathological brain metabolites can be non-invasively measured by {sup 1}H-MRS. It is based on the principle that chemical proton compounds of certain brain metabolites focally attenuate the external magnetic field and change the proton resonance frequency according to typical patterns. In addition, parameter maps of MRS imaging (MRSI) can show the tumor heterogeneity as well as changes in the surrounding brain tissue. In this context, the patterns of N-acetylaspartate, total choline (tCho) and creatine are relatively robust, whereas the patterns of other metabolites, such as myoinositol, glutamate, lactate or lipids greatly depend on the external field strength and echo time. The signal intensity of tCho in vital tumor tissue increases with the WHO grade of the brain tumor, i.e. increases with the level of malignancy. The use of MRSI facilitates the WHO grading of gliomas by determining target points in biopsies. Different distribution patterns and specific metabolite signals enable a better differentiation between abscesses, metastases, central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas and gliomas. The use of {sup 1}H-MRS provides valuable information on the differential diagnosis and graduation of brain tumors; however, so far artefacts, signal strength, parameter selection and a lack of standardization impede the establishment of {sup 1}H-MRS for use in clinical routine diagnostics. (orig.) [German] Die konventionelle MRT ermoeglicht unter Beruecksichtigung klinischer Information bei einem Grossteil zerebraler Raumforderungen die richtige

  8. Effects of acupuncture therapy on abdominal fat and hepatic fat content in obese children: a magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Peng, Yun; Liu, ZuXiang; Li, Shilian; Lv, Zhongli; Tian, LiFang; Zhu, Jie; Zhao, XuNa; Chen, Min

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) together with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to study the influence of acupuncture therapy on abdominal fat and hepatic fat content in obese children. The design was a longitudinal, clinical intervention study of acupuncture therapy. SUBJECTS were 10 healthy, obese children (age: 11.4 ± 1.65 years, body-mass index [BMI]: 29.03 ± 4.81 kg/m(2)). Measurements included various anthropometric parameters, abdominal fat (assessed by MRI) and hepatic fat content (assessed by (1)H-MRS) at baseline and after 1 month of acupuncture therapy. One (1) month of acupuncture therapy significantly reduced the subjects' BMI by 3.5% (p = 0.005), abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume by 16.04% (p  0.05). There was a significant correlation between the level of abdominal fat (SAT, VAT) and anthropometric parameters (weight, BMI, waist circumferences, hip circumferences). There was no statistically significant correlation between IHTG and anthropometric parameters or abdominal fat content. The first direct experimental evidence is provided demonstrating that acupuncture therapy significantly reduces BMI and abdominal adipose tissue by reducing abdominal VAT content without significant changes in body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR, abdominal SAT, or IHTG content. Thus, the use of acupuncture therapy to selectively target a reduction in abdominal VAT content should become more important and more popular in the future.

  9. 1H MRS Assessment of Hepatic Fat Content: Comparison Between Normal- and Excess-weight Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Bøjsøe, Christine; Holm, Jens-Christian; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to obtain a cutoff value of liver fat content for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis by comparing magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy results in children and adolescents with normal and excess weight. The study included 420 children and adolescents (91 normal-weight, 99 overweight, and 230 obese) 8-18 years of age. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed with a 3T MR system using point resolved spectroscopy sequence with series echo times. The mean absolute mass concentration of liver fat was obtained: 0.5 ± 0.04% in normal-weight boys; 0.5 ± 0.03% in normal-weight girls; 0.9 ± 0.16% in boys with overweight; 1.1 ± 0.24% in girls with overweight; 1.7 ± 0.24% in boys with obesity; and 1.4 ± 0.21% in girls with obesity. The cutoff value of absolute mass concentration of liver fat for hepatic steatosis was found to be 1.5%. Based on this cutoff value, hepatic steatosis was diagnosed in 16% of boys with overweight, 11% of girls with overweight, 32% of boys with obesity, and 27% of girls with obesity. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was successfully applied to obtain the cutoff value of absolute mass concentration of liver fat for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in children and adolescents. Children and adolescents with obesity have higher risk of hepatic steatosis than their peers with overweight. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tumor Metabolism and Perfusion in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Pretreatment Multimodality Imaging With 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI, and [18F]FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Jacobus F.A.; Schöder, Heiko; Lee, Nancy Y.; Stambuk, Hilda E.; Wang Ya; Fury, Matthew G.; Patel, Senehal G.; Pfister, David G.; Shah, Jatin P.; Koutcher, Jason A.; Shukla-Dave, Amita

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS), dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), and 18 F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([ 18 F]FDG PET) of nodal metastases in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) for assessment of tumor biology. Additionally, pretreatment multimodality imaging was evaluated for its efficacy in predicting short-term response to treatment. Methods and Materials: Metastatic neck nodes were imaged with 1 H-MRS, DCE-MRI, and [ 18 F]FDG PET in 16 patients with newly diagnosed HNSCC, before treatment. Short-term patient radiological response was evaluated at 3 to 4 months. Correlations among 1 H-MRS (choline concentration relative to water [Cho/W]), DCE-MRI (volume transfer constant [K trans ]; volume fraction of the extravascular extracellular space [v e ]; and redistribution rate constant [k ep ]), and [ 18 F]FDG PET (standard uptake value [SUV] and total lesion glycolysis [TLG]) were calculated using nonparametric Spearman rank correlation. To predict short-term responses, logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: A significant positive correlation was found between Cho/W and TLG (ρ = 0.599; p = 0.031). Cho/W correlated negatively with heterogeneity measures of standard deviation std(v e ) (ρ = −0.691; p = 0.004) and std(k ep ) (ρ = −0.704; p = 0.003). Maximum SUV (SUVmax) values correlated strongly with MRI tumor volume (ρ = 0.643; p = 0.007). Logistic regression indicated that std(K trans ) and SUVmean were significant predictors of short-term response (p 1 H-MRS, DCE-MRI, and [ 18 F]FDG PET is feasible in HNSCC patients with nodal metastases. Additionally, combined DCE-MRI and [ 18 F]FDG PET parameters were predictive of short-term response to treatment.

  11. SU-F-I-67: Neurometabolic Effect Induced by Repeated Exposure to Dizocilpine On Prefrontal Cortex of Schizophrenic Animal Model Using In Vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 9.4 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, C-H; Lim, S-I [Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, K-H; Choe, B-Y [Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, D-C [Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Repeated exposure of dizocilpine (MK-801) can provide a pathophysiological model for progressive development of schizophrenia. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) was widely used for non-invasive measurement of neurometabolites, and assessment of disease-induced neurometabolic alterations. The purpose of this study was to investigate neurometabolic alteration in prefrontal cortex (PFC) with respect to progression (from first-episode to chronic stage) of schizophrenia by using in vivo {sup 1}H MRS. Methods: We used high-field {sup 1}H MRS to investigate the neurometabolic alteration in the PFC region of the rats (N = 13) by comparing before and after 6 day of MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg) treatment. A point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence was used to obtain spectra in a 22.5 µL of volume of interest carefully located in PFC region with parameters like follow; repetition time, 5000ms; echo time (TE), 13.4 ms; averages = 256. Another experiment group (N = 11) were conducted behavior test by recording the behavior for 20 min. Results: All the rats showed hyperlocomotion, stereotyped behaviors before initiation of MRS. Significantly increased level (N = 7, p < 0.05) of N-acetylasrparate (NAA), glutamate (Glu), taurine and decreased level (N = 6, p < 0.05) of NAA, Glu and phosphocreatine were observed between baseline and day 6. Both metabolic alterations are consistent with results of first-episode and chronic schizophrenia respectively. Conclusion: From our findings, the repeated MK-801 model could be a pathophysiological model which can provide an insight into the transition from first-episode to chronic stage. This is first time to investigate effects of repeated MK-801 using high-field in vivo 1H MRS. We expect our findings can contribute to combining previous diverging results into one pathophysiological interpretation, which can postulate the origin of diverging results to the progression of schizophrenia.

  12. SU-F-I-67: Neurometabolic Effect Induced by Repeated Exposure to Dizocilpine On Prefrontal Cortex of Schizophrenic Animal Model Using In Vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 9.4 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, C-H; Lim, S-I; Song, K-H; Choe, B-Y; Woo, D-C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Repeated exposure of dizocilpine (MK-801) can provide a pathophysiological model for progressive development of schizophrenia. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ("1H MRS) was widely used for non-invasive measurement of neurometabolites, and assessment of disease-induced neurometabolic alterations. The purpose of this study was to investigate neurometabolic alteration in prefrontal cortex (PFC) with respect to progression (from first-episode to chronic stage) of schizophrenia by using in vivo "1H MRS. Methods: We used high-field "1H MRS to investigate the neurometabolic alteration in the PFC region of the rats (N = 13) by comparing before and after 6 day of MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg) treatment. A point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence was used to obtain spectra in a 22.5 µL of volume of interest carefully located in PFC region with parameters like follow; repetition time, 5000ms; echo time (TE), 13.4 ms; averages = 256. Another experiment group (N = 11) were conducted behavior test by recording the behavior for 20 min. Results: All the rats showed hyperlocomotion, stereotyped behaviors before initiation of MRS. Significantly increased level (N = 7, p < 0.05) of N-acetylasrparate (NAA), glutamate (Glu), taurine and decreased level (N = 6, p < 0.05) of NAA, Glu and phosphocreatine were observed between baseline and day 6. Both metabolic alterations are consistent with results of first-episode and chronic schizophrenia respectively. Conclusion: From our findings, the repeated MK-801 model could be a pathophysiological model which can provide an insight into the transition from first-episode to chronic stage. This is first time to investigate effects of repeated MK-801 using high-field in vivo 1H MRS. We expect our findings can contribute to combining previous diverging results into one pathophysiological interpretation, which can postulate the origin of diverging results to the progression of schizophrenia.

  13. Non-invasive assessment of hepatic fat accumulation in chronic hepatitis C by {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krssak, Martin [Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Hofer, Harald [Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Wrba, Fritz [Department of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Meyerspeer, Martin [MR Centre-of-Excellence, Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Center for Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Brehm, Attila [Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center of Diabetes Research and Department of Medicine/Metabolic Diseases, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Lohninger, Alfred [Department of Medical Chemistry, Center for Physiology and Pathophysiology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Steindl-Munda, Petra [Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); MR Centre-of-Excellence, Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Moser, Ewald [MR Centre-of-Excellence, Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Center for Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Ferenci, Peter [Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Roden, Michael, E-mail: michael.roden@ddz.uni-duesseldorf.d [Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center of Diabetes Research and Department of Medicine/Metabolic Diseases, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Background: Liver biopsy is the standard method for diagnosis of hepatic steatosis, but is invasive and carries some risk of morbidity. Aims and methods: Quantification of hepatocellular lipid content (HCL) with non-invasive single voxel {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 3 T was compared with histological grading and biochemical analysis of liver biopsies in 29 patients with chronic hepatitis C. Body mass index, indices of insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment index, HOMA-IR), serum lipids and serum liver transaminases were also quantified. Results: HCL as assessed by {sup 1}H MRS linearly correlated (r = 0.70, p < 0.001) with histological evaluation of liver biopsies and was in agreement with histological steatosis staging in 65% of the patients. Biochemically assessed hepatic triglyceride contents correlated with HCL measured with {sup 1}H MRS (r = 0.63, p < 0.03) and allowed discriminating between none or mild steatosis versus moderate or severe steatosis. Patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 3 had a higher prevalence of steatosis (62%) which was not explained by differences in body mass or whole body insulin resistance. When these patients were excluded from correlation analysis, hepatic fat accumulation positively correlated with insulin resistance in the remaining hepatitis C patients (HCL vs. HOMA-IR, r = 0.559, p < 0.020, n = 17). Conclusion: Localized {sup 1}H MRS is a valid and useful method for quantification of HCL content in patients with chronic hepatitis C and can be easily applied to non-invasively monitoring of steatosis during repeated follow-up measurements in a clinical setting.

  14. Neurodegenerative evidences during early onset of depression in CMS rats as detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemanth Kumar, B S; Mishra, Sushanta Kumar; Rana, Poonam; Singh, Sadhana; Khushu, Subash

    2012-06-15

    Depression is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by anhedonia and feeling of sadness and chronic mild stress (CMS) seems to be a valuable animal model of depression. CMS animal model was induced and validated using behavioral studies. In the present study we investigated the neuro-metabolite changes occurring in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus during the onset of depression, in CMS rat model using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) at field strength of 7 T. Results showed that CMS caused depression-like behavior in rats, as indicated by the decrease in sucrose consumption and locomotor activity. (1)H MRS was performed in both control and CMS rats (n=10, in each group) and the quantitative assessment of the neurometabolites was done using LC model. Relative concentrations of all the metabolites along with the macromolecules were calculated for analysis. The results revealed a significant decrease of glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln), NAA+NAAG, Glx and GABA levels in both hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of CMS animals and an elevated level of myo-ionisitol (mI) and taurine (Tau) was observed only in hippocampus. These metabolite fluctuations revealed by proton MRS indicate that there might be change in the neuronal integrity of the glial cells and neurons within prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in CMS model of depression. The present study also suggests that there may be a degenerative process concerning the brain morphology in the CMS rats. The overall finding using (1)H MRS suggests that, there might be a major role of the glia and neuron in the onset of depression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolic changes in the visual cortex of binocular blindness macaque monkeys: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjie Wu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H-MRS in a study of cross-modal plasticity in the visual cortex of binocular blindness macaque monkeys. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four healthy neonatal macaque monkeys were randomly divided into 2 groups, with 2 in each group. Optic nerve transection was performed in both monkeys in the experimental group (group B to obtain binocular blindness. Two healthy macaque monkeys served as a control group (group A. After sixteen months post-procedure, (1H-MRS was performed in the visual cortex of all monkeys. We compared the peak areas of NAA, Cr, Cho, Glx and Ins and the ratios of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, Glx/Cr and Ins/Cr of each monkey in group B with group A. RESULTS: The peak area of NAA and the NAA/Cr ratio in the visual cortex of monkey 4 in group B were found to be dramatically decreased, the peak area of NAA slightly decreased and the NAA/Cr ratio clearly decreased in visual cortex of monkey 3 in group B than those in group A. The peak area of Ins and the Ins/Cr ratio in the visual cortex of monkey 4 in group B slightly increased. The peak area of Cho and the Cho/Cr ratio in the visual cortex of all monkeys in group B dramatically increased compared with group A. The peak area of Glx in the visual cortex of all monkeys in group B slightly increased compared with group A. CONCLUSIONS: (1H-MRS could detect biochemical and metabolic changes in the visual cortex and therefore this technique can be used to provide valuable information for investigating the mechanisms of cross-modal plasticity of binocular blindness in a macaque monkey model.

  16. Application of a protocol for magnetic resonance spectroscopy of adrenal glands: an experiment with over 100 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Homero José de Farias E; Goldman, Suzan M; Szejnfeld, Jacob; Faria, Juliano F; Huayllas, Martha K P; Andreoni, Cássio; Kater, Cláudio E

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate a protocol for two-dimensional (2D) hydrogen proton (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) (Siemens Medical Systems; Erlangen, Germany) in the detection of adrenal nodules and differentiation between benign and malignant masses (adenomas, pheochromocytomas, carcinomas and metastases). A total of 118 patients (36 men; 82 women) (mean age: 57.3 ± 13.3 years) presenting with 138 adrenal nodules/masses were prospectively assessed. A multivoxel system was utilized with a 2D point-resolved spectroscopy/chemical shift imaging sequence. The following ratios were calculated: choline (Cho)/creatine (Cr), 4.0-4.3/Cr, lipid (Lip)/Cr, Cho/Lip and lactate (Lac)/Cr. 2D-1H-MRS was successful in 123 (89.13%) lesions. Sensitivity and specificity values observed for the ratios and cutoff points were the following: Cho/Cr ≥ 1.2, 100% sensitivity, 98.2% specificity (differences between adenomas/pheochromocytomas and carcinomas/ metastases); 4.0-4.3 ppm/Cr ≥ 1.5, 92.3% sensitivity, 96.9% specificity (differences between carcinomas/pheochromocytomas and adenomas/metastases); Lac/Cr ≤ -7.449, 90.9% sensitivity and 77.8% specificity (differences between pheochromocytomas and carcinomas/adenomas). Information provided by 2D-1H-MRS were effective and allowed for the differentiation between adrenal masses and nodules in most cases of lesions with > 1.0 cm in diameter.

  17. Quantification of brain metabolites in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, O; Rosenbaum, S; Topp, S

    1997-01-01

    We performed proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in patients with motor neuron disease (MND) to determine the absolute in vivo concentrations in the brain of the metabolites N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr/PCr). We examined the spectra acquired from a 20 x 20 x...... subjects. We estimated the concentrations of the metabolites using the water signal as an internal standard. The concentrations of Cho and Cr/PCr in both brain regions, as well as the concentration of NAA in the cerebellum, were unaltered in the MND patients compared with the controls. Only MND patients...... with both upper and lower motor neuron signs had a significantly decreased concentration of NAA (9.13 +/- 0.28 mM, mean +/- SEM) in the primary motor cortex when compared with healthy controls (10.03 +/- 0.22 mM). In conclusion, the slightly decreased concentration of NAA in the primary motor cortex from...

  18. Comparative quantification of dietary supplemented neural creatine concentrations with (1)H-MRS peak fitting and basis spectrum methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Clare E; Russell, Bruce R; Gant, Nicholas

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is an analytical procedure that can be used to non-invasively measure the concentration of a range of neural metabolites. Creatine is an important neurometabolite with dietary supplementation offering therapeutic potential for neurological disorders with dysfunctional energetic processes. Neural creatine concentrations can be probed using proton MRS and quantified using a range of software packages based on different analytical methods. This experiment examines the differences in quantification performance of two commonly used analysis packages following a creatine supplementation strategy with potential therapeutic application. Human participants followed a seven day dietary supplementation regime in a placebo-controlled, cross-over design interspersed with a five week wash-out period. Spectroscopy data were acquired the day immediately following supplementation and analyzed with two commonly-used software packages which employ vastly different quantification methods. Results demonstrate that neural creatine concentration was augmented following creatine supplementation when analyzed using the peak fitting method of quantification (105.9%±10.1). In contrast, no change in neural creatine levels were detected with supplementation when analysis was conducted using the basis spectrum method of quantification (102.6%±8.6). Results suggest that software packages that employ the peak fitting procedure for spectral quantification are possibly more sensitive to subtle changes in neural creatine concentrations. The relative simplicity of the spectroscopy sequence and the data analysis procedure suggest that peak fitting procedures may be the most effective means of metabolite quantification when detection of subtle alterations in neural metabolites is necessary. The straightforward technique can be used on a clinical magnetic resonance imaging system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation of the neuroprotective effects of bee-venom acupuncture in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease by using immunohistochemistry and In-vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 9.4 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Moon-Hyun; Lee, Do-Wan; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Chung, Jin-Yeung; Doo, Ah-Reum; Park, Hi-Joon; Kim, Seung-Nam; Choe, Bo-Young

    2013-01-01

    Neuroprotective therapeutics slows down the degeneration process in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). The neuronal survival in PD animal models is often measured by using immunohistochemistry. However, dynamic changes in the pathology of the brain cannot be explored with this technique. Application of in-vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) can cover this shortcoming, as these techniques are non-invasive and can be repeated over time in the same animal. Thus, the sensitivity of both techniques to measure changes in the PD pathology was explored in an experiment studying the neuroprotective effects of the vigilance enhancer bee-venom (BV) in a mouse model of PD. The mice were pre-treated with 0.02-ml BV administered to the acupuncture point GB34 (Yangneungcheon) once every 3 days for 2 weeks. Three groups were classified as control, MPTP-intoxicated PD model and BV-treated mice. Outer volume suppression combined with the ultra-short echo-time STEAM (TE = 2.2 ms, TM = 20 ms, TR = 5000 ms) was used for localized in-vivo 1H MRS. Based on the 1H MRS spectral analysis, substantial changes of the neurochemical profiles were evaluated in the three investigated groups. In particular, the glutamate complex (Glx)/creatine (Cr) ratio (7.72 ± 1.25) in the PD group was significantly increased compared to that in the control group (3.93 ± 2.21, P = 0.001). Compared to the baseline values, the Glx/Cr ratio of the BV-treated group was significantly decreased 2 weeks after MPTP intoxication (one-way ANOVA, p < 0.05). In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that neurochemical alterations occurred in the three groups and that the neuroprotective effects of the BV acupuncture in a mouse model of PD could be quantified by using immunohistochemistry and 1H MRS.

  20. 3.0T 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy for assessment of steatosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Hui-Mao; Qi, Wen-Qian; Zhang, Yong-Gui; Zhao, Ping; Jiao, Jian; Wang, Jiang-Bin; Zhang, Chun-Yu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the utility of 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) as a noninvasive test for steatosis in patients infected with hepatitis C virus. METHODS: Ninety patients with chronic hepatitis C and pathology data underwent 3.0T 1H MRS, and the results of MRS and pathological analysis were compared. RESULTS: This group of patients included 26 people with mild fatty liver (28.89%), 16 people with moderate fatty liver (17.78%), 18 people with severe fatty liver (20.0%), and 30 people without fatty liver (33.33%). The water peak was near 4.7 parts per million (ppm), and the lipid peak was near 1.3 ppm. Analysis of variance revealed that differences in the lipid peak, the area under the lipid peak, ratio of the lipid peak to the water peak, and ratio of the area under the lipid peak to the area under the water peak were statistically significant among the groups. Specifically, as the severity of fatty liver increased, the value of each index increased correspondingly. In the pairwise comparisons, the mean lipid peak, area under the lipid peak, ratio of the lipid peak to the water peak, and ratio of the area under the lipid peak to the area under the water peak were significantly different between the no fatty liver and moderate fatty liver groups, whereas no differences were noted between the severe fatty liver group and the mild or moderate fatty liver group. Area under the ROC curve (AUC) of area ratio in lipid and water and ratio in lipid and water in the no fatty liver group to mild fatty liver group, mild fatty liver group to moderate fatty liver group, and moderate fatty liver disease group to severe fatty liver group, were 0.705, 0.900, and 0.975, respectively. CONCLUSION: 1H MRS is a noninvasive technique that can be used to provide information on the effect of liver steatosis on hepatic metabolic processes. This study indicates that the 1H MRS can be used as an indicator of steatosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. PMID:26074712

  1. Age-related changes in anterior cingulate cortex glutamate in schizophrenia: A (1)H MRS Study at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Allison S; Unschuld, Paul G; Pradhan, Subechhya; Lim, Issel Anne L; Churchill, Gregory; Harris, Ashley D; Hua, Jun; Barker, Peter B; Ross, Christopher A; van Zijl, Peter C M; Edden, Richard A E; Margolis, Russell L

    2016-04-01

    The extent of age-related changes in glutamate and other neurometabolites in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in individuals with schizophrenia remain unclear. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 7 T, which yields precise measurements of various metabolites and can distinguish glutamate from glutamine, was used to determine levels of ACC glutamate and other metabolites in 24 individuals with schizophrenia and 24 matched controls. Multiple regression analysis revealed that ACC glutamate decreased with age in patients but not controls. No changes were detected in levels of glutamine, N-acetylaspartate, N-acetylaspartylglutamic acid, myo-inositol, GABA, glutathione, total creatine, and total choline. These results suggest that age may be an important modifier of ACC glutamate in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term cerebral metabolite changes on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients cured of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with previous intrathecal methotrexate and cranial irradiation prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Yuleung; Roebuck, Derek J.; Yuen Manpan; Yeung Kawai; Lau Kamying; Li Chikong; Chik Kiwai

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term brain metabolite changes on 1 H-MRS in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients who had intrathecal methotrexate (ITMTX) and cranial irradiation (CRT) for central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis against CNS relapse. Methods and Materials: Thirty-seven ALL patients (12 females, 25 males) with history of ITMTX and CRT for CNS prophylaxis were studied. Age ranges at the time of diagnosis and at magnetic resonance examination were 0.8-13 years and 12-27 years, respectively. The interval since diagnosis was 5.6-19 years. T2-weighted and gradient-recalled echo (GRE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) were performed to assess brain injury. Results: On MRI, 3 leukoencephalopathy (LEP) and 1 infarct were detected. Twenty-two patients had evidence of hemosiderin. On 1 H-MRS no statistically significant difference in choline (Cho)/creatine (Cr) and N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/Cr was associated with LEP. A lower Cho/Cr (p=0.006) and NAA/Cr (p=0.078) was observed in brains with hemosiderin. Linear-regression analysis showed no statistically significant relationship between NAA/Cr or Cho/Cr with age at diagnosis, but there was a statistically significant decreasing trend of NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr with the interval since diagnosis. Conclusion: Long-term brain injury in ALL survivors after CNS prophylaxis with ITMTX and CRT was reflected by decreasing NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr with the interval since diagnosis. The lower Cho/Cr associated with hemosiderin but not LEP suggested a different pathophysiology for these brain lesions

  3. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Findings of Children with Kernicterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarı, Sahabettin; Yavuz, Alpaslan; Batur, Aabdussamet; Bora, Aydın; Caksen, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    The term kernicterus, or bilirubin encephalopathy, is used to describe pathological bilirubin staining of the basal ganglia, brain stem, and cerebellum, and is associated with hyperbilirubinemia. Kernicterus generally occurs in untreated hyperbilirubinemia or cases where treatment is delayed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based studies have shown characteristic findings in kernicterus. The objective of our study was to describe the role of 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in demonstrating these metabolic changes and to review conventional MRI findings of kernicterus. Forty-eight pediatric cases with kernicterus were included in this study. MRI and MRS examinations were performed on variable dates (10–29 days after birth). NAA, Cr, Cho, NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, and Cho/Cr values were evaluated visually and by computer analysis. There was no statistically significant difference between the NAA and Cho levels in the acute kernicterus patients and the control group (healthy patients), whereas both were significantly elevated in the chronic kernicterus patients. Both the mean NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratio values were significantly higher in the acute and chronic cases compared to the control group. The NAA/Cho ratio value was statistically lower in the acute cases than in the control group while it was similar in the chronic cases. Conventional MR imaging and 1 H-MRS are important complementary tools in the diagnostics of neonatal bilirubin encephalopathy. This study provided important information for applying these MR modalities in the evaluation of neonates with bilirubin encephalopathy

  4. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 11. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Biological Applications. B G Hegde. General Article Volume 20 Issue 11 November 2015 pp 1017-1032. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  5. Laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The technique of laser resonance magnetic resonance allows one to study the high-resolution spectroscopy of transient paramagnetic species, viz, atoms, radicals, and molecular ions. This article is a brief exposition of the method, describing the principles, instrumentation and applicability of the IR and FIR-LMR and shows results of HF + . (Author) [pt

  6. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Susanta Das. General Article Volume 9 Issue 1 January 2004 pp 34-49. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/01/0034-0049. Keywords.

  7. Hippocampal Neurometabolite Changes in Hypothyroidism: An In Vivo (1) H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study Before and After Thyroxine Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Rana, P; Kumar, P; Shankar, L R; Khushu, S

    2016-09-01

    The hippocampus is a thyroid hormone receptor-rich region of the brain. A change in thyroid hormone levels may be responsible for an alteration in hippocampal-associated function, such as learning, memory and attention. Neuroimaging studies have shown functional and structural changes in the hippocampus as a result of hypothyroidism. However, the underlying process responsible for this dysfunction remains unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the metabolic changes in the brain of adult hypothyroid patients during pre- and post-thyroxine treatment using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H MRS). (1) H MRS was performed in both healthy control subjects (n = 15) and hypothyroid patients (n = 15) (before and after thyroxine treatment). The relative ratios of the neurometabolites were calculated using the linear combination model (LCModel). Our results revealed a significant decrease of glutamate (Glu) (P = 0.045) and myo-inositol (mI) (P = 0.002) levels in the hippocampus of hypothyroid patients compared to controls. No significant changes in metabolite ratios were observed in the hypothyroid patients after thyroxine treatment. The findings of the present study reveal decreased Glu/tCr and mI/tCr ratios in the hippocampus of hypothyroid patients and these metabolite alterations persisted even after the patients became clinically euthyroid subsequent to thyroxine treatment. © 2016 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  8. Glutamate and GABA in autism spectrum disorder-a translational magnetic resonance spectroscopy study in man and rodent models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horder, Jamie; Petrinovic, Marija M; Mendez, Maria A; Bruns, Andreas; Takumi, Toru; Spooren, Will; Barker, Gareth J; Künnecke, Basil; Murphy, Declan G

    2018-05-25

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental syndrome with a high human and economic burden. The pathophysiology of ASD is largely unclear, thus hampering development of pharmacological treatments for the core symptoms of the disorder. Abnormalities in glutamate and GABA signaling have been hypothesized to underlie ASD symptoms, and may form a therapeutic target, but it is not known whether these abnormalities are recapitulated in humans with ASD, as well as in rodent models of the disorder. We used translational proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ([1H]MRS) to compare glutamate and GABA levels in adult humans with ASD and in a panel of six diverse rodent ASD models, encompassing genetic and environmental etiologies. [1H]MRS was performed in the striatum and the medial prefrontal cortex, of the humans, mice, and rats in order to allow for direct cross-species comparisons in specific cortical and subcortical brain regions implicated in ASD. In humans with ASD, glutamate concentration was reduced in the striatum and this was correlated with the severity of social symptoms. GABA levels were not altered in either brain region. The reduction in striatal glutamate was recapitulated in mice prenatally exposed to valproate, and in mice and rats carrying Nlgn3 mutations, but not in rodent ASD models with other etiologies. Our findings suggest that glutamate/GABA abnormalities in the corticostriatal circuitry may be a key pathological mechanism in ASD; and may be linked to alterations in the neuroligin-neurexin signaling complex.

  9. Serial water changes in human skeletal muscles on exercise studied with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Toru; Ikehira, Hiroo; Arimizu, Noboru

    1994-01-01

    In vivo 1 H-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enabled us to study the distribution of water in living tissues and to document changes in human skeletal muscles during physical exercise. The purpose of the present study was to determine the total muscle water changes after exercise using water in 1 H-MR spectroscopy and to compare these changes to the signal intensity change on T 2 * -weighted images and/or to the T 2 value change. Seven young male volunteers were positioned in a 1.5 T Philips MR imaging system. They were then asked to dorsiflex their ankle joint against a 2 kg weight once every 2 seconds for 2 minutes. The peak height of water declined according to the clearance curve after exercise in all seven cases with the 1 H-MRS similar to the signal intensity. The increasing rate at peak height of total muscle water exceeded both the signal intensity and the T 2 value because the water peak height on the 1 H-MRS included the extracellular water. In addition, we measured the changes in signal intensity in both calf muscles after walking race exercise. The time intensity curves were used to draw a clearance curve for each muscle group after exercise. It was possible to discern which muscle was used most from the T 2 * -weighted image that was obtained once after exercise. (author)

  10. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study on the Metabolism Changes of Cerebellum in Patients with Post-Stroke Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Sui, Ru-Bo

    2017-01-01

    To study the metabolic changes of cerebellum by proton magnetic resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and discuss the relationships between the cerebellar changes and depression severity in patients with post-stroke depression. Data of demographic characteristics, individual history and life style of all subjects were collected. 40 patients with stroke and 20 controls were enrolled. All groups received T1WI, T2WI, DWI and 1H-MRS examination. The cerebral infarction volume and the distribution and severity of leukoaraiosis were evaluated. The ratios of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA in the cerebellum were calculated. There were no statistical significant difference in the NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA ratios in bilateral cerebellum between CONT group and NORM group. The Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA ratios in the cerebellum contralateral to the stroke region were higher in PSD group than those in NORM and CONT groups, and the Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA ratios in the cerebellum ipsilateral to the stroke region were similar with those in NORM and CONT groups. However, there were no statistical significant difference in the NAA/Cr ratios in bilateral cerebellum among three groups. The result shows preliminarily that the cerebellum involves in the development of post-stroke depression. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy evidence for occipital involvement in treatment-naive paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungberg, Maria; Nilsson, Marie K L; Melin, Karin; Jönsson, Lars; Carlsson, Arvid; Carlsson, Åsa; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva; Ivarsson, Tord; Carlsson, Maria; Starck, Göran

    2017-06-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder leading to considerable distress and disability. Therapies are effective in a majority of paediatric patients, however, many only get partial response. It is therefore important to study the underlying pathophysiology of the disorder. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to study the concentration of brain metabolites in four different locations (cingulate gyrus and sulcus, occipital cortex, thalamus and right caudate nucleus). Treatment-naive children and adolescents with OCD (13 subjects) were compared with a group of healthy age- and gender-matched subjects (11 subjects). Multivariate analyses were performed on the concentration values. No separation between controls and patients was found. However, a correlation between metabolite concentrations and symptom severity as measured with the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) was found. Strongest was the correlation with the CY-BOCS obsession subscore and aspartate and choline in the caudate nucleus (positively correlated with obsessions), lipids at 2 and 0.9 ppm in thalamus, and occipital glutamate+glutamine, N-acetylaspartate and myo-inosytol (negatively correlated with obsessions). The observed correlations between 1H MRS and CY-BOCS in treatment-naive patients further supports an occipital involvement in OCD. The results are consistent with our previous study on adult OCD patients. The 1H MRS data were not supportive of a separation between the patient and control groups.

  12. The use of short-echo-time 1H MRS for childhood cerebellar tumours prior to histopathological diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Lisa M.; Peet, Andrew C.; Davies, Nigel; Natarajan, Kal; MacPherson, Lesley; Foster, Katharine; Lateef, Shaheen; Sgouros, Spyridon; Brundler, Marie-Anne; Arvanitis, Theodoros N.; Grundy, Richard G.

    2007-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measures concentrations of metabolites in vivo and provides a powerful method for identifying tumours. MRS has not entered routine clinical use partly due to the difficulty of analysing the spectra. To create a straightforward method for interpreting short-echo-time MRS of childhood cerebellar tumours. Single-voxel MRS (1.5-T Siemens Symphony NUM4, TR/TE 1,500/30 ms) was performed at presentation in 30 children with cerebellar tumours. The MRS results were analysed for comparison with histological diagnosis. Peak heights for N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho) and myo-inositol (mIns) were determined and receiver operator characteristic curves used to select ratios that best discriminated between the tumour types. The method was implemented by a group of clinicians and scientists, blinded to the results. A total of 27 MRS studies met the quality control criteria. NAA/Cr >4.0 distinguished all but one of the astrocytomas from the other tumours. A combination of Cr/Cho <0.75 and mIns/NAA <2.1 separated all the medulloblastomas from the ependymomas. Peak height ratios from short-echo-time MRS can accurately predict the histopathology of childhood cerebellar tumours. (orig.)

  13. 1H-MRS for the diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: insight into the acute-disease stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Sira, Liat; Miller, Elka; Artzi, Moran; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Constantini, Shlomi; Ben Bashat, Dafna

    2010-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). Differentiating ADEM from other inflammatory disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, is not always conclusive using conventional MRI. To evaluate longitudinal magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) changes that distinguish ADEM from other inflammatory disorders. MRI/MRS scans were performed in seven patients with ADEM during the acute and chronic phases of the disease. Partial recovery was detected between the acute and chronic phases in choline/creatine ratio. Major elevation of lipids and reduction in myo-inositol/creatine ratio was detected in all patients during the acute phase, followed by a reduction in lipids peak and elevation above normal in myo-inositol/creatine ratio during the chronic phase. Consistent and unique MRS changes in metabolite ratios between the acute and chronic presentations of the disease were found. To the best of our knowledge, these patterns have not been described in other inflammatory disorders and might assist in the early diagnosis of ADEM. (orig.)

  14. Age-dependent changes in metabolites of the normal brain in childhood. Observation by proton MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanouchi, Miki; Harada, Masafumi; Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Nishitani, Hiromu

    1996-01-01

    We investigated aging-dependent changes in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) of the normal brain in childhood, and observed differences in the four portions of the brain. Measurement by 1 H-MRS was carried out on the frontal lobe, parietotemporal lobe, temporal lobe and cerebellum. The NAA/Cho ratio increased rapidly in the period from 0 to 2 years of age in all portions except for the cerebellum, and gradually increased after three years of age. The number of measurements of the cerebellum was not sufficient to reach a conclusion, but no clear aging-related change was found. The Cho/Cr ratio decreased according to the neural development in all portions except the cerebellum. Because the T2 relaxation time of water after four years of age was almost the same as that of young adults, we used the relaxation times specified in the literature to quantify the metabolites observed by 1 H-MRS. The subjects used for quantification were aged from 4 to 12 years. The concentration of NAA in the temporal lobe was the lowest of the four portions, and that of Cho and Cr in the cerebellum was the highest in four portions. These results could not be obtained by signal ratios alone, and we considered that the quantification of metabolites is necessary for a better understanding of 1 H-MRS. This study showed that the results of 1 H-MRS vary depending on age and the portion in the brain. Our results may serve as a normal basis for the detection of pathological changes by 1 H-MRS. (author)

  15. In vivo 1H MR spectroscopy of thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Ann D.; Yeung, David K.W.; Ahuja, Anil T.; Tse, Gary M.K.; Chan, Amy B.W.; Lam, Sherlock S.L.; Hasselt, Andrew C. van

    2005-01-01

    To determine if proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) of thyroid carcinoma is feasible and to determine if 1 H MRS spectra of malignant tumors differ from that of normal thyroid tissue. We performed 1 H MRS at 1.5 T at echo-times (TE) 136 and 272 ms to examine eight patients with thyroid cancer (primary tumour or nodal metastasis) larger than 1 cm 3 in size and five volunteers with normal thyroids. Spectra acquired from six primary tumors (three anaplastic carcinomas, two papillary carcinomas and one follicular carcinoma) and two nodes (two papillary carcinoma metastases) were analyzed in the time-domain using a non-linear least squares fitting algorithm with incorporation of prior knowledge. Choline (3.2 ppm) was identified in all solid carcinomas with a mean choline/creatine of 4.3 at TE 136 ms and 5.4 at TE 272 ms. Ratios for malignant tumors at TE 136 ms ranged from 1.6 in well differentiated follicular carcinoma to 9.4 in anaplastic carcinoma. No choline was detected in normal thyroid tissues. Our results showed that 1 H MRS is a feasible technique for the evaluation of malignant thyroid tumors larger than 1 cm 3 and that proton spectra of malignant tumors differ from that of normal thyroid tissue

  16. HIV, Vascular and Aging Injuries in the Brain of Clinically Stable HIV-Infected Adults: A 1H MRS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysique, Lucette A.; Moffat, Kirsten; Moore, Danielle M.; Lane, Tammy A.; Davies, Nicholas W. S.; Carr, Andrew; Brew, Bruce J.; Rae, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and premature aging have been hypothesized as new risk factors for HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in adults with virally-suppressed HIV infection. Moreover, their significance and relation to more classical HAND biomarkers remain unclear. Methods 92 HIV− infected (HIV+) adults stable on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and 30 age-comparable HIV-negative (HIV−) subjects underwent 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) of the frontal white matter (targeting HIV, normal aging or CVD-related neurochemical injury), caudate nucleus (targeting HIV neurochemical injury), and posterior cingulate cortex (targeting normal/pathological aging, CVD-related neurochemical changes). All also underwent standard neuropsychological (NP) testing. CVD risk scores were calculated. HIV disease biomarkers were collected and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neuroinflammation biomarkers were obtained in 38 HIV+ individuals. Results Relative to HIV− individuals, HIV+ individuals presented mild MRS alterations: in the frontal white matter: lower N-Acetyl-Aspartate (NAA) (pHIV*age interaction was associated with lower frontal white matter NAA. CVD risk factors were associated with lower posterior cingulate cortex and caudate NAA in both groups. Past acute CVD events in the HIV+ group were associated with increased mIo in the posterior cingulate cortex. HIV duration was associated with lower caudate NAA; greater CNS cART penetration was associated with lower mIo in the posterior cingulate cortex and the degree of immune recovery on cART was associated with higher NAA in the frontal white matter. CSF neopterin was associated with higher mIo in the posterior cingulate cortex and frontal white matter. Conclusions In chronically HIV+ adults with long-term viral suppression, current CVD risk, past CVD and age are independent factors for neuronal injury and inflammation. This suggests a tripartite model of HIV, CVD and age likely driven by

  17. 1H-MRS Measured Ectopic Fat in Liver and Muscle in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Andersson, Ehm Astrid; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Thomsen, Henrik S; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2015-01-01

    This cross sectional study aims to investigate the associations between ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and biochemical measures, estimates of insulin resistance, anthropometry, and blood pressure in lean and overweight/obese children. Fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin, and expressions of insulin resistance, anthropometry, blood pressure, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver and muscle fat were obtained in 327 Danish children and adolescents aged 8-18 years. In 287 overweight/obese children, the prevalences of hepatic and muscular steatosis were 31% and 68%, respectively, whereas the prevalences in 40 lean children were 3% and 10%, respectively. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index z-score (BMI SDS), and pubertal development showed that the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 4.2 (95%CI: [1.8; 10.2], p = 0.0009) when hepatic steatosis was present. Comparing the simultaneous presence of hepatic and muscular steatosis with no presence of steatosis, the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 5.8 (95%CI: [2.0; 18.6], p = 0.002). No significant associations between muscle fat and dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, or blood pressure were observed. Liver and muscle fat, adjusted for age, sex, BMI SDS, and pubertal development, associated to BMI SDS and glycosylated hemoglobin, while only liver fat associated to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipid associated inversely to high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Hepatic steatosis is associated with dyslipidemia and liver and muscle fat depositions are linked to obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, especially glycosylated hemoglobin, in children and adolescents, which suggest an increased cardiovascular disease risk.

  18. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of a boron neutron capture therapy 10B-carrier, L-p-boronophenylalanine-fructose complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timonen, M.

    2010-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapy that has mainly been used to treat malignant brain tumours, melanomas, and head and neck cancer. In BNCT, the patient receives an intravenous infusion of a 10B-carrier, which accumulates in the tumour area. The tumour is irradiated with epithermal or thermal neutrons, which result in a boron neutron capture reaction that generates heavy particles to damage tumour cells. In Finland, boronophenylalanine fructose (BPA-F) is used as the 10B-carrier. Currently, the drifting of boron from blood to tumour as well as the spatial and temporal accumulation of boron in the brain, are not precisely known. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) could be used for selective BPA-F detection and quantification as aromatic protons of BPA resonate in the spectrum region, which is clear of brain metabolite signals. This study, which included both phantom and in vivo studies, examined the validity of 1H MRS as a tool for BPA detection. In the phantom study, BPA quantification was studied at 1.5 and 3.0 T with single voxel 1H MRS, and at 1.5 T with magnetic resonance imaging (MRSI). The detection limit of BPA was determined in phantom conditions at 1.5 T and 3.0 T using single voxel 1H MRS, and at 1.5 T using MRSI. In phantom conditions, BPA quantification accuracy of +- 5% and +- 15% were achieved with single voxel MRS using external or internal (internal water signal) concentration references, respectively. For MRSI, a quantification accuracy of <5% was obtained using an internal concentration reference (creatine). The detection limits of BPA in phantom conditions for the PRESS sequence were 0.7 (3.0 T) and 1.4 mM (1.5 T) mM with 20 x 20 single voxel MRS, and 1.0 mM with acquisition-weighted MRSI, respectively. In the in vivo study, an MRSI or single voxel MRS or both was performed for ten patients (patients 1-10) on the day of BNCT. Three patients had glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and five patients had a recurrent or

  19. Frontal lobe proton magnetic-resonance spectroscopy in Graves' disease: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khushu, S.; Gupta, A.; Sankar, R.; Tripathi, R.P.; Bhatara, V.S. [NMR Research Center and Department of Endocrinology, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Lucknow Marg, Delhi 110054 (India)

    1998-08-01

    Patients with hyperthyroidism may show impaired performance on several neuropsychological tests that require complex visual discrimination, conceptualization, mental flexibility or organization. These neurocognitive impairments appear to be consistent with prefrontal lobe dysfunction. This pilot study was undertaken to characterize the metabolite profile in the right prefrontal cortex in six patients with untreated Graves' disease by using in vivo proton magnetic-resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS). For comparison, {sup 1}H-MRS was also carried out inseven healthy controls. The choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) and N-acetyl aspartate/creatine (Naa/Cr) ratios were determined. Cho/Cr ratios of the hyperthyroid patients were significantly lower than that of controls (means{+-}SD=0.61{+-}0.09 vs. 0.90{+-}0.18, p=.05). The two groups did not differ in their Naa/Cr ratios. Follow-up data after antithyroid treatment were available in three patients: Cho/Cr ratios were higher after treatment (euthyroidism) than before treatment (1.06 vs. 0.55; 0.82 vs. 0.54; 1.15 vs. 0.76). Tentatively, these preliminary data are most consistent with reversible reductions in the concentrations of choline-containing compounds (especially glycerophosphocholine and phosphocholine) in the prefrontal area during hyperthyroidism. However, these findings await confirmation by a definitive study with a larger sample size. A possible explanation of the findings is an altered brain cholinergic-adrenergic balance in hyperthyroidism. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueterjans, H.

    1987-01-01

    Contributions by various authors who are working in the field of NMR imaging present the current status and the perspectives of in-vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, explaining not only the scientific and medical aspects, but also technical and physical principles as well as questions concerning practical organisation and training, and points of main interest for further research activities. (orig./TRV) [de

  1. Metabolite concentrations in supraventricular white matter from teenage to early old age: A short echo time 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raininko, Raili (Dept. of Radiology, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)), e-mail: raili.raininko@radiol.uu.se; Mattsson, Peter (Dept. of Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-04-15

    Background: Age- and sex-related changes of metabolites in healthy adult brains have been examined with different 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) methods in varying populations, and with differing results. A long repetition time and short echo time technique reduces quantification errors due to T1 and T2 relaxation effects and makes it possible to measure metabolites with short T2 relaxation times. Purpose: To examine the effect of age on the metabolite concentrations measured by 1H MRS in normal supraventricular white matter using a long repetition time (TR) and a short echo time (TE). Material and Methods: Supraventricular white matter of 57 healthy subjects (25 women, 32 men), aged 13 to 72 years, was examined with a single-voxel MRS at 1.5T using a TR of 6000 ms and a TE of 22 ms. Tissue water was used as a reference in quantification. Results: Myoinositol increased slightly and total N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) decreased slightly with increasing age. Glutamine/glutamate complex (Glx) showed U-shaped age dependence, with highest concentrations in the youngest and oldest subjects. No significant age dependence was found in total choline and total creatine. No gender differences were found. Macromolecule/ lipid (ML) fractions were reliably measurable only in 36/57 or even fewer subjects and showed very large deviations. Conclusion: The concentrations of several metabolites in cerebral supraventricular white matter are age dependent on 1H MRS, even in young and middle-aged people, and age dependency can be nonlinear. Each 1H MRS study of the brain should therefore take age into account, whereas sex does not appear to be so important. The use of macromolecule and lipid evaluations is compromised by less successful quantification and large variations in healthy people

  2. Metabolite concentrations in supraventricular white matter from teenage to early old age: A short echo time {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raininko, Raili [Dept. of Radiology, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)], e-mail: raili.raininko@radiol.uu.se; Mattsson, Peter [Dept. of Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-04-15

    Background: Age- and sex-related changes of metabolites in healthy adult brains have been examined with different {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) methods in varying populations, and with differing results. A long repetition time and short echo time technique reduces quantification errors due to T1 and T2 relaxation effects and makes it possible to measure metabolites with short T2 relaxation times. Purpose: To examine the effect of age on the metabolite concentrations measured by 1H MRS in normal supraventricular white matter using a long repetition time (TR) and a short echo time (TE). Material and Methods: Supraventricular white matter of 57 healthy subjects (25 women, 32 men), aged 13 to 72 years, was examined with a single-voxel MRS at 1.5T using a TR of 6000 ms and a TE of 22 ms. Tissue water was used as a reference in quantification. Results: Myoinositol increased slightly and total N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) decreased slightly with increasing age. Glutamine/glutamate complex (Glx) showed U-shaped age dependence, with highest concentrations in the youngest and oldest subjects. No significant age dependence was found in total choline and total creatine. No gender differences were found. Macromolecule/ lipid (ML) fractions were reliably measurable only in 36/57 or even fewer subjects and showed very large deviations. Conclusion: The concentrations of several metabolites in cerebral supraventricular white matter are age dependent on 1H MRS, even in young and middle-aged people, and age dependency can be nonlinear. Each 1H MRS study of the brain should therefore take age into account, whereas sex does not appear to be so important. The use of macromolecule and lipid evaluations is compromised by less successful quantification and large variations in healthy people.

  3. Metabolite concentrations in supraventricular white matter from teenage to early old age: A short echo time 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raininko, Raili; Mattsson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background: Age- and sex-related changes of metabolites in healthy adult brains have been examined with different 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) methods in varying populations, and with differing results. A long repetition time and short echo time technique reduces quantification errors due to T1 and T2 relaxation effects and makes it possible to measure metabolites with short T2 relaxation times. Purpose: To examine the effect of age on the metabolite concentrations measured by 1H MRS in normal supraventricular white matter using a long repetition time (TR) and a short echo time (TE). Material and Methods: Supraventricular white matter of 57 healthy subjects (25 women, 32 men), aged 13 to 72 years, was examined with a single-voxel MRS at 1.5T using a TR of 6000 ms and a TE of 22 ms. Tissue water was used as a reference in quantification. Results: Myoinositol increased slightly and total N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) decreased slightly with increasing age. Glutamine/glutamate complex (Glx) showed U-shaped age dependence, with highest concentrations in the youngest and oldest subjects. No significant age dependence was found in total choline and total creatine. No gender differences were found. Macromolecule/ lipid (ML) fractions were reliably measurable only in 36/57 or even fewer subjects and showed very large deviations. Conclusion: The concentrations of several metabolites in cerebral supraventricular white matter are age dependent on 1H MRS, even in young and middle-aged people, and age dependency can be nonlinear. Each 1H MRS study of the brain should therefore take age into account, whereas sex does not appear to be so important. The use of macromolecule and lipid evaluations is compromised by less successful quantification and large variations in healthy people

  4. Structural and metabolic changes in the traumatically injured rat brain. High-resolution in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Zhao, Can; Rao, Jia-Sheng; Yang, Fei-Xiang; Yang, Zhao-Yang; Wang, Zhan-Jing; Lei, Jian-Feng; Li, Xiao-Guang

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of microstructural and metabolic changes in the post-traumatic brain injury is the key to brain damage suppression and repair in clinics. Ten female Wistar rats were traumatically injured in the brain CA1 region and above the cortex. Next, diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) were used to analyze the microstructural and metabolic changes in the brain within the following 2 weeks. Anisotropy fraction (FA) and axial diffusivity (AD) of the corpus callosum (CC) began to decrease significantly at day 1, whereas radial diffusivity (RD) significantly increased immediately after injury, reflecting the loss of white matter integrity. Compared with day 3, RD decreased significantly at day 7, implicating the angioedema reduction. In the hippocampus, FA significantly increased at day 7; the choline-containing compounds (Cho) and myo-inositol (MI) remarkably increased at day 7 compared with those at day 3, indicating the proliferation of astrocytes and radial glial cells after day 7. No significant differences between DTI and 1 H MRS parameters were observed between day 1 and day 3. Day 1-3 after traumatic brain injury (TBI) may serve as a relatively appropriate time window for treatment planning and the following nerve repair. (orig.)

  5. Structural and metabolic changes in the traumatically injured rat brain. High-resolution in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing; Zhao, Can; Rao, Jia-Sheng [Beihang University, Beijing Key Laboratory for Biomaterials and Neural Regeneration, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beijing (China); Yang, Fei-Xiang; Yang, Zhao-Yang [Capital Medical University, Department of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Wang, Zhan-Jing; Lei, Jian-Feng [Capital Medical University, Medical Experiment and Test Center, Beijing (China); Li, Xiao-Guang [Beihang University, Beijing Key Laboratory for Biomaterials and Neural Regeneration, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beijing (China); Capital Medical University, Department of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2017-12-15

    The understanding of microstructural and metabolic changes in the post-traumatic brain injury is the key to brain damage suppression and repair in clinics. Ten female Wistar rats were traumatically injured in the brain CA1 region and above the cortex. Next, diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) were used to analyze the microstructural and metabolic changes in the brain within the following 2 weeks. Anisotropy fraction (FA) and axial diffusivity (AD) of the corpus callosum (CC) began to decrease significantly at day 1, whereas radial diffusivity (RD) significantly increased immediately after injury, reflecting the loss of white matter integrity. Compared with day 3, RD decreased significantly at day 7, implicating the angioedema reduction. In the hippocampus, FA significantly increased at day 7; the choline-containing compounds (Cho) and myo-inositol (MI) remarkably increased at day 7 compared with those at day 3, indicating the proliferation of astrocytes and radial glial cells after day 7. No significant differences between DTI and {sup 1}H MRS parameters were observed between day 1 and day 3. Day 1-3 after traumatic brain injury (TBI) may serve as a relatively appropriate time window for treatment planning and the following nerve repair. (orig.)

  6. Neutron resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunsing, F.

    2005-06-01

    The present document has been written in order to obtain the diploma 'Habilitation a Diriger des Recherches'. Since this diploma is indispensable to supervise thesis students, I had the intention to write a document that can be useful for someone starting in the field of neutron resonance spectroscopy. Although the here described topics are already described elsewhere, and often in more detail, it seemed useful to have most of the relevant information in a single document. A general introduction places the topic of neutron-nucleus interaction in a nuclear physics context. The large variations of several orders of magnitude in neutron-induced reaction cross sections are explained in terms of nuclear level excitations. The random character of the resonances make nuclear model calculation predictions impossible. Then several fields in physics where neutron-induced reactions are important and to which I have contributed in some way or another, are mentioned in a first synthetic chapter. They concern topics like parity nonconservation in certain neutron resonances, stellar nucleosynthesis by neutron capture, and data for nuclear energy applications. The latter item is especially important for the transmutation of nuclear waste and for alternative fuel cycles. Nuclear data libraries are also briefly mentioned. A second chapter details the R-matrix theory. This formalism is the foundation of the description of the neutron-nucleus interaction and is present in all fields of neutron resonance spectroscopy. (author)

  7. Neutron resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunsing, F

    2005-06-15

    The present document has been written in order to obtain the diploma 'Habilitation a Diriger des Recherches'. Since this diploma is indispensable to supervise thesis students, I had the intention to write a document that can be useful for someone starting in the field of neutron resonance spectroscopy. Although the here described topics are already described elsewhere, and often in more detail, it seemed useful to have most of the relevant information in a single document. A general introduction places the topic of neutron-nucleus interaction in a nuclear physics context. The large variations of several orders of magnitude in neutron-induced reaction cross sections are explained in terms of nuclear level excitations. The random character of the resonances make nuclear model calculation predictions impossible. Then several fields in physics where neutron-induced reactions are important and to which I have contributed in some way or another, are mentioned in a first synthetic chapter. They concern topics like parity nonconservation in certain neutron resonances, stellar nucleosynthesis by neutron capture, and data for nuclear energy applications. The latter item is especially important for the transmutation of nuclear waste and for alternative fuel cycles. Nuclear data libraries are also briefly mentioned. A second chapter details the R-matrix theory. This formalism is the foundation of the description of the neutron-nucleus interaction and is present in all fields of neutron resonance spectroscopy. (author)

  8. The Response of RIF-1 Fibrosarcomas to the Vascular-Disrupting Agent ZD6126 Assessed by In Vivo and Ex Vivo1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basetti Madhu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The response of radiation-induced fibrosarcoma1 (RIF-1 tumors treated with the vascular-disrupting agent (VDA ZD6126 was assessed by in vivo and ex vivo1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS methods. Tumors treated with 200 mg/kg ZD6126 showed a significant reduction in total choline (tCho in vivo 24 hours after treatment, whereas control tumors showed a significant increase in tCho. This response was investigated further within both ex vivo unprocessed tumor tissues and tumor tissue metabolite extracts. Ex vivo high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS and 1H MRS of metabolite extracts revealed a significant reduction in phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine in biopsies of ZD6126-treated tumors, confirming in vivo tCho response. ZD6126-induced reduction in choline compounds is consistent with a reduction in cell membrane turnover associated with necrosis and cell death following disruption of the tumor vasculature. In vivo tumor tissue water diffusion and lactate measurements showed no significant changes in response to ZD6126. Spin-spin relaxation times (T2 of water and metabolites also remained unchanged. Noninvasive 1H MRS measurement of tCho in vivo provides a potential biomarker of tumor response to VDAs in RIF-1 tumors.

  9. An Open-Label Exploratory Study with Memantine: Correlation between Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Cognition in Patients with Mild to Moderate Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc L. Gordon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To characterize progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS. Methods: Eleven subjects with mild to moderate AD underwent neurocognitive testing and single-voxel 1H MRS from the precuneus and posterior cingulate region at baseline, after 24 weeks of monotherapy with a cholinesterase inhibitor, and after another 24 weeks of combination therapy with open-label memantine and a cholinesterase inhibitor. Baseline metabolites [N-acetylaspartate (NAA, myo-inositol (mI, choline (Cho, and creatine (Cr] and their ratios in AD subjects were compared with those of an age-matched control group of 28 cognitively normal subjects. Results: AD subjects had significantly higher mI/Cr and lower NAA, NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, and NAA/mI. Baseline Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-ADL scores significantly correlated with NAA/Cr, mI/Cr, and NAA/mI. There was an increase in mI and a decrease in NAA/mI, but no significant change in other metabolites or ratios, or neurocognitive measures, when memantine was added to a cholinesterase inhibitor. Conclusion: Metabolite ratios significantly differed between AD and control subjects. Baseline metabolite ratios correlated with function (ADCS-ADL. There was an increase in mI and a decrease in NAA/mI, but no changes in other metabolites, ratios, or cognitive measures, when memantine was added to a cholinesterase inhibitor.

  10. Changes in Muscular Lipids in Unilateral Isolated Hypertrophy of Gastrocnemius Muscle Can Be Revealed by 1H MR Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechtel, Klaus; Machann, Juergen; Pick, Margarete; Schaefer, Juergen F.; Claussen, Claus D.; Schick, Fritz [University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    To test whether proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) reveals changes in the lipid content of the gastrocnemius muscle (GM) and soleus muscle (SOL) of a patient with unilateral isolated hypertrophy of the right GM. {sup 1}H-MRS was performed on a 1.5 Tesla (T) wholebody unit. Muscular lipids inside SOL and GM were assessed in both calves of the patient by a STEAM (stimulated echo acquisition mode) localization sequence. Results were compared to a control group of four healthy volunteers. Total amount of muscular lipids in the hypertrophic GM of the patient was clearly increased compared to the controls (38.7 versus 21.8{+-}3.5 a.u.) while intramyocellular lipids of the adjacent SOL were lower compared to the contralateral healthy leg. Muscular lipids are substrates for metabolism and can be assessed non-invasively by {sup 1}H-MRS. {sup 1}H-MRS is considered to be a helpful tool in clinical assessment of muscle metabolism in cases with muscular hypo- or hypertrophy.

  11. Changes in Muscular Lipids in Unilateral Isolated Hypertrophy of Gastrocnemius Muscle Can Be Revealed by 1H MR Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechtel, Klaus; Machann, Juergen; Pick, Margarete; Schaefer, Juergen F.; Claussen, Claus D.; Schick, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    To test whether proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) reveals changes in the lipid content of the gastrocnemius muscle (GM) and soleus muscle (SOL) of a patient with unilateral isolated hypertrophy of the right GM. 1 H-MRS was performed on a 1.5 Tesla (T) wholebody unit. Muscular lipids inside SOL and GM were assessed in both calves of the patient by a STEAM (stimulated echo acquisition mode) localization sequence. Results were compared to a control group of four healthy volunteers. Total amount of muscular lipids in the hypertrophic GM of the patient was clearly increased compared to the controls (38.7 versus 21.8±3.5 a.u.) while intramyocellular lipids of the adjacent SOL were lower compared to the contralateral healthy leg. Muscular lipids are substrates for metabolism and can be assessed non-invasively by 1 H-MRS. 1 H-MRS is considered to be a helpful tool in clinical assessment of muscle metabolism in cases with muscular hypo- or hypertrophy

  12. In vivo quantification of intracerebral GABA by single-voxel {sup 1}H-MRS-How reproducible are the results?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogner, W. [MR Centre of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: wolfgang@nmr.at; Gruber, S. [MR Centre of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: stephan@nmr.at; Doelken, M. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D-91054 Erlangen (Austria)], E-mail: marc.doelken@uk-erlangen.de; Stadlbauer, A. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D-91054 Erlangen (Austria)], E-mail: andi@nmr.at; Ganslandt, O. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D-91054 Erlangen (Austria)], E-mail: oliver.ganslandt@uk-erlangen.de; Boettcher, U. [Siemens Medical Solution, Karl-Schall Str. 6, D-91052 Erlangen (Germany)], E-mail: uwe.boettcher@siemens.com; Trattnig, S. [MR Centre of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: siegfried.trattnig@meduniwien.ac.at; Doerfler, A. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D-91054 Erlangen (Austria)], E-mail: a.doerfler@nrad.imed.uni-erlangen.de; Stefan, H. [Center Epilepsy Erlangen (ZEE), Department of Neurology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.Stefan@uk-erlangen.de; Hammen, T. [Center Epilepsy Erlangen (ZEE), Department of Neurology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany)], E-mail: thilo.hammen@uk-erlangen.de

    2010-03-15

    Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human brain. It plays a decisive role in a variety of nervous system disorders, such as anxiety disorders, epilepsy, schizophrenia, insomnia, and many others. The reproducibility of GABA quantification results obtained with a single-voxel spectroscopy J-difference editing sequence with Point Resolved Spectroscopy localization (MEGA-PRESS) was determined on a 3.0 Tesla MR scanner in healthy adults. Eleven volunteers were measured in long- and short-term intervals. Intra- and inter-subject reproducibility were evaluated. Internal referencing of GABA+ to total creatine (tCr) and water (H{sub 2}O), as well as two different post-processing methods for the evaluation (signal integration and time-domain fitting) were compared. In all subjects lower coefficient of variation and therefore higher reproducibility can be observed for fitting compared to integration. The GABA+/tCr ratio performs better than the GABA+/H{sub 2}O ratio or GABA+ without internal referencing for both fitting and integration (GABA+/tCr: 13.3% and 17.0%; GABA+/H{sub 2}O: 15.0% and 17.8%; GABA+: 19.2% and 21.7%). Four-day measurements on three subjects showed higher intra- than inter-subject reproducibility (GABA+/tCr {approx}10-12%). With a coefficient of variation of about 13% for inter-subject and 10-12% for intra-subject variability of GABA+/tCr, this technique seems to be a precise tool that can detect GABA confidently. The results of this study show the reproducibility limitations of GABA quantification in vivo, which are necessary for further clinical studies.

  13. In vivo quantification of intracerebral GABA by single-voxel 1H-MRS-How reproducible are the results?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogner, W.; Gruber, S.; Doelken, M.; Stadlbauer, A.; Ganslandt, O.; Boettcher, U.; Trattnig, S.; Doerfler, A.; Stefan, H.; Hammen, T.

    2010-01-01

    Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human brain. It plays a decisive role in a variety of nervous system disorders, such as anxiety disorders, epilepsy, schizophrenia, insomnia, and many others. The reproducibility of GABA quantification results obtained with a single-voxel spectroscopy J-difference editing sequence with Point Resolved Spectroscopy localization (MEGA-PRESS) was determined on a 3.0 Tesla MR scanner in healthy adults. Eleven volunteers were measured in long- and short-term intervals. Intra- and inter-subject reproducibility were evaluated. Internal referencing of GABA+ to total creatine (tCr) and water (H 2 O), as well as two different post-processing methods for the evaluation (signal integration and time-domain fitting) were compared. In all subjects lower coefficient of variation and therefore higher reproducibility can be observed for fitting compared to integration. The GABA+/tCr ratio performs better than the GABA+/H 2 O ratio or GABA+ without internal referencing for both fitting and integration (GABA+/tCr: 13.3% and 17.0%; GABA+/H 2 O: 15.0% and 17.8%; GABA+: 19.2% and 21.7%). Four-day measurements on three subjects showed higher intra- than inter-subject reproducibility (GABA+/tCr ∼10-12%). With a coefficient of variation of about 13% for inter-subject and 10-12% for intra-subject variability of GABA+/tCr, this technique seems to be a precise tool that can detect GABA confidently. The results of this study show the reproducibility limitations of GABA quantification in vivo, which are necessary for further clinical studies.

  14. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhoff, D.J.; Weiner, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    A major function of the liver is regulation of carbohydrate, lipid, and nitrogen metabolism. Food is absorbed by the intestines and transported to the liver by the portal circulation. Substrates are metabolized and stored in the liver to maintain optimal blood concentrations of glucose and lipids. Ammonia generated in the gastrointestinal tract is converted to urea in the liver by the urea cycle. Various forms of liver disease are associated with disorders of carbohydrate, fat, and nitrogen metabolism. Therefore the ability to characterize liver metabolism noninvasively is of potential diagnostic value. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides information about tissue metabolism by measuring concentrations of metabolites. However, to determine the anatomic location from which spectroscopic signals are derived, MRS could be performed in conjunction with MRI. This paper summarizes the current experience with spectroscopy ion animal models of human disease and reviews the clinical experience with hepatic MRS to date

  15. Radiation-induced changes in human brain metabolites as studied by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usenius, Taina; Usenius, Jussi-Pekka; Tenhunen, Mikko; Vainio, Pauli; Johansson, Risto; Soimakallio, Seppo; Kauppinen, Risto

    1995-10-15

    Purpose: External radiation therapy for brain tumors exposes healthy areas of brain to considerable doses of radiation. This may cause cognitive and psychological impairment, which indicate neuronal dysfunction. {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to study brain metabolites in the adjacent regions 0.5-13 years after exposure to therapeutic irradiation. Methods and Materials: Eight patients with irradiated brain tumors were examined by means of in vivo{sup 1}H-MRS using a point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence with echo times of 60 or 270 ms. The metabolites were quantified by using brain water concentration as internal reference. The volume of interest (VOI) was positioned in irradiated brain areas excluding, however, scar and recurrent tumor. The respective radiation doses were measured based on radiation therapy plans, simulator films, and localization MR images. Results: The concentration of the neuron-specific metabolite N-acetyl-l-aspartate (NAA) was 13.2 {+-} 1.4 mmol/l in controls, whereas it was reduced in the brains of treated patients to 8.6 {+-} 0.9 mmol/l (total radiation dose 59-62 Gy). Concentrations of creatine and choline-containing compounds were unchanged. The T2 of water was longer in irradiated than in unexposed brain areas. Conclusion: Therapeutic brain irradiation causes neuronal damage, which is reflected by reduction of N-acetyl-l-aspartate (NAA) concentrations. {sup 1}H-MRS could serve clinically as a means of evaluating adverse effects in the central nervous system, enabling intervention and rehabilitation.

  16. Radiation-induced changes in human brain metabolites as studied by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usenius, Taina; Usenius, Jussi-Pekka; Tenhunen, Mikko; Vainio, Pauli; Johansson, Risto; Soimakallio, Seppo; Kauppinen, Risto

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: External radiation therapy for brain tumors exposes healthy areas of brain to considerable doses of radiation. This may cause cognitive and psychological impairment, which indicate neuronal dysfunction. 1 H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to study brain metabolites in the adjacent regions 0.5-13 years after exposure to therapeutic irradiation. Methods and Materials: Eight patients with irradiated brain tumors were examined by means of in vivo 1 H-MRS using a point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence with echo times of 60 or 270 ms. The metabolites were quantified by using brain water concentration as internal reference. The volume of interest (VOI) was positioned in irradiated brain areas excluding, however, scar and recurrent tumor. The respective radiation doses were measured based on radiation therapy plans, simulator films, and localization MR images. Results: The concentration of the neuron-specific metabolite N-acetyl-l-aspartate (NAA) was 13.2 ± 1.4 mmol/l in controls, whereas it was reduced in the brains of treated patients to 8.6 ± 0.9 mmol/l (total radiation dose 59-62 Gy). Concentrations of creatine and choline-containing compounds were unchanged. The T2 of water was longer in irradiated than in unexposed brain areas. Conclusion: Therapeutic brain irradiation causes neuronal damage, which is reflected by reduction of N-acetyl-l-aspartate (NAA) concentrations. 1 H-MRS could serve clinically as a means of evaluating adverse effects in the central nervous system, enabling intervention and rehabilitation

  17. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy of urine for the assessment of renal dysfunction in healthy pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewska, A. K.; Ronin-Walknowska, E.; Plonka, T.; Borowiak, K. S.; Janus, T.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Pregnancy is associated with adaptive alterations affecting almost all organs and systems of the female body and is also a time when pathologies appear which would otherwise remain asymptomatic for many years. 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 1H -MRS) of urine, a modern diagnostic method, can disclose discrete changes in organ function. It seemed interesting to search for pregnancy-dependent renal pathology in healthy women and thus prognosticate progression to overt disease after pregnancy. Objectives. To determine whether physiological pregnancy is accompanied by alterations in renal structures detectable by 1H-MRS of urine and to assess the type and reversibility of alterations. Material and Methods. Eighty women were enrolled in two groups: a study group (B) consisting of 40 healthy pregnant women and a control group (K) of 40 healthy nulligravida women. Enrollment criteria included normal health status, unrevealing physical and gynecological examination, and normal results of laboratory tests (complete blood count, urea, creatinine, uric acid, urinalysis). MRS of urine and laboratory tests were done in group B during each trimester (B1, B2, and B3, i.e. the 1 st , 2 nd , and 3 rd trimesters, respectively) and six weeks after delivery (BP). In group K, the tests were done only once. The spectra were processed with MestReC software and then multidimensional statistical analysis using Unscrambler software was performed. The results were presented as the distribution of the variables in multidimensional space. Results. The patterns in multidimensional space revealed a clustering of points when comparing the first and third trimesters of pregnancy and comparing the third trimester and the healthy non-pregnant women. Also, a partial clustering of points comparing healthy non-pregnant and pregnant women after the puerperium was noticeable. Conclusions. Differences in 1H -MRS profiles of urine between healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women reflect

  18. Evaluation of invasiveness of astrocytoma using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy: correlation with expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kai; Li, Chuanfu; Ma, Xiangxing; Meng, Xiangshui; Feng, Dechao; Liu, Ying; Li, Li

    2007-01-01

    Even low-grade astrocytomas infiltrate the entire brain, a feature that precludes their successful therapy. So to assess the invasive potential of astrocytoma is very important. The aim of this study was determine whether there is a significant correlation between the results of 1 H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) and tumor invasive potential of astrocytoma, which is reflected by expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). The 1 H-MRS spectra of 41 histologically verified astrocytomas were obtained on a 3-T MR scanner. According to the World Health Organization classification criteria for central nervous system tumors, there were 16 low-grade astrocytomas (2 pilocytic astrocytomas, 14 grade II astrocytomas) and 25 high-grade astrocytomas (5 anaplastic astrocytomas, 20 glioblastomas).The choline/N-acetylaspartate (Cho/NAA) and choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) ratios were calculated. Of the 41 astrocytomas, 19 (8 low-grade and 11 high-grade) were analyzed immunohistochemically. Expression of MMP-2 was determined using streptavidin-peroxidase complex (SP) staining which was quantified by calculating its calibrated opacity density (COD) using an image analysis system. The correlations between metabolite ratios and the quantitative data from the immunohistochemical tests in the 19 astrocytomas were determined. The Cho/NAA and Cho/Cr ratios of high-grade astrocytoma were both significantly greater than those of low-grade astrocytoma (t = -6.222, P = 0.000; t = -6.533, P = 0.000, respectively). MMP-2 COD values of high-grade astrocytomas were also significantly greater than those of low-grade astrocytomas (t = -5.892, P 0.000). There were strong positive correlations between Cho/NAA ratio and MMP-2 COD (r = 0.669, P = 0.002), and between Cho/Cr ratio and MMP-2 COD (r = 0.689, P = 0.001). 1 H-MRS is helpful in evaluating the invasiveness of astrocytomas and predicting prognosis preoperatively by determining the Cho/NAA and Cho/Cr ratios. (orig.)

  19. The magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis for fatty acid of cooking oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Seung Man

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possibility for chemical changes analysis of the Soybean and Olive oil using a medical magnetic resonance imaging/spectrometer. The two edible oils including soybean and olive oil were selected for manufacturing the phantom series. For the acquisition of data without any physical environment change, 5 ml was transferred to a sealed plastic vial. All MRI and 1H-MRS experiments were performed on a 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner using a 32-channel brain array coil. The total lipid ((-CH2-)n/noise), total saturated fatty acid, total unsaturated fatty acid, total unsaturated bond, and poly unsaturated bond were quantified by separating each peak area of -CH_3, (-CH_2-)n, -CH_2-C=C-CH_2-, =C-CH_2-C=, and -CH=CH-byCH_3 by MRS analysis. Soybean oil had the highest concentration of methyl protons and methane protons, expressed as 0.9 and 5.3 ppm compared to olive oil. However, its methylene protons at 1.3 ppm were the lowest. Olive oil had the highest amount of methylene protons and allylic protons and the lowest amount of methyl protons. Through the magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis it was to analyze the chemical characteristics of Olive oil and soybean oil. And it was confirmed that it is possible to proceed to an extended study using magnetic resonance spectroscopy

  20. The magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis for fatty acid of cooking oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Seung Man [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Gimcheon University, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possibility for chemical changes analysis of the Soybean and Olive oil using a medical magnetic resonance imaging/spectrometer. The two edible oils including soybean and olive oil were selected for manufacturing the phantom series. For the acquisition of data without any physical environment change, 5 ml was transferred to a sealed plastic vial. All MRI and 1H-MRS experiments were performed on a 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner using a 32-channel brain array coil. The total lipid ((-CH2-)n/noise), total saturated fatty acid, total unsaturated fatty acid, total unsaturated bond, and poly unsaturated bond were quantified by separating each peak area of -CH{sub 3}, (-CH{sub 2}-)n, -CH{sub 2}-C=C-CH{sub 2}-, =C-CH{sub 2}-C=, and -CH=CH-byCH{sub 3} by MRS analysis. Soybean oil had the highest concentration of methyl protons and methane protons, expressed as 0.9 and 5.3 ppm compared to olive oil. However, its methylene protons at 1.3 ppm were the lowest. Olive oil had the highest amount of methylene protons and allylic protons and the lowest amount of methyl protons. Through the magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis it was to analyze the chemical characteristics of Olive oil and soybean oil. And it was confirmed that it is possible to proceed to an extended study using magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabenstein, D.L.; Guo, W.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most widely used instrumental methods, with applications ranging from the characterization of pure compounds by high-resolution NMR to the diagnosis of disease by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To give some idea of the wide-spread use of NMR, a computer search for the period 1985-1987 turned up over 500 books and review articles and over 7000 literature citations, not including papers in which NMR was used together with other spectroscopic methods for the routine identification of organic compounds. Consequently, they have by necessity been somewhat selective in the topics they have chosen to cover and in the articles they have cited. In this review, which covers the published literature for the approximate period Sept 1985-Aug 1987, they have focused on new developments and applications of interest to the chemist. First they review recent developments in instrumentation and techniques. Although there have not been any major break-throughs in NMR instrumentation during the past two years, significant refinements have been reported which optimize instrumentation for the demanding multiple pulse experiments in routine use today. Next they review new developments in methods for processing NMR data, followed by reviews of one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments

  2. Resonance ionization spectroscopy 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, J.E.; Omenetto, N.

    1991-01-01

    The Fifth International Symposium on Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) and its Applications was held in Varese, Italy, 16-21 September 1990. Interest in RIS and its applications continues to grow, and RIS is expanding into a more diverse and mature field of study. This maturity was evident in this meeting both in the basic science and understanding of RIS processes and in the number of new and improved applications and techniques. The application of RIS techniques to molecular detection problems made remarkable progress since the last meeting two years ago. Subtle effects pertaining to isotopic discrimination received more theoretical attention, and there now seems to be good understanding of these effects, which can lead to correction procedures and/or methods to avoid isotopic effects. RIS applications were presented in which significant, real world problems were addressed, demonstrating its capability to solve problems that previously could not be accurately solved by other more traditional techniques. The contributions to the conference are grouped under the following major topic headings: physics applications of rare atoms; laser ionization mechanisms - spectroscopy; atomic, molecular and ion sources; molecular RIS; atomic RIS - Rydberg states; environmental trace analysis; biological and medical applications; state selected chemistry; new laser sources and techniques; ultra-high resolution and isotopic selectivity; surface and bulk analysis. (Author)

  3. GABA concentration in schizophrenia patients and the effects of antipsychotic medication: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayoshi, Shin'Ya; Nakataki, Masahito; Sumitani, Satsuki; Taniguchi, Kyoko; Shibuya-Tayoshi, Sumiko; Numata, Shusuke; Iga, Jun-ichi; Ueno, Shu-ichi; Harada, Masafumi; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2010-03-01

    Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is thought to play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. High magnetic field proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) provides a reliable measurement of GABA in specific regions of the brain. This study measured GABA concentration in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and in the left basal ganglia (ltBG) in 38 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 29 healthy control subjects. There was no significant difference in GABA concentration between the schizophrenia patients and the healthy controls in either the ACC (1.36+/-0.45 mmol/l in schizophrenia patients and 1.52+/-0.54 mmol/l in control subjects) or the ltBG (1.13+/-0.26 mmol/l in schizophrenia patients and 1.18+/-0.20 mmol/l in control subjects). Among the right handed schizophrenia patients, the GABA concentration in the ltBG was significantly higher in patients taking typical antipsychotics (1.25+/-0.24 mmol/l) than in those taking atypical antipsychotics (1.03+/-0.24 mmol/l, p=0.026). In the ACC, the GABA concentration was negatively correlated with the dose of the antipsychotics (rs=-0.347, p=0.035). In the ltBG, the GABA concentration was positively correlated with the dose of the anticholinergics (rs=0.403, p=0.015). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to have directly measured GABA concentrations in schizophrenia patients using (1)H-MRS. Our results suggest that there are no differences in GABA concentrations in the ACC or the ltBG of schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. Antipsychotic medication may cause changes in GABA concentration, and atypical and typical antipsychotics may have differing effects. It is possible that medication effects conceal inherent differences in GABA concentrations between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The positive effects of high-frequency right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on memory, correlated with increases in brain metabolites detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jun; Jin, Guixing; Lei, Licun; Wang, Lan; Du, Yaqiang; Wang, Xueyi

    2016-01-01

    To explore the effect of right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on memory, and its correlation with levels of hippocampal brain metabolites detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients. In this randomized, double-blind sham-controlled trial, alcohol-dependent patients were enrolled and randomized into two groups: the experimental group (rTMS, 10 Hz, on right DLPFC, 20 sessions) and the control group (sham stimulation). Memory function was assessed using Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) before and after treatment. 1 H-MRS was used to detect the levels of N -acetyl aspartic acid (NAA), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr) in bilateral hippocampi before and after treatment. Thirty-eight patients (18 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group) were included in the analyses. The experimental group showed significantly greater changes in HVLT-R, BVMT-R, NAA/Cr, and Cho/Cr after rTMS from baseline than the control group. The percentage change in BVMT-R and HVLT-R correlated with the percentage change in NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr in the right brain. High-frequency right DLPFC rTMS was associated with improvement in memory dysfunction, which is correlated with levels of hippocampal brain metabolites detected by 1 H-MRS in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients.

  5. Quantification of in vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy signals with baseline and lineshape estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio-Garcia, M I; Sima, D M; Van Huffel, S; Nielsen, F U; Dresselaers, T; Himmelreich, U; Van Leuven, F

    2011-01-01

    The in vivo quantification of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) signals is a method to estimate metabolite concentrations of living tissue. Obtaining reliable concentrations is still a challenge due to the experimental conditions affecting spectral quality. Additionally, lipids and macromolecules overlap with the metabolites of interest, affecting their reliable estimation. In this study, we propose to combine the self-deconvolution lineshape estimation method, which accounts for spectral shape distortions, with two different approaches for taking into account the macromolecular baseline contribution: (a) based on macromolecules and lipids measured in vivo using an inversion recovery technique, and (b) based on the simulation of macromolecular resonances using prior knowledge from a database of inversion recovery signals. The ultimate goal is to measure macromolecular and lipid data only once as described in (a) to create macromolecular and lipid profiles. These profiles then can be used as described in (b) for data measured under the same conditions. The method is evaluated on in vivo 1 H MRS signals at 9.4 T from mouse hippocampus. Results show that better metabolite fits are obtained when lineshape and baseline estimations are simultaneously performed and that baseline estimation based on prior knowledge from macromolecular measured signals can be reliably used to replace time-consuming individual macromolecular and lipid acquisitions

  6. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and brain volumetry in mild cognitive impairment. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayed, Nicolás; Modrego, Pedro J; García-Martí, Gracián; Sanz-Requena, Roberto; Marti-Bonmatí, Luis

    2017-05-01

    To assess the accuracy of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and brain volumetry in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to predict conversion to probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). Forty-eight patients fulfilling the criteria of amnestic MCI who underwent a conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) followed by MRS, and T1-3D on 1.5 Tesla MR unit. At baseline the patients underwent neuropsychological examination. 1H-MRS of the brain was carried out by exploring the left medial occipital lobe and ventral posterior cingulated cortex (vPCC) using the LCModel software. A high resolution T1-3D sequence was acquired to carry out the volumetric measurement. A cortical and subcortical parcellation strategy was used to obtain the volumes of each area within the brain. The patients were followed up to detect conversion to probable AD. After a 3-year follow-up, 15 (31.2%) patients converted to AD. The myo-inositol in the occipital cortex and glutamate+glutamine (Glx) in the posterior cingulate cortex predicted conversion to probable AD at 46.1% sensitivity and 90.6% specificity. The positive predictive value was 66.7%, and the negative predictive value was 80.6%, with an overall cross-validated classification accuracy of 77.8%. The volume of the third ventricle, the total white matter and entorhinal cortex predict conversion to probable AD at 46.7% sensitivity and 90.9% specificity. The positive predictive value was 70%, and the negative predictive value was 78.9%, with an overall cross-validated classification accuracy of 77.1%. Combining volumetric measures in addition to the MRS measures the prediction to probable AD has a 38.5% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity, with a positive predictive value of 55.6%, a negative predictive value of 77.8% and an overall accuracy of 73.3%. Either MRS or brain volumetric measures are markers separately of cognitive decline and may serve as a noninvasive tool to monitor cognitive changes and progression to dementia in patients with

  7. Correlation of iron deposition and change of gliocyte metabolism in the basal ganglia region evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging techniques: an in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Haodi; Wang, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We assessed the correlation between iron deposition and the change of gliocyte metabolism in healthy subjects? basal ganglia region, by using 3D-enhanced susceptibility weighted angiography (ESWAN) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Material and methods Seventy-seven healthy volunteers (39 female and 38 male subjects; age range: 24?82 years old) were enrolled in the experiment including ESWAN and proton MRS sequences, consent for which was provided by themselves...

  8. Prognostic value of brain proton MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy treated by brain cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ancora, G. [Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Department of Mother and Infant Infermi Hospital of Rimini, Rimini (Italy); Testa, C.; Tonon, C.; Manners, D.N.; Gramegna, L.L.; Lodi, R. [Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences University of Bologna, MR Functional Unit, Bologna (Italy); Grandi, S.; Sbravati, F.; Savini, S.; Corvaglia, L.T.; Faldella, G. [University of Bologna, Neonatology Unit, Department of Woman, Child and Adolescent Health, Bologna (Italy); Tani, G. [University of Bologna, Radiology Unit, Department of Woman, Child and Adolescent Health, Bologna (Italy); Malucelli, E. [University of Bologna, Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnologies, Bologna (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    MRI, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been shown to be of great prognostic value in term newborns with moderate-severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Currently, no data are available on {sup 1}H-MRS and DTI performed in the subacute phase after hypothermic treatment. The aim of the present study was to assess their prognostic value in newborns affected by moderate-severe HIE and treated with selective brain cooling (BC). Twenty infants treated with BC underwent conventional MRI and {sup 1}H-MRS at a mean (SD) age of 8.3 (2.8) days; 15 also underwent DTI. Peak area ratios of metabolites and DTI variables, namely mean diffusivity (MD), axial and radial diffusivity, and fractional anisotropy (FA), were calculated. Clinical outcome was monitored until 2 years of age. Adverse outcome was observed in 6/20 newborns. Both {sup 1}H-MRS and DTI variables showed higher prognostic accuracy than conventional MRI. N-acetylaspartate/creatine at a basal ganglia localisation showed 100 % PPV and 93 % NPV for outcome. MD showed significantly decreased values in many regions of white and gray matter, axial diffusivity showed the best predictive value (PPV and NPV) in the genu of corpus callosum (100 and 91 %, respectively), and radial diffusivity was significantly decreased in fronto white matter (FWM) and fronto parietal (FP) WM. The decrement of FA showed the best AUC (0.94) in the FPWM. Selective BC in HIE neonates does not affect the early and accurate prognostic value of {sup 1}H-MRS and DTI, which outperform conventional MRI. (orig.)

  9. Prognostic value of brain proton MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy treated by brain cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancora, G.; Testa, C.; Tonon, C.; Manners, D.N.; Gramegna, L.L.; Lodi, R.; Grandi, S.; Sbravati, F.; Savini, S.; Corvaglia, L.T.; Faldella, G.; Tani, G.; Malucelli, E.

    2013-01-01

    MRI, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been shown to be of great prognostic value in term newborns with moderate-severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Currently, no data are available on 1 H-MRS and DTI performed in the subacute phase after hypothermic treatment. The aim of the present study was to assess their prognostic value in newborns affected by moderate-severe HIE and treated with selective brain cooling (BC). Twenty infants treated with BC underwent conventional MRI and 1 H-MRS at a mean (SD) age of 8.3 (2.8) days; 15 also underwent DTI. Peak area ratios of metabolites and DTI variables, namely mean diffusivity (MD), axial and radial diffusivity, and fractional anisotropy (FA), were calculated. Clinical outcome was monitored until 2 years of age. Adverse outcome was observed in 6/20 newborns. Both 1 H-MRS and DTI variables showed higher prognostic accuracy than conventional MRI. N-acetylaspartate/creatine at a basal ganglia localisation showed 100 % PPV and 93 % NPV for outcome. MD showed significantly decreased values in many regions of white and gray matter, axial diffusivity showed the best predictive value (PPV and NPV) in the genu of corpus callosum (100 and 91 %, respectively), and radial diffusivity was significantly decreased in fronto white matter (FWM) and fronto parietal (FP) WM. The decrement of FA showed the best AUC (0.94) in the FPWM. Selective BC in HIE neonates does not affect the early and accurate prognostic value of 1 H-MRS and DTI, which outperform conventional MRI. (orig.)

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging and {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarchielli, P.; Gallai, V. [Neurological Clinic, Policlinico Monte Luce, Perugia (Italy); Pelliccioli, G.P.; Chiarini, P. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Azienda Ospedaliera, Perugia (Italy); Tarducci, R.; Presciutti, O.; Gobbi, G. [Dept. of Medical Physics, Azienda Ospedaliera, Perugia (Italy)

    2001-03-01

    We aimed to increase confidence in the combined use of MRI and proton MR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) in diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We investigated 12 patients with ALS, seven definite and five probable, taking into account clinical measures of motor neuron function. On T2-weighted images we found high signal in the corticospinal tract in six and low signal in the primary motor cortex in seven of the 12 patients. Atrophy of the precentral gyrus was apparent in all the patients apart from one with probable ALS. Absolute quantification of cerebral metabolites using {sup 1}H-MRS demonstrated a significantly lower mean concentration of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in the precentral gyrus of patients with probable and definite ALS (8.5 {+-} 0.62) than in control subjects (10.4 {+-} 0.71; P < 0.001). NAA concentration in primary motor cortex correlated with Norris scale scores (r = 0.30; P < 0.0001) but not with the ALS Functional Rating Scale score or disease duration. Significantly lower levels of NAA were detected in patients with low signal in the motor cortex than in those without (P < 0.01). Mean choline (Cho) and creatine (Cr) values did not differ between patients with ALS and controls. (orig.)

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging and 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarchielli, P.; Gallai, V.; Pelliccioli, G.P.; Chiarini, P.; Tarducci, R.; Presciutti, O.; Gobbi, G.

    2001-01-01

    We aimed to increase confidence in the combined use of MRI and proton MR spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) in diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We investigated 12 patients with ALS, seven definite and five probable, taking into account clinical measures of motor neuron function. On T2-weighted images we found high signal in the corticospinal tract in six and low signal in the primary motor cortex in seven of the 12 patients. Atrophy of the precentral gyrus was apparent in all the patients apart from one with probable ALS. Absolute quantification of cerebral metabolites using 1 H-MRS demonstrated a significantly lower mean concentration of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in the precentral gyrus of patients with probable and definite ALS (8.5 ± 0.62) than in control subjects (10.4 ± 0.71; P < 0.001). NAA concentration in primary motor cortex correlated with Norris scale scores (r = 0.30; P < 0.0001) but not with the ALS Functional Rating Scale score or disease duration. Significantly lower levels of NAA were detected in patients with low signal in the motor cortex than in those without (P < 0.01). Mean choline (Cho) and creatine (Cr) values did not differ between patients with ALS and controls. (orig.)

  12. Elevated brain lactate in schizophrenia: a 7 T magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, L M; Pradhan, S; Korenic, S; Wijtenburg, S A; Hong, L E; Edden, R A; Barker, P B

    2016-11-29

    Various lines of evidence suggest that brain bioenergetics and mitochondrial function may be altered in schizophrenia. On the basis of prior phosphorus-31 ( 31 P)-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), post-mortem and preclinical studies, this study was designed to test the hypothesis that abnormal glycolysis leads to elevated lactate concentrations in subjects with schizophrenia. The high sensitivity of 7 Tesla proton ( 1 H)-MRS was used to measure brain lactate levels in vivo. Twenty-nine controls and 27 participants with schizophrenia completed the study. MRS scanning was conducted on a Philips 'Achieva' 7T scanner, and spectra were acquired from a voxel in the anterior cingulate cortex. Patients were assessed for psychiatric symptom severity, and all participants completed the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and University of California, San Diego Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA). The relationship between lactate, psychiatric symptom severity, MCCB and UPSA was examined. Lactate was significantly higher in patients compared with controls (P=0.013). Higher lactate was associated with lower MCCB (r=-0.36, P=0.01) and UPSA total scores (r=-0.43, P=0.001). We believe this is the first study to report elevated in vivo cerebral lactate levels in schizophrenia. Elevated lactate levels in schizophrenia may reflect increased anaerobic glycolysis possibly because of mitochondrial dysfunction. This study also suggests that altered cerebral bioenergetics contribute to cognitive and functional impairments in schizophrenia.

  13. Creatine in the central nervous system: From magnetic resonance spectroscopy to creatine deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackayova, Veronika; Cudalbu, Cristina; Pouwels, Petra J W; Braissant, Olivier

    2017-07-15

    Creatine (Cr) is an important organic compound acting as intracellular high-energy phosphate shuttle and in energy storage. While located in most cells where it plays its main roles in energy metabolism and cytoprotection, Cr is highly concentrated in muscle and brain tissues, in which Cr also appears to act in osmoregulation and neurotransmission. This review discusses the basis of Cr metabolism, synthesis and transport within brain cells. The importance of Cr in brain function and the consequences of its impaired metabolism in primary and secondary Cr deficiencies are also discussed. Cr and phosphocreatine (PCr) in living systems can be well characterized using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). This review describes how 1 H MRS allows the measurement of Cr and PCr, and how 31 P MRS makes it possible to estimate the creatine kinase (CK) rate constant and so detect dynamic changes in the Cr/PCr/CK system. Absolute quantification by MRS using creatine as internal reference is also debated. The use of in vivo MRS to study brain Cr in a non-invasive way is presented, as well as its use in clinical and preclinical studies, including diagnosis and treatment follow-up in patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lower Choline-Containing Metabolites/Creatine (Cr) Rise and Failure to Sustain NAA/Cr Levels in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Are Associated with Depressive Episode Recurrence under Maintenance Therapy: A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henigsberg, Neven; Šarac, Helena; Radoš, Marko; Radoš, Milan; Ozretić, David; Foro, Tamara; Erdeljić Turk, Viktorija; Hrabač, Pero; Bajs Janović, Maja; Rak, Benedict; Kalember, Petra

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between changes in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) parameters at the start of the index episode recovery phase and at recurrence in patients with recurrent depression who were treated with prolonged maintenance therapy. 1H-MRS parameters were analyzed in 48 patients with recurrent depression who required maintenance therapy with antidepressant medication prescribed by a psychiatrist and who continued with the same antidepressant during the maintenance phase, either to recurrence of depression, completion of the 10-year observation period, or the start of the withdrawal phase (tapering-off antidepressant). N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline-containing metabolites (Cho), creatine (Cr), and glutamine/glutamate were measured at the start of the recovery phase and 6 months later. Recurrent depressive episodes occurred in 20 patients. These individuals had a smaller increase in Cho/Cr after the beginning of the recovery phase compared to the non-recurrent patient group and also exhibited a decreased NAA/Cr ratio. Sustainable NAA and increased Cho levels at the onset of the recovery phase of the index episode are early markers of antidepressant effectiveness associated with a lower risk of major depressive disorder recurrence. The NAA and Cho changes in the non-recurrent group may be attributable to increased brain resilience, contrary to the transient temporal effect observed in subjects who experienced a depressive episode.

  15. Moderate relationships between NAA and cognitive ability in healthy adults: implications for cognitive spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tulpesh; Blyth, Jacqueline C; Griffiths, Gareth; Kelly, Deirdre; Talcott, Joel B

    2014-01-01

    Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) is a non-invasive imaging technique that enables quantification of neurochemistry in vivo and thereby facilitates investigation of the biochemical underpinnings of human cognitive variability. Studies in the field of cognitive spectroscopy have commonly focused on relationships between measures of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), a surrogate marker of neuronal health and function, and broad measures of cognitive performance, such as IQ. In this study, we used (1)H-MRS to interrogate single-voxels in occipitoparietal and frontal cortex, in parallel with assessments of psychometric intelligence, in a sample of 40 healthy adult participants. We found correlations between NAA and IQ that were within the range reported in previous studies. However, the magnitude of these effects was significantly modulated by the stringency of data screening and the extent to which outlying values contributed to statistical analyses. (1)H-MRS offers a sensitive tool for assessing neurochemistry non-invasively, yet the relationships between brain metabolites and broad aspects of human behavior such as IQ are subtle. We highlight the need to develop an increasingly rigorous analytical and interpretive framework for collecting and reporting data obtained from cognitive spectroscopy studies of this kind.

  16. Recommendations concerning magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In medicine the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is applied in the form of in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In vivo MRS can be carried out non-invasively. The committee of the Dutch Health Council briefly discusses the qualities and potentialities of the nuclei that will probably be used in future clinical spectroscopy: 31 P, 13 C, 1 H (and possibly 19 F and 23 Na). The committee discusses several possibilities of combining imaging and spectroscopy. The imaging of nuclei other than protons is also possible with MRS. Potential applications are considered in oncology, cardiology, neurology and hepatology. (Auth.)

  17. Investigation of Cortical Glutamate–Glutamine and γ-Aminobutyric Acid in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder by Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Helen B; Shungu, Dikoma C; Bender, James; Mao, Xiangling; Xu, Xiaoyan; Slifstein, Mark; Kegeles, Lawrence S

    2012-01-01

    Glutamatergic abnormalities in corticostriatal brain circuits are thought to underlie obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Whether these abnormalities exist in adults with OCD is not clear. We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) to test our hypothesis that unmedicated adults with OCD have reduced glutamate plus glutamine (Glx) levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) compared with healthy controls. Levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were also explored. Twenty-four unmedicated adults with OCD and 22 matched healthy control subjects underwent 1H MRS scans at 3.0 T. Resonances of both Glx and GABA were obtained using the standard J-editing technique and assessed as ratios relative to voxel tissue water (W) in the MPFC (the region of interest) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to explore the regional specificity of any finding. In the MPFC, Glx/W did not differ by diagnostic group (p=0.98) or sex (p=0.57). However, GABA/W was decreased in OCD (2.16±0.46 × 10−3) compared with healthy controls (2.43±0.45 × 10−3, p=0.045); moreover, age of OCD onset was inversely correlated with MPFC GABA/W (r=−0.50, p=0.015). MPFC GABA/W was higher in females than in males. In the DLPFC, there were no main effects of diagnosis or gender on Glx/W or GABA/W. These data indicate that unmedicated adults with OCD do not have Glx abnormalities in a MPFC voxel that includes the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex. However, they may have decreased MPFC GABA levels. How GABA abnormalities might contribute to corticostriatal dysfunction in OCD deserves further study. PMID:22850733

  18. In vivo (1)H-MRS hepatic lipid profiling in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: an animal study at 9.4 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunjung; Jee, Hee-Jung; Noh, Hyungjoon; Kang, Geun-Hyung; Park, Juyeun; Cho, Janggeun; Cho, Jee-Hyun; Ahn, Sangdoo; Lee, Chulhyun; Kim, Ok-Hee; Oh, Byung-Chul; Kim, Hyeonjin

    2013-09-01

    The applicability of the in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy hepatic lipid profiling (MR-HLP) technique in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was investigated. Using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the relative fractions of diunsaturated (fdi), monounsaturated (fmono), and saturated (fsat) fatty acids as well as total hepatic lipid content were estimated in the livers of 8 control and 23 CCl4-treated rats at 9.4 T. The mean steatosis, necrosis, inflammation, and fibrosis scores of the treated group were all significantly higher than those of the control group (P steatosis and fibrosis are positively correlated with fmono and negatively correlated with fdi. Both necrosis and inflammation, however, were not correlated with any of the MR-HLP parameters. Hepatic lipid composition appears to be changed in association with the severity of steatosis and fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and these changes can be depicted in vivo by using the MR-HLP method at 9.4 T. Thus, while it may not likely be that MR-HLP helps differentiate between steatohepatitis in its early stages and simple steatosis, these findings altogether are in support of potential applicability of in vivo MR-HLP at high field in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals region specific metabolic responses to SIV infection in the macaque brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Chan-Gyu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS studies of HIV-infected humans have demonstrated significant metabolic abnormalities that vary by brain region, but the causes are poorly understood. Metabolic changes in the frontal cortex, basal ganglia and white matter in 18 SIV-infected macaques were investigated using MRS during the first month of infection. Results Changes in the N-acetylaspartate (NAA, choline (Cho, myo-inositol (MI, creatine (Cr and glutamine/glutamate (Glx resonances were quantified both in absolute terms and relative to the creatine resonance. Most abnormalities were observed at the time of peak viremia, 2 weeks post infection (wpi. At that time point, significant decreases in NAA and NAA/Cr, reflecting neuronal injury, were observed only in the frontal cortex. Cr was significantly elevated only in the white matter. Changes in Cho and Cho/Cr were similar across the brain regions, increasing at 2 wpi, and falling below baseline levels at 4 wpi. MI and MI/Cr levels were increased across all brain regions. Conclusion These data best support the hypothesis that different brain regions have variable intrinsic vulnerabilities to neuronal injury caused by the AIDS virus.

  20. Proton resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriner, J.F. Jr.

    1991-11-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Complete Level Scheme for 30 P; A Search for Resonances Suitable for Tests of Detailed-Balance Violation; The Fourier Transform as a Tool for Detecting Chaos; Entrance Channel Correlations in p + 27 Al; The Parity Dependence of Level Densities in 49 V; and A Computer Program for the Calculation of Angular Momentum Coupling

  1. Migraine and magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younis, Samaira; Hougaard, Anders; Vestergaard, Mark B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review: To present an updated and streamlined overview of the metabolic and biochemical aspect of the migraine pathophysiology based on findings from phosphorous (31P) and hydrogen (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies. Recent findings: Despite of the variation in the meth......Purpose of review: To present an updated and streamlined overview of the metabolic and biochemical aspect of the migraine pathophysiology based on findings from phosphorous (31P) and hydrogen (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies. Recent findings: Despite of the variation...

  2. The nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyer, Ph.

    1997-01-01

    The spectroscopy of nuclear magnetic resonance constitutes a major analytical technique in biological and organic analysis. This technique appears now in the programme of preparatory classes and its teaching is developed in the second year of DEUG. The following article reviews on the nuclear magnetic resonance and on the possibilities it offers to bring to the fore the physico-chemical properties of molecules. (N.C.)

  3. Learning and memory alterations are associated with hippocampal N-acetylaspartate in a rat model of depression as measured by 1H-MRS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Xi

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that cognitive processes, such as learning and memory, are affected in depression. The present study used a rat model of depression, chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS, to determine whether hippocampal volume and neurochemical changes were involved in learning and memory alterations. A further aim was to determine whether these effects could be ameliorated by escitalopram treatment, as assessed with the non-invasive techniques of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. Our results demonstrated that CUMS had a dramatic influence on spatial cognitive performance in the Morris water maze task, and CUMS reduced the concentration of neuronal marker N-acetylaspartate (NAA in the hippocampus. These effects could be significantly reversed by repeated administration of escitalopram. However, neither chronic stress nor escitalopram treatment influenced hippocampal volume. Of note, the learning and memory alterations of the rats were associated with right hippocampal NAA concentration. Our results indicate that in depression, NAA may be a more sensitive measure of cognitive function than hippocampal volume.

  4. Trends in resonance ionization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    The author reviews the history of resonance ionization spectroscopy and then comments on the delineations of RIS with reference to many related laser processes. The substance of the paper deals with the trends in RIS and especially how the needs for sensitive analytical methods have overshadowed the orginal plan to study excited species. 9 refs., 1 fig

  5. Simultaneous measurement of glucose blood–brain transport constants and metabolic rate in rat brain using in-vivo 1H MRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fei; Zhang, Yi; Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral glucose consumption and glucose transport across the blood–brain barrier are crucial to brain function since glucose is the major energy fuel for supporting intense electrophysiological activity associated with neuronal firing and signaling. Therefore, the development of noninvasive methods to measure the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) and glucose transport constants (KT: half-saturation constant; Tmax: maximum transport rate) are of importance for understanding glucose transport mechanism and neuroenergetics under various physiological and pathological conditions. In this study, a novel approach able to simultaneously measure CMRglc, KT, and Tmax via monitoring the dynamic glucose concentration changes in the brain tissue using in-vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and in plasma after a brief glucose infusion was proposed and tested using an animal model. The values of CMRglc, Tmax, and KT were determined to be 0.44±0.17 μmol/g per minute, 1.35±0.47 μmol/g per minute, and 13.4±6.8 mmol/L in the rat brain anesthetized with 2% isoflurane. The Monte-Carlo simulations suggest that the measurements of CMRglc and Tmax are more reliable than that of KT. The overall results indicate that the new approach is robust and reliable for in-vivo measurements of both brain glucose metabolic rate and transport constants, and has potential for human application. PMID:22714049

  6. Quantitative in vivo detection of brain cell death after hypoxia ischemia using the lipid peak at 1.3 ppm of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, So Yoon; Yoo, Hye Soo; Lee, Jang Hoon; Sung, Dong Kyung; Jung, Yu Jin; Sung, Se In; Lim, Keun Ho; Chang, Yun Sil; Lee, Jung Hee; Kim, Ki Soo; Park, Won Soon

    2013-07-01

    This study was performed to determine the accuracy of proton magnetic spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) lipid peak as a noninvasive tool for quantitative in vivo detection of brain cell death. Seven day-old Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to 8% oxygen following a unilateral carotid artery ligation. For treatment, cycloheximide was given immediately after hypoxic ischemia (HI). Lipid peak was measured using (1)H-MRS at 24 hr after HI, and then brains were harvested for fluorocytometric analyses with annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) and fluorescent probe JC-1, and for adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and lactate. Increased lipid peak at 1.3 ppm measured with (1)H-MRS, apoptotic and necrotic cells, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ) at 24 hr after HI were significantly improved with cycloheximide treatment. Significantly reduced brain ATP and increased lactate levels observed at 24 hr after HI showed a tendency to improve without statistical significance with cycloheximide treatment. Lipid peak at 1.3 ppm showed significant positive correlation with both apoptotic and necrotic cells and loss of ΔΨ, and negative correlation with normal live cells. Lipid peak at 1.3 ppm measured by (1)H-MRS might be a sensitive and reliable diagnostic tool for quantitative in vivo detection of brain cell death after HI.

  7. Wilson's disease: 31P and 1H MR spectroscopy and clinical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Sanjib; Taly, A.B.; Prashanth, L.K.; Ravishankar, S.; Vasudev, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Proton ( 1 H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) changes are noted in Wilson's disease (WD). However, there are no studies regarding membrane phospholipid abnormality using 31 P MRS in these patients. We aimed to analyze the striatal spectroscopic abnormalities using 31 P and 1 H MRS in WD. Forty patients of WD (treated, 29; untreated,11) and 30 controls underwent routine MR image sequences and in vivo 2-D 31 P and 1 H MRS of basal ganglia using an image-selected technique on a 1.5-T MRI scanner. Statistical analysis was done using Student's t test. The mean durations of illness and treatment were 6.2 ± 7.4 and 4.8 ± 5.9 years, respectively. MRI images were abnormal in all the patients. 1 H MRS revealed statistically significant reduction of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/choline (Cho) and NAA/creatine ratios in striatum ( 1 H MRS) of treated patients compared to controls. The mean values of phosphomonoesters (PME) (p 31 P MRS study. The duration of illness correlated well with increased PME/PDE [p < 0.001], PME/TPh [p < 0.05], and PDE/TPh [p < 0.05] and decreased NAA/Cho [p < 0.05] ratios. There was correlation of MRI score and reduced NAA/Cho ratio with disease severity. The PME/PDE ratio (right) was elevated in the treated group [p < 0.001] compared to untreated group. There is reduced breakdown and/or increased synthesis of membrane phospholipids and increased neuronal damage in basal ganglia in patients with WD. (orig.)

  8. Nuclear level mixing resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussement, R.; Put, P.; Scheveneels, G.; Hardeman, F.

    1985-01-01

    The existent methods for measuring quadrupole interactions are not suited to nuclei with lifetimes in the micro-seconds to minutes region. AD/NQR, a possible candidate in this lifetime gap, has not yet succeeded in overcoming its predicted difficulties. A new resonant method, recently developed and based on the principles of level mixing (cfr atomic spectroscopy) covers this less accessible lifetime range. Many other kinds of resonances can be described according to the level mixing formalism. The particular example of NMR as a level mixing resonance (LMR) is discussed. The underlying theory of LMR and its important consequences, leading to some interesting features of the method, is briefly formulated. Two successfully performed measurements demonstrate the feasibility and the predicted characteristics of this new promising method. (orig.)

  9. Abnormal Concentration of GABA and Glutamate in The Prefrontal Cortex in Schizophrenia.-An in Vivo 1H-MRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianyi; Wang, Yingchan; Zhang, Jianye; Wang, Zuowei; Xu, Jiale; Li, Yao; Yang, Zhilei; Liu, Dengtang

    2017-10-25

    The etiology and pathomechanism of schizophrenia are unknown. The traditional dopamine (DA) hypothesis is unable to fully explain its pathology and therapeutics. The glutamate (Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) hypotheses suggest Glu or GABA concentrations are abnormal in the brains of patients with schizophrenia. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) show glutamate level increases in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) including the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC) in those with schizophrenia. To investigate the function of the glutamate system (glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid) in the etiology and pathomechanism of schizophrenia. 24 drug naïve patients with schizophrenia and 24 healthy volunteers were matched by gender, age, and educational level. The Siemens 3T MRI system was used to collect the magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) data of the subjects. The regions of interest included the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (IDLPFC), ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). LCModel software was used to analyze the concentrations of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) in the region of interest. Meanwhile, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) were used to assess the mental symptoms and severity of the disease. The median GABA concentrations in the anterior cingulate cortex of the schizophrenia group and the healthy control group were 1.90 (Q1=1.55, Q3=2.09) and 2.16 (Q1=1.87, Q3=2.59) respectively; the mean (sd) Glu concentrations were 6.07 (2.48) and 6.54 (1.99); the median Gln concentrations were 0.36 (Q1=0.00, Q3=0.74) and 0.29 (Q1=0.00, Q3=0.59); the between-group difference of the GABA concentrations was statistically significant ( Z =-2.95, p =0.003); the between-group difference of the GABA/(NAA+NAAG) was statistically significant ( Z =-2.72, p =0.012); the

  10. Neonatal hydrocortisone treatment related to 1H-MRS of the hippocampus and short-term memory at school age in preterm born children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Karin J; Rijpert, Maarten; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Lieftink, Arno F; van Bel, Frank; Grobbee, Diederick E; de Vries, Linda S; Groenendaal, Floris

    2006-02-01

    Animal studies have shown that corticosteroids (dexamethasone) cause neuronal loss in the hippocampus and deficits in short term memory. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy can measure brain metabolites in vivo and give an indication of neuronal integrity. We investigated whether prolonged administration of hydrocortisone during the neonatal period for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm born children changes the metabolism in the hippocampus, measured at school age. Secondly, we investigated whether hippocampal metabolism and short-term memory and neurodevelopmental outcome are related. In this observational study 37 preterm born children (children were treated with hydrocortisone for BPD (starting dose 5 mg/kg/d tapered over a minimum period of 22 d, median duration 28 d) and 19 never received corticosteroids during the perinatal period. N-acetyl aspartate/ Choline + Creatine/phosphocreatine (NAA/(Cho + Cr)) ratios were determined. A 15-word recall memory test and an IQ measurement were obtained on the same day. Hydrocortisone treated children were younger, lighter and sicker than their nonsteroid treated counterparts. Mean NAA/(Cho + Cr) ratios in the hippocampus were not significantly different in the hydrocortisone group compared with the non-steroid group. Performance on the 15-word memory test and IQ were similar in the two groups. There was no relation between NAA/(Cho + Cr) ratios and memory nor between NAA/(Cho + Cr) ratios and IQ. We conclude that hydrocortisone in the mentioned dose, administered in the neonatal period for BPD, does not appear to have any long-term effects on memory and/or hippocampal metabolism.

  11. Hepatic unsaturated fatty acids in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease assessed by 3.0 T MR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werven, J.R. van, E-mail: j.r.vanwerven@amc.uva.n [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schreuder, T.C.M.A. [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nederveen, A.J.; Lavini, C. [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jansen, P.L.M. [AMC Liver Center/Department of Hepatology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stoker, J. [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    Rationale and objective: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is related to the metabolic syndrome and obesity. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) is a non-invasive technique to assess hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC) and allows assessment of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). There is increasing evidence that hepatic UFA are associated with the development of NAFLD. Therefore the objective of this study was to assess hepatic UFA in patients with NAFLD using {sup 1}H MRS. Materials and methods: We included 26 consecutive patients with deranged liver enzymes, with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), suspected for NAFLD. Liver function and metabolic parameters were assessed. {sup 1}H MRS measurements were performed at 3.0 T. From the {sup 1}H MR spectra two ratios were calculated: ratio 1 (UFA); unsaturated fatty acid peak vs. reference water peak and ratio 2 (HTGC); total fatty acid peak vs. reference water peak. Results: Twenty-six patients were included. In these patients hepatic UFA (ratio 1) correlated with AST/ALT ratio (r = -0.46, p = 0.02), glucose levels (r = 0.46, p = 0.018), HOMA-IR (r = 0.59, p = 0.004) and HTGC (r = 0.81, p < 0.001). In diabetic patients (n = 12) hepatic UFA correlated with alkaline phosphatase levels (r = 0.72, p = 0.01), HOMA-IR (r = 0.73, p = 0.01) and HTGC (r = 0.83, p = 0.002). Compared to non-diabetic patients with NAFLD, hepatic UFA levels were increased in patients with DM2 and NAFLD (0.032 vs. 0.014, p = 0.03). Conclusion: Hepatic UFA can be assessed with {sup 1}H MRS. {sup 1}H MRS determined hepatic UFA correlate with clinical and metabolic parameters associated with NAFLD. Hepatic UFA are increased in patients with DM2. This study provides evidence for the use of non-invasive {sup 1}H MRS to assess hepatic UFA in vivo.

  12. Clinical application of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in differential diagnosis of intracranial lesions with ring-like enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Ying; Cheng Kailiang; Zhang Mengchao; Liu Yunxia; Wang Wei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of clinical application of 1 H proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) in the differential diagnosis of intracranial lesions with ring-like enhancement. Methods: 28 cases were diagnosed of intracranial lesions with ring-like enhancement by clinical examination and pathologic test. A total of 28 ratios cases included 6 cases high grade glioma, 10 cases of metastatic carcinoma (n=10) and 12 cases of brain abscess, after examined with 1HMRS, the ratios of various metabolites in focal center, enhancement ring,perifocal edema region and normal control group were detected and compared. Results: The ratios of NAA/Cho, Cho/Cr and NAA/Cr in focal center had no significantly differences between high grade glioma and metastatic carcinoma (P>0.05). The peak of NAA was significantly different between high grade glioma and metastatic carcinoma (P 0.05). The peak of AA was characteristic of brain abscess. The ratio of Cho/Cr 0 in brain abscess was significantly lower than those in high grade glioma and metastatic carcinoma (P 0 denoted the Cho content of contralateral normal brain region). These results accorded with the result of pathological examination. Conclusion: 1 HMRS can improve the diagnostic accuracy of intracranial lesions with ring-like enhancement. (authors)

  13. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows lower intramyocellular lipid accumulation in middle-aged subjects predisposed to familial longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijsman, C A; van Opstal, A M; Kan, H E; Maier, A B; Westendorp, R G J; Slagboom, P E; Webb, A G; Mooijaart, S P; van Heemst, D

    2012-02-01

    Families predisposed to longevity show enhanced glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity compared with controls, independent of body composition and physical activity. Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation in skeletal muscle has been associated with insulin resistance. Here, we assessed whether subjects enriched for familial longevity have lower IMCL levels. We determined IMCL levels in 48 subjects from the Leiden Longevity Study, comprising 24 offspring of nonagenarian siblings and 24 partners thereof as control subjects. IMCL levels were assessed noninvasively using short echo time proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) of the tibialis anterior muscle with a 7 Tesla human MR scanner. IMCL levels were calculated relative to the total creatine (tCr) CH3 signal. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). After correction for age, sex, BMI, and physical activity, offspring of long-lived nonagenarian siblings tended to show lower IMCL levels compared with controls (IMCL/tCr: 3.1 ± 0.5 vs. 4.5 ± 0.5, respectively, P = 0.051). In a pairwise comparison, this difference reached statistical significance (P = 0.038). We conclude that offspring of nonagenarian siblings predisposed to longevity show lower IMCL levels compared with environmentally matched control subjects. Future research should focus on assessing what mechanisms may explain the lower IMCL levels in familial longevity.

  14. Monitoring of treatment response after chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer using in vivo 1H MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Ann D.; Yeung, David K.W.; Bhatia, Kunwar S.; Wong, Jeffrey K.T.; Ahuja, Anil T.; Yu, Kwok-hung; Mo, Frankie K.F.; Hu, Chen-wen; Tse, Gary M.K.; Vlantis, Alexander C.

    2010-01-01

    Elevated choline (Cho) level has been documented on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and therefore percentage changes in Cho levels after chemoradiotherapy may serve as a marker of residual cancer in a post-treatment mass (PTM). Forty-six patients underwent 1 H MRS before treatment and the 30 patients with a PTM underwent repeat 1 H MRS at 6 weeks post-treatment. The percentage change in Cho/creatine and Cho/water ratios were correlated with residual cancer. The mean pretreatment Cho/creatine and Cho/water ratios were 2.24 and 1.20 x 10 -3 , respectively. Cho persisted in four out of nine PTMs with residual cancer. Cho was absent in five out of nine PTMs with residual cancer and 21/21 PTMs without cancer. The number of PTMs with persistent Cho was too small to allow analysis of percentage change in ratios but the presence of Cho in a PTM showed significant correlation with residual cancer (p=0.0046), producing a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 44%, 100%, 100% and 81%, respectively. Therefore, the presence of Cho in a PTM may serve as a marker of residual cancer. Furthermore since so few PTMs contain Cho, a percentage change in Cho ratios may not be a useful method for monitoring treatment response. (orig.)

  15. The positive effects of high-frequency right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on memory, correlated with increases in brain metabolites detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Jun Qiao,1,2 Guixing Jin,1,2 Licun Lei,3 Lan Wang,1,2 Yaqiang Du,3 Xueyi Wang1,2 1Institute of Mental Health, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 2Brain Ageing and Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Hebei Medical University, 3Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Hebei, People’s Republic of China Objective: To explore the effect of right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS on memory, and its correlation with levels of hippocampal brain metabolites detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients. Materials and methods: In this randomized, double-blind sham-controlled trial, alcohol-dependent patients were enrolled and randomized into two groups: the experimental group (rTMS, 10 Hz, on right DLPFC, 20 sessions and the control group (sham stimulation. Memory function was assessed using Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R before and after treatment. 1H-MRS was used to detect the levels of N-acetyl aspartic acid (NAA, choline (Cho, and creatine (Cr in bilateral hippocampi before and after treatment. Results: Thirty-eight patients (18 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group were included in the analyses. The experimental group showed significantly greater changes in HVLT-R, BVMT-R, NAA/Cr, and Cho/Cr after rTMS from baseline than the control group. The percentage change in BVMT-R and HVLT-R correlated with the percentage change in NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr in the right brain. Conclusion: High-frequency right DLPFC rTMS was associated with improvement in memory dysfunction, which is correlated with levels of hippocampal brain metabolites detected by 1H-MRS in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients. Keywords: alcohol dependence, memory, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, MR spectroscopy

  16. Multivoxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy identifies enriched foci of cancer stem-like cells in high-grade gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He T

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tao He,1–3,* Tianming Qiu,4,* Xiaodong Wang,5 Hongxing Gui,6 Xilong Wang,2 Qikuan Hu,3,7 Hechun Xia,2 Gaoyang Qi,1,2 Jinsong Wu,4 Hui Ma2 1Clinical Medicine College, Ningxia Medical University, 2Department of Neurosurgery, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, 3Ningxia Key Laboratory of Cerebrocranial Diseases, The National Key Laboratory Incubation Base, Yinchuan, 4Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, 5Department of Radiology, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, People’s Republic of China; 6Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School of Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA; 7Department of Physiology, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: This study investigated the correlation between choline/creatine (Cho/Cr ratios determined by multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS and the distribution of cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs in high-grade gliomas. Patients and methods: Sixteen patients with high-grade gliomas were recruited and underwent 1H-MRS examination before surgery to identify distinct tumor regions with variable Cho/Cr ratios. Using intraoperative neuronavigation, tumor tissues were accurately sampled from regions with high and low Cho/Cr ratios within each tumor. The distribution of CSLCs in samples from glioma tissue regions with different Cho/Cr ratios was quantified by neurosphere culture, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot. Results: The mean neurosphere formation rate in tissues with high Cho/Cr ratios was significantly increased compared with that in low Cho/Cr ratio tissues (13.94±5.94 per 100 cells vs 8.04±3.99 per 100 cells, P<0.001. Immunohistochemistry indicated that tissues with high Cho/Cr ratios had elevated expression of CD133, nestin, and CD15, relative to low Cho/Cr ratio tissue

  17. Myocardial lipid content in Fabry disease: a combined 1H-MR spectroscopy and MR imaging study at 3 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petritsch, B; Köstler, H; Weng, A M; Horn, M; Gassenmaier, T; Kunz, A S; Weidemann, F; Wanner, C; Bley, T A; Beer, M

    2016-10-28

    Fabry disease is characterized by a progressive deposition of sphingolipids in different organ systems, whereby cardiac involvement leads to death. We hypothesize that lysosomal storage of sphingolipids in the heart as occurring in Fabry disease does not reflect in higher cardiac lipid concentrations detectable by 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 3 Tesla. Myocardial lipid content was quantified in vivo by 1 H-MRS in 30 patients (12 male, 18 female; 18 patients treated with enzyme replacement therapy) with genetically proven Fabry disease and in 30 healthy controls. The study protocol combined 1 H-MRS with cardiac cine imaging and LGE MRI in a single examination. Myocardial lipid content was not significantly elevated in Fabry disease (p = 0.225). Left ventricular (LV) mass was significantly higher in patients suffering from Fabry disease compared to controls (p = 0.019). Comparison of patients without signs of myocardial fibrosis in MRI (LGE negative; n = 12) to patients with signs of fibrosis (LGE positive; n = 18) revealed similar myocardial lipid content in both groups (p > 0.05), while the latter showed a trend towards elevated LV mass (p = 0.076). This study demonstrates the potential of lipid metabolic investigation embedded in a comprehensive examination of cardiac morphology and function in Fabry disease. There was no evidence that lysosomal storage of sphingolipids influences cardiac lipid content as measured by 1 H-MRS. Finally, the authors share the opinion that a comprehensive cardiac examination including three subsections (LGE; 1 H-MRS; T 1 mapping), could hold the highest potential for the final assessment of early and late myocardial changes in Fabry disease.

  18. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolite profiles predict survival in paediatric brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Martin; Cummins, Carole L; Macpherson, Lesley; Sun, Yu; Natarajan, Kal; Grundy, Richard G; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Kauppinen, Risto A; Peet, Andrew C

    2013-01-01

    Brain tumours cause the highest mortality and morbidity rate of all childhood tumour groups and new methods are required to improve clinical management. (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) allows non-invasive concentration measurements of small molecules present in tumour tissue, providing clinically useful imaging biomarkers. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether MRS detectable molecules can predict the survival of paediatric brain tumour patients. Short echo time (30ms) single voxel (1)H MRS was performed on children attending Birmingham Children's Hospital with a suspected brain tumour and 115 patients were included in the survival analysis. Patients were followed-up for a median period of 35 months and Cox-Regression was used to establish the prognostic value of individual MRS detectable molecules. A multivariate model of survival was also investigated to improve prognostic power. Lipids and scyllo-inositol predicted poor survival whilst glutamine and N-acetyl aspartate predicted improved survival (pmodel of survival based on three MRS biomarkers predicted survival with a similar accuracy to histologic grading (p5e-5). A negative correlation between lipids and glutamine was found, suggesting a functional link between these molecules. MRS detectable biomolecules have been identified that predict survival of paediatric brain tumour patients across a range of tumour types. The evaluation of these biomarkers in large prospective studies of specific tumour types should be undertaken. The correlation between lipids and glutamine provides new insight into paediatric brain tumour metabolism that may present novel targets for therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and single photon emission CT in patients with olivopontocerebellar atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Naomi

    1998-01-01

    Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) and single photon emission CT (SPECT), the cerebellum of patients with olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) and of age-matched control subjects was studied. A spectrum was collected from a 27 cm 3 (3 x 3 x 3 cm) voxel in the cerebellum containing white and gray matters in order to measure the distribution and relative signal intensities of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cre) and choline (Cho). In the cerebellum of the patients with OPCA, mean NAA/Cre ratios for OPCA patients were significantly decreased compared with normal control subjects (OPCA, 1.01±0.247; controls, 1.526±0.144: p<0.001). Mean NAA/Cho ratios for OPCA patients were slightly decreased (OPCA, 1.285±0.228; controls 1.702±0.469: p<0.06). Cho/Cre ratios valued in the cerebellum of OPCA patients were not significantly different from those in normal controls (OPCA, 0.793±0.186; controls, 0.946±0.219). The ratio of RI count in the cerebellum to that in the occipital lobe was significantly decreased in OPCA patients (OPCA, 0.947±0.096; controls, 1.06±0.063: p<0.01). Cerebellar signs were assessed including gait ataxia, limb ataxia, dysarthria, saccadic pursuit, and nystagmus separately or in combination. In patients with more severe ataxic gait and dysarthria, MRS revealed slightly lowered NAA/Cre ratio. There was no significant correlation between NAA/Cre ratio and severity of other clinical signs. The MRS and SPECT findings give a confirmative evidence of hypofunction in cerebellum of patients with OPCA. (author)

  20. Experimental investigation of the accuracy for absolute quantification of brain creatine concentration using long time echo point resolved spectroscopy sequence with an external standard and linear combination of model spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yan; Shen Zhiwei; Xiao Yeyu; Zheng Wenbin; Wu Renhua; Li Hui; Xiao Zhuanwei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the accuracy for absolute quantification of brain creatine (Cr) concentration using long time echo (TE) point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence performed with an extemal standard and postprocessed with the linear combination of model spectra ( LCModel). Methods: Ten swine (3.1 ± 0.6 kg) and an external standard phantom containing detectable compounds of known concentration were investigated in this study by using 1.5 T GE Signa scanner and a standard head coil. The single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) data were acquired from the two ROIs (2 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm) placed in swine brain and external standard solution using PRESS sequence with TE 135 ms, TR 1500 ms, and 128 scan averages. The in vivo quantification of Cr was accomplished by LCModel. After 1 H-MRS examination, each animal was sacrificed immediately. In vitro Cr concentration was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: In the 1 H-MRS group, the Cr concentration was (9.37±0.14)mmol/kg. In the HPLC group, the Cr concentration was (8.91± 0.13)mmol/kg. Good agreement was obtained between these two methods (t=9.038, P=0.491). Conclusion: The long echo time PRESS sequence performed with an external standard and processed with LCModel is proven to be an accurate technique to detect the in vivo brain Cr concentration. (authors)

  1. MR spectroscopy of liver in overweight children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Bille, Dorthe S; Thisted, Ebbe

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to investigate T(2) relaxation values and to optimize hepatic fat quantification using proton MR spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) at 3T in overweight and obese children and adolescents.......The objective was to investigate T(2) relaxation values and to optimize hepatic fat quantification using proton MR spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) at 3T in overweight and obese children and adolescents....

  2. Non-invasive quantification of triglyceride content in steatotic rat livers by (1)H-MRS: when water meets (too much) fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heger, Michal; Marsman, Hendrik A.; Bezemer, Rick; Cloos, Martijn A.; van Golen, Rowan F.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the relationship between triglyceride (TG) and water in steatotic rat livers and to accordingly test the validity of the currently used steatosis calculation methods from magnetic resonance spectra. The approximations commonly used to derive steatosis degrees

  3. Resonance ionization spectroscopy in dysprosium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer, D., E-mail: dstuder@uni-mainz.de; Dyrauf, P.; Naubereit, P.; Heinke, R.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Institut für Physik (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    We report on resonance ionization spectroscopy (RIS) of high-lying energy levels in dysprosium. We developed efficient excitation schemes and re-determined the first ionization potential (IP) via analysis of Rydberg convergences. For this purpose both two- and three-step excitation ladders were investigated. An overall ionization efficiency of 25(4) % could be demonstrated in the RISIKO mass separator of Mainz University, using a three-step resonance ionization scheme. Moreover, an extensive analysis of the even-parity 6sns- and 6snd-Rydberg-series convergences, measured via two-step excitation was performed. To account for strong perturbations in the observed s-series, the approach of multichannel quantum defect theory (MQDT) was applied. Considering all individual series limits we extracted an IP-value of 47901.76(5) cm{sup −1}, which agrees with the current literature value of 47901.7(6) cm{sup −1}, but is one order of magnitude more precise.

  4. Acoustic resonance spectroscopy intrinsic seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinger, C.T.; Burr, T.; Vnuk, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    We have begun to quantify the ability of acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS) to detect the removal and replacement of the lid of a simulated special nuclear materials drum. Conceptually, the acoustic spectrum of a container establishcs a baseline fingerprint, which we refer to as an intrinsic seal, for the container. Simply removing and replacing the lid changes some of the resonant frequencies because it is impossible to exactly duplicate all of the stress patterns between the lid and container. Preliminary qualitative results suggested that the ARS intrinsic seal could discriminate between cases where a lid has or has not been removed. The present work is directed at quantifying the utility of the ARS intrinsic seal technique, including the technique's sensitivity to ''nuisance'' effects, such as temperature swings, movement of the container, and placement of the transducers. These early quantitative tests support the potential of the ARS intrinsic seal application, but also reveal a possible sensitivity to nuisance effects that could limit environments or conditions under which the technique is effective

  5. External validation of the fatty liver index and lipid accumulation product indices, using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, to identify hepatic steatosis in healthy controls and obese, insulin-resistant individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Weickert, Martin O; Lythgoe, Daniel; Sprung, Victoria S; Dobson, Rebecca; Shoajee-Moradie, Fariba; Umpleby, Margot; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Thomas, E Louise; Bell, Jimmy D; Jones, Helen; Kemp, Graham J

    2014-11-01

    Simple clinical algorithms including the fatty liver index (FLI) and lipid accumulation product (LAP) have been developed as surrogate markers for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), constructed using (semi-quantitative) ultrasonography. This study aimed to validate FLI and LAP as measures of hepatic steatosis, as determined quantitatively by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Data were collected from 168 patients with NAFLD and 168 controls who had undergone clinical, biochemical and anthropometric assessment. Values of FLI and LAP were determined and assessed both as predictors of the presence of hepatic steatosis (liver fat>5.5%) and of actual liver fat content, as measured by 1H-MRS. The discriminative ability of FLI and LAP was estimated using the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC). As FLI can also be interpreted as a predictive probability of hepatic steatosis, we assessed how well calibrated it was in our cohort. Linear regression with prediction intervals was used to assess the ability of FLI and LAP to predict liver fat content. Further validation was provided in 54 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. FLI, LAP and alanine transferase discriminated between patients with and without steatosis with an AUROC of 0.79 (IQR=0.74, 0.84), 0.78 (IQR=0.72, 0.83) and 0.83 (IQR=0.79, 0.88) respectively although could not quantitatively predict liver fat. Additionally, the algorithms accurately matched the observed percentages of patients with hepatic steatosis in our cohort. FLI and LAP may be used to identify patients with hepatic steatosis clinically or for research purposes but could not predict liver fat content. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  6. 1H MR spectroscopy characteristics of cerebral alveolar echinococcosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jian; Yibanu Abudureheman; Jiang Chunhui; Yao Weihong; Tian Xiongling; Zhang Deqing; Liu Chen; Liu Wenya; Wen Hao

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the characteristics of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) in patients with cerebral alveolar echinococcosis (CAE). Methods: Thirteen patients with 33 lesions proven to be CAE histologically and clinically were examined by conventional MRI and 2D multi-voxel spectroscopy with a 3.0 T double gradient superconductivity magnetic resonance scanner. Concentrations of the metabolites containing N-acetyl-aspartic-acid (NAA), Choline (Cho), Creatine (Cr), lipids and lactic acid (Lip + Lac), myo-Inositol (mI) were detected and the value of Cho/Cr, NAA/Cr, (Lip + Lac)/Cr, mI/Cr were calculated. The values of Cho/Cr, NAA/Cr, (Lip + Lac)/Cr, mI/Cr were compared between the lesions and the contralateral normal brain parenchyma. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: CAE 1 H MRS in the lesions was characterized by the decrease of Cho, NAA to varying degrees, and a visible lipid with or without lactate peak. Compared with the control group, the ratio of NAA/Cr was decreased markedly, whereas Cho/Cr, mI/Cr increased mildly and (Lip + Lac)/Cr increased markedly in the lesions. The medians and interquartile ranges of Cho/Cr, NAA/Cr, (Lip + Lac)/Cr and mI/Cr in the lesions were: 1.88 (1.24-2.23), 1.32 (1.07-1.58), 32.96 (24.59-47.30) and 0.91 (0.67-1.08), respectively. The medians and interquartile ranges of Cho/Cr, NAA/Cr, (Lip + Lac)/Cr and mI/Cr of control group were 0.84 (0.704-0.98), 2.00 (1.80-2.18), 0.90 (0.74-0.99) and 0.26 (0.18-0.31), respectively. There were statistically significant differences of the measures between the lesions and the control regions (Z=-5.932, -6.086, -6.946, -6.984, P<0.01). Conclusions: Multi-voxel 1 H MRS can reflect pathological characteristics of CAE. 1 H MRS provides metabolic information for diagnosis of CAE and may be a supplement to conventional magnetic resonance examination. (authors)

  7. Alzheimer's disease and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, Eliasz; Moreira, Denise M.; Laks, Jerson; Marinho, Valeska M.; Rozenthal, Marcia; Oliveira Junior, Amarino C.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: acquisition of data of magnetic resonance metabolite spectrum of the hippocampal formation (hippocampus-hc) in the elderly, normal and with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Method: Subjects matched for age: a. normal sample (n=20), CDR=0, and b. AD sample (n=40), CDR 1 and 2. Technique: Signa Horizon LX-GE, 1.5T, 1 H-MRS with automated software PROBE/SV, VOI: hc (right and left); single voxel (2x2x2cm); TR 1500ms/TE 50ms; PRESS; metabolites: N-acetylaspartate (Naa), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), myo-inositol (mI). Results: The present data relate to the ratios of Naa, Cho and mI, with Cr taken as reference, and the mI/Naa ratio. The study showed reduction of Naa, increase of mI and of the mI/Naa ratio, and not consistent results for Cho. The results of the whole sample of AD patients compared to the pooled normal mean ± sd were significant for Naa, mI and mI/Naa (p<0.01). Accuracy in relation to the individual values of both samples showed satisfactory levels of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value. Conclusion: The present results can be used as a helpful tool to detect pathologic changes of the hippocampus in AD, and allowing greater accuracy and an earlier diagnosis of this disease. (author)

  8. Is the macromolecule signal tissue-specific in healthy human brain? A (1)H MRS study at 7 Tesla in the occipital lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Benoît; Xin, Lijing; Gruetter, Rolf

    2014-10-01

    The macromolecule signal plays a key role in the precision and the accuracy of the metabolite quantification in short-TE (1) H MR spectroscopy. Macromolecules have been reported at 1.5 Tesla (T) to depend on the cerebral studied region and to be age specific. As metabolite concentrations vary locally, information about the profile of the macromolecule signal in different tissues may be of crucial importance. The aim of this study was to investigate, at 7T for healthy subjects, the neurochemical profile differences provided by macromolecule signal measured in two different tissues in the occipital lobe, predominantly composed of white matter tissue or of grey matter tissue. White matter-rich macromolecule signal was relatively lower than the gray matter-rich macromolecule signal from 1.5 to 1.8 ppm and from 2.3 to 2.5 ppm with mean difference over these regions of 7% and 12% (relative to the reference peak at 0.9 ppm), respectively. The neurochemical profiles, when using either of the two macromolecule signals, were similar for 11 reliably quantified metabolites (CRLB occipital lobe at 7T in healthy human brain. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Characterization of neurophysiological and behavioral changes, MRI brain volumetry and 1H MRS in zQ175 knock-in mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taneli Heikkinen

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is an autosomal neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by severe behavioral, cognitive, and motor deficits. Since the discovery of the huntingtin gene (HTT mutation that causes the disease, several mouse lines have been developed using different gene constructs of Htt. Recently, a new model, the zQ175 knock-in (KI mouse, was developed (see description by Menalled et al, [1] in an attempt to have the Htt gene in a context and causing a phenotype that more closely mimics HD in humans. Here we confirm the behavioral phenotypes reported by Menalled et al [1], and extend the characterization to include brain volumetry, striatal metabolite concentration, and early neurophysiological changes. The overall reproducibility of the behavioral phenotype across the two independent laboratories demonstrates the utility of this new model. Further, important features reminiscent of human HD pathology are observed in zQ175 mice: compared to wild-type neurons, electrophysiological recordings from acute brain slices reveal that medium spiny neurons from zQ175 mice display a progressive hyperexcitability; glutamatergic transmission in the striatum is severely attenuated; decreased striatal and cortical volumes from 3 and 4 months of age in homo- and heterozygous mice, respectively, with whole brain volumes only decreased in homozygotes. MR spectroscopy reveals decreased concentrations of N-acetylaspartate and increased concentrations of glutamine, taurine and creatine + phosphocreatine in the striatum of 12-month old homozygotes, the latter also measured in 12-month-old heterozygotes. Motor, behavioral, and cognitive deficits in homozygotes occur concurrently with the structural and metabolic changes observed. In sum, the zQ175 KI model has robust behavioral, electrophysiological, and histopathological features that may be valuable in both furthering our understanding of HD-like pathophyisology and the evaluation of potential therapeutic

  10. Brain changes in long-term zen meditators using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging: a controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Fayed

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This work aimed to determine whether (1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI are correlated with years of meditation and psychological variables in long-term Zen meditators compared to healthy non-meditator controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Design. Controlled, cross-sectional study. Sample. Meditators were recruited from a Zen Buddhist monastery. The control group was recruited from hospital staff. Meditators were administered questionnaires on anxiety, depression, cognitive impairment and mindfulness. (1H-MRS (1.5 T of the brain was carried out by exploring four areas: both thalami, both hippocampi, the posterior superior parietal lobule (PSPL and posterior cingulate gyrus. Predefined areas of the brain were measured for diffusivity (ADC and fractional anisotropy (FA by MR-DTI. RESULTS: Myo-inositol (mI was increased in the posterior cingulate gyrus and Glutamate (Glu, N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA and N-acetyl-aspartate/Creatine (NAA/Cr was reduced in the left thalamus in meditators. We found a significant positive correlation between mI in the posterior cingulate and years of meditation (r = 0.518; p = .019. We also found significant negative correlations between Glu (r = -0.452; p = .045, NAA (r = -0.617; p = .003 and NAA/Cr (r = -0.448; P = .047 in the left thalamus and years of meditation. Meditators showed a lower Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC in the left posterior parietal white matter than did controls, and the ADC was negatively correlated with years of meditation (r = -0.4850, p = .0066. CONCLUSIONS: The results are consistent with the view that mI, Glu and NAA are the most important altered metabolites. This study provides evidence of subtle abnormalities in neuronal function in regions of the white matter in meditators.

  11. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the liver and hepatic malignant tumors at 3.0 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbach, F.; Thormann, M.; Ricke, J.

    2004-01-01

    Use of whole-body MRI beyond 1.5 Tesla (T) has initiated a renaissance in spectroscopic procedures (MRS). The superior signal-to-noise ratio of clinical 3T tomographs allows reliable acquisition of MR spectra not only in fixed organs but also in targets moved by breathing such as the liver. The following contribution describes the principles of 1 H MRS and our own initial experiences with spectroscopy of the liver and hepatic malignant tumors with 3T whole-body MRI. (orig.) [de

  12. Resonant metallic nanostructures for enhanced terahertz spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Toma, A.

    2015-11-12

    We present our recent studies on terahertz resonant dipole nanoantennas. Exploiting the localization and enhancement capabilities of these devices, we introduce an effective method to perform terahertz spectroscopy on an extremely small number of nano-objects.

  13. Resonant metallic nanostructures for enhanced terahertz spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Toma, A.; Tuccio, S.; Prato, M.; De Donato, F.; Perucchi, A.; Di Pietro, P.; Marras, S.; Liberale, Carlo; Zaccaria, R. Proietti; De Angelis, F.; Manna, L.; Lupi, S.; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Razzari, L.

    2015-01-01

    We present our recent studies on terahertz resonant dipole nanoantennas. Exploiting the localization and enhancement capabilities of these devices, we introduce an effective method to perform terahertz spectroscopy on an extremely small number

  14. Two patterns of cerebral metabolite abnormalities are detected on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in HIV-infected subjects commencing antiretroviral therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winston, Alan; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D.; Duncombe, Chris; Li, Patrick C.K.; Gill, John M.; Kerr, Stephen J.; Puls, Rebekah L.; Emery, Sean; Cooper, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral function impairment remains problematic in subjects with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Using cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS), we aimed to determine if abnormalities could be detected in neurologically asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects electively commencing cART. Therapy-naive, HIV-infected individuals and HIV-uninfected controls underwent 1 H MRS in several anatomical voxels including the mid-frontal grey matter (FGM) and right basal ganglia (RBG). Differences in cerebral metabolite ratios between groups and correlations between immune and virological status were assessed. Forty-six subjects were recruited (26 HIV-infected and 20 control subjects). In the HIV-infected group, mean CD4+ count (SD, cells per microlitre) and plasma HIV RNA (SD, log10 copies per millilitre) were 192 (86) and 4.71 (0.64), respectively. Choline (Cho)/Creatine (Cr) and myoinositol (MI)/Cr ratios were significantly lower in the FGM in HIV-infected subjects compared to controls (0.67 (0.14) versus 0.88 (0.49), p = 0.036, and 0.94 (0.28) and 1.17 (0.26), p = 0.008, for Cho/Cr and MI/Cr, respectively) and Cho/Cr ratio associated with CD4+ lymphocyte count (p = 0.041). N-Acetyl-aspartate (NAA)/Cho ratio was significantly lower in the RBG in HIV-infected subjects compared to controls (2.27 (0.54) versus 2.63 (0.68), p = 0.002), and this was associated with greater plasma HIV RNA load (p = 0.014). Two patterns of cerebral metabolite abnormalities were observed in HIV-infected subjects electively commencing cART. Greater inflammatory metabolite ratios (Cho/Cr and MI/Cr) associated with lower markers of peripheral immune markers (CD4+ lymphocyte count) in the FGM and lower neuronal metabolite ratios (NAA/Cho) associated with greater HIV viraemia in the RBG were present in HIV-infected subjects. (orig.)

  15. Two patterns of cerebral metabolite abnormalities are detected on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in HIV-infected subjects commencing antiretroviral therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, Alan; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D. [Imperial College London, St. Mary' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Duncombe, Chris [HIV-NAT, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, Bangkok (Thailand); Li, Patrick C.K. [Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Gill, John M. [Calgary Regional Health Authority, Calgary (Canada); Kerr, Stephen J. [HIV-NAT, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, Bangkok (Thailand); University of New South Wales, National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Puls, Rebekah L.; Emery, Sean; Cooper, David A. [University of New South Wales, National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Collaboration: for the Altair Study Group

    2012-12-15

    Cerebral function impairment remains problematic in subjects with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Using cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS), we aimed to determine if abnormalities could be detected in neurologically asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects electively commencing cART. Therapy-naive, HIV-infected individuals and HIV-uninfected controls underwent {sup 1}H MRS in several anatomical voxels including the mid-frontal grey matter (FGM) and right basal ganglia (RBG). Differences in cerebral metabolite ratios between groups and correlations between immune and virological status were assessed. Forty-six subjects were recruited (26 HIV-infected and 20 control subjects). In the HIV-infected group, mean CD4+ count (SD, cells per microlitre) and plasma HIV RNA (SD, log10 copies per millilitre) were 192 (86) and 4.71 (0.64), respectively. Choline (Cho)/Creatine (Cr) and myoinositol (MI)/Cr ratios were significantly lower in the FGM in HIV-infected subjects compared to controls (0.67 (0.14) versus 0.88 (0.49), p = 0.036, and 0.94 (0.28) and 1.17 (0.26), p = 0.008, for Cho/Cr and MI/Cr, respectively) and Cho/Cr ratio associated with CD4+ lymphocyte count (p = 0.041). N-Acetyl-aspartate (NAA)/Cho ratio was significantly lower in the RBG in HIV-infected subjects compared to controls (2.27 (0.54) versus 2.63 (0.68), p = 0.002), and this was associated with greater plasma HIV RNA load (p = 0.014). Two patterns of cerebral metabolite abnormalities were observed in HIV-infected subjects electively commencing cART. Greater inflammatory metabolite ratios (Cho/Cr and MI/Cr) associated with lower markers of peripheral immune markers (CD4+ lymphocyte count) in the FGM and lower neuronal metabolite ratios (NAA/Cho) associated with greater HIV viraemia in the RBG were present in HIV-infected subjects. (orig.)

  16. Single voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy in distinguishing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Assess diagnostic utility of combined magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRI, MRS) in differentiating focal neoplastic lesions from focal non- neoplastic (infective or degenerative) brain lesions. Design: Descriptive, analytical - prospective study. Setting: The Aga Khan University ...

  17. Correlative study of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and histopathology in a neonatal piglet model of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoming; Guo Qiyong; Lin Nan; Ding Changwei; Wang Shuxuan; Chen Liying; Lv Qingjie; Jiang Weiguo

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) in the diagnosis of hypoxic ischemic brain damage (HIBD) in hyperacute period using an animal model. Methods: Twenty-five term piglets at the age of 3 to 7 days were subjected and divided into one control group (n=5) and two experimental groups. 1 H spectrum curve was measured continuously in all cases at 0-6, 20-24, 44-48, and 68-72 h after hypoxic ischemia in frontoparietal region, basal ganglia, and hippocampus. Lac/Cr was calculated. Histopathologic examination included hematoxylin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) stain, teminal transferase mediated dUTP-biotin nick- end eosin (HE) stain, labeling (TUNEL) stain, and transmission electron microscope. Results: Lac/Cr in hippocampus region was 0.95 ± 0.88 in control group compared with 5.65 ± 1.93 in model group 1 and 8.93 ± 6.95 in model group 2. Model group 1 showed significantly glial cells swelling in hippocampus region on histopathologic examination. Model group 2 showed neurons and glial cells swelling significantly in hippocampus, and prominent apoptosis was seen in the peripheral neurons and glial cells. Further more Lac/Cr remained high within 72 h. Lac /Cr was 0.41 ± 0.03 in basal ganglia in control group compared with no significant elevation in model group 1 and 13.59 ± 10.23 in model group 2. Model group 1 did not show significant neuron and glial cell pathological changes in basal ganglia. Model group 2 showed obvious glial cell swelling, while neurons changed mildly. Lac/Cr was high within 48 h, and then declined. Lac/Cr in frontoparietal region also increased, but the value was lower than the former two regions. Conclusion: Neurons have an acute energy consumption after hypoxic ischemia, and Lac/Cr reflectes the extent of lesions correctly. (authors)

  18. Cardiac effects of MDMA on the metabolic profile determined with 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the rat†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrine, Shane A.; Michaels, Mark S.; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Hyde, Elisabeth M.; Tancer, Manuel E.; Galloway, Matthew P.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the potential for deleterious (even fatal) effects on cardiac physiology, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) abuse abounds driven mainly by its euphoric effects. Acute exposure to MDMA has profound cardiovascular effects on blood pressure and heart rate in humans and animals. To determine the effects of MDMA on cardiac metabolites in rats, MDMA (0, 5, or 10 mg/kg) was injected every 2 h for a total of four injections; animals were sacrificed 2 h after the last injection (8 h drug exposure), and their hearts removed and tissue samples from left ventricular wall dissected. High resolution magic angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) at 11.7 T, a specialized version of MRS aptly suited for analysis of semi-solid materials such as intact tissue samples, was used to measure the cardiac metabolomic profile, including alanine, lactate, succinate, creatine, and carnitine, in heart tissue from rats treated with MDMA. MDMA effects on MR-visible choline, glutamate, glutamine, and taurine were also determined. Body temperature was measured following each MDMA administration and serotonin and norepinephrine (NE) levels were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) in heart tissue from treated animals. MDMA significantly and dose-dependently increased body temperature, a hallmark of amphetamines. Serotonin, but not NE, levels were significantly and dose-dependently decreased by MDMA in the heart wall. MDMA significantly altered the MR-visible profile with an increase in carnitine and no change in other key compounds involved in cardiomyocyte energy metabolomics. Finally, choline levels were significantly decreased by MDMA in heart. The results are consistent with the notion that MDMA has significant effects on cardiovascular serotonergic tone and disrupts the metabolic homeostasis of energy regulation in cardiac tissue, potentially increasing utilization of fatty acid metabolism. The contributions of serotonergic

  19. Cardiac effects of MDMA on the metabolic profile determined with 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrine, Shane A; Michaels, Mark S; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Hyde, Elisabeth M; Tancer, Manuel E; Galloway, Matthew P

    2009-05-01

    Despite the potential for deleterious (even fatal) effects on cardiac physiology, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) abuse abounds driven mainly by its euphoric effects. Acute exposure to MDMA has profound cardiovascular effects on blood pressure and heart rate in humans and animals. To determine the effects of MDMA on cardiac metabolites in rats, MDMA (0, 5, or 10 mg/kg) was injected every 2 h for a total of four injections; animals were sacrificed 2 h after the last injection (8 h drug exposure), and their hearts removed and tissue samples from left ventricular wall dissected. High resolution magic angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) at 11.7 T, a specialized version of MRS aptly suited for analysis of semi-solid materials such as intact tissue samples, was used to measure the cardiac metabolomic profile, including alanine, lactate, succinate, creatine, and carnitine, in heart tissue from rats treated with MDMA. MDMA effects on MR-visible choline, glutamate, glutamine, and taurine were also determined. Body temperature was measured following each MDMA administration and serotonin and norepinephrine (NE) levels were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) in heart tissue from treated animals. MDMA significantly and dose-dependently increased body temperature, a hallmark of amphetamines. Serotonin, but not NE, levels were significantly and dose-dependently decreased by MDMA in the heart wall. MDMA significantly altered the MR-visible profile with an increase in carnitine and no change in other key compounds involved in cardiomyocyte energy metabolomics. Finally, choline levels were significantly decreased by MDMA in heart. The results are consistent with the notion that MDMA has significant effects on cardiovascular serotonergic tone and disrupts the metabolic homeostasis of energy regulation in cardiac tissue, potentially increasing utilization of fatty acid metabolism. The contributions of serotonergic

  20. A high fat diet alters metabolic and bioenergetic function in the brain: A magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raider, Kayla; Ma, Delin; Harris, Janna L; Fuentes, Isabella; Rogers, Robert S; Wheatley, Joshua L; Geiger, Paige C; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Choi, In-Young; Brooks, William M; Stanford, John A

    2016-07-01

    Diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic effects can lead to neurological dysfunction and increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite these risks, the effects of a high-fat diet on the central nervous system are not well understood. To better understand the mechanisms underlying the effects of high fat consumption on brain regions affected by AD and PD, we used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to measure neurochemicals in the hippocampus and striatum of rats fed a high fat diet vs. normal low fat chow. We detected lower concentrations of total creatine (tCr) and a lower glutamate-to-glutamine ratio in the hippocampus of high fat rats. Additional effects observed in the hippocampus of high fat rats included higher N-acetylaspartylglutamic acid (NAAG), and lower myo-inositol (mIns) and serine (Ser) concentrations. Post-mortem tissue analyses revealed lower phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) in the striatum but not in the hippocampus of high fat rats. Hippocampal pAMPK levels correlated significantly with tCr, aspartate (Asp), phosphoethanolamine (PE), and taurine (Tau), indicating beneficial effects of AMPK activation on brain metabolic and energetic function, membrane turnover, and edema. A negative correlation between pAMPK and glucose (Glc) indicates a detrimental effect of brain Glc on cellular energy response. Overall, these changes indicate alterations in neurotransmission and in metabolic and bioenergetic function in the hippocampus and in the striatum of rats fed a high fat diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neurochemical Changes after Acute Binge Toluene Inhalation in Adolescent and Adult Rats: A High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K.; Galloway, Matthew P.; McMechan, Andrew P.; Irtenkauf, Susan; Hannigan, John H.; Bowen, Scott E.

    2009-01-01

    Inhalant abuse in young people is a growing public health concern. We reported previously that acute toluene intoxication in young rats, using a pattern of exposures that approximate abuse patterns of inhalant use in humans, significantly altered neurochemical measures in select brain regions. In this study, adolescent and young adult rats were exposed similarly to an acute (2 × 15 min), high dose (8000 − 12000 ppm) of toluene and high-resolution magic angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-MAS 1H-MRS) was used to assess neurochemical profiles of tissue samples from a number of brain regions collected immediately following solvent exposure. The current investigation focused on N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), choline-containing compounds, creatine, glutamate, GABA, and glutamine. Contrary to our predictions, no significant alterations were found in levels of NAA, choline, creatine, glutamate, or glutamine in adolescent animals. In contrast to these minimal effects in adolescents, binge toluene exposure altered several neurochemical parameters in young adult rats, including decreased levels of choline and GABA in the frontal cortex and striatum and lowered glutamine and NAA levels in the frontal cortex. One of the more robust findings was a wide-ranging increase in lactate after toluene exposure in adult animals, an effect not observed in adolescents. These age-dependent effects of toluene are distinct from those reported previously in juvenile rats and suggest a developmental difference in vulnerability to the effects of inhalants. Specifically, the results suggest that the neurochemical response to toluene in adolescents is attenuated compared to adults, and imply an association between these neurochemical differences and age-influenced differences in solvent abuse in humans. PMID:19628036

  2. Effects of the potential lithium-mimetic, ebselen, on brain neurochemistry: a magnetic resonance spectroscopy study at 7 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Charles; Sharpley, Ann L; Godlewska, Beata R; Berrington, Adam; Hashimoto, Tasuku; Singh, Nisha; Vasudevan, Sridhar R; Emir, Uzay E; Churchill, Grant C; Cowen, Philip J

    2016-03-01

    Lithium is an effective treatment for bipolar disorder, but safety issues complicate its clinical use. The antioxidant drug, ebselen, may be a possible lithium-mimetic based on its ability to inhibit inositol monophosphatase (IMPase), an action which it shares with lithium. Our primary aim was to determine whether ebselen lowered levels of inositol in the human brain. We also assessed the effect of ebselen on other brain neurometabolites, including glutathione, glutamate, glutamine, and glutamate + glutamine (Glx) Twenty healthy volunteers were tested on two occasions receiving either ebselen (3600 mg over 24 h) or identical placebo in a double-blind, random-order, crossover design. Two hours after the final dose of ebselen/placebo, participants underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) at 7 tesla (T) with voxels placed in the anterior cingulate and occipital cortex. Neurometabolite levels were calculated using an unsuppressed water signal as a reference and corrected for individual cerebrospinal fluid content in the voxel. Ebselen produced no effect on neurometabolite levels in the occipital cortex. In the anterior cingulate cortex, ebselen lowered concentrations of inositol (p = 0.028, Cohen's d = 0.60) as well as those of glutathione (p = 0.033, d = 0.58), glutamine (p = 0.024, d = 0.62), glutamate (p = 0.01, d = 0.73), and Glx (p = 0.001, d = 1.0). The study suggests that ebselen produces a functional inhibition of IMPase in the human brain. The effect of ebselen to lower glutamate is consistent with its reported ability to inhibit the enzyme, glutaminase. Ebselen may have potential as a repurposed treatment for bipolar disorder.

  3. Non-invasive determination of myocardial lipid content in Fabry disease by 1H-MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petritsch, B.; Koestler, H.; Machann, W.; Horn, M.; Weng, A.M.; Goltz, J.P.; Hahn, D.; Beer, M.; Niemann, M.; Weidemann, F.; Wanner, C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In Fabry disease (FD), a progressive deposition of sphingolipids is reported in different organs. The present study applied 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to investigate the myocardial lipid content in FD. Materials and Methods: In patients (PTS, n = 15) with genetically proven FD, 1 H MRS of the heart was acquired in the same examination as routine cardiac cine and late enhancement MR imaging. Healthy volunteers (n = 11) without history of cardiac disease served as control (CTL). Myocardial triglycerides in vivo were quantified in 1 H MRS. Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and late enhancement were assessed for the determination of LV systolic function, and onset or absence of myocardial fibrosis. Results: All 1 H MRS revealed resonances for intramyocardial triglycerides. Clinical parameters, e.g. EF (PTS 64 ± 2 % vs. CTL 61 ± 1 %) were similar in PTS and CTL or showed a non-significant trend (LV mass). Apart from a single patient with elevated myocardial triglycerides, no significant impact of Fabry disease on the triglyceride/water resonance ratio (PTS 0.47 ± 0.11 vs. CTL 0.52 ± 0.11 %) was observed in our patient cohort. Conclusion: A comprehensive cardiac evaluation of morphology, function as well as metabolism in Fabry PTS with suspected cardiac involvement is feasible in a single examination. No significant effect of myocardial triglyceride deposition could be observed in patients. The remarkably high myocardial triglyceride content in one patient with advanced FD warrants further studies in PTS with an extended history of the disease. (orig.)

  4. Non-invasive determination of myocardial lipid content in Fabry disease by {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petritsch, B.; Koestler, H.; Machann, W.; Horn, M.; Weng, A.M.; Goltz, J.P.; Hahn, D.; Beer, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik im ZOM; Niemann, M.; Weidemann, F.; Wanner, C. [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg (Germany). Medizinische Klinik I

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: In Fabry disease (FD), a progressive deposition of sphingolipids is reported in different organs. The present study applied {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to investigate the myocardial lipid content in FD. Materials and Methods: In patients (PTS, n = 15) with genetically proven FD, {sup 1}H MRS of the heart was acquired in the same examination as routine cardiac cine and late enhancement MR imaging. Healthy volunteers (n = 11) without history of cardiac disease served as control (CTL). Myocardial triglycerides in vivo were quantified in {sup 1}H MRS. Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and late enhancement were assessed for the determination of LV systolic function, and onset or absence of myocardial fibrosis. Results: All {sup 1}H MRS revealed resonances for intramyocardial triglycerides. Clinical parameters, e.g. EF (PTS 64 {+-} 2 % vs. CTL 61 {+-} 1 %) were similar in PTS and CTL or showed a non-significant trend (LV mass). Apart from a single patient with elevated myocardial triglycerides, no significant impact of Fabry disease on the triglyceride/water resonance ratio (PTS 0.47 {+-} 0.11 vs. CTL 0.52 {+-} 0.11 %) was observed in our patient cohort. Conclusion: A comprehensive cardiac evaluation of morphology, function as well as metabolism in Fabry PTS with suspected cardiac involvement is feasible in a single examination. No significant effect of myocardial triglyceride deposition could be observed in patients. The remarkably high myocardial triglyceride content in one patient with advanced FD warrants further studies in PTS with an extended history of the disease. (orig.)

  5. Triplet State Resonance Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Jensen, N. H.; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn

    1978-01-01

    Makes the first report on the resonance Raman spectrum of a molecule in its triplet state generated by pulse radiolysis. A solution of 0.01 mol dm-3 of p-terphenyl in benzene was studied......Makes the first report on the resonance Raman spectrum of a molecule in its triplet state generated by pulse radiolysis. A solution of 0.01 mol dm-3 of p-terphenyl in benzene was studied...

  6. Jet-associated resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englert, Christoph [University of Glasgow, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Ferretti, Gabriele [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Physics, Goeteborg (Sweden); Spannowsky, Michael [Durham University, Department of Physics, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2017-12-15

    We present a model-independent study aimed at characterising the nature of possible resonances in the jet-photon or jet-Z final state at hadron colliders. Such resonances are expected in many models of compositeness and would be a clear indication of new physics. At leading order, in the narrow width approximation, the matrix elements are parameterised by just a few constants describing the coupling of the various helicities to the resonance. We present the full structure of such amplitudes up to spin 2 and use them to simulate relevant kinematic distributions that could serve to constrain the coupling structure. This also generalises the signal generation strategy that is currently pursued by ATLAS and CMS to the most general case in the considered channels. While the determination of the P/CP properties of the interaction seems to be out of reach within this framework, there is a wealth of information to be gained about the spin of the resonance and the relative couplings of the helicities. (orig.)

  7. Jet-associated resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Christoph; Ferretti, Gabriele; Spannowsky, Michael

    2017-12-01

    We present a model-independent study aimed at characterising the nature of possible resonances in the jet-photon or jet- Z final state at hadron colliders. Such resonances are expected in many models of compositeness and would be a clear indication of new physics. At leading order, in the narrow width approximation, the matrix elements are parameterised by just a few constants describing the coupling of the various helicities to the resonance. We present the full structure of such amplitudes up to spin 2 and use them to simulate relevant kinematic distributions that could serve to constrain the coupling structure. This also generalises the signal generation strategy that is currently pursued by ATLAS and CMS to the most general case in the considered channels. While the determination of the P/CP properties of the interaction seems to be out of reach within this framework, there is a wealth of information to be gained about the spin of the resonance and the relative couplings of the helicities.

  8. Clinical magnetic resonance: imaging and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, E.R.; Bydder, Graeme; Griffiths, John; Iles, Richard; Styles, Peter

    1990-01-01

    This book begins with a readable, comprehensive but non-mathematical introduction to the basic underlying principles of magnetic resonance. Further chapters include information on the theory and principles of MRI and MRS, the interpretation of MR images, the clinical applications and scope of MRI and MRS, practical aspects of spectroscopy and magnetic resonance, and also the practical problems associated with the siting, safety and operation of large MRI and MRS equipment. (author)

  9. Proton Resonance Spectroscopy -- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, Jr., J. F. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

    2009-07-27

    This report summarizes work supported by the DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER40990 during its duration from June 1996 to May 2009. Topics studied include (1) statistical descriptions of nuclear levels and measurements of proton resonances relevant to such descriptions, including measurements toward a complete level scheme for 30P, (2) the development of methods to estimate the missing fraction of levels in a given measurement, and (3) measurements at HRIBF relevant to nuclear astrophysics.

  10. Multivoxel 1H-MR spectroscopy in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xuehuan; Liu Jun; Hao Caixian; Xu Liang; Wang Jinyue; Zhong Jin; Liu Zhenxing; Liu Jixiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of multivoxel 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Materials and Methods: 20 patients (case group) with moderate to severe clinically diagnosed OSAHS and 20 age-gender matched healthy volunteers (control group) underwent brain multivoxel 1 H-MRS examinations. The ratios of brain metabolites of centrum ovale and basal ganglia were recorded respectively. Related clinical indexes, including sleep apnea and hypopnea index (AHI) and the average night-time oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ), were recorded. Results: In region of centrum ovale, the NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr of the case group decreased and were significantly lower than that of control group (P<0.05). The Cho/Cr of the case group was significantly increased compared to the controls (P<0.05). In region of basal ganglia, the NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr, and Cho/Cr had no significantly difference between the two groups (P>0.05). Lactate peak was not detected in the two groups. In the region of centrum ovale, the AHI showed inverse correlation to the NAA/Cho (P<0.05). The SpO 2 showed positive correlations to the NAA/Cho (P<0.05). There was no correlation between clinical indexes and NAA/Cr or Cho/Cr (P>0.05). Conclusion: Multivoxel 1 H-MRS could early detect the changes of cerebral metabolism in patients with OSAHS. It provides an objective imaging basis for the clinical diagnosis and treatment. (authors)

  11. Overlapping β decay and resonance neutron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.; Fogelberg, B.

    1984-01-01

    By carrying out a detailed study of 87 Kr levels, we have shown that delayed neutron spectroscopy can be a viable method for studying individual levels and that a broad resonance-like structure is present in the β-strength distribution. 12 refs., 1 fig

  12. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bax, A.; Lerner, L.

    1986-01-01

    Great spectral simplification can be obtained by spreading the conventional one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum in two independent frequency dimensions. This so-called two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy removes spectral overlap, facilitates spectral assignment, and provides a wealth of additional information. For example, conformational information related to interproton distances is available from resonance intensities in certain types of two-dimensional experiments. Another method generates 1 H NMR spectra of a preselected fragment of the molecule, suppressing resonances from other regions and greatly simplifying spectral appearance. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy can also be applied to the study of 13 C and 15 N, not only providing valuable connectivity information but also improving sensitivity of 13 C and 15 N detection by up to two orders of magnitude. 45 references, 10 figures

  13. Reduced concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and the NAA-creatine ratio in the basal ganglia in bipolar disorder: a study using 3-Tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Mark A; Thomas, M Albert; Yue, Kenneth; Binesh, Nader; Davanzo, Pablo; Ventura, Joseph; O'Neill, Joseph; Guze, Barry; Curran, John G; Mintz, Jim

    2007-04-15

    The N-acetylaspartate (NAA) peak is prominent in the proton magnetic resonance spectrum and is thought to reflect neuron loss or dysfunction. This study was conducted to explore NAA biochemistry and its clinical correlates in mania. Subjects comprised 16 manic patients and 17 controls who underwent a structured diagnostic interview and (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) acquisition. STEAM (1)H MRS (TR/TE/TM=2000/20/8 ms) was acquired at 3 Tesla from 2 x 2 x 2 cm(3) voxels in anterior cingulate (AC), right basal ganglia (BG), and left occipital-parietal white matter (OP). Absolute metabolite concentrations and ratios to creatine were calculated using the LC Model. The mean absolute concentrations of NAA and NAA-creatine ratio in the BG were significantly lower in manic subjects than in controls. There was a significant inverse correlation between NAA in the BG and the number of prior hospitalizations for mania. These data suggest BG pathology in mania and that NAA decrements may mark prior manic episode burden. Limitations of this study include small sample size and lack of tissue segmentation. Further study is encouraged to clarify state vs. trait aspects of NAA in bipolar disorder.

  14. Volume-selective proton MR spectroscopy for in-vitro quantification of anticonvulsants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, J.; Tolxdorff, T. [Inst. of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University Hospital Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany); Seyfert, S.; Marx, P. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Abt. fuer Neurologie; Bernarding, J. [Inst. of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University Hospital Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany); Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie, Nuklearmedizin und Physikalische Therapie; Schilling, A. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie, Nuklearmedizin und Physikalische Therapie

    2001-03-01

    Administration of anticonvulsant drugs is clinically monitored by checking seizure frequency and by determining the serum concentration of the drug. In a few reports, drug concentrations in brain parenchyma have been determined using ex vivo techniques. Little is known about the in vivo concentration in the brain parenchyma. Our goals were to characterise the NMR spectra of the anticonvulsants at therapeutic concentrations, to determine the minimum detectable concentrations, and to quantify the drugs noninvasively. Volume-selective 1H-MR spectroscopy (MRS) was performed under standard clinical conditions using a single-voxel STEAM (stimulated-echo acquisition mode) sequence at 1.5 T. Spectra of the anticonvulsants carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin and valproate were acquired in vitro in hydrous solutions at increasing dilution. Phenytoin, phenobarbital and valproate were detectable below maximum therapeutic serum concentrations. Within therapeutic ranges, there was good agreement between concentrations determined by 1H-MRS and those by standard fluorescence polarisation immunoassay. Due to the absence of signals of brain metabolites, the aromatic protons of phenobarbital, phenytoin and carbamazepine, with resonance lines around 7.4 ppm, allow the drugs to be detected. Valproate, with two resonances around 1.2 ppm, should be differentiable from potential brain metabolites using nonlinear analysis of the brain spectrum. Volume-selective 1H-MRS is therefore expected to be able to monitor anticonvulsant therapy in vivo. (orig.)

  15. Volume-selective proton MR spectroscopy for in-vitro quantification of anticonvulsants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, J.; Tolxdorff, T.; Seyfert, S.; Marx, P.; Bernarding, J.; Freie Univ. Berlin; Schilling, A.

    2001-01-01

    Administration of anticonvulsant drugs is clinically monitored by checking seizure frequency and by determining the serum concentration of the drug. In a few reports, drug concentrations in brain parenchyma have been determined using ex vivo techniques. Little is known about the in vivo concentration in the brain parenchyma. Our goals were to characterise the NMR spectra of the anticonvulsants at therapeutic concentrations, to determine the minimum detectable concentrations, and to quantify the drugs noninvasively. Volume-selective 1H-MR spectroscopy (MRS) was performed under standard clinical conditions using a single-voxel STEAM (stimulated-echo acquisition mode) sequence at 1.5 T. Spectra of the anticonvulsants carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin and valproate were acquired in vitro in hydrous solutions at increasing dilution. Phenytoin, phenobarbital and valproate were detectable below maximum therapeutic serum concentrations. Within therapeutic ranges, there was good agreement between concentrations determined by 1H-MRS and those by standard fluorescence polarisation immunoassay. Due to the absence of signals of brain metabolites, the aromatic protons of phenobarbital, phenytoin and carbamazepine, with resonance lines around 7.4 ppm, allow the drugs to be detected. Valproate, with two resonances around 1.2 ppm, should be differentiable from potential brain metabolites using nonlinear analysis of the brain spectrum. Volume-selective 1H-MRS is therefore expected to be able to monitor anticonvulsant therapy in vivo. (orig.)

  16. MR spectroscopy in clinical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O

    1994-01-01

    MR spectroscopy (MRS) offers unique possibilities for non-invasive evaluation of biochemistry in vivo. During recent years there has been a growing body of evidence from clinical research studies on human beings using 31P and 1H MRS. The results indicate that it is possible to evaluate phosphorous...

  17. Proton MR spectroscopy in idiopathic spasmodic torticollis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federico, F.; Lucivero, V.; Simone, I.L.; Defazio, G.; De Salvia, R.; Mezzapesa, D.M.; Petruzzellis, M.; Tortorella, C.; Livrea, P. [Dept. of Neurology and Psychiatry, Bari (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS), localised to the basal ganglia, was used to determine changes in metabolite levels in idiopathic spasmodic torticollis (IST). We examined nine patients and 13 healthy subjects. The mean values ({+-} SD) of peak area ratios were: IST: N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA)/choline-containing compounds (Cho) 1.79 {+-} 0.39, NAA/creatine and phosphocreatine compounds (Cr) 1.61 {+-} 0.38, Cho/Cr 0.91 {+-} 0.19; controls: NAA/Cho 2.07 {+-} 0.35, NAA/Cr 1.82 {+-} 0.31, Cho/Cr 0.89 {+-} 0.12. Statistical analysis showed that NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr were significantly lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.0304 and 0.0431, respectively). These results indicate a reduction in NAA, and suggest striatal involvement in the pathogenesis IST. (orig.)

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of progressive space-occupying radiation necrosis following stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastasis: value of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, T.; Sako, K.; Tohyama, Y.; Aizawa, S.; Tanaka, T.; Yoshida, H.; Aburano, T.; Tanaka, K.

    2003-01-01

    There have been some reports that radiation necrosis can be controlled conservatively. There are rare cases showing progressive space-occupying radiation necrosis (PSORN). It is very difficult to control PSORN by conservative treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early diagnosis of these cases and the timing of surgery for patients with PSORN. We have experienced some cases where quality of life was improved by the removal of PSORN after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases. Therefore, we evaluated retrospectively the diagnosis and treatment of six cases of symptomatic PSORN at approximately 6-12 months after SRS for metastatic brain tumours. In all six cases, on Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Gd contrast material (Gd-MRI), PSORN was revealed as a ring-like enhanced mass with large perifocal oedema coupled with the appearance of neurological deficit. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) enabled us to differentiate PSORN from recurrence of metastases in all six cases. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography with thallium-201 chloride ( 201 TICI-SPECT) enabled us to do this in four cases of the six. In four cases of the six, lesionectomy of the ring-like enhanced mass (PSORN) was performed, und in two of these cases the removal was performed within 4 weeks from the time when conservative treatment became ineffective, and the neurological deficit and perifocal oedema was improved as was the quality of life. However, in the other two patients who were left for more than 16 weeks, the deficit was gradually progressive. The two patients who did not receive lesionectomy were treated by conservative means with steroids and/or heparin and warfarin and they had progressive neurological symptoms. Although, the number of patients is small in this study, and more data will be needed, it is recommended that lesionectomy is performed at an early stage, if possible, when conservative management has failed. (author)

  19. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolite profiles of neonatal rat hippocampus and brainstem regions following early postnatal exposure to intermittent hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnall, Robert A.; Chen, Xi; Nemani, Krishnamurthy V.; Sirieix, Chrystelle M.; Gimi, Barjor

    2017-03-01

    Most premature infants born at less than 30 weeks gestation are exposed to periods of mild intermittent hypoxia (IH) associated with apnea of prematurity and periodic breathing. In adults, IH associated with sleep apnea causes neurochemical and structural alterations in the brain. However, it is unknown whether IH in the premature infant leads to neurodevelopmental impairment. Quantification of biochemical markers that can precisely identify infants at risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome is essential. In vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) facilitates the quantification of metabolites from distinct regions of the developing brain. We report the changes in metabolite profiles in the brainstem and hippocampal regions of developing rat brains, resulting from exposure to IH. Rat pups were chosen for study because there is rapid postnatal hippocampal development that occurs during the first 4 weeks in the developing rat brain, which corresponds to the first 2-3 postnatal years of development in humans. The brainstem was examined because of our interest in respiratory control disorders in the newborn and because of brainstem gliosis described in infants who succumb to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Metabolite profiles were compared between hypoxia treated rat pups (n = 9) and normoxic controls (n = 6). Metabolite profiles were acquired using the Point-RESolved spectroscopy (PRESS) MRS sequence and were quantified using the TARQUIN software. There was a significant difference in the concentrations of creatine (p = 0.031), total creatine (creatine + phosphocreatine) (p = 0.028), and total choline (p = 0.001) in the brainstem, and glycine (p = 0.031) in the hippocampal region. The changes are consistent with altered cellular bioenergetics and metabolism associated with hypoxic insult.

  20. Materials characterization by resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Yong Moo; Jung, H.K.; Joo, Y.S.; Sim, C.M.

    2001-01-01

    A high temperature resonant ultrasound spectroscopy(RUS) was developed. The dynamic elastic constant of RPV weld, which has various different microstructure was determined by RUS. It was confirmed the RUS method is very sensitive to the microstructures of the material. RUS can be used to monitor the degradation of nuclear materials including neutron irradiation embrittlement through the measurement of dynamic elastic constants, elastic anisotropy, high temperature elastic constant and Q-factor

  1. Evaluation of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Felipe Rodrigues; Salmon, Carlos Ernesto Garrido, E-mail: garrido@ffclrp.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Filisofia, Ciencias e Letras; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FAMUS/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Departamento de Radiologia

    2014-11-01

    Introduction: the intrinsically high sensitivity of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) causes considerable variability in metabolite quantification. In this study, we evaluated the variability of MRS in two research centers using the same model of magnetic resonance image scanner. Methods: two metabolic phantoms were created to simulate magnetic resonance spectra from in vivo hippocampus. The phantoms were filled with the same basic solution containing the following metabolites: N-acetyl-aspartate, creatine, choline, glutamate, glutamine and inositol. Spectra were acquired over 15 months on 26 acquisition dates, resulting in a total of 130 spectra per center. Results: the phantoms did not undergo any physical changes during the 15-month period. Temporal analysis from both centers showed mean metabolic variations of 3.7% in acquisitions on the same day and of 8.7% over the 15-month period. Conclusion: The low deviations demonstrated here, combined with the high specificity of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, confirm that it is feasible to use this technique in multicenter studies in neuroscience research. (author)

  2. Brain Changes in Long-Term Zen Meditators Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Diffusion Tensor Imaging: A Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayed, Nicolás; Lopez del Hoyo, Yolanda; Andres, Eva; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Bellón, Juan; Aguilar, Keyla; Cebolla, Ausias; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This work aimed to determine whether 1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are correlated with years of meditation and psychological variables in long-term Zen meditators compared to healthy non-meditator controls. Materials and Methods Design. Controlled, cross-sectional study. Sample. Meditators were recruited from a Zen Buddhist monastery. The control group was recruited from hospital staff. Meditators were administered questionnaires on anxiety, depression, cognitive impairment and mindfulness. 1H-MRS (1.5 T) of the brain was carried out by exploring four areas: both thalami, both hippocampi, the posterior superior parietal lobule (PSPL) and posterior cingulate gyrus. Predefined areas of the brain were measured for diffusivity (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) by MR-DTI. Results Myo-inositol (mI) was increased in the posterior cingulate gyrus and Glutamate (Glu), N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and N-acetyl-aspartate/Creatine (NAA/Cr) was reduced in the left thalamus in meditators. We found a significant positive correlation between mI in the posterior cingulate and years of meditation (r = 0.518; p = .019). We also found significant negative correlations between Glu (r = −0.452; p = .045), NAA (r = −0.617; p = .003) and NAA/Cr (r = −0.448; P = .047) in the left thalamus and years of meditation. Meditators showed a lower Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) in the left posterior parietal white matter than did controls, and the ADC was negatively correlated with years of meditation (r = −0.4850, p = .0066). Conclusions The results are consistent with the view that mI, Glu and NAA are the most important altered metabolites. This study provides evidence of subtle abnormalities in neuronal function in regions of the white matter in meditators. PMID:23536796

  3. Multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects thalamic neurochemical metabolic changes in patients with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania E. Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The multi-voxel 1H-MRS can provide an insight to the neurochemical metabolic changes occurring in both thalami in patients with MDD. Increased severity of depression is significantly related to these thalamic neurochemical changes.

  4. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy: clinical application in neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penev, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) provides a non-invasive method of studying metabolism in vivo. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) defines neuro chemistry on a regional basis by acquiring a radiofrequency signal with chemical shift from one or many voxels or volumes previously selected on MRI. The tissue's chemical environment determines the frequency of a metabolite peak in an MRS spectrum. Candidates for MRS include: 1 H, 31 P, 13 C, 23 Na, 7 Li, 19 F, 14 N, 15 N, 17 O, 39 K The most commonly studied nuclei are 1 H and 31 P. This lecture is focused on Proton ( 1 H) Spectroscopy. Proton MRS can be added on to conventional MR imaging protocols. It can be used to serially monitor biochemical changes in tumors, stroke, epilepsy, metabolic disorders, infections, and neurodegenerative diseases.The MR spectra do not come labeled with diagnoses. They require interpretation and should always be correlated with the MR images before making a final diagnosis. As a general rule, the single voxel, short TE technique is used to make the initial diagnosis, because the signal-to-noise is high and all metabolites are represented. Multi-voxel, long TE techniques are used to further characterize different regions of a mass and to assess brain parenchyma around or adjacent to the mass. Multi-voxel, long TE techniques are also used to assess response to therapy and to search for tumor recurrence. Each metabolite appears at a specific ppm, and each one reflects specific cellular and biochemical processes

  5. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy in children with liver cirrhosis: diffusion-weighted MR imaging and proton MR spectroscopy of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Ezzat, Amany [Mansoura University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura (Egypt); Abdalla, Ahmed; Megahed, Ahmed; Barakat, Tarek [Mansoura Children Hospital, Gastroenterology and Hepatology Unit, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura (Egypt)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this work was to detect minimal hepatic encephalopathy (minHE) in children with diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) of the brain. Prospective study conducted upon 30 consecutive children (age range 6-16 years, 21 boys and 9 girls) with liver cirrhosis and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy control children. Patients with minHE (n = 17) and with no minHE (n = 13) groups and control group underwent DWI, {sup 1}H-MRS, and neuropsychological tests (NPTs). The glutamate or glutamine (Glx), myoinositol (mI), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr) at the right ganglionic region were determined at {sup 1}H-MRS. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and metabolic ratios of Glx/Cr, mI/Cr, and Cho/Cr were calculated. There was elevated ADC value and Glx/Cr and decreased mI/CI and Ch/Cr in patients with minHE compared to no minHE and control group. There was significant difference between minHE, no minHE, and control group in the ADC value (P = 0.001 for all groups), GLx/Cr (P = 0.001 for all groups), mI/Cr (P = 0.004, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively), Ch/Cr (P = 0.001 for all groups), and full-scale IQ of NPT (P = 0.001, 0.001, and 0.143, respectively). The NPT of minHE had negative correlation with ADC value (r = -0.872, P = 0.001) and GLx/Cr (r = -0.812, P = 0.001) and positive correlation with mI/Cr (r = 0.732, P = 0.001). DWI and {sup 1}H-MRS are imaging modalities that can detect minHE in children with liver cirrhosis and correlate well with parameters of NPT. (orig.)

  6. Wilson's disease: {sup 31}P and {sup 1}H MR spectroscopy and clinical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Sanjib; Taly, A.B.; Prashanth, L.K. [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Department of Neurology, Bangalore (India); Ravishankar, S.; Vasudev, M.K. [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Department of Neuroimaging and Interventional Radiology, Bangalore (India)

    2010-11-15

    Proton ({sup 1}H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) changes are noted in Wilson's disease (WD). However, there are no studies regarding membrane phospholipid abnormality using {sup 31}P MRS in these patients. We aimed to analyze the striatal spectroscopic abnormalities using {sup 31}P and {sup 1}H MRS in WD. Forty patients of WD (treated, 29; untreated,11) and 30 controls underwent routine MR image sequences and in vivo 2-D {sup 31}P and {sup 1}H MRS of basal ganglia using an image-selected technique on a 1.5-T MRI scanner. Statistical analysis was done using Student's t test. The mean durations of illness and treatment were 6.2 {+-} 7.4 and 4.8 {+-} 5.9 years, respectively. MRI images were abnormal in all the patients. {sup 1}H MRS revealed statistically significant reduction of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/choline (Cho) and NAA/creatine ratios in striatum ({sup 1}H MRS) of treated patients compared to controls. The mean values of phosphomonoesters (PME) (p < 0.0001), phosphodiesters (PDE) (p < 0.0001), and total phosphorus (TPh) (p < 0.0001) were elevated in patients compared to controls. Statistically significant elevated levels of ratio of PME/PDE (p = 0.05) observed in the striatum were noted in treated patients as compared to controls in the {sup 31}P MRS study. The duration of illness correlated well with increased PME/PDE [p < 0.001], PME/TPh [p < 0.05], and PDE/TPh [p < 0.05] and decreased NAA/Cho [p < 0.05] ratios. There was correlation of MRI score and reduced NAA/Cho ratio with disease severity. The PME/PDE ratio (right) was elevated in the treated group [p < 0.001] compared to untreated group. There is reduced breakdown and/or increased synthesis of membrane phospholipids and increased neuronal damage in basal ganglia in patients with WD. (orig.)

  7. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy in children with liver cirrhosis: diffusion-weighted MR imaging and proton MR spectroscopy of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Ezzat, Amany; Abdalla, Ahmed; Megahed, Ahmed; Barakat, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to detect minimal hepatic encephalopathy (minHE) in children with diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) of the brain. Prospective study conducted upon 30 consecutive children (age range 6-16 years, 21 boys and 9 girls) with liver cirrhosis and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy control children. Patients with minHE (n = 17) and with no minHE (n = 13) groups and control group underwent DWI, 1 H-MRS, and neuropsychological tests (NPTs). The glutamate or glutamine (Glx), myoinositol (mI), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr) at the right ganglionic region were determined at 1 H-MRS. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and metabolic ratios of Glx/Cr, mI/Cr, and Cho/Cr were calculated. There was elevated ADC value and Glx/Cr and decreased mI/CI and Ch/Cr in patients with minHE compared to no minHE and control group. There was significant difference between minHE, no minHE, and control group in the ADC value (P = 0.001 for all groups), GLx/Cr (P = 0.001 for all groups), mI/Cr (P = 0.004, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively), Ch/Cr (P = 0.001 for all groups), and full-scale IQ of NPT (P = 0.001, 0.001, and 0.143, respectively). The NPT of minHE had negative correlation with ADC value (r = -0.872, P = 0.001) and GLx/Cr (r = -0.812, P = 0.001) and positive correlation with mI/Cr (r = 0.732, P = 0.001). DWI and 1 H-MRS are imaging modalities that can detect minHE in children with liver cirrhosis and correlate well with parameters of NPT. (orig.)

  8. Effects of fluoxetine on the amygdala and the hippocampus after administration of a single prolonged stress to male Wistar rates: In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fang; Xiao, Bing; Wen, Lili; Shi, Yuxiu

    2015-05-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety- and memory-based disorder. The hippocampus and amygdala are key areas in mood regulation. Fluoxetine was found to improve the anxiety-related symptoms of PTSD patients. However, little work has directly examined the effects of fluoxetine on the hippocampus and the amygdala. In the present study, male Wistar rats received fluoxetine or vehicle after exposure to a single prolonged stress (SPS), an animal model of PTSD. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) was performed -1, 1, 4, 7 and 14 days after SPS to examine the effects of fluoxetine on neurometabolite changes in amygdala, hippocampus and thalamus. SPS increased the N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and choline moieties (Cho)/Cr ratios in the bilateral amygdala on day 4, decreased the NAA/Cr ratio in the left hippocampus on day 1, and increased both ratios in the right hippocampus on day 14. But no significant change was found in the thalamus. Fluoxetine treatment corrected the SPS increases in the NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr levels in the amygdala on day 4 and in the hippocampus on day 14, but it failed to normalise SPS-associated decreases in NAA/Cr levels in the left hippocampus on day 1. These results suggested that metabolic abnormalities in the amygdala and the hippocampus were involved in SPS, and different effects of fluoxetine in correcting SPS-induced neurometabolite changes among the three areas. These findings have implications for fluoxetine treatment in PTSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. SU-F-I-66: The Effects of Nicotinic Agonists On Rat Hippocampal Glutamatergic Fluctuation by Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 9.4T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, S-I; Yoo, C-H [Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, K-H; Choe, B-Y [Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, D-C [Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Nicotine exerts its effects through the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Varenicline, a smoking cessation aid, is a partial agonist acting at the α4β2 nAChRs. Although nicotine and varenicline contribute to the reward system at the same time, the influence of the substances on hippocampal neurochemical changes has not been investigated yet. We therefore studied the effects of repeated nicotine exposure and varenicline administration on hippocampus of rats by using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) at 9.4T. Methods: Male Wistar rats (n = 11; mean body weight, 304.9 ± 9.9 g) were divided into 3 groups: control rats (control, n = 3); nicotine-induced rats (nicotine, n = 4); and nicotine- and varenicline-induced rats (varenicline, n = 4). Acquisition of in vivo MRS was conducted by using 9.4 T Agilent Scanner. The linear combination of model spectra (LCModel, version 6.3, Stephen W. Provencher) fitting software was used to quantify the metabolites in the frequency domain, using the basis metabolites. Results: In this study, the results show the tendency of increased Glu level in nicotine group than in the control and varenicline groups. Moreover, GSH and NAA levels tended to decrease in the nicotine group in comparison with those in the control and varenicline groups. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the hippocampus is integrally linked to the brain reward sensitization involved in addiction and glutamate release through mobilization of intracellular calcium stores. Further, oxidative stress and toxicity of nicotine on brain would cause the decline of GSH and NAA. In conclusion, we found that varenicline effectively inhibits the reward cycle.

  10. SU-F-I-66: The Effects of Nicotinic Agonists On Rat Hippocampal Glutamatergic Fluctuation by Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 9.4T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S-I; Yoo, C-H; Song, K-H; Choe, B-Y; Woo, D-C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Nicotine exerts its effects through the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Varenicline, a smoking cessation aid, is a partial agonist acting at the α4β2 nAChRs. Although nicotine and varenicline contribute to the reward system at the same time, the influence of the substances on hippocampal neurochemical changes has not been investigated yet. We therefore studied the effects of repeated nicotine exposure and varenicline administration on hippocampus of rats by using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) at 9.4T. Methods: Male Wistar rats (n = 11; mean body weight, 304.9 ± 9.9 g) were divided into 3 groups: control rats (control, n = 3); nicotine-induced rats (nicotine, n = 4); and nicotine- and varenicline-induced rats (varenicline, n = 4). Acquisition of in vivo MRS was conducted by using 9.4 T Agilent Scanner. The linear combination of model spectra (LCModel, version 6.3, Stephen W. Provencher) fitting software was used to quantify the metabolites in the frequency domain, using the basis metabolites. Results: In this study, the results show the tendency of increased Glu level in nicotine group than in the control and varenicline groups. Moreover, GSH and NAA levels tended to decrease in the nicotine group in comparison with those in the control and varenicline groups. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the hippocampus is integrally linked to the brain reward sensitization involved in addiction and glutamate release through mobilization of intracellular calcium stores. Further, oxidative stress and toxicity of nicotine on brain would cause the decline of GSH and NAA. In conclusion, we found that varenicline effectively inhibits the reward cycle.

  11. The use of ultrasound to diagnose hepatic steatosis in type 2 diabetes: Intra- and interobserver variability and comparison with magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, R.M.; Perry, E.; Glancy, S.; Marshall, I.; Gray, C.; Nee, L.D.; Hayes, P.C.; Forbes, S.; Frier, B.M.; Johnston, G.I.; Lee, A.J.; Reynolds, R.M.; Price, J.F.; Strachan, M.W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare ultrasound gradings of steatosis with fat fraction (FF) on magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS; the non-invasive reference standard for quantification of hepatic steatosis), and evaluate inter- and intraobserver variability in the ultrasound gradings. Materials and methods: Triple grading of hepatic ultrasound examination was performed by three independent graders on 131 people with type 2 diabetes. The stored images of 60 of these individuals were assessed twice by each grader on separate occasions. Fifty-eight patients were pre-selected on the basis of ultrasound grading (normal, indeterminate/mild steatosis, or severe steatosis) to undergo 1 H-MRS. The sensitivity and specificity of the ultrasound gradings were determined with reference to MRS data, using two cut-offs of FF to define steatosis, ≥9% and ≥6.1%. Results: Median (intraquartile range) MRS FF (%) in the participants graded on ultrasound as normal, indeterminate/mild steatosis, and severe steatosis were 4.2 (1.2-5.7), 4.1 (3.1-8.5) and 19.4 (12.9-27.5), respectively. Using a liver FF of ≥6.1% on MRS to denote hepatic steatosis, the unadjusted sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound gradings (severe versus other grades of steatosis) were 71 and 100%, respectively. Interobserver agreement within one grade was observed in 79% of cases. Exact intraobserver agreement ranged from 62 to 87%. Conclusion: Hepatic ultrasound provided a good measure of the presence of significant hepatic steatosis with good intra- and interobserver agreement. The grading of a mildly steatotic liver was less secure and, in particular, there was considerable overlap in hepatic FF with those who had a normal liver on ultrasound.

  12. The use of ultrasound to diagnose hepatic steatosis in type 2 diabetes: Intra- and interobserver variability and comparison with magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, R.M., E-mail: rachel_m_williamson@hotmail.co [Metabolic Unit, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Perry, E.; Glancy, S. [Department of Radiology, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Marshall, I. [Scottish Funding Council Brain Imaging Research Centre, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Gray, C. [Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Facility, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Nee, L.D. [Department of Radiology, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Hayes, P.C. [Department of Hepatology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Forbes, S. [Endocrinology Unit, University of Edinburgh, Queen' s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Frier, B.M. [Department of Diabetes, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Johnston, G.I. [Pfizer Global R and D, Sandwich, Kent (United Kingdom); Lee, A.J. [Centre of Academic Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Reynolds, R.M. [Endocrinology Unit, University of Edinburgh, Queen' s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Price, J.F. [Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Queen' s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Strachan, M.W.J. [Metabolic Unit, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    Aim: To compare ultrasound gradings of steatosis with fat fraction (FF) on magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS; the non-invasive reference standard for quantification of hepatic steatosis), and evaluate inter- and intraobserver variability in the ultrasound gradings. Materials and methods: Triple grading of hepatic ultrasound examination was performed by three independent graders on 131 people with type 2 diabetes. The stored images of 60 of these individuals were assessed twice by each grader on separate occasions. Fifty-eight patients were pre-selected on the basis of ultrasound grading (normal, indeterminate/mild steatosis, or severe steatosis) to undergo {sup 1}H-MRS. The sensitivity and specificity of the ultrasound gradings were determined with reference to MRS data, using two cut-offs of FF to define steatosis, {>=}9% and {>=}6.1%. Results: Median (intraquartile range) MRS FF (%) in the participants graded on ultrasound as normal, indeterminate/mild steatosis, and severe steatosis were 4.2 (1.2-5.7), 4.1 (3.1-8.5) and 19.4 (12.9-27.5), respectively. Using a liver FF of {>=}6.1% on MRS to denote hepatic steatosis, the unadjusted sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound gradings (severe versus other grades of steatosis) were 71 and 100%, respectively. Interobserver agreement within one grade was observed in 79% of cases. Exact intraobserver agreement ranged from 62 to 87%. Conclusion: Hepatic ultrasound provided a good measure of the presence of significant hepatic steatosis with good intra- and interobserver agreement. The grading of a mildly steatotic liver was less secure and, in particular, there was considerable overlap in hepatic FF with those who had a normal liver on ultrasound.

  13. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Lisa; Damodaram, Mellisa S; Allsop, Joanna M; McGuinness, Amy; Wylezinska, Marzena; Kumar, Sailesh; Rutherford, Mary A

    2011-09-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has become an established technique in fetal medicine, providing complementary information to ultrasound in studies of the brain. MRI can provide detailed structural information irrespective of the position of the fetal head or maternal habitus. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1)HMRS) is based on the same physical principles as MRI but data are collected as a spectrum, allowing the biochemical and metabolic status of in vivo tissue to be studied in a non-invasive manner. (1)HMRS has been used to assess metabolic function in the neonatal brain but fetal studies have been limited, primarily due to fetal motion. This review will assess the technique and findings from fetal studies to date. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The market for magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, L.

    1990-01-01

    The medical market is, at present, the most dominant market for low T c superconductors. Indeed, without magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), there would hardly be a low T c superconductor market at all. According to the author, any development that can expand the medical market for MRI machines would be a welcome one. This paper reports how the recent advances in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) are such a development. While the principle of MRS has bee around as long as MRI, only recently have advances in technique, computer programming and magnet technology allowed MRS to advance to a point where it may become an important technology-one that could increase the medical market for superconductors. The author discussed how MRS can be used to analyze oil core samples for their oil content, oil/water ratios, how the oil is bound and how to extract it

  15. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolino, Alessandro; Weinberger, Daniel R.

    1999-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has become an important tool to study in vivo certain biochemical aspects of brain disorders. In the last decade this technique has been applied to the in vivo investigation of pathophysiological aspects of psychiatric disorders, extending knowledge of the related brain alterations. This review will focus on providing some background to clarify technical and biochemical issues and it will describe the studies that have been performed in schizophrenia. The results will be framed in a more general context to highlight what we have learned and what remains to be understood from the application of this technique to schizophrenia

  16. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies in migraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montagna, P.; Cortelli, P.; Barbiroli, B. (Inst. of Medical Pathology, Univ. of Bologna (Italy))

    1994-06-01

    The authors describe the method of [sup 31]phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy and review the results when it is applied to the study of brain and muscle energy metabolism in migraine subjects. Brain energy metabolism appears to be abnormal in all major subtypes of migraine when measured both during and between attacks. Impaired energy metabolism is also documented in skeletal muscle. It is suggested that migraine is associated with a generalized disorder of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and that this may constitute a threshold for the triggering of migraine attacks. 47 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Stimulated resonance Raman spectroscopy: An alternative to laser-rf double resonance for ion spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, L.; Dinneen, T.; Mansour, N.B.

    1988-01-01

    Stimulated resonance Raman spectroscopy is presented as an alternative to laser-rf double resonance for obtaining high-precision measurements in ion beams. By use of a single-phase modulated laser beam to derive the two required fields, the laser--ion-beam alignment is significantly simplified. In addition, this method is especially useful in the low-frequency regime where the laser-rf double-resonance method encounters difficulties due to modifications of the ion-beam velocity distribution. These modifications, which result from interaction with the traveling rf wave used to induce magnetic dipole transitions, are observed and quantitatively modeled

  18. Rehabilitation program based on sensorimotor recovery improves the static and dynamic balance and modifies the basal ganglia neurochemistry: A pilot 1H-MRS study on Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delli Pizzi, Stefano; Bellomo, Rosa Grazia; Carmignano, Simona Maria; Ancona, Emilio; Franciotti, Raffaella; Supplizi, Marco; Barassi, Giovanni; Onofrj, Marco; Bonanni, Laura; Saggini, Raoul

    2017-12-01

    Rehabilitation interventions represent an alternative strategy to pharmacological treatment in order to slow or reverse some functional aspects of disability in Parkinson's disease (PD). To date, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying rehabilitation-mediated improvement in PD patients are still poorly understood. Interestingly, growing evidence has highlighted a key role of the glutamate in neurogenesis and brain plasticity. The brain levels of glutamate, and of its precursor glutamine, can be detected in vivo and noninvasively as "Glx" by means of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS). In the present pilot study, 7 PD patients with frequent falls and axial dystonia underwent 8-week rehabilitative protocol focused on sensorimotor improvement. Clinical evaluation and Glx quantification were performed before and after rehabilitation. The Glx assessment was focused on the basal ganglia in agreement with their key role in the motor functions. We found that the rehabilitation program improves the static and dynamic balance in PD patients, promoting a better global motor performance. Moreover, we observed that the levels of Glx within the left basal ganglia were higher after rehabilitation as compared with baseline. Thus, we posit that our sensorimotor rehabilitative protocol could stimulate the glutamate metabolism in basal ganglia and, in turn, neuroplasticity processes. We also hypothesize that these mechanisms could prepare the ground to restore the functional interaction among brain areas deputed to motor controls, which are affected in PD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolomic approach to human brain spectroscopy identifies associations between clinical features and the frontal lobe metabolome in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingara, Lisa K.; Yu, Hui Jing; Wagshul, Mark E.; Serafin, Dana; Christodoulou, Christopher; Pelczer, István; Krupp, Lauren B.; Maletić-Savatić, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is capable of noninvasively detecting metabolic changes that occur in the brain tissue in vivo. Its clinical utility has been limited so far, however, by analytic methods that focus on independently evaluated metabolites and require prior knowledge about which metabolites to examine. Here, we applied advanced computational methodologies from the field of metabolomics, specifically partial least squares discriminant analysis and orthogonal partial least squares, to in vivo 1H-MRS from frontal lobe white matter of 27 patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and 14 healthy controls. We chose RRMS, a chronic demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, because its complex pathology and variable disease course make the need for reliable biomarkers of disease progression more pressing. We show that in vivo MRS data, when analyzed by multivariate statistical methods, can provide reliable, distinct profiles of MRS-detectable metabolites in different patient populations. Specifically, we find that brain tissue in RRMS patients deviates significantly in its metabolic profile from that of healthy controls, even though it appears normal by standard MRI techniques. We also identify, using statistical means, the metabolic signatures of certain clinical features common in RRMS, such as disability score, cognitive impairments, and response to stress. This approach to human in vivo MRS data should promote understanding of the specific metabolic changes accompanying disease pathogenesis, and could provide biomarkers of disease progression that would be useful in clinical trials. PMID:23751863

  20. A clinical application of {sup 31}P and {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy in cerebrovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchimura, Koichi; Asakura, Tetsuhiko; Kadota, Koki; Niiro, Masaki; Terada, Kousaku; Hirakawa, Wataru [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Haruzono, Akihiro

    1995-12-01

    Due to the development of non-invasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) techniques, metabolic and functional data on the ischemic human brain have been obtained. We serially evaluated patients with cerebral infarction 5 hours-5 years after the onset by {sup 31}P and {sup 1}H-MRS. {sup 31}P-MRS in patients with acute cerebral infarction showed a marked increase in inorganic phosphate (Pi), decreases in phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and a decrease in intracellular pH. On the other hand, {sup 1}H-MRS revealed an increase in lactate and a decrease in N-acetyl aspartate (NAA). Since these changes could be detected 5 hours after the onset, MRS is useful for the early diagnosis of cerebral infarction. {sup 123}I-IMP SPECT and {sup 31}P-MRS were performed before and after acetazolamide administration in 10 patients with occlusion of the main trunk or marked stenosis without extensive infarction in its perfusion area on MRI. In the group showing a decrease in cerebral blood flow after acetazolamide administration, intracellular pH also significantly decreased. These results suggest that MRS is also useful for evaluating the reserve capacity of cerebral blood flow and metabolism in chronically ischemic areas. (author).

  1. The digital holographic interferometry in resonant acoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GAPONOV, V.E.; AZAMATOV, Z.T.; REDKORECHEV, V.I.; ISAEV, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The opportunities of application of digital holographic interferometry method for studies of shapes of resonant modes in resonant acoustic spectroscopy are shown. The results of experimental measurements and analytical calculations are submitted. (authors)

  2. Historical survey of resonance ionization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, G.S.

    1984-04-01

    We have recently celebrated the 10th birthday of Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS), and this seems an appropriate time to review the history of its development. Basically, RIS is a photophysics process in which tunable light sources are used to remove a valence electron from an atom of selected atomic number, Z. If appropriate lasers are used as the light source, one electron can be removed from each atom of the selected Z in the laser pulse. This implies that RIS can be a very efficient, as well as selective, ionization process. In what we normally call RIS, laser schemes are employed which preserve both of these features. In contrast, multiphoton ionization (MPI) is more general, although not necessarily Z selective or very efficient because resonances are often not used. Early research completed in the USSR and described as selective two-step photoionization, employed resonances to ionize the rubidium atom and served to guide work on laser isotope separation. 29 references, 8 figures

  3. Interleaved localized 1H/31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerspeer, M.

    2005-09-01

    interleaved localized DQF, 1 H and 31 P STEAM measurements during ischaemic calf muscle exercise using the exercise rig. In conclusion, 31 P MRS data and lactate concentrations measured simultaneously by 1 H MRS help to confirm model assumptions about cellular proton buffering capacity. Questions on metabolic efflux can be addressed when studying lactate, pH and PCr changes during recovery from ischaemic exercise with high time resolution, as well as control of glycogenolysis and coordination of oxidative versus glycolytic ATP production in aerobic and ischaemic exercise. Perspectives are further improvement of specificity by multi nuclear spectroscopic imaging and an increase of sensitivity and time resolution by transferring the technique to an even higher field strength. (author)

  4. Conceptual basis of resonance ionization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, M.G.

    1984-04-01

    Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) can b defined as a state-selective detection process in which tunable lasers are used to promote transitions from the selected state of the atoms or molecules in question to higher states, one of which will be ionized by the absorption of another photon. At least one resonance step is used in the stepwise ionization process, and it has been shown that the ionization probability of the spectroscopically selected species can nearly always be made close to unity. Since measurements of the number of photoelectrons or ions can be made very precisely and even one electron (or under vacuum conditions, one ion) can be detected, the technique can be used to make quantitative measurements of very small populations of the state-selected species. Counting of individual atoms has special meaning for detection of rare events. The ability to make saturated RIS measurements opens up a wide variety of applications to both basic and applied research. We view RIS as a specific type of multi-photon ionization in which the goal is to make quantitative measurements of quantum-selected populations in atomic or molecular systems. 16 references

  5. Electronic resonances in broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batignani, G.; Pontecorvo, E.; Giovannetti, G.; Ferrante, C.; Fumero, G.; Scopigno, T.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy is a formidable tool to probe molecular vibrations. Under electronic resonance conditions, the cross section can be selectively enhanced enabling structural sensitivity to specific chromophores and reaction centers. The addition of an ultrashort, broadband femtosecond pulse to the excitation field allows for coherent stimulation of diverse molecular vibrations. Within such a scheme, vibrational spectra are engraved onto a highly directional field, and can be heterodyne detected overwhelming fluorescence and other incoherent signals. At variance with spontaneous resonance Raman, however, interpreting the spectral information is not straightforward, due to the manifold of field interactions concurring to the third order nonlinear response. Taking as an example vibrational spectra of heme proteins excited in the Soret band, we introduce a general approach to extract the stimulated Raman excitation profiles from complex spectral lineshapes. Specifically, by a quantum treatment of the matter through density matrix description of the third order nonlinear polarization, we identify the contributions which generate the Raman bands, by taking into account for the cross section of each process.

  6. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy as an imaging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomsdorf, H.; Imme, M.; Jensen, D.; Kunz, D.; Menhardt, W.; Ottenberg, K.; Roeschmann, P.; Schmidt, K.H.; Tschendel, O.; Wieland, J.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental Magnetic Resonance (MR) system with 4 tesla flux density was set up. For that purpose a data acquisition system and RF coils for resonance frequencies up to 170 MHz were developed. Methods for image guided spectroscopy as well as spectroscopic imaging focussing on the nuclei 1 H and 13 C were developed and tested on volunteers and selected patients. The advantages of the high field strength with respect to spectroscopic studies were demonstrated. Developments of a new fast imaging technique for the acquisition of scout images as well as a method for mapping and displaying the magnetic field inhomogeneity in-vivo represent contributions to the optimisation of the experimental procedure in spectroscopic studies. Investigations on the interaction of RF radiation with the exposed tissue allowed conclusions regarding the applicability of MR methods at high field strengths. Methods for display and processing of multi-dimensional spectroscopic imaging data sets were developed and existing methods for real-time image synthesis were extended. Results achieved in the field of computer aided analysis of MR images comprised new techniques for image background detection, contour detection and automatic image interpretation as well as knowledge bases for textural representation of medical knowledge for diagnosis. (orig.) With 82 refs., 3 tabs., 75 figs [de

  7. 1H-MR spectroscopy study in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jing; Ma Lin; Yu Shengyuan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the features of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and its correlations with clinical scale. Methods: Fifteen patients with definite or probable ALS and 15 age and gender matched normal controls were enrolled. 1 H-MRS was performed on a 3.0 T GE imaging system (GE Medical System, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA). TE-averaged point resolved selective spectroscopy was used. N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), Glu and Glx (glutamate + glutamine) values of subcortical motor area and posterior limb of the internal capsule were acquired, t test was used to compare differences between groups, the correlations between the above values and clinical scale were analyzed. Results: The motor area and posterior limb of the internal capsule in ALS patients had significantly lower NAA/Cr (1.91±0.34, 1.53±0.17) compared with normal subjects (2.23±0.33, 1.66±0.07) (t=4.25,2.90,P=0.00,0.01). ALS patients had significantly higher Glu/Cr (0.34±0.05, 0.29±0.06) and Glx/Cr (0.40±0.04, 0.33±0.06), compared with normal subjects (0.30±0.03,0.25±0.04) and (0.32±0.05,0.26±0.03) (t=2.56, 2.40,7.34,5.30, P=0.02,0.03,0.00,0.00). The Norris scale of ALS patients were 57±8, ALSFRS were 29±4. The Norris scale was negatively correlated with Glx/Cr of primary motor cortex by lineal correlation analysis (r=-0.75, P=0.00), while ALSFRS had no correlation with Glx/Cr. Conclusions: Neuronal loss and Glu + Gln increase can be detected by using proton MRS in ALS patients. 1 H-MRS is an useful tool in reflecting the characteristic changes of metabolite in ALS. (authors)

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in organic chemistry. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zschunke, A.

    1977-01-01

    The fundamentals of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are discussed only briefly. The emphasis is laid on developing reader's ability to evaluate resonance spectra. The following topics are covered: principles of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; chemical shift and indirect nuclear spin coupling constants and their relation to the molecular structure; analysis of spectra; and uses for structural analysis and solution of kinetic problems, mainly with regard to organic compounds. Of interest to chemists and graduate students who want to make themselves acquainted with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

  9. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a diagnostic modality for carcinoma thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Nikhil; Kakar, Arun K.; Chowdhury, Veena; Gulati, Praveen; Shankar, L. Ravi; Vindal, Anubhav

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to observe the findings of magnetic resonance spectroscopy of solitary thyroid nodules and its correlation with histopathology. Materials and methods: In this study, magnetic resonance spectroscopy was carried out on 26 patients having solitary thyroid nodules. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was performed on a 1.5 T super conductive system with gradient strength of 33 mTs. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done after MRS. All 26 patients underwent surgery either because of cytopathologically proven malignancy or because of cosmetic reasons. Findings of magnetic resonance spectroscopy were compared with histopathology of thyroid specimens. Results and conclusion: It was seen that presence or absence of choline peak correlates very well with presence or absence of malignant foci with in the nodule (sensitivity = 100%; specificity = 88.88%). These results indicate that magnetic resonance spectroscopy may prove to be an useful diagnostic modality for carcinoma thyroid

  10. 1H-Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in Mb. Alzheimer's and MCI patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study a proton magnetic spectroscopy was conducted on 38 patients suffering from Alzheimer, 10 patients with MCI (mild cognitive impairment) and 21 elderly controls. The analyzed metabolites were N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho) and myo-Inositol (Ins). 1 H-MRS was conducted in the cingulated gyri and the centrum semiovale of 38 patients with AD, 10 patients with MCI and 21 elderly controls. A STEAM sequence was used at 1,5 Tesla. The values of NAA, Cho, Cr and Ins were measured and the ratios of NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, Cho/Cr and Ins/Cr were statistically evaluated. The Ins/Cr Ratio in the posterior cingulated gyrus was significantly lower in the MCI group than in the DAT group (p=0,007), while the decrease of the Ins/Cr Ratio in the compared controls was not significant. The NAA/Cr ratio was not significantly different whether in patients with AD, MCI nor in the examined controls. NAA/Cho and Cho/Cr ratios were likewise not significantly different in the three groups. Our findings of an increased Ins/Cr Ratio in the AD group might indicate the beginning of glial activation in the posterior cingulated gyri. As the other examined ratios were not significantly different among the three groups, our patients may not have suffered significant neuronal loss yet. (author) [de

  11. Neutron resonance spectroscopy at n-TOF at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunsing, F.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Alvarez, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Becvar, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calvino, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapic, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Goncalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Gramegna, F.; Guerrero, C.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Jericha, E.; Kappeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Kerveno, M.; Koehler, P.; Kossionides, E.; Krticka, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Martinez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P.M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M.T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J.L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M.C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2008-01-01

    Neutron resonance spectroscopy plays an important role in the investigation of neutron induced reaction cross sections and nuclear structure in the MeV excitation range. Neutron time-of-flight facilities are the most used installations to explore neutron resonances. In this paper we describe the basic features of neutron resonance spectroscopy together with recent results from the time-of-flight facility n-TOF at CERN. (authors)

  12. Quantitative analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainai, T; Mashimo, K [Nihon Univ., Tokyo. Coll. of Science and Engineering

    1976-04-01

    Recent papers on the practical quantitative analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) are reviewed. Specifically, the determination of moisture in liquid N/sub 2/O/sub 4/ as an oxidizing agent for rocket propulsion, the analysis of hydroperoxides, the quantitative analysis using a shift reagent, the analysis of aromatic sulfonates, and the determination of acids and bases are reviewed. Attention is paid to the accuracy. The sweeping velocity and RF level in addition to the other factors must be on the optimal condition to eliminate the errors, particularly when computation is made with a machine. Higher sweeping velocity is preferable in view of S/N ratio, but it may be limited to 30 Hz/s. The relative error in the measurement of area is generally 1%, but when those of dilute concentration and integrated, the error will become smaller by one digit. If impurities are treated carefully, the water content on N/sub 2/O/sub 4/ can be determined with accuracy of about 0.002%. The comparison method between peak heights is as accurate as that between areas, when the uniformity of magnetic field and T/sub 2/ are not questionable. In the case of chemical shift movable due to content, the substance can be determined by the position of the chemical shift. Oil and water contents in rape-seed, peanuts, and sunflower-seed are determined by measuring T/sub 1/ with 90 deg pulses.

  13. Collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy of radium ions

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the neutron-deficient radium isotopes with high-resolution collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy. Probing the hyperfine structure of the $7{s}\\,^2\\!{S}\\!_{1/2}\\,\\rightarrow\\,7{p}\\,^{2}\\!{P}\\!_{1/2}$ and $7{s}\\,^{2}\\!{S}\\!_{1/2}\\,\\rightarrow\\,7{p}\\,^{2}\\!{P}\\!_{3/2}$ transitions in Ra II will provide atomic-structure measurements that have not been achieved for $^{{A}<208}$Ra. Measurement of the $7{s}\\,^{2}\\!{S}\\!_{1/2}\\,\\rightarrow\\,7{p}\\,^{2}\\!{P}\\!_{3/2}$ transition in $^{{A}<214}$Ra will allow the spectroscopic quadrupole moments to be directly measured for the first time. In addition, the technique will allow tentative spin assignments to be confirmed and the magnetic dipole moments measured for $^{\\textit{A}<208}$Ra. Measurement of the hyperfine structure (in particular the isotope shifts) of the neutron-deficient radium will provide information to further constrain the nuclear models away from the N=126 shell closure.

  14. Spatial localization in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keevil, Stephen F

    2006-01-01

    The ability to select a discrete region within the body for signal acquisition is a fundamental requirement of in vivo NMR spectroscopy. Ideally, it should be possible to tailor the selected volume to coincide exactly with the lesion or tissue of interest, without loss of signal from within this volume or contamination with extraneous signals. Many techniques have been developed over the past 25 years employing a combination of RF coil properties, static magnetic field gradients and pulse sequence design in an attempt to meet these goals. This review presents a comprehensive survey of these techniques, their various advantages and disadvantages, and implications for clinical applications. Particular emphasis is placed on the reliability of the techniques in terms of signal loss, contamination and the effect of nuclear relaxation and J-coupling. The survey includes techniques based on RF coil and pulse design alone, those using static magnetic field gradients, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. Although there is an emphasis on techniques currently in widespread use (PRESS, STEAM, ISIS and MRSI), the review also includes earlier techniques, in order to provide historical context, and techniques that are promising for future use in clinical and biomedical applications. (topical review)

  15. Waveguide volume probe for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to a probe for use within the field of nuclear magnetic resonance, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)). One embodiment relates to an RF probe for magnetic resonance imaging and/or spectroscopy comprising a conductive...... non-magnetic hollow waveguide having an internal volume and at least one open end, one or more capacitors and at least a first conductive non-magnetic wire, wherein said first conductive wire connects at least one of said one or more capacitors to opposite walls of one open end of the waveguide...

  16. Computer Assisted Instruction (Cain) For Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaturonrusmee, Wasna; Arthonvorakul, Areerat; Assateranuwat, Adisorn

    2005-10-01

    A computer assisted instruction program for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was developed by using Author ware 5.0, Adobe Image Styler 1.0, Adobe Photo shop 7.0 and Flash MX. The contents included the basic theory of 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the instrumentation of NMR spectroscopy, the two dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy and the interpretation of NMR spectra. The program was also provided examples, and exercises, with emphasis on NMR spectra interpretation to determine the structure of unknown compounds and solutions for self study. The questionnaire from students showed that they were very satisfied with the software

  17. Application of resonance ionisation spectroscopy in atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    Resonance ionization spectroscopy (RIS) and resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS) techniques have proved to be a powerful tool in atomic spectroscopy and trace analysis. Detailed atomic spectroscopy can be performed on samples containing less than 10 12 atoms. This sensitivity is especially important for investigating atomic properties of transuranium elements. RIMS is especially suitable for ultra trace determination of long lived radioactive isotopes. The extremely low detection limits allow analysis of samples in the sub-femtogram regime. High elemental and isotopic selectivity can be obtained. To produce isobarically pure ion beams, a RIS based laser ion source can be used

  18. Laser resonant ionization spectroscopy and laser-induced resonant fluorescence spectra of samarium atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Changtai

    1995-01-01

    We have measured new high-lying levels of Sm atom by two-colour resonant photoionisation spectroscopy; we have observed the isotope shifts of Sm atom by laser-induced resonant fluorescence spectroscopy; the lifetime of eight low-lying levels of Sm atom were measured by using pulsed laser-Boxcar technique in atomic beam.

  19. Chiral discrimination in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeretti, Paolo

    2017-11-01

    Chirality is a fundamental property of molecules whose spatial symmetry is characterized by the absence of improper rotations, making them not superimposable to their mirror image. Chiral molecules constitute the elementary building blocks of living species and one enantiomer is favoured in general (e.g. L-aminoacids and D-sugars pervade terrestrial homochiral biochemistry) because most chemical reactions producing natural substances are enantioselective. Since the effect of chiral chemicals and drugs on living beings can be markedly different between enantiomers, the quest for practical spectroscopical methods to scrutinize chirality is an issue of great importance and interest. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a topmost analytical technique, but spectrometers currently used are ‘blind’ to chirality, i.e. unable to discriminate the two mirror-image forms of a chiral molecule, because, in the absence of a chiral solvent, the spectral parameters, chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling constants are identical for enantiomers. Therefore, the development of new procedures for routine chiral recognition would offer basic support to scientists. However, in the presence of magnetic fields, a distinction between true and false chirality is mandatory. The former epitomizes natural optical activity, which is rationalized by a time-even pseudoscalar, i.e. the trace of a second-rank tensor, the mixed electric dipole/magnetic dipole polarizability. The Faraday effect, magnetic circular dichroism and magnetic optical activity are instead related to a time-odd axial vector. The present review summarizes recent theoretical and experimental efforts to discriminate enantiomers via NMR spectroscopy, with the focus on the deep connection between chirality and symmetry properties under the combined set of fundamental discrete operations, namely charge conjugation, parity (space inversion) and time (motion) reversal.

  20. Quantification of dextrose in model solution by 1H MR spectroscopy at 1.5T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu; Kim, Hyung Jin; Suh, Chang Hae; Kim, Yong Seong; Lee, Jung Hee

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) using a 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) imager for quantification of the contents of model solutions. We prepared model solutions of dextrose +water and dextrose +water + ethanol at dextrose concentrations of 0.01% to 50% and 0.01% to 20%, respectively. Using these solutions and a 1.5T MR imager together with a high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscope, we calculated the ratios of dextrose to water peak, (dextrose +ethanol) to water peak, and (dextrose + ethanol) to ethanol peak, as seen on MR and NMR spectra, analysing the relationships between dextrose concentration and the ratios of peaks, and between the ratios of the peaks seen on MR spectra and those seen on NMR spectra. Changes in the ratios between dextrose concentration and dextrose to water peak, (dextrose + ethanol) to water peak and (dextrose + ethanol) to ethanol peak, as seen on MR spectra, were statistically significant, and there was good linear regression. There was also close correlation between the ratios of the observed on MR and NMR spectra. The results depict the quantification of dextrose concentration according to the ratios of spectral peaks obtained by proton MRS at 1.5T. Using proton MRS at 1.5T, and on the basis of the ratios of spectcal peaks, it was possible to quantify the concentration of dextrose in model solutions of dextrose + water and dextrose + water+ ethanol. The results of this study suggest that for quantifying the contents of biofluids, the use of low-tesla 1 H-MRS is feasible

  1. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijen, P.C. van.

    1991-01-01

    In-vivo proton and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to detect changes in cerebral metabolism during ischemia and other types of metabolic stress. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in an animal model to observe morphological alterations during focal cerebral ischemia. Spectroscopy was performed in animal models with global ischemia, in volunteers during hyperventilation and pharmaco-logically altered cerebral perfusion, and in patients with acute and prolonged focal cerebral ischemia. (author). 396 refs.; 44 figs.; 14 tabs

  2. Age dependency of myocardial triglyceride content. A 3T high-field {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petritsch, B.; Gassenmaier, T.; Kunz, A.S.; Donhauser, J.; Bley, T.A.; Horn, M. [University Hospital of Wuerzburg (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Goltz, J.P. [University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany). Clinic for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2015-11-15

    The role of myocardial triglyceride (mTG) content in the aging human heart is not entirely understood. The aim of this study was to measure concentrations of mTG content from healthy volunteers and to determine the association between age, mTG content and systolic heart function. Furthermore, the technical stability of the {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) and the reliability of peak evaluation at 3 T were evaluated. The total study population of 47 healthy volunteers was divided into 4 age classes, according to the age of the subjects (1{sup st} cohort 20-29 years (yrs.), n=20; 2{sup nd} cohort 30-39 yrs., n=10; 3{sup rd} cohort 40-49 yrs., n=9; 4{sup th} cohort 50-60 yrs., n=8). Cardiac MRI and double triggered {sup 1}H-MRS of the myocardium were consecutively performed using a 3 T scanner. Each participant underwent spectroscopic measurements twice in the same investigation. mTG content increases with age. The correlation of age and mTG is minimal (r=0.48; p<0.001). The following age-averaged mTG content values expressed as % of mTG signal compared to the water signal were determined for each cohort: 1{sup st} cohort 0.25 % (± 0.17); 2{sup nd} cohort 0.48 % (± 0.30); 3{sup rd} cohort 0.48 % (± 0.18); 4{sup th} cohort 0.77 % (± 0.70). There was no significant correlation (r=0.04; p=n.s.) between LV mass and mTG content in healthy volunteers. Within our cohorts, no effects of age or mTG content on systolic heart function were seen (r=-0.01; p=n.s.). The intraclass correlation coefficient of spectroscopic measurements was high (r=0.965; p<0.001). Myocardial TG content increases with age. The normal age-dependent concentration ranges of myocardial lipid metabolites reported in this study may be helpful for the correction of acquired {sup 1}H-MRS data in patients when evaluating metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in future magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies.

  3. Age dependency of myocardial triglyceride content. A 3T high-field 1H-MR spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petritsch, B.; Gassenmaier, T.; Kunz, A.S.; Donhauser, J.; Bley, T.A.; Horn, M.; Goltz, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    The role of myocardial triglyceride (mTG) content in the aging human heart is not entirely understood. The aim of this study was to measure concentrations of mTG content from healthy volunteers and to determine the association between age, mTG content and systolic heart function. Furthermore, the technical stability of the 1 H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) and the reliability of peak evaluation at 3 T were evaluated. The total study population of 47 healthy volunteers was divided into 4 age classes, according to the age of the subjects (1 st cohort 20-29 years (yrs.), n=20; 2 nd cohort 30-39 yrs., n=10; 3 rd cohort 40-49 yrs., n=9; 4 th cohort 50-60 yrs., n=8). Cardiac MRI and double triggered 1 H-MRS of the myocardium were consecutively performed using a 3 T scanner. Each participant underwent spectroscopic measurements twice in the same investigation. mTG content increases with age. The correlation of age and mTG is minimal (r=0.48; p<0.001). The following age-averaged mTG content values expressed as % of mTG signal compared to the water signal were determined for each cohort: 1 st cohort 0.25 % (± 0.17); 2 nd cohort 0.48 % (± 0.30); 3 rd cohort 0.48 % (± 0.18); 4 th cohort 0.77 % (± 0.70). There was no significant correlation (r=0.04; p=n.s.) between LV mass and mTG content in healthy volunteers. Within our cohorts, no effects of age or mTG content on systolic heart function were seen (r=-0.01; p=n.s.). The intraclass correlation coefficient of spectroscopic measurements was high (r=0.965; p<0.001). Myocardial TG content increases with age. The normal age-dependent concentration ranges of myocardial lipid metabolites reported in this study may be helpful for the correction of acquired 1 H-MRS data in patients when evaluating metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in future magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies.

  4. Evaluating childhood obesity. Magnetic resonance-based quantification of abdominal adipose tissue and liver fat in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raschpichler, M.C.; Leipzig Univ. Medical Center; Sorge, I.; Hirsch, W.; Mende, M.; Sergeyev, E.; Koerner, A.; Kruber, D.; Schick, F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish and validate a magnetic resonance (MR)-based fat quantification package that provides an accurate assessment of abdominal adipose tissue and liver fat in children. Ex vivo trials with a torso model and water-oil mixtures are conducted. Abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) is covered by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a fat-selective sequence and is analyzed by a plug-in based on the open source software Image. Liver fat (LF) is measured with localized 1 H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) and the jMRUI (java-based Magnetic Resonance User Interface) software package. Evaluation of the clinical methodology involved a study of 10 children in this feasibility study (mean age and body mass index: 13.3 yr; 33.3 kg/m 2 ). To evaluate the method's validity, reference measurements were performed. Ex vivo trials with the torso model showed that adipose tissue was measured appropriately with a systematic underestimation by 9.3 ± 0.2 % (0.32 ± 0.064 kg). Coefficients of variation for both intra- and inter-observer measurements ranged between 0 - 2.7 % and repeated analyses showed significant equivalent results (p 1 H MRS ex vivo revealed significant equivalence with the predefined fat content in water-oil mixtures (p < 0.01). In vivo, the homemade plug-in significantly overestimated the AAT, with the visceral adipose tissue being most affected (+ 15.7 ± 8.4 %). Although an overestimation of the AAT by the presented plug-in should be taken into consideration, this children-friendly package enables the quantification of both LF and AAT within 30 min on a freeware-based platform. (orig.)

  5. Evaluating childhood obesity. Magnetic resonance-based quantification of abdominal adipose tissue and liver fat in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raschpichler, M.C. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Paediatric Radiology; Leipzig Univ. Medical Center (Germany). IFB Adiposity Diseases; Sorge, I.; Hirsch, W. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Paediatric Radiology; Mende, M. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Clinical Trial Centre Leipzig; Sergeyev, E.; Koerner, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). University Hospital for Children and Adolescents; Kruber, D. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Oral, Craniomaxillofacial and Facial Plastic Surgery; Schick, F. [Univ. Hospital Tuebingen (Germany). Section on Experimental Radiology

    2012-04-15

    The purpose of this study is to establish and validate a magnetic resonance (MR)-based fat quantification package that provides an accurate assessment of abdominal adipose tissue and liver fat in children. Ex vivo trials with a torso model and water-oil mixtures are conducted. Abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) is covered by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a fat-selective sequence and is analyzed by a plug-in based on the open source software Image. Liver fat (LF) is measured with localized {sup 1}H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) and the jMRUI (java-based Magnetic Resonance User Interface) software package. Evaluation of the clinical methodology involved a study of 10 children in this feasibility study (mean age and body mass index: 13.3 yr; 33.3 kg/m{sup 2}). To evaluate the method's validity, reference measurements were performed. Ex vivo trials with the torso model showed that adipose tissue was measured appropriately with a systematic underestimation by 9.3 {+-} 0.2 % (0.32 {+-} 0.064 kg). Coefficients of variation for both intra- and inter-observer measurements ranged between 0 - 2.7 % and repeated analyses showed significant equivalent results (p < 0.01). The lipid content obtained by {sup 1}H MRS ex vivo revealed significant equivalence with the predefined fat content in water-oil mixtures (p < 0.01). In vivo, the homemade plug-in significantly overestimated the AAT, with the visceral adipose tissue being most affected (+ 15.7 {+-} 8.4 %). Although an overestimation of the AAT by the presented plug-in should be taken into consideration, this children-friendly package enables the quantification of both LF and AAT within 30 min on a freeware-based platform. (orig.)

  6. Fast Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Short-Lived Radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Hansen, Karina Benthin

    1976-01-01

    We report the first application of pulsed resonance Raman spectroscopy to the study of short-lived free radicals produced by pulse radiolysis. A single pulse from a flash-lamp pumped tunable dye laser is used to excite the resonance Raman spectrum of the p-terphenyl anion radical with an initial...

  7. Acoustic resonance spectroscopy for the advanced undergraduate laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco-Villafañe, J A; Méndez-Sánchez, R A; Flores-Olmedo, E; Báez, G; Gandarilla-Carrillo, O

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple experiment that allows advanced undergraduates to learn the principles and applications of spectroscopy. The technique, known as acoustic resonance spectroscopy, is applied to study a vibrating rod. The setup includes electromagnetic-acoustic transducers, an audio amplifier and a vector network analyzer. Typical results of compressional, torsional and bending waves are analyzed and compared with analytical results. (paper)

  8. High energy resolution off-resonant X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojciech, Blachucki [Univ. of Fribourg (Switzerland). Dept. of Physics

    2015-10-16

    This work treats of the high energy resolution off-resonant X-ray spectroscopy (HEROS) method of determining the density of unoccupied electronic states in the vicinity of the absorption edge. HEROS is an alternative to the existing X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) methods and opens the way for new studies not achievable before.

  9. Resonant double photoionisation spectroscopy of strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokell, E; Grimm, M; Sheridan, P, E-mail: emma.sokell@ucd.i, E-mail: paul.sheridan@ucd.i [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2009-11-01

    Resonant triple-differential cross-section (TDCS) measurements on atomic strontium on the 4p {yields} 4d resonance are presented. All of these TDCS measurements display unexpected lobes at a mutual emission angle for the two electrons of 180{sup o}. Possible explanations for these lobes are explored.

  10. Nanometrology using localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Claus; Lindstedt, Daniel N.; Laurberg, Asger V.

    2013-01-01

    in a transmission spectrum and it is very sensitive to the constituent materials as well as both lateral and vertical dimensions of the structures. This makes LSPR spectroscopy interesting for a number of applications including nanometrology. Like scatterometry, LSPR spectroscopy requires test structures...... and computer simulations to establish the correlation between spectra and physical dimensions. Instead of measuring on individual structures like CD-SEM and AFM, LSPR spectroscopy measures on an array of test structures with an arbitrary array size. This makes LSPR spectroscopy particularly interesting...... for dense device layers where the vacant space for test structures is limited.In this work, LSPR spectroscopy is used to evaluate a fabrication process including imprinting, etching and metallisation of gammadion test structures distributed on a 4” wafer....

  11. Synchrotron radiation resonance Raman spectroscopy (SR3S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hester, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The use of normal Raman spectroscopy and resonance Raman spectroscopy to study the structure of molecular species and the nature of their chemical bonds is discussed. The availability of a fully tunable radiation source (the Synchrotron Radiation Source) extending into the ultraviolet raises the possibility of using synchrotron radiation resonance Raman spectroscopy as a sensitive and specific analytical probe. The pulsed nature of the SRS beam may be exploited for time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy and its high degree of polarization could be very helpful in the interpretation of spectra. The possibilities are considered under the headings: intensity requirements and comparison with other sources; some applications (e.g. structure of proteins; study of iron-porphyrin unit; study of chlorophylls). (U.K.)

  12. Absolute choline concentration measured by quantitative proton MR spectroscopy correlates with cell density in meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Qiang [University of Tsukuba, Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki (Japan)]|[West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Huaxi MR Research Center, Department of Radiology, Chengdu (China); Shibata, Yasushi; Kawamura, Hiraku; Matsumura, Akira [University of Tsukuba, Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki (Japan); Isobe, Tomonori [Kitasato University, Department of Medical Technology, School of Allied Health Sciences, Minato, Tokyo (Japan); Anno, Izumi [University of Tsukuba, Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Gong, Qi-Yong [West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Huaxi MR Research Center, Department of Radiology, Chengdu (China)]|[University of Liverpool, Division of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and pathological changes in meningioma. Twenty-two meningioma cases underwent single voxel 1H-MRS (point-resolved spectroscopy sequence, repetition time/echo time = 2,000 ms/68, 136, 272 ms). Absolute choline (Cho) concentration was calculated using tissue water as the internal reference and corrected according to intra-voxel cystic/necrotic parts. Pathological specimens were stained with MIB-1 antibody to measure cell density and proliferation index. Correlation analysis was performed between absolute Cho concentration and cell density and MIB-1 labeled proliferation index. Average Cho concentration of all meningiomas before correction was 2.95 {+-} 0.86 mmol/kg wet weight. It was increased to 3.23 {+-} 1.15 mmol/kg wet weight after correction. Average cell density of all meningiomas was 333 {+-} 119 cells/HPF, and average proliferation index was 2.93 {+-} 5.72%. A linear, positive correlation between cell density and Cho concentration was observed (r = 0.650, P = 0.001). After correction of Cho concentration, the correlation became more significant (r = 0.737, P < 0.001). However, no significant correlation between Cho concentration and proliferation index was found. There seemed to be a positive correlation trend after correction of Cho concentration but did not reach significant level. Absolute Cho concentration, especially Cho concentration corrected according to intra-voxel cystic/necrotic parts, reflects cell density of meningioma. (orig.)

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Weiping; Wang Qi; Zhou Xin

    2013-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the basic principle of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Protein's structures and functions and dynamics studied by liquid NMR are elaborated; methods for enhancing the resolution of solid state NMR and its applications are discussed; the principle of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is interpreted, and applications in different aspects are reviewed. Finally, the progress of NMR is commented. (authors)

  14. SU-F-I-68: Longitudinal Neurochemical Changes On Rat Prefrontal Cortex of Single Prolonged Stress Model by Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 9.4T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S-I; Yoo, C-H; Song, K-H; Choe, B-Y; Woo, D-C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Single prolonged stress (SPS) is an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it has not been known how PTSD develops from the first exposure to traumatic events and neurochemical differences between acute/single stress and PTSD-triggering stress. Therefore, the object of this study is to determine time-dependent neurochemical changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=14; body weight=200–220g) were used. The SPS protocol was used in this study. Rats were restrained for 2h and then immediately forced to swim for 20min in water (20–24 Celsius). After a 15-min recuperation period, rats were exposed to ether (using a desiccator) until general anesthesia occurred (<5min). In vivo proton MRS was performed 30min before the SPS (Base), approximately 10min after the SPS (D+0), 3 (D+3) and 7 (D+7) days after SPS to investigate time-dependent changes on metabolites levels in the PFC. Acquisition of in vivo MRS spectra and MRI was conducted at the four time points using 9.4 T Agilent Scanner. Concentration of metabolites was quantified by LCModel. Results: Statistical significance was analyzed using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey HSD tests to assess the metabolite changes in the PFC. The SPS resulted in significant stress-induced differences for 7 days in glutamine (F(3,52)=6.750, P=0.001), choline-containing compounds (F(3,52)=16.442, P=0.000), glutamine/glutamate concentrations (F(3,52)=7.352, P=0.000). Conclusion: PTSD in human is associated with decreased neuronal activity in the PFC. In this study, SPS altered total choline, glutamine levels but not NAA levels in the PFC of the rats. Therefore, for the three stressors and quiescent period of seven days, SPS attenuated excitatory tone and membrane turnover but did not affect neural integrity in the PFC.

  15. SU-F-I-68: Longitudinal Neurochemical Changes On Rat Prefrontal Cortex of Single Prolonged Stress Model by Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 9.4T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, S-I; Yoo, C-H [Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, K-H; Choe, B-Y [Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, D-C [Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Single prolonged stress (SPS) is an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it has not been known how PTSD develops from the first exposure to traumatic events and neurochemical differences between acute/single stress and PTSD-triggering stress. Therefore, the object of this study is to determine time-dependent neurochemical changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=14; body weight=200–220g) were used. The SPS protocol was used in this study. Rats were restrained for 2h and then immediately forced to swim for 20min in water (20–24 Celsius). After a 15-min recuperation period, rats were exposed to ether (using a desiccator) until general anesthesia occurred (<5min). In vivo proton MRS was performed 30min before the SPS (Base), approximately 10min after the SPS (D+0), 3 (D+3) and 7 (D+7) days after SPS to investigate time-dependent changes on metabolites levels in the PFC. Acquisition of in vivo MRS spectra and MRI was conducted at the four time points using 9.4 T Agilent Scanner. Concentration of metabolites was quantified by LCModel. Results: Statistical significance was analyzed using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey HSD tests to assess the metabolite changes in the PFC. The SPS resulted in significant stress-induced differences for 7 days in glutamine (F(3,52)=6.750, P=0.001), choline-containing compounds (F(3,52)=16.442, P=0.000), glutamine/glutamate concentrations (F(3,52)=7.352, P=0.000). Conclusion: PTSD in human is associated with decreased neuronal activity in the PFC. In this study, SPS altered total choline, glutamine levels but not NAA levels in the PFC of the rats. Therefore, for the three stressors and quiescent period of seven days, SPS attenuated excitatory tone and membrane turnover but did not affect neural integrity in the PFC.

  16. Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Free Radicals Produced by Ionizing Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilbrandt, Robert Walter

    1984-01-01

    Applications of time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy to the study of short-lived free radicals produced by ionizing radiation are briefly reviewed. Potential advantages and limitations of this technique are discussed in the light of given examples. The reduction of p-nitrobenzylchloride and......Applications of time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy to the study of short-lived free radicals produced by ionizing radiation are briefly reviewed. Potential advantages and limitations of this technique are discussed in the light of given examples. The reduction of p......-nitrobenzylchloride and subsequent formation of the p-nitrobenzyl radical and the reaction of p-nitrotoluene with O– are studied by resonance Raman and optical absorption spectroscopy....

  17. Ion-cyclotron-resonance- and Fourier-transform-ion-cyclotron-resonance spectroscopy: technology and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luederwald, I.

    1977-01-01

    Instrumentation and technology of Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance and Fourier-Transform-Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance Spectroscopy are described. The method can be applied to studies of ion/molecule reactions in gas phase, to obtain thermodynamic data as gas phase acidity or basicity, proton and electron affinity, and to establish reaction mechanisms and ion structures. (orig.) [de

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in food applications: a critical appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divakar, S.

    1998-01-01

    Usefulness of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in food applications is presented in this review. Some of the basic concepts of NMR pertaining to one-dimensional and two-dimensional techniques, solid-state NMR and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are discussed. Food applications dealt with encompass such diverse areas like nature and state of water in foods, detection and quantitation of important constituents of foods, intact food systems and NMR related to food biology. (author)

  19. Clinical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The advantages and present limitations of the clinical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are reviewed in outline, with passing references to skeletal muscular studies, in particular a group of children with advanced Duchenne dystrophy, and the applications to the study of cerebral metabolism of neonates, excised kidneys, biopsy studies of breast and axillary lymph node samples, and NMR spectroscopy performed during chemotherapy of a secondary rhabdomyosarcoma in the skin. (U.K.)

  20. Clinical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, R.J. (Glasgow Western Infirmary (UK))

    1984-09-01

    The advantages and present limitations of the clinical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are reviewed in outline, with passing references to skeletal muscular studies, in particular a group of children with advanced Duchenne dystrophy, and the applications to the study of cerebral metabolism of neonates, excised kidneys, biopsy studies of breast and axillary lymph node samples, and NMR spectroscopy performed during chemotherapy of a secondary rhabdomyosarcoma in the skin.

  1. In the assessment of supratentorial glioma grade: The combined role of multivoxel proton MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Q.-G.; Xu, H.-B.; Liu, F.; Guo, W.; Kong, X.-C.; Wu, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To detect a difference in the parameters derived from proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) between low-grade and high-grade gliomas, and to evaluate whether the combination of these two techniques can improve the diagnostic accuracy of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in supratentorial glioma grading. Materials and methods: Thirty patients with histologically proved supratentorial brain gliomas (12 low grade, 18 high grade) were prospectively evaluated with contrast material-enhanced MRI, DTI, and multivoxel 1 H-MRS (135 ms echo time). The tumour grades determined using the three methods were then compared with those obtained at histopathology. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to determine the optimum thresholds for glioma grading. Independent sample t-test, Spearman's rank correlation, and the Fisher's exact test were also carried out for statistical analysis. p -6 mm 2 /s for the calculated ADC value, corresponding to the maximum Youden index from the ROC curve of the above-selected parameters, the resultant sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs), and Kappa values were all higher and the fraction of misclassified tumour was lower when compared with conventional MRI. However, only NAA/Cho and ADC calculation contributed to the significant difference (p < 0.01) in the assessment of glioma grade compared to conventional MRI alone, and the grading results of statistical tests comparing those two parameters were highly consistent (kappa value = 0.798). Conclusion: Thresholds for NAA/Cho and calculated ADC values, corresponding to maximum Youden index from ROC curve analyses, helped to improve the accuracy of supratentorial glioma grading when compared with conventional MRI alone. In addition, a combination of NAA/Cho and ADC calculation were more useful together than each alone in a clinical setting to evaluate

  2. Periodontitis diagnostics using resonance Raman spectroscopy on saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Biryukova, T.; Tsvetkov, M.; Bagratashvily, V.

    2013-07-01

    In view of its wealth of molecular information, Raman spectroscopy has been the subject of active biomedical research. The aim of this work is Raman spectroscopy (RS) application for the determination of molecular biomarkers in saliva with the objective of early periodontitis detection. As was shown in our previous study, carotenoids contained in saliva can be molecular fingerprint information for the periodontitis level. It is shown here that the carotenoid RS lines at wavenumbers of 1156 and 1524 cm-1 can be easily detected and serve as reliable biomarkers of periodontitis using resonance Raman spectroscopy of dry saliva.

  3. Periodontitis diagnostics using resonance Raman spectroscopy on saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonchukov, S; Sukhinina, A; Bakhmutov, D; Biryukova, T; Tsvetkov, M; Bagratashvily, V

    2013-01-01

    In view of its wealth of molecular information, Raman spectroscopy has been the subject of active biomedical research. The aim of this work is Raman spectroscopy (RS) application for the determination of molecular biomarkers in saliva with the objective of early periodontitis detection. As was shown in our previous study, carotenoids contained in saliva can be molecular fingerprint information for the periodontitis level. It is shown here that the carotenoid RS lines at wavenumbers of 1156 and 1524 cm −1 can be easily detected and serve as reliable biomarkers of periodontitis using resonance Raman spectroscopy of dry saliva. (letter)

  4. Proton resonance spectroscopy in 40Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warthen, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    The differential cross sections for the 39 K(p,p o ) 39 K and 39 K-(p,α o ) 36 Ar reactions have been measured for E p = 1.90 to 4.02 MeV at laboratory angles θ = 90 degree, 108 degree, 150 degree and 165 degree. Data were taken with the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) KN Van de Graaff accelerator and the associated high resolution system. The targets consisted of 1-2 μg/cm 2 of potassium carbonate (K 2 CO 3 ), enriched to 99.97% 39 K, evaporated onto gold coated carbon backings. Excitation functions were measured in proton energy steps varying from 100 to 400 3V. The energy region studied corresponds to an excitation energy range in the 40 Ca nucleus of E x = 10.2 to 12.3 MeV. A multi-level multi-channel R-matrix based computer code was used to fit the experimental excitation functions. Resonance parameters obtained include resonance energy, spin, parity, partial widths, and channel spin and orbital angular momentum mixing ratios. Of the 248 resonances observed in the proton channel, 148 were also observed in the alpha channel. A fit to the observed level density yielded a nuclear temperature of 1.5 MeV. The data were compared with predictions of statistical theories of energy levels for both level spacing and reduced width distributions. The alpha reduced widths agree with the Porter-Thomas distribution and suggest that only 5-10% of the states with alpha widths were not observed. The summed strength in each of the alpha channels represents a significant fraction of the Wigner limit for these channels. The proton channels, on the other hand, generally have much smaller fractions. The two proton s-wave strength functions are equal and thus show no evidence for spin-exchange forces in the nucleon-nucleus interaction

  5. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of musculoskeletal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Flavia Martins; Setti, Marcela; Vianna, Evandro Miguelote; Domingues, Romulo Cortes; Meohas, Walter; Rezende, Jose Francisco; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the role of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in the differentiation between malignant and benign musculoskeletal tumors. Materials And Methods: Fifty-five patients with musculoskeletal tumors (27 malignant and 28 benign) were studied. The examinations were performed in a 1.5 T magnetic resonance scanner with standard protocol, and single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy with 135 msec echo time. The dynamic contrast study was performed using T1-weighted gradient-echo sequence after intravenous gadolinium injection. Time signal intensity curves and slope values were calculated. The statistical analysis was performed with the Levene's test, followed by a Student's t-test, besides the Pearson's chi-squared and Fischer's exact tests. Results: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were, respectively, 87.5%, 92.3% and 90.9% (p < 0.0001). Statistically significant difference was observed in the slope (%/min) between benign (mean, 27.5%/min) and malignant (mean, 110.9%/min) lesions (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The time-intensity curve and slope values using dynamic-enhanced perfusion magnetic resonance imaging in association with the presence of choline peak demonstrated by single voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy study are useful in the differentiation between malignant and benign musculoskeletal tumors. (author)

  6. Localized single voxel 1H MR spectroscopy toward routine clinical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Hee; Choi, Choong Gon; Kim, Sang Tae; Kim, Jin Suh; Mun, Chi Woong; Suh, Dae Chul; Lim, Tae Hwan; Auh, Young Ho

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the automated 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) method for a routine clinical use, various regions of the normal human brain were examined for regional variations, the reproducibility, and the quality control of the spectral data. Localized 1 H-MRS was performed in a GE 1.5T SIGNA MRI/MRS system using the automated method (PROton Brain Exam:PROBE). Six regions of the human brain from normal volunteers (N=25, age=23-65) were examined: Occipital gray matter, parietal white matter, frontal white matter, pons, cerebellum, and basal ganglia region. STEAM was used as the localization method with the following parameters : TE=30 msec, TR=3.0 sec, AVG=48 AVG, NEX=2, Spectral Width (SW)=2500 Hz, Size (SI)=2048 points (2K), and the size of voxel=7-9 ml. The reproducibility and the quality control of the spectral data were evaluated. For the 6 regions, the regional variation by the spectral patterns and the metabolites ratios relative to creatine was well demonstrated. Rates of the auto prescan success and the percentages of obtaining the acceptable quality spectral were high in the parietal white matter, occipital gray matter, and basal ganglia regions, and low in the frontal white matter and pons regions. PROBE is a highly practical as well as reliable method to produce reproducible quality spectra that represent the regional metabolic exam or as an additional series to a routine brain MRI exam, which takes less than 10 minutes for acquisition of one spectrum. In order to obtain good quality spectra, a good quality control scheme of the MR instrument is mandatory

  7. Spectroscopy of hadron resonances on the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, Gunnar; Burch, Tommy; Ehmann, Christian; Goeckeler, Meinulf; Hagen, Christian; Schaefer, Andreas [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Gattringer, Christof; Lang, Christian; Limmer, Markus; Mohler, Daniel [Institut fuer Physik, FB Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    The reproduction of the hadron mass spectrum from first principles is an important task for lattice QCD. While ground state spectroscopy, especially in the quenched approximation, is by now well understood, a clean extraction of excited hadron masses from a lattice QCD simulation still is a serious challenge. We discuss the relevant techniques for spectroscopy calculations on the lattice, in particular the variational technique which is needed for separating the different excited states from the ground state. Using this method we study three different sectors of the hadron spectrum. In the light quark sector we present hadron masses obtained from simulations with dynamical approximately chiral fermions, so-called Chirally Improved Fermions. For charmonium, we are able to extract masses for a number of excited states including ones with higher spin and exotic quantum numbers. The heavy-light hadron sector is investigated in the static-light approximation, i.e., the heavy quark is treated as infinitely heavy. Also here we are able to determine a large number of excitations.

  8. Introduction to Spin Label Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Michelle; Sood, Abha; Torok, Fanni; Torok, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory exercise is described to demonstrate the biochemical applications of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The beta93 cysteine residue of hemoglobin is labeled by the covalent binding of 3-maleimido-proxyl (5-MSL) and 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1-oxyl-3-methyl methanethiosulfonate (MTSL), respectively. The excess…

  9. Role of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammed Mahmoud Donia

    2012-01-23

    Jan 23, 2012 ... Subjects and methods: This study included seven pediatric patients ... ton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was done using either single or multi-voxel technique. ... with increased NAA/Cr ratio (2.32 ± 1.1). ... Table 1 Summary of the spectroscopic MRI findings in the seven patients included in the study.

  10. Resonant Dipole Nanoantenna Arrays for Enhanced Terahertz Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Toma, A.

    2015-08-04

    Our recent studies on dipole nanoantenna arrays resonating in the terahertz frequency range (0.1 – 10 THz) will be presented. The main near- and far-field properties of these nanostructures will be shown and their application in enhanced terahertz spectroscopy of tiny quantities of nanomaterials will be discussed.

  11. Strong overtones and combination bands in ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efremov, E.V.; Ariese, F.; Mank, A.J.G.; Gooijer, C.

    2006-01-01

    Ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy is carried out using a continuous wave frequency-doubled argon ion laser operated at 229, 244, and 257 nm in order to characterize the overtones and combination bands for several classes of organic compounds in liquid solutions. Contrary to what is generally

  12. A preliminary study on visual cortex and optic radiation with diabetic retinopathy by 1H-MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiang; Li Baoqing; Hong Hai; Chen Ping; Chen Jukun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the metabolic change of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) in the visual cortex and optic radiation region of patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: 1 H-MRS was performed in 20 patients with DR and 20 healthy volunteers on GE 1.5 T MR system respectively. Metabolic peaks of N-acetylasparte (NAA), creatine (Cr, in 3.02 and 3.94 ppm), choline-containing compounds (Cho) and myo-inositol (mi) were observed, and the ratios were analyzed by each other. Independent-samples t test was performed between two sets of data. Results: In both visual cortex and optic radiation, the ratios of mI/Cr and mI/Cr sec in DR group (0.664±0.052 and 1.453± 0.068 in visual cortex, 0.717±0.074 and 1.484±0.114 in optic radiation) were significant higher than those in normal group (0.602±0.047 and 1.249±0.044 in visual cortex, 0.679±0.075 and 1.334± 0.089 in optic radiation, P sec /Cr, Cho/Cr and NAA/Cr in visual cortex and optic radiation were 0.458±0.043 and 0.488±0.052, 0.481±0.057 and 0.807±0.110, 1.633±0.105 and 1.709±0.140 respectively. In control group, the ratios of those were 0.484±0.041 and 0.502±0.056, 0.471±0.065 and 0.786±0.109, 1.625±0.098 and 1.716±0.135 respectively. The ratios of Cr sec /Cr, Cho/Cr and NAA/Cr had no statistic difference between two groups (P sec is a typical change in the visual cortex and optic radiation region, 1 H-MRS as a noninvasive examination could provide biochemical and metabolic informations for diabetic patients. (authors)

  13. Photon cooperative effect in resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veklenko, B.A.

    1998-01-01

    A systematic method is proposed for calculating the density matrix of subsystems interacting with their environment under conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium. The density matrix of photons resonantly interacting with a surrounding gas is calculated. It is shown that use of the Gibbs distribution allows one to completely eliminate inelastic processes from the calculations. A correct account of photon-photon correlators indicates the presence of new cooperative effects. A new branch of the polariton spectrum is predicted, which is due to the presence of excited atoms in the medium. With the help of the density matrix the mean filling numbers of the photon modes are calculated. In terms of wavelengths, we have obtained a generalization of the Planck formula which accounts for photon cooperative phenomena. The manifestation of these effects in kinetic processes is discussed

  14. Progress in zirconium resonance ionization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, R.H.; Dropinski, S.C.; Worden, E.F.; Stockdale, J.A.D.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have examined the stepwise-resonant three-photon-ionization spectrum of neutral zirconium atoms using three separately-tunable pulsed visible dye lasers. The ground-level (first-step) transitions were chosen on the basis of demonstrated 91 Zr selectivity. Lifetimes of even-parity levels around 36,000 cm -1 , measured with the delayed-photoionization technique, range from 10 to 100 nsec. Direct ionization cross sections appear to be less than 10 -17 cm 2 ; newly-detected autoionizing levels give peak ionization cross sections (inferred from saturation fluences) up to 10 -15 cm 2 . Portions of Rydberg series converging to the 315 and 763 cm -1 levels of Zr + were identified. Clumps of autoionizing levels are thought to be due to Rydberg-valence mixing

  15. Quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the normal liver and malignant hepatic lesions at 3.0 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbach, F.; Thormann, M.; Ricke, J.; Schirmer, T.; Freund, T.; Bruhn, H.

    2008-01-01

    This comparative study of tumour patients and volunteers aimed at differentiating liver parenchyma from neoplastic lesions by using localised 1 H MRS at 3.0 T as an adjunct to MRI. In total 186 single-voxel proton spectra of the liver were acquired at 3.0 T using the body transmit receive coil. Consecutive stacks of breath-hold spectra were acquired in the PRESS technique at a short echo time of 35 ms and a repetition time of 2,000 ms. Processing of the spectra included spectral alignment with the software package SAGE and quantitative processing with LCModel. The resulting metabolite concentrations were presented in arbitrary units relative to the internal water. In general, the spectra showed four main groups of resonances originating from the methyl protons (0.8-1.1 ppm) and methylene protons of the lipids (1.1-1.5 ppm; 2.0-2.2 ppm) as well as the methyl protons of choline-containing compounds (CCC) at 3.2 ppm. Overall, the CCC and lipid values in malignant liver tumours showed no significant differences to liver parenchyma. On average, total lipid measurements in normal liver parenchyma increased with age, while those of the CCC did not show pertinent changes. Significant differences between the contents of CCC in malignant liver tumours and normal liver parenchyma were not observed, because in patients and volunteers normal liver tissue showed a large variability in the content of CCC. (orig.)

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in current medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganssen, A.; Hartl, W.; Kaiser, W.; Margosian, P.; Weikl, A.

    1987-01-01

    The first MR scanning methods have been developed to a maturity allowing application for clinical MRI. Essentially reduced measuring periods are possible now in connection with three-dimensional and multi-layer methods, and this certainly will have a positive effect towards enhanced use of MRI. Still shorter measuring periods is the future goal with regard to so important examinations as chest studies. MR angiography without contrast agent is applicable now for clinical examination of larger vessels. For small vessels, size-adjusted surface coils are required. A number of specially tailored surface coils is available now for achieving high spatial resolution in the regions of interest. This trend will continue. In-vivo MR spectroscopy now offers methods of selection of the volume of interest that encourage clinical trial application. Due to the rapidly growing experience obtained by in-vivo animal experiments, correlations can now be revealed between MRS data and pathologic conditions. Despite the still unresolved sensitivity problems, clinical applicability can be expected in a not too far future. (orig./SHA) [de

  17. Resonance ionization spectroscopy using ultraviolet laser

    CERN Document Server

    Han, J M; Ko, D K; Park, H M; Rhee, Y J

    2002-01-01

    In this study, Ti:sapphire laser which is pumped by the enhanced Nd:YAG laser using laser diode, was designed and manufactured. The AO Q-switched CW Nd:YAG laser was converted into a high repetition plus-type laser using the AO Q-switch, and two heads were installed inside the cavity in order to improve the laser beam quality. The Nd:YAG laser enhancement was completed by optimization using a simulation for the cavity length, structure and thermal lens effect that greatly effected the laser beam output and quality. As the result of the enhancement, a 30W laser at 532nm and at 5k-Hz was successfully made. Also, the Ti:sapphire laser that will be used for atomic spectroscopy which is pumped by the Nd:YAG laser, was completely designed. As a basic experiment for laser oscillation. We measured the tunability of the laser, and it turned out that the wave tunability range was 730 850 nm. A self-seeding type tunable laser using grating for narrow line width, is planned to be designed due to the fact that the Ti:sapp...

  18. Improved single ion cyclotron resonance mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyce, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    The author has improved the state of the art for precision mass spectroscopy of a mass doublet to below one part in 10 10 . By alternately loading single ions into a Penning trap, the author has determined the mass ratio M(CO + )/M(N + 2 ) = 0.999 598 887 74(11), an accuracy of 1 x 10 -10 . This is a factor of 4 improvement over previous measurements, and a factor of 10 better than the 1985 atomic mass table adjustment [WAA85a]. Much of the author's apparatus has been rebuilt, increasing the signal-to-noise ratio and improving the reliability of the machine. The typical time needed to make and cool a single ion has been reduced from about half an hour to under 5 minutes. This was done by a combination of faster ion-making and a much faster procedure for driving out ions of the wrong species. The improved S/N, in combination with a much better signal processing algorithm to extract the ion phase and frequency from the author's data, has substantially reduced the time required for the actual measurements. This is important now that the measurement time is a substantial fraction of the cycle time (the time to make a new ion and measure it). The improvements allow over 30 comparisons in one night, compared to 2 per night previously. This not only improves the statistics, but eliminates the possibility of large non-Gaussian errors due to sudden magnetic field shifts

  19. Wax Point Determinations Using Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, D.T.; Jubin, R.T.; Schmidt, T.W.

    2001-06-01

    The thermodynamic characterization of the wax point of a given crude is essential in order to maintain flow conditions that prevent plugging of undersea pipelines. This report summarizes the efforts made towards applying an Acoustic Cavity Resonance Spectrometer (ACRS) to the determination of pressures and temperatures at which wax precipitates from crude. Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc., the CRADA participant, supplied the ACRS. The instrumentation was shipped to Dr. Thomas Schmidt of ORNL, the CRADA contractor, in May 2000 after preliminary software development performed under the guidance of Dr. Samuel Colgate and Dr. Evan House of the University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl. Upon receipt it became apparent that a number of modifications still needed to be made before the ACRS could be precisely and safely used for wax point measurements. This report reviews the sequence of alterations made to the ACRS, as well as defines the possible applications of the instrumentation once the modifications have been completed. The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc. (Participant) and Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (Contractor) was the measurement of the formation of solids in crude oils and petroleum products that are commonly transported through pipelines. This information is essential in the proper design, operation and maintenance of the petroleum pipeline system in the United States. Recently, new petroleum discoveries in the Gulf of Mexico have shown that there is a potential for plugging of undersea pipeline because of the precipitation of wax. It is important that the wax points of the expected crude oils be well characterized so that the production facilities for these new wells are capable of properly transporting the expected production. The goal of this work is to perform measurements of solids formation in crude oils and petroleum products supplied by the Participant. It is

  20. Authentication Sensing System Using Resonance Evaluation Spectroscopy (ASSURES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolinger, James D.; Dioumaev, Andrei K.; Lal, Amit K.; Dimas, Dave

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes an ongoing instrument development project to distinguish genuine manufactured components from counterfeit components; we call the instrument ASSURES (Authentication Sensing System Using Resonance Evaluation Spectroscopy). The system combines Laser Doppler Vibrometry with acoustical resonance spectroscopy, augmented with finite element analysis. Vibrational properties of components, such as resonant modes, damping, and spectral frequency response to various forcing functions depend strongly upon the mechanical properties of the material, including its size, shape, internal hardness, tensile strength, alloy/composite compositions, flaws, defects, and other internal material properties. Although acoustic resonant spectroscopy has seen limited application, the information rich signals in the vibrational spectra of objects provide a pathway to many new applications. Components with the same shape but made of different materials, different fatigue histories, damage, tampering, or heat treatment, will respond differently to high frequency stimulation. Laser Doppler Vibrometry offers high sensitivity and frequency bandwidth to measure the component's frequency spectrum, and overcomes many issues that limit conventional acoustical resonance spectroscopy, since the sensor laser beam can be aimed anywhere along the part as well as to multiple locations on a part in a non-contact way. ASSURES is especially promising for use in additive manufacturing technology by providing signatures as digital codes that are unique to specific objects and even to specific locations on objects. We believe that such signatures can be employed to address many important issues in the manufacturing industry. These include insuring the part meets the often very rigid specifications of the customer and being able to detect non-visible internal manufacturing defects or non-visible damage that has occurred after manufacturing.

  1. Isomeric shift compensation when using resonance detectors in Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irkaev, S.M.; Semenkin, V.A.; Sokolov, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Method for compensation of isomeric shift of lines observed during operation of resonance detectors being part of spectrometers of nuclear gamma resonance is suggested. A flowsheet of device permitting to realize the method described is given. The method is based on using the Doppler effect. A source of resonance radiation is moved at a constant velocity, which is choosen so as to compensate energy shift of lines of the source and convertors of the resonance detector. The absorber under investigation is put in motion with a constant acceleration. The resonance detector signals are amplified selected according to amplitude by a discriminator and come to the input of multichannel analyzer operating in the regime of subsequent scaling. Analysis of experimental spectra obtained at velocities of source movement from 0 to +3 mm/s shows that value of resonance absorption effect drops as increasing energy shift in the source-converter system. It is concluded that application of the method described will permit to considerably extend the field of application of resonance detectors in the Moessbauer spectroscopy and investigate in practice all the isotopes having converted transitions [ru

  2. MR angiography, MR imaging and proton MR spectroscopy in-vivo assessment of skeletal muscle ischemia in diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Delli Pizzi

    Full Text Available To prospectively evaluate the feasibility of using magnetic resonance (MR techniques for in-vivo assessing a rat diabetic model of limb ischemia. Unilateral hind limb ischemia was induced by ligation of the iliac-femoral artery in male streptozotocin-treated and non-diabetic control rats. Four weeks after ligation, rats underwent MR Angiography (MRA, T(1-weighted and Short Time Inversion Recovery (STIR sequences and muscle Proton MR Spectroscopy ((1H-MRS on both hind limbs. After MR examinations, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analysis were performed. MRA showed a signal void due to flow discontinuation distal to the artery ligation. T(1-weighted and STIR images showed, respectively, the presence of tissue swelling (p = 0.018 for non-diabetic; p = 0.027 for diabetic rats and signal hyperintensity in tissue affected by occlusion. Mean total creatine/water for the occluded limb was significantly lower than for the non-occluded limbs in both non-diabetic (5.46×10(-4 vs 1.14×10(-3, p = 0.028 and diabetic rats (1.37×10(-4 vs 1.10×10(-3; p = 0.018. MR Imaging and (1H-MRS changes were more pronounced in diabetic than in non-diabetic occluded limbs (p = 0.032. MR findings were confirmed by using histological findings. Combined MR techniques can be used to demonstrate the presence of structural and metabolic changes produced by iliac-femoral artery occlusion in rat diabetic model of limb ischemia.

  3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy studies of proteins-glycoconjugates interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetti, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    This PhD thesis work has been focused on the analysis of the structural requisites for recognition and binding between proteins and glycoconjugates, essential for the comprehension of mechanisms of paramount importance in chemistry, biology and biomedicine. A large variety of techniques, such as crystallographic analysis, titration microcalorimetry (ITC), surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and fluorescence spectroscopy, allows the elucidation of molecular recognition events. In the last years...

  4. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with cerebral glial tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugarte Moreno, Dayana; Ugarte Suarez, Jose Carlos; Pinnera Moliner, Jesus; Gonzalez, Jose Jordan

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of the intracranial primitive tumors is about 1 to 12 cases for 100 000 inhabitants per year. The most frequent tumors are gliomas that include tumors like astrocytomas benign and malignant. We studied twenty nine patients who were sent to Medical Surgical Research Center to make a magnetic resonance with spectroscopy, in a period of 18 months. The histological result was obtained by biopsy or autopsy

  5. Clinical applications of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laubenberger, J.; Bayer, S.; Thiel, T.; Hennig, J.; Langer, M.

    1998-01-01

    In spite of all the scientific advances of the past few years, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain has not attained the status of a routine examination technique with clinically accepted indications. The method should be considered as an additional option to MR imaging for inherited and acquired encephalopathic changes as well as, in future, for localization diagnosis of epilepsies. A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic investigation without a prior intensive clinical and imaging investigation is not useful. Above all, factors influencing metabolite distribution such as for example, serum osmolability must be known. Methodological prerequisites for the clinical application of proton resonance spectroscopy are, first of all, a high stability of the chosen technique as well as a sufficiently certain quantification of metabolites and the availability of a reference group. The use of short echo times is necessary for the quantification of glutamine and the osmolyte myo-inositol. Indications for individual cases in which clinical investigations and MR topography cannot provide sufficient certainty and spectroscopy can furnish additional information are, in addition to uses in neuropediatrics, the suspicion of Alzheimer's dementia, HIV encephalopathy in early manifestations, and unclarified depressions of consciousness accompanying liver cirrhosis. (orig.) [de

  6. High resolution spectroscopy in solids by nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonagamba, T.J.

    1991-07-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques for High Resolution Spectroscopy in Solids are described. Also the construction project of a partially home made spectrometer and its applications in the characterization of solid samples are shown in detail. The high resolution spectrometer used is implemented with the double resonance multiple pulses sequences and magic angle spinning (MAS) and can be used with solid and liquid samples. The maximum spinning frequency for the MAS experiment is in excess of 5 Khz, the double resonance sequences can be performed with any type of nucleus, in the variable temperature operating range with nitrogen gas: -120 0 C to +160 0 C, and is fully controlled by a Macintosh IIci microcomputer. (author)

  7. Mesoscopic Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy with a Remote Spin Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tianyu; Shi, Fazhan; Chen, Sanyou; Guo, Maosen; Chen, Yisheng; Zhang, Yixing; Yang, Yu; Gao, Xingyu; Kong, Xi; Wang, Pengfei; Tateishi, Kenichiro; Uesaka, Tomohiro; Wang, Ya; Zhang, Bo; Du, Jiangfeng

    2018-06-01

    Quantum sensing based on nitrogen-vacancy (N -V ) centers in diamond has been developed as a powerful tool for microscopic magnetic resonance. However, the reported sensor-to-sample distance is limited within tens of nanometers resulting from the cubic decrease of the signal of spin fluctuation with the increasing distance. Here we extend the sensing distance to tens of micrometers by detecting spin polarization rather than spin fluctuation. We detect the mesoscopic magnetic resonance spectra of polarized electrons of a pentacene-doped crystal, measure its two typical decay times, and observe the optically enhanced spin polarization. This work paves the way for the N -V -based mesoscopic magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging at ambient conditions.

  8. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in pediatric neuroradiology: clinical and research applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Nelson, Marvin D.; Blueml, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) offers a unique, noninvasive approach to assess pediatric neurological abnormalities at microscopic levels by quantifying cellular metabolites. The most widely available MRS method, proton ( 1 H; hydrogen) spectroscopy, is FDA approved for general use and can be ordered by clinicians for pediatric neuroimaging studies if indicated. There are a multitude of both acquisition and post-processing methods that can be used in the implementation of MR spectroscopy. MRS in pediatric neuroimaging is challenging to interpret because of dramatic normal developmental changes that occur in metabolites, particularly in the first year of life. Still, MRS has been proven to provide additional clinically relevant information for several pediatric neurological disease processes such as brain tumors, infectious processes, white matter disorders, and neonatal injury. MRS can also be used as a powerful quantitative research tool. In this article, specific research applications using MRS will be demonstrated in relation to neonatal brain injury and pediatric brain tumor imaging. (orig.)

  9. Study of biological fluids by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriat, M.; Vion-Dury, J.; Confort-Gouny, S.; Sciaky, M.; Cozzone, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in the study of biofluids is rapidly developing and might soon constitute a new major medical application of this technique which benefits from technological and methodological progress such as higher magnetic fields, new probe design, solvent suppression sequences and advanced data processing routines. In this overview, the clinical and pharmacological impact of this new approach is examined, with emphasis on the NMR spectroscopy of plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and urine. Applications to pharmacokinetics and toxicology are illustrated. Interestingly, a number of biochemical components of fluids which are not usually assayed by conventional biochemical methods are readily detected by NMR spectroscopy which is clearly a new competitive entrant among the techniques used in clinical biology. Its ease-of-use, cost effectiveness and high informational content might turn it into a major diagnostic tool in the years to come [fr

  10. Ultrasonic Resonance Spectroscopy of Composite Rings for Flywheel Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Laura M.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2001-01-01

    Flywheel energy storage devices comprising multilayered composite rotor systems are being studied extensively for utilization in the International Space Station. These composite material systems were investigated with a recently developed ultrasonic resonance spectroscopy technique. The system employs a swept frequency approach and performs a fast Fourier transform on the frequency spectrum of the response signal. In addition. the system allows for equalization of the frequency spectrum, providing all frequencies with equal amounts of energy to excite higher order resonant harmonics. Interpretation of the second fast Fourier transform, along with equalization of the frequency spectrum, offers greater assurance in acquiring and analyzing the fundamental frequency, or spectrum resonance spacing. The range of frequencies swept in a pitch-catch mode was varied up to 8 MHz, depending on the material and geometry of the component. Single and multilayered material samples, with and without known defects, were evaluated to determine how the constituents of a composite material system affect the resonant frequency. Amplitude and frequency changes in the spectrum and spectrum resonance spacing domains were examined from ultrasonic responses of a flat composite coupon, thin composite rings, and thick composite rings. Also, the ultrasonic spectroscopy responses from areas with an intentional delamination and a foreign material insert, similar to defects that may occur during manufacturing malfunctions, were compared with those from defect-free areas in thin composite rings. A thick composite ring with varying thickness was tested to investigate the full-thickness resonant frequency and any possible bulk interfacial bond issues. Finally, the effect on the frequency response of naturally occurring single and clustered voids in a composite ring was established.

  11. Detection of cancer in cervical tissue biopsies using mobile lipid resonances measured with diffusion-weighted (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietkowski, D; Davidson, R L; Eykyn, T R; De Silva, S S; Desouza, N M; Payne, G S

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement a diffusion-weighted sequence for visualisation of mobile lipid resonances (MLR) using high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) (1)H MRS and to evaluate its use in establishing differences between tissues from patients with cervical carcinoma that contain cancer from those that do not. A stimulated echo sequence with bipolar gradients was modified to allow T(1) and T(2) measurements and optimised by recording signal loss in HR-MAS spectra as a function of gradient strength in model lipids and tissues. Diffusion coefficients, T(1) and apparent T(2) relaxation times were measured in model lipid systems. MLR profiles were characterised in relation to T(1) and apparent T(2) relaxation in human cervical cancer tissue samples. Diffusion-weighted (DW) spectra of cervical biopsies were quantified and peak areas analysed using linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The optimised sequence reduced spectral overlap by suppressing signals originating from low molecular weight metabolites and non-lipid contributions. Significantly improved MLR visualisation allowed visualisation of peaks at 0.9, 1.3, 1.6, 2.0, 2.3, 2.8, 4.3 and 5.3 ppm. MLR analysis of DW spectra showed at least six peaks arising from saturated and unsaturated lipids and those arising from triglycerides. Significant differences in samples containing histologically confirmed cancer were seen for peaks at 0.9 (p Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and calculated area under the curve (0.962) validated high sensitivity and specificity of the technique. Diffusion-weighting of HR-MAS spectroscopic sequences is a useful method for characterising MLR in cancer tissues and displays an accumulation of lipids arising during tumourigenesis and an increase in the unsaturated lipid and triglyceride peaks with respect to saturated MLR. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Quantitative 1H MR spectroscopy of the brain in patients with congestive heart failure before and after cardiac transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Soo Mee; Lee, Ho Kyu; Choi, Choong Gon; Lim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Jung Hee

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cardiac transplantation on the brain in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), using quantitative 1 H MR spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). Ten patients with CHF underwent MRI and quantitative 1 H-MRS before and 1-2 and 4-9 months after cardiac transplantation. MR spectra were obtained from parietal white matter (PWM) and occipital gray matter (OGM) using PROBE (PROton Brain Exam). Changes in MR signal intensity were evaluated, and the cerebral metabolic concentrations in PWM and OGM were compared. For comparative purposes, 20 normal volunteers were included. No abnormal MR signal intensity was seen in the brain before or after cardiac transplantation. Changes in cerebral metabolic concentrations were observed on 1 H-MRS; concentrations of creatine (Cr) in PWM, and of N-acetylacepartate (NAA), Cr and myo-Inositol(mI) in OGM were significantly lower before transplantation. After successful transplantation, Cr levels returned to their normal range in PWM and OGM, while a slightly increase choline (Cho) level was observed in PWM. Cerebral hypoperfusion in CHF can be evaluated using 1 H-MRS. MRS may play a substantial role in monitoring the effect of cardiac transplantation

  13. Quantitative {sup 1}H MR spectroscopy of the brain in patients with congestive heart failure before and after cardiac transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Soo Mee; Lee, Ho Kyu; Choi, Choong Gon; Lim, Tae Hwan [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Hee [Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of cardiac transplantation on the brain in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), using quantitative {sup 1}H MR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS). Ten patients with CHF underwent MRI and quantitative {sup 1}H-MRS before and 1-2 and 4-9 months after cardiac transplantation. MR spectra were obtained from parietal white matter (PWM) and occipital gray matter (OGM) using PROBE (PROton Brain Exam). Changes in MR signal intensity were evaluated, and the cerebral metabolic concentrations in PWM and OGM were compared. For comparative purposes, 20 normal volunteers were included. No abnormal MR signal intensity was seen in the brain before or after cardiac transplantation. Changes in cerebral metabolic concentrations were observed on {sup 1}H-MRS; concentrations of creatine (Cr) in PWM, and of N-acetylacepartate (NAA), Cr and myo-Inositol(mI) in OGM were significantly lower before transplantation. After successful transplantation, Cr levels returned to their normal range in PWM and OGM, while a slightly increase choline (Cho) level was observed in PWM. Cerebral hypoperfusion in CHF can be evaluated using {sup 1}H-MRS. MRS may play a substantial role in monitoring the effect of cardiac transplantation.

  14. A microwave resonator for limiting depth sensitivity for electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidabras, Jason W; Varanasi, Shiv K; Mett, Richard R; Swarts, Steven G; Swartz, Harold M; Hyde, James S

    2014-10-01

    A microwave Surface Resonator Array (SRA) structure is described for use in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The SRA has a series of anti-parallel transmission line modes that provides a region of sensitivity equal to the cross-sectional area times its depth sensitivity, which is approximately half the distance between the transmission line centers. It is shown that the quarter-wave twin-lead transmission line can be a useful element for design of microwave resonators at frequencies as high as 10 GHz. The SRA geometry is presented as a novel resonator for use in surface spectroscopy where the region of interest is either surrounded by lossy material, or the spectroscopist wishes to minimize signal from surrounding materials. One such application is in vivo spectroscopy of human finger-nails at X-band (9.5 GHz) to measure ionizing radiation dosages. In order to reduce losses associated with tissues beneath the nail that yield no EPR signal, the SRA structure is designed to limit depth sensitivity to the thickness of the fingernail. Another application, due to the resonator geometry and limited depth penetration, is surface spectroscopy in coating or material science. To test this application, a spectrum of 1.44 μM of Mg(2+) doped polystyrene 1.1 mm thick on an aluminum surface is obtained. Modeling, design, and simulations were performed using Wolfram Mathematica (Champaign, IL; v. 9.0) and Ansys High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS; Canonsburg, PA; v. 15.0). A micro-strip coupling circuit is designed to suppress unwanted modes and provide a balanced impedance transformation to a 50 Ω coaxial input. Agreement between simulated and experimental results is shown.

  15. A microwave resonator for limiting depth sensitivity for electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidabras, Jason W.; Varanasi, Shiv K.; Hyde, James S. [Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 (United States); Mett, Richard R. [Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 (United States); Department of Physics and Chemistry, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202 (United States); Swarts, Steven G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32610 (United States); Swartz, Harold M. [Department of Radiology, Geisel Medical School at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    A microwave Surface Resonator Array (SRA) structure is described for use in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The SRA has a series of anti-parallel transmission line modes that provides a region of sensitivity equal to the cross-sectional area times its depth sensitivity, which is approximately half the distance between the transmission line centers. It is shown that the quarter-wave twin-lead transmission line can be a useful element for design of microwave resonators at frequencies as high as 10 GHz. The SRA geometry is presented as a novel resonator for use in surface spectroscopy where the region of interest is either surrounded by lossy material, or the spectroscopist wishes to minimize signal from surrounding materials. One such application is in vivo spectroscopy of human finger-nails at X-band (9.5 GHz) to measure ionizing radiation dosages. In order to reduce losses associated with tissues beneath the nail that yield no EPR signal, the SRA structure is designed to limit depth sensitivity to the thickness of the fingernail. Another application, due to the resonator geometry and limited depth penetration, is surface spectroscopy in coating or material science. To test this application, a spectrum of 1.44 μM of Mg{sup 2+} doped polystyrene 1.1 mm thick on an aluminum surface is obtained. Modeling, design, and simulations were performed using Wolfram Mathematica (Champaign, IL; v. 9.0) and Ansys High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS; Canonsburg, PA; v. 15.0). A micro-strip coupling circuit is designed to suppress unwanted modes and provide a balanced impedance transformation to a 50 Ω coaxial input. Agreement between simulated and experimental results is shown.

  16. Initial study of quantitative analysis of fatty liver by 1H-MR spectroscopy imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Changhong; Liu Yubao; Zhang Zhonglin; Xie Shufei; Wang Qiushi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of 1 H-MR spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) imaging to quantitatively detect fatty liver. Methods: Twenty patients with fatty liver and 11 healthy volunteers underwent plain CT scan, conventional MR imaging and 1 H-MRS analysis. The blood lipid and liver function were tested on the same day as the MR examination. 1 H-MRS sequence measured the peaks of H 2 O and lipid, and the areas under the peaks. The relative contents of the lipid compound were calculated, and compared with the results of CT scan and liver function tests. Results: The CT values of the normal group and the fatty liver group were (59 ± 9) HU and (24 ± 11) HU respectively. On 1 H-MRS a protruding high H 2 O peak and a flat low lipid peak were observed in the normal group, while the protruding high H 2 O peak and a high lipid peak appeared in the fatty liver group. The values of lipid peak in the normal group and the fatty liver group were (0.05 ± 0.01) x l0 5 , (0.70 ± 0.24) x l0 5 respectively (t=4.32, P 5 , (1.85 ± 0.47) x l0 5 respectively (t=1.26, P>0.05), the areas under the lipid peak were (1.36 ± 0.73) x 10 9 , (2.35 ± 1.15) x 10 9 respectively (t=5.21, P 2 O peak were (4.33 ± 1.28) x 10 11 , (3.55 ± 0.94) x 10 11 respectively (t=2.04, P>0.05). Conclusion: 1 H-MRS imaging is feasible to quantitatively detect liver fat and is a non-invasive method for detecting early fatty liver. (authors)

  17. Resonance Enhanced Multi-photon Spectroscopy of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligare, Marshall Robert

    For over 50 years DNA has been studied to better understand its connection to life and evolution. These past experiments have led to our understanding of its structure and function in the biological environment but the interaction of DNA with UV radiation at the molecular level is still not very well understood. Unique mechanisms in nucleobase chromaphores protect us from adverse chemical reactions after UV absorption. Studying these processes can help develop theories for prebiotic chemistry and the possibility of alternative forms of DNA. Using resonance enhanced multi-photon spectroscopic techniques in the gas phase allow for the structure and dynamics of individual nucleobases to be studied in detail. Experiments studying different levels of structure/complexity with relation to their biological function are presented. Resonant IR multiphoton dissociation spectroscopy in conjunction with molecular mechanics and DFT calculations are used to determine gas phase structures of anionic nucleotide clusters. A comparison of the identified structures with known biological function shows how the hydrogen bonding of the nucleotides and their clusters free of solvent create favorable structures for quick incorporation into enzymes such as DNA polymerase. Resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) spectroscopy techniques such as resonant two photon ionization (R2PI) and IR-UV double resonance are used to further elucidate the structure and excited state dynamics of the bare nucleobases thymine and uracil. Both exhibit long lived excited electronic states that have been implicated in DNA photolesions which can ultimately lead to melanoma and carcinoma. Our experimental data in comparison with many quantum chemical calculations suggest a new picture for the dynamics of thymine and uracil in the gas phase. A high probability of UV absorption from a vibrationally hot ground state to the excited electronic state shows that the stability of thymine and uracil comes from

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of white matter injury after radio- and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurkiewicz, E.; Pakula-Kosciesza, I.; Bekiesinska-Figatowska, M.; Wagiel, K.; Wagiel, E.; Perek-Polnik, M.; Walecki, J.

    2004-01-01

    To describe MR symptomatology of radio- and chemotherapy-induced leukoencephalopathy and to assess the usefulness of 1H MRS in differential diagnosis of these lesions. The material consists of 44 patients (18 females, 26 males), aged 3-54 years, treated for brain and face tumors (29 cases), other tumors (2) and after CNS prophylaxis for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (13). 1H MRS was performed in 6 cases. Two 1,5 T and one 0,5 T scanners were used. We observed diffuse lesions, hyperintense on T2-weighted images, in the periventricular white matter and centrum semiovale in 14 cases, in 5 also in the cerebellum and brainstem, subcortical in 1. Focal lesions were found in periventricular location in 16 cases, in the corpus callosum in 1 and in 1 the foci were disseminated. No mass effect and no contrast enhancement were observed in these cases. Marked mass effect and contrast enhancement were found in 2 cases, slight mass effect without CE in 2. In these 4 cases and in other 2 with neurological symptoms, 1H MRS was performed: in 2 cases the spectrum was close to that of normal tissue, in 1 suggestive of a tumor, in 3 the spectrum was abnormal but atypical of a tumor. Follow-up studies showed regression of the lesions and of the spectral abnormalities. In 1 case necrotizing leucoencephalopathy and secondary tumor, in 7 - calcificatons, in 7 - parenchymal hematomas were found. Magnetic resonance allows detection of side effects of radio- and chemotherapy, even in asymptomatic patients. In patients with neurological signs MRI allows differentiation of chemo-, radiotherapy-induced leucoencephalopathy and neo plasmatic infiltration with high probability. 1H MRS plays an important role in differential diagnosis in unclear cases with mass effect and contrast enhancement. The results of MRI and 1H MRS should be considered in correlation with clinical findings. (author)

  19. Resonance Raman spectroscopy in one-dimensional carbon materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dresselhaus Mildred S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has played an important role in the development and use of resonance Raman spectroscopy as a powerful characterization tool for materials science. Here we present a short history of Raman scattering research in Brazil, highlighting the important contributions to the field coming from Brazilian researchers in the past. Next we discuss recent and important contributions where Brazil has become a worldwide leader, that is on the physics of quasi-one dimensional carbon nanotubes. We conclude this article by presenting results from a very recent resonance Raman study of exciting new materials, that are strictly one-dimensional carbon chains formed by the heat treatment of very pure double-wall carbon nanotube samples.

  20. Gravity resonance spectroscopy constrains dark energy and dark matter scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, T; Cronenberg, G; Burgdörfer, J; Chizhova, L A; Geltenbort, P; Ivanov, A N; Lauer, T; Lins, T; Rotter, S; Saul, H; Schmidt, U; Abele, H

    2014-04-18

    We report on precision resonance spectroscopy measurements of quantum states of ultracold neutrons confined above the surface of a horizontal mirror by the gravity potential of Earth. Resonant transitions between several of the lowest quantum states are observed for the first time. These measurements demonstrate that Newton's inverse square law of gravity is understood at micron distances on an energy scale of 10-14  eV. At this level of precision, we are able to provide constraints on any possible gravitylike interaction. In particular, a dark energy chameleon field is excluded for values of the coupling constant β>5.8×108 at 95% confidence level (C.L.), and an attractive (repulsive) dark matter axionlike spin-mass coupling is excluded for the coupling strength gsgp>3.7×10-16 (5.3×10-16) at a Yukawa length of λ=20  μm (95% C.L.).

  1. Inelastic tunneling spectroscopy for magnetic atoms and the Kondo resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, E C; Flores, F

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between a single magnetic atom and the metal environment (including a magnetic field) is analyzed by introducing an ionic Hamiltonian combined with an effective crystal-field term, and by using a Green-function equation of motion method. This approach describes the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy and the Kondo resonances as due to atomic spin fluctuations associated with electron co-tunneling processes between the leads and the atom. We analyze in the case of Fe on CuN the possible spin fluctuations between states with S = 2 and 3/2 or 5/2 and conclude that the experimentally found asymmetries in the conductance with respect to the applied bias, and its marked structures, are well explained by the 2↔3/2 spin fluctuations. The case of Co is also considered and shown to present, in contrast with Fe, a resonance at the Fermi energy corresponding to a Kondo temperature of 6 K. (paper)

  2. Highly sensitive high resolution Raman spectroscopy using resonant ionization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owyoung, A.; Esherick, P.

    1984-05-01

    In recent years, the introduction of stimulated Raman methods has offered orders of magnitude improvement in spectral resolving power for gas phase Raman studies. Nevertheless, the inherent weakness of the Raman process suggests the need for significantly more sensitive techniques in Raman spectroscopy. In this we describe a new approach to this problem. Our new technique, which we call ionization-detected stimulated Raman spectroscopy (IDSRS), combines high-resolution SRS with highly-sensitive resonant laser ionization to achieve an increase in sensitivity of over three orders of magnitude. The excitation/detection process involves three sequential steps: (1) population of a vibrationally excited state via stimulated Raman pumping; (2) selective ionization of the vibrationally excited molecule with a tunable uv source; and (3) collection of the ionized species at biased electrodes where they are detected as current in an external circuit

  3. Resonance Raman spectroscopy of volatile organics -- Carbon tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, R.E.; Veligdan, J.T.

    1994-09-01

    Volatile organic chemicals are a class of pollutants which are regulated at very low levels by the EPA. Consequently a need exists as a part of site remediation efforts within DOE to develop technologies which will allow for the in situ monitoring of these chemicals. Resonance Raman spectroscopy is a potential technique to accomplish this if the resonance enhancement is sufficiently high. Carbon tetrachloride was selected as a test case. Measurements under resonance conditions at 248 nm showed an enhancement factor of 2 x 10 4 . Using this value an estimate of the sensitivity for both in situ and remote monitoring of CCl 4 was made. It was concluded that resonance Raman could be used to detect these chemicals at levels of regulatory interest. Future effort directed towards the development of a suitable probe as well as a field-portable system would be desirable. Such effort could be directed towards the solution of a particular monitoring problem within a DOE waste remediation project. Once developed, however, it should be easily generalized to the analysis of other VOC's in other environments

  4. Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to certifiable food colors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmion, D.M.

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was found suitable for the identification of individual colours, for distinguishing individual colours from colour mixtures, for the identification and semi-quantitative determination of the individual colours in mixtures and for proofs of the adulteration of certified colours adding noncertified colours. The method is well suited for observing the purity of colours and may also be used as the control method in the manufacture of colours and in assessing their stability and their resistance to increased temperature and light. (M.K.)

  5. Barium Tagging from nEXO Using Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelker, K.; Kravitz, S.

    nEXO is a 5-ton liquid enriched-xenon time projection chamber (TPC) to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, designed to have the sensitivity to completely probe the inverted mass hierarchy of Majorana neutrinos. The detector will accommodate-as a background reduction technique-a system to recover and identify the barium decay product. This upgrade will allow a background-free measurement of neutrinoless double-beta decay and increase the half-life sensitivity of the experiment by at least one order of magnitude. Ongoing research and development includes a system to test barium extraction from liquid xenon using surface adsorption and Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS).

  6. Monitoring of blood oxygenation in brain by resonance Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Nadezda A; Thomsen, Kirsten; Lønstrup, Micael

    2018-01-01

    Blood oxygenation in cerebral vessels is an essential parameter to evaluate brain function and to investigate the coupling between local blood flow and neuronal activity. We apply resonance Raman spectroscopy in vivo to study hemoglobin oxygenation in cortex vessels of anesthetized ventilated mice....... We demonstrate that the pairs of Raman peaks at 1355 and1375 cm-1(symmetric vibrations of pyrrol half-rings in the heme molecule), 1552 and 1585 cm-1and 1602 and 1638 cm-1(vibrations of methine bridges in heme molecule) are reliable markers for quantitative estimation of the relative amount...

  7. Elastic properties of gamma-Pu by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliori, Albert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Betts, J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trugman, A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mielke, C H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, J N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ramos, M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stroe, I [WORXESTER, MA

    2009-01-01

    Despite intense experimental and theoretical work on Pu, there is still little understanding of the strange properties of this metal. We used resonant ultrasound spectroscopy method to investigate the elastic properties of pure polycrystalline Pu at high temperatures. Shear and longitudinal elastic moduli of the {gamma}-phase of Pu were determined simultaneously and the bulk modulus was computed from them. A smooth linear and large decrease of all elastic moduli with increasing temperature was observed. We calculated the Poisson ratio and found that it increases from 0.242 at 519K to 0.252 at 571K.

  8. Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy of Neutron-Deficient Francium Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Flanagan, K T; Ruiz, R F Garcia; Budincevic, I; Procter, T J; Fedosseev, V N; Lynch, K M; Cocolios, T E; Marsh, B A; Neyens, G; Strashnov, I; Stroke, H H; Rossel, R E; Heylen, H; Billowes, J; Rothe, S; Bissell, M L; Wendt, K D A; de Groote, R P; De Schepper, S

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic moments and isotope shifts of the neutron-deficient francium isotopes Fr202-205 were measured at ISOLDE-CERN with use of collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy. A production-to-detection efficiency of 1\\% was measured for Fr-202. The background from nonresonant and collisional ionization was maintained below one ion in 10(5) beam particles. Through a comparison of the measured charge radii with predictions from the spherical droplet model, it is concluded that the ground-state wave function remains spherical down to Fr-205, with a departure observed in Fr-203 (N = 116).

  9. [Dementias: diagnostic contribution of imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, E; Martínez-Granados, B; Marti-Bonmati, L; Martínez-Bisbal, M C; Gil, A; Blasco, C; Celda, B

    2007-06-01

    The objective is analyze the complementarity between 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the global diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VD). We studied 168 patients with cognitive impairment from AD, VD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and major depression. All patients were evaluated by brain MR imaging and MRS using two sample volumes localized at right medial temporal gyrus and posterior parietal gyrus. Metabolites analyzed were N-acetylaspartate (NAA), myo-Inositol (mI), Choline (Cho) and creatine (Cr), as standard references for obtaining the Co/Cr, mI/Cr and NAA/Cr ratios. Imaging and spectroscopy alterations were graded from 0 to 4 and the average of both was used to draw ROC and SROC curves. Area under ROC curve (Az) was used as a measure of discriminative ability. Combination of MR imaging and MRS significantly improved AD diagnosis (Global Az: 0.722 vs. MR imaging Az: 0.624; p: 0.003). However, the combination of MR imaging and MRS did not improve VD diagnosis. SROC curve obtained for the diagnosis of global dementia was Az: 0.6658 with 0.67 sensitivity and 0.65 specificity. Combination of both MR techniques significantly improved AD diagnosis versus MR imaging alone. More studies are needed to enhance VD classification. Metabolic data found by MRS can be useful to differentiate cognitive impairment

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Cognition, Proton MR Spectroscopy and Synaptic and Neuronal Pathology in Aging Wild-type and AβPPswe-PS1dE9 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Diane; Zerbi, Valerio; Janssen, Carola I. F.; Dederen, Pieter J. W. C.; Mutsaers, Martina P. C.; Hafkemeijer, Anne; Janssen, Anna-Lena; Nobelen, Cindy L. M.; Veltien, Andor; Asten, Jack J.; Heerschap, Arend; Kiliaan, Amanda J.

    2013-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) is a valuable tool in Alzheimer’s disease research, investigating the functional integrity of the brain. The present longitudinal study set out to characterize the neurochemical profile of the hippocampus, measured by single voxel 1H MRS at 7 Tesla, in the brains of AβPPSswe-PS1dE9 and wild-type mice at 8 and 12 months of age. Furthermore, we wanted to determine whether alterations in hippocampal metabolite levels coincided with behavioral changes, cognitive decline and neuropathological features, to gain a better understanding of the underlying neurodegenerative processes. Moreover, correlation analyses were performed in the 12-month-old AβPP-PS1 animals with the hippocampal amyloid-β deposition, TBS-T soluble Aβ levels and high-molecular weight Aβ aggregate levels to gain a better understanding of the possible involvement of Aβ in neurochemical and behavioral changes, cognitive decline and neuropathological features in AβPP-PS1 transgenic mice. Our results show that at 8 months of age AβPPswe-PS1dE9 mice display behavioral and cognitive changes compared to age-matched wild-type mice, as determined in the open field and the (reverse) Morris water maze. However, there were no variations in hippocampal metabolite levels at this age. AβPP-PS1 mice at 12 months of age display more severe behavioral and cognitive impairment, which coincided with alterations in hippocampal metabolite levels that suggest reduced neuronal integrity. Furthermore, correlation analyses suggest a possible role of Aβ in inflammatory processes, synaptic dysfunction and impaired neurogenesis. PMID:23717459

  11. Sub-terahertz resonance spectroscopy of biological macromolecules and cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Tatiana; Moyer, Aaron; Gelmont, Boris; Khromova, Tatyana; Sizov, Igor; Ferrance, Jerome

    2013-05-01

    Recently we introduced a Sub-THz spectroscopic system for characterizing vibrational resonance features from biological materials. This new, continuous-wave, frequency-domain spectroscopic sensor operates at room temperature between 315 and 480 GHz with spectral resolution of at least 1 GHz and utilizes the source and detector components from Virginia Diode, Inc. In this work we present experimental results and interpretation of spectroscopic signatures from bacterial cells and their biological macromolecule structural components. Transmission and absorption spectra of the bacterial protein thioredoxin, DNA and lyophilized cells of Escherichia coli (E. coli), as well as spores of Bacillus subtillis and B. atrophaeus have been characterized. Experimental results for biomolecules are compared with absorption spectra calculated using molecular dynamics simulation, and confirm the underlying physics for resonance spectroscopy based on interactions between THz radiation and vibrational modes or groups of modes of atomic motions. Such interactions result in multiple intense and narrow specific resonances in transmission/absorption spectra from nano-gram samples with spectral line widths as small as 3 GHz. The results of this study indicate diverse relaxation dynamic mechanisms relevant to sub-THz vibrational spectroscopy, including long-lasting processes. We demonstrate that high sensitivity in resolved specific absorption fingerprints provides conditions for reliable detection, identification and discrimination capability, to the level of strains of the same bacteria, and for monitoring interactions between biomaterials and reagents in near real-time. Additionally, it creates the basis for the development of new types of advanced biological sensors through integrating the developed system with a microfluidic platform for biomaterial samples.

  12. Clocking Femtosecond Collisional Dynamics via Resonant X-Ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Q. Y.; Fernandez-Tello, E. V.; Burian, T.; Chalupský, J.; Chung, H.-K.; Ciricosta, O.; Dakovski, G. L.; Hájková, V.; Hollebon, P.; Juha, L.; Krzywinski, J.; Lee, R. W.; Minitti, M. P.; Preston, T. R.; de la Varga, A. G.; Vozda, V.; Zastrau, U.; Wark, J. S.; Velarde, P.; Vinko, S. M.

    2018-02-01

    Electron-ion collisional dynamics is of fundamental importance in determining plasma transport properties, nonequilibrium plasma evolution, and electron damage in diffraction imaging applications using bright x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs). Here we describe the first experimental measurements of ultrafast electron impact collisional ionization dynamics using resonant core-hole spectroscopy in a solid-density magnesium plasma, created and diagnosed with the Linac Coherent Light Source x-ray FEL. By resonantly pumping the 1 s →2 p transition in highly charged ions within an optically thin plasma, we have measured how off-resonance charge states are populated via collisional processes on femtosecond time scales. We present a collisional cross section model that matches our results and demonstrates how the cross sections are enhanced by dense-plasma effects including continuum lowering. Nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium collisional radiative simulations show excellent agreement with the experimental results and provide new insight on collisional ionization and three-body-recombination processes in the dense-plasma regime.

  13. Comparison of 1.5T and 3T 1H MR Spectroscopy for Human Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji hoon; Chang, Kee Hyun; Na, Dong Gyu; Song, In Chan; Kim, Seung Ja; Kwon, Bae Ju; Han, Moon Hee

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to estimate the practical improvements of 3T proton MR spectroscopy (1H MRS) as compared with 1.5T 1H MRS for the evaluation of human brain tumors. Single voxel 1H MRS was performed at both 1.5T and 3T in 13 patients suffering with brain tumors. Using the same data acquisition parameters at both field strengths, the 1H MRS spectra were obtained with a short echo time (TE) (35 msec) and an intermediate TE (144 msec) with the voxel size ranging from 2.0 cm 3 to 8.7 cm 3 . The signal to noise ratios (SNRs) of the metabolites (myoinositol [MI], choline compounds [Cho], creatine /phosphocreatine [Cr], N-acetyl-aspartate [NAA], lipid and lactate [LL]) and the metabolite ratios of MI/Cr, Cho/Cr, Cho/NAA and LL/Cr were compared at both TEs between the two field strengths in each brain tumor. The degrees 70f spectral resolution between the Cho and Cr peaks were qualitatively compared between the two field strengths in each brain tumor. The SNRs of the metabolites at 3T demonstrated 49-73% increase at a short TE (p 0.05) compared with those of 1.5T. The SNR of inverted lactate at an intermediate TE decreased down to 49% with poorer inversion at 3T (p 1 H MRS demonstrated 49-73% SNR increase in the cerebral metabolites and slightly superior spectral resolution only at a short TE, but little at an intermediate TE, in the brain tumors. There was no significant difference in the metabolite ratios between the two field strengths

  14. Investigation of the metabolic changes in visual cortex due to visual stimulation using high field magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7.0 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yan; Peter, M.; Wu Renhua

    2012-01-01

    stimulation paradigm and 1 H MRS at 7.0 T and LC Model, the metabolic response to activation have been able to be observed. The observed changes of Asp, Glc and Lac concentrations in response to visual stimulation suggests that sustained neuronal activation raises oxidative metabolism to a new steady state. The observation of increased Glu with decreased Gln during stimulation can be interpreted as a stimulus driven increase in excitatory neurotransmitter cycling. The elevated GSH in the visual cortex in response to visual stimulation is a new observation. Possible explanations for this include detoxification of reactive oxygen species. (authors)

  15. Brain metabolite changes in alcoholism: Localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of the occipital lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modi, Shilpi; Bhattacharya, Manisha; Kumar, Pawan [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India); Deshpande, Smita N. [Department of Psychiatry, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi (India); Tripathi, Rajendra Prasad [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India); Khushu, Subash, E-mail: skhushu@yahoo.com [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Chronic alcoholism is associated with altered brain metabolism, morphology and cognitive abilities. Besides deficits in higher order cognitive functions, alcoholics also show a deficit in the processing of basic sensory information viz. visual stimulation. To assess the metabolic changes associated with this deficit, {sup 1}H MRS was carried out in the occipital lobe of alcohol dependents. A significant increase in Cho/Cr ratio (p < 0.015) was observed in occipital lobe in the alcoholic group indicating altered cell membrane metabolism, which may probably be associated with the alterations in the cognitive abilities associated with vision.

  16. Brain metabolite changes in alcoholism: Localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of the occipital lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modi, Shilpi; Bhattacharya, Manisha; Kumar, Pawan; Deshpande, Smita N.; Tripathi, Rajendra Prasad; Khushu, Subash

    2011-01-01

    Chronic alcoholism is associated with altered brain metabolism, morphology and cognitive abilities. Besides deficits in higher order cognitive functions, alcoholics also show a deficit in the processing of basic sensory information viz. visual stimulation. To assess the metabolic changes associated with this deficit, 1 H MRS was carried out in the occipital lobe of alcohol dependents. A significant increase in Cho/Cr ratio (p < 0.015) was observed in occipital lobe in the alcoholic group indicating altered cell membrane metabolism, which may probably be associated with the alterations in the cognitive abilities associated with vision.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy at ultra high fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuberger, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the work presented in this thesis was to explore the possibilities and limitations of MRI / MRS using an ultra high field of 17.6 tesla. A broad range of specific applications and MR methods, from MRI to MRSI and MRS were investigated. The main foci were on sodium magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of rodents, magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the mouse brain, and the detection of small amounts of iron labeled stem cells in the rat brain using MRI Sodium spectroscopic imaging was explored since it benefits tremendously from the high magnetic field. Due to the intrinsically low signal in vivo, originating from the low concentrations and short transverse relaxation times, only limited results have been achieved by other researchers until now. Results in the literature include studies conducted on large animals such as dogs to animals as small as rats. No studies performed on mice have been reported, despite the fact that the mouse is the most important laboratory animal due to the ready availability of transgenic strains. Hence, this study concentrated on sodium MRSI of small rodents, mostly mice (brain, heart, and kidney), and in the case of the brain on young rats. The second part of this work concentrated on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the rodent brain. Due to the high magnetic field strength not only the increasing signal but also the extended spectral resolution was advantageous for such kind of studies. The difficulties/limitations of ultra high field MRS were also investigated. In the last part of the presented work detection limits of iron labeled stem cells in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging were explored. The studies provided very useful benchmarks for future researchers in terms of the number of labeled stem cells that are required for high-field MRI studies. Overall this work has shown many of the benefits and the areas that need special attention of ultra high fields in MR. Three topics in MRI, MRS and MRSI were

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy at ultra high fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuberger, Thomas

    2009-06-23

    The goal of the work presented in this thesis was to explore the possibilities and limitations of MRI / MRS using an ultra high field of 17.6 tesla. A broad range of specific applications and MR methods, from MRI to MRSI and MRS were investigated. The main foci were on sodium magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of rodents, magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the mouse brain, and the detection of small amounts of iron labeled stem cells in the rat brain using MRI Sodium spectroscopic imaging was explored since it benefits tremendously from the high magnetic field. Due to the intrinsically low signal in vivo, originating from the low concentrations and short transverse relaxation times, only limited results have been achieved by other researchers until now. Results in the literature include studies conducted on large animals such as dogs to animals as small as rats. No studies performed on mice have been reported, despite the fact that the mouse is the most important laboratory animal due to the ready availability of transgenic strains. Hence, this study concentrated on sodium MRSI of small rodents, mostly mice (brain, heart, and kidney), and in the case of the brain on young rats. The second part of this work concentrated on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the rodent brain. Due to the high magnetic field strength not only the increasing signal but also the extended spectral resolution was advantageous for such kind of studies. The difficulties/limitations of ultra high field MRS were also investigated. In the last part of the presented work detection limits of iron labeled stem cells in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging were explored. The studies provided very useful benchmarks for future researchers in terms of the number of labeled stem cells that are required for high-field MRI studies. Overall this work has shown many of the benefits and the areas that need special attention of ultra high fields in MR. Three topics in MRI, MRS and MRSI were

  19. Collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy of exotic francium and radium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2094150

    Two experimental campaigns were performed at the Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment, located at the ISOLDE radioactive-beam facility. The spectroscopic quadrupole moment of $^{203}$Fr was measured. Its magnitude with respect to the other even-$N$ francium isotopes below $N = 126$ suggests an onset of static deformation. However, calculations of the static and total deformation parameters reveal that it cannot be considered as purely statically deformed. The neutron-rich radium isotopes were investigated. The spectroscopic quadrupole moment of $^{231}$Ra was measured and the continuation of increasing quadrupole deformation with neutron number in neutron-rich radium isotopes was further established. Measurements of the changes in mean-square charge radii of $^{231,233}$Ra allowed the odd-even staggering parameter to be calculated for $^{230-232}$Ra. A normal odd-even staggering which increases in magnitude with neutron number was observed in these isotopes.

  20. Review: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Studies of Pediatric Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas G. Kondo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper focuses on the application of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS to the study of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD in children and adolescents. Method. A literature search using the National Institutes of Health's PubMed database was conducted to identify indexed peer-reviewed MRS studies in pediatric patients with MDD. Results. The literature search yielded 18 articles reporting original MRS data in pediatric MDD. Neurochemical alterations in Choline, Glutamate, and N-Acetyl Aspartate are associated with pediatric MDD, suggesting pathophysiologic continuity with adult MDD. Conclusions. The MRS literature in pediatric MDD is modest but growing. In studies that are methodologically comparable, the results have been consistent. Because it offers a noninvasive and repeatable measurement of relevant in vivo brain chemistry, MRS has the potential to provide insights into the pathophysiology of MDD as well as the mediators and moderators of treatment response.

  1. Identification of irradiated chicken meat using electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, S.P.; Thomas, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Studies were carried out on detection of irradiation treatment in chicken using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The effect of gamma- irradiation treatment on radiation induced signal in different types of chicken namely, broiler, deshi and layers was studied. Irradiation treatment induced a characteristic ESR signal that was not detected in non-irradiated samples. The shape of the signal was not affected by type of the bone. The intensity of radiation induced ESR signal was affected by factors such as absorbed radiation dose, bone type irradiation temperature, post-irradiation storage, post-irradiation cooking and age of the bird. Deep-frying resulted in the formation of a symmetric signal that had a different shape and was weaker than the radiation induced signal. This technique can be effectively used to detect irradiation treatment in bone-in chicken meat even if stored and/or subjected to various traditional cooking procedures. (author)

  2. Applications of resonance ionization spectroscopy in neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, T.J.; Hurst, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) is a new analytical technique which is orders of magnitude more sensitive than previous methods of atomic analysis. In this method, lasers are used to selectively excite specific electronic transitions in the element being analyzed. A second laser photon can then ionize the excited atoms. Commercial lasers have sufficient intensity to assure that every atom located in the central portion of the laser beam will be ionized, and therefore can be detected. In this paper the concept of a xenon-containing matrix (XCM) which would release xenon atoms when exposed to neutrons is explored. Accumulated xenon would be measured using RIS to determine total dose. The total dosimeter would consist of an XCM, a radiator, and an encapsulation around both to contain released xenon atoms

  3. Characterization of functional LB films using electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Shin-ichi

    1995-01-01

    The role of ESR spectroscopy in the characterization of functional LB films is discussed. Unpaired electrons in LB films are associated with isolated radical molecules produced by charge transfer, paramagnetic metallic ions such as Cu 2+ , strongly interacting spins in the mixed valence states in charge-transfer salts, and so on. These spins often manifest the functions of materials. They can also act as microscopic probes in the ESR analysis devoted for the elucidation of characteristic properties of LB films. In structural studies, ESR is of particular importance in the analysis of molecular orientation of LB films. ESR can unambiguously determine the orientation of molecules through g-value anisotropy: different g value, different resonance field. Two types of new control methods of molecular orientation in LB films originated from the ESR analysis: study of in-plane orientation in dye LB films which led to the discovery of flow-orientation effect, and observation of drastic change of orientation of Cu-porphyrin in LB films using the trigger molecule, n-hexatriacontane. In the studies of electronic properties, hyperfine interactions between electron and nuclear spins provide information about molecular orbitals and local structures. Stable isotopes have been successfully applied to the stable radicals in merocyanine LB films to identify hyperfine couplings. In conducting LB films composed of charge-transfer salts, quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnetism in semiconducting films and spin resonance of conduction electrons in metallic films are observed. Results provide microscopic evidence for the development of columnar structures of constituent molecules. Development of new functional LB films may provide more cases where ESR spectroscopy will clarify the nature of such films. (author)

  4. The resonant detector and its application to epithermal neutron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorini, G.; Perelli-Cippo, E.; Tardocchi, M.; Andreani, C.; D'Angelo, A.; Pietropaolo, A.; Senesi, R.; Imberti, S.; Bracco, A.; Previtali, E.; Pessina, G.; Rhodes, N.J.; Schooneveld, E.M.

    2004-01-01

    New perspectives for epithermal neutron spectroscopy are being opened by the development of the resonant detector (RD) and its use on inverse geometry time of flight spectrometers at spallation sources. The RD was first proposed in the 1980s and was recently brought to a performance level exceeding conventional neutron-sensitive Li-glass scintillator detectors. It features a photon counter coupled to a neutron analyzer foil. Resonant neutron absorption in the foil results in the emission of prompt gamma rays that are detected in the photon counter. The dimensions of the RD set the spatial resolution that can be achieved, ranging from a fraction of a cm to several cm. It can thus be tailored to the construction of detector arrays of different geometry. The main results of the research on this kind of detector are reported leading to the present optimized RD design based on a combination of YAP scintillation photon counter and uranium or gold analyzer foils. This detector has already been selected for application in the upgrade of the VESUVIO spectrometer on ISIS. A special application is the Very Low Angle Detector (VLAD) bank, which will extend the kinematical region for neutron scattering to low momentum transfer ( -1 ) whilst still keeping energy transfer >1 eV, thus allowing new experimental studies in condensed matter systems. The first results of tests made with prototype VLAD detectors are presented, confirming the usefulness of the RD for measurements at scattering angles as low as 2-5 deg

  5. Ultrasonic Resonance Spectroscopy of Composite Rims for Flywheel Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Laura M.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2002-01-01

    Flywheel energy storage devices comprising multilayered composite rotor systems are being studied extensively for utilization in the International Space Station. These composite material systems were investigated with a recently developed ultrasonic resonance spectroscopy technique. The ultrasonic system employs a continuous swept-sine waveform and performs a fast Fourier transform (FFT) on the frequency response spectrum. In addition, the system is capable of equalizing the amount of energy at each frequency. Equalization of the frequency spectrum, along with interpretation of the second FFT, aids in the evaluation of the fundamental frequency. The frequency responses from multilayered material samples, with and without known defects, were analyzed to assess the capabilities and limitations of this nondestructive evaluation technique for material characterization and defect detection. Amplitude and frequency changes were studied from ultrasonic responses of thick composite rings and a multiring composite rim. A composite ring varying in thickness was evaluated to investigate the full thickness resonance. The frequency response characteristics from naturally occurring voids in a composite ring were investigated. Ultrasonic responses were compared from regions with and without machined voids in a composite ring and a multiring composite rim. Finally, ultrasonic responses from the multiring composite rim were compared before and after proof spin testing to 63,000 rpm.

  6. Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy in malformations of cortical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celi Santos Andrade

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Malformations of cortical development (MCD result from disruptions in the dynamic process of cerebral corticogenesis and are important causes of epilepsy, motor deficits and cognitive impairment. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate phospholipids metabolism in vivo in a series of patients with epilepsy and MCD. Methods Thirty-seven patients with MCD and 31 control subjects were studied using three-dimensional phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS at a 3.0 T scanner. Quantification methods were applied to the following resonances: phosphoethanolamine (PE, phosphocholine (PC, glycerophosphoethanolamine (GPE, glycerophosphocholine (GPC, inorganic phosphate (Pi, phosphocreatine (PCr, and a-, b-, and g-adenosine triphosphate (ATP. The magnesium (Mg2+ levels and pH were calculated based on PCr, Pi and b-ATP chemical shifts. Results Compared to controls, the MCD lesions exhibited lower pH values and higher Mg2+ levels (p<0.05. The lesions also presented significant reduction of GPC and PDE, and an increased PME/PDE ratio. The otherwise normal appearing parenchyma also demonstrated lower pH values in the frontoparietal cortex and bilateral centrum semiovale. Conclusions Our data support the idea that metabolic impairments occur in the lesions of MCD, with propagation to remote normal appearing parenchyma. The results also suggest that there are membrane turnover disturbances in MCD lesions.

  7. Discrete decoding based ultrafast multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Zhiliang; Lin, Liangjie; Ye, Qimiao; Li, Jing; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy constitutes an important and powerful tool in analyzing chemical and biological systems. However, the abundant 3D information arrives at the expense of long acquisition times lasting hours or even days. Therefore, there has been a continuous interest in developing techniques to accelerate recordings of 3D NMR spectra, among which the ultrafast spatiotemporal encoding technique supplies impressive acquisition speed by compressing a multidimensional spectrum in a single scan. However, it tends to suffer from tradeoffs among spectral widths in different dimensions, which deteriorates in cases of NMR spectroscopy with more dimensions. In this study, the discrete decoding is proposed to liberate the ultrafast technique from tradeoffs among spectral widths in different dimensions by focusing decoding on signal-bearing sites. For verifying its feasibility and effectiveness, we utilized the method to generate two different types of 3D spectra. The proposed method is also applicable to cases with more than three dimensions, which, based on the experimental results, may widen applications of the ultrafast technique

  8. Discrete decoding based ultrafast multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhiliang; Lin, Liangjie; Ye, Qimiao; Li, Jing; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong

    2015-07-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy constitutes an important and powerful tool in analyzing chemical and biological systems. However, the abundant 3D information arrives at the expense of long acquisition times lasting hours or even days. Therefore, there has been a continuous interest in developing techniques to accelerate recordings of 3D NMR spectra, among which the ultrafast spatiotemporal encoding technique supplies impressive acquisition speed by compressing a multidimensional spectrum in a single scan. However, it tends to suffer from tradeoffs among spectral widths in different dimensions, which deteriorates in cases of NMR spectroscopy with more dimensions. In this study, the discrete decoding is proposed to liberate the ultrafast technique from tradeoffs among spectral widths in different dimensions by focusing decoding on signal-bearing sites. For verifying its feasibility and effectiveness, we utilized the method to generate two different types of 3D spectra. The proposed method is also applicable to cases with more than three dimensions, which, based on the experimental results, may widen applications of the ultrafast technique.

  9. Collinear resonant ionization laser spectroscopy of rare francium isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Neyens, G; Flanagan, K; Rajabali, M M; Le blanc, F M; Ware, T; Procter, T J

    2008-01-01

    We propose a programme of collinear resonant ionization spectroscopy (CRIS) of the francium isotopes up to and including $^{201}$Fr and $^{218,219}$Fr. This work aims at answering questions on the ordering of quantum states, and effect of the ($\\pi s_{1/2}^{-1}$)1/2$^{+}$ intruder state, which is currently believed to be the ground state of $^{199}$Fr. This work will also study the edge of the region of reflection asymmetry through measurement of the moments and radii of $^{218,219}$Fr. This proposal forms the first part of a series of experiments that will study nuclei in this region of the nuclear chart. Based on the success of this initial proposal it is the intention of the collaboration to perform high resolution measurements on the isotopes of radium and radon that surround $^{201}$Fr and $^{218}$Fr and thus providing a comprehensive description of the ground state properties of this region of the nuclear chart. Recent in-source spectroscopy measurements of lead, bismuth and polonium have demonstrated a...

  10. THz Electron Paramagnetic Resonance / THz Spectroscopy at BESSY II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Holldack

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The THz beamline at BESSY II employs high power broadband femto- to picosecond long THz pulses for magneto-optical THz and FIR studies. A newly designed set-up exploits the unique properties of ultrashort THz pulses generated by laser-energy modulation of electron bunches in the storage ring or alternatively from compressed electron bunches. Experiments from 0.15 to 5 THz (~ 5 – 150 cm-1 may be conducted at a user station equipped with a fully evacuated high resolution FTIR spectrometer (0.0063 cm-1, lHe cooled bolometer detectors, a THz TDS set-up and different sample environments, including a superconducting high field magnet (+11 T - 11T with variable temperature insert (1.5 K – 300 K, a sample cryostat and a THz attenuated total reflection chamber.  Main applications are Frequency Domain Fourier transform THz-Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (FD-FT THz-EPR, THz-FTIR spectroscopy and optical pump - THz probe time domain spectroscopy (TDS, with sub-ps time resolution.

  11. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy-Based Identification of Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelreich, Uwe; Sorrell, Tania C; Daniel, Heide-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Rapid and robust high-throughput identification of environmental, industrial, or clinical yeast isolates is important whenever relatively large numbers of samples need to be processed in a cost-efficient way. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy generates complex data based on metabolite profiles, chemical composition and possibly on medium consumption, which can not only be used for the assessment of metabolic pathways but also for accurate identification of yeast down to the subspecies level. Initial results on NMR based yeast identification where comparable with conventional and DNA-based identification. Potential advantages of NMR spectroscopy in mycological laboratories include not only accurate identification but also the potential of automated sample delivery, automated analysis using computer-based methods, rapid turnaround time, high throughput, and low running costs.We describe here the sample preparation, data acquisition and analysis for NMR-based yeast identification. In addition, a roadmap for the development of classification strategies is given that will result in the acquisition of a database and analysis algorithms for yeast identification in different environments.

  12. Alzheimer's disease and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the hippocampus; Doenca de Alzheimer e espectroscopia por ressonancia magnetica do hipocampo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, Eliasz; Moreira, Denise M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Neurologia Deolindo Couto; Laks, Jerson; Marinho, Valeska M.; Rozenthal, Marcia [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Psiquiatria; Oliveira Junior, Amarino C. [Hospital ProCardiaco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Radiologia

    2001-12-01

    Objective: acquisition of data of magnetic resonance metabolite spectrum of the hippocampal formation (hippocampus-hc) in the elderly, normal and with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Method: Subjects matched for age: a. normal sample (n=20), CDR=0, and b. AD sample (n=40), CDR 1 and 2. Technique: Signa Horizon LX-GE, 1.5T, {sup 1}H-MRS with automated software PROBE/SV, VOI: hc (right and left); single voxel (2x2x2cm); TR 1500ms/TE 50ms; PRESS; metabolites: N-acetylaspartate (Naa), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), myo-inositol (mI). Results: The present data relate to the ratios of Naa, Cho and mI, with Cr taken as reference, and the mI/Naa ratio. The study showed reduction of Naa, increase of mI and of the mI/Naa ratio, and not consistent results for Cho. The results of the whole sample of AD patients compared to the pooled normal mean {+-} sd were significant for Naa, mI and mI/Naa (p<0.01). Accuracy in relation to the individual values of both samples showed satisfactory levels of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value. Conclusion: The present results can be used as a helpful tool to detect pathologic changes of the hippocampus in AD, and allowing greater accuracy and an earlier diagnosis of this disease. (author)

  13. Gravitational Resonance Spectroscopy with an Oscillating Magnetic Field Gradient in the GRANIT Flow through Arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebreyend, D.; Pignol, G.; Baeßler, S.; Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Protasov, K.; Voronin, A.

    2014-01-01

    Gravitational resonance spectroscopy consists in measuring the energy spectrum of bouncing ultracold neutrons above a mirror by inducing resonant transitions between different discrete quantum levels. We discuss how to induce the resonances with a flow through arrangement in the GRANIT spectrometer, excited by an oscillating magnetic field gradient. The spectroscopy could be realized in two distinct modes (so called DC and AC) using the same device to produce the magnetic excitation. We present calculations demonstrating the feasibility of the newly proposed AC mode

  14. Novel Chiroptical Analysis of Hemoglobin by Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Optical Activity Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Nadezda; Brazhe, Alexey; Sosnovtseva, Olga

    2010-01-01

    The metalloprotein hemoglobin (Hb) was studied using surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) and surface enhanced resonance Raman optical activity (SERROA). The SERROA results are analyzed and compared with the SERRS, and the later to the resonance Raman (RRS) performed on Hb...

  15. Characterization of human breast disease using phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy and proton magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis provides the fundamental characterization and differentiation of breast tissues using in vivo and ex vivo MR techniques in the hope that these techniques and experimental findings will be used on a larger scale and in a predictive manner in order to improve the specificity of diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. In this dissertation, clinical studies were performed using proton magnetic resonance imaging and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectro-scopy ( 31 P MRS) to characterize and differentiate malignant breast tumors, benign breast tumors and normal breast tissues in vivo. These studies were carried out following the methodical characterization of chemical extracts of malignant breast tumor, benign breast tumor and normal breast parenchymal surgical tissue specimens using high resolution 31 P MRS. Alterations in breast tissue metabolism, as a result of pathological processes, were postulated to be responsible for measurable differences between malignant breast tumors, benign breast tumors and normal breast tissues using magnetic resonance techniques. (author). 365 refs.; 37 figs.; 25 tabs

  16. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Lisse, U.G.; Scherr, M.

    2003-01-01

    To provide a brief summary of important technical and biochemical aspects and current clinical applications of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the prostate.Material and methods Pertinent radiological and biochemical literature was searched and retrieved via electronic media (medline trademark , pubmed trademark ). Basic concepts of MRS of the prostate and its clinical applications were extracted to provide an overview. The prostate lends itself to MRS due to its unique production, storage, and secretion of citrate. While healthy prostate tissue demonstrates high levels of citrate and low levels of choline that marks cell wall turnover, prostate cancer (PCA) utilizes citrate for energy metabolism and shows high levels of choline. The ratio of (choline + creatine)/citrate differentiates healthy prostate tissue and PCA. The combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 3-dimensional MRS (3D-MRSI or 3D-CSI) of the prostate localizes PCA to a sextant of the peripheral zone of the prostate with sensitivity/specificity of up to 80/80%. Combined MRI and 3D-MRSI exceed the sensitivity and specificity of sextant biopsy of the prostate. When MRS and MRI agree on PCA presence, the positive predictive value is about 90%. In principle, combined MRI and 3D-MRSI recognize and localize remnant or recurrent cancer after hormone therapy, radiation therapy and cryo-surgery. Since it is non-invasive and radiation-free, combined MRI and 3D-MRSI lends itself to the planning of prostate biopsy and therapy as well as to post-therapeutic follow-up. For broad clinical application, it will be necessary to facilitate MRS examinations and their evaluation and make MRS available to a wider range of institutions. (orig.) [de

  17. Resolution Improvement in Multidimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duma, L.

    2004-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is concerned with both liquid-state and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Most of this work is devoted to the investigation by solid-state NMR of C 13 -enriched compounds with the principal aim of presenting techniques devised for further improving the spectral resolution in multidimensional NMR of microcrystalline proteins. In fully C 13 -labelled compounds, the J-coupling induces a broadening of the carbon lineshapes. We show that spin-state-selective technique called IPAP can be successfully combined with standard polarisation transfer schemes in order to remove the J-broadening in multidimensional solid-state NMR correlation experiments of fully C 13 -enriched proteins. We present subsequently two techniques tailored for liquid-state NMR spectroscopy. The carbon directly detected techniques provide chemical shift information for all backbone hetero-nuclei. They are very attracting for the study of large bio-molecular systems or for the investigation of paramagnetic proteins. In the last part of this thesis, we study the spin-echo J-modulation for homonuclear two-spin 1/2 systems. Under magic-angle spinning, the theory of J-induced spin-echo modulation allows to derive a set of modulation regimes which give a spin-echo modulation exactly equal to the J-coupling. We show that the chemical-shift anisotropy and the dipolar interaction tend to stabilize the spin-echo J-modulation. The theoretical conclusions are supported by numerical simulations and experimental results obtained for three representative samples containing C 13 spin pairs. (author)

  18. Metabolic Disturbances in Liver {sup 1}H MR Spectroscopy in HIV and HCV Co-infected Patients as a Potential Marker of Hepatocyte Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasow, E.; Wierciska-Drapao, A.; Jaroszewicz, J.; Siergiejczyk, L.; Orzechowska-Bobkiewicz, A.; Prokopowicz, D.; Walecki, J. [Medical Academy Hospital, Bialystok (Poland). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-12-01

    Purpose : To evaluate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) features in order to assess hepatocellular activation in chronic hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C (HIV/HCV) co-infected patients. Material and Methods : Liver in vivo {sup 1}H MR spectra were obtained in 14 patients with hepatitis C virus infection (HCV), 20 HIV/HCV co-infected individuals, and 24 healthy volunteers. Resonances of lipids, glutamine/glutamate (Glx), phosphomonoesters (PME), glycogen/glucose (Glc) were assessed and metabolite ratios to total lipids (TL) were calculated. Results : A significant increase in Glx/TL and PME/TL was observed in the HCV group as compared to healthy individuals. Patients with HIV and HCV co-infection had a further increase of all metabolite ratios. Changes in metabolite ratios were due to both the increase in particular metabolite contents and to the decrease in lipid levels. HIV/HCV-infected patients treated with highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) showed elevated PME and Glx levels and significantly decreased TL compared to patients not undergoing anti-retroviral treatment. Conclusions : Our findings suggest clinical usefulness of liver {sup 1}H MR spectroscopy in detecting even slight disturbances in liver metabolism.

  19. Metabolic Disturbances in Liver 1H MR Spectroscopy in HIV and HCV Co-infected Patients as a Potential Marker of Hepatocyte Activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasow, E.; Wierciska-Drapao, A.; Jaroszewicz, J.; Siergiejczyk, L.; Orzechowska-Bobkiewicz, A.; Prokopowicz, D.; Walecki, J.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose : To evaluate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) features in order to assess hepatocellular activation in chronic hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C (HIV/HCV) co-infected patients. Material and Methods : Liver in vivo 1 H MR spectra were obtained in 14 patients with hepatitis C virus infection (HCV), 20 HIV/HCV co-infected individuals, and 24 healthy volunteers. Resonances of lipids, glutamine/glutamate (Glx), phosphomonoesters (PME), glycogen/glucose (Glc) were assessed and metabolite ratios to total lipids (TL) were calculated. Results : A significant increase in Glx/TL and PME/TL was observed in the HCV group as compared to healthy individuals. Patients with HIV and HCV co-infection had a further increase of all metabolite ratios. Changes in metabolite ratios were due to both the increase in particular metabolite contents and to the decrease in lipid levels. HIV/HCV-infected patients treated with highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) showed elevated PME and Glx levels and significantly decreased TL compared to patients not undergoing anti-retroviral treatment. Conclusions : Our findings suggest clinical usefulness of liver 1 H MR spectroscopy in detecting even slight disturbances in liver metabolism

  20. Characterization of Canadian coals by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Ripmeester, J.

    1983-06-01

    Apparent aromaticities of a series of Canadian coals of different rank were estimated by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The aromaticities varied from 0.57 for a lignite up to 0.86 for a semi-anthracite coal. The aromaticities correlated well with fixed carbon and oxygen content of the coals as well as with the mean reflectance of the coals. Correlations were also established between aromaticities and the H/C and H/SUB/a/SUB/r/SUB/u/C/SUB/a/SUB/r ratios of the coals. Uncertainties in calculation of the hypothetical H/SUB/a/SUB/r/SUB/u/C/SUB/a/SUB/r ratios, from experimental data were pointed out. Structural parameters of the chars derived from the coals by pyrolysis at 535 C were, also, estimated. The H/C and H/SUB/a/SUB/r/SUB/u/C/SUB/a/SUB/r ratios of the chars were markedly lower than those of coals. This was complemented by higher apparent aromaticities of the chars compared with the coals. (21 refs.)

  1. Principles of resonance-averaged gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    The unambiguous determination of excitation energies, spins, parities, and other properties of nuclear levels is the paramount goal of the nuclear spectroscopist. All developments of nuclear models depend upon the availability of a reliable data base on which to build. In this regard, slow neutron capture gamma-ray spectroscopy has proved to be a valuable tool. The observation of primary radiative transitions connecting initial and final states can provide definite level positions. In particular the use of the resonance-averaged capture technique has received much recent attention because of the claims advanced for this technique (Chrien 1980a, Casten 1980); that it is able to identify all states in a given spin-parity range and to provide definite spin parity information for these states. In view of the importance of this method, it is perhaps surprising that until now no firm analytical basis has been provided which delineates its capabilities and limitations. Such an analysis is necessary to establish the spin-parity assignments derived from this method on a quantitative basis; in other words a quantitative statement of the limits of error must be provided. It is the principal aim of the present paper to present such an analysis. To do this, a historical description of the technique and its applications is presented and the principles of the method are stated. Finally a method of statistical analysis is described, and the results are applied to recent measurements carried out at the filtered beam facilities at the Brookhaven National Laboratory

  2. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of traumatic brain in SD rats model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ke; Li Yangbin; Li Zhiming; Huang Yong; Li Bin; Lu Guangming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value and prospect of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in early diagnosis of traumatic brain with traumatic brain model in SD rats. Methods: Traumatic brain modal was established in 40 male SD rats utilizing a weigh-drop device, and MRS was performed before trauma and 4,8,24 and 48 hours after trauma. The ratio of N-acetylaspartate/creatine (NAA/Ct) and choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) were calculated and compared with pathological findings respectively. Results: Axonal changes were confirmed in microscopic study 4 hours after injury. The ratio of NAA/Ct decreased distinctly at 4 hours after trauma, followed by a steadily recover at 8 hours, and no significant change from 24h to 48h. There was no significant change in the ratio of Cho/Cr before and after trauma. Conclusion: MRS can be used to monitor the metabolic changes of brain non-invasively. MRS could play a positive role in early diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up of traumatic brain. (authors)

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Spectroscopy (MRS in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a major health problem in women and early detection is of prime importance. Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI provides both physical and physiologic tissue features that are useful in discriminating malignant from benign lesions. Contrast enhanced MRI is valuable for diagnosis of small tumors in dense breast and the structural and kinetic parameters improved the specificity of diagnosing benign from malignant lesions. It is a complimentary modality for preoperative staging, to follow response to therapy, to detect recurrences and for screening high risk women. Diffusion, perfusion and MR elastography have been applied to breast lesion characterization and show promise.In-vivo MR spectroscopy (MRS is a valuable method to obtain the biochemical status of normal and diseased tissues. Malignant tissues contain high concentration of choline containing compounds that can be used as a biochemical marker. MRS helps to increase the specificity of MRI in lesions larger than 1cm and to monitor the tumor response. Various MR techniques show promise primarily as adjunct to the existing standard detection techniques, and its acceptability as a screening method will increase if specificity can be improved. This review presents the progress made in different MRI and MRS techniques in breast cancer management.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Spectroscopy (MRS in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a major health problem in women and early detection is of prime importance. Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI provides both physical and physiologic tissue features that are useful in discriminating malignant from benign lesions. Contrast enhanced MRI is valuable for diagnosis of small tumors in dense breast and the structural and kinetic parameters improved the specificity of diagnosing benign from malignant lesions. It is a complimentary modality for preoperative staging, to follow response to therapy, to detect recurrences and for screening high risk women. Diffusion, perfusion and MR elastography have been applied to breast lesion characterization and show promise. In-vivo MR spectroscopy (MRS is a valuable method to obtain the biochemical status of normal and diseased tissues. Malignant tissues contain high concentration of choline containing compounds that can be used as a biochemical marker. MRS helps to increase the specificity of MRI in lesions larger than 1cm and to monitor the tumor response. Various MR techniques show promise primarily as adjunct to the existing standard detection techniques, and its acceptability as a screening method will increase if specificity can be improved. This review presents the progress made in different MRI and MRS techniques in beast cancer management.

  5. Method of using a nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Leonard D.; Bennett, Dennis W.; Davis, Jon F.

    1985-01-01

    (CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiNSO is produced by the reaction of ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 NH with SO.sub.2. Also produced in the reaction are ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 O and a new solid compound [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ]. Both (CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiNSO and [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ] have fluorescent properties. The reaction of the subject invention is used in a method of measuring the concentration of SO.sub.2 pollutants in gases. By the method, a sample of gas is bubbled through a solution of ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 NH, whereby any SO.sub.2 present in the gas will react to produce the two fluorescent products. The measured fluorescence of these products can then be used to calculate the concentration of SO.sub.2 in the original gas sample. The solid product [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ] may be used as a standard in solid state NMR spectroscopy, wherein the resonance peaks of either .sup.1 H, .sup.13 C, .sup.15 N, or .sup.29 Si may be used as a reference.

  6. High-resolution inverse Raman and resonant-wave-mixing spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahn, L.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    These research activities consist of high-resolution inverse Raman spectroscopy (IRS) and resonant wave-mixing spectroscopy to support the development of nonlinear-optical techniques for temperature and concentration measurements in combustion research. Objectives of this work include development of spectral models of important molecular species needed to perform coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurements and the investigation of new nonlinear-optical processes as potential diagnostic techniques. Some of the techniques being investigated include frequency-degenerate and nearly frequency-degenerate resonant four-wave-mixing (DFWM and NDFWM), and resonant multi-wave mixing (RMWM).

  7. Mr imaging and mr spectroscopy of brain metastases by mr perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Marc-Andre; Lichy, M.P.; Thilmann, C.; Guenther, M.; Bachert, P.; Delorme, S.; Schad, L.R.; Debus, J.; Schlemmer, H.P.; Maudsley, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    In follow-up examinations of irradiated brain metastases conventional contrast-enhanced morphological MR imaging is often unable to distinguish between transient radiation effects, radionecrosis, and tumor recurrence. To evaluate changes of relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in irradiated brain metastases arterial spin-labeling techniques (ASL) were applied and compared to the outcome of 1 H MR spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging ( 1 H MRS, SI). Patients and methods In 2 patients follow-up examinations of irradiated brain metastases were performed on a 1.5-T tomograph (average single dose: 20 Gy/80% isodose). Relative CBF values of gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and metastases (Met) were measured by means of the ASL techniques ITS-FAIR and Q2TIPS. 1 H MRS was performed with PRESS 1500/135. In both patients with initially hyperperfused metastases (Met/GM >1) the reduction of rCBF after stereotactic radiosurgery indicated response to treatment - even if the contrast-enhancing region increased - while increasing rCBF values indicated tumor progression. The findings were confirmed by 1 H MRS, SI and subsequent follow-up. The ASL techniques ITS-FAIR and Q2TIPS are able to monitor changes of rCBF in irradiated brain metastases. The two cases imply a possible role for ASL-MR perfusion imaging and 1 H MR spectroscopy in differentiating radiation effects from tumor progression. (orig.) [de

  8. Multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in heat stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Zhang, X.Y.; Wang, B.; Zou, Z.M.; Li, H.F.; Wang, P.Y.; Xia, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess the role of proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) in the detection of changes in metabolite levels of the cerebellum after heat stroke (HS). Materials and methods: The study group consisted of eight patients after HS, with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 3–9. The MR studies were performed with a 1.5 T system. MR spectra were recorded from a normal-appearing cerebellum region. Spectra from patients were compared with a control group including seven age-matched healthy volunteers recorded with the same techniques. Metabolites ratios including N-acetyl aspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr), N-acetyl aspartate/creatine2 (NAA/Cr2), choline/creatine (Cho/Cr), choline/creatine2 (Cho/Cr2), and N-acetyl aspartate/choline (NAA/Cho) were calculated and the differences between the two groups were evaluated using the Mann–Whitney U-test. Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyse the relationship between NAA/Cr ratios and GCS scores for eight patients after HS. Results: In the cerebellum of the patients after HS, NAA/Cr ratios were found to be significantly decreased compared to normal controls (p = 0.004) and Cho/Cr ratios were found to be decreased compared to normal controls (p = 0.032). Significant positive correlation was found between NAA/Cr ratios and GCS scores for eight patients after HS (r = 0.748, p = 0.033). Conclusions: Metabolite abnormalities were seen in normal-appearing cerebellum structures in patients after HS. Proton MRS is a useful tool for evaluating major changes in metabolite levels of the cerebellum after HS and the severity of the disease can be effectively evaluated by NAA/Cr ratios. - Highlights: • Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy offers important information in patients with heat stroke. • Significantly different NAA/Cr ratios were found between heat stroke and controls. • The severity of heat stroke can be effectively evaluated by NAA/Cr ratios

  9. Photochemical cycle of bacteriorhodopsin studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockburger, M; Klusmann, W; Gattermann, H; Massig, G; Peters, R

    1979-10-30

    Individual species of the photochemical cycle of bacteriorhodopsin, a retinal-protein complex of Halobacteria, were studied in aqueous suspensions of the "purple membrane" at room temperature by resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy with flow systems. Two pronounced deuterium shifts were found in the RR spectra of the all-trans complex BR-570 in H2O-D2O suspensions. The first is ascribed to C=NH+ (C=ND+) stretching vibrations of the protonated Schiff base which links retinal to opsin. The second is assigned tentatively to an "X-H" ("X-D") bending mode, where "X" is an atom which carries an exchangeable proton. A RR spectrum of the 13-cis-retinal complex "BR-548" could be deduced from spectra of the dark-adapted purple membrane. The RR spectrum of the M-412 intermediate was monitored in a double-beam pump-probe experiment. The main vibrational features of the intermediate M' in the reaction M-412 in equilibrium hv M' leads to delta BR-570 could be deduced from a photostationary mixture of M-412 and M'. Difference procedures were applied to obtain RR spectra of the L-550 intermediate and of two new long-lived species, R1'-590 and R2-550. From kinetic data it is suggested that T1'-590 links the proton-translocating cycle to the "13-cis" cycle of BR-548. The protonation and isomeric states of the different species are discussed in light of the new spectroscopic and kinetic data. It is found that conformational changes during the photochemical cycle play an important role.

  10. Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) Munition Classification System enhancements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, O.A.; Huggard, J.C.

    1997-09-18

    Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) is a non-destructive evaluation technology developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This technology has resulted in three generations of instrumentation, funded by the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), specifically designed for field identification of chemical weapon (CW) munitions. Each generation of ARS instrumentation was developed with a specific user in mind. The ARS1OO was built for use by the U.N. Inspection Teams going into Iraq immediately after the Persian Gulf War. The ARS200 was built for use in the US-Russia Bilateral Chemical Weapons Treaty (the primary users for this system are the US Onsite Inspection Agency (OSIA) and their Russian counterparts). The ARS300 was built with the requirements of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in mind. Each successive system is an improved version of the previous system based on learning the weaknesses of each and, coincidentally, on the fact that more time was available to do a requirements analysis and the necessary engineering development. The ARS300 is at a level of development that warrants transferring the technology to a commercial vendor. Since LANL will supply the computer software to the selected vendor, it is possible for LANL to continue to improve the decision algorithms, add features where necessary, and adjust the user interface before the final transfer occurs. This paper describes the current system, ARS system enhancements, and software enhancements. Appendices contain the Operations Manual (software Version 3.01), and two earlier reports on enhancements.

  11. Molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma identification using noninvasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüml, Stefan; Margol, Ashley S; Sposto, Richard; Kennedy, Rebekah J; Robison, Nathan J; Vali, Marzieh; Hung, Long T; Muthugounder, Sakunthala; Finlay, Jonathan L; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat; Gilles, Floyd H; Judkins, Alexander R; Krieger, Mark D; Dhall, Girish; Nelson, Marvin D; Asgharzadeh, Shahab

    2016-01-01

    Medulloblastomas in children can be categorized into 4 molecular subgroups with differing clinical characteristics, such that subgroup determination aids in prognostication and risk-adaptive treatment strategies. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a widely available, noninvasive tool that is used to determine the metabolic characteristics of tumors and provide diagnostic information without the need for tumor tissue. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that metabolite concentrations measured by MRS would differ between molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma and allow accurate subgroup determination. MRS was used to measure metabolites in medulloblastomas across molecular subgroups (SHH = 12, Groups 3/4 = 17, WNT = 1). Levels of 14 metabolites were analyzed to determine those that were the most discriminant for medulloblastoma subgroups in order to construct a multivariable classifier for distinguishing between combined Group 3/4 and SHH tumors. Medulloblastomas across molecular subgroups revealed distinct spectral features. Group 3 and Group 4 tumors demonstrated metabolic profiles with readily detectable taurine, lower levels of lipids, and high levels of creatine. SHH tumors showed prominent choline and lipid with low levels of creatine and little or no evidence of taurine. A 5-metabolite subgroup classifier inclusive of creatine, myo-inositol, taurine, aspartate, and lipid 13a was developed that could discriminate between Group 3/4 and SHH medulloblastomas with excellent accuracy (cross-validated area under the curve [AUC] = 0.88). The data show that medulloblastomas of Group 3/4 differ metabolically as measured using MRS when compared with SHH molecular subgroups. MRS is a useful and accurate tool to determine medulloblastoma molecular subgroups. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fesih Aktar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS is a rare neurocutane­ous disease showing an autosomal recessive transmis­sion due to a lack of fatty acid aldehyde dehydrogenase. Spastic diplegia or triplegia, mental retardation and con­genital lamellar ichthyosis are the major findings of the disease. The syndrome may be accompanied by various eye and teeth features, skeletal system anomaly, speak­ing defects, hypertelorism and epilepsy. A 9-month male patient has been hospitalized for convulsion and flaking on body. The patient history showed that flaking skin thickening and peeling was started at the birth, and he suffered a right-side focused seizure when he was three month-old and he was treated with phenobarbital and car­bamazepine upon the epilepsy diagnosis. Wide ichthyo­sis, hypertelorism and bilateral simian line were observed in the physical examination. Bilateral punctuate lesions in cornea, pigment epithelial atrophy in the right eye and esotropia in the left eye have been determined during the eye examination. An epiteliform anomaly has been ob­served in the left hemisphere by electroencephalography. In brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, an increase in cerebral-cerebellar brain parenchyma and T1-T2 relax­ation time and in the signal in corpus callosum (delayed myelination have been determined. With the observa­tion of the white matter in centrum semi oval using brain MRI spectroscopy, signs of a sphingolipid peak at 1.3 ppm have been observed. An SLS diagnosis has been proposed upon clinical and laboratory observations. We want to emphasize on the fact that in epilepsy cases with ichthyosis, SLS should be considered.

  13. Krypton isotope analysis using near-resonant stimulated Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, C.A.; Cannon, B.D.; Wacker, J.F.

    1994-12-01

    A method for measuring low relative abundances of 85 Kr in one liter or less samples of air has been under development here at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The goal of the Krypton Isotope Laser Analysis (KILA) method is to measure ratios of 10 -10 or less of 85 Kr to more abundant stable krypton. Mass spectrometry and beta counting are the main competing technologies used in rare-gas trace analysis and are limited in application by such factors as sample size, counting times, and selectivity. The use of high-resolution lasers to probe hyperfine levels to determine isotopic abundance has received much attention recently. In this study, we report our progress on identifying and implementing techniques for trace 85 Kr analysis on small gas samples in a static cell as well as limitations on sensitivity and selectivity for the technique. High-resolution pulsed and cw lasers are employed in a laser-induced fluorescence technique that preserves the original sample. This technique, is based on resonant isotopic depletion spectroscopy (RIDS) in which one isotope is optically depleted while preserving the population of a less abundant isotope. The KILA method consists of three steps. In the first step, the 1s 5 metastable level of krypton is populated via radiative cascade following two-photon excitation of the 2p 6 energy level. Next, using RBDS, the stable krypton isotopes are optically depleted to the ground state through the 1s 4 level with the bulk of the 85 Kr population being preserved. Finally, the remaining metastable population is probed to determine 85 Kr concentration. The experimental requirements for each of these steps are outlined below

  14. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain in paediatrics: The diagnosis of creatine deficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijens, P.E.; Oudkerk, M.

    2005-01-01

    The diagnosis of creatine deficiencies, a paediatric application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy that has already become a diagnostic tool in clinical practice, is reviewed and illustrated with results from recent examinations

  15. In the assessment of supratentorial glioma grade: The combined role of multivoxel proton MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Q.-G. [Department of Neuroradiology, Union hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Xu, H.-B., E-mail: xuhaibo1120@hotmail.com [Department of Neuroradiology, Union hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Liu, F.; Guo, W. [Department of Neuroradiology, Union hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Kong, X.-C. [Department of Imaging technology, Union hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Wu, Y. [Department of Maternal and Child Health Care, Public Health School, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2011-10-15

    Aim: To detect a difference in the parameters derived from proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) between low-grade and high-grade gliomas, and to evaluate whether the combination of these two techniques can improve the diagnostic accuracy of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in supratentorial glioma grading. Materials and methods: Thirty patients with histologically proved supratentorial brain gliomas (12 low grade, 18 high grade) were prospectively evaluated with contrast material-enhanced MRI, DTI, and multivoxel {sup 1}H-MRS (135 ms echo time). The tumour grades determined using the three methods were then compared with those obtained at histopathology. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to determine the optimum thresholds for glioma grading. Independent sample t-test, Spearman's rank correlation, and the Fisher's exact test were also carried out for statistical analysis. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Statistically significant differences were found between the low-grade and high-grade gliomas for the choline (Cho)/creatine (Cr), N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/Cr, NAA/Cho ratio in the tumours (p < 0.01), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value (p < 0.01), and fractional anisotropy (FA) value (p < 0.05) in the tumours. The NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho ratios and the calculated ADC value significantly correlated with the histological grading of the gliomas (p < 0.01). Using a threshold value of 0.66 for tumour NAA/Cr, 0.265 for NAA/Cho, 1118.1 x 10{sup -6} mm{sup 2}/s for the calculated ADC value, corresponding to the maximum Youden index from the ROC curve of the above-selected parameters, the resultant sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs), and Kappa values were all higher and the fraction of misclassified tumour was lower when compared with conventional MRI. However, only NAA/Cho and

  16. Localised proton MR spectroscopy of brain metabolism changes in vegetative patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, R.; Barbarella, G.; Musi, P.; Boldrini, P.; Trevisan, C.; Basaglia, N.

    1997-01-01

    We examined 14 vegetative brain-injured patients with proton magnetic resonance single-volume spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) at 1.5 T to establish whether there were changes in relative concentrations of N -acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho) and creatine (CR) metabolites from those found in healthy brains. Spectra were obtained from two different (2 x 2 x 2 cm) volumes of interest in the left and in the right frontal cortex, normal on MRI. All spectra revealed abnormalities compared with normal spectra obtained from age-matched control subjects. Values outside the normal range for at least one of the metabolite ratios were observed in all patients. Cho/Cr was markedly higher and NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr were markedly lower than in the control subjects. At different times six patients regained awareness and the ability to obey commands, and four were re-examined; changes in metabolite ratios were observed, which were different in individual patients. The NAA/Cho ratio reaches statistical significance in discriminating between the patients with a poor outcome (death or prolonged vegetative state) and those who regained awareness; the dividing line appears to be at a value of about 1.6. (orig.). With 8 figs., 2 tabs

  17. 1H MR spectroscopy of skeletal muscle, liver and bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machann, Juergen; Stefan, Norbert; Schick, Fritz

    2008-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) offers interesting metabolic information even from organs outside the brain. In the first part, applications in skeletal muscle for determination of intramyocellular lipids (IMCL), which are involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, are described. Peculiarities of spectral pattern are discussed and studies for short-term regulation of IMCL, as dietary intervention, exercise and fasting are presented. The second part deals with quantification of small amounts of lipids in the liver (hepatic lipids, HL), which is also of increasing interest in the field of diabetes research. Recommendations for correct assessment of spectra in this 'moving organ' are given and the importance of HL is described by examples of a cohort at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Regulation of HL is described on the basis of a few studies. The third part concentrates on spectral characterization of bone marrow. Peripheral bone marrow of adults consists mainly of fat, while central marrow regions in the pelvis, spinal column and breast bone (and the peripheral bone marrow of children as well) contribute to blood formation and show a variable composition of adipocytes (fat cells), interstitial fluid and water containing precursor cells for erythrocytes, leucocytes and thrombocytes. Adapted 1 H spectroscopic techniques allow a semi-quantitative analysis of bone marrow composition

  18. {sup 1}H MR spectroscopy of skeletal muscle, liver and bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machann, Juergen [Section on Experimental Radiology, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)], E-mail: juergen.machann@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Stefan, Norbert [Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Pathobiochemistry, Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Schick, Fritz [Section on Experimental Radiology, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) offers interesting metabolic information even from organs outside the brain. In the first part, applications in skeletal muscle for determination of intramyocellular lipids (IMCL), which are involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, are described. Peculiarities of spectral pattern are discussed and studies for short-term regulation of IMCL, as dietary intervention, exercise and fasting are presented. The second part deals with quantification of small amounts of lipids in the liver (hepatic lipids, HL), which is also of increasing interest in the field of diabetes research. Recommendations for correct assessment of spectra in this 'moving organ' are given and the importance of HL is described by examples of a cohort at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Regulation of HL is described on the basis of a few studies. The third part concentrates on spectral characterization of bone marrow. Peripheral bone marrow of adults consists mainly of fat, while central marrow regions in the pelvis, spinal column and breast bone (and the peripheral bone marrow of children as well) contribute to blood formation and show a variable composition of adipocytes (fat cells), interstitial fluid and water containing precursor cells for erythrocytes, leucocytes and thrombocytes. Adapted {sup 1}H spectroscopic techniques allow a semi-quantitative analysis of bone marrow composition.

  19. 1H-MR spectroscopy of dog's brain contusion and laceration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuejian; Yu Hui; Shen Guiquan; Wei Yuqing; Li Dongfang; Shi Qianhua; Xiang Zhihua; Zhang Tijiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) findings and value on dog's brain contusion and laceration. Methods: Models of focal brain contusion and laceration in 10 dogs were established through hitting on the right frontal-parietal lobe with a freely drop of 200g weight at 1.3 m height. Serial examinations (1 h, 24 h, 72 h, 5 day, 8 day and 14 day after trauma) were performed with conventional MRI and 1 H-MRS. NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr and NAA/Cho rates were analyzed with GE system 1.5 T scanner and relative software. After examination, all dogs were executed to death. Pathological study was performed at local brain contusion. Results: 1 h and 24 h-post trauma, NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, NAA/Cho were significantly reduced (NAA/Cr 0.843±0.214, 0.862±0.204, contralateral ones 1.069±0.284, 1.048±0.232, t=-7.227, -6.718, Cho/Cr 1.181±0.224, 1.243±0.134, contralateral 1.415±0.305, 1.455±0.159, t=-4.332, -4.489, NAA/Cho 0.701±0.147, 0.536±0.136, contralateral 0.832±0.245, 0.613±0.165, t=-2.652, -2.665. P 0.05), Cho/Cr was significantly increased (1.457±0.168, 1.572±0.374, contralateral 1.334±0.174, 1.366±0.352, t=7.312, 3.201. P<0.05). Inflammatory and glial hyperplasia was more significant, granuloma were seen. Lipid and Lac peak were not seen at all stages. Conclusion: MRS could be a methods to monitor neuron injury and repair, and dynamically to detect the metabolic changes of brain contusion and laceration, reflecting injury severity and provide theory data for early treatment and predicting long-term outcome after trauma. (authors)

  20. Breathers in Josephson junction ladders: Resonances and electromagnetic wave spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnichenko, A. E.; Flach, S.; Fistul, M.

    2001-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the resonant interaction between dynamical localized states (discrete breathers) and linear electromagnetic excitations (EE's) in Josephson junction ladders. By making use of direct numerical simulations we find that such an interaction manifests itself by resonant...

  1. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in evaluation of central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolicki, L.; Bak, M.; Grieb, P.

    1996-01-01

    The article presents the current results of MR spectroscopy in evaluation of central nervous system. This method is useful in examination of brain ischemia, brain tumors, epilepsy; white matter disorders and degeneration diseases. MR spectroscopy is unique technique for in vivo examination of the brain in physiological and pathophysiological states. (author)

  2. Radiofrequency/infrared double resonance spectroscopy of the HD+ ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrington, Alan; McNab, I.R.; Montgomerie, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    We describe a double resonance technique for obtaining radiofrequency spectra of the HD + ion in vibration-rotation levels close to the dissociation limit. Infrared transitions are driven by Doppler tuning an HD + ion beam into resonance with a carbon dioxide infrared laser, and are detected by measuring H + fragment ions produced by electric field dissociation of the upper vibration-rotation level. Radiofrequency transitions between nuclear hyperfine components of the lower vibration-rotation level are then detected through resonant increases in the H + fragment ion current. The high spectroscopic resolution obtained, and the ability to measure magnetic dipole hyperfine transitions, will enable the hyperfine constants to be determined accurately. (author)

  3. Spectroscopy and Biosensing with Optically Resonant Dielectric Nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Krasnok, Alex; Caldarola, Martin; Bonod, Nicolas; Alú, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Resonant dielectric nanoparticles (RDNs) made of materials with large positive dielectric permittivity, such as Si, GaP, GaAs, have become a powerful platform for modern light science, enabling various fascinating applications in nanophotonics and quantum optics. In addition to light localization at the nanoscale, dielectric nanostructures provide electric and magnetic resonant responses throughout the visible and infrared spectrum, low dissipative losses and optical heating, low doping effec...

  4. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of cerebral gliomas showing imperceptible contrast enhancement on conventional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, A.; Tripathi, R.P.; Singh, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to evaluate the utility of perfusion MRI in cerebral gliomas showing imperceptible contrast enhancement on conventional MRI, and to evaluate the relationships of perfusion MRI and magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopic results in these tumours. Twenty-two patients with histopathologically proven cerebral gliomas and showing insignificant contrast enhancement on conventional MR were included in the present study. All patients underwent perfusion MRI and MR spectroscopy on a 1.5-T MR system. Significant differences of the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) values and the choline : creatine ratios were noted between low-grade and anaplastic gliomas (P < 0.01). Good correlation was found between the rCBV values and the choline : creatine values (y = 0. 532x + 1.5643; r = 0.67). Perfusion MRI can be a useful tool in assessing the histopathological grade of non-contrast-enhancing cerebral gliomas. Along with MR spectroscopic imaging it can serve as an important technique for preoperative characterization of such gliomas, so that accurate targeting by stereotactic biopsies is possible. Copyright (2004) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  5. Measurement of brain metabolites by 1H-MR spectroscopy in patients with alzheimer disease: a Meta analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaochun; Wang Xiaoming; Zuo Lin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To have a systemic review of the association between relative ratio in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: A search in Medline and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) was performed, and relevant English and Chinese-language articles about assessing AD with 1 H-MRS were identified. The data of relative metabolic ratios (NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, mI/Cr) from different brain regions (hippocampus, posterior cingulate gyrus, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, frontal lobe, occipital lobe) were extracted from the articles. The quality of the articles was evaluated according to the standard recommended by Newcastle-Ottawa criteria. The Meta-analysis was done with the Review Manager 4.2 to calculate pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI), and linear correlation analysis between NAA/Cr ratio and mI/Cr ratio was done by SPSS 17.0. Results: Thirty six articles (27 English articles, 9 Chinese articles) were included. After heterogeneity test was done,fixed effects model or random effects model was selected. The meta-analysis showed that the NAA/Cr ratio in patients with AD was higher than that in controls (WMD:-0.14, 95% CI: -0.17 to -0.11). The mI/Cr ratio in patients with AD was lower than that in controls (WMD: 0.10, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.13). There were greatest changes in NAA/Cr ratio and mI/Cr ratio on the hippocampus (WMD of NAA/Cr: -0.27,95% CI: -0.36 to -0.19; WMD of mI/Cr: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.33). There were also no differences between patients with AD and controls with respect to the Cho/Cr ratio (WMD: 0.01, 95% CI:0.00 to 0.01, P>0.05). The NAA/Cr and mI/Cr changes are markedly correlated with each other in different brain regions (r=0.947, P=0.004). Conclusion: The hippocampus region is the first to present neuropathological changes in AD and the changes of NAA/Cr and MI/Cr might reflect the neurodegenerative process of AD. (authors)

  6. Medulloblastoma: correlation among findings of conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonte, Mariana Vieira de Melo da; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia; Lucato, Leandro Tavares; Reed, Umbertina Conti; Leite, Claudia da Costa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Inst. de Radiologia]. E-mail: mvmfonte@uol.com.br; Costa, Maria Olivia Rodrigues; Amaral, Raquel Portugal Guimaraes [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Reed, Umbertina Conti [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia; Rosemberg, Sergio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Patologia

    2008-11-15

    To correlate imaging findings of medulloblastomas at conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, comparing them with data in the literature. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging studies of nine pediatric patients with histologically confirmed medulloblastomas (eight desmoplastic medulloblastoma, and one giant cell medulloblastoma) were retrospectively reviewed, considering demographics as well as tumors characteristics such as localization, morphology, signal intensity, contrast-enhancement, dissemination, and diffusion-weighted imaging and spectroscopy findings. In most of cases the tumors were centered in the cerebellar vermis (77.8%), predominantly solid (88.9%), hypointense on T 1-weighted images and intermediate/hyperintense on T 2-FLAIR-weighted images, with heterogeneous enhancement (100%), tumor dissemination/extension (77.8%) and limited water molecule mobility (100%). Proton spectroscopy acquired with STEAM technique (n = 6) demonstrated decreased Na a / Cr ratio (83.3%) and increased Co/Cr (100%) and ml/Cr (66.7%) ratios; and with PRESS technique (n = 7) demonstrated lactate peak (57.1%). Macroscopic magnetic resonance imaging findings in association with biochemical features of medulloblastomas have been useful in the differentiation among the most frequent posterior fossa tumors. (author)

  7. Medulloblastoma: correlation among findings of conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonte, Mariana Vieira de Melo da; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia; Lucato, Leandro Tavares; Reed, Umbertina Conti; Leite, Claudia da Costa; Costa, Maria Olivia Rodrigues; Amaral, Raquel Portugal Guimaraes; Reed, Umbertina Conti; Rosemberg, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    To correlate imaging findings of medulloblastomas at conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, comparing them with data in the literature. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging studies of nine pediatric patients with histologically confirmed medulloblastomas (eight desmoplastic medulloblastoma, and one giant cell medulloblastoma) were retrospectively reviewed, considering demographics as well as tumors characteristics such as localization, morphology, signal intensity, contrast-enhancement, dissemination, and diffusion-weighted imaging and spectroscopy findings. In most of cases the tumors were centered in the cerebellar vermis (77.8%), predominantly solid (88.9%), hypointense on T 1-weighted images and intermediate/hyperintense on T 2-FLAIR-weighted images, with heterogeneous enhancement (100%), tumor dissemination/extension (77.8%) and limited water molecule mobility (100%). Proton spectroscopy acquired with STEAM technique (n = 6) demonstrated decreased Na a / Cr ratio (83.3%) and increased Co/Cr (100%) and ml/Cr (66.7%) ratios; and with PRESS technique (n = 7) demonstrated lactate peak (57.1%). Macroscopic magnetic resonance imaging findings in association with biochemical features of medulloblastomas have been useful in the differentiation among the most frequent posterior fossa tumors. (author)

  8. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and non-destructive testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, A.; Darling, T. W.

    The use of mechanical resonances to test properties of materials is perhaps older than the industrial revolution. Early documented cases of British railroad engineers tapping the wheels of a train and using the sound to detect cracks perhaps mark the first real use of resonances to test the integrity of high-performance alloys. Attempts were made in the following years to understand the resonances of solids mathematically, based on the shape and composition. But Nobel Laureate Lord Rayleigh best summarized the state of affairs in 1894, stating 'the problem has, for the most part, resisted attack'. More recently, modern computers and electronics have enabled Anderson and co-workers with their work on minerals, and our work at Los Alamos on new materials and manufactured components to advance the use of resonances to a precision non-destructive testing tool that makes anisotropic modulus measurements, defect detection and geometry error detection routine. The result is that resonances can achieve the highest absolute accuracy for any dynamic modulus measurement technique, can be used on the smallest samples, and can also enable detection of errors in certain classes of precision manufactured components faster and more accurately than any other technique.

  9. Hyperfine structure of 147,149Sm measured using saturated absorption spectroscopy in combination with resonance-ionization mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyunmin; Lee, Miran; Rhee, Yongjoo

    2003-01-01

    The hyperfine structures of four levels of the Sm isotopes have been measured by means of diode-laser-based Doppler-free saturated absorption spectroscopy in combination with a diode-laser-initiated resonance-ionization mass spectroscopy. It was demonstrated that combining the two spectroscopic methods was very effective for the identification and accurate measurement of the spectral lines of atoms with several isotopes, such as the rare-earth elements. From the obtained spectra, the hyperfine constants A and B for the odd-mass isotopes 147 Sm and 149 Sm were determined for four upper levels of the studied transitions.

  10. Proton resonance spectroscopy. Final performance report, June 1987 - May 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriner, J.F. Jr.

    1998-09-01

    This report gives a brief summary of accomplishments made on this project. Approximately 22 refereed papers were published with support from this grant; reprints are attached with this report. Topics studied include amplitude distributions in proton resonance reactions, chaos in nuclei, and tests of detailed balance and of parity violation with resonance reactions. Appendix 1 lists personnel and collaborators associated with this work, including the undergraduate students hired with grant funds, while Appendix 2 provides a list of talks, abstracts, dissertations and theses, etc. associated with the work supported by this grant

  11. Proton resonance spectroscopy. Final performance report, June 1987--May 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, J.F. Jr.

    1998-09-01

    This report gives a brief summary of accomplishments made on this project. Approximately 22 refereed papers were published with support from this grant; reprints are attached with this report. Topics studied include amplitude distributions in proton resonance reactions, chaos in nuclei, and tests of detailed balance and of parity violation with resonance reactions. Appendix 1 lists personnel and collaborators associated with this work, including the undergraduate students hired with grant funds, while Appendix 2 provides a list of talks, abstracts, dissertations and theses, etc. associated with the work supported by this grant.

  12. Element-resolved x-ray ferrimagnetic and ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boero, G; Mouaziz, S; Rusponi, S; Bencok, P; Nolting, F; Stepanow, S; Gambardella, P

    2008-01-01

    We report on the measurement of element-specific magnetic resonance spectra at gigahertz frequencies using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). We investigate the ferrimagnetic precession of Gd and Fe ions in Gd-substituted yttrium iron garnet, showing that the resonant field and linewidth of Gd precisely coincide with Fe up to the nonlinear regime of parametric excitations. The opposite sign of the Gd x-ray magnetic resonance signal with respect to Fe is consistent with dynamic antiferromagnetic alignment of the two ionic species. Further, we investigate a bilayer metal film, Ni 80 Fe 20 (5 nm)/Ni(50 nm), where the coupled resonance modes of Ni and Ni 80 Fe 20 are separately resolved, revealing shifts in the resonance fields of individual layers but no mutual driving effects. Energy-dependent dynamic XMCD measurements are introduced, combining x-ray absorption and magnetic resonance spectroscopies

  13. Characterization of conducting polyaniline blends by Resonance Raman Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose E. Pereira da; Temperini, Marcia L.A.; Torresi, Susana I. Cordoba de

    2005-01-01

    Raman and optical microscopy were used to investigate possible interactions between polyaniline (PANI) and different insulating polymers in conducting blends. Resonance Raman and optical micrographs were used to study the physical interaction in materials. Analysis Raman spectra was done investigating the relative intensity of bands at 574 and 607 cm -1 . A relationship between Raman bands and conductivity was also proposed. (author)

  14. Fast Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of a Free Radical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn; Hansen, K. B.

    1975-01-01

    The resonance Raman spectrum of a 10−3 molar solution of the stable diphenyl-pikryl-hydrazyl radical in benzene was obtained using a single laser pulse of 10 mJ energy and 600 ns duration from a flashlamp pumped tunable dye laser. Spectra were recorded using an image intensifier coupled to a TV...

  15. Role of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pilocytic astrocytomas are the second overall most common pediatric brain tumor. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is widely used in the diagnosis and follow up of pediatric patients with pilocytic astrocytomas because of its ability to provide anatomical detail. However conventional MR imaging does not ...

  16. Modulation Spectroscopy and Opto Mechanics of Micro Toroidal Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    collaboration between UTRGV and Rice University. We planned 1) to acquire research instrumentation for experimental studies of micro-ring resonators on...reflected   from   the   ring   ( black   trace)   and   the   corresponding   I   and   Q   demodulation   outputs.  The

  17. Electron beam imaging and spectroscopy of plasmonic nanoantenna resonances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vesseur, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoantennas are metal structures that provide strong optical coupling between a nanoscale volume and the far field. This coupling is mediated by surface plasmons, oscillations of the free electrons in the metal. Increasing the control over the resonant plasmonic field distribution opens up a wide

  18. Neutron resonance spectroscopy for the characterization of materials and objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillebeeckx, P; Borella, A; Emiliani, F; Kopecky, S; Lampoudis, C; Gorini, G; Cippo, E Perelli; Kockelmann, W; Rhodes, N J; Schooneveld, E M; Moxon, M; Postma, H; Van Beveren, C

    2012-01-01

    The resonance structure in neutron induced reaction cross sections can be used to determine the elemental compositions of materials or objects. The occurrence of resonances is the basis of neutron resonance capture analysis (NRCA) and neutron resonance transmission analysis (NRTA). NRCA and NRTA are fully non-destructive methods to determine the bulk elemental composition without the need of any sample preparation and resulting in a negligible residual activity. They have been applied to determine the elemental composition of archaeological objects and to characterize reference materials used for cross section measurements. For imaging applications a position sensitive neutron detector has been developed within the ANCIENT CHARM project. The detector is based on a 10 × 10 array of 6 Li-glass scintillators mounted on a pitch of 2.5 mm, resulting in a 25 × 25 mm 2 active area. The detector has been tested at the time-of-flight facility GELINA and used at the ISIS spallation source to study cultural heritage objects.

  19. Neutron resonance spectroscopy for the characterization of materials and objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillebeeckx, P.; Borella, A.; Emiliani, F.; Gorini, G.; Kockelmann, W.; Kopecky, S.; Lampoudis, C.; Moxon, M.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Postma, H.; Rhodes, N. J.; Schooneveld, E. M.; Van Beveren, C.

    2012-03-01

    The resonance structure in neutron induced reaction cross sections can be used to determine the elemental compositions of materials or objects. The occurrence of resonances is the basis of neutron resonance capture analysis (NRCA) and neutron resonance transmission analysis (NRTA). NRCA and NRTA are fully non-destructive methods to determine the bulk elemental composition without the need of any sample preparation and resulting in a negligible residual activity. They have been applied to determine the elemental composition of archaeological objects and to characterize reference materials used for cross section measurements. For imaging applications a position sensitive neutron detector has been developed within the ANCIENT CHARM project. The detector is based on a 10 × 10 array of 6Li-glass scintillators mounted on a pitch of 2.5 mm, resulting in a 25 × 25 mm2 active area. The detector has been tested at the time-of-flight facility GELINA and used at the ISIS spallation source to study cultural heritage objects.

  20. Radio frequency scanning tunneling spectroscopy for single-molecule spin resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllegger, Stefan; Tebi, Stefano; Das, Amal K; Schöfberger, Wolfgang; Faschinger, Felix; Koch, Reinhold

    2014-09-26

    We probe nuclear and electron spins in a single molecule even beyond the electromagnetic dipole selection rules, at readily accessible magnetic fields (few mT) and temperatures (5 K) by resonant radio-frequency current from a scanning tunneling microscope. We achieve subnanometer spatial resolution combined with single-spin sensitivity, representing a 10 orders of magnitude improvement compared to existing magnetic resonance techniques. We demonstrate the successful resonant spectroscopy of the complete manifold of nuclear and electronic magnetic transitions of up to ΔI(z)=±3 and ΔJ(z)=±12 of single quantum spins in a single molecule. Our method of resonant radio-frequency scanning tunneling spectroscopy offers, atom-by-atom, unprecedented analytical power and spin control with an impact on diverse fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology.

  1. Ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy for the detection of cocaine in oral fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, Valentina; Montalvo, Gemma; Ruiz, Carmen García; Ermolenkov, Vladimir V.; Ahmed, Yasmine; Lednev, Igor K.

    2018-01-01

    Detecting and quantifying cocaine in oral fluid is of significant importance for practical forensics. Up to date, mainly destructive methods or biochemical tests have been used, while spectroscopic methods were only applied to pretreated samples. In this work, the possibility of using resonance Raman spectroscopy to detect cocaine in oral fluid without pretreating samples was tested. It was found that ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy with 239-nm excitation allows for the detection of cocaine in oral fluid at 10 μg/mL level. Further method development will be needed for reaching the practically useful levels of cocaine detection.

  2. Assessment of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase mutational status in cerebral gliomas by in vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tietze, Anna; Oettingen, Gorm von; Sangill, Ryan

    concentrations in normal tissue or in gliomas with wildtype IDH. It has recently been shown that 2-HG is detectable non-invasively by clinical Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) [2]. The aim of our study is to establish 2-HG MRS in patients suspected for cerebral gliomas on a clinical Magnetic Resonance (MR......) system. Material and Methods: We performed pre-surgical MRS in four grade 3 glioma patients. A standard MR protocol was combined with an optimized MRS sequence (single-voxel point-resolved spectroscopy)[3]. Metabolite quantification was performed using an unsuppressed water signal as reference...

  3. Hitchhiker'S Guide to Voxel Segmentation for Partial Volume Correction of in Vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Quadrelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial volume effects have the potential to cause inaccuracies when quantifying metabolites using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. In order to correct for cerebrospinal fluid content, a spectroscopic voxel needs to be segmented according to different tissue contents. This article aims to detail how automated partial volume segmentation can be undertaken and provides a software framework for researchers to develop their own tools. While many studies have detailed the impact of partial volume correction on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy quantification, there is a paucity of literature explaining how voxel segmentation can be achieved using freely available neuroimaging packages.

  4. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of normal appearing white matter in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: correlations between disability and spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foronda Jesus

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background What currently appears to be irreversible axonal loss in normal appearing white matter, measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is of great interest in the study of Multiple Sclerosis. Our aim is to determine the axonal damage in normal appearing white matter measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and to correlate this with the functional disability measured by Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite scale, Neurological Rating Scale, Ambulation Index scale, and Expanded Disability Scale Score. Methods Thirty one patients (9 male and 22 female with relapsing remitting Multiple Sclerosis and a Kurtzke Expanded Disability Scale Score of 0–5.5 were recruited from four hospitals in Andalusia, Spain and included in the study. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans and neurological disability assessments were performed the same day. Results A statistically significant correlation was found (r = -0.38 p Conclusions There is correlation between disability (measured by Expanded Disability Scale Score and the NAA/Cr ratio in normal appearing white matter. The lack of correlation between the NAA/Cr ratio and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite score indicates that the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite is not able to measure irreversible disability and would be more useful as a marker in stages where axonal damage is not a predominant factor.

  5. Resonant Optical Gradient Force Interaction for Nano-Imaging and-Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-19

    New J. Phys. 18 (2016) 053042 doi:10.1088/1367-2630/18/5/053042 PAPER Resonant optical gradient force interaction for nano-imaging and -spectroscopy...HonghuaUYang andMarkus BRaschke Department of Physics , Department of Chemistry, and JILA,University of Colorado, Boulder, CO80309,USA E-mail...honghua.yang@colorado.edu andmarkus.raschke@colorado.edu Keywords:nano spectroscopy, optical force, near-field optics Abstract The optical gradient force

  6. Detection of single atoms by resonance ionization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    Rutherford's idea for counting individual atoms can, in principle, be implemented for nearly any type of atom, whether stable or radioactive, by using methods of resonance ionization. With the RIS technique, a laser is tuned to a wavelength which will promote a valence electron in a Z-selected atom to an excited level. Additional resonance or nonresonance photoabsorption steps are used to achieve nearly 100% ionization efficiencies. Hence, the RIS process can be saturated for the Z-selected atoms; and since detectors are available for counting either single electrons or positive ions, one-atom detection is possible. Some examples are given of one-atom detection, including that of the noble gases, in order to show complementarity with AMS methods. For instance, the detection of 81 Kr using RIS has interesting applications for solar neutrino research, ice-cap dating, and groundwater dating. 39 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Resonance Spectra of Caged Stringy Black Hole and Its Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sakalli

    2015-01-01

    quasinormal mode (QNM frequencies, is used to investigate the entropy/area spectra of the Garfinkle–Horowitz–Strominger black hole (GHSBH. Instead of the ordinary QNMs, we compute the boxed QNMs (BQNMs that are the characteristic resonance spectra of the confined scalar fields in the GHSBH geometry. For this purpose, we assume that the GHSBH has a confining cavity (mirror placed in the vicinity of the event horizon. We then show how the complex resonant frequencies of the caged GHSBH are computed using the Bessel differential equation that arises when the scalar perturbations around the event horizon are considered. Although the entropy/area is characterized by the GHSBH parameters, their quantization is shown to be independent of those parameters. However, both spectra are equally spaced.

  8. Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS): applications in spectroscopy and chemical dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, P.D.; Kumar, Awadhesh; Upadhyaya, Hari; Bajaj, P.N.

    2009-01-01

    Resonance ionization is a photophysical process wherein electromagnetic radiation is used to ionize atoms, molecules, transient species, etc., by exciting them through their quantum states. The number of photons required to ionize depends on the species being investigated and energy of the photon. Once a charged particle is produced, it is easy to detect it with high efficiency. With the advent of narrow band high power pulsed and cw tunable dye lasers, it has blossomed into a powerful spectroscopic and analytical technique, commonly known as resonance ionization spectroscopy (RIS)/resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI). The alliance of resonance ionization with mass spectrometry has grown into a still more powerful technique, known as resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS), which has made significant contributions in a variety of frontier areas of research and development, such as spectroscopy, chemical dynamics, analytical chemistry, cluster science, surface science, radiochemistry, nuclear physics, biology, environmental science, material science, etc. In this article, we shall describe the application of resonance ionization mass spectrometry to spectroscopy of uranium and chemical dynamics of polyatomic molecules

  9. Experimental review of the spectroscopy of PSI and PSI' resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Hote, D.

    1976-12-01

    Review of the experimental results concerning the resonances PSI and PSI' produced by e + e - annihilation: their decay modes, partial width and quantum numbers. The identification of PSI and PSI' to bound states of charmonium leads to the prediction of other bound states with different quantum numbers. Presentation of experiments providing an evidence for those states (Psub(c), KHI, X(2.8) in the decay products of PSI and PSI' [fr

  10. Quantification of liver fat using magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Becker, Povl Ulrik; Winkler, K

    1994-01-01

    significant correlation was found between the fat concentration measured in the liver biopsies, and the concentration calculated from the spectroscopic experiments (r = 0.9, p methods based on differences...... in relaxation times, and can be used to estimate the fat concentration over the full range of fat content in contrast to the spectroscopic imaging methods. Localized spectroscopy may replace liver biopsy in the diagnosis of diffuse fatty infiltrations, and can be used for follow-up, due to its noninvasive...

  11. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of plasma lipoproteins in malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabholtz, J.M.; Rossignol, A.; Farnier, M.; Gambert, P.; Tremeaux, J.C.; Friedman, S.; Guerrin, J.

    1988-01-01

    A recent study described a method of detecting malignant tumors by water-supressed proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H NMR) study of plasma. We performed a similar study of the W 1/2, a mean of the full width at half height of the resonances of the methyl and methylene groups of the lipids of plasma lipoproteins which is inversely related to the spin-spin apparent relaxation time (T 2 * ). W 1/2 values were measured at a fixed baseline width of 310 Hz. The study was prospective and blinded and comprised 182 subjects consisting of 40 controls, 68 patients with untreated malignancies, 45 with malignant tumors undergoing therapy and 29 benign tumor patients. No differences were seen between any groups that could serve as a basis for a useful clinical test. The major difficulty in the determination of W 1/2 was due to interference of metabolite protons (particularly lactate) within the lipoprotein resonance signal. Triglyceride level was seen to correlate inversely with W 1/2 within malignant patient groups. These discrepant results may be related to differing triglyceride-rich very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels in the ;atient populations of each study. We conclude that the water-suppressed 1H NMR of plasma lipoproteins is not a valid measurement for assessing malignancy. (orig.)

  12. Prebiopsy magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.; Jagannathan, N.R.; Thulkar, S.; Kumar, R.

    2012-01-01

    Existing screening investigations for the diagnosis of early prostate cancer lack specificity, resulting in a high negative biopsy rate. There is increasing interest in the use of various magnetic resonance methods for improving the yield of transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies of the prostate in men suspected to have prostate cancer. We review the existing status of such investigations. A literature search was carried out using the Pubmed database to identify articles related to magnetic resonance methods for diagnosing prostate cancer. References from these articles were also extracted and reviewed. Recent studies have focused on prebiopsy magnetic resonance investigations using conventional magnetic resonance imaging, dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging, magnetization transfer imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the prostate. This marks a shift from the earlier strategy of carrying out postbiopsy magnetic resonance investigations. Prebiopsy magnetic resonance investigations has been useful in identifying patients who are more likely to have a biopsy positive for malignancy. Prebiopsy magnetic resonance investigations has a potential role in increasing specificity of screening for early prostate cancer. It has a role in the targeting of biopsy sites, avoiding unnecessary biopsies and predicting the outcome of biopsies. (author)

  13. Improved Diagnostic Accuracy in Characterization of Adnexal Masses by Detection of Choline Peak Using 1H MR Spectroscopy in Comparison to Internal Reference at 3 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Mahrooz; Pourashraf, Maryam; Gilani, Mitra Modares; Gity, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of the presence of a choline peak in 3 Tesla 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for differentiating benign from malignant adnexal masses. A total of 46 adnexal masses (23 malignant and 23 benign) underwent 1H MRS study prior to surgery to assess the presence of choline peak. A choline peak was detected in 16 malignant masses (69.5%) and was absent in the other 7 (30.5%). A choline peak was only detected in 6 (26%) of the benign adnexal masses. The presence of an MRS choline peak had a sensitivity of 69.5%, a specificity of 74%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 72.7%, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 71% for diagnosing malignant adnexal masses. A significant difference between the frequency of mean choline peaks in benign and malignant adnexal masses was observed (P valuepeak is seen in malignant adnexal masses more frequently than the benign masses, and may be helpful for diagnosing malignant adnexal masses.

  14. Photothermal IR spectroscopy with perforated membrane micromechanical resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurek, Maksymilian

    -IR method. In order to overcome them, string resonators were replaced by membranes. A reliable sampling technique was maintained by adding perforation to membranes and thereby essentially getting membrane porous filters. Membranes gave also access to fully integrated magnetic transduction that allowed...... for significant shrinkage and simplification of the system. An analytical model of a locally heated membrane was developed and confirmed through FEM simulations. Then, low stress silicon nitride perforated membranes were fabricated and characterized using two different experimental setups that employed optical...

  15. Resonant soft X-ray emission spectroscopy of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, J.-H.; Augustsson, A.; Englund, C.-J.; Nordgren, J.

    2004-01-01

    We present now a possible way to carry out soft-x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of liquids. The liquid cell has a window to attain compatibility with UHV conditions of the spectrometer and beamline. The synchrotron radiation enters the liquid cell through a 100nm-thick silicon nitride window and the emitted x-rays exit through the same window. This allows in particular liquid solid interfaces to be studied. Such a liquid cell has been used to study the electronic structure of a variety of systems ranging from water solutions of inorganic salts and inertial drugs to nano materials and actinide compounds in their wet conditions

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, analytical chemistry by open learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.A.R.

    1986-01-01

    This elementary text on NMR spectroscopy is designed for self-study, primarily by those studying to be chemical technicians. The style is informal and direct. The basic elements of chemical shifts, spin-spin coupling, integrated intensities, and relaxation times are discussed briefly, with examples, but the emphasis is much more on this is the way it is than on providing a satisfying rationale. Quick introduction to sample preparation, NMR instrumentation, and signal enhancement techniques are included, but these are very sketchy. Only four pages are devoted to the Fourier Transform technique, hardly enough to give anyone a reasonable basis for understanding the technique and its power. About a third of the main part of the text is devoted to practical applications of 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy, including structural assignments of peaks in the spectra of simple molecules and quantitative measurements of simple mixtures. The author provides a variety of questions and problems throughout the book, some of the simple memory-retention type but some more thought-provoking. The last 90 pages of the book are devoted to answering the questions and problems posed in the five chapters

  17. Development of resonance ionization spectroscopy system for fusion material surface analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Tetsuo [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.; Satoh, Yasushi; Nakazawa, Masaharu

    1996-10-01

    A Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) system is now under development aiming at in-situ observation and analysis neutral particles emitted from fusion material surfaces under irradiation of charged particles and neutrons. The basic performance of the RIS system was checked through a preliminary experiment on Xe atom detection. (author)

  18. Quantification of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques : A quantitative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemp, G.J.; Ahmad, R.E.; Nicolay, K.; Prompers, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can give information about cellular metabolism in vivo which is difficult to obtain in other ways. In skeletal muscle, non-invasive 31P MRS measurements of the post-exercise recovery kinetics of pH, [PCr], [Pi] and [ADP] contain valuable information about muscle

  19. 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy of skeletal muscle in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Jensen, K E; Thomsen, C

    1992-01-01

    31Phosphorous nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) spectroscopy of painful calf muscle was performed in 12 patients with fibromyalgia (FS) and 7 healthy subjects during rest, aerobic and anaerobic exercising conditions, and postexercise recovery. Ratios of inorganic phosphate and creatinine...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Thalamus in Patients with Typical Absence Epilepsy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fojtíková, D.; Brázdil, M.; Horký, Jaroslav; Mikl, M.; Kuba, R.; Krupa, P.; Rektor, I.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 7, 2/Suppl. B (2006), B30 ISSN 1335-9592. [International Danube Symposium for Neurological Sciences and Continuing Education /38./. 06.04.2006-08.04.2006, Brno] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : typical absence epilepsy * idiopathic generalized epilepsy * proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy * thalamus Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment