WorldWideScience

Sample records for resonance pulse sequences

  1. Controlling the Radiation Parameters of a Resonant Medium Excited by a Sequence of Ultrashort Superluminal Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, R. M.; Arkhipov, M. V.; Belov, P. A.; Babushkin, I.; Tolmachev, Yu. A.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the possibility of controlling the radiation parameters of a spatially periodic one-dimensional medium consisting of classical harmonic oscillators by means of a sequence of ultrashort pulses that propagate through the medium with a superluminal velocity. We show that, in the spectrum of the transient process, in addition to the radiation at a resonant frequency of oscillators, new frequencies arise that depend on the period of the spatial distribution of the oscillator density, the excitation velocity, and the angle of observation. We have examined in detail the case of excitation of the medium by a periodic sequence of ultrashort pulses that travel with a superluminal velocity. We show that it is possible to excite oscillations of complex shapes and to control the radiation parameters of the resonant medium by changing the relationship between the pulse repetition rate, the medium resonant frequency, and the new frequency.

  2. Development of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Pulse Sequences and Probes to Study Biomacromolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosman, M; Krishnan, V V; Maxwell, R

    2001-02-26

    The determination of the three dimensional structures at high resolution of biomolecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids, enables us to understand their function at the molecular level. At the present time, there are only two methods available for determining such structures, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Compared to well-established X-ray diffraction techniques, NMR methodology is relatively new and has many areas in which improvement can still be attained. In this project, we focused on the development of new NMR probes and pulse sequences that were tailored to tackle specific problems that are not adequately addressed by current technology. Probes are the hardware that contain the radio frequency (RF) circuitry used to both excite and detect the NMR signals. Pulse sequences are composed of a series of RF pulses and delays, which are applied to the sample held within the magnetic field by the probe, so as to manipulate the nuclear spins. Typically, a probe is developed for a specific set of nuclei and types of experiments and the pulse sequences are then written to use the probe in an optimal manner. In addition, the inter-development of instrumentation and methods are determined by the specific biological question to be examined. Thus our efforts focused on addressing an area of importance in NMR Structural Biology namely more effective ways to use the phosphorus ({sup 31}P) nucleus. Phosphorus is a very important biological element that is strategically located in nucleic acids, where it imparts negative charge and flexibility to RNA and DNA. It is also a component of the cellular membrane and thus interacts with membrane proteins. It is used in mechanisms to signal, activate or deactivate enzymes; and participates in energy storage and release. However, the phosphorus nucleus exhibits certain properties, such as poor spectral dispersion, low sensitivity of detection, and fast relaxation, which limit its effective use

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of the Achilles tendon using ultrashort TE (UTE) pulse sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robson, M.D.; Benjamin, M.; Gishen, P.; Bydder, G.M. E-mail: gbydder@ucsd.edu

    2004-08-01

    AIM: To assess the potential value of imaging the Achilles tendon with ultrashort echo time (UTE) pulse sequences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four normal controls and four patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy were examined in the sagittal and transverse planes. Three of the patients were examined before and after intravenous gadodiamide. RESULTS: The fascicular pattern was clearly demonstrated within the tendon and detail of the three distinct fibrocartilaginous components of an 'enthesis organ' was well seen. T2* measurements showed two short T2* components. Increase in long T2 components with reduction in short T2 components was seen in tendinopathy. Contrast enhancement was much more extensive than with conventional sequences in two cases of tendinopathy but in a third case, there was a region of reduced enhancement. CONCLUSION: UTE pulse sequences provide anatomical detail not apparent with conventional sequences, demonstrate differences in T2* and show patterns of both increased and decreased enhancement in tendinopathy.

  4. Noise analysis in fast magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) based on spoiled multi gradient echo (SPMGE) pulse sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Tong In; Jeong, Woo Chul; Kim, Ji Eun; Sajib, Saurav Z K; Kim, Hyung Joong; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je

    2014-08-21

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a promising non-invasive method to visualize a static cross-sectional conductivity and/or current density image by injecting low frequency currents. MREIT measures one component of the magnetic flux density caused by the injected current using a magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. For practical in vivo implementations of MREIT, especially for soft biological tissues where the MR signal rapidly decays, it is crucial to develop a technique for optimizing the magnetic flux density signal by the injected current while maintaining spatial-resolution and contrast. We design an MREIT pulse sequence by applying a spoiled multi-gradient-echo pulse sequence (SPMGE) to the injected current nonlinear encoding (ICNE), which fully injects the current at the end of the read-out gradient. The applied ICNE-SPMGE pulse sequence maximizes the duration of injected current almost up to a repetition time by measuring multiple magnetic flux density data. We analyze the noise level of measured magnetic flux density with respect to the pulse width of injection current and T*(2) relaxation time. In due consideration of the ICNE-SPMGE pulse sequence, using a reference information of T*(2) values in a local region of interest by a short pre-scan data, we predict the noise level of magnetic flux density to be measured for arbitrary repetition time TR. Results from phantom experiment demonstrate that the proposed method can predict the noise level of magnetic flux density for an appropriate TR = 40 ms using a reference scan for TR = 75 ms. The predicted noise level was compared with the noise level of directly measured magnetic flux density data.

  5. Myocardial tagging by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance: evolution of techniques--pulse sequences, analysis algorithms, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) tagging has been established as an essential technique for measuring regional myocardial function. It allows quantification of local intramyocardial motion measures, e.g. strain and strain rate. The invention of CMR tagging came in the late eighties, where the technique allowed for the first time for visualizing transmural myocardial movement without having to implant physical markers. This new idea opened the door for a series of developments and improvements that continue up to the present time. Different tagging techniques are currently available that are more extensive, improved, and sophisticated than they were twenty years ago. Each of these techniques has different versions for improved resolution, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), scan time, anatomical coverage, three-dimensional capability, and image quality. The tagging techniques covered in this article can be broadly divided into two main categories: 1) Basic techniques, which include magnetization saturation, spatial modulation of magnetization (SPAMM), delay alternating with nutations for tailored excitation (DANTE), and complementary SPAMM (CSPAMM); and 2) Advanced techniques, which include harmonic phase (HARP), displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE), and strain encoding (SENC). Although most of these techniques were developed by separate groups and evolved from different backgrounds, they are in fact closely related to each other, and they can be interpreted from more than one perspective. Some of these techniques even followed parallel paths of developments, as illustrated in the article. As each technique has its own advantages, some efforts have been made to combine different techniques together for improved image quality or composite information acquisition. In this review, different developments in pulse sequences and related image processing techniques are described along with the necessities that led to their invention, which makes this

  6. Myocardial tagging by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance: evolution of techniques--pulse sequences, analysis algorithms, and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim El-Sayed H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR tagging has been established as an essential technique for measuring regional myocardial function. It allows quantification of local intramyocardial motion measures, e.g. strain and strain rate. The invention of CMR tagging came in the late eighties, where the technique allowed for the first time for visualizing transmural myocardial movement without having to implant physical markers. This new idea opened the door for a series of developments and improvements that continue up to the present time. Different tagging techniques are currently available that are more extensive, improved, and sophisticated than they were twenty years ago. Each of these techniques has different versions for improved resolution, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, scan time, anatomical coverage, three-dimensional capability, and image quality. The tagging techniques covered in this article can be broadly divided into two main categories: 1 Basic techniques, which include magnetization saturation, spatial modulation of magnetization (SPAMM, delay alternating with nutations for tailored excitation (DANTE, and complementary SPAMM (CSPAMM; and 2 Advanced techniques, which include harmonic phase (HARP, displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE, and strain encoding (SENC. Although most of these techniques were developed by separate groups and evolved from different backgrounds, they are in fact closely related to each other, and they can be interpreted from more than one perspective. Some of these techniques even followed parallel paths of developments, as illustrated in the article. As each technique has its own advantages, some efforts have been made to combine different techniques together for improved image quality or composite information acquisition. In this review, different developments in pulse sequences and related image processing techniques are described along with the necessities that led to their invention

  7. The influence of wavelength, temporal sequencing, and pulse duration on resonant infrared matrix-assisted laser processing of polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, S. M.; Schoeffling, Jonathan; Jimenez, Richard; Zinderman, Brian; Yi, SunYong; Bubb, D. M.

    2014-06-01

    We have carried out a systematic investigation of laser ablation plume interactions in resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation. The laser source utilized in this study was a mid-infrared OPO capable of dual sequential ns pulses with adjustable delay ranging from 1 to 100 μs. This unique capability enabled us both to probe the ablation plume with a second laser pulse, and to effectively double the laser fluence. The primary ablation target used for this study consisted of poly(methyl methacrylate) dissolved in a binary mixture of methanol and toluene. Both the critical thermodynamic and optical properties of the binary mixture were determined and used to interpret our results. We found that deposition rates associated with single pulse irradiation tracks with the optical absorption coefficient in the spectral range from 2,700 to 3,800 nm. In the case of dual sequential pulses, discrepancies in this trend have been linked to the rate of change in the optical absorption coefficient with temperature. The influence of fluence on deposition rate was found to follow a sigmoidal dependence. Surface roughness was observed to have a diametrically opposed trend with pulse delay depending on whether the OH or CH vibrational mode was excited. In the case of CH excitation, we suggest that the rougher films are due to the absorbance of the second pulse by droplets within the plume containing residual solvent which leads to the formation of molecular balloons and hence irregularly shaped features on the substrate.

  8. The resonant multi-pulse ionization injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Paolo; De Nicola, Sergio; Labate, Luca; Londrillo, Pasquale; Fedele, Renato; Terzani, Davide; Gizzi, Leonida A.

    2017-10-01

    The production of high-quality electron bunches in Laser Wake Field Acceleration relies on the possibility to inject ultra-low emittance bunches in the plasma wave. In this paper, we present a new bunch injection scheme in which electrons extracted by ionization are trapped by a large-amplitude plasma wave driven by a train of resonant ultrashort pulses. In the Resonant Multi-Pulse Ionization injection scheme, the main portion of a single ultrashort (e.g., Ti:Sa) laser system pulse is temporally shaped as a sequence of resonant sub-pulses, while a minor portion acts as an ionizing pulse. Simulations show that high-quality electron bunches with normalized emittance as low as 0.08 mm × mrad and 0.65% energy spread can be obtained with a single present-day 100TW-class Ti:Sa laser system.

  9. SNMR pulse sequence phase cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David O; Grunewald, Elliot D

    2013-11-12

    Technologies applicable to SNMR pulse sequence phase cycling are disclosed, including SNMR acquisition apparatus and methods, SNMR processing apparatus and methods, and combinations thereof. SNMR acquisition may include transmitting two or more SNMR pulse sequences and applying a phase shift to a pulse in at least one of the pulse sequences, according to any of a variety cycling techniques. SNMR processing may include combining SNMR from a plurality of pulse sequences comprising pulses of different phases, so that desired signals are preserved and indesired signals are canceled.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal pituitary gland using ultrashort TE (UTE) pulse sequences (REV 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portman, Olivia; Flemming, Stephen; Cox, Jeremy P.D.; Johnston, Desmond G. [Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, St Mary' s Hospital, Endocrinology and Metabolic Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Bydder, Graeme M. [University of California, San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the normal pituitary gland in male subjects with ultrashort echo time (TE) pulse sequences, describe its appearance and measure its signal intensity before and after contrast enhancement. Eleven male volunteers (mean age 57.1 years; range 36-81 years) were examined with a fat-suppressed ultrashort TE (= 0.08 ms) pulse sequence. The studies were repeated after the administration of intravenous gadodiamide. The MR scans were examined for gland morphology and signal intensity before and after enhancement. Endocrinological evaluation included baseline pituitary function tests and a glucagon stimulatory test to assess pituitary cortisol and growth hormone reserve. High signal intensity was observed in the anterior pituitary relative to the brain in nine of the 11 subjects. These regions involved the whole of the anterior pituitary in three subjects, were localised to one side in two examples and were seen inferiorly in three subjects. Signal intensities relative to the brain increased with age, with a peak around the sixth or seventh decade and decreasing thereafter. Overall, the pituitary function tests were considered to be within normal limits and did not correlate with pituitary gland signal intensity. The anterior pituitary shows increased signal intensity in normal subjects when examined with T{sub 1}-weighted ultrashort TE pulse sequences. The cause of this increased intensity is unknown, but fibrosis and iron deposition are possible candidates. The variation in signal intensity with age followed the temporal pattern of iron content observed at post mortem. No relationship with endocrine status was observed. (orig.)

  11. Detection of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage at Acute and Subacute/Chronic Stages: Comparison of Four Magnetic Resonance Imaging Pulse Sequences and Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Kang Yuan

    2005-03-01

    Conclusion: FLAIR and GE T2* MRI pulse sequences, and CT scans, are all statistically significant indicators of acute SAH. GE T2*-weighted images are statistically significant indicators of subacute-to-chronic SAH, whereas other MRI pulse sequences, and CT scans, are not.

  12. Use of the Frank sequence in pulsed EPR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tseitlin, Mark; Quine, Richard W.; Eaton, Sandra S.

    2011-01-01

    The Frank polyphase sequence has been applied to pulsed EPR of triarylmethyl radicals at 256MHz (9.1mT magnetic field), using 256 phase pulses. In EPR, as in NMR, use of a Frank sequence of phase steps permits pulsed FID signal acquisition with very low power microwave/RF pulses (ca. 1.5m......W in the application reported here) relative to standard pulsed EPR. A 0.2mM aqueous solution of a triarylmethyl radical was studied using a 16mm diameter cross-loop resonator to isolate the EPR signal detection system from the incident pulses. Keyword: Correlation spectroscopy,Multi-pulse EPR,Low power pulses...

  13. A novel programmable pulse generator with nanosecond resolution for pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasahayam, N; Subramanian, S; Krishna, M C

    2008-02-01

    A pulse programmer with nanosecond time resolution needed for time-domain electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic applications is described. This unit uses commercially available timing and input-output port modules and control software developed in our laboratory. The pulse programmer is operated through a personal computer front panel graphic user interface (GUI) inputs to control pulse widths, delays, and the associated acquisition trigger timings. Based on these parameters, all other associated gate and trigger timings are internally generated automatically without the need to enter them explicitly. The excitation pulse widths were of nanosecond resolution while all other gate pulses can be incremented in steps of 20 ns without compromising spectrometer performance. In the current configuration, the pulse programmer permits generation of a single pulse or multiple pulse sequences for EPR imaging with minimal data entry via the front panel GUI.

  14. TOPPE: A framework for rapid prototyping of MR pulse sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jon-Fredrik; Noll, Douglas C

    2017-11-02

    To introduce a framework for rapid prototyping of MR pulse sequences. We propose a simple file format, called "TOPPE", for specifying all details of an MR imaging experiment, such as gradient and radiofrequency waveforms and the complete scan loop. In addition, we provide a TOPPE file "interpreter" for GE scanners, which is a binary executable that loads TOPPE files and executes the sequence on the scanner. We also provide MATLAB scripts for reading and writing TOPPE files and previewing the sequence prior to hardware execution. With this setup, the task of the pulse sequence programmer is reduced to creating TOPPE files, eliminating the need for hardware-specific programming. No sequence-specific compilation is necessary; the interpreter only needs to be compiled once (for every scanner software upgrade). We demonstrate TOPPE in three different applications: k-space mapping, non-Cartesian PRESTO whole-brain dynamic imaging, and myelin mapping in the brain using inhomogeneous magnetization transfer. We successfully implemented and executed the three example sequences. By simply changing the various TOPPE sequence files, a single binary executable (interpreter) was used to execute several different sequences. The TOPPE file format is a complete specification of an MR imaging experiment, based on arbitrary sequences of a (typically small) number of unique modules. Along with the GE interpreter, TOPPE comprises a modular and flexible platform for rapid prototyping of new pulse sequences. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  15. Feedback optimization of pulse width in the SORC sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiano, J L; Routhier, T; Blauch, A J; Ginsberg, M D

    1999-09-01

    A method for increasing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurements by automatically adjusting a pulse parameter in real-time is presented. This approach is useful in situations where the optimal pulse parameters cannot be chosen beforehand due to lack of knowledge regarding the system. For example, NQR provides a means for detecting explosives by revealing the presence of (14)N. In this particular application, the distance between the search coil and the explosive, as well as the temperature of the explosive, is unknown. As a result, a fixed set of pulse parameters will not yield the largest SNR for all possible search applications. This paper describes a feedback algorithm that uses measurements of the NQR signal to automatically adjust the pulse width in the strong off-resonant comb sequence to maximize the SNR of the NQR measurement. Experimental results obtained using a sample of sodium nitrite are presented. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  16. Compact pulse repetition rate multiplication scheme using micro ring resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Hua; Pu, Minhao; Galili, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A compact repetition rate multiplier using a micro ring resonator is experimentally demonstrated. Combined with an amplitude equalizer, a 40 GHz pulse train is achieved from a 10 GHz input pulse train....

  17. MR pulse sequences for selective relaxation time measurements: a phantom study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Jensen, K E; Jensen, M

    1990-01-01

    The accuracy of relaxation time measurements of spectroscopic inversion recovery and CPMG multi-echo pulse sequences together with ISIS and stimulated echo-pulse methods have been tested on a reference phantom (test object no. 5, of the EEC Concerted Research Project). For the measurements...... a Siemens Magnetom wholebody magnetic resonance scanner operating at 1.5 Tesla was used. For comparison six imaging pulse sequences for relaxation time measurements were tested on the same phantom. The spectroscopic pulse sequences all had an accuracy better than 10% of the reference values....

  18. Reduced Dimensionality tailored HN(C)N Pulse Sequences for Efficient Backbone Resonance Assignment of Proteins through Rapid Identification of Sequential HSQC peaks

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Two novel reduced dimensionality (RD) experiments -(4,3)D-hNCOcaNH and (4,3)D-hNcoCANH- have been presented here to facilitate the backbone resonance assignment of proteins both in terms of its accuracy and speed. The experiments basically represent an improvisation of previously reported HN(C)N experiment [Panchal et. al., J. Biomol. NMR. (2002), 20 (2), 135-147] and exploit the simple reduced dimensionality NMR concept [Szyperski et. al. (2002), Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(12), 8009-8014] to achieve (a) higher dispersion and resolution along the co-evolved F1 dimension and (b) rapid identification of sequential HSQC peaks on its F2(15N)- F3(1H) planes. The current implementation is based on the fact that the linear combination of 15N and 13CO/13Ca chemical shifts offers relatively better dispersion and randomness compared to the individual chemical shifts; thus enables the assignment of crowded HSQC spectra by resolving the ambiguities generally encountered in HNCN based assignment protocol because of ...

  19. Magnetic resonance advection imaging of cerebrovascular pulse dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Henning U; Dyke, Jonathan P; Tabelow, Karsten; Schiff, Nicholas D; Ballon, Douglas J

    2017-04-01

    We analyze the pulsatile signal component of dynamic echo planar imaging data from the brain by modeling the dependence between local temporal and spatial signal variability. The resulting magnetic resonance advection imaging maps depict the location of major arteries. Color direction maps allow for visualization of the direction of blood vessels. The potential significance of magnetic resonance advection imaging maps is demonstrated on a functional magnetic resonance imaging data set of 19 healthy subjects. A comparison with the here introduced pulse coherence maps, in which the echo planar imaging signal is correlated with a cardiac pulse signal, shows that the magnetic resonance advection imaging approach results in a better spatial definition without the need for a pulse reference. In addition, it is shown that magnetic resonance advection imaging velocities can be estimates of pulse wave velocities if certain requirements are met, which are specified. Although for this application magnetic resonance advection imaging velocities are not quantitative estimates of pulse wave velocities, they clearly depict local pulsatile dynamics. Magnetic resonance advection imaging can be applied to existing dynamic echo planar imaging data sets with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution. It is discussed whether magnetic resonance advection imaging might have the potential to evolve into a biomarker for the health of the cerebrovascular system.

  20. Development of 600 kV triple resonance pulse transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingjia; Zhang, Faqiang; Liang, Chuan; Xu, Zhou

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a triple-resonance pulse transformer based on an air-core transformer is introduced. The voltage across the high-voltage winding of the air-core transformer is significantly less than the output voltage; instead, the full output voltage appears across the tuning inductor. The maximum ratio of peak load voltage to peak transformer voltage is 2.77 in theory. By analyzing pulse transformer's lossless circuit, the analytical expression for the output voltage and the characteristic equation of the triple-resonance circuit are presented. Design method for the triple-resonance pulse transformer (iterated simulation method) is presented, and a triple-resonance pulse transformer is developed based on the existing air-core transformer. The experimental results indicate that the maximum ratio of peak voltage across the load to peak voltage across the high-voltage winding of the air-core transformer is approximately 2.0 and the peak output voltage of the triple-resonance pulse transformer is approximately 600 kV.

  1. Pulsed Adiabatic Photoassociation via Scattering Resonances

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Alex C.; Shapiro, Evgeny A.; Shapiro, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    We develop the theory for the Adiabatic Raman Photoassociation (ARPA) of ultracold atoms to form ultracold molecules in the presence of scattering resonances. Based on a computational method in which we replace the continuum with a discrete set of "effective modes", we show that the existence of resonances greatly aids in the formation of deeply bound molecular states. We illustrate our general theory by computationally studying the formation of $^{85}$Rb$_2$ molecules from pairs of colliding...

  2. Nonlinear Landau resonance with localized wave pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Rankin, R.; Vasko, I. Y.

    2017-05-01

    Wave-particle resonant interaction is responsible for many important space plasma processes and can be formally described theoretically for two main regimes: particle scattering (quasilinear diffusion) by low-intensity waves and particle trapping/phase bunching by sufficiently intense waves. There are important modifications of these regimes in inhomogeneous plasma systems. However, almost all theoretical results have been derived for harmonic waves and linear plasma modes. High-resolution spacecraft measurements of spatially localized plasma waves in Earth's magnetosphere demonstrate electron acceleration attributed to the Landau resonance mechanism. In the classical mechanism, the magnitude of the electric potential determines the maximum energy gain of electrons. However, a less reported mechanism of electron acceleration becomes possible in inhomogeneous plasma and magnetic field. In this Commentary, we discuss how combination of wave localization and plasma inhomogeneity modifies the nonlinear Landau resonance. We underline the important property of this resonance: an electron energy gain depends on the gradient in wave potential and not just its magnitude. We also consider this modified resonance mechanism in context of generation of hot field-aligned electron populations, particle transport, and energy transfer in the magnetosphere.

  3. Single-chip pulse programmer for magnetic resonance imaging using a 32-bit microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Shinya; Domalain, Thierry; Kose, Katsumi

    2007-08-01

    A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pulse programmer has been developed using a single-chip microcontroller (ADmicroC7026). The microcontroller includes all the components required for the MRI pulse programmer: a 32-bit RISC CPU core, 62 kbytes of flash memory, 8 kbytes of SRAM, two 32-bit timers, four 12-bit DA converters, and 40 bits of general purpose I/O. An evaluation board for the microcontroller was connected to a host personal computer (PC), an MRI transceiver, and a gradient driver using interface circuitry. Target (embedded) and host PC programs were developed to enable MRI pulse sequence generation by the microcontroller. The pulse programmer achieved a (nominal) time resolution of approximately 100 ns and a minimum time delay between successive events of approximately 9 micros. Imaging experiments using the pulse programmer demonstrated the effectiveness of our approach.

  4. Resonant tunneling in a pulsed phonon field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kral, P.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1999-01-01

    , The nonequilibrium spectral function for the resonance displays the formation and decay of the phonon sidebands on ultrashort time scales. The time-dependent tunneling current through the individual phonon satellites reflects this quasiparticle formation by oscillations, whose time scale is set by the frequency...

  5. Pulseq: A rapid and hardware-independent pulse sequence prototyping framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Kelvin J; Kroboth, Stefan; Jia, Feng; Littin, Sebastian; Yu, Huijun; Leupold, Jochen; Nielsen, Jon-Fredrik; Stöcker, Tony; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2017-04-01

    Implementing new magnetic resonance experiments, or sequences, often involves extensive programming on vendor-specific platforms, which can be time consuming and costly. This situation is exacerbated when research sequences need to be implemented on several platforms simultaneously, for example, at different field strengths. This work presents an alternative programming environment that is hardware-independent, open-source, and promotes rapid sequence prototyping. A novel file format is described to efficiently store the hardware events and timing information required for an MR pulse sequence. Platform-dependent interpreter modules convert the file to appropriate instructions to run the sequence on MR hardware. Sequences can be designed in high-level languages, such as MATLAB, or with a graphical interface. Spin physics simulation tools are incorporated into the framework, allowing for comparison between real and virtual experiments. Minimal effort is required to implement relatively advanced sequences using the tools provided. Sequences are executed on three different MR platforms, demonstrating the flexibility of the approach. A high-level, flexible and hardware-independent approach to sequence programming is ideal for the rapid development of new sequences. The framework is currently not suitable for large patient studies or routine scanning although this would be possible with deeper integration into existing workflows. Magn Reson Med 77:1544-1552, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. Coherent pump pulses in Double Electron Electron Resonance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Claudia E.; Stoll, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The recent introduction of shaped pulses to Double Electron Electron Resonance (DEER) spectroscopy has led to significant enhancements in sensitivity through increased excitation bandwidths and improved control over spin dynamics. The application of DEER has so far relied on the presence of an incoherent pump channel to average out most undesired coherent effects of the pump pulse(s) on the observer spins. However, in fully coherent EPR spectrometers that are increasingly used to generate shaped pulses, the presence of coherent pump pulses means that these effects need to be explicitly considered. In this paper, we examine the effects of coherent rectangular and sech/tanh pump pulses in DEER experiments with up to three pump pulses. We show that, even in the absence of significant overlap of the observer and pump pulse excitation bandwidths, coherence transfer pathways involving both types of pulses generate spin echoes of considerable intensity. These echoes introduce artefacts, which, if not identified and removed, can easily lead to misinterpretation. We demonstrate that the observed echoes can be quantitatively modelled using a simple spin quantum dynamics approach that includes instrumental transfer functions. Based on an analysis of the echo crossing artefacts, we propose efficient phase cycling schemes for their suppression. This enables the use of advanced DEER experiments, characterized by high sensitivity and increased accuracy for long-distance measurements, on novel fully coherent EPR spectrometers. PMID:27339858

  7. Comparison of two fat-suppressed magnetic resonance imaging pulse sequences to standard t2-weighted images for brain parenchymal contrast and lesion detection in dogs with inflammatory intracranial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Benjamin D; Mankin, Joseph M; Griffin, John F; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Fowler, Jennifer L; Levine, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    T2-weighted (T2w) sequences are commonly relied upon in magnetic resonance imaging protocols for the detection of brain lesions in dogs. Previously, the effect of fluid suppression via fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) has been compared to T2-weighting with mixed results. Short tau inversion recovery (STIR) has been reported to increase the detection of some CNS lesions in people. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of fat suppression on brain parenchymal contrast resolution and lesion detection in dogs. We compared three sequences: T2w images, STIR, and T2w FLAIR with chemical fat suppression (T2-FLAIR-FS) in dogs with meningoencephalitis. Dogs with meningoencephalitis and dogs with idiopathic epilepsy were retrospectively identified and anonymized. Evaluators recorded the presence or absence of lesions within 12 predetermined brain regions on randomized sequences, viewing and scoring each sequence individually. Additionally, signal-to-noise ratios, contrast-to-noise ratios, and relative contrast (RC) were measured in a reference population. Short tau inversion recovery sequences had the highest RC between gray and white matter. While descriptively more lesions were identified by evaluators on T2-FLAIR-FS images, there was no statistical difference in the relative sensitivity of lesion detection between the sequences. Nor was there a statistical difference in false lesion detection within our reference population. Short tau inversion recovery may be favored for enhanced anatomic contrast depiction in brain imaging. No benefit of the inclusion of a fat-suppressed T2-FLAIR sequence was found. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  8. Wavelet Domain Radiofrequency Pulse Design Applied to Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Huettner

    Full Text Available A new method for designing radiofrequency (RF pulses with numerical optimization in the wavelet domain is presented. Numerical optimization may yield solutions that might otherwise have not been discovered with analytic techniques alone. Further, processing in the wavelet domain reduces the number of unknowns through compression properties inherent in wavelet transforms, providing a more tractable optimization problem. This algorithm is demonstrated with simultaneous multi-slice (SMS spin echo refocusing pulses because reduced peak RF power is necessary for SMS diffusion imaging with high acceleration factors. An iterative, nonlinear, constrained numerical minimization algorithm was developed to generate an optimized RF pulse waveform. Wavelet domain coefficients were modulated while iteratively running a Bloch equation simulator to generate the intermediate slice profile of the net magnetization. The algorithm minimizes the L2-norm of the slice profile with additional terms to penalize rejection band ripple and maximize the net transverse magnetization across each slice. Simulations and human brain imaging were used to demonstrate a new RF pulse design that yields an optimized slice profile and reduced peak energy deposition when applied to a multiband single-shot echo planar diffusion acquisition. This method may be used to optimize factors such as magnitude and phase spectral profiles and peak RF pulse power for multiband simultaneous multi-slice (SMS acquisitions. Wavelet-based RF pulse optimization provides a useful design method to achieve a pulse waveform with beneficial amplitude reduction while preserving appropriate magnetization response for magnetic resonance imaging.

  9. Resonant infrared pulsed laser deposition of thin biodegradable polymer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubb, D.M.; Toftmann, B.; Haglund Jr., R.F.

    2002-01-01

    Thin films of the biodegradable polymer poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) were deposited using resonant infrared pulsed laser deposition (RIR-PLD). The output of a free-electron laser was focused onto a solid target of the polymer, and the films were deposited using 2.90 (resonant with O...... absorbance spectrum of the films is nearly identical with that of the native polymer, the average molecular weight of the films is a little less than half that of the starting material. Potential strategies for defeating this mass change are discussed....

  10. Optimal sequence for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanzaki, Hiroshi; Akata, Soichi; Ozuki, Taizo; Abe, Kimihiko [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) has attracted attention as a useful examination for abnormalities of the pancreaticobiliary system, because it is a simple procedure. Since there are few detailed reports on optimal sequences for MRCP, we attempted to clarify the topic. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment we used was a 1.0 Tesla super-conductive type. A fast spin echo (16 echo train) was used, and the echo space was set at 17 msec. TE was changed from 17 msec to 272 msec in 17 msec increments. TR was changed from 1,000 msec to 9,000 msec by 1,000 msec increments. Bile juice which had been collected from the PTCD tube of a patient with common bile duct cancer, was put in a test tube of 10 mm internal diameter. Saline was used as a substitute for pancreatic juice, because collection of pancreatic juice was difficult. Fat was used for contrast. Each signal intensity inside the test tube was measured and evaluated. We attempted to evaluate the signal of gastric juice by adding blueberry juice, making use of its manganese ion (Mn{sup ++}). With longer TR, the signal intensities of bile and pancreas juice increased. As TE became longer, the signal intensities of bile and pancreas juice decreased slightly, while that of fat decreased much more. In MRCP, it is necessary to set up a long TE to increase the relative signal intensity difference of fat in bile and pancreas juice. The signal intensity of gastric juice was made to disappear by the addition of blueberry juice diluted to a ratio of 1:3. (author)

  11. Enabling surface nuclear magnetic resonance at high-noise environments using a pre-polarization pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingting; Yang, Yujing; Teng, Fei; Müller-Petke, Mike

    2018-02-01

    The technique of surface nuclear magnetic resonance (SNMR) has been widely used for hydrological investigations in recent years. Unfortunately, the detected SNMR signals are limited to tens of nanovolts and are thus susceptible to environmental noise. While pre-polarization pulses to enhance the detected signal amplitudes are common in laboratory applications, SNMR field testing has only utilized excitation pulses until now. In conducting measurements in China, we demonstrate that adding a pre-polarization field to the SNMR pulse sequence is feasible and allows for the reliable detection of SNMR signals in noisy scenarios that otherwise prohibit signal detection. We introduce a forward modelling for pre-polarization using SNMR and present a three-layer model obtained from inverse modelling that satisfies the observed data from the field experiment. We expect this development to open up new applications for SNMR technology, especially in high-noise level places, such as active mines.

  12. Current density imaging sequence for monitoring current distribution during delivery of electric pulses in irreversible electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serša, Igor; Kranjc, Matej; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2015-01-01

    Electroporation is gaining its importance in everyday clinical practice of cancer treatment. For its success it is extremely important that coverage of the target tissue, i.e. treated tumor, with electric field is within the specified range. Therefore, an efficient tool for the electric field monitoring in the tumor during delivery of electroporation pulses is needed. The electric field can be reconstructed by the magnetic resonance electric impedance tomography method from current density distribution data. In this study, the use of current density imaging with MRI for monitoring current density distribution during delivery of irreversible electroporation pulses was demonstrated. Using a modified single-shot RARE sequence, where four 3000 V and 100 μs long pulses were included at the start, current distribution between a pair of electrodes inserted in a liver tissue sample was imaged. Two repetitions of the sequence with phases of refocusing radiofrequency pulses 90° apart were needed to acquire one current density image. For each sample in total 45 current density images were acquired to follow a standard protocol for irreversible electroporation where 90 electric pulses are delivered at 1 Hz. Acquired current density images showed that the current density in the middle of the sample increased from first to last electric pulses by 60%, i.e. from 8 kA/m2 to 13 kA/m2 and that direction of the current path did not change with repeated electric pulses significantly. The presented single-shot RARE-based current density imaging sequence was used successfully to image current distribution during delivery of short high-voltage electric pulses. The method has a potential to enable monitoring of tumor coverage by electric field during irreversible electroporation tissue ablation.

  13. Enhanced Refocusing of Fat Signals using Optimized Multi-pulse Echo Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Ashley M.; Feng, Yesu; Mitropoulos, Tanya; Warren, Warren S.

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous magnetic resonance contrast based on the localized composition of fat in vivo can provide functional information. We found that the unequal pulse timings of the Uhrig’s Dynamical Decoupling (UDD) multipulse echo sequences significantly alter the signal intensity compared to conventional, equal-spaced Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequences. The signal increases and decreases depending on the tissue and sequence parameters, as well as on the interpulse spacings; particularly strong differences were observed in fatty tissues, which have a highly structured morphology and a wide range of chemical shifts and J-couplings. We found that the predominant mechanism for fat refocusing under multipulse echo sequences is the chemical structure, with stimulated echoes playing a pivotal role. As a result, specialized pulse sequences can be designed to optimize refocusing of the fat chemical shifts and J-couplings, where the degree of refocusing can be tailored to specific types of fats. To determine the optimal time delays, we simulated various UDD and CPMG pulse sequence timings, and these results are compared to experimental results obtained on excised and in vivo fatty tissue. Applications to intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence (iMQC) imaging, where the improved echo refocusing translates directly into signal enhancements, are presented as well. PMID:22627966

  14. Pulse Sequence Shaper For Radiospectroscopy And Relaxation Methods In NQR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobalo Yuriy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A pulse sequence shaper for the pursuance of the research using a wide spectrum of radiospectroscopy and relaxation methods in NQR is proposed. The distinctive feature of this product is its implementation with the application of a multi-functional programmable frequency synthesizer suitable for high-speed amplitude and phase manipulations.

  15. High-power 95 GHz pulsed electron spin resonance spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofbauer, W.; Earle, K. A.; Dunnam, C. R.; Moscicki, J. K.; Freed, J. H.

    2004-05-01

    High-field/high-frequency electron spin resonance (ESR) offers improved sensitivity and resolution compared to ESR at conventional fields and frequencies. However, most high-field/high-frequency ESR spectrometers suffer from limited mm-wave power, thereby requiring long mm-wave pulses. This precludes their use when relaxation times are short, e.g., in fluid samples. Low mm-wave power is also a major factor limiting the achievable spectral coverage and thereby the multiplex advantage of Fourier transform ESR (FTESR) experiments. High-power pulses are needed to perform two-dimensional (2D) FTESR experiments, which can unravel the dynamics of a spin system in great detail, making it an excellent tool for studying spin and molecular dynamics. We report on the design and implementation of a high-power, high-bandwidth, pulsed ESR spectrometer operating at 95 GHz. One of the principal design goals was the ability to investigate dynamic processes in aqueous samples at physiological temperatures with the intent to study biological systems. In initial experiments on aqueous samples at room temperature, we achieved 200 MHz spectral coverage at a sensitivity of 1.1×1010√s spins and a dead time of less than 50 ns. 2D-electron-electron double resonance experiments on aqueous samples are discussed to demonstrate the practical application of such a spectrometer.

  16. Optimizing symmetry-based recoupling sequences in solid-state NMR by pulse-transient compensation and asynchronous implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwagner, Johannes; Sharma, Kshama; Tan, Kong Ooi; Wittmann, Johannes J; Meier, Beat H; Madhu, P K; Ernst, Matthias

    2017-06-28

    Pulse imperfections like pulse transients and radio-frequency field maladjustment or inhomogeneity are the main sources of performance degradation and limited reproducibility in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. We quantitatively analyze the influence of such imperfections on the performance of symmetry-based pulse sequences and describe how they can be compensated. Based on a triple-mode Floquet analysis, we develop a theoretical description of symmetry-based dipolar recoupling sequences, in particular, R26411, calculating first- and second-order effective Hamiltonians using real pulse shapes. We discuss the various origins of effective fields, namely, pulse transients, deviation from the ideal flip angle, and fictitious fields, and develop strategies to counteract them for the restoration of full transfer efficiency. We compare experimental applications of transient-compensated pulses and an asynchronous implementation of the sequence to a supercycle, SR26, which is known to be efficient in compensating higher-order error terms. We are able to show the superiority of R26 compared to the supercycle, SR26, given the ability to reduce experimental error on the pulse sequence by pulse-transient compensation and a complete theoretical understanding of the sequence.

  17. Estimation of aortic compliance using magnetic resonance pulse wave velocity measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boese, J.M.; Bock, M.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Schad, L.R. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Radiologische Diagnostik und Therapie, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2000-06-01

    A method for compliance estimation employing magnetic resonance pulse wave velocity measurement is presented. Time-resolved flow waves are recorded at several positions along the vessel using a phase contrast sequence, and pulse wave velocity is calculated from the delay of the wave onsets. Using retrospective cardiac gating in combination with an optically decoupled electrocardiogram acquisition, a high temporal resolution of 3 ms can be achieved. A phantom set-up for the simulation of pulsatile flow in a compliant vessel is described. In the phantom, relative errors of pulse wave velocity estimation were found to be about 15%, whereas in a volunteer, larger errors were found that might be caused by vessel branches. Results of pulse wave velocity estimation agree with directaortic distension measurements which rely on a peripheral estimate of aortic pressure and are therefore less accurate. Studies in 12 volunteers show values of pulse wave velocity consistent with the literature; in particular the well-known increase in pulse wave velocity with age was observed. Preliminary results show that the method can be applied to aortic aneurysms. (author)

  18. Hypercapnic normalization of BOLD fMRI: comparison across field strengths and pulse sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Eric R.; Rostrup, Egill; Sidaros, Karam

    2004-01-01

    The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal response to neural stimulation is influenced by many factors that are unrelated to the stimulus. These factors are physiological, such as the resting venous cerebral blood volume (CBV(v)) and vessel...... size, as well as experimental, such as pulse sequence and static magnetic field strength (B(0)). Thus, it is difficult to compare task-induced fMRI signals across subjects, field strengths, and pulse sequences. This problem can be overcome by normalizing the neural activity-induced BOLD fMRI response...... by a global hypercapnia-induced BOLD signal. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the BOLD normalization approach, gradient-echo BOLD fMRI at 1.5, 4, and 7 T and spin-echo BOLD fMRI at 4 T were performed in human subjects. For neural stimulation, subjects performed sequential finger movements at 2 Hz, while...

  19. Absorption spectrum of a two-level system subjected to a periodic pulse sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotso, H. F.; Dobrovitski, V. V.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate how the quantum control of a two-level system (TLS) coupled to photons can modify and tune the TLS's photon absorption spectrum. Tuning and controlling the emission and the absorption are of great interest, e.g., for the development of efficient interfaces between stationary and flying qubits in modern architectures for quantum computation and quantum communication. We consider periodic pulse control, where the TLS is subjected to a periodic sequence of the near-resonant Rabi driving pulses, each pulse implementing a 180∘ rotation. For small interpulse delays, the absorption spectrum features a pronounced peak of stimulated emission at the pulse frequency, similar satellite peaks with smaller spectral weights, and the net absorption peaks on the sides. As long as the detuning between the carrier frequency of the driving and the TLS transition frequency remains moderate, this spectral shape shows little change. Therefore, the pulse control allows shifting the absorption peak to a desired position and locks the overall absorption spectrum to the carrier frequency of the driving pulses. A detailed description of the spectrum and its evolution as a function time, the interpulse spacing, and the detuning is presented.

  20. Design and implementation of an FPGA-based timing pulse programmer for pulsed-electron paramagnetic resonance applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Savory, Joshua J; Warncke, Kurt

    2013-08-01

    The design, construction and implementation of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) -based pulse programmer for pulsed-electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments is described. The FPGA pulse programmer offers advantages in design flexibility and cost over previous pulse programmers, that are based on commercial digital delay generators, logic pattern generators, and application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) designs. The FPGA pulse progammer features a novel transition-based algorithm and command protocol, that is optimized for the timing structure required for most pulsed magnetic resonance experiments. The algorithm was implemented by using a Spartan-6 FPGA (Xilinx), which provides an easily accessible and cost effective solution for FPGA interfacing. An auxiliary board was designed for the FPGA-instrument interface, which buffers the FPGA outputs for increased power consumption and capacitive load requirements. Device specifications include: Nanosecond pulse formation (transition edge rise/fall times, ≤3 ns), low jitter (≤150 ps), large number of channels (16 implemented; 48 available), and long pulse duration (no limit). The hardware and software for the device were designed for facile reconfiguration to match user experimental requirements and constraints. Operation of the device is demonstrated and benchmarked by applications to 1-D electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) and 2-D hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE) experiments. The FPGA approach is transferrable to applications in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR; magnetic resonance imaging, MRI), and to pulse perturbation and detection bandwidths in spectroscopies up through the optical range.

  1. Magnetic resonance findings in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using a spin echo magnetization transfer sequence: preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROCHA ANTÔNIO JOSÉ DA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the magnetic resonance (MR findings of five patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS using a spin-echo sequence with an additional magnetization transfer (MT pulse on T1-weighted images (T1 SE/MT. These findings were absent in the control group and consisted of hyperintensity of the corticospinal tract. Moreover we discuss the principles and the use of this fast but simple MR technique in the diagnosis of ALS

  2. Update on MRI Pulse Sequences for the Knee: Imaging of Cartilage, Meniscus, Tendon, and Hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyachaipanich, Aticha; Bae, Won C; Statum, Sheronda; Chung, Christine B

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used in the clinical setting as well as for research applications. Since its inception, technical development has broadly progressed as a response to challenges in both the clinical and research settings. Higher magnetic field strength and advances in hardware and software have revolutionized the diagnostic potential of MRI and moved well beyond diagnosis to characterization of tissue metabolism, biochemistry, disease pathogenesis, and material property, to name a few. This article focuses on state-of-the-art clinical and cutting-edge novel pulse sequences applied to knee MRI. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Resonant infrared pulsed laser deposition of a polyimide precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dygert, N L; Schriver, K E; Jr, R F Haglund [Department of Physics and Astronomy and W M Keck Foundation Free-Electron Laser Centre, Vanderbilt University, Nashville TN 37235 (United States)

    2007-04-15

    Poly(amic acid) (PAA), a precursor to polyimide, was successfully deposited on substrates without reaching curing temperature, by resonant infrared pulsed laser ablation. The PAA was prepared by dissolving pyromellitic dianhydride and 4, 4' oxidianiline in the polar solvent Nmethyl pyrrolidinone (NMP). The PAA was deposited in droplet-like morphologies when ablation occurred in air, and in string-like moieties in the case of ablation in vacuum. In the as-deposited condition, the PAA was easily removed by washing with NMP; however, once cured thermally for thirty minutes, the PAA hardened, indicating the expected thermosetting property. Plume shadowgraphy showed very clear contrasts in the ablation mechanism between ablation of the solvent alone and the ablation of the PAA, even at low concentrations. A Wavelength dependence in plume velocity was also observed.

  4. An improved pulse sequence and inversion algorithm of T2 spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xinmin; Chen, Hua; Fan, Yiren; Liu, Juntao; Cai, Jianchao; Liu, Jianyu

    2017-03-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance transversal relaxation time is widely applied in geological prospecting, both in laboratory and downhole environments. However, current methods used for data acquisition and inversion should be reformed to characterize geological samples with complicated relaxation components and pore size distributions, such as samples of tight oil, gas shale, and carbonate. We present an improved pulse sequence to collect transversal relaxation signals based on the CPMG (Carr, Purcell, Meiboom, and Gill) pulse sequence. The echo spacing is not constant but varies in different windows, depending on prior knowledge or customer requirements. We use the entropy based truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) to compress the ill-posed matrix and discard small singular values which cause the inversion instability. A hybrid algorithm combining the iterative TSVD and a simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique is implemented to reach the global convergence and stability of the inversion. Numerical simulations indicate that the improved pulse sequence leads to the same result as CPMG, but with lower echo numbers and computational time. The proposed method is a promising technique for geophysical prospecting and other related fields in future.

  5. SCALE-PWI: A pulse sequence for absolute quantitative cerebral perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srour, Jessy Mouannes; Shin, Wanyong; Shah, Saurabh; Sen, Anindya; Carroll, Timothy J

    2011-05-01

    The Bookend technique is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dynamic susceptibility contrast method that provides reliable quantitative measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV). The quantification is patient specific, is derived from a steady-state measurement of CBV, and is obtained from T(1) changes in the white matter and the blood pool after contrast agent injection. In the current implementation, the Bookend technique consists of three scanning steps requiring a cumulative scan time of 3 minutes 47 seconds, a well-trained technologist, and extra time for offline image reconstruction. We present an automation and acceleration of the multiscan Bookend protocol through a self-calibrating pulse sequence, namely Self-Calibrated Epi Perfusion-Weighted Imaging (SCALE-PWI). The SCALE-PWI is a single-shot echo-planar imaging pulse sequence with three modules and a total scan time of under 2 minutes. It provides the possibility of performing online, quantitative perfusion image reconstruction, which reduces the latency to obtain quantitative maps. A validation study in healthy volunteers (N=19) showed excellent agreement between SCALE-PWI and the conventional Bookend protocol (P>0.05 with Student's t-test, r=0.95/slope=0.98 for quantitative CBF, and r=0.91/slope=0.94 for quantitative CBV). A single MRI pulse sequence for absolute quantification of cerebral perfusion has been developed.

  6. Attosecond pulse production using resonantly-enhanced high-order harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Strelkov, V V

    2016-01-01

    We study theoretically the effect of the giant resonance in Xe on the phase difference between the consecutive high order resonantly-enhanced harmonics and calculate the duration of the attosecond pulses produced by these harmonics. For certain conditions resonantly-induced dephasing compensates the phase difference which is intrinsic for the off-resonance harmonics. We find these conditions analytically and compare them with the numerical results. This harmonic synchronization allows attosecond pulse shortening in conjunction with the resonance-induced intensity increase by more than an order of magnitude; the latter enhancement relaxes the requirements for the UV filtering needed for the attosecond pulse production. Using a two-color driving field allows further increase of the intensity. In particular, a caustic-like feature in the harmonic spectrum leads to the generation efficiency growth up to two orders of magnitude, however accompanied by an elongation of the XUV pulse.

  7. Development of a pulse programmer for magnetic resonance imaging using a personal computer and a high-speed digital input–output board

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Seitaro; Kose, Katsumi; Haishi, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a pulse programmer for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a personal computer and a commercially available high-speed digital input–output board. The software for the pulse programmer was developed using C/C++ and .NET Framework 2.0 running under the Windows 7 operating system. The pulse programmer was connected to a digital MRI transceiver using a 32-bit parallel interface, and 128-bit data (16 bits × 8 words) for the pulse sequence and the digitally detected MRI signal...

  8. Resonant photonic crystals based on van der Waals heterostructures for effective light pulse retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanov, D. R.; Poshakinskiy, A. V.; Shubina, T. V.

    2017-12-01

    We propose to use 2D monolayers possessing optical gaps and high exciton oscillator strength as an element of one-dimensional resonant photonic crystals. We demonstrate that such systems are promising for the creation of effective and compact delay units. In transition-metal-dichalcogenide-based structures where the frequencies of Bragg and exciton resonances are close, a propagating short pulse can be slowed down by few picoseconds while pulse intensity decreases only 2-5 times. This is realized at the frequency of the ;slow; mode situated within the stopband. The pulse retardation and attenuation can be controlled by detuning the Bragg frequency from the exciton resonance frequency.

  9. Resonance enhanced high-order harmonic generation in H2+ by two sequential laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baoning; He, Lixin; Wang, Feng; Yuan, Hua; Zhu, Xiaosong; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang

    2017-07-24

    We investigate high-order harmonic generation in H2+ by using two sequential laser pulses, which consist of a 800-nm pump pulse and a time-delayed 1600-nm probe pulse. Based on the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, we demonstrate that the harmonic cutoff in our two-pulse scheme is significantly extended compared to that in the 1600-nm probe pulse alone. Meanwhile, the harmonic efficiency is enhanced by 2-3 orders of magnitude due to charge-resonance-enhanced ionization steered by the 800-nm pump pulse. By using a probe pulse with longer wavelength, our scheme can be used for efficient high harmonic generation in the water window region. In addition, the influence of the intensity of the pump pulse and the relative time delay of the two laser pulses on the harmonic generation are also investigated.

  10. Multishot versus single-shot pulse sequences in very high field fMRI: a comparison using retinotopic mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jascha D Swisher

    Full Text Available High-resolution functional MRI is a leading application for very high field (7 Tesla human MR imaging. Though higher field strengths promise improvements in signal-to-noise ratios (SNR and BOLD contrast relative to fMRI at 3 Tesla, these benefits may be partially offset by accompanying increases in geometric distortion and other off-resonance effects. Such effects may be especially pronounced with the single-shot EPI pulse sequences typically used for fMRI at standard field strengths. As an alternative, one might consider multishot pulse sequences, which may lead to somewhat lower temporal SNR than standard EPI, but which are also often substantially less susceptible to off-resonance effects. Here we consider retinotopic mapping of human visual cortex as a practical test case by which to compare examples of these sequence types for high-resolution fMRI at 7 Tesla. We performed polar angle retinotopic mapping at each of 3 isotropic resolutions (2.0, 1.7, and 1.1 mm using both accelerated single-shot 2D EPI and accelerated multishot 3D gradient-echo pulse sequences. We found that single-shot EPI indeed led to greater temporal SNR and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR than the multishot sequences. However, additional distortion correction in postprocessing was required in order to fully realize these advantages, particularly at higher resolutions. The retinotopic maps produced by both sequence types were qualitatively comparable, and showed equivalent test/retest reliability. Thus, when surface-based analyses are planned, or in other circumstances where geometric distortion is of particular concern, multishot pulse sequences could provide a viable alternative to single-shot EPI.

  11. Chirped self-similar optical pulses in tapered centrosymmetric nonlinear waveguides doped with resonant impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J. R.; Xu, S. L.; Xue, L.

    2017-11-01

    Exact chirped self-similar optical pulses propagating in tapered centrosymmetric nonlinear waveguides doped with resonant impurities are reported. The propagation behaviors of the pulses are studied by tailoring of the tapering function. Numerical simulations and stability analysis reveal that the tapering can be used to postpone the wave dispersion and the addition of a small cubic self-focusing term to the governing equation could stabilize the chirped bright pulses. An example of possible experimental protocol that may generate the pulses in realistic waveguides is given. The obtained chirped self-similar optical pulses are particularly useful in the design of amplifying or attenuating pulse compressors for chirped solitary waves in tapered centrosymmetric nonlinear waveguides doped with resonant impurities.

  12. Observation of self-pulsing in singly resonant optical second-harmonic generation with competing nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Lodahl, Peter; Mamaev, Alexander V.

    2002-01-01

    We predict and experimentally observe temporal self-pulsing in singly resonant intracavity second-harmonic generation under conditions of simultaneous parametric oscillation. The threshold for self-pulsing as a function of cavity tuning and phase mismatch are found from analysis of a three-compon...

  13. Second order average Hamiltonian theory of symmetry-based pulse schemes in the nuclear magnetic resonance of rotating solids: application to triple-quantum dipolar recoupling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkmann, A.; Eden, M.

    2004-01-01

    The average Hamiltonian theory (AHT) of several classes of symmetry-based radio-frequency pulse sequences is developed to second order, allowing quantitative analyses of a wide range of recoupling and decoupling applications in magic-angle-spinning solid state nuclear magnetic resonance. General

  14. Formation of long nanosecond rectangular pulses in the active RF pulse compression system with a compact resonant cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemenko, S. N.; Gorev, S. A.; Igumnov, V. S.; Yushkov, Yu G.

    2017-05-01

    This work presents the results of the study of an active microwave pulse compression system capable of forming the rectangular pulses with duration ∼10-100 ns, while its dimensions are several times smaller than the radiated wave train. Such compression system is based on the compact planar-voluminal resonant cavity constructed in the shape of a meander from waveguide sections and H-plane tees. The resonant cavity sections are parallel and are in the same plane with tees. The energy input element is located in the input end of the first section. The output device designed as an H-plane tee interference switch is connected to the output end of the last section. Each end of remaining sections is connected through a straight arm to an H-tee with a short-circuited quarter-wave second straight arm. The side arm of each tee is connected with the side arm of the tee in the next section, thus coupling the sections. The short-circuited arm provides the “open” mode and transmission of the wave from tee to tee. We determined the expressions for wave amplitudes in the components of the meander resonant cavity made of three sections and analyzed the expressions as the functions of the parameters determining the oscillation range and energy distribution in the resonant cavity. Experiments demonstrated that under certain conditions the compressors with such resonant cavity could generate nearly rectangular pulses with duration equal to the time of wave two-way traveling along the resonant cavity, and with the power compatible with that of the wave in the resonant cavity, and the length of the radiated wave train several-fold exceeding the size of the compressor. At pulse duration equal to 25 ns, the gain coefficient was 13 dB and pulse power was 40 MW. The work demonstrates the possibility to change the geometry of the resonant cavity by rearranging its components without changing the output pulse parameters.

  15. Pulse mode readout of MEMS bulk disk resonator based mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Meng; Cagliani, Alberto; Davis, Zachary James

    2011-01-01

    We propose a pulse excitation setup applied on a Micro-Electro-Mechanical bulk disk resonator aimed for mass detection. This scheme offers measuring not only the resonant frequency, which defines the mass change, but also the quality factor and the feedthrough/parasitic capacitance of the disk...

  16. Resonant infrared pulsed-laser deposition of a sorbent chemoselective polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubb, D.M.; Horwitz, J.S.; McGill, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Fluoropolyol, a sorbent chemoselective polymer, has been deposited as a thin film by resonant infrared pulsed laser deposition using a free electron laser operating at 2.90 mum, a wavelength resonant with the hydroxl stretch. A comparison of the infrared absorbance of the deposited film...

  17. A dispersion-balanced Discrete Fourier Transform of repetitive pulse sequences using temporal Talbot effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pousa, Carlos R.

    2017-11-01

    We propose a processor based on the concatenation of two fractional temporal Talbot dispersive lines with balanced dispersion to perform the DFT of a repetitive electrical sequence, for its use as a controlled source of optical pulse sequences. The electrical sequence is used to impart the amplitude and phase of a coherent train of optical pulses by use of a modulator placed between the two Talbot lines. The proposal has been built on a representation of the action of fractional Talbot effect on repetitive pulse sequences and a comparison with related results and proposals. It is shown that the proposed system is reconfigurable within a few repetition periods, has the same processing rate as the input optical pulse train, and requires the same technical complexity in terms of dispersion and pulse width as the standard, passive pulse-repetition rate multipliers based on fractional Talbot effect.

  18. In vivo imaging of a stable paramagnetic probe by pulsed-radiofrequency electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murugesan; Cook; Devasahayam

    1997-01-01

    Imaging of free radicals by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using time domain acquisition as in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has not been attempted because of the short spin-spin relaxation times, typically under 1 μs, of most biologically relevant paramagnetic species......, Recent advances in radiofrequency (RF) electronics have enabled the generation of pulses of the order of 10-50 ns. Such short pulses provide adequate spectral coverage for EPR studies at 300 MHz resonant frequency. Acquisition of free induction decays (FID) of paramagnetic species possessing...

  19. Effect of pulse-modulated microwaves on fullerene ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaji, T; Uchida, T; Minezaki, H; Oshima, K; Racz, R; Muramatsu, M; Biri, S; Kitagawa, A; Kato, Y; Yoshida, Y

    2012-02-01

    Fullerene plasmas generated by pulse-modulated microwaves have been investigated under typical conditions at the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source. The effect of the pulse modulation is distinct from that of simply structured gases, and then the density of the fullerene plasmas increased as decreasing the duty ratio. The density for a pulse width of 10 μs at the period of 100 μs is 1.34 times higher than that for CW mode. We have studied the responses of fullerene and argon plasmas to pulsed microwaves. After the turnoff of microwave power, fullerene plasmas lasted ∼30 times longer than argon plasmas.

  20. Stochastic Pulse Switching in a Degenerate Resonant Optical Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, Ethan P; Kovacic, Gregor; Gabitov, Ildar R

    2012-01-01

    Using the idealized integrable Maxwell-Bloch model, we describe random optical-pulse polarization switching along an active optical medium in the Lambda-configuration with disordered occupation numbers of its lower energy sub-level pair. The description combines complete integrability and stochastic dynamics. For the single-soliton pulse, we derive the statistics of the electric-field polarization ellipse at a given point along the medium in closed form. If the average initial population difference of the two lower sub-levels vanishes, we show that the pulse polarization will switch intermittently between the two circular polarizations as it travels along the medium. If this difference does not vanish, the pulse will eventually forever remain in the circular polarization determined by which sub-level is more occupied on average. We also derive the exact expressions for the statistics of the polarization-switching dynamics, such as the probability distribution of the distance between two consecutive switches a...

  1. Field-free molecular orientation induced by single-cycle THz pulses: the role of resonance and quantum interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, Chuan-Cun; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    2013-01-01

    distributions of the pulses at the rotational resonance frequencies play an important role. Furthermore, we investigate the interference between multiple rotational excitation pathways following prealignment with a nonresonant 800-nm femtosecond pulse. It is shown that such interference can lead...

  2. A digital signal processor-based pulse programmer with performance of run-time information handling for magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liang; Li, Lin; Nie, Wei; Xie, Xiaoming; Wan, Hongjie

    2015-06-01

    A pulse programmer for magnetic resonance imaging based on a digital signal processor (DSP) is described. The pulse programmer not only implements event triggering and control line generation, but also performs the run-time information handling. The DSP, which has features that include a 32-bit data bus, a 24-bit address bus and a clock rate of 60 MHz, is used as the sequence operator. The DSP connects the field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices of all the spectrometer modules via its external bus, and manipulates the operation of each module via setting the control port of the corresponding FPGA. In addition, the run-time information of the spectrometer, which includes the operation status of each module and the external triggers, can be obtained easily using the read instruction, and the operation exceptions of the spectrometer can be treated quickly via the DSP’s interrupt mechanism. Up to 32 control lines can be generated simultaneously in an event, and the minimum interval between successive events is 50 ns. The pulse sequence program is written in the C++ language and is mainly composed of several predefined procedures. The performance of the proposed pulse programmer is validated by multiple imaging experiments.

  3. Nonlinear resonance scattering of femtosecond X-ray pulses on atoms in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmej, F. B.; Astapenko, V. A.; Lisitsa, V. S.; Moroz, N. N.

    2017-11-01

    It is shown that for sufficiently short pulses the resonance scattering probability becomes a nonlinear function of the pulse duration. For fs X-ray pulses scattered on atoms in plasmas maxima and minima develop in the nonlinear regime whereas in the limit of long pulses the probability becomes linear and turns over into the standard description of the electromagnetic pulse scattering. Numerical calculations are carried out in terms of a generalized scattering probability for the total time of pulse duration including fine structure splitting and ion Doppler broadening in hot plasmas. For projected X-ray monocycles, the generalized nonlinear approach differs by 1-2 orders of magnitude from the standard theory.

  4. Resonant routing of optical pulses in coupled-cavity structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolmaali, Farzaneh; Limberopoulos, Nicholaos I.; Urbas, Augustine M.; Maslov, Alexey V.; Astratov, Vasily N.

    2017-02-01

    The transmission properties of side-coupled circular cavity systems are studied based on numerical two-dimensional finite-difference time domain modeling. The spatial asymmetry is introduced due to different separations between the circular resonators and side-coupled stripe waveguides. These structures can be viewed as 4-port routers where different ports are connected due resonant coupling between the guided modes in stripe-waveguides and whispering gallery modes in circle resonators. It is found that due to strongly asymmetric geometry, significant optical losses, and mode conversion processes, such structures display strongly asymmetric optical transmission properties for the waves propagating in forward and backward directions between the ports. In non-optimized single microcavity structures, it results in isolation ratios on the order of 10 dB for wavelengths resonant with WGMs. In structures formed by two closely spaced circular resonators, WGMs are strongly coupled leading to formation of bonding and antibonding photonic molecular modes. It is shown that at the wavelengths resonant with hybridized molecular modes the isolation ratios can be increased beyond 20 dB. At the same time, different wavelengths can be preferentially coupled to different ports resulting in wavelength demultiplexing functionality.

  5. Kadenancy effect, acoustical resonance effect valveless pulse jet engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Rafis Suizwan; Jailani, Azrol; Haron, Muhammad Adli

    2017-09-01

    A pulse jet engine is a tremendously simple device, as far as moving parts are concerned, that is capable of using a range of fuels, an ignition device, and the ambient air to run an open combustion cycle at rates commonly exceeding 100 Hz. The pulse jet engine was first recognized as a worthy device for aeronautics applications with the introduction of the German V-1 Rocket, also known as the "Buzz Bomb." Although pulse jets are somewhat inefficient compared to other jet engines in terms of fuel usage, they have an exceptional thrust to weight ratio if the proper materials are chosen for its construction. For this reason, many hobbyists have adopted pulse jet engines for a propulsive device in RC planes, go-karts, and other recreational applications. The concept behind the design and function of propulsion devices are greatly inspired by the Newton's second and third laws. These laws quantitatively described thrust as a reaction force. Basically, whenever a mass is accelerated or expelled from one direction by a system, such a mass will exert the same force which will be equal in magnitude, however that will be opposite in direction over the same system. Thrust is that force utilized over a facade in a direction normal and perpendicular to the facade which is known as the thrust. This is the simplest explanation of the concept, on which propulsion devices functions. In mechanical engineering, any force that is orthogonal to the main load is generally referred to as thrust [1].

  6. Radiation of a resonant medium excited by few-cycle optical pulses at superluminal velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, R. M.; Pakhomov, A. V.; Arkhipov, M. V.; Babushkin, I.; Tolmachev, Yu A.; Rosanov, N. N.

    2017-05-01

    Recent progress in generation of optical pulses of durations comparable to one optical cycle has presented great opportunities for studies of the fundamental processes in matter as well as time-resolved spectroscopy of ultrafast processes in nonlinear media. It opened up a new area of research in modern ultrafast nonlinear optics and led to appearance of the attosecond science. In parallel, a new research area related to emission from resonant media excited by superluminally propagating ultrashort bursts of electromagnetic radiation has been actively developed over the last few years. In this paper, we review our recent results on theoretical analysis of the Cherenkov-type radiation of a resonant medium excited by few-cycle optical pulses propagating at superluminal velocity. This situation can be realized when an electromagnetic pulse with a plane wavefront incidents on a straight string of resonant atoms or a spot of light rotates at very large angular frequency and excites a distant circular string of resonant dipoles. Theoretical analysis revealed some unusual and remarkable features of the Cherenkov radiation generated in this case. This radiation arises in a transient regime which leads to the occurrence of new frequencies in the radiation spectrum. Analysis of the characteristics of this radiation can be used for the study of the resonant structure properties. In addition, a nonlinear resonant medium excited at superluminal velocity can emit unipolar optical pulses, which can be important in ultrafast control of wave-packet dynamics of matter. Specifics of the few-cycle pulse-driven optical response of a resonant medium composed of linear and nonlinear oscillators is discussed.

  7. Transient radiation from a ring resonant medium excited by an ultrashort superluminal pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkhipov, R M [Humboldt University at Berlin (Germany); Arkhipov, M V; Tolmachev, Yu A [Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg State University (Russian Federation); Babushkin, I V [Institute of Quantum Optics, Leibniz University Hannover, Welfengarten 1 30167, Hannover (Germany)

    2015-06-30

    We report some specific features of transient radiation from a periodic spatially modulated one-dimensional medium with a resonant response upon excitation by an ultrashort pulse. The case of ring geometry (with particle density distributed along the ring according to the harmonic law) is considered. It is shown that the spectrum of scattered radiation contains (under both linear and nonlinear interaction), along with the frequency of intrinsic resonance of the medium, a new frequency, which depends on the pulse velocity and the spatial modulation period. The case of superluminal motion of excitation, when the Cherenkov effect manifests itself, is also analysed. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  8. Transient radiation from a ring resonant medium excited by an ultrashort superluminal pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, R. M.; Arkhipov, M. V.; Babushkin, I. V.; Tolmachev, Yu A.

    2015-06-01

    We report some specific features of transient radiation from a periodic spatially modulated one-dimensional medium with a resonant response upon excitation by an ultrashort pulse. The case of ring geometry (with particle density distributed along the ring according to the harmonic law) is considered. It is shown that the spectrum of scattered radiation contains (under both linear and nonlinear interaction), along with the frequency of intrinsic resonance of the medium, a new frequency, which depends on the pulse velocity and the spatial modulation period. The case of superluminal motion of excitation, when the Cherenkov effect manifests itself, is also analysed.

  9. High-q microring resonator with narrow free spectral range for pulse repetition rate multiplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Ji, Hua; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator microring resonator with a free-spectral-range of 0.32 nm, an extinction ratio of 27 dB, and a quality factor of ~140900 at 1550 nm that is used for pulse repetition-rate multiplication from 10 to 40 GHz.......We demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator microring resonator with a free-spectral-range of 0.32 nm, an extinction ratio of 27 dB, and a quality factor of ~140900 at 1550 nm that is used for pulse repetition-rate multiplication from 10 to 40 GHz....

  10. MOLLI and AIR T1 mapping pulse sequences yield different myocardial T1 and ECV measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, KyungPyo; Kim, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Both post-contrast myocardial T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) have been reported to be associated with diffuse interstitial fibrosis. Recently, the cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) field is recognizing that post-contrast myocardial T1 is sensitive to several confounders and migrating towards ECV as a measure of collagen volume fraction. Several recent studies using widely available Modified Look-Locker Inversion-recovery (MOLLI) have reported ECV cutoff values to distinguish between normal and diseased myocardium. It is unclear if these cutoff values are translatable to different T1 mapping pulse sequences such as arrhythmia-insensitive-rapid (AIR) cardiac T1 mapping, which was recently developed to rapidly image patients with cardiac rhythm disorders. We sought to evaluate, in well-controlled canine and pig experiments, the relative accuracy and precision, as well as intra- and inter-observer variability in data analysis, of ECV measured with AIR as compared with MOLLI. In 16 dogs, as expected, the mean T1 was significantly different (p ECV between MOLLI (21.8 ± 2.1%) and AIR (19.6 ± 2.4%) was also significantly different (p ECV calculations were similar between MOLLI and AIR. In six pigs, the coefficient of repeatability (CR), as defined by the Bland-Altman analysis, in T1 calculation was considerably lower for MOLLI (32.5 ms) than AIR (82.3 ms), and the CR in ECV calculation was also lower for MOLLI (1.8%) than AIR (4.5%). In conclusion, this study shows that MOLLI and AIR yield significantly different T1 and ECV values in large animals and that MOLLI yields higher precision than AIR. Findings from this study suggest that CMR researchers must consider the specific pulse sequence when translating published ECV cutoff values into their own studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Pulse Design in Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palani, Ravi Shankar

    The work presented in this dissertation is centred on the theory of experimental methods in solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, which deals with interaction of electromagnetic radiation with nuclei in a magnetic field and possessing a fundamental quantum mechanical property...

  12. Subwavelength population density gratings in resonant medium created by few-cycle pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, R. M.; Arkhipov, M. V.; Pakhomov, A. V.; Babushkin, I.; Demircan, A.; Morgner, U.; Rosanov, N. N.

    2017-11-01

    We consider theoretically recently proposed a new possibility of creation, erasing and ultrafast control of population density grating. Such grating can be created in resonant medium when ultrashort pulses with duration smaller than relaxation times in the resonant medium (coherent light matter interactions) propagate without overlapping in this medium. Possible applications in the ultrafast optics such as optical switcher and laser beam deflector are discussed.

  13. Hypercapnic normalization of BOLD fMRI: comparison across field strengths and pulse sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Eric R.; Rostrup, Egill; Sidaros, Karam

    2004-01-01

    size, as well as experimental, such as pulse sequence and static magnetic field strength (B(0)). Thus, it is difficult to compare task-induced fMRI signals across subjects, field strengths, and pulse sequences. This problem can be overcome by normalizing the neural activity-induced BOLD fMRI response...... to be more accurately localized and quantified based on changes in venous blood oxygenation alone. The normalized BOLD signal induced by the motor task was consistent across different magnetic fields and pulse sequences, and corresponded well with cerebral blood flow measurements. Our data suggest...... that the hypercapnic normalization approach can improve the spatial specificity and interpretation of BOLD signals, allowing comparison of BOLD signals across subjects, field strengths, and pulse sequences. A theoretical framework for this method is provided...

  14. Estimate of pulse-sequence data acquisition system for multi-dimensional measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Yasunori; Sakae, Takeji; Nohtomi, Akihiro; Matoba, Masaru [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Matsumoto, Yuzuru

    1996-07-01

    A pulse-sequence data acquisition system has been newly designed and estimated for the measurement of one- or multi-dimensional pulse train coming from radiation detectors. In this system, in order to realize the pulse-sequence data acquisition, the arrival time of each pulse is recorded to a memory of a personal computer (PC). For the multi-dimensional data acquisition with several input channels, each arrival-time data is tagged with a `flag` which indicates the input channel of arriving pulse. Counting losses due to the existence of processing time of the PC are expected to be reduced by using a First-In-First-Out (FIFO) memory unit. In order to verify this system, a computer simulation was performed, Various sets of random pulse trains with different mean pulse rate (1-600 kcps) were generated by using Monte Carlo simulation technique. Those pulse trains were dealt with another code which simulates the newly-designed data acquisition system including a FIFO memory unit; the memory size was assumed to be 0-100 words. And the recorded pulse trains on the PC with the various FIFO memory sizes have been observed. From the result of the simulation, it appears that the system with 3 words FIFO memory unit works successfully up to the pulse rate of 10 kcps without any severe counting losses. (author)

  15. Multiphoton resonant ionization of hydrogen atom exposed to two-colour laser pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Pei-Jie; Fang Yan

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the multiphoton resonant ionization by two-colour laser pulses in the hydrogen atom by solving the time-dependent Schr(o)dinger equation.By fixing the parameters of fundamental laser field and scanning the frequency of second laser field,it finds that the ionization probability shows several resonance peaks and is also much larger than the linear superposition of probabilities by applying two lasers separately.The enhancement of the ionization happens when the system is resonantly pumped to the excited states by absorbing two or more colour photons non-sequentially.

  16. Three-dimensional few-circle optical pulses in the inhomogeneous environment of carbon nanotubes in an optical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvuzhilov, Ilya; Dvuzhilova, Yulia; Belonenko, Mikhail; Zaporotskova, Irina; Boroznina, Natalia

    2017-10-01

    We consider the task about few-circle optical pulses dynamics (light bullets) in the inhomogeneous environment of carbon nanotubes in a resonant optical cavity. Our calculations show that the optical resonator can create conditions, which can provide monitoring and controlling the shape and the velocity of the optical pulse. We show that the propagation of the light bullets is stable.

  17. Pulse mode actuation-readout system based on MEMS resonator for liquid sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Meng; Cagliani, Alberto; Davis, Zachary James

    2014-01-01

    A MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) bulk disk resonator is applied for mass sensing under its dynamic mode. The classical readout circuitry involves sophisticated feedback loop and feedthrough compensation. We propose a simple straightforward non-loop pulse mode actuation and capacitive...

  18. Oxygen-enhanced lung magnetic resonance imaging: influence of inversion pulse slice selectivity on inversion recovery half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Daisuke; Puderbach, Michael; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Risse, Frank; Ley, Sebastian; Sugimura, Kazuro; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo the influence of inversion pulse slice selectivity on oxygen-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirteen healthy volunteers were studied with a two-dimensional cardiac- and respiratory-gated adiabatic inversion-recovery half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) sequence with either slice-selective or non-slice-selective inversion recovery (IR) pulse at inversion times increasing from 300 to 1400 ms. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at every inversion time (TI), real signal difference (ΔSI), and relative enhancement ratio of lung parenchyma at TI ≥ 800 ms were statistically compared for oxygen-enhanced and non-oxygen-enhanced MR images with slice-selective or non-slice-selective IR pulses. The SNRs of acquisitions with slice-selective IR pulses were significantly higher than those of non-slice-selective IR pulses (P < 0.05). At TI 800 ms, the ΔSI of lung parenchyma on IR-HASTE images with slice-selective inversion pulse type was significantly higher than on that with the non-slice-selective type (P < 0.05). Relative enhancement ratios of the slice-selective IR pulses were significantly lower than those of non-slice-selective IR pulses at TIs between 800 and 1400 ms (P < 0.05). Slice selectivity of inversion pulse type affects oxygen-enhanced MRI in vivo.

  19. Pulse Tube Interference in Cryogenic Sensor Resonant Circuits - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Tyler [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-27

    Transition edge sensors (TES) are extremely sensitive superconducting sensors, operating at 100 mK, which can be used to detect X-rays and Cosmic Microwave Background. The goal of our project is to design the electronics to read out an array of 10000 of these sensors by using microwave signals. However, we noticed the pulse tube used to maintain cryogenic temperatures caused interference in our readout. To determine the cause of the signal distortions, we used a detector with a 370 MHz sampling rate to collect and analyze sensor data. Although this data provided little information towards the nature of the noise, it was determined through a maintenance procedure than the 0.3 mm stainless steel wires were being vibrated due to acoustic waves, which distorted the signal. Replacing this wire appeared to cease the interference from the sensor data.

  20. Comparison of ompP5 sequence-based typing and pulsed-filed gel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, comparison of the outer membrane protein P5 gene (ompP5) sequence-based typing with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for the genotyping of Haemophilus parasuis, the 15 serovar reference strains and 43 isolates were investigated. When comparing the two methods, 31 ompP5 sequence types ...

  1. Development of a pulse programmer for magnetic resonance imaging using a personal computer and a high-speed digital input-output board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Seitaro; Kose, Katsumi; Haishi, Tomoyuki

    2012-05-01

    We have developed a pulse programmer for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a personal computer and a commercially available high-speed digital input-output board. The software for the pulse programmer was developed using C∕C++ and .NET Framework 2.0 running under the Windows 7 operating system. The pulse programmer was connected to a digital MRI transceiver using a 32-bit parallel interface, and 128-bit data (16 bits × 8 words) for the pulse sequence and the digitally detected MRI signal were transferred bi-directionally every 1 μs. The performance of the pulse programmer was evaluated using a 1.0 T permanent magnet MRI system. The acquired MR images demonstrated the usefulness of the pulse programmer. Although our pulse programmer was developed for a specially designed digital MRI transceiver, our approach can be used for any MRI system if the interface for the transceiver is properly designed. Therefore, we have concluded that our approach is promising for MRI pulse programmers.

  2. A Computer Controlled Pulse Programmer for Pulsed NQR Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Horiuchi, Keizo; 堀内, 敬三

    1987-01-01

    We constructed a computer controlled pulse programmer for the measurement of nuclear quadrupole resonance relaxation times. Programmable interval timer 8253 was used as device for pulse programming. The circuit is very simple and construction is also easy in comparison with the usual pulse programmer. This programmer is sufficiently useful concerning the pulse programming of slimple pulse sequences such as π-τ-π/2 and π/2-τ-π, which are usually used in the measurement of relaxation times. We ...

  3. Ultrafast electron field emission from gold resonant antennas studied by two terahertz pulse experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Strikwerda, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary form only given. Ultrafast electron field emission from gold resonant antennas induced by strong terahertz (THz) transient is investigated using two THz pulse experiments. It is shown that UV emission from nitrogen plasma generated by liberated electrons is a good indication of the local...... electric field at the antenna tip. Using this method resonant properties of antennas fabricated on high resistivity silicon are investigated in the strong field regime. Decrease of antenna Q-factor due to ultrafast carrier multiplication in the substrate is observed....

  4. Large-amplitude spin dynamics driven by a THz pulse in resonance with an electromagnon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubacka, T; Johnson, J A; Hoffmann, M C; Vicario, C; de Jong, S; Beaud, P; Grübel, S; Huang, S-W; Huber, L; Patthey, L; Chuang, Y-D; Turner, J J; Dakovski, G L; Lee, W-S; Minitti, M P; Schlotter, W; Moore, R G; Hauri, C P; Koohpayeh, S M; Scagnoli, V; Ingold, G; Johnson, S L; Staub, U

    2014-03-21

    Multiferroics have attracted strong interest for potential applications where electric fields control magnetic order. The ultimate speed of control via magnetoelectric coupling, however, remains largely unexplored. Here, we report an experiment in which we drove spin dynamics in multiferroic TbMnO3 with an intense few-cycle terahertz (THz) light pulse tuned to resonance with an electromagnon, an electric-dipole active spin excitation. We observed the resulting spin motion using time-resolved resonant soft x-ray diffraction. Our results show that it is possible to directly manipulate atomic-scale magnetic structures with the electric field of light on a sub-picosecond time scale.

  5. Pulse width modulated push-pull driven parallel resonant converter with active free-wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reass, William A.; Schrank, Louis

    2004-06-22

    An apparatus and method for high frequency alternating power generation to control kilowatts of supplied power in microseconds. The present invention includes a means for energy storage, push-pull switching means, control electronics, transformer means, resonant circuitry and means for excess energy recovery, all in electrical communication. A push-pull circuit works synchronously with a force commutated free-wheel transistor to provide current pulses to a transformer. A change in the conduction angle of the push-pull circuit changes the amount of energy coupled into the transformer's secondary oscillating circuit, thereby altering the induced secondary resonating voltage. At the end of each pulse, the force commutated free-wheel transistor causes residual excess energy in the primary circuit to be transmitted back to the storage capacitor for later use.

  6. Analysis of ringing effects due to magnetic core materials in pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhu Gaunkar, N., E-mail: neelampg@iastate.edu; Bouda, N. R. Y.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Hadimani, R. L.; Mina, M.; Jiles, D. C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Bulu, I.; Ganesan, K.; Song, Y. Q. [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    This work presents investigations and detailed analysis of ringing in a non-resonant pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) circuit. Ringing is a commonly observed phenomenon in high power switching circuits. The oscillations described as ringing impede measurements in pulsed NMR systems. It is therefore desirable that those oscillations decay fast. It is often assumed that one of the causes behind ringing is the role of the magnetic core used in the antenna (acting as an inductive load). We will demonstrate that an LRC subcircuit is also set-up due to the inductive load and needs to be considered due to its parasitic effects. It is observed that the parasitics associated with the inductive load become important at certain frequencies. The output response can be related to the response of an under-damped circuit and to the magnetic core material. This research work demonstrates and discusses ways of controlling ringing by considering interrelationships between different contributing factors.

  7. Resonant amplification of vortex-core oscillations by coherent magnetic-field pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Young-Sang; Han, Dong-Soo; Yoo, Myoung-Woo; Lee, Ki-Suk; Choi, Youn-Seok; Jung, Hyunsung; Lee, Jehyun; Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter; Kim, Sang-Koog

    2013-01-01

    Vortex structures in soft magnetic nanodisks are highly attractive due to their scientific beauty and potential technological applications. Here, we experimentally demonstrated the resonant amplification of vortex oscillations by application of simple coherent field pulses tuned to optimal width and time intervals. In order to investigate vortex excitations on the sub-ns time scale, we employed state-of-the-art time-resolved full-field soft X-ray microscopy of 70 ps temporal and 25 nm lateral...

  8. Single-resonance diffraction gratings for time-domain pulse transformations: integration of optical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Dmitry A; Doskolovich, Leonid L; Soifer, Victor A

    2012-08-01

    A general transformation of the optical pulse envelope implemented by a single-resonance diffraction grating is studied. The particular cases considered include optical pulse integration and differentiation implemented by the grating in the Wood anomalies and the fractional integration and differentiation of order 1/2 implemented in the Rayleigh-Wood anomalies. The extraordinary-optical-transmission plasmonic gratings are shown to be well suited for the integration in the transmission. Diffraction gratings to perform the integration and semi-integration of optical pulses with temporal features in the picosecond range are designed. Numerical simulations based on the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of Maxwell's equations are in good agreement with presented theoretical analysis.

  9. Nanosecond pulse signals restoration via stochastic resonance in the Fabry-Perot cavity with graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zheng; Liu, Hongjun; Huang, Nan; Wang, Zhaolu; Han, Jing

    2017-07-01

    We investigate a technology for reconstructing nanosecond pulse noise hidden signals via stochastic resonance, which is based on optical bistability in the Fabry-Perot (F-P) cavity with graphene. The bistable properties are analyzed with different initial wavelengths and Fermi energies. The system is tunable and the bistable behavior of the output intensity can be accurately controlled to obtain a cross-correlation gain larger than 10 in a wide range of input signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio from 1:8 to 1:45. Meanwhile, the distortion of the output signal and the pulse tailing caused by the phase delay can be reduced to a negligible level. This work provides a potential method for detecting low-level or hidden pulse signals in various communication fields.

  10. Extracting nanosecond pulse signals via stochastic resonance generated by surface plasmon bistability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Liu, Hongjun; Sun, Qibing; Huang, Nan; Wang, Zhaolu; Li, Shaopeng

    2015-11-15

    A technology is investigated to extract nanosecond pulse noise hidden signals via stochastic resonance, which is based on surface plasmon bistability. A theoretical model for recovering nanosecond pulse signals is derived to describe the nonlinear process. It is found that the incident angle, polarization state, medium properties, and input noise intensity all determine the efficiency and fidelity of the output signal. The bistable behavior of the output intensity can be accurately controlled to obtain a cross-correlation gain larger than 6 in a wide range of input signal-to-noise ratio from 1∶5 to 1∶30. Meanwhile, the distortion in the time domain induced by phase shift can be reduced to a negligible level. This work provides a potential method for detecting low-level or hidden pulse signals in various communication fields.

  11. Modeling and simulation of two-step resonance ionization processes using CW and pulsed lasers

    CERN Document Server

    de Groote, Ruben; Flanagan, Kieran

    This thesis derives and discusses equations that describe the evolution of atomic systems subjected to two monochromatic and coherent radiation fields and treats both continuous and temporally pulsed irradiation. This theoretical description is de- veloped mainly to understand the influence of the photon field intensities on experimental ionization spectra. The primary ap- plication of this theoretical framework is on methods that rely on resonant laser excitation and non-resonant laser ionization to extract information on the hyperfine structure of atomic systems. In particular, qualitative and quantitative discussions on the laser-related changes in hyperfine splitting extracted from ion- ization spectra are presented. Also, a method for increasing the resolution of resonance ionization techniques (potentially up un- til the natural linewidth of the electronic transitions) is discussed and theoretically justified. Both topics are illustrated with exper- imental data.

  12. Characterization and compression of dissipative-soliton-resonance pulses in fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daojing; Li, Lei; Zhou, Junyu; Zhao, Luming; Tang, Dingyuan; Shen, Deyuan

    2016-03-01

    We report numerical and experimental studies of dissipative-soliton-resonance (DSR) in a fiber laser with a nonlinear optical loop mirror. The DSR pulse presents temporally a flat-top profile and a clamped peak power. Its spectrum has a rectangle profile with characteristic steep edges. It shows a unique behavior as pulse energy increases: The rectangle part of the spectrum is unchanged while the newly emerging spectrum sits on the center part and forms a peak. Experimental observations match well with the numerical results. Moreover, the detailed evolution of the DSR pulse compression is both numerically and experimentally demonstrated for the first time. An experimentally obtained DSR pulse of 63 ps duration is compressed down to 760 fs, with low-intensity pedestals using a grating pair. Before being compressed to its narrowest width, the pulse firstly evolves into a cat-ear profile, and the corresponding autocorrelation trace shows a crown shape, which distinguishes itself from properties of other solitons formed in fiber lasers.

  13. Characterization and compression of dissipative-soliton-resonance pulses in fiber lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Daojing; Zhou, Junyu; Zhao, Luming; Tang, Dingyuan; Shen, Deyuan

    2016-01-01

    We report numerical and experimental studies of dissipative-soliton-resonance (DSR) in a fiber laser with a nonlinear optical loop mirror. The DSR pulse presents temporally a flat-top profile and a clamped peak power. Its spectrum has a rectangle profile with characteristic steep edges. It shows a unique behavior as pulse energy increases: The rectangle part of the spectrum is unchanged while the newly emerging spectrum sits on the center part and forms a peak. Experimental observations match well with the numerical results. Moreover, compression of the DSR pulses is both numerically and experimentally demonstrated for the first time. An experimentally obtained DSR pulse of 63 ps duration is compressed down to 760 fs, with low-intensity pedestals using a grating pair. Before being compressed to its narrowest width, the pulse firstly evolves into a cat-ear profile, and the corresponding autocorrelation trace shows a crown shape, which distinguishes itself from properties of other solitons formed in fiber laser...

  14. Fast pulse sequences for dynamically corrected gates in singlet-triplet qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throckmorton, Robert E.; Zhang, Chengxian; Yang, Xu-Chen; Wang, Xin; Barnes, Edwin; Das Sarma, S.

    2017-11-01

    We present a set of experimentally feasible pulse sequences that implement any single-qubit gate on a singlet-triplet spin qubit and demonstrate that these new sequences are up to three times faster than existing sequences in the literature. We show that these sequences can be extended to incorporate built-in dynamical error correction, yielding gates that are robust to both charge and magnetic field noise and up to twice as fast as previous dynamically corrected gate schemes. We present a thorough comparison of the performance of our new sequences with that of several existing ones using randomized benchmarking, considering both quasistatic and 1 /fα noise models. We provide our results both as a function of evolution time and as a function of the number of gates, which respectively yield both an effective coherence time and an estimate of the number of gates that can be performed within this coherence time. We determine which set of pulse sequences gives the best results for a wide range of noise strengths and power spectra. Overall, we find that the traditional, slower sequences perform best when there is no field noise or when the noise contains significant high-frequency components; otherwise, our new, fast sequences exhibit the best performance.

  15. An all-solid-state microsecond-range quasi-square pulse generator based on fractional-turn ratio saturable pulse transformer and anti-resonance network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Yang, Jianhua; Cheng, Xinbing; Pan, Zilong

    2017-03-01

    High voltage pulse generators are widely applied in a number of fields. Defense and industrial applications stimulated intense interests in the area of pulsed power technology towards the system with high power, high repetition rate, solid state characteristics, and compact structure. An all-solid-state microsecond-range quasi-square pulse generator based on a fractional-turn ratio saturable pulse transformer and anti-resonance network is proposed in this paper. This generator consists of a charging system, a step-up system, and a modulating system. In this generator, the fractional-turn ratio saturable pulse transformer is the key component since it acts as a step-up transformer and a main switch during the working process. Demonstrative experiments show that if the primary storage capacitors are charged to 400 V, a quasi-square pulse with amplitude of about 29 kV can be achieved on a 3500 Ω resistive load, as well as the pulse duration (full width at half maximum) of about 1.3 μs. Preliminary repetition rate experiments are also carried out, which indicate that this pulse generator could work stably with the repetition rates of 30 Hz and 50 Hz. It can be concluded that this kind of all-solid-state microsecond-range quasi-square pulse generator can not only lower both the operating voltage of the primary windings and the saturable inductance of the secondary windings, thus ideally realizing the magnetic switch function of the fractional-turn ratio saturable pulse transformer, but also achieve a quasi-square pulse with high quality and fixed flat top after the modulation of a two-section anti-resonance network. This generator can be applied in areas of large power microwave sources, sterilization, disinfection, and wastewater treatment.

  16. Pulse Mask Controlled HFAC Resonant Converter for high efficiency Industrial Induction Heating with less harmonic distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarajan Booma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses about the fixed frequency pulse mask control based high frequency AC conversion circuit for industrial induction heating applications. Conventionally, for induction heating load, the output power control is achieved using the pulse with modulation based converters. The conventional converters do not guarantee the zero voltage switching condition required for the minimization of the switching losses. In this paper, pulse mask control scheme for the power control of induction heating load is proposed. This power control strategy allows the inverter to operate closer to the resonant frequency, to obtain zero voltage switching condition. The proposed high frequency AC power conversion circuit has lesser total harmonic distortion in the supply side. Modeling of the IH load, design of conversion circuit and principle of the control scheme and its implementation using low cost PIC controller are briefly discussed. Simulation results obtained using the Matlab environment are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the pulse mask scheme. The obtained results indicate the reduction in losses, improvement in the output power and lesser harmonic distortion in the supply side by the proposed converter. The hardware results are in good agreement with the simulation results.

  17. First high power pulsed tests of a dressed 325 MHz superconducting single spoke resonator at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrak, R.; Branlard, J.; Chase, B.; Darve, C.; Joireman, P.; Khabiboulline, T.; Mukherjee, A.; Nicol, T.; Peoples-Evans, E.; Peterson, D.; Pischalnikov, Y.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    In the recently commissioned superconducting RF cavity test facility at Fermilab (SCTF), a 325 MHz, {beta} = 0.22 superconducting single-spoke resonator (SSR1) has been tested for the first time with its input power coupler. Previously, this cavity had been tested CW with a low power, high Q{sub ext} test coupler; first as a bare cavity in the Fermilab Vertical Test Stand and then fully dressed in the SCTF. For the tests described here, the design input coupler with Q{sub ext} {approx} 10{sup 6} was used. Pulsed power was provided by a Toshiba E3740A 2.5 MW klystron.

  18. Suppression of Multiphoton Resonances in Driven Quantum Systems via Pulse Shape Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Denis; Fillion-Gourdeau, François; Dumont, Joey; Lefebvre, Catherine; MacLean, Steve

    2017-08-01

    This Letter demonstrates control over multiphoton absorption processes in driven two-level systems, which include, for example, superconducting qubits or laser-irradiated graphene, through spectral shaping of the driving pulse. Starting from calculations based on Floquet theory, we use differential evolution, a general purpose optimization algorithm, to find the Fourier coefficients of the driving function that suppress a given multiphoton resonance in the strong field regime. We show that the suppression of the transition probability is due to the coherent superposition of high-order Fourier harmonics which closes the dynamical gap between the Floquet states of the two-level system.

  19. Determination of permittivity of pulses and cereals using metamaterial split ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakyar, Sreedevi P.; Sikha Simon, K.; Murali, Aathira; Shanto T., A.; Andrews, Jolly; Joseph V., P.

    2017-06-01

    Relative permittivity of wide variety of pulses and cereals are precisely determined with the help of metamaterial Split Ring Resonator (SRR) operating at microwave frequencies using a simple extraction procedure. The unknown permittivity of food samples in powder form are evaluated from a calibration curve drawn between the dielectric constant of some standard samples and LC resonant frequency of SRR test probe with the sample placed over it. The experimental setup consists of SRR test probe arranged between transmitting and receiving probes connected to a vector network analyzer. Unknown relative permittivity of the sample is obtained by placing it on the SRR surface and is evaluated from the calibration curve which is found to be in good agreement with the expected standard values. The possible applications of this sensitive and easy technique are analyzed in the field of food preservation, quality checking, adulteration etc.

  20. Parry-Romberg syndrome: findings in advanced magnetic resonance imaging sequences - case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Rafael Alfenas de; Ribeiro, Bruno Niemeyer de Freitas, E-mail: alfenas85@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho; Bahia, Paulo Roberto Valle [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de radiologia; Ribeiro, Renato Niemeyer de Freitas [Hospital de Clinica de Jacarepagua, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, Lais Balbi de [Universidade Presidente Antonio Carlos (Unipac), Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    Parry-Romberg syndrome is a rare disease characterized by progressive hemifacial atrophy associated with other systemic changes, including neurological symptoms. Currently, there are few studies exploring the utilization of advanced magnetic resonance sequences in the investigation of this disease. The authors report the case of a 45-year-old patient and describe the findings at structural magnetic resonance imaging and at advanced sequences, correlating them with pathophysiological data. (author)

  1. Reduction of MRI signal distortion from titanium intracavitary brachytherapy applicator by optimizing pulse sequence parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Thomas P; Harkenrider, Matthew M; Surucu, Murat; Wood, Abbie M; Yacoub, Joseph H; Shea, Steven M

    2017-11-22

    To demonstrate that optimized pulse sequence parameters for a T2-weighted (T2w) fast spin echo acquisition reduced artifacts from a titanium brachytherapy applicator compared to conventional sequence parameters. Following Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent, seven patients were successfully imaged with both standard sagittal T2w fast spin echo parameters (voxel size of 0.98 × 0.78 × 4.0 mm 3 ; readout bandwidth of 200 Hz/px; repetition time of 2800 ms; echo time of 91 ms; echo train length of 15; 36 slices; and imaging time of 3:16 min) and an additional optimized T2w sequence (voxel size of 0.98 × 0.98 × 4.0 mm 3 ; readout bandwidth of 500 Hz/px; repetition time of 3610 ms; echo time of 91 ms; echo train length of 25; 18-36 slices; and imaging time of 1:15-2:30 min), which had demonstrated artifact reduction in prior phantom work. Visualized intracavitary tandem was hand-segmented by two of the authors. Three body imaging radiologists assessed image quality and intraobserver agreement scores were analyzed. The average segmented volume of the intracavitary applicator significantly (p parameters as compared to the standard pulse sequence. Comparison of experimental and standard T2w sequence qualitative scores for each reviewer showed no significant differences between the two techniques. This study demonstrated that pulse sequence parameter optimization can significantly reduce distortion artifact from titanium applicators while maintaining image quality and reasonable imaging times. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ghost stochastic resonance with distributed inputs in pulse-coupled electronic neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopera, Abel; Buldú, Javier M.; Torrent, M. C.; Chialvo, Dante R.; García-Ojalvo, Jordi

    2006-02-01

    We study experimentally the phenomenon of ghost stochastic resonance in pulse-coupled excitable systems, for input signals distributed among different elements. Specifically, two excitable electronic circuits are driven by different sinusoidal signals that produce periodic spikes at distinct frequencies. Their outputs are sent to a third circuit that processes these spiking signals and is additionally perturbed by noise. When the input signals are harmonics of a certain fundamental (that is not present in the inputs) the processing circuit exhibits, for an optimal amount of noise, a resonant response at the frequency of the missing fundamental (ghost frequency). In contrast with the standard case in which the signals being directly integrated are sinusoidal, this behavior relies here on a coincidence-detection mechanism. When the input signals are homogeneously shifted in frequency, the processing circuit responds with pulse packages composed of spikes at a frequency that depends linearly on the frequency shift. Expressions for the dependence of the package period and duration on the frequency shift and spike width, respectively, are obtained. These results provide an experimental verification of a recently proposed mechanism of binaural pitch perception.

  3. Assessment of the evaluation of liver T1 mapping imaging applying virtual ECG gating on a modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) pulse sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seung-Man; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Lee, Suk-Jun; Choe, Bo-Young

    2014-10-01

    A T1 mapping calculation error may occur in a physicochemical environment with large relaxivity. We evaluated through a simulated electrocardiogram (ECG) the administration of a contrast with high relaxivity and its effect on the heart rate by using a modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) pulse sequence. The agarose 2% phantom of high relaxivity environment was developed by diluting gadoxetic acid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T1 contrast media. The gold standard T1 determination was based on coronal single section imaging with a 2D inversion-recovery turbo spin echo sequence (2D-IRTSE) in a 3T MR unit. Using the identical 3T MR scanner, we acquired T1 mapping for the MOLLI pulse sequence with various virtual heart rates. T1 mapping data of the two different pulse sequences ( i.e., 2D-IRTSE and MOLLI) were measured to investigate the accuracy and the specificity. An in vivo study was conducted in the same manner as the phantom experiments for liver T1 mapping imaging in three healthy volunteers. The MOLLI pulse sequence showed an error rate of less than 10% at a contrast agent concentration of 0.4 mmol/L, and significant error, compared with the reference value, was observed at 0.6 mmol/L or higher. The percentage error of the T1 value did not correlated with the RR ( i.e., the time between heart beats) change that was observed (P =.270). Based on the in-vivo liver test, T1 mapping imaging of an abdominal organ as the liver can be successfully achieved using the applied virtual ECG gating on the MOLLI sequence.

  4. Normal Evoked Response to Rapid Sequences of Tactile Pulses in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Ganesan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a developmental disorder diagnosed behaviorally, with many documented neurophysiological abnormalities in cortical response properties. While abnormal sensory processing is not considered core to the disorder, most ASD individuals report sensory processing abnormalities. Yet, the neurophysiological correlates of these abnormalities have not been fully mapped. In the auditory domain, studies have shown that cortical responses in the early auditory cortex in ASD are abnormal in multiple ways. In particular, it has been shown that individuals with ASD who were also language impaired, have abnormal cortical auditory evoked responses to rapid, but not slow, sequences of tones. Here, we tested the somatosensory domain in ASD for abnormalities in rapid processing of tactile pulses, to determine whether abnormalities there parallel those observed in the auditory domain. Specifically, we tested the somatosensory cortex response to a sequence of two tactile pulses with different (short and long temporal separation. We analyzed the responses in cortical space, in primary somatosensory cortex. As expected, we found no group difference in the evoked response to pulses with long temporal separation. Contrary to findings in the auditory domain and to our hypothesis, we also found no group differences in the evoked responses to the sequence with a short temporal separation. These results suggest that rapid temporal processing deficits in ASD are not generalized across multiple sensory domains, and are unlikely to underlie the behavioral somatosensory abnormalities observed in ASD.

  5. Ampère-Class Pulsed Field Emission from Carbon-Nanotube Cathodes in a Radiofrequency Resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihalcea, D. [Northern Illinois U.; Faillace, L. [RadiaBeam Tech.; Hartzell, J. [RadiaBeam Tech.; Panuganti, H. [Northern Illinois U.; Boucher, S. M. [RadiaBeam Tech.; Murokh, A. [RadiaBeam Tech.; Piot, P. [Fermilab; Thangaraj, J. C.T. [Fermilab

    2014-12-01

    Pulsed field emission from cold carbon-nanotube cathodes placed in a radiofrequency resonant cavity was observed. The cathodes were located on the backplate of a conventional $1+\\frac{1}{2}$-cell resonant cavity operating at 1.3-GHz and resulted in the production of bunch train with maximum average current close to 0.7 Amp\\`ere. The measured Fowler-Nordheim characteristic, transverse emittance, and pulse duration are presented and, when possible, compared to numerical simulations. The implications of our results to high-average-current electron sources are briefly discussed.

  6. Microscopic imaging of slow flow and diffusion: a pulsed field gradient stimulated echo sequence combined with turbo spin echo imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenen, T.W.J.; Vergeldt, F.J.; Windt, C.W.; Jager, de P.A.; As, van H.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present a pulse sequence that combines a displacement-encoded stimulated echo with rapid sampling of k-space by means of turbo spin echo imaging. The stimulated echo enables the use of long observation times between the two pulsed field gradients that sample q-space completely.

  7. Long-distance pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klofai, Yerima [Department of Physics, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Maroua, PO Box 46 Maroua (Cameroon); Essimbi, B Z [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde 1, PO Box 812 Yaounde (Cameroon); Jaeger, D, E-mail: bessimb@yahoo.fr [ZHO, Optoelectronik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs)/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps is investigated for long-distance propagation of short pulses. Applying perturbative analysis, we show that the dynamics of each line is reduced to an expanded Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation. Moreover, it is found by computer experiments that the soliton developed in NLTLs experiences an exponential amplitude decay on the one hand and an exponential amplitude growth on the other. As a result, the behavior of a pulse in special electrical networks made of concatenated pieces of lines is closely similar to the transmission of information in optical/electrical communication systems.

  8. B1 mapping for bias-correction in quantitative T1 imaging of the brain at 3T using standard pulse sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Mathieu; Tardif, Christine L; Stikov, Nikola; Sled, John G; Lee, Wayne; Pike, G Bruce

    2017-12-01

    B1 mapping is important for many quantitative imaging protocols, particularly those that include whole-brain T1 mapping using the variable flip angle (VFA) technique. However, B1 mapping sequences are not typically available on many magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners. The aim of this work was to demonstrate that B1 mapping implemented using standard scanner product pulse sequences can produce B1 (and VFA T1 ) maps comparable in quality and acquisition time to advanced techniques. Six healthy subjects were scanned at 3.0T. An interleaved multislice spin-echo echo planar imaging double-angle (EPI-DA) B1 mapping protocol, using a standard product pulse sequence, was compared to two alternative methods (actual flip angle imaging, AFI, and Bloch-Siegert shift, BS). Single-slice spin-echo DA B1 maps were used as a reference for comparison (Ref. DA). VFA flip angles were scaled using each B1 map prior to fitting T1 ; the nominal flip angle case was also compared. The pooled-subject voxelwise correlation (ρ) for B1 maps (BS/AFI/EPI-DA) relative to the reference B1 scan (Ref. DA) were ρ = 0.92/0.95/0.98. VFA T1 correlations using these maps were ρ = 0.86/0.88/0.96, much better than without B1 correction (ρ = 0.53). The relative error for each B1 map (BS/AFI/EPI-DA/Nominal) had 95(th) percentiles of 5/4/3/13%. Our findings show that B1 mapping implemented using product pulse sequences can provide excellent quality B1 (and VFA T1 ) maps, comparable to other custom techniques. This fast whole-brain measurement (∼2 min) can serve as an excellent alternative for researchers without access to advanced B1 pulse sequences. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1673-1682. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance study of transport properties of fluid catalytic cracking catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortunov, P; Vasenkov, S; Kärger, J; Fé Elía, M; Perez, M; Stöcker, M; Papadopoulos, G K; Theodorou, D; Drescher, B; McElhiney, G; Bernauer, B; Krystl, V; Kocirik, M; Zikanova, A; Jirglova, H; Berger, C; Gläser, R; Weitkamp, J; Hansen, E W

    2005-02-01

    Pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG NMR) has been applied to study molecular diffusion in industrial fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts and in USY zeolite for a broad range of molecular displacements and temperatures. The results of this study have been used to elucidate the relevance of molecular transport on various displacements for the rate of molecular exchange between catalyst particles and their surroundings. It turned out that this rate, which may determine the overall rate and selectivity of FCC process, is primarily related to the diffusion mode associated with displacements larger than the size of zeolite crystals located in the particles but smaller than the size of the particles. This conclusion has been confirmed by comparative studies of the catalytic performance of different FCC catalysts.

  10. Coronary magnetic resonance vein imaging: imaging contrast, sequence, and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezafat, Reza; Han, Yuchi; Peters, Dana C; Herzka, Daniel A; Wylie, John V; Goddu, Beth; Kissinger, Kraig K; Yeon, Susan B; Zimetbaum, Peter J; Manning, Warren J

    2007-12-01

    Recently, there has been increased interest in imaging the coronary vein anatomy to guide interventional cardiovascular procedures such as cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), a device therapy for congestive heart failure (CHF). With CRT the lateral wall of the left ventricle is electrically paced using a transvenous coronary sinus lead or surgically placed epicardial lead. Proper transvenous lead placement is facilitated by the knowledge of the coronary vein anatomy. Cardiovascular MR (CMR) has the potential to image the coronary veins. In this study we propose and test CMR techniques and protocols for imaging the coronary venous anatomy. Three aspects of design of imaging sequence were studied: magnetization preparation schemes (T(2) preparation and magnetization transfer), imaging sequences (gradient-echo (GRE) and steady-state free precession (SSFP)), and imaging time during the cardiac cycle. Numerical and in vivo studies both in healthy and CHF subjects were performed to optimize and demonstrate the utility of CMR for coronary vein imaging. Magnetization transfer was superior to T(2) preparation for contrast enhancement. Both GRE and SSFP were viable imaging sequences, although GRE provided more robust results with better contrast. Imaging during the end-systolic quiescent period was preferable as it coincided with the maximum size of the coronary veins. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Analysis of ringing due to magnetic core materials used in pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu Gaunkar, Neelam; Nlebedim, Cajetan; Hadimani, Ravi; Bulu, Irfan; Song, Yi-Qiao; Mina, Mani; Jiles, David

    Oil-field well logging instruments employ pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques and use inductive sensors to detect and evaluate the presence of particular fluids in geological formations. Acting as both signal transmitters and receivers most inductive sensors employ magnetic cores to enhance the quality and amplitude of signals recorded during field measurements. It is observed that the magnetic core also responds to the applied input signal thereby generating a signal (`ringing') that interferes with the measurement of the signals from the target formations. This causes significant noise and receiver dead time and it is beneficial to eliminate/suppress the signals received from the magnetic core. In this work a detailed analysis of the magnetic core response and in particular loading of the sensor due to the presence of the magnetic core is presented. Pulsed NMR measurements over a frequency band of 100 kHz to 1MHz are used to determine the amplitude and linewidth of the signals acquired from different magnetic core materials. A lower signal amplitude and a higher linewidth are vital since these would correspond to minimal contributions from the magnetic core to the inductive sensor response and thus leading to minimized receiver dead time.

  12. Deposition of Methylammonium Lead Triiodide by Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, E. Tomas; Dunlap-Shohl, Wiley A.; Mitzi, David B.; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.

    2017-09-01

    Resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) was used to deposit the metal-halide perovskite (MHP) CH3NH3PbI3 (methylammonium lead triiodide, or MAPbI), creating phase-pure films. Given the moisture sensitivity of these crystalline, multi-component organic-inorganic hybrid materials, deposition of MAPbI by RIR-MAPLE required a departure from the use of water-based emulsions as deposition targets. Different chemistries were explored to create targets that properly dissolved MAPbI components, were stable under vacuum conditions, and enabled resonant laser energy absorption. Secondary phases and solvent contamination in the resulting films were studied through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorbance and x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, suggesting that lingering excess methylammonium iodide (MAI) and low-vapor pressure solvents can distort the microstructure, creating crystalline and amorphous non-perovskite phases. Thermal annealing of films deposited by RIR-MAPLE allowed for excess solvent to be evaporated from films without degrading the MAPbI structure. Further, it was demonstrated that RIR-MAPLE does not require excess MAI to create stoichiometric films with optoelectronic properties, crystal structure, and film morphology comparable to films created using more established spin-coating methods for processing MHPs. This work marks the first time a MAPLE-related technique was used to deposit MHPs.

  13. Deposition of Methylammonium Lead Triiodide by Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, E. Tomas; Dunlap-Shohl, Wiley A.; Mitzi, David B.; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.

    2018-02-01

    Resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) was used to deposit the metal-halide perovskite (MHP) CH3NH3PbI3 (methylammonium lead triiodide, or MAPbI), creating phase-pure films. Given the moisture sensitivity of these crystalline, multi-component organic-inorganic hybrid materials, deposition of MAPbI by RIR-MAPLE required a departure from the use of water-based emulsions as deposition targets. Different chemistries were explored to create targets that properly dissolved MAPbI components, were stable under vacuum conditions, and enabled resonant laser energy absorption. Secondary phases and solvent contamination in the resulting films were studied through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorbance and x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, suggesting that lingering excess methylammonium iodide (MAI) and low-vapor pressure solvents can distort the microstructure, creating crystalline and amorphous non-perovskite phases. Thermal annealing of films deposited by RIR-MAPLE allowed for excess solvent to be evaporated from films without degrading the MAPbI structure. Further, it was demonstrated that RIR-MAPLE does not require excess MAI to create stoichiometric films with optoelectronic properties, crystal structure, and film morphology comparable to films created using more established spin-coating methods for processing MHPs. This work marks the first time a MAPLE-related technique was used to deposit MHPs.

  14. Influence of potential pulses amplitude sequence in a voltammetric electronic tongue (VET) applied to assess antioxidant capacity in aliso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Esteban; Alcañiz, Miguel; Contat, Laura; Baldeón, Edwin O; Barat, José M; Grau, Raúl

    2017-06-01

    Four signals configurations were studied, two of them built by small increases of potential and two with bigger increments. The highest current values were obtained when pulses with bigger change of potential were used although the best results were shown by the pulse sequence which included an intermediate pulse before the relevant pulse. A mathematical model based on trolox pattern was developed to predict antioxidant capacity of aliso, employing information obtained from all the electrodes, although model validation could be done only employing the information from gold electrode. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance of selected coded direct-sequence receiver structures in pulsed interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matis, K. R.; Modestino, J. W.

    The performance of short constraint-length convolutional codes are considered in conjunction with coherent BPSK direct-sequence spread-spectrum modulation in a variety of pulsed interference scenarios. The use of several types of imperfect interference estimation mechanisms, and the resulting impact on Viterbi decoder bit error probability performance, are considered. The digital receiver structures eliminate the need for a fast-acting analog AGC circuit, which is often susceptible to spoofing. For the short constraint-length codes under consideration, upper bounds are provided on bit error probability performance under idealized channel modeling assumptions. Departures from these idealized assumptions are analyzed through extensive Monte-Carlo computer simulation.

  16. Generation of a sequence of frequency-modulated pulses in longitudinally inhomogeneous optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotovskii, I. O.; Lapin, V. A.; Sementsov, D. I.; Stolyarov, D. A.

    2017-03-01

    The conditions for the generation and efficient amplification of frequency-modulated soliton-like wave packets in longitudinally inhomogeneous active optical waveguides have been studied. The possibility of forming a sequence of pico- and subpicosecond pulses from quasi-continuous radiation in active and passive optical waveguides with the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) changing over the waveguide length is considered. The behavior of a wave packet in the well-developed phase of modulation instability with a change in the waveguide inhomogeneity parameters has been investigated based on the numerical analysis.

  17. Effects of reverberations and clutter filtering in pulsed Doppler using sparse sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdal, Jørgen; Lovstakken, Lasse; Torp, Hans

    2015-05-01

    Duplex ultrasound is a modality in which an ultrasound system is used for simultaneous acquisition of both B-mode images and velocity (Doppler) data. Conventional duplex sequences interleave packets of B-mode and Doppler transmissions, producing undesirable gaps during B-mode interruptions. In recent years, several techniques have been proposed for avoiding such gaps by using sparse sequences, in which velocity spectra are generated from nonuniformly sampled Doppler data containing frequent B-mode interruptions. In this work, two negative effects are discussed that may influence velocity estimation when using nonuniformly sampled sequences. First, it is shown that long reverberation times lead to discontinuities in the signal from stationary clutter after each B-mode interruption. Second, using frequency analysis, it is shown that clutter filtering of nonuniformly sampled data may introduce artifacts in the velocity spectrum, and also lead to significant bias in mean velocity estimates. Methods are presented for quantification of these effects, and utilized to analyze three types of sparse duplex sequences for blood velocity estimation. In particular, it is argued that the use of such sequences in cardiac applications is not recommended because of long reverberation time. Additionally, it is found that the use of regression filters to filter nonuniformly sampled data may produce significant artifacts in pulsed wave Doppler spectra, but is less significant for color Doppler imaging applications. In vitro and in vivo examples are included showing the presence and magnitude of these problems in clinically relevant applications.

  18. Matrix-assisted resonant infrared pulsed laser ablation of electroluminescent dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pagan, Ricardo Daniel

    The deposition techniques for polymer thin films in organic light emitting diodes are limited to wet methods since molecular pyrolysis prevents the use of dry vacuum thermal evaporation methods. Wet methods have critical limitations such as poor thickness control, drying patterns and re-dissolution of previous layers. In this work, a novel approach, Matrix-Assisted Resonant Infrared Pulsed Laser Ablation (RIM-PLA) has been studied as an alternative deposition method for electroluminescent polymer films. RIM-PLA was successfully used for the deposition of two model dendrimers: fluorescent and phosphorescent Ir-cored. A free-electron laser was tuned to resonance frequencies for the vibrational modes of two solid matrix solvents: chloroform (C-H stretch; C-H bending) and toluene (C-H stretch; C=C stretch). The temperature-dependent absorption coefficients for each resonance mode were measured. Targets made from flash-frozen, low-concentration solutions of the dendrimers were irradiated at each frequency while varying fluence and exposure times. The molecular structure integrity of the targets was characterized. The deposited films were characterized to assess structure fidelity, roughness and topography, and luminance. All RIM-PLA deposited films were compared with spin-coated films. The ablation characteristics for each mode were found to be dependent on the solvent and not the dendrimer. Calculations from a temperature-rise model show that FEL pulsed-irradiation results in heating rates on the order of 108--109 K/s, resulting in metastable condensed targets. Thermodynamic and kinetic relations were used to calculate the relevance of three ablation mechanisms: normal vaporization, normal boiling and phase explosion. The latter mechanism has a critical threshold (> 0.8 Tc) for each solvent, and proceeds through spinodal decay followed by rapid homogeneous nucleation of vapor bubbles within the focal volume. For both chloroform modes, the primary ablation mechanism was

  19. Discriminatory usefulness of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and sequence-based typing in Legionella outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quero, Sara; García-Núñez, Marian; Párraga-Niño, Noemí; Barrabeig, Irene; Pedro-Botet, Maria L; de Simon, Mercè; Sopena, Nieves; Sabrià, Miquel

    2016-06-01

    To compare the discriminatory power of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequence-based typing (SBT) in Legionella outbreaks for determining the infection source. Twenty-five investigations of Legionnaires' disease were analyzed by PFGE, SBT and Dresden monoclonal antibody. The results suggested that monoclonal antibody could reduce the number of Legionella isolates to be characterized by molecular methods. The epidemiological concordance PFGE-SBT was 100%, while the molecular concordance was 64%. Adjusted Wallace index (AW) showed that PFGE has better discriminatory power than SBT (AWSBT→PFGE = 0.767; AWPFGE→SBT = 1). The discrepancies appeared mostly in sequence type (ST) 1, a worldwide distributed ST for which PFGE discriminated different profiles. SBT discriminatory power was not sufficient verifying the infection source, especially in worldwide distributed STs, which were classified into different PFGE patterns.

  20. Comparison of different pulse sequences for in vivo determination of T1 relaxation times in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L; Henriksen, O

    1988-01-01

    ). T1 measurements were performed on the human brain using a whole body MR scanner operating at 1.5 tesla. Three different pulse sequences were compared including two 6-points inversion recovery (IR) sequences with TR = 2.0 s and 4.0, respectively, and a 12-points partial saturation inversion recovery...

  1. Experimental optimization of dissipative soliton resonance square pulses in all anomalous passively mode-locked fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Braham, Fatma; Semaan, Georges; Bahloul, Faouzi; Salhi, Mohamed; Sanchez, François

    2017-10-01

    We investigate experimentally the operational boundaries of dissipative soliton resonance in a double-clad Er:Yb co-doped dual amplifier passively mode-locked figure-of-eight fiber laser. While mode-locking with a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror, we present an exhaustive series of experiments in order to optimize the pulse energy and pulse width tunability. In addition to the pumping power of the amplifiers, several key experimental parameters have been identified such as the net cavity dispersion, the coupling ratio between the two loops of the cavity and the exact position of the long fiber coils. Under optimized conditions, the laser delivers square pulses with an energy varying between 8.5 and 10.1 μJ while the pulse width ranges from 84-416 ns.

  2. Comparison of MRI pulse sequences for investigation of lesions of the cervical spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campi, A.; Pontesilli, S.; Gerevini, S.; Scotti, G. [San Raffaele Hospital, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2000-09-01

    Small spinal cord lesions, even if clinically significant, can be due to the low sensitivity of some pulse sequences. We compared T2-weighted fast (FSE), and conventional (CSE) spin-echo and short-tau inversion-recovery (STIR)-FSE overlooked on MRI sequences to evaluate their sensitivity to and specificity for lesions of different types. We compared the three sequences in MRI of 57 patients with cervical spinal symptoms. The image sets were assessed by two of us individually for final diagnosis, lesion detectability and image quality. Both readers arrived at the same final diagnoses with all sequences, differentiating four groups of patients. Group 1 (30 patients, 53 %), with a final diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Demyelinating lesions were better seen on STIR-FSE images, on which the number of lesions was significantly higher than on FSE, while the FSE and CSE images showed approximately equal numbers of lesions; additional lesions were found in 9 patients. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of 17 demyelinating lesions was significantly higher on STIR-FSE images than with the other sequences. Group 2, 19 patients (33 %) with cervical pain, 15 of whom had disc protrusion or herniation: herniated discs were equally well delineated with all sequences, with better myelographic effect on FSE. In five patients with intrinsic spinal cord abnormalities, the conspicuity and demarcation of the lesions were similar with STIR-FSE and FSE. Group 3, 4 patients (7 %) with acute myelopathy of unknown aetiology. In two patients, STIR-FSE gave better demarcation of lesions and in one a questionable additional lesions. Group 4, 4 patients (7 %) with miscellaneous final diagnoses. STIR-FSE had high sensitivity to demyelinating lesions, can be considered quite specific and should be included in spinal MRI for assessment of suspected demyelinating disease. (orig.)

  3. Slip pulse and resonance of the Kathmandu basin during the 2015 Gorkha earthquake, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetzka, J; Melgar, D; Genrich, J F; Geng, J; Owen, S; Lindsey, E O; Xu, X; Bock, Y; Avouac, J-P; Adhikari, L B; Upreti, B N; Pratt-Sitaula, B; Bhattarai, T N; Sitaula, B P; Moore, A; Hudnut, K W; Szeliga, W; Normandeau, J; Fend, M; Flouzat, M; Bollinger, L; Shrestha, P; Koirala, B; Gautam, U; Bhatterai, M; Gupta, R; Kandel, T; Timsina, C; Sapkota, S N; Rajaure, S; Maharjan, N

    2015-09-04

    Detailed geodetic imaging of earthquake ruptures enhances our understanding of earthquake physics and associated ground shaking. The 25 April 2015 moment magnitude 7.8 earthquake in Gorkha, Nepal was the first large continental megathrust rupture to have occurred beneath a high-rate (5-hertz) Global Positioning System (GPS) network. We used GPS and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data to model the earthquake rupture as a slip pulse ~20 kilometers in width, ~6 seconds in duration, and with a peak sliding velocity of 1.1 meters per second, which propagated toward the Kathmandu basin at ~3.3 kilometers per second over ~140 kilometers. The smooth slip onset, indicating a large (~5-meter) slip-weakening distance, caused moderate ground shaking at high frequencies (>1 hertz; peak ground acceleration, ~16% of Earth's gravity) and minimized damage to vernacular dwellings. Whole-basin resonance at a period of 4 to 5 seconds caused the collapse of tall structures, including cultural artifacts. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Analysis and development of fourth order LCLC resonant based capacitor charging power supply for pulse power applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh, P; Hitesh, C; Patel, A; Kolge, T; Sharma, Archana; Mittal, K C

    2013-08-01

    A fourth order (LCLC) resonant converter based capacitor charging power supply (CCPS) is designed and developed for pulse power applications. Resonant converters are preferred t utilize soft switching techniques such as zero current switching (ZCS) and zero voltage switching (ZVS). An attempt has been made to overcome the disadvantages in 2nd and 3rd resonant converter topologies; hence a fourth order resonant topology is used in this paper for CCPS application. In this paper a novel fourth order LCLC based resonant converter has been explored and mathematical analysis carried out to calculate load independent constant current. This topology provides load independent constant current at switching frequency (fs) equal to resonant frequency (fr). By changing switching condition (on time and dead time) this topology has both soft switching techniques such as ZCS and ZVS for better switching action to improve the converter efficiency. This novel technique has special features such as low peak current through switches, DC blocking for transformer, utilizing transformer leakage inductance as resonant component. A prototype has been developed and tested successfully to charge a 100 μF capacitor to 200 V.

  5. Investigation of timing effects in modified composite quadrupolar echo pulse sequences by mean of average Hamiltonian theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mananga, Eugene Stephane

    2018-01-01

    The utility of the average Hamiltonian theory and its antecedent the Magnus expansion is presented. We assessed the concept of convergence of the Magnus expansion in quadrupolar spectroscopy of spin-1 via the square of the magnitude of the average Hamiltonian. We investigated this approach for two specific modified composite pulse sequences: COM-Im and COM-IVm. It is demonstrated that the size of the square of the magnitude of zero order average Hamiltonian obtained on the appropriated basis is a viable approach to study the convergence of the Magnus expansion. The approach turns to be efficient in studying pulse sequences in general and can be very useful to investigate coherent averaging in the development of high resolution NMR technique in solids. This approach allows comparing theoretically the two modified composite pulse sequences COM-Im and COM-IVm. We also compare theoretically the current modified composite sequences (COM-Im and COM-IVm) to the recently published modified composite pulse sequences (MCOM-I, MCOM-IV, MCOM-I_d, MCOM-IV_d).

  6. Pulsed magnetization transfer contrast MRI by a sequence with water selective excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schick, F. [Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany)

    1996-01-01

    A water selective SE imaging sequence was developed providing suitable properties for the assessment of magnetization transfer (MT) effects in tissues with considerable amounts of fat. The sequence with water selective excitation and slice selective refocusing combines the following features: The RIF exposure on the macromolecular protons is relatively low for single slice imaging without MT prepulses, since no additional pulses for fat saturation are necessary. Water selection by frequency selective excitation diminishes faults in the subtraction of images recorded with and without MT prepulses (which might arise from movements). High differences in the signal amplitudes from hyaline cartilage and muscle tissue were obtained comparing images recorded with irradiation of the series of prepulses for MT and those lacking MT prepulses. Utilizations of the described water selective approach for the assessment of MT effects in lesions of cartilage and bone are demonstrated. MT saturation was also examined in muscles with fatty degeneration of patients suffering from progressive muscular dystrophy. The described technique allows determination of MT effects with good precision in a single slice, especially in regions with dominating fat signals. 22 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Nuclear quadrupole spin dynamics: How weak RF pulses and double resonance cross-relaxation contribute to explosives detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, David

    Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a type of radio-frequency (rf) spectroscopy which can detect quadrupolar nuclei (I > 1/2), such as nitrogen, in crystalline solids. NQR spectroscopy is useful for the detection of the many types of explosives containing 14N, however it suffers from a low signal to noise ratio (SNR) particularly in samples with long spin-lattice relaxation times. To improve the SNR the nuclear quadrupole spin dynamics are exploited in two limiting cases: systems with long spin relaxation times and systems where the excitation power is limited. The former is addressed through double resonance effects and the latter through spin echoes created by weak rf pulses. The double resonance effect occurs in samples that also contain a second faster relaxing nuclear species, such as 1H in ammonium nitrate. In this sample an 1H-14N double resonance can be created between the species that improves the SNR. While the focus is on the common case of solids containing both nitrogen and hydrogen, the theory is generally applicable to solids containing spin-1 and spin-1/2 nuclei. A model of this system is developed that treats the motionally averaged secular dipolar Hamiltonian as a perturbation of the combined quadrupole and Zeeman Hamiltonians. This model reveals three types of double resonance conditions, involving static and rf fields, and predicts expressions for the cross-relaxation rate (Wd) between the two species. Using this cross-relaxation rate, in addition to the hydrogen and nitrogen autorelaxation rates, expressions governing the relaxation back to equilibrium in a spin-1/2 and spin-1 system are determined. The three different types of double resonance conditions are created experimentally; one of them for the first time in any system and another for the first time in a solid. Under these double resonance conditions, the increase in Wd and improvements in SNR are explored both theoretically and experimentally using ammonium nitrate. The second effect

  8. Multiphase Oscillator Using Traveling Pulses Developed in a System of Transmission Lines with Regularly Spaced Resonant-tunneling Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahara, Koichi

    2017-06-01

    A scheme is proposed for generating multiphase oscillatory signals in millimeter-wave frequencies based on the dynamics of a traveling pulse developed in a closed transmission line periodically loaded with resonant-tunneling diodes (RTDs) that is coupled with several straight RTD lines. When supplied with an appropriate voltage at the end of an RTD line, a pulse edge is shown to exhibit a spatially extended limit-cycle oscillation on the line. We consider the case where several RTD lines are connected halfway to a closed one at even intervals. In this case, the oscillatory edge developed in each straight RTD line is mutually synchronized such that a pulse-shaped rotary traveling wave develops on the closed RTD line. The oscillating edge on each straight line is also synchronized with the traveling pulse on the closed line, such that the leading edge of the traveling pulse on the closed line and the forward edge on the straight line pass the cross point simultaneously. As a result, when N L straight lines are connected to the closed line, the phase difference between two adjacent oscillatory edges becomes 2 π/ N L . On the other hand, the trailing edge of the traveling pulse at the cross point breaks the voltage wave on the straight line into two pieces, one of which travels forward to form a solitary wave and the other of which travels backward to reach the input end, where it is reflected and starts to travel forward and this forward moving edge is supposed to be synchronized with the leading edge of the traveling pulse. It means that a back-and-forth edge and a forward-moving solitary wave develop periodically on each straight line. Because the time required for the traveling pulse to go around the closed line must be coincident with the period of the edge oscillation on each straight line, a unique traveling pulse cannot synchronize with each oscillating edge when the cell size of the closed line becomes large, resulting in the development of multiple traveling

  9. Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme versus Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis for Typing Mycobacterium abscessus Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Gabriel Esquitini; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Duarte, Rafael da Silva; de Freitas, Denise; Palaci, Moises; Hadad, David Jamil; Lima, Karla Valéria Batista; Lopes, Maria Luiza; Ramos, Jesus Pais; Campos, Carlos Eduardo; Caldas, Paulo César; Heym, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of infections by rapidly growing mycobacteria following invasive procedures, such as ophthalmological, laparoscopic, arthroscopic, plastic, and cardiac surgeries, mesotherapy, and vaccination, have been detected in Brazil since 1998. Members of the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group have caused most of these outbreaks. As part of an epidemiological investigation, the isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In this project, we performed a large-scale comparison of PFGE profiles with the results of a recently developed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for M. abscessus. Ninety-three isolates were analyzed, with 40 M. abscessus subsp. abscessus isolates, 47 M. abscessus subsp. bolletii isolates, and six isolates with no assigned subspecies. Forty-five isolates were obtained during five outbreaks, and 48 were sporadic isolates that were not associated with outbreaks. For MLST, seven housekeeping genes (argH, cya, glpK, gnd, murC, pta, and purH) were sequenced, and each isolate was assigned a sequence type (ST) from the combination of obtained alleles. The PFGE patterns of DraI-digested DNA were compared with the MLST results. All isolates were analyzable by both methods. Isolates from monoclonal outbreaks showed unique STs and indistinguishable or very similar PFGE patterns. Thirty-three STs and 49 unique PFGE patterns were identified among the 93 isolates. The Simpson's index of diversity values for MLST and PFGE were 0.69 and 0.93, respectively, for M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and 0.96 and 0.97, respectively, for M. abscessus subsp. bolletii. In conclusion, the MLST scheme showed 100% typeability and grouped monoclonal outbreak isolates in agreement with PFGE, but it was less discriminative than PFGE for M. abscessus. PMID:24899019

  10. Feasibility of pulse wave velocity estimation from low frame rate US sequences in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zontak, Maria; Bruce, Matthew; Hippke, Michelle; Schwartz, Alan; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2017-03-01

    The pulse wave velocity (PWV) is considered one of the most important clinical parameters to evaluate CV risk, vascular adaptation, etc. There has been substantial work attempting to measure the PWV in peripheral vessels using ultrasound (US). This paper presents a fully automatic algorithm for PWV estimation from the human carotid using US sequences acquired with a Logic E9 scanner (modified for RF data capture) and a 9L probe. Our algorithm samples the pressure wave in time by tracking wall displacements over the sequence, and estimates the PWV by calculating the temporal shift between two sampled waves at two distinct locations. Several recent studies have utilized similar ideas along with speckle tracking tools and high frame rate (above 1 KHz) sequences to estimate the PWV. To explore PWV estimation in a more typical clinical setting, we used focused-beam scanning, which yields relatively low frame rates and small fields of view (e.g., 200 Hz for 16.7 mm filed of view). For our application, a 200 Hz frame rate is low. In particular, the sub-frame temporal accuracy required for PWV estimation between locations 16.7 mm apart, ranges from 0.82 of a frame for 4m/s, to 0.33 for 10m/s. When the distance is further reduced (to 0.28 mm between two beams), the sub-frame precision is in parts per thousand (ppt) of the frame (5 ppt for 10m/s). As such, the contributions of our algorithm and this paper are: 1. Ability to work with low frame-rate ( 200Hz) and decreased lateral field of view. 2. Fully automatic segmentation of the wall intima (using raw RF images). 3. Collaborative Speckle Tracking of 2D axial and lateral carotid wall motion. 4. Outlier robust PWV calculation from multiple votes using RANSAC. 5. Algorithm evaluation on volunteers of different ages and health conditions.

  11. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Breast Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ikeda, Debra

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a unique magnetic resonance imaging multi voxel pulse sequence producing spectroscopic images of key metabolites found in breast cancer, and validated our work with in vitro spectra and pathology...

  12. Statistical approach of measurement of signal to noise ratio in according to change pulse sequence on brain MRI meningioma and cyst images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eul Kyu [Inje Paik University Hospital Jeo-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kwan Woo [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hoi Woun [The Baekseok Culture University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Seo Goo [The Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Won [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gang-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Soon Yong [The Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Min, Jung Whan; Son, Jin Hyun [The Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to needed basis of measure MRI CAD development for signal to noise ratio (SNR) by pulse sequence analysis from region of interest (ROI) in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast. We examined images of brain MRI contrast enhancement of 117 patients, from January 2005 to December 2015 in a University-affiliated hospital, Seoul, Korea. Diagnosed as one of two brain diseases such as meningioma and cysts SNR for each patient's image of brain MRI were calculated by using Image J. Differences of SNR among two brain diseases were tested by SPSS Statistics21 ANOVA test for there was statistical significance (p < 0.05). We have analysis socio-demographical variables, SNR according to sequence disease, 95% confidence according to SNR of sequence and difference in a mean of SNR. Meningioma results, with the quality of distributions in the order of T1CE, T2 and T1, FLAIR. Cysts results, with the quality of distributions in the order of T2 and T1, T1CE and FLAIR. SNR of MRI sequences of the brain would be useful to classify disease. Therefore, this study will contribute to evaluate brain diseases, and be a fundamental to enhancing the accuracy of CAD development.

  13. Relevance of 3D magnetic resonance imaging sequences in diagnosing basal subarachnoid neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo Mezo, Roger; Lara García, Javier; Arroyo, Mariana; Fleury, Agnès

    2015-12-01

    Imagenological diagnosis of subarachnoid neurocysticercosis is usually difficult when classical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences are used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the advantages of 3D MRI sequences (Fast Imaging Employing Steady-state Acquisition (FIESTA) and Spoiled Gradient Recalled Echo (SPGR)) with respect to classical sequences (Fluid Attenuation Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) and T1) in visualizing Taenia solium cyst in these locations. Forty-seven T. solium cysts located in the basal cisterns of the subarachnoid space were diagnosed in eighteen Mexican patients. A pre-treatment MRI was performed on all patients, and all four sequences (FIESTA, FLAIR, T1 SPGR, and T2) were evaluated independently by two neuroradiologists. The sensitivity of each sequence to detect the parasite membrane and scolex was evaluated, along with its capacity to detect differences in signal intensity between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and cysts. FIESTA sequences allowed the visualization of cyst membrane in 87.2% of the parasites evaluated, FLAIR in 38.3%, SPGR in 23.4%, and T2 in 17.0%. The superiority of FIESTA sequences over the other three imaging methods was statistically significant (P0.05). Differences in signal intensity between CSF and parasite cysts were significant in FIESTA (P<0.0001), SPGR (P<0.0001), and FLAIR (P=0.005) sequences. For the first time, the usefulness of 3D MRI sequences to diagnose T. solium cysts located in the basal cisterns of the subarachnoid space was demonstrated. The routine use of these sequences could favor an earlier diagnosis and greatly improve the prognosis of patients affected by this severe form of the disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Simultaneous fMRI and local field potential measurements during epileptic seizures in medetomidine-sedated rats using raser pulse sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaksinen, Antti M; Niskanen, Juha-Pekka; Chamberlain, Ryan; Huttunen, Joanna K; Nissinen, Jari; Garwood, Michael; Pitkänen, Asla; Gröhn, Olli

    2010-10-01

    Simultaneous electrophysiological and functional magnetic resonance imaging measurements of animal models of epilepsy are methodologically challenging, but essential to better understand abnormal brain activity and hemodynamics during seizures. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging of medetomidine-sedated rats was performed using novel rapid acquisition by sequential excitation and refocusing (RASER) fast imaging pulse sequence and simultaneous local field potential measurements during kainic acid-induced seizures. The image distortion caused by the hippocampal-measuring electrode was clearly seen in echo planar imaging images, whereas no artifact was seen in RASER images. Robust blood oxygenation level-dependent responses were observed in the hippocampus during kainic acid-induced seizures. The recurrent epileptic seizures were detected in the local field potential signal after kainic acid injection. The presented combination of deep electrode local field potential measurements and functional magnetic resonance imaging under medetomidine anesthesia, which does not significantly suppress kainic acid-induced seizures, provides a unique tool for studying abnormal brain activity in rats.

  15. Hybrid detection of target sequence DNA based on phosphorescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yanming; Lv, Jinzhi; Yan, Guiqin

    2017-08-15

    The severe background fluorescence and scattering light of real biological samples or environmental samples largely reduce the sensitivity and accuracy of fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensors based on fluorescent quantum dots (QDs). To solve this problem, we designed a novel target sequence DNA biosensor based on phosphorescent resonance energy transfer (PRET). This sensor relied on Mn-doped ZnS (Mn-ZnS) room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) QDs/poly-(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) nanocomposite (QDs+) as the energy donor and the single-strand DNA-ROX as the energy receptor. Thereby, an RTP biosensor was built and used to quantitatively detect target sequence DNA. This biosensor had a detection limit of 0.16nM and a linear range of 0.5-20nM for target sequence DNA. The dependence on RTP of QDs effectively avoided the interference from background fluorescence and scattering light in biological samples. Moreover, this sensor did not need sample pretreatment. Thus, this sensor compared with FRET is more feasible for quantitative detection of target sequence DNA in biological samples. Interestingly, the QDs+ nanocomposite prolonged the phosphorescence lifetime of Mn-ZnS QDs by 2.6 times to 4.94ms, which was 5-6 magnitude-order larger than that of fluorescent QDs. Thus, this sensor largely improves the optical properties of QDs and permits chemical reactions at a long enough time scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Phase distortions of attosecond pulses produced by resonance-enhanced high harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haessler, S.; Strelkov, V.; Elouga Bom, L. B.; Khokhlova, M.; Gobert, O.; Hergott, J.-F.; Lepetit, F.; Perdrix, M.; Ozaki, T.; Salières, P.

    2013-01-01

    Resonant enhancement of high harmonic generation can be obtained in plasmas containing ions with strong radiative transitions resonant with harmonic orders. The mechanism for this enhancement is still debated. We perform the first temporal characterization of the attosecond emission from a tin plasma under near-resonant conditions for two different resonance detunings. We show that the resonance considerably changes the relative phase of neighboring harmonics. For very small detunings, their phase locking may even be lost, evidencing strong phase distortions in the emission process and a modified attosecond structure. These features are well reproduced by our simulations, allowing their interpretation in terms of the phase of the recombination dipole moment.

  17. Comparison of different pulse sequences for in vivo determination of T1 relaxation times in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L; Henriksen, O

    1988-01-01

    ). T1 measurements were performed on the human brain using a whole body MR scanner operating at 1.5 tesla. Three different pulse sequences were compared including two 6-points inversion recovery (IR) sequences with TR = 2.0 s and 4.0, respectively, and a 12-points partial saturation inversion recovery...... (PSIR) sequence with TR varying between 0.24 and 8.0 s. The median T1 relaxation times obtained in cortical grey matter and cerebrospinal fluid were significantly shorter in the IR experiments at TR = 2 s than in those carried out at TR = 4 s. Concerning white matter the discrepancy was much less...

  18. Dynamical cancellation of pulse-induced transients in a metallic shielded room for ultra-low-field magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zevenhoven, Koos C. J., E-mail: koos.zevenhoven@aalto.fi; Ilmoniemi, Risto J. [Department of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering, School of Science, Aalto University, P.O. Box 12200, FI-00076 AALTO (Finland); Dong, Hui [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94708-7300 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Clarke, John [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94708-7300 (United States)

    2015-01-19

    Pulse-induced transients such as eddy currents can cause problems in measurement techniques where a signal is acquired after an applied preparatory pulse. In ultra-low-field magnetic resonance imaging, performed in magnetic fields typically of the order of 100 μT, the signal-to-noise ratio is enhanced in part by prepolarizing the proton spins with a pulse of much larger magnetic field and in part by detecting the signal with a Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID). The pulse turn-off, however, can induce large eddy currents in the shielded room, producing an inhomogeneous magnetic-field transient that both seriously distorts the spin dynamics and exceeds the range of the SQUID readout. It is essential to reduce this transient substantially before image acquisition. We introduce dynamical cancellation (DynaCan), a technique in which a precisely designed current waveform is applied to a separate coil during the later part and turn off of the polarizing pulse. This waveform, which bears no resemblance to the polarizing pulse, is designed to drive the eddy currents to zero at the precise moment that the polarizing field becomes zero. We present the theory used to optimize the waveform using a detailed computational model with corrections from measured magnetic-field transients. SQUID-based measurements with DynaCan demonstrate a cancellation of 99%. Dynamical cancellation has the great advantage that, for a given system, the cancellation accuracy can be optimized in software. This technique can be applied to both metal and high-permeability alloy shielded rooms, and even to transients other than eddy currents.

  19. Collective state of interwall excitons on GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum wells under pulse resonant excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Larionov, A V; Hvam, J; Soerensen, K

    2002-01-01

    The time evolution and kinetics of the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the interwall excitons under the pulse resonant excitation of the interwall excitons are studied in the GaAs/AlGaAs binary quantum well. It is established, that the collective exciton phase originates with the time delay relative to the exciting pulse (several nanoseconds), which is conditioned by the density and temperature relaxation to the equilibrium values.The origination of the collective phase of the interwall excitons is accompanied by the strong narrowing of the corresponding photoluminescence line, the superlinear growth of its intensity and large time of change in the degree of the circular polarization.The collective exciton phase originates at the temperatures < 6 K and the interwall excitons densities 3 x 10 sup 1 sup 0 cm sup - sup 2

  20. Repetitive control for high-performance resonant pulsed power supply in radio frequency applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Chao; Zanchetta, Pericle; Carastro, Fabio; Clare, Jon C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel three phase series resonant parallel loaded (SRPL) resonant converter topology for radio frequency (RF) applications. The proposed converter is capable to produce as output voltage a series of “long pulses”, each one lasting 1ms in time. Three individual single phase resonant stages are able to operate independently in conjunction with three separate single phase output rectification stages. Due to this important feature, the converter has a strong ability of rejec...

  1. Limited-sequence magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the ultrasonographically indeterminate pelvic mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.D. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver Hospital and Helath Services Centre, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)]. E-mail: schang@vanhosp.bc.ca; Cooperberg, P.L.; Wong, A.D. [Univ. of British Columbia, St. Paul' s Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Llewellyn, P.A. [Lion' s Gate Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Bilbey, J.H. [Royal Inland Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Kamloops, British Columbia (Canada)

    2004-04-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of limited-sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the elucidation of ultrasonographically indeterminate pelvic masses. This study focused only on pelvic masses in which the origin of the mass (uterine v. extrauterine) could not be determined by ultrasonography (US). The origin of a pelvic mass has clinical implications. A mass arising from the uterus is most likely to be a leiomyoma, which is a benign lesion, whereas an extrauterine mass will have a higher likelihood of malignancy and usually requires surgery. Eighty-one female patients whose pelvic mass was of indeterminate origin on US also underwent limited-sequence MRI of the pelvis. Most of the MRI examinations were performed on the same day as the US. Limited-sequence MRI sequences included a quick gradient-echoT{sub 1}-weighted localizer and a fast spin-echoT{sub 2}-weighted sequence. Final diagnoses were established by surgical pathology or by clinical and imaging follow-up. Limited-sequence MRI was helpful in 79 of the 81 cases (98%). Fifty-two of the 81 masses (64%) were leiomyomas. One was a leiomyosarcoma. The extrauterine masses (26/81 [32%]) were identified as 14 ovarian malignancies, 4 endometriomas, 3 dermoids, an ovarian fibroma, an infarcted fibrothecoma, an infarcted hemorrhagic cyst, a sigmoid diverticular abscess and a gastrointestinal stromal tumour of the ileum. In the other 2 cases (2/81 [2%]), the origin of the pelvic mass remained indeterminate. Both of these indeterminate masses showed low signal onT{sub 2}-weighted images and were interpreted as probable leiomyomas. They were not surgically removed but were followed clinically and had a stable course. Limited-sequence MRI is a quick and efficient way to further evaluate ultrasonographically indeterminate pelvic masses. Limited-sequence MRI of the pelvis can suffice, in these cases, without requiring a full MRI examination. (author)

  2. Optimization of multi-pulse sequences for nonlinear contrast agent imaging using a cMUT array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novell, Anthony; Arena, Christopher B; Kasoji, Sandeep; Dayton, Paul A

    2015-04-21

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (cMUT) technology provides advantages such as wide frequency bandwidth, which can be exploited for contrast agent imaging. Nevertheless, the efficiency of traditional multi-pulse imaging schemes, such as pulse inversion (PI), remains limited because of the intrinsic nonlinear character of cMUTs. Recently, a new contrast imaging sequence, called bias voltage modulation sequence (BVM), has been specifically developed for cMUTs to suppress their unwanted nonlinear behavior. In this study, we propose to optimize contrast agent detection by combining the BVM sequence with PI and/or chirp reversal (CR). An aqueous dispersion of lipid encapsulated microbubbles was exposed to several combinations of multi-pulse imaging sequences. Approaches were evaluated in vitro using 9 inter-connected elements of a cMUT linear array (excitation frequency of 4 MHz; peak negative pressure of 100 kPa). For sequences using chirp excitations, a specific compression filter was designed to compress and extract several nonlinear components from the received microbubble responses. A satisfactory cancellation of the nonlinear signal from the source is achieved when BVM is combined with PI and CR. In comparison with PI and CR imaging modes alone, using sequences incorporating BVM increases the contrast-to-tissue ratio by 10.0 dB and 4.6 dB, respectively. Furthermore, the combination of BVM with CR and PI results in a significant increase of the contrast-to-noise ratio (+29 dB). This enhancement is attributed to the use of chirps as excitation signals and the improved preservation of several nonlinear components contained within the contrast agent response.

  3. Systolic MOLLI T1 mapping with heart-rate-dependent pulse sequence sampling scheme is feasible in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Li, Songnan; Ma, Xiaohai; Greiser, Andreas; Zhang, Tianjing; An, Jing; Bai, Rong; Dong, Jianzeng; Fan, Zhanming

    2016-03-15

    T1 mapping enables assessment of myocardial characteristics. As the most common type of arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation (AF) is often accompanied by a variety of cardiac pathologies, whereby the irregular and usually rapid ventricle rate of AF may cause inaccurate T1 estimation due to mis-triggering and inadequate magnetization recovery. We hypothesized that systolic T1 mapping with a heart-rate-dependent (HRD) pulse sequence scheme may overcome this issue. 30 patients with AF and 13 healthy volunteers were enrolled and underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) at 3 T. CMR was repeated for 3 patients after electric cardioversion and for 2 volunteers after lowering heart rate (HR). A Modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery (MOLLI) sequence was acquired before and 15 min after administration of 0.1 mmol/kg gadopentetate dimeglumine. For AF patients, both the fixed 5(3)3/4(1)3(1)2 and the HRD sampling scheme were performed at diastole and systole, respectively. The HRD pulse sequence sampling scheme was 5(n)3/4(n)3(n)2, where n was determined by the heart rate to ensure adequate magnetization recovery. Image quality of T1 maps was assessed. T1 times were measured in myocardium and blood. Extracellular volume fraction (ECV) was calculated. In volunteers with repeated T1 mapping, the myocardial native T1 and ECV generated from the 1st fixed sampling scheme were smaller than from the 1st HRD and 2nd fixed sampling scheme. In healthy volunteers, the overall native T1 times and ECV of the left ventricle (LV) in diastolic T1 maps were greater than in systolic T1 maps (P T1 times and ECV generated from the fixed sampling scheme were smaller than in the 1st and 2nd HRD sampling scheme (all P T1 maps with artifact were found in diastole than in systole (P T1 times and ECV of the left ventricle (LV) in diastolic T1 maps were greater than systolic T1 maps, either with fixed or HRD sampling scheme (all P T1 mapping with heart-rate-dependent pulse sequence scheme

  4. Magnetic Resonance RF pulse design by optimal control with physical constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rund, Armin; Aigner, Christoph Stefan; Kunisch, Karl; Stollberger, Rudolf

    2017-10-02

    Optimal control approaches have proved useful in designing RF pulses for large tip-angle applications. A typical challenge for optimal control design is the inclusion of constraints resulting from physiological or technical limitations, that assure the realizability of the optimized pulses. In this work we show how to treat such inequality constraints, in particular, amplitude constraints on the B1 field, the slice-selective gradient and its slew rate, as well as constraints on the slice profile accuracy. For the latter a pointwise profile error and additional phase constraints are prescribed. Here, a penalization method is introduced that corresponds to a higher-order tracking instead of the common quadratic tracking. The order is driven to infinity in the course of the optimization. We jointly optimize for the RF and slice-selective gradient waveform. The amplitude constraints on these control variables are treated efficiently by semismooth Newton or quasi-Newton methods. The method is flexible, adapting to many optimization goals. As an application we reduce the power of refocusing pulses, which is important for spin echo based applications with a short echo spacing. Here, the optimization method is tested in numerical experiments for reducing the pulse power of simultaneous multislice refocusing pulses. The results are validated by phantom and in-vivo experiments.

  5. Pulse dynamics of dual-wavelength dissipative soliton resonances and domain wall solitons in a Tm fiber laser with fiber-based Lyot filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Zhao, Kangjun; Xiao, Xiaosheng; Yang, Changxi

    2017-11-27

    We report on the first demonstration of dual-wavelength square-wave pulses in a thulium-doped fiber laser. Under appropriate cavity parameters, dual-wavelength dissipative soliton resonances (DSRs) and domain wall solitons (DWSs) are successively obtained. Meanwhile, dark pulses generation is achieved at the dual-wavelength DWSs region due to the overlap of the two domain wall pulses. The fiber-based Lyot filter, conducted by inserting PMF between an in-line PBS and a PD-ISO, facilitates the generation of dual-wavelength operation. The polarization-resolved investigation suggests that the cross coupling between two orthogonal polarization components in the high nonlinear fiber plays an important role in the square-wave pulses formation. The investigation may be helpful for further understanding the square-wave pulse formation and has potential in application filed of multi-wavelength pulsed fiber lasers.

  6. Quantum computers based on electron spins controlled by ultrafast off-resonant single optical pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Susan M; Fu, Kai-Mei C; Ladd, Thaddeus D; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2007-07-27

    We describe a fast quantum computer based on optically controlled electron spins in charged quantum dots that are coupled to microcavities. This scheme uses broadband optical pulses to rotate electron spins and provide the clock signal to the system. Nonlocal two-qubit gates are performed by phase shifts induced by electron spins on laser pulses propagating along a shared waveguide. Numerical simulations of this scheme demonstrate high-fidelity single-qubit and two-qubit gates with operation times comparable to the inverse Zeeman frequency.

  7. Protecting and accelerating adiabatic passage with time-delayed pulse sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Sampedro, Pablo; Sola, Ignacio R

    2016-01-01

    Using numerical simulations of two-photon electronic absorption with femtosecond pulses in Na$_2$ we show that: i) it is possible to avoid the characteristic saturation or dumped Rabi oscillations in the yield of absorption by time-delaying the laser pulses; ii) it is possible to accelerate the onset of adiabatic passage by using the vibrational coherence starting in a wave packet; and iii) it is possible to prepare the initial wave packet in order to achieve full state-selective transitions with broadband pulses. The findings can be used, for instance, to achieve ultrafast adiabatic passage by light-induced potentials and understand its intrinsic robustness.

  8. Dual-frequency tissue harmonic suppression using phase-coded pulse sequence: proof of concept using a phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Che-Chou; Wang, Hui-Ting

    2013-03-01

    The presence of tissue harmonic generation during acoustic propagation is one major limitation in nonlinear detection of microbubble contrast agents. However, conventional solutions for tissue harmonic suppression are not applicable in dual-frequency (DF) harmonic imaging. In DF harmonic imaging, the second harmonic signal at second harmonic (2f(0)) frequency and the inter-modulation harmonic signal at fundamental (f(0)) frequency are simultaneously generated for imaging and both need to be suppressed to improve contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR). In this study, a novel phase-coded pulse sequence is developed to accomplish DF tissue harmonic suppression. Phase-coded pulse sequence utilizes multiple firings with equidistant transmit phase for harmonic cancellation in the sum of respective echoes. For the f(0) transmit component, the transmit phase comes from the equidistant set of {-2π/3, 0, 2π/3} to suppress the second harmonic signal at 2f(0) frequency. Moreover, in order to provide the inter-modulation harmonic suppression at f(0) frequency, the 2f(0) transmit phase has to be particularly manipulated for the corresponding f(0) transmit phase. The proposed three-pulse sequence can remove not only the second-order harmonic signal but also other higher-order counterparts at both f(0) and 2f(0) frequencies. Measurements were performed at f(0) equal to 2.25 MHz and using hydrophone in water and contrast agents in tissue phantom. Experimental results indicate that the sequence reduces the tissue harmonic magnitude by about 20 dB along the entire axial depths and the corresponding CTR improves at both frequencies. In DF harmonic imaging, the proposed phase-coded sequence can effectively remove the tissue harmonic background at both f(0) and 2f(0) frequencies for improvement of contrast detection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Urinary 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Metabolomic Fingerprinting Reveals Biomarkers of Pulse Consumption Related to Energy-Metabolism Modulation in a Subcohort from the PREDIMED study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid-Gambin, Francisco; Llorach, Rafael; Vázquez-Fresno, Rosa; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Almanza-Aguilera, Enrique; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2017-04-07

    Little is known about the metabolome fingerprint of pulse consumption. The study of robust and accurate biomarkers for pulse dietary assessment has great value for nutritional epidemiology regarding health benefits and their mechanisms. To characterize the fingerprinting of dietary pulses (chickpeas, lentils, and beans), spot urine samples from a subcohort from the PREDIMED study were stratified using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Urine samples of nonpulse consumers (≤4 g/day of pulse intake) and habitual pulse consumers (≥25 g/day of pulse intake) were analyzed using a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics approach combined with multi- and univariate data analysis. Pulse consumption showed differences through 16 metabolites coming from (i) choline metabolism, (ii) protein-related compounds, and (iii) energy metabolism (including lower urinary glucose). Stepwise logistic regression analysis was applied to design a combined model of pulse exposure, which resulted in glutamine, dimethylamine, and 3-methylhistidine. This model was evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC > 90% in both training and validation sets). The application of NMR-based metabolomics to reported pulse exposure highlighted new candidates for biomarkers of pulse consumption and the impact on energy metabolism, generating new hypotheses on energy modulation. Further intervention studies will confirm these findings.

  10. A resonance light scattering quenching system for studying DNA sequence recognition of actinomycin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhanguang; Zhang, Guomin; Chen, Xi; Chen, Junhui; Qian, Sihua; Li, Qiang

    2012-02-07

    The DNA sequence recognition study of DNA-targeted anticancer drugs is a theoretical basis for improving the selectivity of anticancer drugs. With the high synergy effect of cocoamidopropyl hydroxy sulfobetaine (HSB), a resonance light scattering (RLS) quenching system for DNA sequence recognition studies of actinomycin D (ACTD) was developed in this contribution. By the strategy, DNA sequence selectivity as well as the recognition mechanisms of ACTD was systematically investigated. The results suggested that ACTD had the selectivity to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with an equilibrium constant (K(RLS)) of 12.4 mmol mg(-1). Also it had a preference for Guanine and Cytosine bases with a K(RLS) of 6.69 L mmol(-1). The selectivity mechanism between ACTD and DNA was also well discussed with the help of UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Compared with other methods, the RLS quenching system has the advantages of reliability and speediness, and it avoids complex modification processes and is a better bionic system for the above research. Results obtained from this work would supply a theoretical basis for improving anticancer activity and designing similar anticancer drugs.

  11. PET Imaging Stability Measurements During Simultaneous Pulsing of Aggressive MR Sequences on the SIGNA PET/MR System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deller, Timothy W; Khalighi, Mohammad Mehdi; Jansen, Floris P; Glover, Gary H

    2018-01-01

    The recent introduction of simultaneous whole-body PET/MR scanners has enabled new research taking advantage of the complementary information obtainable with PET and MRI. One such application is kinetic modeling, which requires high levels of PET quantitative stability. To accomplish the required PET stability levels, the PET subsystem must be sufficiently isolated from the effects of MR activity. Performance measurements have previously been published, demonstrating sufficient PET stability in the presence of MR pulsing for typical clinical use; however, PET stability during radiofrequency (RF)-intensive and gradient-intensive sequences has not previously been evaluated for a clinical whole-body scanner. In this work, PET stability of the GE SIGNA PET/MR was examined during simultaneous scanning of aggressive MR pulse sequences. Methods: PET performance tests were acquired with MR idle and during simultaneous MR pulsing. Recent system improvements mitigating RF interference and gain variation were used. A fast recovery fast spin echo MR sequence was selected for high RF power, and an echo planar imaging sequence was selected for its high heat-inducing gradients. Measurements were performed to determine PET stability under varying MR conditions using the following metrics: sensitivity, scatter fraction, contrast recovery, uniformity, count rate performance, and image quantitation. A final PET quantitative stability assessment for simultaneous PET scanning during functional MRI studies was performed with a spiral in-and-out gradient echo sequence. Results: Quantitation stability of a 68Ge flood phantom was demonstrated within 0.34%. Normalized sensitivity was stable during simultaneous scanning within 0.3%. Scatter fraction measured with a 68Ge line source in the scatter phantom was stable within the range of 40.4%-40.6%. Contrast recovery and uniformity were comparable for PET images acquired simultaneously with multiple MR conditions. Peak noise equivalent count

  12. Three-dimensional isotropic fast spin-echo MR lymphangiography of T1-weighted and intermediate-weighted pulse sequences in patients with lymphoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, J Y; Lee, S H; Shin, M J; Chung, H W; Lee, M H

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance (MR) lymphangiography acquired using three-dimensional (3D) isotropic T1-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) and 3D isotropic intermediate-weighted FSE sequences, as the new method of MR lymphangiography, and to compare the results of these two methods in patients with lymphoedema. Thirty-three extremities of 27 patients with primary or secondary lymphoedema and who had undergone radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy and MR lymphangiography with 3D isotropic T1-weighted FSE and 3D isotropic intermediate-weighted FSE were included in the study. The results of both imaging techniques were independently reviewed by two readers in consensus who rated the lymphatic drainage pattern, the quality of the depiction of lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes, and the level of lymph vessel enhancement. The assessment scores of each imaging sequence were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The results were expressed as means with standard deviations. More lymphatic vessels were visualised on T1-weighted FSE than on intermediate-weighted FSE (plymphatic vessels were detected on T1-weighted FSE, the per-extremity grade of the lymphatic drainage pattern was higher (p=0.046) and the visible levels of lymph-vessel enhancement were also significantly higher (p=0.004) on the T1-weighted FSE sequence, whereas the conspicuity of lymph nodes was superior on intermediate-weighted FSE (p=0.004). MR lymphangiography using the 3D FSE pulse sequence is a feasible and noticeable new technique of MR lymphangiography. Between the two applicable protocols used, T1-weighted FSE provided better information regarding lymphatic vessels and their drainage, whereas intermediate-weighted FSE has the advantage of depicting lymph nodes in lymphoedematous extremities. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. PulseNet International: Vision for the implementation of whole genome sequencing (WGS) for global food-borne disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, Celine; Van Walle, Ivo; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Campos, Josefina; Chinen, Isabel; Concepcion-Acevedo, Jeniffer; Gilpin, Brent; Smith, Anthony M; Man Kam, Kai; Perez, Enrique; Trees, Eija; Kubota, Kristy; Takkinen, Johanna; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Carleton, Heather

    2017-06-08

    PulseNet International is a global network dedicated to laboratory-based surveillance for food-borne diseases. The network comprises the national and regional laboratory networks of Africa, Asia Pacific, Canada, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East, and the United States. The PulseNet International vision is the standardised use of whole genome sequencing (WGS) to identify and subtype food-borne bacterial pathogens worldwide, replacing traditional methods to strengthen preparedness and response, reduce global social and economic disease burden, and save lives. To meet the needs of real-time surveillance, the PulseNet International network will standardise subtyping via WGS using whole genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST), which delivers sufficiently high resolution and epidemiological concordance, plus unambiguous nomenclature for the purposes of surveillance. Standardised protocols, validation studies, quality control programmes, database and nomenclature development, and training should support the implementation and decentralisation of WGS. Ideally, WGS data collected for surveillance purposes should be publicly available, in real time where possible, respecting data protection policies. WGS data are suitable for surveillance and outbreak purposes and for answering scientific questions pertaining to source attribution, antimicrobial resistance, transmission patterns, and virulence, which will further enable the protection and improvement of public health with respect to food-borne disease. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  14. Controlling the Dynamics of Quadrupolar Spin-1 Nuclei by Means of Average Hamiltonian Theory When Irradiated with Modified Composite Quadrupolar Echo Pulse Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mananga, Eugene Stephane; Hu, Bingwen

    2016-11-03

    The importance of the average Hamiltonian theory and its antecedent the Magnus expansion are discussed. The investigation of its convergence in different situations is very important. In this paper, we introduced a well-established approach to minimize the zeroth-order average Hamiltonian for modified composite pulse sequence in quadrupolar spectroscopy of spin-1. We designed two modified composite pulse sequences constructed by modifying the timing sequence in the original composite pulse sequences.17 We tested various configurations of times associated with the free evolution of the spin system in the modified composite pulses. We found that by decreasing the time delays between the pulses associated with the free evolution of spin system, the line shapes become increasingly better until we obtained the new modified composite pulses showing improvement of the signal compared to the original composite pulse sequences.17 This promising work is expected to play an important role not only for recording high resolution spectra of amino acids, pharmaceutical samples, and peptides but also for probing structural and dynamic information in biomolecules. The generality of the present theoretical scheme points to potential applications in solid-state NMR, to problems in chemical physics, quantum mechanics and theoretical developments, chemistry, and physical chemistry, and in interdisciplinary research areas whenever they include spin dynamics approach.

  15. Diagnostic implication of magnetic resonance imaging using STIR sequences in optic neuritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, Yasuo; Hashimoto, Masato; Ohyachi, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Yasushi; Ohguro, Hiroshi; Ohtsuka, Kenji; Nakagawa, Takashi (Sapporo Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1994-10-01

    We evaluated 23 patients with optic neuritis by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using STIR sequences. The series comprised 5 cases of multiple sclerosis and 18 of unknown etiology. Abnormal high-intensity area was observed in the optic nerve in at least one slice. The slices showing a high signal intensity averaged 3.4 in number. The abnormal finding was most frequent at 15 mm posterior to the eyeglobe in papillitis and retrobulbar optic neuritis. The incidence of abnormal finding was more frequent in papillitis than in retrobulbar neuritis. The high-intensity signal in the optic nerve was not correlated with the latency of major positivity of pattern-reversal VEPs and was rather associated with the clinical course and outcome of optic neuritis. (author).

  16. Highly Controllable Qubit-Bath Coupling Based on a Sequence of Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Philip J.; Salmilehto, Juha; Möttönen, Mikko

    2013-11-01

    Combating the detrimental effects of noise remains a major challenge in realizing a scalable quantum computer. To help to address this challenge, we introduce a model realizing a controllable qubit-bath coupling using a sequence of LC resonators. The model establishes a strong coupling to a low-temperature environment which enables us to lower the effective qubit temperature making ground state initialization more efficient. The operating principle is similar to that of a recently proposed coplanar-waveguide cavity (CPW) system, for which our work introduces a complementary and convenient experimental realization. The lumped-element model utilized here provides an easily accessible theoretical description. We present analytical solutions for some experimentally feasible parameter regimes and study the control mechanism. Finally, we introduce a mapping between our model and the recent CPW system.

  17. Feasibility of Rapid-Sequence {sup 31}P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Cardiac Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chida, K.; Otani, H.; Saito, H.; Nagasaka, T.; Kagaya, Y.; Kohzuki, M.; Zuguchi, M.; Shirato, K. [Tohoku Univ., School of Health Sciences, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Radiological Technology

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To determine the clinical feasibility of rapid-sequence phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 31}P -MRS) of the heart with cardiac patients using a 5T clinical MR system. Material and Methods: Twenty cardiac patients, i.e. dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)3 cases, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) 3 cases, hypertensive heart diseases (HHD) 3 cases, and aortic regurgitation (AR) case were examined using rapid cardiac {sup 31}P-MRS. Complete three-dimensional localization was performed using a two-dimensional phosphorus chemical-shift imaging sequence in combination with 30-mm axial slice-selective excitation. The rapid-sequence {sup 31}P-MRS procedure was phase encoded in arrays of 8x8 steps with an average of 4 acquisitions. The total examination time, including proton imaging and shimming, for the rapid cardiac {sup 31}P-MRS procedure, ranged from 0 to 5 min, depending on the heart rate. Student's t test was used to compare creatine phosphate (PCr)/adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ratios from the cardiac patients with those of the control subjects (n{approx_equal}13). Results: The myocardial PCr/ATP ratio obtained by rapid {sup 31}P-MRS was significantly lower (P <0.001) in DCM patients (1.82{+-}0.33, mean{+-}SD), and in patients with global myocardial dysfunction (combined data for 20 patients:.89{+-}0.32) than in normal volunteers (2.96{+-}0.59). These results are similar to previous studies. Conclusion: Rapid-sequence {sup 31}P-MRS may be a valid diagnostic tool for patients with cardiac disease.

  18. High-efficiency generation of pulsed Lyman-α radiation by resonant laser wave mixing in low pressure Kr-Ar mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Norihito; Oishi, Yu; Miyazaki, Koji; Okamura, Kotaro; Nakamura, Jumpei; Louchev, Oleg A; Iwasaki, Masahiko; Wada, Satoshi

    2016-04-04

    We report an experimental generation of ns pulsed 121.568 nm Lyman-α radiation by the resonant nonlinear four-wave mixing of 212.556 nm and 845.015 nm radiation pulses providing a high conversion efficiency 1.7x10-3 with the output pulse energy 3.6 μJ achieved using a low pressure Kr-Ar mixture. Theoretical analysis shows that this efficiency is achieved due to the advantage of using (i) the high input laser intensities in combination with (ii) the low gas pressure allowing us to avoid the onset of full-scale discharge in the laser focus. In particular, under our experimental conditions the main mechanism of photoionization caused by the resonant 2-photon 212.556 nm radiation excitation of Kr atoms followed by the 1-photon ionization leads to ≈17% loss of Kr atoms and efficiency loss only by the end of the pulse. The energy of free electrons, generated by 212.556 nm radiation via (2 + 1)-photon ionization and accelerated mainly by 845.015 nm radiation, remains during the pulse below the level sufficient for the onset of full-scale discharge by the electron avalanche. Our analysis also suggests that ≈30-fold increase of 845.015 nm pulse energy can allow one to scale up the L-α radiation pulse energy towards the level of ≈100 μJ.

  19. NOESY-WaterControl: a new NOESY sequence for the observation of under-water protein resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Allan M.; Zheng, Gang, E-mail: g.zheng@westernsydney.edu.au; Price, William S. [Western Sydney University, Nanoscale Organisation and Dynamics Group, School of Science and Health (Australia)

    2017-03-15

    Highly selective and efficient water signal suppression is indispensable in biomolecular 2D nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments. However, the application of conventional water suppression schemes can cause a significant or complete loss of the biomolecular resonances at and around the water chemical shift (ω{sub 2}). In this study, a new sequence, NOESY-WaterControl, was developed to address this issue. The new sequence was tested on lysozyme and bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), demonstrating its efficiency in both water suppression and, more excitingly, preserving water-proximate biomolecular resonances in ω{sub 2}. The 2D NOESY maps obtained using the new sequence thus provide more information than the maps obtained with conventional water suppression, thereby lessening the number of experiments needed to complete resonance assignments of biomolecules. The 2D NOESY-WaterControl map of BPTI showed strong bound water and exchangeable proton signals in ω{sub 1} but these signals were absent in ω{sub 2}, indicating the possibility of using the new sequence to discriminate bound water and exchangeable proton resonances from non-labile proton resonances with similar chemical shifts to water.

  20. Comparison of different cardiovascular magnetic resonance sequences for native myocardial T1 mapping at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Tiago; Hafyane, Tarik; Stikov, Nikola; Akdeniz, Cansu; Greiser, Andreas; Friedrich, Matthias G

    2016-10-04

    T1 mapping based on cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a novel approach using the magnetic relaxation T1 time as a quantitative marker for myocardial tissue composition. Various T1 mapping sequences are being used, with different strengths and weaknesses. Data comparing different sequences head to head however are sparse. We compared three T1 mapping sequences, ShMOLLI, MOLLI and SASHA in phantoms and in a mid-ventricular slice of 40 healthy individuals (mean age 59 ± 7 years, 45 % male) with low (68 %) or moderate cardiovascular risk. We calculated global and segmental T1 in vivo through exponential curve fitting and subsequent parametric mapping. We also analyzed image quality and inter-observer reproducibility. There was no association of T1 with cardiovascular risk groups. T1 however differed significantly depending on the sequence, with SASHA providing consistently higher mean values than ShMOLLI and MOLLI (1487 ± 36 ms vs. 1174 ± 37 ms and 1199 ± 28 ms, respectively; p maps. On multivariate regression analysis, a longer T1 measured by MOLLI was correlated with lower ejection fraction and female gender. Inter-observer variability as assessed by intra-class correlation coefficients was excellent for all sequences (ShMOLLI: 0.995; MOLLI: 0.991; SASHA: 0.961; all p T1 mapping results between inversion-recovery vs. saturation-recovery sequences in vivo, which were less evident in phantom images, despite a small interobserver variability. Thus, physiological factors, most likely related to B1 inhomogeneities, and tissue-specific properties, like magnetization transfer, that impact T1 values in vivo, render phantom validation insufficient, and have to be further investigated for a better understanding of the clinical utility of different T1 mapping approaches. "Canadian Alliance For Healthy Hearts and Minds" - ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02220582 ; registered August 18, 2014.

  1. A tunable general purpose Q-band resonator for CW and pulse EPR/ENDOR experiments with large sample access and optical excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijerse, Edward; Lendzian, Friedhelm; Isaacson, Roger; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    We describe a frequency tunable Q-band cavity (34 GHz) designed for CW and pulse Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) as well as Electron Nuclear Double Resonance (ENDOR) and Electron Electron Double Resonance (ELDOR) experiments. The TE 011 cylindrical resonator is machined either from brass or from graphite (which is subsequently gold plated), to improve the penetration of the 100 kHz field modulation signal. The (self-supporting) ENDOR coil consists of four 0.8 mm silver posts at 2.67 mm distance from the cavity center axis, penetrating through the plunger heads. It is very robust and immune to mechanical vibrations. The coil is electrically shielded to enable CW ENDOR experiments with high RF power (500 W). The top plunger of the cavity is movable and allows a frequency tuning of ±2 GHz. In our setup the standard operation frequency is 34.0 GHz. The microwaves are coupled into the resonator through an iris in the cylinder wall and matching is accomplished by a sliding short in the coupling waveguide. Optical excitation of the sample is enabled through slits in the cavity wall (transmission ˜60%). The resonator accepts 3 mm o.d. sample tubes. This leads to a favorable sensitivity especially for pulse EPR experiments of low concentration biological samples. The probehead dimensions are compatible with that of Bruker flexline Q-band resonators and it fits perfectly into an Oxford CF935 Helium flow cryostat (4-300 K). It is demonstrated that, due to the relatively large active sample volume (20-30 μl), the described resonator has superior concentration sensitivity as compared to commercial pulse Q-band resonators. The quality factor ( Q L) of the resonator can be varied between 2600 (critical coupling) and 1300 (over-coupling). The shortest achieved π/2-pulse durations are 20 ns using a 3 W microwave amplifier. ENDOR (RF) π-pulses of 20 μs ( 1H @ 51 MHz) were obtained for a 300 W amplifier and 7 μs using a 2500 W amplifier. Selected applications of the

  2. Kissing G domains of MnmE monitored by X-ray crystallography and pulse electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Meyer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available MnmE, which is involved in the modification of the wobble position of certain tRNAs, belongs to the expanding class of G proteins activated by nucleotide-dependent dimerization (GADs. Previous models suggested the protein to be a multidomain protein whose G domains contact each other in a nucleotide dependent manner. Here we employ a combined approach of X-ray crystallography and pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy to show that large domain movements are coupled to the G protein cycle of MnmE. The X-ray structures show MnmE to be a constitutive homodimer where the highly mobile G domains face each other in various orientations but are not in close contact as suggested by the GDP-AlF(x structure of the isolated domains. Distance measurements by pulse double electron-electron resonance (DEER spectroscopy show that the G domains adopt an open conformation in the nucleotide free/GDP-bound and an open/closed two-state equilibrium in the GTP-bound state, with maximal distance variations of 18 A. With GDP and AlF(x, which mimic the transition state of the phosphoryl transfer reaction, only the closed conformation is observed. Dimerization of the active sites with GDP-AlF(x requires the presence of specific monovalent cations, thus reflecting the requirements for the GTPase reaction of MnmE. Our results directly demonstrate the nature of the conformational changes MnmE was previously suggested to undergo during its GTPase cycle. They show the nucleotide-dependent dynamic movements of the G domains around two swivel positions relative to the rest of the protein, and they are of crucial importance for understanding the mechanistic principles of this GAD.

  3. Comparison of echotracking and magnetic resonance assessment of abdominal aorta distensibility and relationships with pulse wave velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannattasio, Cristina; Cesana, Francesca; Maestroni, Silvia; Salvioni, Alessandra; Maloberti, Alessandro; Nava, Stefano; Cairo, Matteo; Madotto, Fabiana; Zerboni, Filippo; Sironi, Sandro; Grassi, Guido; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    Arterial distensibility can be measured either by echotracking or by nuclear magnetic resonance (MRI). Little information, however, is available on the comparison between the two methods and on the relationships between the results obtained with the two approaches and the arterial stiffness gold standard measurement, i.e., pulse wave velocity (PWV). In 28 normotensive subjects (age 33.0 ± 10.4 years, mean ± SD) we measured aortic diameter 1 cm above iliac bifurcation, aortic pulse pressure by tonometry and calculated arterial distensibility via the Reneman formulae for both methods. Aortic diameter and aortic distensibility were not superimposable and higher values were systematically detected with the MRI approach than with the ultrasound one. However, PWV showed a significant correlation with aortic distensibility values obtained by both methods (r = 0.50 and r = 0.49, p < 0.05). These data provide evidence that MRI-measured distensibility value is higher than that obtained via echotracking. The significant correlation with PWV, however, suggests that both methods can be regarded as valuable approaches. Considering the greater economic cost and the lower availability in daily clinical and research practice of MRI, echotracking ultrasonography can be regarded as a reliable and feasible method to assess aortic distensibility. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. High-efficiency resonant rf spin rotator with broad phase space acceptance for pulsed polarized cold neutron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-N. Seo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available High precision fundamental neutron physics experiments have been proposed for the intense pulsed spallation neutron beams at JSNS, LANSCE, and SNS to test the standard model and search for new physics. Certain systematic effects in some of these experiments have to be controlled at the few ppb level. The NPDGamma experiment, a search for the small parity-violating γ-ray asymmetry A_{γ} in polarized cold neutron capture on parahydrogen, is one example. For the NPDGamma experiment we developed a radio-frequency resonant spin rotator to reverse the neutron polarization in a 9.5  cm×9.5  cm pulsed cold neutron beam with high efficiency over a broad cold neutron energy range. The effect of the spin reversal by the rotator on the neutron beam phase space is compared qualitatively to rf neutron spin flippers based on adiabatic fast passage. We discuss the design of the spin rotator and describe two types of transmission-based neutron spin-flip efficiency measurements where the neutron beam was both polarized and analyzed by optically polarized ^{3}He neutron spin filters. The efficiency of the spin rotator was measured at LANSCE to be 98.8±0.5% for neutron energies from 3 to 20 meV over the full phase space of the beam. Systematic effects that the rf spin rotator introduces to the NPDGamma experiment are considered.

  5. High-efficiency Resonant rf Spin Rotator with Broad Phase Space Acceptance for Pulsed Polarized Cold Neutron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, P. -N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Barron-Palos, L. [Arizona State University; Bowman, J. D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chupp, T. E. [University of Michigan; Crawford, C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dabaghyan, M. [University of New Hampshire; Dawkins, M. [Indiana University; Freedman, S. J. [University of California; Gentile, T. R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Gericke, M. T. [University of Manitoba, Canada; Gillis, R. C. [University of Manitoba, Canada; Greene, G. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Hersman, F. W. [University of New Hampshire; Jones, G. L. [Hamilton College, New York; Kandes, M. [University of Michigan; Lamoreaux, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lauss, B. [University of California, Berkeley; Leuschner, M. B. [Indiana University; Mahurin, R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mason, M. [University of New Hampshire; Mei, J. [Indiana University; Mitchell, G. S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Nann, H. [Indiana University; Page, S. A. [University of Manitoba, Canada; Penttila, S. I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Ramsay, W. D. [University of Manitoba & TRIUMF, Canada; Salas Bacci, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Santra, S. [Indiana University; Sharma, M. [University of Michigan; Smith, T. B. [University of Dayton, Ohio; Snow, W. [Indiana University; Wilburn, W. S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Zhu, H. [University of New Hampshire

    2008-01-01

    High precision fundamental neutron physics experiments have been proposed for the intense pulsed spallation neutron beams at JSNS, LANSCE, and SNS to test the standard model and search for new physics. Certain systematic effects in some of these experiments have to be controlled at the few ppb level. The NPD Gamma experiment, a search for the small parity-violating {gamma}-ray asymmetry A{sub Y} in polarized cold neutron capture on parahydrogen, is one example. For the NPD Gamma experiment we developed a radio-frequency resonant spin rotator to reverse the neutron polarization in a 9.5 cm x 9.5 cm pulsed cold neutron beam with high efficiency over a broad cold neutron energy range. The effect of the spin reversal by the rotator on the neutron beam phase space is compared qualitatively to rf neutron spin flippers based on adiabatic fast passage. We discuss the design of the spin rotator and describe two types of transmission-based neutron spin-flip efficiency measurements where the neutron beam was both polarized and analyzed by optically polarized {sup 3}He neutron spin filters. The efficiency of the spin rotator was measured at LANSCE to be 98.8 {+-} 0.5% for neutron energies from 3 to 20 meV over the full phase space of the beam. Systematic effects that the rf spin rotator introduces to the NPD Gamma experiment are considered.

  6. Numerical Evaluation of an Ejector-Enhanced Resonant Pulse Combustor with a Poppet Inlet Valve and a Converging Exhaust Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yungster, Shaye; Paxson, Daniel E.; Perkins, Hugh D.

    2016-01-01

    A computational investigation of a pressure-gain combustor system for gas turbine applications is presented. The system consists of a valved pulse combustor and an ejector, housed within a shroud. The study focuses on two enhancements to previous models, related to the valve and ejector components. First, a new poppet inlet valve system is investigated, replacing the previously used reed valve configuration. Secondly, a new computational approach to approximating the effects of choked turbine inlet guide vanes present immediately downstream of the Ejector-Enhanced Resonant Pulse Combustor (EERPC) is investigated. Instead of specifying a back pressure at the EERPC exit boundary (as was done in previous studies) the new model adds a converging-diverging (CD) nozzle at the exit of the EERPC. The throat area of the CD nozzle can be adjusted to obtain the desired back pressure level and total mass flow rate. The results presented indicate that the new poppet valve configuration performs nearly as well as the original reed valve system, and that the addition of the CD nozzle is an effective method to approximate the exit boundary effects of a turbine present downstream of the EERPC. Furthermore, it is shown that the more acoustically reflective boundary imposed by a nozzle as compared to a constant pressure surface does not significantly affect operation or performance.

  7. Slip pulse and resonance of the Kathmandu basin during the 2015 Gorkha earthquake, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Galetzka, John; Melgar, Diego; Genrich, Joachim F.; Geng, Jianghui; Owen, Susan; Lindsey, Eric O.; Xu, Xiaohua; Bock, Yehuda; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Adhikari, Lok Bijaya; Upreti, Bishal Nath; Pratt-Sitaula, Beth; Bhattarai, Tara Nidhi; Sitaula, Bhairab P.; Moore, Angelyn

    2015-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from AAAS via http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aac6383 Detailed geodetic imaging of earthquake rupture enhances our understanding of earthquake physics and induced ground shaking. The April 25, 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake is the first example of a large continental megathrust rupture beneath a high-rate (5 Hz) GPS network. We use GPS and InSAR data to model the earthquake rupture as a slip pulse of ~20 km widt...

  8. Coherent acoustic phonon oscillation accompanied with backward acoustic pulse below exciton resonance in a ZnO epifilm on oxide-buffered Si(1 1 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ja-Hon; Shen, Yu-Kai; Liu, Wei-Rein; Lu, Chia-Hui; Chen, Yao-Hui; Chang, Chun-peng; Lee, Wei-Chin; Hong, Minghwei; Kwo, Jueinai-Raynien; Hsu, Chia-Hung; Hsieh, Wen-Feng

    2016-08-01

    Unlike coherent acoustic phonons (CAPs) generated from heat induced thermal stress by the coated Au film, we demonstrated the oscillation from c-ZnO epitaxial film on oxide buffered Si through a degenerate pump-probe technique. As the excited photon energy was set below the exciton resonance, the electronic stress that resulted from defect resonance was used to induce acoustic wave. The damped oscillation revealed a superposition of a high frequency and long decay CAP signal with a backward propagating acoustic pulse which was generated by the absorption of the penetrated pump beam at the Si surface and selected by the ZnO layer as the acoustic resonator.

  9. Design of spectral-spatial phase prewinding pulses and their use in small-tip fast recovery steady-state imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sydney N; Nielsen, Jon-Fredrik; Fessler, Jeffrey A; Noll, Douglas C

    2017-07-03

    Spectrally selective "prewinding" radiofrequency pulses can counteract B0 inhomogeneity in steady-state sequences, but can only prephase a limited range of off-resonance. We propose spectral-spatial small-tip angle prewinding pulses that increase the off-resonance bandwidth that can be successfully prephased by incorporating spatially tailored excitation patterns. We present a feasibility study to compare spectral and spectral-spatial prewinding pulses. These pulses add a prephasing term to the target magnetization pattern that aims to recover an assigned off-resonance bandwidth at the echo time. For spectral-spatial pulses, the design bandwidth is centered at the off-resonance frequency for each spatial location in a field map. We use these pulses in the small-tip fast recovery steady-state sequence, which is similar to balanced steady-state free precession. We investigate improvement of spectral-spatial pulses over spectral pulses using simulations and small-tip fast recovery scans of a gel phantom and human brain. In simulation, spectral-spatial pulses yielded lower normalized root mean squared excitation error than spectral pulses. For both experiments, the spectral-spatial pulse images are also qualitatively better (more uniform, less signal loss) than the spectral pulse images. Spectral-spatial prewinding pulses can prephase over a larger range of off-resonance than their purely spectral counterparts. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. Pulsed Excitation Dynamics of an Optomechanical Crystal Resonator near Its Quantum Ground State of Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seán M. Meenehan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Using pulsed optical excitation and read-out along with single-phonon-counting techniques, we measure the transient backaction, heating, and damping dynamics of a nanoscale silicon optomechanical crystal cavity mounted in a dilution refrigerator at a base temperature of T_{f}≈11  mK. In addition to observing a slow (approximately 740-ns turn-on time for the optical-absorption-induced hot-phonon bath, we measure for the 5.6-GHz “breathing” acoustic mode of the cavity an initial phonon occupancy as low as ⟨n⟩=0.021±0.007 (mode temperature T_{min}≈70  mK and an intrinsic mechanical decay rate of γ_{0}=328±14  Hz (Q_{m}≈1.7×10^{7}. These measurements demonstrate the feasibility of using short pulsed measurements for a variety of quantum optomechanical applications despite the presence of steady-state optical heating.

  11. Intestinal lesions in pediatric Crohn disease: comparative detectability among pulse sequences at MR enterography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Beomseok; Kim, Myung-Joon; Lee, Mi-Jung [Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Hong [Severance Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Kyung Hwa [Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Variable sequences can be used in MR enterography, and no consensus exists for the best protocol in children with Crohn disease. To compare the lesion detectability of various MR enterography sequences and to correlate the findings of these sequences with the Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index (PCDAI) in children with Crohn disease. Children with clinically or pathologically confirmed Crohn disease underwent MR enterography, including a single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) sequence, motility imaging (coronal 2-D balanced fast field echo), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and dynamic contrast enhancement imaging (including arterial, portal and delayed phases). The lesion detectability of each sequence was graded 0-2 for each involved bowel segment. The lesion detectability and PCDAI result on different sequences were compared using the weighted least squares method and Student's t-test, respectively. Fifteen children (11 boys, 4 girls, mean age 13.7 ± 1.4 years) with a total of 41 lesions were included in this study. All lesions detected in more than two sequences were visible on the single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) sequence. The relative lesion detection rate was 78.1% on motility imaging, 90.2% on DWI, and 92.7% on arterial, 95.1% on portal and 95.1% on delayed phase imaging. Compared to the SSFSE sequence, motility imaging (P < 0.001) and DWI (P = 0.039) demonstrated lower detectability. The mean PCDAI result in the detected lesions was statistically higher only on dynamic enhancement imaging (P < 0.001). All MR enterography sequences were found to have relatively high lesion detectability in children with Crohn disease, while motility imaging showed the lowest lesion detectability. Lesions detected on dynamic enhancement imaging showed a higher PCDAI result, which suggests that this sequence is specific for active inflammation. (orig.)

  12. Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation Of Inorganic Nanoparticles And Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Ryan; Lantz, Kevin R.; Dhawan, Anuj; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.

    2010-10-01

    In this research, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been used to deposit different classes of inorganic nanoparticles, including bare, un-encapsulated ZnO and Au nanoparticles, as well as ligand-encapsulated CdSe colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). RIR-MAPLE has been used for thin-film deposition of different organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites using some of these inorganic nanoparticles, including CdSe CQD-poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene] (MEH-CN-PPV) nanocomposites and Au nanoparticle-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites. The unique contribution of this research is that a technique is demonstrated for the deposition of organic-based thin-films requiring solvents with bond energies that do not have to be resonant with the laser energy. By creating an emulsion of solvent and ice in the target, RIR-MAPLE using a 2.94 μm laser can deposit most material systems because the hydroxyl bonds in the ice component of the emulsion matrix are strongly resonant with the 2.94 μm laser. In this way, the types of materials that can be deposited using RIR-MAPLE has been significantly expanded. Furthermore, materials with different solvent bond energies can be co-deposited without concern for material degradation and without the need to specifically tune the laser energy to each material solvent bond energy, thereby facilitating the realization of organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite thin-films. In addition to the structural characterization of the inorganic nanoparticle and hybrid nanocomposite thin-films deposited using this RIR-MAPLE technique, optical characterization is presented to demonstrate the potential of such films for optoelectronic device applications.

  13. Method and Apparatus for Thermal Spraying of Metal Coatings Using Pulsejet Resonant Pulsed Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Daniel E. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An apparatus and method for thermal spraying a metal coating on a substrate is accomplished with a modified pulsejet and optionally an ejector to assist in preventing oxidation. Metal such as Aluminum or Magnesium may be used. A pulsejet is first initiated by applying fuel, air, and a spark. Metal is inserted continuously in a high volume of metal into a combustion chamber of the pulsejet. The combustion is thereafter controlled resonantly at high frequency and the metal is heated to a molten state. The metal is then transported from the combustion chamber into a tailpipe of said pulsejet and is expelled therefrom at high velocity and deposited on a target substrate.

  14. Intestinal lesions in pediatric Crohn disease: comparative detectability among pulse sequences at MR enterography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Beomseok; Kim, Myung-Joon; Koh, Hong; Han, Kyung Hwa; Lee, Mi-Jung

    2014-07-01

    Variable sequences can be used in MR enterography, and no consensus exists for the best protocol in children with Crohn disease. To compare the lesion detectability of various MR enterography sequences and to correlate the findings of these sequences with the Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index (PCDAI) in children with Crohn disease. Children with clinically or pathologically confirmed Crohn disease underwent MR enterography, including a single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) sequence, motility imaging (coronal 2-D balanced fast field echo), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and dynamic contrast enhancement imaging (including arterial, portal and delayed phases). The lesion detectability of each sequence was graded 0-2 for each involved bowel segment. The lesion detectability and PCDAI result on different sequences were compared using the weighted least squares method and Student's t-test, respectively. Fifteen children (11 boys, 4 girls, mean age 13.7 ± 1.4 years) with a total of 41 lesions were included in this study. All lesions detected in more than two sequences were visible on the single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) sequence. The relative lesion detection rate was 78.1% on motility imaging, 90.2% on DWI, and 92.7% on arterial, 95.1% on portal and 95.1% on delayed phase imaging. Compared to the SSFSE sequence, motility imaging (P Crohn disease, while motility imaging showed the lowest lesion detectability. Lesions detected on dynamic enhancement imaging showed a higher PCDAI result, which suggests that this sequence is specific for active inflammation.

  15. Mode-locking peculiarities in an all-fiber erbium-doped ring ultrashort pulse laser with a highly-nonlinear resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoretskiy, Dmitriy A.; Sazonkin, Stanislav G.; Kudelin, Igor S.; Orekhov, Ilya O.; Pnev, Alexey B.; Karasik, Valeriy E.; Denisov, Lev K.

    2017-12-01

    Today ultrashort pulse (USP) fiber lasers are in great demand in a frequency metrology field, THz pulse spectroscopy, optical communication, quantum optics application, etc. Therefore mode-locked (ML) fiber lasers have been extensively investigated over the last decade due the number of scientific, medical and industrial applications. It should be noted, that USP fiber lasers can be treated as an ideal platform to expand future applications due to the complex ML nonlinear dynamics in a laser resonator. Up to now a series of novel ML regimes have been investigated e.g. self-similar pulses, noise-like pulses, multi-bound solitons and soliton rain generation. Recently, we have used a highly nonlinear germanosilicate fiber (with germanium oxides concentration in the core 50 mol. %) inside the resonator for more reliable and robust launching of passive mode-locking based on the nonlinear polarization evolution effect in fibers. In this work we have measured promising and stable ML regimes such as stretched pulses, soliton rain and multi-bound solitons formed in a highly-nonlinear ring laser and obtained by intracavity group velocity dispersion (GVD) variation in slightly negative region. As a result, we have obtained the low noise ultrashort pulse generation with duration 59 dB) and relative intensity noise <-101 dBc / Hz.

  16. HV discharge acceleration by sequences of UV laser filaments with visible and near-infrared pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Elise; Rastegari, Ali; Feng, Chengyong; Mongin, Denis; Kamer, Brian; Kasparian, Jérôme; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Arissian, Ladan; Diels, Jean-Claude

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the triggering and guiding of DC high-voltage discharges over a distance of 37 cm by filaments produced by ultraviolet (266 nm) laser pulses of 200 ps duration. The latter reduce the breakdown electric field by half and allow up to 80% discharge probability in an electric field of 920 kV m–1. This high efficiency is not further increased by adding nanosecond pulses in the Joule range at 532 and at 1064 nm. However, the latter statistically increases the guiding length, thereby accelerating the discharge by a factor of 2. This effect is due both to photodetachment and to the heating of the plasma channel, that increases the efficiency of avalanche ionization and reduces electron attachment and recombination.

  17. Exploiting ecology in drug pulse sequences in favour of population reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Marianne; Graf, Isabella R; Ngampruetikorn, Vudtiwat; Stephens, Greg J; Frey, Erwin

    2017-09-01

    A deterministic population dynamics model involving birth and death for a two-species system, comprising a wild-type and more resistant species competing via logistic growth, is subjected to two distinct stress environments designed to mimic those that would typically be induced by temporal variation in the concentration of a drug (antibiotic or chemotherapeutic) as it permeates through the population and is progressively degraded. Different treatment regimes, involving single or periodical doses, are evaluated in terms of the minimal population size (a measure of the extinction probability), and the population composition (a measure of the selection pressure for resistance or tolerance during the treatment). We show that there exist timescales over which the low-stress regime is as effective as the high-stress regime, due to the competition between the two species. For multiple periodic treatments, competition can ensure that the minimal population size is attained during the first pulse when the high-stress regime is short, which implies that a single short pulse can be more effective than a more protracted regime. Our results suggest that when the duration of the high-stress environment is restricted, a treatment with one or multiple shorter pulses can produce better outcomes than a single long treatment. If ecological competition is to be exploited for treatments, it is crucial to determine these timescales, and estimate for the minimal population threshold that suffices for extinction. These parameters can be quantified by experiment.

  18. Optimization of parameter values for complex pulse sequences by simulated annealing: application to 3D MP-RAGE imaging of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, F H; Mugler, J P; Brookeman, J R

    1994-02-01

    A number of pulse sequence techniques, including magnetization-prepared gradient echo (MP-GRE), segmented GRE, and hybrid RARE, employ a relatively large number of variable pulse sequence parameters and acquire the image data during a transient signal evolution. These sequences have recently been proposed and/or used for clinical applications in the brain, spine, liver, and coronary arteries. Thus, the need for a method of deriving optimal pulse sequence parameter values for this class of sequences now exists. Due to the complexity of these sequences, conventional optimization approaches, such as applying differential calculus to signal difference equations, are inadequate. We have developed a general framework for adapting the simulated annealing algorithm to pulse sequence parameter value optimization, and applied this framework to the specific case of optimizing the white matter-gray matter signal difference for a T1-weighted variable flip angle 3D MP-RAGE sequence. Using our algorithm, the values of 35 sequence parameters, including the magnetization-preparation RF pulse flip angle and delay time, 32 flip angles in the variable flip angle gradient-echo acquisition sequence, and the magnetization recovery time, were derived. Optimized 3D MP-RAGE achieved up to a 130% increase in white matter-gray matter signal difference compared with optimized 3D RF-spoiled FLASH with the same total acquisition time. The simulated annealing approach was effective at deriving optimal parameter values for a specific 3D MP-RAGE imaging objective, and may be useful for other imaging objectives and sequences in this general class.

  19. Sequence specific 1H, 13C and 15N resonance assignments of hahellin in 8 M urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Atul K; Chary, K V R

    2010-10-01

    The sequence specific (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignments of hahellin in 8 M urea-denatured state have been accomplished by NMR spectroscopy. Secondary chemical shift analysis reveals the native-like propensities for β-rich conformation in the denatured state.

  20. [Possibilities in the differential diagnosis of brain neoplasms using the long and short time sequences of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gajewicz, W.; Goraj, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Currently to perform proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) with single voxel spectroscopy (SVS) technique long and/or short echo time sequences are used in order to provide complementary information. PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of STEAM (time echo, TE, 20

  1. Volumetric MRI thermometry using a three-dimensional stack-of-stars echo-planar imaging pulse sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan, Sumeeth V; Grissom, William A

    2017-08-07

    To measure temperature over a large brain volume with fine spatiotemporal resolution. A three-dimensional stack-of-stars echo-planar imaging sequence combining echo-planar imaging and radial sampling with golden angle spacing was implemented at 3T for proton resonance frequency-shift temperature imaging. The sequence acquires a 188x188x43 image matrix with 1.5x1.5x2.75 mm3 spatial resolution. Temperature maps were reconstructed using sensitivity encoding (SENSE) image reconstruction followed by the image domain hybrid method, and using the k-space hybrid method. In vivo temperature maps were acquired without heating to measure temperature precision in the brain, and in a phantom during high-intensity focused ultrasound sonication. In vivo temperature standard deviation was less than 1°C at dynamic scan times down to 0.75 s. For a given frame rate, scanning at a minimum repetition time (TR) with minimum acceleration yielded the lowest standard deviation. With frame rates around 3 s, the scan was tolerant to a small number of receive coils, and temperature standard deviation was 48% higher than a standard two-dimensional Fourier transform temperature mapping scan, but provided whole-brain coverage. Phantom temperature maps with no visible aliasing were produced for dynamic scan times as short as 0.38 s. k-Space hybrid reconstructions were more tolerant to acceleration. Three-dimensional stack-of-stars echo-planar imaging temperature mapping provides volumetric brain coverage and fine spatiotemporal resolution. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  2. Uniform Field Re-entrant Cylindrical TE[Formula: see text] Cavity for Pulse Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at Q-band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidabras, Jason W; Reijerse, Edward J; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Uniform field (UF) resonators create a region-of-interest, where the sample volume receives a homogeneous microwave magnetic field ([Formula: see text]) excitation. However, as the region-of-interest is increased, resonator efficiency is reduced. In this work, a new class of uniform field resonators is introduced: the uniform field re-entrant cylindrical TE[Formula: see text] cavity. Here, a UF cylindrical TE[Formula: see text] cavity is designed with re-entrant fins to increase the overall resonator efficiency to match the resonator efficiency maximum of a typical cylindrical TE[Formula: see text] cavity. The new UF re-entrant cylindrical TE[Formula: see text] cavity is designed for Q-band (34 GHz) and is calculated to have the same electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal intensity as a TE[Formula: see text] cavity, a 60% increase in average resonator efficiency [Formula: see text] over the sample, and has a [Formula: see text] profile that is 79.8% uniform over the entire sample volume (98% uniform over the region-of-interest). A new H-type T-junction waveguide coupler with inductive obstacles is introduced that increases the dynamic range of a movable short coupler while reducing the frequency shift by 43% during over-coupling. The resonator assembly is fabricated and tested both on the bench and with EPR experiments. This resonator provides a template to improve EPR spectroscopy for pulse experiments at high frequencies.

  3. Study of low-energy resonant metastability exchange in argon by a pulsed merging beam technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grucker, J [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers (UMR-CNRS 7538), Universite Paris 13, Av. J.B. Clement, 93430-Villetaneuse (France); Baudon, J [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers (UMR-CNRS 7538), Universite Paris 13, Av. J.B. Clement, 93430-Villetaneuse (France); Perales, F [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers (UMR-CNRS 7538), Universite Paris 13, Av. J.B. Clement, 93430-Villetaneuse (France); Dutier, G [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers (UMR-CNRS 7538), Universite Paris 13, Av. J.B. Clement, 93430-Villetaneuse (France); Vassilev, G [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers (UMR-CNRS 7538), Universite Paris 13, Av. J.B. Clement, 93430-Villetaneuse (France); Bocvarski, V [Institute of Physics, Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080, Zemun (Serbia); Ducloy, M [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers (UMR-CNRS 7538), Universite Paris 13, Av. J.B. Clement, 93430-Villetaneuse (France)

    2008-01-28

    The resonant metastability exchange process in low-energy collinear collisions between metastable argon atoms (Ar* {sup 3}P{sub 2}) polarized in spin (M +2) and ground-state Ar atoms from a nozzle beam is studied by means of a time-of-flight technique. A wide range of metastable atom velocities in the laboratory frame (275 m s{sup -1} down to 50 m s{sup -1}) is obtained by use of a Zeeman slower, the counter-propagating laser beam of which is locked in frequency onto the {sup 3}P{sub 2}-{sup 3}D{sub 3} closed transition ({lambda} = 811.5 nm). The accessible centre-of-mass energy range (8-27 meV) has not been explored so far, to our knowledge. Calculations based upon existing interatomic potentials of 2{sub g} and 2{sub u} symmetries are in reasonable agreement with experiment. (fast track communication)

  4. Compensation of Slice Profile Mismatch in Combined Spin- And Gradient-Echo EPI Pulse Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Schmiedeskamp, Heiko; Straka, Matus; Bammer, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Combined acquisition of gradient-echo and spin-echo signals in MRI time series reveals additional information for perfusion-weighted imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging due to differences in the sensitivity of gradient-echo and spin-echo measurements to the properties of the underlying vascular architecture. The acquisition of multiple echo trains within one time frame facilitates the simultaneous estimation of the transversal relaxation parameters R2 and R2*. However, the simul...

  5. Comparison of an Oscillometric Method with Cardiac Magnetic Resonance for the Analysis of Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistritzer, Hans-Josef; Reinstadler, Sebastian J.; Klug, Gert; Kremser, Christian; Seidner, Benjamin; Esterhammer, Regina; Schocke, Michael F.; Franz, Wolfgang-Michael; Metzler, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is the proposed gold-standard for the assessment of aortic elastic properties. The aim of this study was to compare aortic PWV determined by a recently developed oscillometric device with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Methods PWV was assessed in 40 volunteers with two different methods. The oscillometric method (PWVOSC) is based on a transfer function from the brachial pressure waves determined by oscillometric blood pressure measurements with a common cuff (Mobil-O-Graph, I.E.M. Stolberg, Germany). CMR was used to determine aortic PWVCMR with the use of the transit time method based on phase-contrast imaging at the level of the ascending and abdominal aorta on a clinical 1.5 Tesla scanner (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Results The median age of the study population was 34 years (IQR: 24–55 years, 11 females). A very strong correlation was found between PWVOSC and PWVCMR (r = 0.859, p < 0.001). Mean PWVOSC was 6.7 ± 1.8 m/s and mean PWVCMR was 6.1 ± 1.8 m/s (p < 0.001). Analysis of agreement between the two measurements using Bland-Altman method showed a bias of 0.57 m/s (upper and lower limit of agreement: 2.49 m/s and -1.34 m/s). The corresponding coefficient of variation between both measurements was 15%. Conclusion Aortic pulse wave velocity assessed by transformation of the brachial pressure waveform showed an acceptable agreement with the CMR-derived transit time method. PMID:25612307

  6. Comparison of an oscillometric method with cardiac magnetic resonance for the analysis of aortic pulse wave velocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Josef Feistritzer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Pulse wave velocity (PWV is the proposed gold-standard for the assessment of aortic elastic properties. The aim of this study was to compare aortic PWV determined by a recently developed oscillometric device with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR. METHODS: PWV was assessed in 40 volunteers with two different methods. The oscillometric method (PWVOSC is based on a transfer function from the brachial pressure waves determined by oscillometric blood pressure measurements with a common cuff (Mobil-O-Graph, I.E.M. Stolberg, Germany. CMR was used to determine aortic PWVCMR with the use of the transit time method based on phase-contrast imaging at the level of the ascending and abdominal aorta on a clinical 1.5 Tesla scanner (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany. RESULTS: The median age of the study population was 34 years (IQR: 24-55 years, 11 females. A very strong correlation was found between PWVOSC and PWVCMR (r = 0.859, p < 0.001. Mean PWVOSC was 6.7 ± 1.8 m/s and mean PWVCMR was 6.1 ± 1.8 m/s (p < 0.001. Analysis of agreement between the two measurements using Bland-Altman method showed a bias of 0.57 m/s (upper and lower limit of agreement: 2.49 m/s and -1.34 m/s. The corresponding coefficient of variation between both measurements was 15%. CONCLUSION: Aortic pulse wave velocity assessed by transformation of the brachial pressure waveform showed an acceptable agreement with the CMR-derived transit time method.

  7. The diagnostic value of magnetic resonance urography using a balanced turbo field echo sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifci, Egemen; Coban, Goekcen [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Konya (Turkey); Cicek, Tufan; Goenuelalan, Umut [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Urology, Konya (Turkey)

    2016-12-15

    The aim of the study was to compare the inter-observer variability and the accuracy of magnetic resonance urography (MRU) using a thin sectional balanced-turbo field echo (B-TFE) sequence for detecting ureteral calculi and to determine the effect of additional factors (size, density and location of the calculus) on the sensitivity and specificity of the MRU. MRU and CT images were evaluated independently by two radiologists according to presence, density and localization of calculi. The degrees of inter-rater agreement for categorical items were evaluated by the Kappa coefficient. According to the 1st and 2nd observers, the sensitivity of MRU was 65.9 %, 71.8 % and the specificity of MRU was 95.9 %, 100 %, respectively. Inter-observer agreement was 84.6 % for stone detection. The larger size had a better effect on detectability (p < 0.05). Also, the higher density had a better impact on detectability (p < 0.05). Our study has shown that B-TFE MRU was useful to detect ureteral calculi. However, B-TFE MRU has low sensitivity and high specificity in comparison with CT images. MRU is a reasonable alternative imaging technique for follow-up periods of selective groups like patients with large urinary stones, children or pregnant patients when ionizing radiation is undesirable. (orig.)

  8. Usefulness of the SPACE pulse sequence at 1.5T MR cholangiography: comparison of image quality and image acquisition time with conventional 3D-TSE sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaura, Takeshi; Kidoh, Masafumi; Maruyama, Natsuki; Kawahara, Tetsuya; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Sakai, Yoshinari; Harada, Kazunori; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2013-11-01

    To prospectively evaluate the image quality and image acquisition time at 3D magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) using sampling perfection with application optimized contrasts (SPACE) and conventional turbo-spin-echo (TSE) sequences. We acquired navigator-triggered SPACE and conventional 3D-TSE MRCP images using the same parameters where possible for 30 patients and compared the image acquisition time, contrast, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the common bile duct (CBD). Two radiologists performed qualitative analyses using a 4-point scale. Image acquisition time was 31% shorter with the SPACE than the conventional TSE sequence (248.9 ± 73.0 sec vs. 360.5 ± 99.9 sec, P TSE (39.4 ± 14.7 vs. 33.5 ± 14.2, P TSE sequence; there was a significant difference in motion artifacts and the depiction of the CBD and the left hepatic and main pancreatic duct (P TSE. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Integration of digital signal processing technologies with pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursley, Randall H.; Salem, Ghadi; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Subramanian, Sankaran; Koscielniak, Janusz; Krishna, Murali C.; Pohida, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    The integration of modern data acquisition and digital signal processing (DSP) technologies with Fourier transform electron paramagnetic resonance (FT-EPR) imaging at radiofrequencies (RF) is described. The FT-EPR system operates at a Larmor frequency (Lf) of 300 MHz to facilitate in vivo studies. This relatively low frequency Lf, in conjunction with our ~10 MHz signal bandwidth, enables the use of direct free induction decay time-locked subsampling (TLSS). This particular technique provides advantages by eliminating the traditional analog intermediate frequency downconversion stage along with the corresponding noise sources. TLSS also results in manageable sample rates that facilitate the design of DSP-based data acquisition and image processing platforms. More specifically, we utilize a high-speed field programmable gate array (FPGA) and a DSP processor to perform advanced real-time signal and image processing. The migration to a DSP-based configuration offers the benefits of improved EPR system performance, as well as increased adaptability to various EPR system configurations (i.e., software configurable systems instead of hardware reconfigurations). The required modifications to the FT-EPR system design are described, with focus on the addition of DSP technologies including the application-specific hardware, software, and firmware developed for the FPGA and DSP processor. The first results of using real-time DSP technologies in conjunction with direct detection bandpass sampling to implement EPR imaging at RF frequencies are presented. PMID:16243552

  10. Integration of digital signal processing technologies with pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursley, Randall H; Salem, Ghadi; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Subramanian, Sankaran; Koscielniak, Janusz; Krishna, Murali C; Pohida, Thomas J

    2006-02-01

    The integration of modern data acquisition and digital signal processing (DSP) technologies with Fourier transform electron paramagnetic resonance (FT-EPR) imaging at radiofrequencies (RF) is described. The FT-EPR system operates at a Larmor frequency (L(f)) of 300MHz to facilitate in vivo studies. This relatively low frequency L(f), in conjunction with our approximately 10MHz signal bandwidth, enables the use of direct free induction decay time-locked subsampling (TLSS). This particular technique provides advantages by eliminating the traditional analog intermediate frequency downconversion stage along with the corresponding noise sources. TLSS also results in manageable sample rates that facilitate the design of DSP-based data acquisition and image processing platforms. More specifically, we utilize a high-speed field programmable gate array (FPGA) and a DSP processor to perform advanced real-time signal and image processing. The migration to a DSP-based configuration offers the benefits of improved EPR system performance, as well as increased adaptability to various EPR system configurations (i.e., software configurable systems instead of hardware reconfigurations). The required modifications to the FT-EPR system design are described, with focus on the addition of DSP technologies including the application-specific hardware, software, and firmware developed for the FPGA and DSP processor. The first results of using real-time DSP technologies in conjunction with direct detection bandpass sampling to implement EPR imaging at RF frequencies are presented.

  11. Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2014-01-01

    A chapter in a book about terminology within the field of medievalism: the chapter discusses the resonance of medieval music and ritual in modern (classical) music culture and liturgical practice.......A chapter in a book about terminology within the field of medievalism: the chapter discusses the resonance of medieval music and ritual in modern (classical) music culture and liturgical practice....

  12. Zero sequence blocking transformers for multi-pulse rectifier in aerospace applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wenli; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zhang, Xiaobin

    2014-01-01

    The power electronics technology plays an even more important role in the aerospace applications of More Electric Aircrafts (MEA). AutoTransformer Rectifier Units (ATRU) have been widely adopted in aircrafts due to its simplicity and reliability. In this paper, Zero Sequence Blocking Transformers...

  13. MR arthrography of the shoulder: Optimizing pulse sequence protocols for the evaluation of cartilage and labrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guermazi, Ali, E-mail: Ali.Guermazi@aspetar.com [ASPETAR – Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Sport City Street, Near Khalifa Stadium, P.O. Box 29222 (Qatar); Department of Radiology, Boston University School of Medicine, 820 Harrison Avenue, FGH Building, 3rd Floor, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Jomaah, Nabil [ASPETAR – Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Sport City Street, Near Khalifa Stadium, P.O. Box 29222 (Qatar); Hayashi, Daichi [ASPETAR – Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Sport City Street, Near Khalifa Stadium, P.O. Box 29222 (Qatar); Department of Radiology, Boston University School of Medicine, 820 Harrison Avenue, FGH Building, 3rd Floor, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Department of Radiology, Bridgeport Hospital, Yale University School of Medicine, 267 Grant Street, Bridgeport, CT 06610 (United States); Jarraya, Mohamed [ASPETAR – Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Sport City Street, Near Khalifa Stadium, P.O. Box 29222 (Qatar); Department of Radiology, Boston University School of Medicine, 820 Harrison Avenue, FGH Building, 3rd Floor, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Silva, Jose Roberto [Department of Radiology, Boston University School of Medicine, 820 Harrison Avenue, FGH Building, 3rd Floor, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Niu, Jingbo [Clinical Epidemiology Research and Training Unit, Boston University School of Medicine, 650 Albany Street, Suite 200, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Almusa, Emad; Landreau, Philippe [ASPETAR – Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Sport City Street, Near Khalifa Stadium, P.O. Box 29222 (Qatar); and others

    2014-08-15

    Objectives: To compare axial T1weighted fat-saturated (T1w fs) and T1w non-fs sequences, and coronal T1w-fs and T2w-fs sequences, for evaluation of cartilage and labrum using CT arthrography (CTA) as the reference. Methods: Patients had MR arthrography (MRA) and CTA of the shoulder on the same day. Cartilage was assessed for superficial and full thickness focal and diffuse damage. Labral lesions were graded for Bankart variants and SLAP lesions. CTA images were read for the same features. The diagnostic performance of MRA including area under the curve (AUC) was evaluated against CTA. Results: When comparing axial sequences, the diagnostic performance for cartilage lesion detection on T1w non-fs was 61.9% (sensitivity) 93.6% (specificity) and 89.5% (accuracy) with AUC 0.782, while that for T1w fs was 61.9%, 94.0%, 89.8% and 0.783. For labral assessment, it was 89.1%, 93.0%, 91.4% and 0.919 for T1w non-fs, and 89.9%, 94.0%, 92.6% and 0.922 for T1w fs. Comparing coronal sequences, diagnostic performance for cartilage was 42.5%, 97.5%, 89.8% and 0.702 for T1w fs, and 38.4%, 98.7%, 90.2%, and 0.686 for T2w fs. For the labrum it was 85.1%, 87.5%, 86.2%, and 0.868 for T1w fs, and 75.7%, 97.5%, 80.8% and 0.816 for T2w fs. Conclusions: Axial T1w fs and T1w non-fs sequences are comparable in their ability to diagnose cartilage and labral lesions. Coronal T1w fs sequence offers slightly higher sensitivity but slightly lower specificity than T2w fs sequence for diagnosis of cartilage and labral lesions.

  14. Radiation oxygen biology with pulse electron paramagnetic resonance imaging in animal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redler, Gage; Elas, Martyna; Epel, Boris; Barth, Eugene D; Halpern, Howard J

    2013-01-01

    The reduced oxygen in tumors (hypoxia) generates radiation resistance and limits tumor control probability (TCP) at radiation doses without significant normal tissue complication. Modern radiation therapy delivery with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) enables complex, high-dose gradient patterns, which avoid sensitive human tissues and organs. EPR oxygen images may allow selection of more resistant parts of a tumor to which to deliver more radiation dose to enhance TCP. EPR O2 images are obtained using injected narrow-line, low relaxation rate trityl spin probes that enable pulse radiofrequency EPR O2 images of tumors in the legs of mice, rats, and rabbits, the latter exceeding 4 cm in size. Low relaxation rates of trityls have enabled novel T1-, rather than T2-, based oximetry, which provides near absolute pO2 imaging. Tomographic image formation and filtered back projection reconstruction are used to generate these images with fixed, linear stepped gradients. Images obtained both with T2 and T1 oximetric images have demonstrated the complex in vivo mechanism explaining the unexpected efficacy of TNFerade, a radiation-inducible adenoviral construct to locally produce TNF-induced vascular as well as radiation damage [1, 2]. The unexpected efficacy of large-dose radiation fractions is seen to be due to an interaction between host microvasculature and tumor cells producing a prompt (15 min) postradiation hypoxia, paralyzing tumor cell repair, and sensitizing tumors. Finally, cure of tumors treated to a single 50 % control dose shows a significant dependence on EPR O2 image hypoxic fractions, best shown with the fraction of voxels less than 10 Torr (HF10). We show that these O2 images provide a quantitative basis for measuring tumor and normal tissue response to abnormally low O2 levels. Measurements of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production in a specific syngeneic mouse fibrosarcoma, FSa versus fraction of tissue voxels with pO2 less than 10

  15. Vortex states near absolute zero in a weak-pinning amorphous Mo x Ge1-x film probed by pulsed mode-locking resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohara, N.; Ochi, A.; Murakami, E.; Ienaga, K.; Kaneko, S.; Kokubo, N.; Okuma, S.

    2017-07-01

    We have developed measurements of the mode-locking (ML) resonance with pulsed currents, which generates much less heat than the conventional one with continuous currents. Here, we present the experimental details of the pulsed ML measurement. Using this technique, we have succeeded in determining the dynamic melting field of a driven vortex lattice for a weak-pinning thick amorphous Mo x Ge1-x film down to 0.05 K. We construct an ideal vortex phase diagram in the absence of pinning near zero temperature as a function of magnetic field.

  16. Influence of Actively Controlled Heat Release Timing on the Performance and Operational Characteristics of a Rotary Valve, Acoustically Resonant Pulse Combustor

    KAUST Repository

    Lisanti, Joel

    2017-01-05

    The influence of heat release timing on the performance and operational characteristics of a rotary valve, acoustically resonant pulse combustor is investigated both experimentally and numerically. Simulation results are obtained by solving the quasi-1D Navier-Stokes equations with forced volumetric heat addition. Experimental efforts modify heat release timing through modulated fuel injection and modification of the fluid dynamic mixing. Results indicate that the heat release timing has a profound effect on the operation and efficiency of the pulse combustor and that this timing can be difficult to control experimentally.

  17. Effects of iodinated contrast on various magnetic resonance imaging sequences and field strength: Implications for characterization of hemorrhagic transformation in acute stroke therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Humberto; Lemen, Lisa; Samaratunga, Ranasinghage; Nguyen, Peter; Tomsick, Thomas

    2016-06-28

    To characterize the effects of iodinated contrast material (ICM) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) comparing different sequences and magnetic fields, with emphasis to similarities/differences with well-known signal characteristics of hemorrhage in the brain. Aliquots of iopamidol and iodixanol mixed with normal saline were scanned at 1.5T and 3T. Signal intensity (SI) was measured using similar spin-echo (SE)-T1, SE-T2, gradient-echo (GRE) and fluid-attenuation-inversion-recovery (FLAIR) sequences at both magnets. Contrast to noise ratio (CNR) (SI contrast-SI saline/SD noise) for each aliquot were calculated and Kruskall-wallis test and graphic analysis was used to compare different pulse sequences and ICMs. Both ICM showed increased SI on SE-T1 and decreased SI on SE-T2, GRE and FLAIR at both 1.5T and 3T, as the concentration was increased. By CNR measurements, SE-T2 had the greatest conspicuity at 3T with undiluted iopamidol (92.6 ± 0.3, P < 0.00) followed by iodixanol (77.5 ± 0.9, P < 0.00) as compared with other sequences (CNR range: 15-40). While SE-T2 had greatest conspicuity at 1.5T with iopamidol (49.3 ± 1, P < 0.01), SE-T1 showed similar or slightly better conspicuity (20.8 ± 4) than SE-T2 with iodixanol (23 ± 1.7). In all cases, hypo-intensity on GRE was less conspicuous than on SE-T2. Iodixanol and iopamidol shorten T1 and T2 relaxation times at both 1.5T and 3T. Hypo-intensity due to shortened T2 relaxation time is significantly more conspicuous than signal changes on T1-WI, FLAIR or GRE. Variations in signal conspicuity according to pulse sequence and to type of ICM are exaggerated at 3T. We postulate T2 hypointensity with less GRE conspicuity differentiates ICM from hemorrhage; given the well-known GRE hypointensity of hemorrhage. Described signal changes may be relevant in the setting of recent intra-arterial or intravenous ICM administration in translational research and/or human stroke therapy.

  18. Measurement of bubble size distribution in a gas-liquid foam using pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Paul; Sederman, Andrew J; Mantle, Mick D; Li, Xueliang; Gladden, Lynn F

    2010-12-01

    Pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance, previously used for measuring droplet size distributions in emulsions, has been used to measure bubble size distributions in a non-overflowing pneumatic gas-liquid foam that has been created by sparging propane into an aqueous solution of 1.5g/l (5.20mM) SDS. The bubble size distributions measured were reproducible and approximated a Weibull distribution. However, the bubble size distributions did not materially change with position at which they were measured within the froth. An analysis of foam coarsening due to Ostwald ripening in a non-overflowing foam indicates that, for the experimental conditions employed, one would not expect this to be a significant effect. It is therefore apparent that the eventual collapse of the foam is due to bubble bursting (or surface coalescence) rather than Ostwald ripening. This surface coalescence occurs because of evaporation from the free surface of the foam. An analytical solution for the liquid fraction profile for a certain class of non-overflowing pneumatic foam is given, and a mean bubble size that is appropriate for drainage calculations is suggested. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of an oscillometric method with cardiac magnetic resonance for the analysis of aortic pulse wave velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistritzer, Hans-Josef; Reinstadler, Sebastian J; Klug, Gert; Kremser, Christian; Seidner, Benjamin; Esterhammer, Regina; Schocke, Michael F; Franz, Wolfgang-Michael; Metzler, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is the proposed gold-standard for the assessment of aortic elastic properties. The aim of this study was to compare aortic PWV determined by a recently developed oscillometric device with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). PWV was assessed in 40 volunteers with two different methods. The oscillometric method (PWVOSC) is based on a transfer function from the brachial pressure waves determined by oscillometric blood pressure measurements with a common cuff (Mobil-O-Graph, I.E.M. Stolberg, Germany). CMR was used to determine aortic PWVCMR with the use of the transit time method based on phase-contrast imaging at the level of the ascending and abdominal aorta on a clinical 1.5 Tesla scanner (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The median age of the study population was 34 years (IQR: 24-55 years, 11 females). A very strong correlation was found between PWVOSC and PWVCMR (r = 0.859, p wave velocity assessed by transformation of the brachial pressure waveform showed an acceptable agreement with the CMR-derived transit time method.

  20. Resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    an impetus or drive to that account: change, innovation, rupture, or discontinuity. Resonances: Historical Essays on Continuity and Change explores the historiographical question of the modes of interrelation between these motifs in historical narratives. The essays in the collection attempt to realize...... theoretical consciousness through historical narrative ‘in practice’, by discussing selected historical topics from Western cultural history, within the disciplines of history, literature, visual arts, musicology, archaeology, philosophy, and theology. The title Resonances indicates the overall perspective...... of the book: how connotations of past meanings may resonate through time, in new contexts, assuming new meanings without surrendering the old....

  1. Intradiurnal fluctuations of off-resonance saturation effects in healthy human achilles tendons assessed with a 3D ultrashort echo time MRI sequence at 3 tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, U.; Syha, R.; Kessler, D.E.; Bongers, M.; Seith, F.; Nikolaou, K.; Springer, F. [University Hospital Tuebingen (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Partovi, S.; Robbin, M. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Schick, F. [University Hospital Tuebingen (Germany). Section on Experimental Radiology

    2015-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether gravitational interstitial fluid accumulation in healthy subjects has an impact on off-resonance saturation ratios (OSR) or the volume of the Achilles tendon after a prolonged time of reduced levels of physical activity. 7 healthy volunteers were repeatedly investigated on 3 consecutive days on a 3 T whole body MR scanner using an ultrashort echo time (UTE) imaging sequence with a Gaussian off-resonance saturation pulse at a frequency offset of 2000 Hz to calculate OSR values. For accurate volumetric quantification of the Achilles tendon, a newly developed contour detection snake algorithm was applied on high-resolution isotropic T2-weighted SPACE sequence datasets. Single-measure intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to estimate test-retest reliability. For OSR and tendon volume measurements on three consecutive days, excellent reproducibility could be achieved with ICC values above 0.96 and 0.97, respectively. Comparing the results of all three days, a statistically significant mean individual percentage decrease (-4.1 ± 1.5 %; p=0.001) of calculated tendon OSR values was found for the evening measurements. No statistically significant difference between tendon volumes in the morning and the evening could be detected (p=0.589). The results of this in-vivo study demonstrate a significant influence of gravitational interstitial fluid accumulation after reduced physical activity on OSR values in the Achilles tendon, but not on tendon volume. Taken together with the demonstrated excellent reproducibility, these findings are important for future studies investigating temporal changes of the Achilles tendon microstructure.

  2. Wideband arrhythmia-Insensitive-rapid (AIR) pulse sequence for cardiac T1 mapping without image artifacts induced by an implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, KyungPyo; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Wall, T Scott; Drakos, Stavros G; Kim, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    To develop and evaluate a wideband arrhythmia-insensitive-rapid (AIR) pulse sequence for cardiac T1 mapping without image artifacts induced by implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). We developed a wideband AIR pulse sequence by incorporating a saturation pulse with wide frequency bandwidth (8.9 kHz) to achieve uniform T1 weighting in the heart with ICD. We tested the performance of original and "wideband" AIR cardiac T1 mapping pulse sequences in phantom and human experiments at 1.5 Tesla. In five phantoms representing native myocardium and blood and postcontrast blood/tissue T1 values, compared with the control T1 values measured with an inversion-recovery pulse sequence without ICD, T1 values measured with original AIR with ICD were considerably lower (absolute percent error > 29%), whereas T1 values measured with wideband AIR with ICD were similar (absolute percent error T1 values measured with original AIR without ICD, T1 measured with original AIR with ICD was significantly lower (absolute percent error > 10.1%), whereas T1 measured with wideband AIR with ICD was similar (absolute percent error T1 mapping without significant image artifacts induced by ICD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Quantification of Aortic Valve Regurgitation by Pulsed Doppler Examination of the Left Subclavian Artery Velocity Contour: A Validation Study with Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spampinato, Ricardo A; Jahnke, Cosima; Paetsch, Ingo; Hilbert, Sebastian; Busch, Franziska; Schloma, Valerie; Dmitrieva, Yaroslava; Bonamigo Thome, Fernanda; Löbe, Susanne; Strotdrees, Elfriede; Hindricks, Gerhard; Mohr, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Borger, Michael A

    2018-01-01

    Reflux of the aortic regurgitation (AR) causes an increased diastolic reverse flow in the aorta and its branching vessels. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of Doppler measurements in the left subclavian artery (LSA) for quantification of AR in a cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) validation study. Systolic and diastolic flow profiles of the LSA (subclavicular approach) were evaluated prospectively by use of pulsed wave Doppler in 59 patients (55.5 ± 15 years; 44 men), 47 with a wide spectrum of AR and 12 as control group. Using CMR phase-contrast sequences (performed 1 cm above the aortic valve), the AR was divided into three groups: mild, regurgitant fraction (RF)  40% (n = 20). The LSA Doppler-derived RF was calculated as the ratio between diastolic and systolic velocity-time integrals (VTI). Quality LSA Doppler signal could be obtained in all cases. Patients with CMR severe AR had higher values of LSA Doppler-derived RF (51% ± 9% vs 36% ± 11% vs 16% ± 8%; P Doppler showed a good correlation with CMR, with a sensitivity of 95%, specificity of 89%, and diagnostic accuracy for severe AR of 91.5%. Finally, Bland-Altman plots showed agreement in the group with moderate to severe AR (mean bias = -2.2% ± 8%, 95% CI, -17.7 to 13.3; P = .145) but differed in mild AR. Measurements of the RF for quantification of AR using LSA Doppler are comparable to those of CMR, highlighting the potential role of LSA Doppler as an adjunctive technique to assess the severity of AR. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of Salmonella Paratyphi A isolates from 2000 to 2008, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hui; Zhou, Hai-jian; Cui, Zhi-gang; DU, Peng-cheng; Kan, Biao

    2010-09-01

    To analyze molecular and evolution characteristics of Salmonella Paratyphi A isolates from 2000 to 2008, China. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method with SpeI restriction enzyme, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method based on housekeeping genes (aroC, thrA, hisD, purE, sucA, dnaN, hemD, adk, and purA), the genomic variations of 118 Salmonella Paratyphi A isolates from 10 regions during 2000 to 2008 were analyzed. Using PFGE method, 118 Salmonella Paratyphi A isolates were clustered into 32 PFGE patterns, and 5 patterns were predominant (5 isolates or above). However, only 2 MLST types were identified for all isolates with MLST method. Among all Salmonella Paratyphi A isolates, the sequences of housekeeping genes were highly conservative and showed a high degree of cloning. For Chinese epidemic Salmonella Paratyphi A isolates during 2000 - 2008, MLST method showed low discrimination power and the MLST method should not be applied to outbreak and epidemiological surveillance of Salmonella Paratyphi A. Currently, nationwide paratyphoid fever epidemics is caused by highly clonal isolates in China. As the time changes, these isolates also accumulate sporadic mutations.

  5. Dynamical squeezing enhancement in the off-resonant Dicke model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, D; Chavez, A; Chumakov, S M; Klimov, A B [Departamento de FIsica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, 44420, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2004-01-01

    We show that the maximum atomic squeezing that can be achieved in the vacuum off-resonant Dicke model (governed by the effective Hamiltonian {approx} S{sub z}{sup 2}) can be essentially enhanced by applying a sequence of {pi}/2 pulses at certain time moments. The major effect is obtained after the first pulse.

  6. A Study on Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Temporomandibular Joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, HYung Sick; Kim, Jae Duck [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-08-15

    Examinations of the temporomandibular joints were performed on a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance (MR) system. An MR surface receiver coil 3 inch in diameter was placed on plastic frame, the patient's head being placed in the frame so that the coil was pressed against the temporal region. In taking advantage of the magnetic resonance imaging that has been studied briskly till now, author obtained the images of parasagittal and paracoronal planes about the temporomandibular joint by using MPGR (Multi-Planar Gradient Recalled), GRASS (Gradient Recalled Acquisition in the Steady State), and CSMEMP (Contiguous Slice Multiple Echo, Multi-Planar), that differ from the Spin Echo pulse sequence which the previous author used. Five subjects with no symptoms of temporomandibular joint pain and dysfunction were studied. The plane images obtained by these methods were compared with those by Spin Echo pulse sequence. The results were as follows: 1. The optimal repetition times (TR) and echo times (TE) for T.M.J. image were; a. 400 msec and 18 msec in PMGR pulse sequence. b. 40 msec and 12 msec in GRASS pulse sequence. c. 700 msec and 30 msec in CSMEMP pulse sequence. d. 500 msec and 20 msec in Spin Echo pulse sequence. 2. When the MPGR pulse sequence was using, T2-weighted image was obtained in very short time. 3. On the image of the paracoronal plane by GRASS pulse sequence, meniscus showed the moderate signal intensity, and the meniscus and its anteromedial, posterolateral attachments were observed definitely with gray color. 4. The signal intensity of Spin Echo pulse sequence was equal to of CSMEMP pulse sequence, but the image by CSMEMP pulse sequence showed relatively lower level in its resolution.

  7. Improved aortic pulse wave velocity assessment from multislice two-directional in-plane velocity-encoded magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenberg, Jos J M; de Roos, Albert; Grotenhuis, Heynric B; Steendijk, Paul; Hendriksen, Dennis; van den Boogaard, Pieter J; van der Geest, Rob J; Bax, Jeroen J; Jukema, J Wouter; Reiber, Johan H C

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) assessment by in-plane velocity-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 14 patients selected for cardiac catheterization on suspicion of coronary artery disease and 15 healthy volunteers, PWV was assessed with multislice two-directional in-plane velocity-encoded MRI (PWV(i.p.)) and compared with conventionally assessed PWV from multisite one-directional through-plane velocity-encoded MRI (PWV(t.p.)). In patients, PWV was also obtained from intraarterially acquired pressure-time curves (PWV(pressure)), which is considered the gold standard reference method. In volunteers, PWV(i.p.) and PWV(t.p.) were obtained in duplicate in the same examination to test reproducibility. In patients, PWV(i.p.) showed stronger correlation and similar variation with PWV(pressure) than PWV(t.p.) (Pearson correlation r = 0.75 vs. r = 0.58, and coefficient of variation [COV] = 10% vs. COV = 12%, respectively). In volunteers, repeated PWV(i.p.) assessment showed stronger correlation and less variation than repeated PWV(t.p.) (proximal aorta: r = 0.97 and COV = 10% vs. r = 0.69 and COV = 17%; distal aorta: r = 0.94 and COV = 12% vs. r = 0.90 and COV = 16%; total aorta: r = 0.97 and COV = 7% vs. r = 0.90 and COV = 13%). PWV(i.p.) is an improvement over conventional PWV(t.p.) by showing higher agreement as compared to the gold standard (PWV(pressure)) and higher reproducibility for repeated MRI assessment. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance study of domain docking in neuronal nitric oxide synthase: the calmodulin and output state perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astashkin, Andrei V; Chen, Li; Zhou, Xixi; Li, Huiying; Poulos, Thomas L; Liu, Ke Jian; Guillemette, J Guy; Feng, Changjian

    2014-08-28

    The binding of calmodulin (CaM) to neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) enables formation of the output state of nNOS for nitric oxide production. Essential to NOS function is the geometry and dynamics of CaM docking to the NOS oxygenase domain, but little is known about these details. In the present work, the domain docking in a CaM-bound oxygenase/FMN (oxyFMN) construct of nNOS was investigated using the relaxation-induced dipolar modulation enhancement (RIDME) technique, which is a pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance technique sensitive to the magnetic dipole interaction between the electron spins. A cysteine was introduced at position 110 of CaM, after which a nitroxide spin label was attached at the position. The RIDME study of the magnetic dipole interaction between the spin label and the ferric heme centers in the oxygenase domain of nNOS revealed that, with increasing [Ca(2+)], the concentration of nNOS·CaM complexes increases and reaches a maximum at [Ca(2+)]/[CaM] ≥ 4. The RIDME kinetics of CaM-bound nNOS represented monotonous decays without well-defined oscillations. The analysis of these kinetics based on the structural models for the open and docked states has shown that only about 15 ± 3% of the CaM-bound nNOS is in the docked state at any given time, while the remaining 85 ± 3% of the protein is in the open conformations characterized by a wide distribution of distances between the bound CaM and the oxygenase domain. The results of this investigation are consistent with a model that the Ca(2+)-CaM interaction causes CaM docking with the oxygenase domain. The low population of the docked state indicates that the CaM-controlled docking between the FMN and heme domains is highly dynamic.

  9. Accelerating sequences in the presence of metal by exploiting the spatial distribution of off-resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew R; Artz, Nathan S; Koch, Kevin M; Samsonov, Alexey; Reeder, Scott B

    2014-12-01

    To demonstrate feasibility of exploiting the spatial distribution of off-resonance surrounding metallic implants for accelerating multispectral imaging techniques. Multispectral imaging (MSI) techniques perform time-consuming independent three-dimensional acquisitions with varying radio frequency offsets to address the extreme off-resonance from metallic implants. Each off-resonance bin provides a unique spatial sensitivity that is analogous to the sensitivity of a receiver coil and, therefore, provides a unique opportunity for acceleration. Fully sampled MSI was performed to demonstrate retrospective acceleration. A uniform sampling pattern across off-resonance bins was compared with several adaptive sampling strategies using a total hip replacement phantom. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to compare noise propagation of two of these strategies. With a total knee replacement phantom, positive and negative off-resonance bins were strategically sampled with respect to the B0 field to minimize aliasing. Reconstructions were performed with a parallel imaging framework to demonstrate retrospective acceleration. An adaptive sampling scheme dramatically improved reconstruction quality, which was supported by the noise propagation analysis. Independent acceleration of negative and positive off-resonance bins demonstrated reduced overlapping of aliased signal to improve the reconstruction. This work presents the feasibility of acceleration in the presence of metal by exploiting the spatial sensitivities of off-resonance bins. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. RESONANCE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a mani- festation of an intrinsic property of the nucleus, i.e. nuclear spin angular momen- tum. Spin angular momentum gives rise to magnetic moments. Thus, nuclei that pos- sess net magnetic moments behave like very small bar magnets. NMR spectroscopy in- volves the study of the ...

  11. Functional multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging of the kidneys using blood oxygen level dependent and diffusion-weighted sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannarini, Gianluca; Kessler, Thomas M; Roth, Beat; Vermathen, Peter; Thoeny, Harriet C

    2014-08-01

    Little data are available on noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging based assessment of renal function during upper urinary tract obstruction. We determined whether functional multiparametric kidney magnetic resonance imaging could monitor the treatment response in cases of acute unilateral upper urinary tract obstruction. Between January 2008 and January 2010, 18 patients with acute unilateral upper urinary tract obstruction due to calculi were prospectively enrolled to undergo kidney magnetic resonance imaging with conventional, blood oxygen level dependent and diffusion-weighted sequences upon emergency hospital admission and after release of obstruction. We assessed functional imaging parameters of obstructed and contralateral unobstructed kidneys derived from blood oxygen level dependent (apparent spin relaxation rate) and diffusion-weighted (total apparent diffusion coefficient, pure diffusion coefficient and perfusion fraction) sequences during acute upper urinary tract obstruction and after its release. During acute obstruction the apparent spin relaxation rate and perfusion fraction were lower in the cortex (p=0.020 and 0.031) and medulla (p=0.012 and 0.190, respectively) of obstructed kidneys compared to contralateral unobstructed kidneys. After obstruction release the apparent spin relaxation rate and perfusion fraction increased in the cortex (p=0.016 and 0.004) and medulla (p=0.071 and 0.044, respectively) of formerly obstructed kidneys to values similar to those in contralateral kidneys. Total apparent diffusion coefficient and pure diffusion coefficient values did not significantly differ between obstructed and contralateral unobstructed kidneys during or after obstruction. In our patients with acute unilateral upper urinary tract obstruction due to calculi functional kidney magnetic resonance imaging using blood oxygen level dependent and diffusion-weighted sequences enabled us to monitor pathophysiological changes in obstructed kidneys during

  12. Methods for magnetic resonance analysis using magic angle technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian Zhi [Richland, WA; Wind, Robert A [Kennewick, WA; Minard, Kevin R [Kennewick, WA; Majors, Paul D [Kennewick, WA

    2011-11-22

    Methods of performing a magnetic resonance analysis of a biological object are disclosed that include placing the object in a main magnetic field (that has a static field direction) and in a radio frequency field; rotating the object at a frequency of less than about 100 Hz around an axis positioned at an angle of about 54.degree.44' relative to the main magnetic static field direction; pulsing the radio frequency to provide a sequence that includes a phase-corrected magic angle turning pulse segment; and collecting data generated by the pulsed radio frequency. In particular embodiments the method includes pulsing the radio frequency to provide at least two of a spatially selective read pulse, a spatially selective phase pulse, and a spatially selective storage pulse. Further disclosed methods provide pulse sequences that provide extended imaging capabilities, such as chemical shift imaging or multiple-voxel data acquisition.

  13. hnCOcaNH and hncoCANH pulse sequences for rapid and unambiguous backbone assignment in (13C, 15N) labeled proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Reddy, Jithender G; Hosur, Ramakrishna V

    2010-09-01

    Time-saving in data acquisition is a major thrust of NMR pulse sequence development in the context of structural proteomics research. The conventional HNCA and HN(CA)CO pulse sequences, routinely used for sequential backbone assignment, have the limitation that they cannot distinguish inter- and intra-residue correlations. In order to remove this ambiguity, one has to record HNCO and HN(CO)CA or sequential HNCA experiments which provide unambiguous information of sequential correlations. However, this almost doubles the experimental time. Besides, they require repeated scanning through the (15)N planes to search for the matching peaks along the carbon dimension. In this background, we present here two pulse sequences, termed as hncoCANH and hnCOcaNH that lead to spectra equivalent to HNCA and HN(CA)CO spectra, respectively, but with direct distinction of inter- and intra-residue peaks; these occur with opposite signs in the new experiments. The two pulse sequences have been derived by simple modification of the previously described HN(C)N pulse sequence [Panchal et al., J. Biomol. NMR 20 (2001) 135-147] to frequency-label (13)C(alpha) or (13)C' instead of (15)N during the t(1) period. Like HN(C)N, these spectra also exhibit special patterns of self and sequential peaks around glycines and prolines, which enable direct identification of certain triplets of residues and thus provide internal checks during the sequential assignment walk. The spectra enable rapid and unambiguous assignment of H(N), (15)N and (13)C(alpha) (or (13)C') in a single experiment, and thus would be of great value in high-throughput structural proteomics. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Comparison of multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for Salmonella spp. identification in surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chun Wei; Hao Huang, Kuan; Hsu, Bing Mu; Tsai, Hsien Lung; Tseng, Shao Feng; Kao, Po Min; Shen, Shu Min; Chou Chiu, Yi; Chen, Jung Sheng

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella is one of the most important pathogens of waterborne diseases with outbreaks from contaminated water reported worldwide. In addition, Salmonella spp. can survive for long periods in aquatic environments. To realize genotypes and serovars of Salmonella in aquatic environments, we isolated the Salmonella strains by selective culture plates to identify the serovars of Salmonella by serological assay, and identify the genotypes by Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) based on the sequence data from University College Cork (UCC), respectively. The results show that 36 stream water samples (30.1%) and 18 drinking water samples (23.3%) were confirmed the existence of Salmonella using culture method combined PCR specific invA gene amplification. In this study, 24 cultured isolates of Salmonella from water samples were classified to fifteen Salmonella enterica serovars. In addition, we construct phylogenetic analysis using phylogenetic tree and Minimum spanning tree (MST) method to analyze the relationship of clinical, environmental, and geographical data. Phylogenetic tree showed that four main clusters and our strains can be distributed in all. The genotypes of isolates from stream water are more biodiversity while comparing the Salmonella strains genotypes from drinking water sources. According to MST data, we can found the positive correlation between serovars and genotypes of Salmonella. Previous studies revealed that the result of Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method can predict the serovars of Salmonella strain. Hence, we used the MLST data combined phylogenetic analysis to identify the serovars of Salmonella strain and achieved effectiveness. While using the geographical data combined phylogenetic analysis, the result showed that the dominant strains were existed in whole stream area in rainy season. Keywords: Salmonella spp., MLST, phylogenetic analysis, PFGE

  15. Sequence specific 1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignments of Hahellin from Hahella chejuensis, a putative member of the betagamma-crystallin superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Atul K; Sharma, Yogendra; Chary, K V R

    2008-12-01

    The sequence specific (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N resonance assignments of Hahellin, a putative member of betagamma-crystallin family, from Hahella Chejuensis, have been accomplished by NMR spectroscopy. The resonance assignments reveal that the protein adopts predominantly a beta-sheet conformation as in the case of betagamma-crystallin folds.

  16. Measurement of the neutron capture resonances for platinum using the Ge spectrometer and pulsed neutron beam at the J-PARC/MLF/ANNRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Koichi; Hasemi, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Atsushi; Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki

    2017-09-01

    The neutron capture cross-section for platinum was measured at J-PARC/MLF/ANNRI. The intense pulsed neutron beam was impinging on a natural platinum foil sample and the emitted prompt γ-rays were detected by a Ge spectrometer. The peak energies of the low energy resonances for natural platinum are consistent with those of the JEFF-3.1.2, RUSFOND2010 and next-JENDL data libraries except for the 20-eV resonance. The resonance cross-sections of the next-JENDL library do not contradict the present measurements within the uncertainty of the absolute value of the present work. We analysed the prompt γ-ray spectrum and found a clear 7921.93 keV peak that originates from the transition from the 196Pt compound state to its ground state. The neutron capture cross-section for 195Pt was obtained by choosing events of this peak. The peak energies of most of the low energy resonances are almost consistent with those of the RUSFOND2010 and next-JENDL libraries. However, there was a disagreement for the 20-eV resonance.

  17. Comparison of Different 3.0 T Magnetic Resonance Sequences for Lumbosacral Plexus and Its Branches: Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyuk Joon; Lee, Joon Woo; Lee, Jee Hye; Kang, Heung Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    To prospectively evaluate four magnetic resonance sequences [ProSet, fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR), balanced turbo field echo (B-TFE), T2 Drive] for the lumbosacral plexus and its branches. Ten healthy volunteers who underwent four MRI sequences on lumbosacral area were evaluated for image quality (1 to 5; 1 = poor, 5 = excellent), the number of visualized bilateral spinal nerves from L2 to S1, the overlapping vessels obscuring the plexus (1 = many, 2 = some, 3 = few), and image quality defining spinal nerves (0 = nonvisualized, 1 = poor, 2 = moderate, 3 = good). The ProSet (mean = 4.2, range 3-5) and B-TFE (mean = 3.7, range 3-5) showed better image quality than others. The number of visualized spinal nerves was the largest on ProSet image (mean = 9.2, range 8-10). FLAIR (mean = 2.1, range 1-3) and T2 Drive sequences (mean = 2.1, range 1-3) discriminated the nerves well from the vessels. The main branches of the lumbosacral plexus were well visualized on both ProSet (mean = 2.9, range 2-3) and FLAIR images (mean = 2.6, range 1-3). All of these were statistically significant. ProSet is the best sequence in the evaluation of the lumbosacral plexus and its major branches while FLAIR can be a complementary sequence for the evaluation of nerves overlapping vascular structures.

  18. Density functional studies on the hollow resonances in Li-isoelectronic sequence (Z=4--10

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Amlan K

    2013-01-01

    In this sequel to our work on triply excited hollow resonances in three-electron atomic systems, a density functional theory (DFT)-based formalism is employed to investigate similar resonances in Li-isoelectronic series (Z=4--10). A combination of the work-function-based local nonvariational exchange potential and the popular gradient plus Laplacian included Lee-Yang-Parr correlation energy functional is used. First, all the 8 n=2 intrashell states of B$^{2+}$, N$^{4+}$ and F$^{6+}$ are presented, which are relatively less studied in the literature compared to the remaining 4 members. Then calculations are performed for the 8 $2l2l'$n$l"$ (3$\\leq$n$\\leq$6) hollow resonance series; {\\em viz.,} 2s$^2$ns $^2$S$^e$, 2s$^2$np $^2$P$^o$, 2s$^2$nd $^2$D$^e$, 2s2pns $^4$P$^o$, 2s2pnp $^4$D$^e$, 2p$^2$ns $^4$P$^e$, 2p$^2$np $^4$D$^o$ and 2p$^2$ns $^2$D$^e$, of all the 7 positive ions. Next, as an illustration, higher resonance positions of the 2s$^2$ns $^2$S$^e$ series are calculated for all the ions with a maximum of...

  19. Theoretical and experimental investigation of generating pulsed Bessel-Gauss beams by using an axicon-based resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Shahrzad; Fallah, Hamid Reza; Ramezani, Mohsen; Soltanolkotabi, Mahmood

    2012-11-01

    Nondiffracting Bessel-Gauss beams are assumed as the superposition of infinite numbers of Gaussian beams whose wave vectors lie on a cone. Based on such a description, different methods are suggested to generate these fields. In this paper, we followed an active scheme to generate these beams. By introducing an axicon-based resonator, we designed the appropriate resonator, studied its resonance modes, and analyzed the beam propagation outside the resonator. Experimentally, we succeeded to obtain Bessel-Gauss beams of the first kind and zero order. We also investigated the changes in effective parameters on the output beam, both theoretically and experimentally.

  20. Increased signal intensity on fat-suppressed three-dimensional T1-weighted pulse sequences in patellar tendon: magic angle effect?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karantanas, A.H.; Zibis, A.H. [CT-MRI Dept., Larissa General Hospital, Larissa (Greece); Papanikolaou, N. [Radiology Dept., University of Crete, Heraklion (Greece)

    2001-02-01

    Objective. To assess the frequency of increased signal intensity in the patellar tendon using three-dimensional T1-weighted MRI pulse sequences. Design and patients. Sixty patients were examined with a 1.0 T scanner (15mT/m gradient strength) using a quadrature coil. Three pulse sequences were applied in the sagittal plane: PD turbo spin echo (PD-TSE), 3D T1-weighted gradient echo with fat suppression (3D-T1-FFE-FS) and 3D T1-weighted echo planar imaging with fat suppression (3D-T1-EPI-FS). The high signal intensity areas were measured in their maximum length. The angle of the patellar tendon relative to the main field position was measured in the same slice. In eight patients with anterior knee pain, and in 11 with no anterior knee pain, a fourth T2-weighted TSE pulse sequence (T2-TSE) was obtained to rule out patellar tendinitis. Results. The correlation of the high signal intensity areas with the relative position of the tendon was found to be significant with the 3D sequences (P=0.03 for 3D-T1-FFE-FS and P=0.003 for 3D-T1-EPI-FS). The length of the high signal intensity area in the tendon was 5.4 mm with 3D-T1-FFE-FS, 4.9 mm with 3D-T1-EPI-FS and 3.1 mm with PD-TSE images. No patellar tendinitis was demonstrated on the T2-TSE images. Conclusion. The magic angle effect is commonly observed in the 3D based T1-weighted pulse sequences with fat suppression. The presence of the above sign must be recognized by radiologists, so that misdiagnosis of patellar tendinitis is avoided. (orig.)

  1. $\\beta$-decay study of neutron-rich Tl, Pb, and Bi by means of the pulsed-release technique and resonant laser ionisation

    CERN Multimedia

    Lettry, J

    2002-01-01

    It is proposed to study new neutron-rich nuclei around the Z = 82 magic shell closure, with major relevance for understanding the evolution of nuclear structure at extreme isospin values. Following the IS354 experiment, $\\beta$-decay studies of neutron-rich thallium, lead and bismuth isotopes will be performed for 215 $\\leqslant$ A $\\leqslant$ 219. To this purpose the pulsed-release technique, which was pioneered at ISOLDE, will be optimised. It will be complemented with the higher element selectivity that can be obtained by the unique features of resonant laser ionisation, available at ISOLDE from the RILIS source.

  2. Thermal neutron cross-section and resonance integral of the 152Sm(n,γ)153Sm reaction induced by pulsed neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Do, Nguyen; Khue, Pham Duc; Thanh, Kim Tien; Hien, Nguyen Thi; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Kwangsoo; Shin, Sung-Gyun; Kye, Yong-Uk; Cho, Moo-Hyun

    2017-10-01

    We measured the thermal neutron cross-section (σ0) and resonance integral (I0) of the 152Sm(n,γ)153Sm reaction relative to that of the 197Au(n,γ)198Au reaction. Sm and Au foils with and without a cadmium cover of 0.5 mm were irradiated with moderated pulsed neutrons produced from the electron linac. The induced activities of the reaction products were determined via high energy resolution HPGe detector. The present results: σ0,Sm =212±8 b and I0,Sm =3.02±0.19 kb are consistent with most of the existing reference data.

  3. Flip angle optimization for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI-studies with spoiled gradient echo pulse sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Naeyer, D.; Verhulst, J.; Ceelen, W.; Segers, P.; De Deene, Y.; Verdonck, P.

    2011-08-01

    Spoiled gradient echo pulse (SPGRE) sequences are commonly used in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) studies to measure the contrast agent concentration in a tissue of interest over time. However, due to improper tuning of the SPGRE parameters, concentration uncertainty can be very high, even at high signal-to-noise ratio in the MR measurement. In this work, an optimization procedure is proposed for selecting the optimal value of the SPGRE-flip angle FAopt, given the expected concentration range. The optimization condition ensures that every concentration in the assumed range has the lowest possible uncertainty. By decoupling the R1- and R*2-effects caused by the presence of the contrast agent, a contour plot has been generated from which FAopt can be read off for any study design. Investigation of ten recent DCE-MRI studies showed that improper flip angle selection unnecessarily increases the concentration uncertainty, up to 742% and 72% on average for the typical physiological concentration ranges of 0-2 mM in tumour tissue and 0-10 mM in blood, respectively. Simulations show that the reduced noise levels on the concentration curves, observed at the optimal flip angle, effectively increase the precision of the kinetic parameters estimates (up to 82% for Ktrans, 82% for νe and 92% for νp in the case of an individually measured arterial input function (AIF), up to 53% for Ktrans, 59% for νe and 67% for νp in the case of a standard AIF). In vivo experiments confirm the potential of flip angle optimization to increase the reproducibility of the kinetic parameter estimates.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of solid dental restoration materials using 3D UTE sequences: visualization and relaxometry of various compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Ulrich; Syha, Roland; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Martirosian, Petros; Grözinger, Gerd; Schabel, Christoph; Schick, Fritz; Springer, Fabian

    2013-12-01

    Due to an increasing scientific interest in MR-imaging of carious lesions and teeth, an accurate signal characterization of dental restoration materials is necessary for optimization of MR sequence protocols and evaluation of material degradation. Therefore, signal yield and relaxation behavior of common dental restoration materials in comparison to those of dentine of extracted human teeth were assessed in vitro by ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences. Eighteen material samples and dentine of two freshly extracted human teeth were investigated on a 3T whole-body clinical MR-scanner. Transverse (T2*) and longitudinal relaxation times (T1) were quantified using a recently published modified Ernst equation that takes relevant in-pulse relaxation effects into account. All investigated samples could be successfully visualized but maximum signal yield was highly variable between samples. T1-values of the investigated dental restoration materials ranged between 28 and 365 ms, whereas T2*-values ranged between 96 and 917 μs. In contrast, T1-values of dentine (T1=545 ms±299 ms) were higher, while T2*-values (T2*=478 μs±271 μs) showed similar values. Dental restoration materials and dentine of extracted human teeth can be visualized by UTE sequences and show a broad range of signal yield and relaxation times.

  5. 1D and 2D diffusion pore imaging on a preclinical MR system using adaptive rephasing: Feasibility and pulse sequence comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertleff, Marco; Domsch, Sebastian; Laun, Frederik B; Kuder, Tristan A; Schad, Lothar R

    2017-05-01

    Diffusion pore imaging (DPI) has recently been proposed as a means to acquire images of the average pore shape in an image voxel or region of interest. The highly asymmetric gradient scheme of its sequence makes it substantially demanding in terms of the hardware of the NMR system. The aim of this work is to show the feasibility of DPI on a preclinical 9.4T animal scanner. Using water-filled capillaries with an inner radius of 10μm, four different variants of the DPI sequence were compared in 1D and 2D measurements. The pulse sequences applied cover the basic implementation using one long and one temporally narrow gradient pulse, a CPMG-like variant with multiple refocusing RF pulses as well as two variants splitting up the long gradient and distributing it on either side of the refocusing pulse. Substantial differences between the methods were found in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, contrast, blurring, deviations from the expected results and sensitivity to gradient imperfections. Each of the tested sequences was found to produce characteristic gradient mismatches dependent on the absolute value, direction and sign of the applied q-value. Read gradients were applied to compensate these mismatches translating them into time shifts, which enabled 1D DPI yielding capillary radius estimations within the tolerances specified by the manufacturer. For a successful DPI application in 2D, a novel gradient amplitude adaption scheme was implemented to correct for the occurring time shifts. Using this adaption, higher conformity to the expected pore shape, reduced blurring and enhanced contrast were achieved. Images of the phantom's pore shape could be acquired with a nominal resolution of 2.2μm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 1D and 2D diffusion pore imaging on a preclinical MR system using adaptive rephasing: Feasibility and pulse sequence comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertleff, Marco; Domsch, Sebastian; Laun, Frederik B.; Kuder, Tristan A.; Schad, Lothar R.

    2017-05-01

    Diffusion pore imaging (DPI) has recently been proposed as a means to acquire images of the average pore shape in an image voxel or region of interest. The highly asymmetric gradient scheme of its sequence makes it substantially demanding in terms of the hardware of the NMR system. The aim of this work is to show the feasibility of DPI on a preclinical 9.4 T animal scanner. Using water-filled capillaries with an inner radius of 10 μm, four different variants of the DPI sequence were compared in 1D and 2D measurements. The pulse sequences applied cover the basic implementation using one long and one temporally narrow gradient pulse, a CPMG-like variant with multiple refocusing RF pulses as well as two variants splitting up the long gradient and distributing it on either side of the refocusing pulse. Substantial differences between the methods were found in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, contrast, blurring, deviations from the expected results and sensitivity to gradient imperfections. Each of the tested sequences was found to produce characteristic gradient mismatches dependent on the absolute value, direction and sign of the applied q-value. Read gradients were applied to compensate these mismatches translating them into time shifts, which enabled 1D DPI yielding capillary radius estimations within the tolerances specified by the manufacturer. For a successful DPI application in 2D, a novel gradient amplitude adaption scheme was implemented to correct for the occurring time shifts. Using this adaption, higher conformity to the expected pore shape, reduced blurring and enhanced contrast were achieved. Images of the phantom's pore shape could be acquired with a nominal resolution of 2.2 μm.

  7. Possibilities for polarized pulsed neutron instrumentation based on the time-of-flight spin-resonance energy filter

    CERN Document Server

    Parizzi, A A; Klose, F

    2002-01-01

    We present a new approach for dynamic energy filtering at spallation neutron sources, based on the original concept of the Drabkin spin-resonance flipper. The setup takes advantage of the neutron magnetic moment, and consists of a wavelength-selective magnetic resonator and a supermirror polarizer/analyzer system. We are proposing refinements (time dependence and revised magnetic field profiles) to the basic concepts of the setup, making it suitable for time-of-flight experiments at spallation neutron sources. We outline here possibilities for using this spin resonator as the core of new neutron instruments. (orig.)

  8. Terahertz cyclotron resonance spectroscopy of an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure using a high-field pulsed magnet and an asynchronous optical sampling technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, B. F., E-mail: Ben.Spencer@manchester.ac.uk; Smith, W. F.; Hibberd, M. T.; Dawson, P.; Graham, D. M. [School of Physics and Astronomy and the Photon Science Institute, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Beck, M.; Bartels, A. [Laser Quantum GmbH, Max-Stromeyer-Str. 116, 78467 Konstanz (Germany); Guiney, I.; Humphreys, C. J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, 27 Charles Babbage Road, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-23

    The effective mass, sheet carrier concentration, and mobility of electrons within a two-dimensional electron gas in an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure were determined using a laboratory-based terahertz cyclotron resonance spectrometer. The ability to perform terahertz cyclotron resonance spectroscopy with magnetic fields of up to 31 T was enabled by combining a high-field pulsed magnet with a modified asynchronous optical sampling terahertz detection scheme. This scheme allowed around 100 transmitted terahertz waveforms to be recorded over the 14 ms magnetic field pulse duration. The sheet density and mobility were measured to be 8.0 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} and 9000 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} at 77 K. The in-plane electron effective mass at the band edge was determined to be 0.228 ± 0.002m{sub 0}.

  9. Structure-Related Roles for the Conservation of the HIV-1 Fusion Peptide Sequence Revealed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Soraya; Huarte, Nerea; Rujas, Edurne; Andreu, David; Nieva, José L; Jiménez, María Angeles

    2017-10-17

    Despite extensive characterization of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) hydrophobic fusion peptide (FP), the structure-function relationships underlying its extraordinary degree of conservation remain poorly understood. Specifically, the fact that the tandem repeat of the FLGFLG tripeptide is absolutely conserved suggests that high hydrophobicity may not suffice to unleash FP function. Here, we have compared the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structures adopted in nonpolar media by two FP surrogates, wtFP-tag and scrFP-tag, which had equal hydrophobicity but contained wild-type and scrambled core sequences LFLGFLG and FGLLGFL, respectively. In addition, these peptides were tagged at their C-termini with an epitope sequence that folded independently, thereby allowing Western blot detection without interfering with FP structure. We observed similar α-helical FP conformations for both specimens dissolved in the low-polarity medium 25% (v/v) 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP), but important differences in contact with micelles of the membrane mimetic dodecylphosphocholine (DPC). Thus, whereas wtFP-tag preserved a helix displaying a Gly-rich ridge, the scrambled sequence lost in great part the helical structure upon being solubilized in DPC. Western blot analyses further revealed the capacity of wtFP-tag to assemble trimers in membranes, whereas membrane oligomers were not observed in the case of the scrFP-tag sequence. We conclude that, beyond hydrophobicity, preserving sequence order is an important feature for defining the secondary structures and oligomeric states adopted by the HIV FP in membranes.

  10. Sequence dependent structure and thermodynamics of DNA oligonucleotides and polynucleotides: uv melting and NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboul-ela, F.M.

    1987-12-01

    Thermodynamic parameters for double strand formation have been measured for the twenty-five DNA double helices made by mixing deoxyoligonucleotides of the sequence dCA/sub 3/XA/sub 3/G with the complement dCT/sub 3/YT/sub 3/G. Each of the bases A, C, G, T, and I (I = hypoxanthine) have been substituted at the positions labeled X and Y. The results are analyzed in terms of nearest neighbors. At higher temperatures the sequences containing a G)centerreverse arrowdot)C base pair become more stable than those containing only A)centerreverse arrowdot)T. All molecules containing mismatcher are destabilized with respect to those with only Watson-Crick pairing, but there is a wide range of destabilization. Large neighboring base effects upon stability were observed. For example, when (X, Y) = (I, A), the duplex is eightfold more stable than when (X, Y) = (A, I). Independent of sequence effects the order of stabilities is: I)centerreverse arrowdot)C )succ) I)centerreverse arrowdot) A)succ) I)centerreverse arrowdot)T approx. I)centerreverse arrowdot)G. All of these results are discussed within the context of models for sequence dependent DNA secondary structure, replication fidelity and mechanisms of mismatch repair, and implications for probe design. The duplex deoxyoligonucleotide d(GGATGGGAG))centerreverse arrowdot)d(CTCCCATCC) is a portion of the gene recognition sequence of the protein transcription factor IIIA. The crystal structure of this oligonucleotide was shown to be A-form The present study employs Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, optical, chemical and enzymatic techniques to investigate the solution structure of this DNA 9-mer. (157 refs., 19 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Reconstructing Tone Sequences from Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Blood-Oxygen Level Dependent Responses within Human Primary Auditory Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly H. Chang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we show that, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD responses in human primary auditory cortex, it is possible to reconstruct the sequence of tones that a person has been listening to over time. First, we characterized the tonotopic organization of each subject’s auditory cortex by measuring auditory responses to randomized pure tone stimuli and modeling the frequency tuning of each fMRI voxel as a Gaussian in log frequency space. Then, we tested our model by examining its ability to work in reverse. Auditory responses were re-collected in the same subjects, except this time they listened to sequences of frequencies taken from simple songs (e.g., “Somewhere Over the Rainbow”. By finding the frequency that minimized the difference between the model’s prediction of BOLD responses and actual BOLD responses, we were able to reconstruct tone sequences, with mean frequency estimation errors of half an octave or less, and little evidence of systematic biases.

  12. A Spatially-selective Implementation of the Adiabatic T2Prep Sequence for Magnetic Resonance Angiography of the Coronary Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimanifard, Sahar; Schär, Michael; Hays, Allison G.; Prince, Jerry L.; Weiss, Robert G.; Stuber, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    In coronary magnetic resonance angiography, a magnetization-preparation scheme for T2-weighting (T2Prep) is widely used to enhance contrast between the coronary blood-pool and the myocardium. This pre-pulse is commonly applied without spatial selection to minimize flow sensitivity, but the non-selective implementation results in a reduced magnetization of the in-flowing blood and a related penalty in signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). It is hypothesized that a spatially-selective T2Prep would leave the magnetization of blood outside the T2Prep volume unaffected, and thereby lower the SNR penalty. To test this hypothesis, a spatially-selective T2Prep was implemented where the user could freely adjust angulation and position of the T2Prep slab to avoid covering the ventricular blood-pool and saturating the in-flowing spins. A time gap of 150ms was further added between the T2Prep and other pre-pulses to allow for in-flow of a larger volume of unsaturated spins. Consistent with numerical simulation, the spatially-selective T2Prep increased in vivo human coronary artery SNR (42.3±2.9 vs. 31.4±2.2, n=22, p<0.0001) and contrast-to-noise-ratio (18.6±1.5 vs. 13.9±1.2, p=0.009) as compared to those of the non-selective T2Prep. Additionally, a segmental analysis demonstrated that the spatially-selective T2Prep was most beneficial in proximal and mid segments where the in-flowing blood volume was largest compared to the distal segments. PMID:22915337

  13. Collective State of Interwell Excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs Double Quantum Wells under Pulse Resonance Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larionov, A. V.; Timofeev, V. B.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2002-01-01

    phase arises with a time delay relative to the exciting pulse (several nanoseconds), which is due to density and temperature relaxation to the equilibrium values. The origination of the collective phase of interwell excitons is accompanied by a strong narrowing of the corresponding photoluminescence...

  14. Improved Cerebral Time-of-Flight Magnetic Resonance Angiography at 7 Tesla – Feasibility Study and Preliminary Results Using Optimized Venous Saturation Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrede, Karsten H.; Johst, Sören; Dammann, Philipp; Özkan, Neriman; Mönninghoff, Christoph; Kraemer, Markus; Maderwald, Stefan; Ladd, Mark E.; Sure, Ulrich; Umutlu, Lale; Schlamann, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Conventional saturation pulses cannot be used for 7 Tesla ultra-high-resolution time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF MRA) due to specific absorption rate (SAR) limitations. We overcome these limitations by utilizing low flip angle, variable rate selective excitation (VERSE) algorithm saturation pulses. Material and Methods Twenty-five neurosurgical patients (male n = 8, female n = 17; average age 49.64 years; range 26–70 years) with different intracranial vascular pathologies were enrolled in this trial. All patients were examined with a 7 Tesla (Magnetom 7 T, Siemens) whole body scanner system utilizing a dedicated 32-channel head coil. For venous saturation pulses a 35° flip angle was applied. Two neuroradiologists evaluated the delineation of arterial vessels in the Circle of Willis, delineation of vascular pathologies, presence of artifacts, vessel-tissue contrast and overall image quality of TOF MRA scans in consensus on a five-point scale. Normalized signal intensities in the confluence of venous sinuses, M1 segment of left middle cerebral artery and adjacent gray matter were measured and vessel-tissue contrasts were calculated. Results Ratings for the majority of patients ranged between good and excellent for most of the evaluated features. Venous saturation was sufficient for all cases with minor artifacts in arteriovenous malformations and arteriovenous fistulas. Quantitative signal intensity measurements showed high vessel-tissue contrast for confluence of venous sinuses, M1 segment of left middle cerebral artery and adjacent gray matter. Conclusion The use of novel low flip angle VERSE algorithm pulses for saturation of venous vessels can overcome SAR limitations in 7 Tesla ultra-high-resolution TOF MRA. Our protocol is suitable for clinical application with excellent image quality for delineation of various intracranial vascular pathologies. PMID:25232868

  15. Improved cerebral time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography at 7 Tesla--feasibility study and preliminary results using optimized venous saturation pulses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten H Wrede

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Conventional saturation pulses cannot be used for 7 Tesla ultra-high-resolution time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF MRA due to specific absorption rate (SAR limitations. We overcome these limitations by utilizing low flip angle, variable rate selective excitation (VERSE algorithm saturation pulses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-five neurosurgical patients (male n = 8, female n = 17; average age 49.64 years; range 26-70 years with different intracranial vascular pathologies were enrolled in this trial. All patients were examined with a 7 Tesla (Magnetom 7 T, Siemens whole body scanner system utilizing a dedicated 32-channel head coil. For venous saturation pulses a 35° flip angle was applied. Two neuroradiologists evaluated the delineation of arterial vessels in the Circle of Willis, delineation of vascular pathologies, presence of artifacts, vessel-tissue contrast and overall image quality of TOF MRA scans in consensus on a five-point scale. Normalized signal intensities in the confluence of venous sinuses, M1 segment of left middle cerebral artery and adjacent gray matter were measured and vessel-tissue contrasts were calculated. RESULTS: Ratings for the majority of patients ranged between good and excellent for most of the evaluated features. Venous saturation was sufficient for all cases with minor artifacts in arteriovenous malformations and arteriovenous fistulas. Quantitative signal intensity measurements showed high vessel-tissue contrast for confluence of venous sinuses, M1 segment of left middle cerebral artery and adjacent gray matter. CONCLUSION: The use of novel low flip angle VERSE algorithm pulses for saturation of venous vessels can overcome SAR limitations in 7 Tesla ultra-high-resolution TOF MRA. Our protocol is suitable for clinical application with excellent image quality for delineation of various intracranial vascular pathologies.

  16. In vivo magnetic resonance diffusion measurement in the brain of patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Thomsen, C; Frederiksen, J

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of water self-diffusion in the brain in 25 patients with multiple sclerosis was performed by magnetic resonance imaging. Quantitative diffusion measurements were obtained using single spin-echo pulse sequences with pulsed magnetic field gradients of different magnitude. Twenty...

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of metal artifact reduction sequences in the assessment of metal-on-metal hip prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboelmagd SM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sharief M Aboelmagd, Paul N Malcolm, Andoni P Toms Department of Radiology, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital National Health Service Trust, Norwich, UK Abstract: Recent developments in metal artifact reduction techniques in magnetic resonance (MR have, in large part, been stimulated by the advent of soft tissue complications associated with modern metal-on-metal total hip replacements. Metallic orthopedic implants can result in severe degradation of MR images because ferromagnetic susceptibility causes signal loss, signal pile-up, geometric distortion, and failure of fat suppression. There are several approaches to controlling these susceptibility artifacts. Standard fast spin echo sequences can be adapted by modifying echo times, matrix, receiver bandwidth, slice thickness, and echo trains to minimize frequency encoding misregistration. Short tau inversion recovery and 2-point Dixon techniques are both more resistant to susceptibility artifacts than spectral fat suppression. A number of dedicated metal artifact reduction sequences are now available commercially. The common approach of these multispectral techniques is to generate three dimensional datasets from which the final images are reconstructed. Frequency encoding misregistration is controlled using a variety of techniques, including specific resonant frequency acquisition, view-angle tilting, and phase encoding. Metal artifact reduction MR imaging has been the key to understanding the prevalence, severity, and prognosis of adverse reactions to metal debris in metal-on-metal hip replacements. Conventional radiographs are typically normal or demonstrate minimal change and are unable to demonstrate the often extensive soft tissue abnormalities, which include necrosis, soft tissue masses and fluid collections, myositis, muscle atrophy, tendon avulsions, and osteonecrosis. These MR findings correlate poorly with clinical and serological measures of disease, and therefore MR imaging is

  18. Organic Thin Films Deposited by Emulsion-Based, Resonant Infrared, Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation: Fundamentals and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Wangyao

    Thin film deposition techniques are indispensable to the development of modern technologies as thin film based optical coatings, optoelectronic devices, sensors, and biological implants are the building blocks of many complicated technologies, and their performance heavily depends on the applied deposition technique. Particularly, the emergence of novel solution-processed materials, such as soft organic molecules, inorganic compounds and colloidal nanoparticles, facilitates the development of flexible and printed electronics that are inexpensive, light weight, green and smart, and these thin film devices represent future trends for new technologies. One appealing feature of solution-processed materials is that they can be deposited into thin films using solution-processed deposition techniques that are straightforward, inexpensive, high throughput and advantageous to industrialize thin film based devices. However, solution-processed techniques rely on wet deposition, which has limitations in certain applications, such as multi-layered film deposition of similar materials and blended film deposition of dissimilar materials. These limitations cannot be addressed by traditional, vacuum-based deposition techniques because these dry approaches are often too energetic and can degrade soft materials, such as polymers, such that the performance of resulting thin film based devices is compromised. The work presented in this dissertation explores a novel thin film deposition technique, namely emulsion-based, resonant infrared, matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE), which combines characteristics of wet and dry deposition techniques for solution-processed materials. Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE to deposit uniform and continuous organic, nanoparticle and blended films, as well as hetero-structures that otherwise are difficult to achieve. However, fundamental understanding of the growth mechanisms that govern

  19. The temporal sequence of gut peptide CNS interactions tracked in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yu-Ting; Parkinson, James R C; Chaudhri, Owais B; Herlihy, Amy H; So, Po-Wah; Dhillo, Waljit S; Small, Caroline J; Bloom, Stephen R; Bell, Jimmy D

    2007-11-07

    Hormonal satiety signals secreted by the gut play a pivotal role in the physiological control of appetite. However, therapeutic exploitation of the gut-brain axis requires greater insight into the interaction of gut hormones with CNS circuits of appetite control. Using the manganese ion (Mn2+) as an activity-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent, we showed an increase in signal intensity (SI) in key appetite-regulatory regions of the hypothalamus, including the arcuate, paraventricular, and ventromedial nuclei, after peripheral injection of the orexigenic peptide ghrelin. Conversely, administration of the anorexigenic hormone peptide YY(3-36) caused a reduction in SI. In both cases, the changes in SI recorded in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus preceded the effect of these peptides on food intake. Intravenous Mn2+ itself did not significantly alter ghrelin-mediated expression of the immediate early gene product c-Fos, nor did it cause abnormalities of behavior or metabolic parameters. We conclude that manganese-enhanced MRI constitutes a powerful tool for the future investigation of the effects of drugs, hormones, and environmental influences on neuronal activity.

  20. Processes in Resonant Domains of Metal Nanoparticle Aggregates and Optical Nonlinearity of Aggregates in Pulsed Laser Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilyuk, Anatoliy P.; Karpov, Sergei V.

    2008-01-01

    The specific optical nonlinearities inherent in aggregates of metal nanoparticles under pico- and nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation are studied in nanoparticle aggregates formed in silver hydrosols. The results of experimental studies of the correlation between the degree of aggregation of silver hydrosols and their nonlinear refraction index at the wavelengths 0.532 and 1.064 microns are discussed. The experiments revealed that nonlinear refraction index changes its sign at 1.064 microns a...

  1. Slip pulse and resonance of Kathmandu basin during the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake, Nepal imaged with space geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetzka, John; Melgar, D.; Genrich, J.F.; Geng, J.; Owen, S.; Lindsey, E. O.; Xu, X.; Bock, Y.; Avouac, J.-P.; Adhikari, L. B.; Upreti, B. N.; Pratt-Sitaula, B.; Bhattarai, T. N.; Sitaula, B. P.; Moore, A.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Szeliga, W.; Normandeau, J.; Fend, M.; Flouzat, M; Bollinger, L.; Shrestha, P.; Koirala, B.; Gautam, U.; Bhatterai, M.; Gupta, R.; Kandel, T.; Timsina, C.; Sapkota, S.N.; Rajaure, S.; Maharjan, N.

    2015-01-01

    Detailed geodetic imaging of earthquake rupture enhances our understanding of earthquake physics and induced ground shaking. The April 25, 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake is the first example of a large continental megathrust rupture beneath a high-rate (5 Hz) GPS network. We use GPS and InSAR data to model the earthquake rupture as a slip pulse of ~20 km width, ~6 s duration, and with peak sliding velocity of 1.1 m/s that propagated toward Kathmandu basin at ~3.3 km/s over ~140 km. The smooth slip onset, indicating a large ~5 m slip-weakening distance, caused moderate ground shaking at high >1Hz frequencies (~16% g) and limited damage to regular dwellings. Whole basin resonance at 4-5 s period caused collapse of tall structures, including cultural artifacts.

  2. First observation of the beta decay of neutron-rich $^{218}Bi$ by the pulsed-release technique and resonant laser ionization

    CERN Document Server

    De Witte, H; Borzov, I N; Caurier, E; Cederkäll, J; De Smet, A; Eckhaudt, S; Fedorov, D V; Fedosseev, V; Franchoo, S; Górska, M; Grawe, H; Huber, G; Huyse, M; Janas, Z; Köster, U; Kurcewicz, W; Kurpeta, J; Plochocki, A; Van Duppen, P; Van de Vel, K; Weissman, L

    2004-01-01

    The neutron-rich isotope /sup 218/Bi has been produced in proton- induced spallation of a uranium carbide target at the ISOLDE facility at CERN, extracted from the ion source by the pulsed-release technique and resonant laser ionization, and its beta decay is studied for the first time. A half-life of 33(1)s was measured and is discussed in the self-consistent continuum-quasi particle-random- phase approximation framework that includes Gamow-Teller and first- forbidden transitions. A level scheme was constructed for /sup 218 /Po, and a deexcitation pattern of stretched E2 transitions 8/sup +/ to 6/sup +/ to 4/sup +/ to 2/sup +/ to 0/sup +/ to the ground state is suggested. Shell-model calculations based on the Kuo-Herling interaction reproduce the experimental results satisfactorily. (28 refs).

  3. Generation of two-cycle pulses and octave-spanning frequency combs in a dispersion-flattened micro-resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Bao, Chengying; Singh, Vivek; Mu, Jianwei; Yang, Changxi; Agarwal, Anuradha M; Kimerling, Lionel C; Michel, Jurgen

    2013-12-01

    We show that octave-spanning Kerr frequency combs with improved spectral flatness of comb lines can be generated in dispersion-flattened microring resonators. The resonator is formed by a strip/slot hybrid waveguide, exhibiting a flat and low anomalous dispersion between two zero-dispersion wavelengths that are separated by one octave from near-infrared to mid-infrared. Such flattened dispersion profiles allow for the generation of mode-locked frequency combs, using relatively low pump power to obtain two-cycle cavity solitons on a chip, associated with the octave-spanning comb bandwidth. The wavelength dependence of the optical loss and of the coupling coefficient and thus wavelength dependent Q-factor are also considered.

  4. Inversion in the steady state: contrast optimization and reduced imaging time with fast three-dimensional inversion-recovery-prepared GRE pulse sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, T K; Sawyer, A M; Faulkner, W H; Mills, D G

    1994-04-01

    To evaluate the differences in contrast between 1-second delay and zero delay (for magnetization recovery) before the preparation radio-frequency pulse in three-dimensional, inversion-recovery (IR) fast gradient-echo (GRE) acquisitions. Mathematical simulations and measurements of brain image contrast were performed with healthy volunteers and 10 patients. The zero-delay sequence generated T1-weighted contrast similar to that obtained with 1-second delay but was accompanied by a substantial reduction in imaging time. However, the zero delay prohibits full recovery of the longitudinal magnetization. Hence, the signal null characteristic of IR experiments is not easily observed, since it occurs (as a function of tissue T1) at very short inversion times (prepared rapid GRE sequences with a 1-second delay and preparation time (TP) of 600-700 msec can be achieved in less time by using a zero delay and a shorter TP (400-500 msec).

  5. Compensation of slice profile mismatch in combined spin- and gradient-echo echo-planar imaging pulse sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedeskamp, Heiko; Straka, Matus; Bammer, Roland

    2012-02-01

    Combined acquisition of gradient-echo and spin-echo signals in MRI time series reveals additional information for perfusion-weighted imaging and functional MRI because of differences in the sensitivity of gradient-echo and spin-echo measurements to the properties of the underlying vascular architecture. The acquisition of multiple echo trains within one time frame facilitates the simultaneous estimation of the transversal relaxation parameters R2 and R2*. However, the simultaneous estimation of these parameters tends to be incorrect in the presence of slice profile mismatches between signal excitation and subsequent refocusing pulses. It is shown here that improvements in pulse design reduced R2 and R2* estimation errors. Further improvements were achieved by augmented parameter estimation through the introduction of an additional parameter δ to correct for discordances in slice profiles to facilitate more quantitative measurements. Moreover, the analysis of time-resolved acquisitions revealed that the temporal stability of R2 estimates could be increased with improved pulse design, counteracting low contrast-to-noise ratios in spin-echo-based perfusion and functional MRI. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Detection of DNA sequences refractory to PCR amplification using a biophysical SERRS assay (Surface Enhanced Resonant Raman Spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Feuillie

    Full Text Available The analysis of ancient or processed DNA samples is often a great challenge, because traditional Polymerase Chain Reaction - based amplification is impeded by DNA damage. Blocking lesions such as abasic sites are known to block the bypass of DNA polymerases, thus stopping primer elongation. In the present work, we applied the SERRS-hybridization assay, a fully non-enzymatic method, to the detection of DNA refractory to PCR amplification. This method combines specific hybridization with detection by Surface Enhanced Resonant Raman Scattering (SERRS. It allows the detection of a series of double-stranded DNA molecules containing a varying number of abasic sites on both strands, when PCR failed to detect the most degraded sequences. Our SERRS approach can quickly detect DNA molecules without any need for DNA repair. This assay could be applied as a pre-requisite analysis prior to enzymatic reparation or amplification. A whole new set of samples, both forensic and archaeological, could then deliver information that was not yet available due to a high degree of DNA damage.

  7. Detection of DNA sequences refractory to PCR amplification using a biophysical SERRS assay (Surface Enhanced Resonant Raman Spectroscopy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuillie, Cécile; Merheb, Maxime M; Gillet, Benjamin; Montagnac, Gilles; Daniel, Isabelle; Hänni, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of ancient or processed DNA samples is often a great challenge, because traditional Polymerase Chain Reaction - based amplification is impeded by DNA damage. Blocking lesions such as abasic sites are known to block the bypass of DNA polymerases, thus stopping primer elongation. In the present work, we applied the SERRS-hybridization assay, a fully non-enzymatic method, to the detection of DNA refractory to PCR amplification. This method combines specific hybridization with detection by Surface Enhanced Resonant Raman Scattering (SERRS). It allows the detection of a series of double-stranded DNA molecules containing a varying number of abasic sites on both strands, when PCR failed to detect the most degraded sequences. Our SERRS approach can quickly detect DNA molecules without any need for DNA repair. This assay could be applied as a pre-requisite analysis prior to enzymatic reparation or amplification. A whole new set of samples, both forensic and archaeological, could then deliver information that was not yet available due to a high degree of DNA damage.

  8. Lung MRI of invasive fungal infection at 3 Tesla: evaluation of five different pulse sequences and comparison with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Chenggong; Tan, Xiangliang; Li, Caixia; Wu, Yuankui; Hao, Peng; Xiong, Wei; Xu, Yikai [Southern Medical University, Department of Medical Imaging Center, Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Wei, Qi; Feng, Ru; Xu, Jun [Southern Medical University, Department of Hematology, Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Chan, Queenie [Philips Healthcare, New Territories (China)

    2014-09-18

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of five MR sequences to detect pulmonary infectious lesions in patients with invasive fungal infection (IFI), using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as the reference standard. Thirty-four immunocompromised patients with suspected IFI underwent MDCT and MRI. The MR studies were performed using five pulse sequences at 3.0 T: T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE), short-tau inversion recovery (STIR), spectrally selective attenuated inversion recovery (SPAIR), T1-weighted high resolution isotropic volume excitation (e-THRIVE) and T1-weighted fast field echo (T1-FFE). The size, lesion-to-lung contrast ratio and the detectability of pulmonary lesions on MR images were assessed. Image quality and artefacts on different sequences were also rated. A total of 84 lesions including nodules (n = 44) and consolidation (n = 40) were present in 75 lobes. SPAIR and e-THRIVE images achieved high overall lesion-related sensitivities for the detection of pulmonary abnormalities (90.5 % and 86.9 %, respectively). STIR showed the highest lesion-to-lung contrast ratio for nodules (21.8) and consolidation (17.0), whereas TSE had the fewest physiological artefacts. MRI at 3.0 T can depict clinically significant pulmonary IFI abnormalities with high accuracy compared to MDCT. SPAIR and e-THRIVE are preferred sequences for the detection of infectious lesions of 5 mm and larger. (orig.)

  9. Lung Parenchymal Signal Intensity in MRI: A Technical Review with Educational Aspirations Regarding Reversible Versus Irreversible Transverse Relaxation Effects in Common Pulse Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkern, Robert; Haker, Steven; Mamata, Hatsuho; Lee, Edward; Mitsouras, Dimitrios; Oshio, Koichi; Balasubramanian, Mukund; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2014-03-01

    Lung parenchyma is challenging to image with proton MRI. The large air space results in ~l/5th as many signal-generating protons compared to other organs. Air/tissue magnetic susceptibility differences lead to strong magnetic field gradients throughout the lungs and to broad frequency distributions, much broader than within other organs. Such distributions have been the subject of experimental and theoretical analyses which may reveal aspects of lung microarchitecture useful for diagnosis. Their most immediate relevance to current imaging practice is to cause rapid signal decays, commonly discussed in terms of short T2* values of 1 ms or lower at typical imaging field strengths. Herein we provide a brief review of previous studies describing and interpreting proton lung spectra. We then link these broad frequency distributions to rapid signal decays, though not necessarily the exponential decays generally used to define T2* values. We examine how these decays influence observed signal intensities and spatial mapping features associated with the most prominent torso imaging sequences, including spoiled gradient and spin echo sequences. Effects of imperfect refocusing pulses on the multiple echo signal decays in single shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) sequences and effects of broad frequency distributions on balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) sequence signal intensities are also provided. The theoretical analyses are based on the concept of explicitly separating the effects of reversible and irreversible transverse relaxation processes, thus providing a somewhat novel and more general framework from which to estimate lung signal intensity behavior in modern imaging practice.

  10. Comparison of continuous vs. pulsed focused ultrasound in treated muscle tissue as evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging, histological analysis, and microarray analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundt, Walter [Stanford University School of Medicine, Lucas MRS Research Center, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Yuh, Esther L.; Bednarski, Mark D.; Guccione, Samira [Stanford University School of Medicine, Lucas MRS Research Center, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Steinbach, Silke [Technical University of Munich, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Munich (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different application modes of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) to muscle tissue. HIFU was applied to muscle tissue of the flank in C3H/Km mice. Two dose regimes were investigated, a continuous HIFU and a short-pulsed HIFU mode. Three hours after HIFU treatment pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted, T2-weighted images and a diffusion-weighted STEAM sequence were obtained. After MR imaging, the animals were euthenized and the treated, and the non-treated tissue was taken out for histology and functional genomic analysis. T2 images showed increased signal intensity and post-contrast T1 showed a decreased contrast uptake in the central parts throughout the tissue of both HIFU modes. A significantly higher diffusion coefficient was found in the muscle tissue treated with continuous wave focused ultrasound. Gene expression analysis revealed profound changes of 54 genes. For most of the analyzed genes higher expression was found after treatment with the short-pulse mode. The highest up-regulated genes encoded for the MHC class III (FC {approx}84), HSP 70 (FC {approx}75) and FBJ osteosarcoma related oncogene (FC {approx}21). Immunohistology and the immunoblot analysis confirmed the presence of HSP70 protein in both applied HIFU modes. The use of HIFU treatment on muscle tissue results in dramatic changes in gene expression; however, the same genes are up-regulated after the application of continuous or pulsed HIFU, indicating that the tissue reaction is independent of the type of tissue damage. (orig.)

  11. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Study of low-energy resonant metastability exchange in argon by a pulsed merging beam technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grucker, J.; Baudon, J.; Perales, F.; Dutier, G.; Vassilev, G.; Bocvarski, V.; Ducloy, M.

    2008-01-01

    The resonant metastability exchange process in low-energy collinear collisions between metastable argon atoms (Ar* 3P2) polarized in spin (M = +2) and ground-state Ar atoms from a nozzle beam is studied by means of a time-of-flight technique. A wide range of metastable atom velocities in the laboratory frame (275 m s-1 down to 50 m s-1) is obtained by use of a Zeeman slower, the counter-propagating laser beam of which is locked in frequency onto the 3P2-3D3 closed transition (λ = 811.5 nm). The accessible centre-of-mass energy range (8-27 meV) has not been explored so far, to our knowledge. Calculations based upon existing interatomic potentials of 2g and 2u symmetries are in reasonable agreement with experiment.

  12. Whole body sodium MRI at 3T using an asymmetric birdcage resonator and short echo time sequence: first images of a male volunteer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterling, Friedrich; Corteville, Dominique M.; Kalayciyan, Raffi; Rennings, Andreas; Konstandin, Simon; Nagel, Armin M.; Stark, Helmut; Schad, Lothar R.

    2012-07-01

    Sodium magnetic resonance imaging (23Na MRI) is a non-invasive technique which allows spatial resolution of the tissue sodium concentration (TSC) in the human body. TSC measurements could potentially serve to monitor early treatment success of chemotherapy on patients who suffer from whole body metastases. Yet, the acquisition of whole body sodium (23Na) images has been hampered so far by the lack of large resonators and the extremely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) achieved with existing resonator systems. In this study, a 23Na resonator was constructed for whole body 23Na MRI at 3T comprising of a 16-leg, asymmetrical birdcage structure with 34 cm height, 47.5 cm width and 50 cm length. The resonator was driven in quadrature mode and could be used either as a transceiver resonator or, since active decoupling was included, as a transmit-only resonator in conjunction with a receive-only (RO) surface resonator. The relative B1-field profile was simulated and measured on phantoms, and 3D whole body 23Na MRI data of a healthy male volunteer were acquired in five segments with a nominal isotropic resolution of (6 × 6 × 6) mm3 and a 10 min acquisition time per scan. The measured SNR values in the 23Na-MR images varied from 9 ± 2 in calf muscle, 15 ± 2 in brain tissue, 23 ± 2 in the prostate and up to 42 ± 5 in the vertebral discs. Arms, legs, knees and hands could also be resolved with applied resonator and short time-to-echo (TE) (0.5 ms) radial sequence. Up to fivefold SNR improvement was achieved through combining the birdcage with local RO surface coil. In conclusion, 23Na MRI of the entire human body provides sub-cm spatial resolution, which allows resolution of all major human body parts with a scan time of less than 60 min.

  13. SU-E-J-224: Using UTE and T1 Weighted Spin Echo Pulse Sequences for MR-Only Treatment Planning; Phantom Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, H; Fatemi, A [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sahgal, A [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Investigating a new approach in MRI based treatment planning using the combination of (Ultrashort Echo Time) UTE and T1 weighted spin echo pulse sequences to delineate air, bone and water (soft tissues) in generating pseudo CT images comparable with CT. Methods: A gel phantom containing chicken bones, ping pang balls filled with distilled water and air bubbles, was made. It scanned with MRI using UTE and 2D T1W SE pulse sequences with (in plane resolution= 0.53mm, slice thickness= 2 mm) and CT with (in plane resolution= 0.5 mm and slice thickness= 0.75mm) as a ground truth for geometrical accuracy. The UTE and T1W SE images were registered with CT using mutual information registration algorithm provided by Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system. The phantom boundaries were detected using Canny edge detection algorithm for CT, and MR images. The bone, air bubbles and water in ping pong balls were segmented from CT images using threshold 300HU, - 950HU and 0HU, respectively. These tissue inserts were automatically segmented from combined UTE and T1W SE images using edge detection and relative intensity histograms of the phantom. The obtained segmentations of air, bone and water inserts were evaluated with those obtained from CT. Results: Bone and air can be clearly differentiated in UTE images comparable to CT. Combining UTE and T1W SE images successfully segmented the air, bone and water. The maximum segmentation differences from combine MRI images (UTE and T1W SE) and CT are within 1.3 mm, 1.1mm for bone, air, respectively. The geometric distortion of UTE sequence is small less than 1 pixel (0.53 mm) of MR image resolution. Conclusion: Our approach indicates that MRI can be used solely for treatment planning and its quality is comparable with CT.

  14. Development of double-pulse lasers ablation system and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy for direct spectral analysis of manganese doped PVA polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, A. A. I.; Morsy, M. A.; El-Deen, H. Z.

    2017-11-01

    Series of manganese-co-precipitated poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) polymer were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed using laser ablation system (LAS) based on double-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The collinear nanosecond laser beams of 266 and 1064 nm were optimized to focus on the surface of the PVA polymer target. Both laser beams were employed to estimate the natural properties of the excited Mn-PVA plasma, such as electron number density (Ne), electron temperature (Te), and Mn concentration. Individual transition lines of manganese (Mn), carbon (C), lithium (Li), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms are identified based on the NIST spectral database. The results show better responses with DP-LIBS than the single-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (SP-LIBS). On the other hand, the EPR investigation shows characteristic broad peak of Mn-nano-particles (Mn-NPs) in the range of quantum dots of superparamagnetic materials. The line width (peak-to-peak, ΔHpp) and g-value of the observed Mn-EPR peak are ∼20 mT and 2.0046, respectively. The intensities of Mn-emission line at a wavelength 403.07 nm and the Mn-EPR absorption peak were used to accurate quantify the Mn-content in the polymer matrix. The results produce linear trends within the studied concentration range with regression coefficient (R2) value of ∼0.99, and limit of detection (LOD) of 0.026 mol.% and 0.016 mol.%, respectively. The LOD values are at a fold change of about -0.2 of the studied lowest mol.%. The proposed protocols of trace element detection are of significant advantage and can be applied to the other metal analysis.

  15. Controlling the dipole-dipole interaction using NMR composite rf pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, Emmanuel

    2014-08-01

    New composite rf pulses are proposed during which the average dipole-dipole interactions within a spin ensemble are controlled, while a global rotation is achieved. The method used to tailor the pulses is based on the average Hamiltonian theory and relies on the geometrical properties of the spin-spin dipolar interaction. I describe several such composite pulses and analyze quantitatively the improvement brought on the control of the NMR dynamics. Numerical simulations show that the magic sandwich pulse sequence, during which the average dipolar field is effectively reversed, is plagued by defects originating from the finite initial and final π/2 rf pulses. A numerical test based on a classical description of nuclear magnetic resonance is used to check that, when these pulses are replaced by magic composite pulses, the efficiency of the magic sandwich is improved.

  16. SU-E-T-558: An Exploratory RF Pulse Sequence Technique Used to Induce Differential Heating in Tissues Containing Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for a Possible Hyperthermic Adjuvant Effect to Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, S; Ionascu, D; Wilson, G [William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Thapa, R [Oakland University, Rochester, MI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In pre-clinical trials of cancer thermotherapy, hyperthermia can be induced by exposing localized super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) to external alternating magnetic fields generated by a solenoid electrical circuit (Zhao et al., Theranostics 2012). Alternatively, an RF pulse technique implemented in a regular MRI system is explored as a possible hyperthermia induction technique . Methods: A new thermal RF pulse sequence was developed using the Philips pulse programming tool for the 3T Ingenia MRI system to provide a sinusoidal magnetic field alternating at the frequency of 1.43 kHz (multiples of sine waves of 0.7 ms period) before each excitation RF pulse for imaging. The duration of each thermal RF pulse routine was approximately 3 min, and the thermal pulse was applied multiple times to a phantom that contains different concentrations (high, medium and low) of SPION samples. After applying the thermal pulse each time, the temperature change was estimated by measuring the phase changes in the T1-weighted inversion-prepared multi-shot turbo field echo (TFE) sequence (TR=5.5 ms, TE=2.7 ms, inversion time=200 ms). Results: The phase values and relative differences among them changed as the number of applied thermal RF pulses increased. After the 5th application of the thermal RF pulse, the relative phase differences increased significantly, suggesting the thermal activation of the SPION. The increase of the phase difference was approximately linear with the SPION concentration. Conclusion: A sinusoidal RF pulse from the MRI system may be utilized to selectively thermally activate tissues containing super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

  17. Finite pulse effects in CPMG pulse trains on paramagnetic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskes, Michal; Grey, Clare P

    2015-09-14

    The Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence is commonly used in high resolution NMR spectroscopy and in magnetic resonance imaging for the measurement of transverse relaxation in systems that are subject to diffusion in internal or external gradients and is superior to the Hahn echo measurement, which is more sensitive to diffusion effects. Similarly, it can potentially be used to study dynamic processes in electrode materials for lithium ion batteries. Here we compare the (7)Li signal decay curves obtained with the CPMG and Hahn echo sequences under static conditions (i.e., in the absence of magic angle spinning) in paramagnetic materials with varying transition metal ion concentrations. Our results indicate that under CPMG pulse trains the lifetime of the (7)Li signal is substantially extended and is correlated with the strength of the electron-nuclear interaction. Numerical simulations and analytical calculations using Floquet theory suggest that the combination of large interactions and a train of finite pulses, results in a spin locking effect which significantly slows the signal's decay. While these effects complicate the interpretation of CPMG-based investigations of diffusion and chemical exchange in paramagnetic materials, they may provide a useful approach to extend the signal's lifetime in these often fast relaxing systems, enabling the use of correlation experiments. Furthermore, these results highlight the importance of developing a deeper understanding of the effects of the large paramagnetic interactions during multiple pulse experiments in order to extend the experimental arsenal available for static and in situ NMR investigations of paramagnetic materials.

  18. The OMERACT psoriatic arthritis magnetic resonance imaging scoring system (PsAMRIS): definitions of key pathologies, suggested MRI sequences, and preliminary scoring system for PsA Hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; McQueen, Fiona; Wiell, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a preliminary OMERACT psoriatic arthritis magnetic resonance image scoring system (PsAMRIS) for evaluation of inflammatory and destructive changes in PsA hands, which was developed by the international OMERACT MRI in inflammatory arthritis group. MRI definitions of important...... pathologies in peripheral PsA and suggestions concerning appropriate MRI sequences for use in PsA hands are also provided....

  19. Self-diffusion of electrolyte species in model battery electrodes using Magic Angle Spinning and Pulsed Field Gradient Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambio, Sacris Jeru; Deschamps, Michaël; Sarou-Kanian, Vincent; Etiemble, Aurélien; Douillard, Thierry; Maire, Eric; Lestriez, Bernard

    2017-09-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are electrochemical storage devices using the electrochemical activity of the lithium ion in relation to intercalation compounds owing to mass transport phenomena through diffusion. Diffusion of the lithium ion in the electrode pores has been poorly understood due to the lack of experimental techniques for measuring its self-diffusion coefficient in porous media. Magic-Angle Spinning, Pulsed Field Gradient, Stimulated-Echo Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS-PFG-STE NMR) was used here for the first time to measure the self-diffusion coefficients of the electrolyte species in the LP30 battery electrolyte (i.e. a 1 M solution of LiPF6 dissolved in 1:1 Ethylene Carbonate - Dimethyl Carbonate) in model composites. These composite electrodes were made of alumina, carbon black and PVdF-HFP. Alumina's magnetic susceptibility is close to the measured magnetic susceptibility of the LP30 electrolyte thereby limiting undesirable internal field gradients. Interestingly, the self-diffusion coefficient of lithium ions decreases with increasing carbon content. FIB-SEM was used to describe the 3D geometry of the samples. The comparison between the reduction of self-diffusion coefficients as measured by PFG-NMR and as geometrically derived from FIB/SEM tortuosity values highlights the contribution of specific interactions at the material/electrolyte interface on the lithium transport properties.

  20. Transport-related triplet states and hyperfine couplings in organic tandem solar cells probed by pulsed electrically detected magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraffert, Felix; Bahro, Daniel; Meier, Christoph; Denne, Maximilian; Colsmann, Alexander; Behrends, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Tandem solar cells constitute the most successful organic photovoltaic devices with power conversion efficiencies comparable to thin-film silicon solar cells. Especially their high open-circuit voltage - only achievable by a well-adjusted layer stacking - leads to their high efficiencies. Nevertheless, the microscopic processes causing the lossless recombination of charge carriers within the recombination zone are not well understood yet. We show that advanced pulsed electrically detected magnetic resonance techniques such as electrically detected (ED)-Rabi nutation measurements and electrically detected hyperfine sublevel correlation (ED-HYSCORE) spectroscopy help to understand the role of triplet excitons in these microscopic processes. We investigate fully working miniaturised organic tandem solar cells and detect current-influencing doublet states in different layers as well as triplet excitons located on the fullerene-based acceptor. We apply ED-HYSCORE in order to study the nuclear spin environment of the relevant electron/hole spins and detect a significant amount of the low abundant 13C nuclei coupled to the observer spins.

  1. Characterization of a pulsed injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser and its application to high resolution resonance ionization spectroscopy of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein, V.; Moore, I. D.; Raeder, S.; Reponen, M.; Tomita, H.; Wendt, K.

    2017-08-01

    A high repetition rate pulsed Ti:sapphire laser injection-locked to a continuous wave seed source is presented. A spectral linewidth of 20 MHz at an average output power of 4 W is demonstrated. An enhanced tuning range from 710-920 nm with a single broadband mirror set is realized by the inclusion of a single thin birefringent quartz plate for suppression of unseeded emission. The spectral properties have been analyzed using both a scanning Fabry-Pérot interferometer as well as crossed beam resonance ionization spectroscopy of the hyperfine levels of natural copper. Delayed ionization of the long-lived excited state is demonstrated for increased resolution. For the excited state hyperfine coupling constant of the 244 nm 4s 2S1/2→ 4s4p4P°1/2 ground-state transition in {\\hspace{0pt}}63 Cu, a factor of ten reduction in error compared to previous literature was achieved. The described laser system has been in operation at several radioactive ion beam facilities.

  2. Transport-related triplet states and hyperfine couplings in organic tandem solar cells probed by pulsed electrically detected magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraffert, Felix; Bahro, Daniel; Meier, Christoph; Denne, Maximilian; Colsmann, Alexander; Behrends, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Tandem solar cells constitute the most successful organic photovoltaic devices with power conversion efficiencies comparable to thin-film silicon solar cells. Especially their high open-circuit voltage - only achievable by a well-adjusted layer stacking - leads to their high efficiencies. Nevertheless, the microscopic processes causing the lossless recombination of charge carriers within the recombination zone are not well understood yet. We show that advanced pulsed electrically detected magnetic resonance techniques such as electrically detected (ED)-Rabi nutation measurements and electrically detected hyperfine sublevel correlation (ED-HYSCORE) spectroscopy help to understand the role of triplet excitons in these microscopic processes. We investigate fully working miniaturised organic tandem solar cells and detect current-influencing doublet states in different layers as well as triplet excitons located on the fullerene-based acceptor. We apply ED-HYSCORE in order to study the nuclear spin environment of the relevant electron/hole spins and detect a significant amount of the low abundant 13 C nuclei coupled to the observer spins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis of oxocarbon-encapsulated gold nanoparticles with blue-shifted localized surface plasmon resonance by pulsed laser ablation in water with CO2 absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, T.; Rey, N. A.; Rosado, T.; Landi, S.; Larrude, D. G.; Romani, E. C.; Freire Junior, F. L.; Quinteiro, S. M.; Cremona, M.; Aucelio, R. Q.; Margheri, G.; Pandoli, O.

    2016-06-01

    Colloidal suspensions of oxocarbon-encapsulated gold nanoparticles have been synthesized in a one-step procedure by pulsed-laser ablation (PLA) at 532 nm of a solid gold target placed in aqueous solution containing CO2 absorbers, but without any stabilizing agent. Multi-wavelength surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy allows the identification of adsorbed amorphous carbon and graphite, Au-carbonyl, Au coordinated CO2-derived bicarbonates/carbonates and hydroxyl groups around the AuNPs core. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis and high resolution transmission electron microscopy highlight the organic shell structure around the crystalline metal core. The stability of the colloidal solution of nanocomposites (NCs) seems to be driven by solvation forces and is achieved only in neutral or basic pH using monovalent hydroxide counter-ions (NaOH, KOH). The NCs are characterized by a blue shift of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band typical of metal-ligand stabilization by terminal π-back bonding, attributed to a core charging effect caused by Au-carbonyls. Total organic carbon measurements detect the final content of organic carbon in the colloidal solution of NCs that is about six times higher than the value of the water solution used to perform PLA. The colloidal dispersions of NCs are stable for months and are applied as analytical probes in amino glycoside antibiotic LSPR based sensing.

  4. Symmetry-constrained Analysis of Pulsed Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER) Spectroscopy Reveals the Dynamic Nature of the KcsA Activation Gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmas, Olivier; Hyde, H. Clark; Hulse, Raymond E.; Perozo, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Distance determination from an echo intensity modulation obtained by pulsed double electron-electron resonance (DEER) experiment is a mathematically ill-posed problem. Tikhonov regularization yields distance distributions that can be difficult to interpret, especially in system with multiple discrete distance distributions. Here, we show that by using geometric fit constraints in symmetric homo-oligomeric protein systems, we were able to increase the accuracy of a model-based fit solution based on a sum of Gaussian distributions. Our approach was validated on two different ion channels of known oligomeric states, KcsA (a tetramer) and CorA (a pentamer). Statistical analysis of the resulting fits was integrated within our method to help the experimenter evaluate the significance of a symmetry-constrained vs. standard model distribution fit and to examine multi-distance confidence regions. This approach was used to quantitatively evaluate the role of the C-terminal domain (CTD) on the flexibility and conformation of the activation gate of the K+ channel KcsA. Our analysis reveals a significant increase in the dynamics of the inner bundle gate upon opening. Also, it explicitly demonstrates the degree to which the CTD restricts the motion of the lower gate at rest and during activation gating. PMID:22946877

  5. Molecular epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae using multi-antigen sequence typing and pulse-field gel electrophoresis in highly endemic Western Australian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Lyn C; Goire, Namraj; Fisk, Rachel E; Speers, David J

    2015-07-15

    The remote and indigenous populations of Western Australia (WA) have one of the highest notification rates of gonorrhoea in the world. Despite this, the low rate of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae from these regions permits the use of amoxycillin as empirical therapy. We describe the first molecular epidemiological study of gonococci isolated from this population using two different typing platforms. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), Neisseria gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed on 128 consecutive N. gonorrhoeae isolates cultured between January 2011 and December 2013. To highlight clusters isolates were evaluated based on their tbpB sequence types. No predominant NG-MAST or PFGE types were found. A total of 67 distinct PFGE pulsotypes were identified amongst the 128 isolates in this study with 20 PFGE pulsotypes representing 78 isolates. A total of 59 NG-MAST sequence types were found, represented by 45 porB alleles and 28 tbpB alleles with 13 tbpB genomogroups from 45 NG-MAST sequence types. TbpB genomogroup 29, represented by 45 isolates, was by far the most common genomogroup overall. Results from this study suggest that gonococcal epidemiology in WA is quite different between remote regions and major population centres and, in some cases, geographically restricted. It is likely that isolates originating from endemic regions of WA mostly represent independent, small sexual networks with an infrequent interchange between other communities and regions. Given the high rate of antimicrobial resistance elsewhere in Australia, ongoing surveillance is essential to ensure the enduring efficacy of amoxycillin empiric use in the remote regions of WA.

  6. Laboratory Investigation of Salmonella enterica serovar Poona Outbreak in California: Comparison of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyreva, Varvara K; Crandall, John; Sabol, Ashley; Poe, Alyssa; Zhang, Peng; Concepción-Acevedo, Jeniffer; Schroeder, Morgan N; Wagner, Darlene; Higa, Jeffrey; Trees, Eija; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2016-11-22

    Recently, Salmonella enterica serovar Poona caused a multistate outbreak, with 245 out of 907 cases occurring in California. We report a comparison of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) results with whole genome sequencing (WGS) for genotyping of Salmonella Poona isolates. CA Salmonella Poona isolates, collected from July to August 2015, were genotyped by PFGE using XbaI restriction enzyme. WGS was done using Nextera XT library kit with 2x300 bp or 2x250 bp sequencing chemistry on the Illumina MiSeq Sequencer.  Reads were mapped to the de novo assembled serovar Poona draft genome (48 contigs, N50= 223,917) from the outbreak using CLCbio GW 8.0.2. The phylogenetic tree was generated based on hqSNPs calling. Genomes were annotated with CGE and PHAST online tools. In silico MLST was performed using the CGE online tool. Human (14) and cucumber (2) Salmonella Poona isolates exhibited 3 possibly related PFGE patterns (JL6X01.0018 [predominant], JL6X01.0375, JL6X01.0778).  All isolates that were related by PFGE also clustered together according to the WGS. One isolate with a divergent PFGE pattern (JL6X01.0776) served as an outlier in the phylogenetic analysis and substantially differed from the outbreak clade by WGS. All outbreak isolates were assigned to MLST sequence type 447. The majority of the outbreak-related isolates possessed the same set of Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands with few variations. One outbreak isolate was sequenced and analyzed independently by CDC and CDPH laboratories; there was 0 SNP difference in results. Additional two isolates were sequenced by CDC and the raw data was processed through CDPH and CDC analysis pipelines. Both data analysis pipelines also generated concordant results.  Discussion: PFGE and WGS results for the recent CA Salmonella enterica serovar Poona outbreak provided concordant assignment of the isolates to the outbreak cluster. WGS allowed more robust determination of genetic relatedness, provided information

  7. Molecular Typing of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Broilers in Japan Using Multilocus Sequence Typing and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Manao; Hiki, Mototaka; Kawanishi, Michiko; Abo, Hitoshi; Kojima, Akemi; Asai, Tetsuo; Hamamoto, Shuichi

    2016-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni isolates from broilers in Japan were characterized using multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in order to elucidate the genetic relationship between these strains. Forty-three of the isolates were classified into 20 sequence types and were clustered into 21 PFGE types with 70% similarity. The most dominant clonal complex (CC) was CC-21 (41.9%). Diverse PFGE patterns were observed within the same CC, but the combined analysis of PFGE type and CC revealed that the strains with the same combination were isolated from the same district or neighboring districts. On the other hand, strains with the same combination pattern were also isolated from geographically distant districts. Our results elucidate two possible reasons for the prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni among broiler farms: (1) the resistant C. jejuni is clonally disseminated within the limited area, and (2) susceptible C. jejuni acquired fluoroquinolone resistance during the use of fluoroquinolone on the farms.

  8. Genetic characterization of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from ewes' milk, sheep farm environments, and humans by multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Verónica; Rodríguez-Calleja, José-María; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa; Santos, Jesús A

    2013-10-01

    A collection of 81 isolates of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) was obtained from samples of bulk tank sheep milk (62 isolates), ovine feces (4 isolates), sheep farm environment (water, 4 isolates; air, 1 isolate), and human stool samples (9 isolates). The strains were considered atypical EPEC organisms, carrying the eae gene without harboring the pEAF plasmid. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was carried out with seven housekeeping genes and 19 sequence types (ST) were detected, with none of them having been previously reported for atypical EPEC. The most frequent ST included 41 strains isolated from milk and human stool samples. Genetic typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) resulted in 57 patterns which grouped in 24 clusters. Comparison of strains isolated from the different samples showed phylogenetic relationships between milk and human isolates and also between milk and water isolates. The results obtained show a possible risk for humans due to the presence of atypical EPEC in ewes' milk and suggest a transmission route for this emerging pathogen through contaminated water.

  9. High Genetic Diversity of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis Clinical Isolates by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Multilocus Sequence Typing from a Hospital in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poh Leng Weng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known on the genetic relatedness and potential dissemination of particular enterococcal clones in Malaysia. We studied the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis and subjected them to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. E. faecium and E. faecalis displayed 27 and 30 pulsotypes, respectively, and 10 representative E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates (five each yielded few different sequence types (STs: ST17 (2 isolates, ST78, ST203, and ST601 for E. faecium, and ST6, ST16, ST28, ST179, and ST399 for E. faecalis. Resistance to tazobactam-piperacillin and ampicillin amongst E. faecium isolates was highly observed as compared to E. faecalis isolates. All of the isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and teicoplanin. The presence of epidemic and nosocomial strains of selected E. faecium STs: 17, 78, and 203 and E. faecalis ST6 as well as high rates of resistance to multiple antibiotics amongst E. faecium isolates is of a particular concern.

  10. High genetic diversity of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing from a hospital in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Poh Leng; Ramli, Ramliza; Shamsudin, Mariana Nor; Cheah, Yoke-Kqueen; Hamat, Rukman Awang

    2013-01-01

    Little is known on the genetic relatedness and potential dissemination of particular enterococcal clones in Malaysia. We studied the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis and subjected them to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). E. faecium and E. faecalis displayed 27 and 30 pulsotypes, respectively, and 10 representative E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates (five each) yielded few different sequence types (STs): ST17 (2 isolates), ST78, ST203, and ST601 for E. faecium, and ST6, ST16, ST28, ST179, and ST399 for E. faecalis. Resistance to tazobactam-piperacillin and ampicillin amongst E. faecium isolates was highly observed as compared to E. faecalis isolates. All of the isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and teicoplanin. The presence of epidemic and nosocomial strains of selected E. faecium STs: 17, 78, and 203 and E. faecalis ST6 as well as high rates of resistance to multiple antibiotics amongst E. faecium isolates is of a particular concern.

  11. Choice of the pulse sequence and parameters for improved signal-to-noise ratio in T1-weighted study of MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Naima; Afzal, Muhammad; Yousaf, Muhammad; Javid, Muhammad Arshad

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the practical impact of alteration of imaging parameters on signal-to-noise ratio for the most commonly used T1-weighted magnetic resonance sequences. The study was conducted in the Department of Medical Physics, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, UK, in 2007. Magnetic resonance images of a tissue-equivalent material were generated with a set of T1 and T2 values. Experimental variations in the imaging parameters were performed in echo time and repetition time. Quantitative analysis consisted of signal-to-noise ratio. Percentage inaccuracy in signal-to-noise ratio was the result of inappropriate choice of parameters. We have investigated conventional spin echo, fast spin echo and fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery with one of corresponding percentage errors 28.68%, -36.65% and -40.34%, respectively. Conventional spin echo presented moderately low percentage error with the choice of repetition time and echo time. Factual error in fast spin echo was slightly higher than conventional spin echo. Fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery could create outstanding signal-to-noise ratio of high T1/T2 value phantoms in T1-weighted images. The role of repetition time and echo time in T1-weighted images was crucial to sustain the image quality.

  12. Temporal assessment of bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance imaging in a canine model of knee osteoarthritis: impact of sequence selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Anjou, M-A; Troncy, E; Moreau, M; Abram, F; Raynauld, J-P; Martel-Pelletier, J; Pelletier, J-P

    2008-11-01

    To assess the evolution of bone marrow lesions (BMLs) in a canine model of knee osteoarthritis (OA) using three different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences. Three MRI sequences [coronal, T1-weighted three-dimensional fast gradient recalled echo (T1-GRE), sagittal fat-suppressed 3D spoiled gradient echo at a steady state (SPGR), and sagittal T2-weighted fast spin echo with fat saturation (T2-FS)] were performed at baseline, and at week 4, 8 and 26 in five dogs following transection of the anterior cruciate ligament. The same reader scored (0-3) subchondral BMLs twice, in blinded conditions, according to their extent in nine joint subregions, for all imaging sessions, and independently on the three MRI sequences. Correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots evaluated intra-reader repeatability. Readings scores were averaged and the nine subregions were summed to generate global BML scores. BMLs were most prevalent in the central and medial portions of the tibial plateau. Intra-reader repeatability was good to excellent for each sequence (r(s)=0.87-0.97; Pcanine OA model, the extent of BMLs varies in time on different MRI sequences. Until the complex nature of these lesions is fully resolved, it is suggested that to accurately assess the size and extent of BMLs, a combination of different sequences should be used.

  13. Visualization of cerebrospinal fluid flow in syringomyelia through noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging with a time-spatial labeling inversion pulse (Time-SLIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Kazuhiro; Ono, Atsushi; Hashiguchi, Yusuke; Misawa, Haruo; Takahata, Tomohiro; Teramoto, Arubi; Nakahara, Shinnosuke

    2017-05-01

    We report a case of syringomyelia assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a time-spatial labeling inversion pulse (Time-SLIP), which is a non-contrast MRI technique that uses the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as an intrinsic tracer, thus removing the need to administer a contrast agent. Time-SLIP permits investigation of flow movement for over 3 seconds without any limitations associated with the cardiac phase, and it is a clinically accessible method for flow analysis. We investigated an 85-year-old male experiencing progressive gait disturbance, with leg numbness and muscle weakness. Conventional MRI revealed syringomyelia from C7 to T12, with multiple webs of cavities. We then applied the Time-SLIP approach to characterize CSF flow in the syringomyelic cavities. Time-SLIP detected several unique CSF flow patterns that could not be observed by conventional imaging. The basic CSF flow pattern in the subarachnoid space was pulsatile and was harmonious with the heartbeat. Several unique flow patterns, such as bubbles, jumping, and fast flow, were observed within syringomyelic cavities by Time-SLIP imaging. These patterns likely reflect the complex flow paths through the septum and/or webs of cavities. Time-SLIP permits observation of CSF motion over a long period of time and detects patterns of flow velocity and direction. Thus, this novel approach to CSF flow analysis can be used to gain a more extensive understanding of spinal disease pathology and to optimize surgical access in the treatment of spinal lesions. Additionally, Time-SLIP has broad applicability in the field of spinal research.

  14. Phase incremented echo train acquisition applied to magnetic resonance pore imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, S. A.; Galvosas, P.

    2017-02-01

    Efficient phase cycling schemes remain a challenge for NMR techniques if the pulse sequences involve a large number of rf-pulses. Especially complex is the Carr Purcell Meiboom Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence where the number of rf-pulses can range from hundreds to several thousands. Our recent implementation of Magnetic Resonance Pore Imaging (MRPI) is based on a CPMG rf-pulse sequence in order to refocus the effect of internal gradients inherent in porous media. While the spin dynamics for spin- 1 / 2 systems in CPMG like experiments are well understood it is still not straight forward to separate the desired pathway from the spectrum of unwanted coherence pathways. In this contribution we apply Phase Incremented Echo Train Acquisition (PIETA) to MRPI. We show how PIETA offers a convenient way to implement a working phase cycling scheme and how it allows one to gain deeper insights into the amplitudes of undesired pathways.

  15. Enhancing the gate fidelity of silicon-based singlet-triplet qubits under symmetric exchange control using optimized pulse sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengxian; Throckmorton, Robert; Yang, Xu-Chen; Wang, Xin; Barnes, Edwin

    We perform Randomized Benchmarking of a family of recently introduced control scheme for singlet-triplet qubits in semiconductor double quantum dots, which is optimized to have substantially shorter gate times. We study their performances under the recently introduced symmetric control scheme of changing the exchange interaction by raising and lowering the barrier between the two dots (barrier control) and compare these results to those under the traditional tilt control method in which the exchange interaction is varied by detuning. It has been suggested that the barrier control method encounters a much smaller charge noise. We found that for the cases where the charge noise is dominant, corresponding to the device made on isotopically enriched silicon, the optimized sequences offer much longer coherence time under barrier control compared to the tilt control method of the strength of the exchange interaction. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong SAR (No. CityU 21300116) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11604277), and by LPS-MPO-CMTC.

  16. Intracranial cerebrospinal fluid spaces imaging using a pulse-triggered three-dimensional turbo spin echo MR sequence with variable flip-angle distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodel, Jerome [Unite Analyse et Restauration du Mouvement, UMR-CNRS, 8005 LBM ParisTech Ensam, Paris (France); University Paris Est Creteil (UPEC), Creteil (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Henri Mondor, Department of Neuroradiology, Creteil (France); Hopital Henri Mondor, Creteil (France); Silvera, Jonathan [University Paris Est Creteil (UPEC), Creteil (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Henri Mondor, Department of Neuroradiology, Creteil (France); Bekaert, Olivier; Decq, Philippe [Unite Analyse et Restauration du Mouvement, UMR-CNRS, 8005 LBM ParisTech Ensam, Paris (France); University Paris Est Creteil (UPEC), Creteil (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Henri Mondor, Department of Neurosurgery, Creteil (France); Rahmouni, Alain [University Paris Est Creteil (UPEC), Creteil (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Henri Mondor, Department of Radiology, Creteil (France); Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie [University Paris Est Creteil (UPEC), Creteil (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Henri Mondor, Department of Public Health, Creteil (France); Vignaud, Alexandre [Siemens Healthcare, Saint Denis (France); Petit, Eric; Durning, Bruno [Laboratoire Images Signaux et Systemes Intelligents, UPEC, Creteil (France)

    2011-02-15

    To assess the three-dimensional turbo spin echo with variable flip-angle distribution magnetic resonance sequence (SPACE: Sampling Perfection with Application optimised Contrast using different flip-angle Evolution) for the imaging of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces. We prospectively investigated 18 healthy volunteers and 25 patients, 20 with communicating hydrocephalus (CH), five with non-communicating hydrocephalus (NCH), using the SPACE sequence at 1.5T. Volume rendering views of both intracranial and ventricular CSF were obtained for all patients and volunteers. The subarachnoid CSF distribution was qualitatively evaluated on volume rendering views using a four-point scale. The CSF volumes within total, ventricular and subarachnoid spaces were calculated as well as the ratio between ventricular and subarachnoid CSF volumes. Three different patterns of subarachnoid CSF distribution were observed. In healthy volunteers we found narrowed CSF spaces within the occipital aera. A diffuse narrowing of the subarachnoid CSF spaces was observed in patients with NCH whereas patients with CH exhibited narrowed CSF spaces within the high midline convexity. The ratios between ventricular and subarachnoid CSF volumes were significantly different among the volunteers, patients with CH and patients with NCH. The assessment of CSF spaces volume and distribution may help to characterise hydrocephalus. (orig.)

  17. Improving the time efficiency of the Fourier synthesis method for slice selection in magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahayori, B; Khaneja, N; Johnston, L A; Farrell, P M; Mareels, I M Y

    2016-01-01

    The design of slice selective pulses for magnetic resonance imaging can be cast as an optimal control problem. The Fourier synthesis method is an existing approach to solve these optimal control problems. In this method the gradient field as well as the excitation field are switched rapidly and their amplitudes are calculated based on a Fourier series expansion. Here, we provide a novel insight into the Fourier synthesis method via representing the Bloch equation in spherical coordinates. Based on the spherical Bloch equation, we propose an alternative sequence of pulses that can be used for slice selection which is more time efficient compared to the original method. Simulation results demonstrate that while the performance of both methods is approximately the same, the required time for the proposed sequence of pulses is half of the original sequence of pulses. Furthermore, the slice selectivity of both sequences of pulses changes with radio frequency field inhomogeneities in a similar way. We also introduce a measure, referred to as gradient complexity, to compare the performance of both sequences of pulses. This measure indicates that for a desired level of uniformity in the excited slice, the gradient complexity for the proposed sequence of pulses is less than the original sequence. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Using a contrast-enhanced imaging sequence at 3-minute delay in 3-T magnetic resonance imaging for acute infarct evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, Alexandre; Kastler, Bruno; Laborie, Laurent; Hadjidekov, Georges; Meneveau, Nicolas; Boulahdour, Hatem

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the performance of a delayed-enhancement (DE) sequence adapted for a 3-minute delay after bolus injection of a contrast media in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in acute reperfused myocardial infarction. Sixty-three patients with recent myocardial infarction underwent contrast-enhanced MRI. Sequences of first-pass (FP) perfusion imaging and DE imaging at 3 and 15 minutes were performed at the acute phase. Of these patients, 49 had a follow-up cardiac magnetic resonance examination. Infarct sizes were quantified by 2 experienced users with a 17-segment model at the acute phase (at FP and at 3- and 15-minute delay) and at the chronic phase (at 15 minutes because only fibrous areas hyperenhance late). Areas of hypoenhancement and hyperenhancement were also calculated. Results from the 3-minute imaging sequence at the acute phase were compared with the FP (taking into account dark signal areas), with the 15-minute DE imaging sequence results at the acute phase [taking into account dark signal and hyperenhanced (white plus dark signal) areas] and with the 15-minute DE imaging sequence from the chronic phase (taking into account hyperenhanced areas). Least squares regression and Bland-Altman plots were performed for the comparisons. For the evaluation of hyperenhancement, the comparison between imaging sequence results at 3 minutes versus 15-minute DE at the acute phase (respectively, at the chronic phase) shows a good correlation (r(2) = 0.941; respectively r(2) = 0.862, at the chronic phase) and the Bland-Altman plot indicates a good concordance (m =-0.43; SD = 2.69; respectively m = 2.76; SD = 3.92); For the evaluation of hypoenhancement, the comparison between imaging sequence results at 3 minutes versus FP (respectively, 15 minutes at the acute phase) also shows a good correlation (r(2) = 0.751; respectively r(2) = 0.71) and the Bland-Altman plot indicates a good concordance (m = -1.06; SD = 3.34; respectively m = 2.90; SD = 3.11). Finally

  19. Analysis of Gradient Waveform in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OU-YANG Shan-mei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of gradient pulse waveform affects image quality significantly in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Recording and analyzing the waveform of gradient pulse helps to make rapid and accurate diagnosis of spectrometer gradient hardware and/or pulse sequence. Using the virtual instrument software LabVIEW to control the high speed data acquisition card DAQ-2005, a multi-channel acquisition scheme was designed to collect the gradient outputs from a custom-made spectrometer. The collected waveforms were post-processed (i.e., histogram statistical analysis, data filtering and difference calculation to obtain feature points containing time and amplitude information. Experiments were carried out to validate the method, which is an auxiliary test method for the development of spectrometer and pulses sequence.

  20. Optimizing contrast agent concentration and spoiled gradient echo pulse sequence parameters for catheter visualization in MR-guided interventional procedures: an analytic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Marshall S; Lindner, Uri; Haider, Masoom; Kucharczyk, Walter; Hlasny, Eugen; Trachtenberg, John

    2013-08-01

    A critical requirement of MR-guided interventions is the visualization of an instrument (e.g., catheter, needle) during the procedure. One approach is to fill the instrument with a contrast agent. Previously, the optimization of contrast agent visualization was performed only empirically. In the present study, an analytic optimization of contrast agent SNR efficiency was performed for a spoiled gradient echo pulse sequence. Optimal flip angle, repetition time, echo time, and contrast agent concentration were derived analytically. The solution is valid for any contrast agent, provided the relationship between T1 , T2 , and doping concentration is known. Phantom experiments validated the analytic optimization for Gd- and MnCl2 -based contrast agents. Results showed excellent agreement between experimentally predicted and theoretically observed magnetization behavior. In vivo experiments demonstrated optimized contrast agent visualization in brain, heart, and prostate applications. The results demonstrated the large SNR that can be achieved with analytic optimization. As a practical guideline, an 11% dilution of 500 mMol/L Gd-DTPA solution, repetition time ≈ 4 ms, echo time ≈ 1 ms, and θ ≈ 65° was found to provide a large SNR. This study derived and validated a method for analytically optimizing contrast agent SNR efficiency. This information may be useful for visualizing instruments during MR-guided interventions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Investigation into the structural composition of hydroalcoholic solutions as basis for the development of multiple suppression pulse sequences for NMR measurement of alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Mushtakova, Svetlana P; Kuballa, Thomas; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2014-12-01

    An eight-fold suppression pulse sequence was recently developed to improve sensitivity in (1) H NMR measurements of alcoholic beverages [Magn. Res. Chem. 2011 (49): 734-739]. To ensure that only one combined hydroxyl peak from water and ethanol appears in the spectrum, adjustment to a certain range of ethanol concentrations was required. To explain this observation, the structure of water-ethanol solutions was studied. Hydroalcoholic solutions showed extreme behavior at 25% vol, 46% vol, and 83% vol ethanol according to (1) H NMR experiments. Near-infrared spectroscopy confirmed the occurrence of four significant compounds ('individual' ethanol and water structures as well as two water-ethanol complexes of defined composition - 1 : 1 and 1 : 3). The successful multiple suppression can be achieved for every kind of alcoholic beverage with different alcoholic strengths, when the final ethanol concentration is adjusted to a range between 25% vol and 46% vol (e.g. using dilution or pure ethanol addition). In this optimum region, an individual ethanol peak was not detected, because the 'individual' water structure and the 1 : 1 ethanol-water complex predominate. The nature of molecular association in ethanol-water solutions is essential to elucidate NMR method development for measurement of alcoholic beverages. The presented approach can be used to optimize other NMR suppression protocols for binary water-organic solvent mixtures, where hydrogen bonding plays a dominant role. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Pulsed and continuous wave electron nuclear double resonance patterns of aquo protons coordinated in frozen solution to high spin MN2 +

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaoling; Bernardo, Marcelino; Thomann, Hans; Scholes, Charles P.

    1993-04-01

    For the water protons that coordinate to Mn2+, the frozen solution ENDOR (electron nuclear double resonance) spectra are made complex by the anisotropic electron-proton hyperfine interaction and by multiple contributions of the electron spin 5/2 manifold. A spin 5/2 Mn2+ ion having magnetic quantum numbers Ms=±1/2, ±3/2, ±5/2 and small zero-field splittings has overlapping electron spin EPR transitions. Proton hyperfine couplings to each of these electron spin states have yielded overlapping ENDOR patterns whose interpretation is nontrivial, even in so simple a system as Mn2+ ion having hexaaquo coordination. We have experimentally obtained and theoretically explained these proton ENDOR patterns and in so doing have laid the foundation for interpreting and sorting out frozen solution ENDOR patterns in more complex (enzyme) environments. Pulsed and cw ENDOR experiments showed features of metal-coordinated water protons occurring not only within a few MHz of the free proton frequency (as will happen for an electron spin 1/2 system) but extending over a range of up to 35 MHz. The EPR line of the Mn2+ S=5/2 manifold was broadened by zero-field splitting for hundreds of Gauss away from g=2.00, and the relative intensity of different ENDOR features reflected couplings to differing Ms spin states at varying fields across this EPR line. An expression was derived to show the dependence of proton ENDOR frequencies on the electron spin quantum number, Ms, upon the principal values of the intrinsic proton hyperfine tensor, upon the direction of the magnetic field, and upon the free proton frequency. This expression provided the starting point for powder simulations of the overall ENDOR pattern. These ENDOR powder pattern simulations were not elementary extensions of first-order theory as often applied to single-crystallike ENDOR spectra obtained at frozen solution EPR extrema. These simulations addressed the interpretation and the conditions for obtaining consistent

  3. Magnetic Resonance Image Sequence Influences the Relationship between Bone Marrow Lesions Volume and Pain: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subchondral bone marrow lesions (BMLs are related to structural and symptomatic osteoarthritis progression. However, it is unclear how sequence selection influences a quantitative BML measurement and its construct validity. We compared quantitative assessment of BMLs on intermediate-weighted fat suppressed (IW FS turbo spin echo and 3-dimensional dual echo steady state (3D DESS sequences. We used a customized software to measure 30 knees’ (24- and 48-month MR images BMLs on both sequences. The results showed that the IW FS sequences have much larger BML volumes (median: IW FS = 1840 mm3; DESS = 191 mm3 and BML volume change (between 24 and 48 months than DESS sequence and demonstrate more BML volume change. The 24-month BML volume on IW FS is correlated with BML volume on DESS (rs = 0.83. BML volume change on IW FS is not significantly correlated with change on DESS. The 24-month WOMAC pain is correlated with the 24-month BMLs on IW FS (rs = 0.39 but not DESS. The change in WOMAC pain is correlated with BML volume change on IW FS (rs = 0.37 but not DESS. Overall, BML quantification on IW FS offers better validity and statistical power than BML quantification on a 3D DESS sequence.

  4. Obtaining two attosecond pulses pulses for x-ray stimulated Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zholents, Alexander; Penn, G.

    2009-06-23

    Attosecond x-ray pulses are an indispensable tool for the study of electronic and structural changes in molecules undergoing chemical reactions. They have a wide bandwidth comparable to the energy bands of valence electronic states and, therefore, are well suited for making and probing multiple valence electronic excitations using core electron transitions. Here we propose a method of creating a sequence of two attosecond soft x-ray pulses in a free electron laser by optical manipulation of electrons located in two different sections of the electron bunch. The energy of each x-ray pulse can be of the order of 100 nJ and the pulse width of the order of 250 attoseconds. The carrier frequency of each x-ray pulse can be independently tuned to a resonant core electron transition of a specific atom of the molecule. The time interval between the two attosecond pulses is tunable from a few femtoseconds to a hundred femtoseconds with better than 100 attoseconds precision.

  5. Value of Perineural Edema/Inflammation Detected by Fat Saturation Sequences in Lumbar Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Patients with Unilateral Sciatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirvanci, M.; Duran, C. (Dept. of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul Bilim Univ., Istanbul (Turkey)); Kara, B.; Onat, L.; Ulusoy, O.L.; Mutlu, A. (Dept. of Radiology of Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)); Ozturk, E. (Dept. of Radiology, GATA Haydarpasa Teaching Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)); Karatoprak, O. (Dept. of Orthopeadic Surgery, Kadikoy Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey))

    2009-02-15

    Background: Routine lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may not show any evidence of the cause of sciatica in some cases. The relationship between nerve root compression detected on lumbar MRI and sciatica is also sometimes uncertain. Purpose: To ascertain whether axial (and, when necessary, sagittal and coronal) short-tau inversion recovery or fat-saturated T2-weighted MRI findings can be used to study the level of sciatica in patients with a non-yielding routine MRI examination. Material and Methods: A total of 215 patients with unilateral sciatica underwent MRI. All patients were asked to complete pain drawing forms describing their pain dermatomal distributions. Perineural edema/inflammation corresponding to the pain location indicated by the pain drawings was sought on short-tau inversion recovery or fat-saturated T2-weighted images. Results: Routine MRI findings revealed that 110 of the 215 patients had nerve root compromise related to the patients' symptoms. Routine MRI could not ascertain the cause of these symptoms in the remaining 105 patients. In 31 (29.5%) of these 105 patients, short-tau inversion recovery or fat-saturated T2-weighted magnetic resonance images revealed perineural edema/inflammation surrounding the nerve roots related to the pain locations indicated in the pain drawings. Conclusion: Axial (and, when required, sagittal and coronal) short-tau inversion recovery or fat-saturated T2-weighted magnetic resonance images may be helpful for revealing additional findings in cases of unexplained sciatica in standard magnetic resonance imaging. However, the value of this imaging may be not great enough to justify routine use of these additional sequences to study the level of sciatica

  6. Assessment of cardiac function by magnetic resonance imaging: segmented versus real time steady-state free precession sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, Leonardo Bernardo [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: warrenhellwind@yahoo.com.br; Marchiori, Edson; Pontes, Paulo V. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    2006-09-15

    Objective: to compare ventricular systolic parameters on segmented and real-time steady-state free precession cine-MRI sequences and ECG-gated MRI in patients presenting or not with cardiac arrhythmias. Materials and methods: ejection fraction and end-diastolic/end-systolic volumes have been compared in 31 patients, 11 presenting with cardiac arrhythmias, and 20 with regular sinus rhythm, using ECG-gated segmented and real-time sequences. The statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's correlation and Bland-Altman agreement plot, with p < 0.01. Results: real-time acquisitions demonstrated endocardial borders blurring effects, but both sequences presented a clear, positive correlation: ejection fraction r = 0.94; end-diastolic volume r = 0.93 and end-systolic volume r 0.98. The assessment of 11 patients with arrhythmias has not demonstrated a statistically significant difference, despite the lower blood pool-myocardial contrast ratio. Conclusion: real-time sequences may be utilized for cardiac function assessment, regardless the patient's cardiac rhythm. (author)

  7. Variability in prostate and seminal vesicle delineations defined on magnetic resonance images, a multi-observer, -center and -sequence study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, Tufve; Jonsson, Joakim; Söderström, Karin

    2013-01-01

    and approximately equal for the prostate and seminal vesicles. Large differences in variability were observed for individual patients, and also for individual imaging sequences used at the different centers. There was however no indication of decreased variability with higher field strength. CONCLUSION: The overall...

  8. Generation of brain pseudo-CTs using an undersampled, single-acquisition UTE-mDixon pulse sequence and unsupervised clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Kuan-Hao [Case Center for Imaging Research, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 and Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Hu, Lingzhi; Traughber, Melanie [Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, Ohio 44143 (United States); Stehning, Christian; Helle, Michael [Philips Research, Hamburg 22335 (Germany); Qian, Pengjiang [School of Digital Media, Jiangnan University, Jiangsu 214122 (China); Thompson, Cheryl L. [Departments of Family Medicine and Community Health and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 and Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Pereira, Gisele C.; Traughber, Bryan J., E-mail: bryan.traughber@case.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Jordan, David W. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Herrmann, Karin A. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 and Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Muzic, Raymond F. [Case Center for Imaging Research, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: MR-based pseudo-CT has an important role in MR-based radiation therapy planning and PET attenuation correction. The purpose of this study is to establish a clinically feasible approach, including image acquisition, correction, and CT formation, for pseudo-CT generation of the brain using a single-acquisition, undersampled ultrashort echo time (UTE)-mDixon pulse sequence. Methods: Nine patients were recruited for this study. For each patient, a 190-s, undersampled, single acquisition UTE-mDixon sequence of the brain was acquired (TE = 0.1, 1.5, and 2.8 ms). A novel method of retrospective trajectory correction of the free induction decay (FID) signal was performed based on point-spread functions of three external MR markers. Two-point Dixon images were reconstructed using the first and second echo data (TE = 1.5 and 2.8 ms). R2{sup ∗} images (1/T2{sup ∗}) were then estimated and were used to provide bone information. Three image features, i.e., Dixon-fat, Dixon-water, and R2{sup ∗}, were used for unsupervised clustering. Five tissue clusters, i.e., air, brain, fat, fluid, and bone, were estimated using the fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm. A two-step, automatic tissue-assignment approach was proposed and designed according to the prior information of the given feature space. Pseudo-CTs were generated by a voxelwise linear combination of the membership functions of the FCM. A low-dose CT was acquired for each patient and was used as the gold standard for comparison. Results: The contrast and sharpness of the FID images were improved after trajectory correction was applied. The mean of the estimated trajectory delay was 0.774 μs (max: 1.350 μs; min: 0.180 μs). The FCM-estimated centroids of different tissue types showed a distinguishable pattern for different tissues, and significant differences were found between the centroid locations of different tissue types. Pseudo-CT can provide additional skull detail and has low bias and absolute error of

  9. Comparing an accelerated 3D fast spin-echo sequence (CS-SPACE) for knee 3-T magnetic resonance imaging with traditional 3D fast spin-echo (SPACE) and routine 2D sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altahawi, Faysal F.; Blount, Kevin J.; Omar, Imran M. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Morley, Nicholas P. [Marshfield Clinic, Department of Radiology, Marshfield, WI (United States); Raithel, Esther [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    To compare a faster, new, high-resolution accelerated 3D-fast-spin-echo (3D-FSE) acquisition sequence (CS-SPACE) to traditional 2D and high-resolution 3D sequences for knee 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty patients received knee MRIs that included routine 2D (T1, PD ± FS, T2-FS; 0.5 x 0.5 x 3 mm{sup 3}; ∝10 min), traditional 3D FSE (SPACE-PD-FS; 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 mm{sup 3}; ∝7.5 min), and accelerated 3D-FSE prototype (CS-SPACE-PD-FS; 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 mm{sup 3}; ∝5 min) acquisitions on a 3-T MRI system (Siemens MAGNETOM Skyra). Three musculoskeletal radiologists (MSKRs) prospectively and independently reviewed the studies with graded surveys comparing image and diagnostic quality. Tissue-specific signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were also compared. MSKR-perceived diagnostic quality of cartilage was significantly higher for CS-SPACE than for SPACE and 2D sequences (p < 0.001). Assessment of diagnostic quality of menisci and synovial fluid was higher for CS-SPACE than for SPACE (p < 0.001). CS-SPACE was not significantly different from SPACE but had lower assessments than 2D sequences for evaluation of bones, ligaments, muscles, and fat (p ≤ 0.004). 3D sequences had higher spatial resolution, but lower overall assessed contrast (p < 0.001). Overall image quality from CS-SPACE was assessed as higher than SPACE (p = 0.007), but lower than 2D sequences (p < 0.001). Compared to SPACE, CS-SPACE had higher fluid SNR and CNR against all other tissues (all p < 0.001). The CS-SPACE prototype allows for faster isotropic acquisitions of knee MRIs over currently used protocols. High fluid-to-cartilage CNR and higher spatial resolution over routine 2D sequences may present a valuable role for CS-SPACE in the evaluation of cartilage and menisci. (orig.)

  10. Short-pulse properties of optical frequency comb generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacich, R P; Sterr, U; Telle, H R

    2000-08-20

    An optical frequency comb generator, based on a simple electro-optic modulator in an optical resonator, can produce high-repetition-rate picosecond pulses. Unlike conventional picosecond lasers, the properties of these pulses are greatly affected by detuning the optical cavity and by dispersion caused by the electro-optic crystal. Picosecond pulses were studied in a physical device by numerical simulation and intensity autocorrelation measurements. The pulse width and pulse-to-pulse spacing were greatly affected by detuning the input laser frequency and the resonance of the optical resonator, and the numerical simulations showed that dispersion causes temporal ripples that are antisymmetric between pulse pairs.

  11. Comparison of different magnetic resonance cholangiography techniques in living liver donors including Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Kinner

    Full Text Available Preoperative evaluation of potential living liver donors (PLLDs includes the assessment of the biliary anatomy to avoid postoperative complications. Aim of this study was to compare T2-weighted (T2w and Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted (T1w magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC techniques in the evaluation of PLLDs.30 PLLDs underwent MRC on a 1.5 T Magnetom Avanto (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany using (A 2D T2w HASTE (Half Fourier Acquisition Single Shot Turbo Spin Echo fat saturated (fs in axial plane, (B 2D T2w HASTE fs thick slices in coronal plane, (C free breathing 3D T2w TSE (turbo spin echo RESTORE (high-resolution navigator corrected plus (D maximum intensity projections (MIPs, (E T2w SPACE (sampling perfection with application optimized contrasts using different flip angle evolutions plus (F MIPs and (G T2w TSE BLADE as well as Gd-EOB-DTPA T1w images without (G and with (H inversion recovery. Contrast enhanced CT cholangiography served as reference imaging modality. Two independent reviewers evaluated the biliary tract anatomy on a 5-point scale subjectively and objectively. Data sets were compared using a Mann-Whitney-U-test. Kappa values were also calculated.Source images and maximum intensity projections of 3D T2w TSE sequences (RESTORE and SPACE proved to be best for subjective and objective evaluation directly followed by 2D HASTE sequences. Interobserver variabilities were good to excellent (k = 0.622-0.804.3D T2w sequences are essential for preoperative biliary tract evaluation in potential living liver donors. Furthermore, our results underline the value of different MRCP sequence types for the evaluation of the biliary anatomy in PLLDs including Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced T1w MRC.

  12. NMR in pulsed magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Abou-Hamad, Edy

    2011-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments in pulsed magnetic fields up to 30.4 T focused on 1H and 93Nb nuclei are reported. Here we discuss the advantage and limitation of pulsed field NMR and why this technique is able to become a promising research tool. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  13. A peripheral component interconnect express-based scalable and highly integrated pulsed spectrometer for solution state dynamic nuclear polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yugui; Feng, Jiwen; Zhang, Zhi; Wang, Chao; Wang, Dong; Chen, Fang; Liu, Maili; Liu, Chaoyang

    2015-08-01

    High sensitivity, high data rates, fast pulses, and accurate synchronization all represent challenges for modern nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers, which make any expansion or adaptation of these devices to new techniques and experiments difficult. Here, we present a Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe)-based highly integrated distributed digital architecture pulsed spectrometer that is implemented with electron and nucleus double resonances and is scalable specifically for broad dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhancement applications, including DNP-magnetic resonance spectroscopy/imaging (DNP-MRS/MRI). The distributed modularized architecture can implement more transceiver channels flexibly to meet a variety of MRS/MRI instrumentation needs. The proposed PCIe bus with high data rates can significantly improve data transmission efficiency and communication reliability and allow precise control of pulse sequences. An external high speed double data rate memory chip is used to store acquired data and pulse sequence elements, which greatly accelerates the execution of the pulse sequence, reduces the TR (time of repetition) interval, and improves the accuracy of TR in imaging sequences. Using clock phase-shift technology, we can produce digital pulses accurately with high timing resolution of 1 ns and narrow widths of 4 ns to control the microwave pulses required by pulsed DNP and ensure overall system synchronization. The proposed spectrometer is proved to be both feasible and reliable by observation of a maximum signal enhancement factor of approximately -170 for 1H, and a high quality water image was successfully obtained by DNP-enhanced spin-echo 1H MRI at 0.35 T.

  14. Ultrafast Saturation of Electronic-Resonance-Enhanced Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering and Comparison for Pulse Durations in the Nanosecond to Femtosecond Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-05

    the molecular decay and dephasing timescales, it is very im- portant to understand the ultrafast saturation dynamics of the ERE- CARS . Recently, we...probe with the molecular transition [21]. Although saturation of ERE- CARS with long-pulse excitation has been extensively studied [7, 14], the saturation... molecular levels. Three input pulses ~Ei (i → 1, 2, 3) at frequencies νi generate the CARS signal ~E4 at a frequency ν4 = ν1 − ν2+ν3. The pump ( ~E1

  15. Selectivity in multiple quantum nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Warren Sloan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division

    1980-11-01

    The observation of multiple-quantum nuclear magnetic resonance transitions in isotropic or anisotropic liquids is shown to give readily interpretable information on molecular configurations, rates of motional processes, and intramolecular interactions. However, the observed intensity of high multiple-quantum transitions falls off dramatically as the number of coupled spins increases. The theory of multiple-quantum NMR is developed through the density matrix formalism, and exact intensities are derived for several cases (isotropic first-order systems and anisotropic systems with high symmetry) to shown that this intensity decrease is expected if standard multiple-quantum pulse sequences are used. New pulse sequences are developed which excite coherences and produce population inversions only between selected states, even though other transitions are simultaneously resonant. One type of selective excitation presented only allows molecules to absorb and emit photons in groups of n. Coherent averaging theory is extended to describe these selective sequences, and to design sequences which are selective to arbitrarily high order in the Magnus expansion. This theory and computer calculations both show that extremely good selectivity and large signal enhancements are possible.

  16. RF Pulsed Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritzkau, David P.

    2002-01-03

    RF pulsed heating is a process by which a metal is heated from magnetic fields on its surface due to high-power pulsed RF. When the thermal stresses induced are larger than the elastic limit, microcracks and surface roughening will occur due to cyclic fatigue. Pulsed heating limits the maximum magnetic field on the surface and through it the maximum achievable accelerating gradient in a normal conducting accelerator structure. An experiment using circularly cylindrical cavities operating in the TE{sub 011} mode at a resonant frequency of 11.424 GHz is designed to study pulsed heating on OFE copper, a material commonly used in normal conducting accelerator structures. The high-power pulsed RF is supplied by an X-band klystron capable of outputting 50 MW, 1.5 {micro}s pulses. The test pieces of the cavity are designed to be removable to allow testing of different materials with different surface preparations. A diagnostic tool is developed to measure the temperature rise in the cavity utilizing the dynamic Q change of the resonant mode due to heating. The diagnostic consists of simultaneously exciting a TE{sub 012} mode to steady-state in the cavity at 18 GHz and measuring the change in reflected power as the cavity is heated from high-power pulsed RF. Two experimental runs were completed. One run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 120 K for 56 x 10{sup 6} pulses. The second run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 82 K for 86 x 10{sup 6} pulses. Scanning electron microscope pictures show extensive damage occurring in the region of maximum temperature rise on the surface of the test pieces.

  17. Semi-automated repetitive-sequence-based polymerase chain reaction compared to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for Listeria monocytogenes subtyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Sophie; Félix, Benjamin; Colanéri, Cécile; Vignaud, Marie-Léone; Dao, Trinh Tam; Marault, Muriel; Brisabois, Anne

    2010-09-01

    Listeriosis is a severe infection that mainly affects pregnant women, neonates, and immuno-compromised adults. The commercially available semi-automated repetitive-sequence-based polymerase chain reaction assay system, DiversiLab, has been successfully used for subtyping several species of bacteria. In this article we compare the DiversiLab System with macrorestriction analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), which is currently the gold standard for molecular subtyping of Listeria monocytogenes. We used a panel of 116 human and food L. monocytogenes isolates for the comparative evaluation. Among these isolates, there were 4 pairs of duplicates, 13 strains were epidemiologically related, and the remaining food isolates were epidemiologically unrelated. The isolates of different serotypes represented distinct DiversiLab types (DTs) and ApaI/AscI-PFGE types except for one DT-containing isolates of two serotypes, 4b and 1/2b. The four duplicates displayed the same DT and ApaI/AscI PFGE type demonstrating the good reproducibility of the two methods. The epidemiologically related strains were clustered in the same DT and PFGE type. The Simpson's index of diversity was 0.954; 0.988; 0.994; and 0.998 for DiversiLab, AscI-PFGE, ApaI-PFGE, and AscI/ApaI-PFGE, respectively. Thus, PFGE was more discriminating than DiversiLab. However, for 1/2a serotype strains, six AscI-PFGE, three ApaI-PFGE, and one ApaI/AscI PFGE type were divided into different DTs. DiversiLab enabled a good discrimination between serotype 1/2a strains. DiversiLab is less labor intensive than PFGE and provides results in <24 hours compared with 30 hours to 3 days for PFGE from the time a pure culture of the bacteria has been obtained. On the basis of these results, DiversiLab may be useful for tracking the source of contamination in food-processing facilities and their environments. Also, DiversiLab may be more appropriate for long-term epidemiological studies where less discrimination is needed.

  18. Optimized AIR and investigational MOLLI cardiac T1 mapping pulse sequences produce similar intra-scan repeatability in patients at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, KyungPyo; Collins, Jeremy; Lee, Daniel C; Wilcox, Jane E; Markl, Michael; Carr, James; Kim, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to improve the precision of arrhythmia-insensitive rapid (AIR) cardiac T1 mapping through pulse sequence optimization and then evaluate the intra-scan repeatability in patients at 3T against investigational modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) T1 mapping. In the first development phase (five human subjects), we implemented and tested centric-pair k-space ordering to suppress image artifacts associated with eddy currents. In the second development phase (15 human subjects), we determined optimal flip angles to reduce the measurement variation in T1 maps. In the validation phase (35 patients), we compared the intra-scan repeatability between investigational MOLLI and optimized AIR. In 23 cardiac planes, conventional centric k-space ordering (3.7%) produced significantly (p T1 , native blood T1 , post-contrast myocardial T1 , post-contrast blood T1 ), flip angles of 55-65° produced lower measurement variation while producing results that are not significantly different from those produced with the previously used flip angle of 35° (p > 0.89, intra-class correlation coefficient ≥ 0.95 for all four measurement types). Compared with investigational MOLLI (coefficient of repeatability, CR = 40.0, 77.2, 26.5, and 25.9 ms for native myocardial, native blood, post-contrast myocardial, and post-contrast blood T1 , and 2.0% for extracellular volume (ECV) measurements, respectively), optimized AIR (CR = 54.3, 89.7, 30.5, and 14.7 ms for native myocardial, native blood, post-contrast myocardial, and post-contrast blood T1 , and 1.6% for ECV measurements, respectively) produced similar absolute intra-scan repeatability in all 35 patients in the validation phase. High repeatability is critically important for longitudinal studies, where the goal is to monitor physiologic/pathologic changes, not measurement variation. Optimized AIR cardiac T1 mapping is likely to yield high scan-retest repeatability for pre-clinical and clinical

  19. Subacute osteoporotic compression fracture: Misleading magnetic resonance appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frager, D.; Elkin, C.; Swerdlow, M.; Bloch, S.

    1988-03-01

    Three patients with benign subacute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures are presented. T/sub 1/ weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images (SE 500/30) showed decreased vertebral signal. Because the results of the MR examination were thought to indicate malignant disease, extensive medical workups, including one biopsy, were pursued in all three patients. Routine (SE 500/30) spin-echo pulse sequences cannot definitively distinguish between benign and malignant vertebral compression fractures.

  20. Two pulse recoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaneja, Navin; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2017-08-01

    The paper describes a family of novel recoupling pulse sequences in magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state NMR, called two pulse recoupling. These pulse sequences can be employed for both homonuclear and heteronuclear recoupling experiments and are robust to dispersion in chemical shifts and rf-inhomogeneity. The homonuclear pulse sequence consists of a building block (π)ϕ(π) - ϕ where ϕ =π/4n, and n is number of blocks in a rotor period. The recoupling block is made robust to rf-inhomogeneity by extending it to (π)ϕ(π) - ϕ(π) π + ϕ(π) π - ϕ . The heteronuclear recoupling pulse sequence consists of a building block (π)ϕ1(π)-ϕ1 and (π)ϕ2(π)-ϕ2 on channel I and S, where ϕ1 = 3π/8n, ϕ2 = π/8n and n is number of blocks in a rotor period. The recoupling block is made robust to rf-inhomogeneity by extending it to (π)ϕ1(π)-ϕ1(π) π +ϕ1(π) π -ϕ1 and (π)ϕ2(π)-ϕ2(π) π +ϕ2(π) π -ϕ2 on two channels respectively. The recoupling pulse sequences mix the z magnetization. Experimental quantification of this method is shown for 13Cα-13CO homonuclear recoupling in a sample of Glycine and 15N-13Cα heteronuclear recoupling in Alanine. Application of this method is demonstrated on a sample of tripeptide N-formyl-[U-13C,15N]-Met-Leu-Phe-OH (MLF). Compared to R-sequences (Levitt, 2002), these sequences are more robust to rf-inhomogeneity and give better sensitivity, as shown in Fig. 3.

  1. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography: Comparison of two- and three-dimensional sequences for the assessment of pancreatic cystic lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIU, KEFU; XIE, PING; PENG, WEIJUN; ZHOU, ZHENGRONG

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) for the assessment of pancreatic cystic lesions. Between February 2009 and December 2011, 35 patients that had been diagnosed with pancreatic cystic lesions, which was confirmed by surgery and pathology, underwent pre-operative 2D or 3D MRCP for pre-operative evaluation. In the present study, the quality of these 2D and 3D MRCP images, the visualization of the features of the cystic lesions, visualization of the pancreatic main duct and prediction of ductal communication with the cystic lesions were evaluated and compared using statistical software. The 3D MRCP images were determined to be of higher quality compared with the 2D MRCP images. The features of the cystic lesions were visualized better on 3D MRCP compared with 2D MRCP. The same capability for the visualization of the segment of the pancreatic main duct was exhibited by 3D and 2D MRCP. There was no significant difference between the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values of 2D and 3D MRCP, which assessed the prediction of communication between cystic lesions and the pancreatic main duct. It was concluded that, compared with 2D MRCP, 3D MRCP provides an improved assessment of pancreatic cystic lesions, but does not exhibit an improved capability for the visualization of the pancreatic main duct or for the prediction of communication between cystic lesions and the pancreatic main duct. PMID:25789068

  2. Diffusion tensor cardiovascular magnetic resonance with a spiral trajectory: An in vivo comparison of echo planar and spiral stimulated echo sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodezky, Margarita; Scott, Andrew D; Ferreira, Pedro F; Nielles-Vallespin, Sonia; Pennell, Dudley J; Firmin, David N

    2017-12-19

    Diffusion tensor cardiovascular MR (DT-CMR) using stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) with echo-planar-imaging (EPI) readouts is a low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) technique and therefore typically has a low spatial resolution. Spiral trajectories are more efficient than EPI, and could increase the SNR. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of a novel STEAM spiral DT-CMR sequence with an equivalent established EPI technique. A STEAM DT-CMR sequence was implemented with a spiral readout and a reduced field of view. An in vivo comparison of DT-CMR parameters and data quality between EPI and spiral was performed in 11 healthy volunteers imaged in peak systole and diastasis at 3 T. The SNR was compared in a phantom and in vivo. There was a greater than 49% increase in the SNR in vivo and in the phantom measurements (in vivo septum, systole: SNR EPI  = 8.0 ± 2.2, SNR spiral  = 12.0 ± 2.7; diastasis: SNR EPI  = 8.1 ± 1.6, SNR spiral  = 12.0 ± 3.7). There were no significant differences in helix angle gradient (HAG) (systole: HAG EPI  = -0.79 ± 0.07 °/%; HAG spiral  = -0.74 ± 0.16 °/%; P = 0.11; diastasis: HAG EPI  = -0.63 ± 0.05 °/%; HAG spiral  = -0.56 ± 0.14 °/%; P = 0.20), mean diffusivity (MD) in systole (MD EPI  = 0.99 ± 0.06 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s, MD spiral  = 1.00 ± 0.09 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s, P = 0.23) and secondary eigenvector angulation (E2A) (systole: E2A EPI  = 61 ± 10 °; E2A spiral  = 63 ± 10 °; P = 0.77; diastasis: E2A EPI  = 18 ± 11 °; E2A spiral  = 15 ± 8 °; P = 0.20) between the sequences. There was a small difference (≈ 20%) in fractional anisotropy (FA) (systole: FA EPI  = 0.49 ± 0.03, FA spiral  = 0.41 ± 0.04; P parameters were largely similar between the two sequences. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in

  3. Optimal MR pulse sequences for hepatic hemangiomas : comparison of T2-weighted turbo-spin-echo, T2-weighted breath-hold turbo-spin-echo, and T1-weighted FLASH dynamic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wen Chao; Choi, Byung Ihn; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Cho, Soon Gu [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    To optimize MR imaging pulse sequences in the imaging of hepatic hemangioma and to evaluate on dynamic MR imaging the enhancing characteristics of the lesions. Twenty patients with 35 hemangiomas were studied by using Turbo-spin-echo (TSE) sequence (T2-weighted, T2- and heavily T2-weighted breath-hold) and T1-weighted FLASH imaging acquired before, immediately on, and 1, 3 and 5 minutes after injection of a bolus of Gd-DTPA (0.1mmol/kg). Phased-array multicoil was employed. Images were quantitatively analyzed for lesion-to-liver signal difference to noise ratios (SD/Ns), and lesion-to-liver signal ratios (H/Ls), and qualitatively analyzed for lesion conspicuity. The enhancing characteristics of the hemangiomas were described by measuring the change of signal intensity as a curve in T1-weighted FLASH dynamic imaging. For T2-weighted images, breath-hold T2-weighted TSE had a slightly higher SD/N than other pulse sequences, but there was no statistical difference in three fast pulse sequences (p=0.211). For lesion conspicuity, heavily T2-weighted breath-hold TSE images was superior to T2-weighted breath-hold or non-breath-hold TSE (H/L, 5.75, 3.81, 2.87, respectively, p<0.05). T2-weighted breath-hold TSE imaging was more effective than T2-weighted TSE imaging in removing lesion blurring or lack of sharpness, and there was a 12-fold decrease in acquisition time (20sec versus 245 sec). T1-weighted FLASH dynamic images of normal liver showed peak enhancement at less than 1 minute, and of hemangioma at more than 3 minutes;the degree of enhancement for hemangioma decreased after a 3 minute delay. T2-weighed breath-hold TSE imaging and Gd-DTPA enhanced FLASH dynamic imaging with 5 minutes delay are sufficient for imaging hepatic hemangiomas.

  4. Localized one-dimensional single voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy without J coupling modulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanqin; Lin, Liangjie; Wei, Zhiliang; Zhong, Jianhui; Chen, Zhong

    2016-12-01

    To acquire single voxel localized one-dimensional 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) without J coupling modulations, free from amplitude and phase distortions. A pulse sequence, named PRESSIR, is developed for volume localized MRS without J modulations at arbitrary echo time (TE). The J coupling evolution is suppressed by the J-refocused module that uses a 90° pulse at the midpoint of a double spin echo. The localization performance of the PRESSIR sequence was tested with a two-compartment phantom. The proposed sequence shows similar voxel localization accuracy as PRESS. Both PRESSIR and PRESS sequences were performed on MRS brain phantom and pig brain tissue. PRESS spectra suffer from amplitude and phase distortions due to J modulations, especially under moderate and long TEs, while PRESSIR spectra are almost free from distortions. The PRESSIR sequence proposed herein enables the acquisition of single voxel in-phase MRS within a single scan. It allows an enhanced signal intensity of J coupling metabolites and reducing undesired broad resonances with short T2s while suppressing J modulations. Moreover, it provides an approach for direct measurement of nonoverlapping J coupling peaks and of transverse relaxation times T2s. Magn Reson Med 76:1661-1667, 2016. © 2015 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2015 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. Pulse on Pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik; Carlson, Merete

    2012-01-01

    of the visitor’s beating heart to the blink of a fragile light bulb, thereby transforming each light bulb into a register of individual life. But at the same time the blinking light bulbs together produce a chaotically flickering light environment composed by various layers of repetitive rhythms, a vibrant...... and pulsating ‘room’. Hence, the visitors in Pulse Room are invited into a complex scenario that continuously oscillates between various aspects of signification (the light bulbs representing individual lives; the pulse itself as the symbolic ‘rhythm of life’) and instants of pure material processuality...... (flickering light bulbs; polyrhythmic layers). Taking our point of departure in a discussion of Gilles Deleuze’s concepts of modulation and signaletic material in relation to electronic media, we examine how the complex orchestration of pulsation between signification and material modulation produces...

  6. [Evaluation of the right internal iliac artery which is anastomosed to transplant renal artery using non-contrast enhanced MR angiography with electrocardiography-gated and 3D True SSFP time-spatial labeling inversion pulse sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ayako; Shiratori, Yoko; Suzuki, Makoto; Ozasa, Masaya; Takeyama, Mamoru; Eshima, Mitsuhiro; Shinohara, Maiko; Yamamoto, Takao; Tajima, Tsuyoshi

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate whether electrocardiography-gated is useful in non-contrast-enhanced MRA with time-spatial labeling inversion pulse (Time-SLIP) in renal transplantation patients compared with respiration-triggered free-breathing. Simulation-based analyses of black blood time interval (BBTI) values for spatial selective inversion-recovery pulse and electrocardiography rates were performed, and confirmed on human subjects using a three-dimensional (3D) coherent steady-state free precession (SSFP) sequence on a 1.5 tesla Toshiba MRI scanner. Signal acquisition interval and BBTI values in which signal of a water tissue becomes the null point showed a strong correlation, and successfully suppressed signals from the background and provided better contrast between the arteries and the background. Because electrocardiography-gated non-contrast MRA does not depend on the respiration interval, providing a contrast stable, it was suggested to be an effective screening tool for evaluation of pelvic arteries.

  7. Design of universal parallel-transmit refocusing kT -point pulses and application to 3D T2 -weighted imaging at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Vincent; Mauconduit, Franck; Vignaud, Alexandre; Amadon, Alexis; Le Bihan, Denis; Stöcker, Tony; Boulant, Nicolas

    2017-11-29

    T2 -weighted sequences are particularly sensitive to the radiofrequency (RF) field inhomogeneity problem at ultra-high-field because of the errors accumulated by the imperfections of the train of refocusing pulses. As parallel transmission (pTx) has proved particularly useful to counteract RF heterogeneities, universal pulses were recently demonstrated to save precious time and computational efforts by skipping B1 calibration and online RF pulse tailoring. Here, we report a universal RF pulse design for non-selective refocusing pulses to mitigate the RF inhomogeneity problem at 7T in turbo spin-echo sequences with variable flip angles. Average Hamiltonian theory was used to synthetize a single non-selective refocusing pulse with pTx while optimizing its scaling properties in the presence of static field offsets. The design was performed under explicit power and specific absorption rate constraints on a database of 10 subjects using a 8Tx-32Rx commercial coil at 7T. To validate the proposed design, the RF pulses were tested in simulation and applied in vivo on 5 additional test subjects. The root-mean-square rotation angle error (RA-NRMSE) evaluation and experimental data demonstrated great improvement with the proposed universal pulses (RA-NRMSE ∼8%) compared to the standard circularly polarized mode of excitation (RA-NRMSE ∼26%). This work further completes the spectrum of 3D universal pulses to mitigate RF field inhomogeneity throughout all 3D MRI sequences without any pTx calibration. The approach returns a single pulse that can be scaled to match the desired flip angle train, thereby increasing the modularity of the proposed plug and play approach. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. A Q-band low noise GaAs pHEMT MMIC power amplifier for pulse electron spin resonance spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnikov, A; Kalabukhova, E; Oliynyk, V; Kolisnichenko, M

    2017-05-01

    We present the design and development of a single stage pulse power amplifier working in the frequency range 32-38 GHz based on a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC). We have designed the MMIC power amplifier by using the commercially available packaged GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor. The circuit fabrication and assembly process includes the elaboration of the matching networks for the MMIC power amplifier and their assembling as well as the topology outline and fabrication of the printed circuit board of the waveguide-microstrip line transitions. At room ambient temperature, the measured peak output power from the prototype amplifier is 35.5 dBm for 16.6 dBm input driving power, corresponding to 19 dB gain. The measured rise/fall time of the output microwave signal modulated by a high-speed PIN diode was obtained as 5-6 ns at 20-250 ns pulse width with 100 kHz pulse repetition rate frequency.

  9. A Q-band low noise GaAs pHEMT MMIC power amplifier for pulse electron spin resonance spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnikov, A.; Kalabukhova, E.; Oliynyk, V.; Kolisnichenko, M.

    2017-05-01

    We present the design and development of a single stage pulse power amplifier working in the frequency range 32-38 GHz based on a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC). We have designed the MMIC power amplifier by using the commercially available packaged GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor. The circuit fabrication and assembly process includes the elaboration of the matching networks for the MMIC power amplifier and their assembling as well as the topology outline and fabrication of the printed circuit board of the waveguide-microstrip line transitions. At room ambient temperature, the measured peak output power from the prototype amplifier is 35.5 dBm for 16.6 dBm input driving power, corresponding to 19 dB gain. The measured rise/fall time of the output microwave signal modulated by a high-speed PIN diode was obtained as 5-6 ns at 20-250 ns pulse width with 100 kHz pulse repetition rate frequency.

  10. Assessment of Myocardial Fibrosis in Mice Using a T2*-Weighted 3D Radial Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastiaan J van Nierop

    Full Text Available Myocardial fibrosis is a common hallmark of many diseases of the heart. Late gadolinium enhanced MRI is a powerful tool to image replacement fibrosis after myocardial infarction (MI. Interstitial fibrosis can be assessed indirectly from an extracellular volume fraction measurement using contrast-enhanced T1 mapping. Detection of short T2* species resulting from fibrotic tissue may provide an attractive non-contrast-enhanced alternative to directly visualize the presence of both replacement and interstitial fibrosis.To goal of this paper was to explore the use of a T2*-weighted radial sequence for the visualization of fibrosis in mouse heart.C57BL/6 mice were studied with MI (n = 20, replacement fibrosis, transverse aortic constriction (TAC (n = 18, diffuse fibrosis, and as control (n = 10. 3D center-out radial T2*-weighted images with varying TE were acquired in vivo and ex vivo (TE = 21 μs-4 ms. Ex vivo T2*-weighted signal decay with TE was analyzed using a 3-component model. Subtraction of short- and long-TE images was used to highlight fibrotic tissue with short T2*. The presence of fibrosis was validated using histology and correlated to MRI findings.Detailed ex vivo T2*-weighted signal analysis revealed a fast (T2*fast, slow (T2*slow and lipid (T2*lipid pool. T2*fast remained essentially constant. Infarct T2*slow decreased significantly, while a moderate decrease was observed in remote tissue in post-MI hearts and in TAC hearts. T2*slow correlated with the presence of diffuse fibrosis in TAC hearts (r = 0.82, P = 0.01. Ex vivo and in vivo subtraction images depicted a positive contrast in the infarct co-localizing with the scar. Infarct volumes from histology and subtraction images linearly correlated (r = 0.94, P<0.001. Region-of-interest analysis in the in vivo post-MI and TAC hearts revealed significant T2* shortening due to fibrosis, in agreement with the ex vivo results. However, in vivo contrast on subtraction images was rather poor

  11. Assessment of Myocardial Fibrosis in Mice Using a T2*-Weighted 3D Radial Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nierop, Bastiaan J; Bax, Noortje A M; Nelissen, Jules L; Arslan, Fatih; Motaal, Abdallah G; de Graaf, Larry; Zwanenburg, Jaco J M; Luijten, Peter R; Nicolay, Klaas; Strijkers, Gustav J

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial fibrosis is a common hallmark of many diseases of the heart. Late gadolinium enhanced MRI is a powerful tool to image replacement fibrosis after myocardial infarction (MI). Interstitial fibrosis can be assessed indirectly from an extracellular volume fraction measurement using contrast-enhanced T1 mapping. Detection of short T2* species resulting from fibrotic tissue may provide an attractive non-contrast-enhanced alternative to directly visualize the presence of both replacement and interstitial fibrosis. To goal of this paper was to explore the use of a T2*-weighted radial sequence for the visualization of fibrosis in mouse heart. C57BL/6 mice were studied with MI (n = 20, replacement fibrosis), transverse aortic constriction (TAC) (n = 18, diffuse fibrosis), and as control (n = 10). 3D center-out radial T2*-weighted images with varying TE were acquired in vivo and ex vivo (TE = 21 μs-4 ms). Ex vivo T2*-weighted signal decay with TE was analyzed using a 3-component model. Subtraction of short- and long-TE images was used to highlight fibrotic tissue with short T2*. The presence of fibrosis was validated using histology and correlated to MRI findings. Detailed ex vivo T2*-weighted signal analysis revealed a fast (T2*fast), slow (T2*slow) and lipid (T2*lipid) pool. T2*fast remained essentially constant. Infarct T2*slow decreased significantly, while a moderate decrease was observed in remote tissue in post-MI hearts and in TAC hearts. T2*slow correlated with the presence of diffuse fibrosis in TAC hearts (r = 0.82, P = 0.01). Ex vivo and in vivo subtraction images depicted a positive contrast in the infarct co-localizing with the scar. Infarct volumes from histology and subtraction images linearly correlated (r = 0.94, P<0.001). Region-of-interest analysis in the in vivo post-MI and TAC hearts revealed significant T2* shortening due to fibrosis, in agreement with the ex vivo results. However, in vivo contrast on subtraction images was rather poor

  12. Use of new turbo spin-echo pulse sequences with and without fat suppression in diagnosis and staging of prostate carcinoma; Anwendung neuer Turbo-Spin-Echo-Pulssequenzen mit und ohne Fettunterdrueckung bei der Diagnostik und Stadieneinteilung des Prostatakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhard, K. [Krankenhaus Martha-Maria, Nuernberg (Germany). Roentgenabteilung; Hollenbach, H.P. [Siemens Erlangen (Germany). Unternehmungsbereich Medizinische Technik; Rieger, J. [Medizinische Klinik Waldkrankenhaus St. Marien, Erlangen (Germany); Kiefer, B. [Siemens Erlangen (Germany). Unternehmungsbereich Medizinische Technik; Riedl, C. [Erlangen-Nuenberg Univ. (Germany). Urologische Klinik; Kreckel, M. [Erlangen-Nuenberg Univ. (Germany). Urologische Klinik; Schrott, K.M. [Erlangen-Nuenberg Univ. (Germany). Urologische Klinik

    1994-01-01

    MR studies using turbo-spin-echo pulse sequences (TSE) were performed on 27 patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer. A prospective study was conducted in 15 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. Turbo SE pulse sequences generate strongly T{sub 2}-weighted images of excellent quality with reduction of measurement time by a factor of 4-6. A comparison with standard T{sub 2}-weighted spin-echo pulse sequences indicated on objective improvement in the contrast of pathological structures (p<0.001). With respect to differentiation of stages T{sub 2} and T{sub 3} (TNM) during pathohistological correlation, sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 40% and an accuracy rate of 67% were obtained. Sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 75% were obtained when decuding cases of infiltration into the seminal vesicles, with an accuracy rate of 73%. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei 27 Patienten mit histologisch gesichertem Prostatakarzinom wurden MRT-Untersuchungen mit Turbo-Spin-Echo-Pulssequencen (TSE) durchgefuehrt. In 15 Faellen erfolgte eine radikale Prostatektomie. TurboSE-Pulssequenzen erzeugen stark T{sub 2}-gewichtete Bilder mit ausgezeichneter Bildqualitaet bei einer Messzeitverkuerzung in einem Bereich von 4-6. Der Vergleich mit einer Standard-T{sub 2}-gewichteten Spin-Echo-Pulssequenz erbrachte eine objektive Kontrastverbesserung (p<0,001). Bei der pathohistologischen Korrelation konnten bei der Differenzierung zwischen Stadium T{sub 2} und T{sub 3} (TNM) eine Sensitivitaet von 80%, eine Spezifitaet von 40% und eine Treffsicherheit von 67% erreicht werden. Eine Sensitivitaet von 71% und eine Spezifitaet von 75% wurden bei der Beurteilung eines Samenblasenbefalls ermittelt, bei einer Treffsicherheit von 73%. (orig.)

  13. Which cardiovascular magnetic resonance planes and sequences provide accurate measurements of branch pulmonary artery size in children with right ventricular outflow tract obstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijarnsorn, Chodchanok; Rutledge, Jennifer M; Tham, Edythe B; Coe, James Y; Quinonez, Luis; Patton, David J; Noga, Michelle

    2014-02-01

    Children with right ventricular outflow tract obstructive (RVOTO) lesions require precise quantification of pulmonary artery (PA) size for proper management of branch PA stenosis. We aimed to determine which cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) sequences and planes correlated best with cardiac catheterization and surgical measurements of branch PA size. Fifty-five children with RVOTO lesions and biventricular circulation underwent CMR prior to; either cardiac catheterization (n = 30) or surgery (n = 25) within a 6 month time frame. CMR sequences included axial black blood, axial, coronal oblique and sagittal oblique cine balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP), and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with multiplanar reformatting in axial, coronal oblique, sagittal oblique, and cross-sectional planes. Maximal branch PA and stenosis (if present) diameter were measured. Comparisons of PA size on CMR were made to reference methods: (1) catheterization measurements performed in the anteroposterior plane at maximal expansion, and (2) surgical measurement obtained from a maximal diameter sound which could pass through the lumen. The mean differences (Δ) and intra class correlation (ICC) were used to determine agreement between different modalities. CMR branch PA measurements were compared to the corresponding cardiac catheterization measurements in 30 children (7.6 ± 5.6 years). Reformatted MRA showed better agreement for branch PA measurement (ICC > 0.8) than black blood (ICC 0.4-0.6) and cine sequences (ICC 0.6-0.8). Coronal oblique MRA and maximal cross sectional MRA provided the best correlation of right PA (RPA) size with ICC of 0.9 (Δ -0.1 ± 2.1 mm and Δ 0.5 ± 2.1 mm). Maximal cross sectional MRA and sagittal oblique MRA provided the best correlate of left PA (LPA) size (Δ 0.1 ± 2.4 and Δ -0.7 ± 2.4 mm). For stenoses, the best correlations were from coronal oblique MRA of right pulmonary artery (RPA) (Δ -0.2 ± 0.8 mm, ICC 0

  14. Noncritical singly resonant synchronously pumped OPO for generation of picosecond pulses in the mid-infrared near 6.4 microm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peremans, Andre; Lis, Dan; Cecchet, Francesca; Schunemann, Peter G; Zawilski, Kevin T; Petrov, Valentin

    2009-10-15

    The recently developed chalcopyrite CdSiP(2) is employed in a picosecond, 90 degrees -phase-matched, synchronously pumped, optical parametric oscillator pumped at 1064 nm to produce steady-state idler pulses near 6.4 microm with an energy as high as 2.8 microJ at 100 MHz, in a train of 2-micros-long macropulses following at a repetition rate of 25 Hz. Without an intracavity etalon, the 12.6-ps-long micropulses have a spectral width of 240 GHz.

  15. 3D double-echo steady-state sequence assessment of hip joint cartilage and labrum at 3 Tesla: comparative analysis of magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, Christoph; Antoch, Gerald [University of Dusseldorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Hesper, Tobias; Rettegi, Fanni; Zilkens, Christoph; Krauspe, Ruediger; Bittersohl, Bernd [University of Dusseldorf, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Hosalkar, Harish S. [Paradise Valley Hospital, Joint Preservation and Deformity Correction, San Diego, CA (United States); Tri-city Medical Center, Hip Preservation, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-10-15

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of a high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) double-echo steady-state (DESS) sequence with radial imaging at 3 Tesla (T) for evaluating cartilage and labral alterations in the hip. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data obtained at 3 T, including radially reformatted DESS images and intraoperative data of 45 patients (mean age 42 ± 13.7 years) who underwent hip arthroscopy, were compared. The acetabular cartilage and labrum of the upper hemisphere of the acetabulum and the central femoral head cartilage were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and negative and positive predictive values were determined. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the DESS technique were 96.7%, 75% and 93.7% for detecting cartilage lesions and 98%, 76.2% and 95.9% for detecting labral lesions. The positive and negative predictive values for detecting or ruling out cartilage lesions were 96% and 78.9%. For labral lesions, the positive and negative predictive values were 97.5% and 80%. A high-resolution, 3D DESS technique with radial imaging at 3 T demonstrated high accuracy for detecting hip cartilage and labral lesions with excellent interobserver agreement and moderate correlation between MRI and intraoperative assessment. (orig.)

  16. Scan time reduction in {sup 23}Na-Magnetic Resonance Imaging using the chemical shift imaging sequence. Evaluation of an iterative reconstruction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingaertner, Sebastian; Konstandin, Simon; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Wetterling, Friedrich [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Dublin Univ. (Ireland) Trinity Inst. of Neuroscience; Fatar, Marc [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Neurology; Neumaier-Probst, Eva [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate potential scan time reduction in {sup 23}Na-Magnetic Resonance Imaging with the chemical shift imaging sequence (CSI) using undersampled data of high-quality datasets, reconstructed with an iterative constrained reconstruction, compared to reduced resolution or reduced signal-to-noise ratio. CSI {sup 23}Na-images were retrospectively undersampled and reconstructed with a constrained reconstruction scheme. The results were compared to conventional methods of scan time reduction. The constrained reconstruction scheme used a phase constraint and a finite object support, which was extracted from a spatially registered {sup 1}H-image acquired with a double-tuned coil. The methods were evaluated using numerical simulations, phantom images and in-vivo images of a healthy volunteer and a patient who suffered from cerebral ischemic stroke. The constrained reconstruction scheme showed improved image quality compared to a decreased number of averages, images with decreased resolution or circular undersampling with weighted averaging for any undersampling factor. Brain images of a stroke patient, which were reconstructed from three-fold undersampled k-space data, resulted in only minor differences from the original image (normalized root means square error < 12%) and an almost identical delineation of the stroke region (mismatch < 6%). The acquisition of undersampled {sup 23}Na-CSI images enables up to three-fold scan time reduction with improved image quality compared to conventional methods of scan time saving.

  17. Pulse splitting in light propagation through N -type atomic media due to an interplay of Kerr nonlinearity and group-velocity dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajitha K., V.; Dey, Tarak N.; Evers, Jörg; Kiffner, Martin

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the spatiotemporal evolution of a Gaussian probe pulse propagating through a four-level N -type atomic medium. At two-photon resonance of probe and control fields, weaker probe pulses may propagate through the medium with low absorption and pulse shape distortion. In contrast, we find that increasing the probe pulse intensity leads to a splitting of the initially Gaussian pulse into a sequence of subpulses in the time domain. The number of subpulses arising throughout the propagation can be controlled via a suitable choice of the probe and control field parameters. Employing a simple theoretical model for the nonlinear pulse propagation, we conclude that the splitting occurs due to an interplay of Kerr nonlinearity and group-velocity dispersion.

  18. Prefire identification for pulse power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmire, Jerry L. (Los Alamos, NM); Thuot, Michael E. (Espanola, NM); Warren, David S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    Prefires in a high-power, high-frequency, multi-stage pulse generator are detected by a system having an EMI shielded pulse timing transmitter associated with and tailored to each stage of the pulse generator. Each pulse timing transmitter upon detection of a pulse triggers a laser diode to send an optical signal through a high frequency fiber optic cable to a pulse timing receiver which converts the optical signal to an electrical pulse. The electrical pulses from all pulse timing receivers are fed through an OR circuit to start a time interval measuring device and each electrical pulse is used to stop an individual channel in the measuring device thereby recording the firing sequence of the multi-stage pulse generator.

  19. Prefire identification for pulse power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmire, J. L.; Thuot, M. E.; Warren, D. S.

    1985-04-09

    Prefires in a high-power, high-frequency, multi-stage pulse generator are detected by a system having an EMI shielded pulse timing transmitter associated with and tailored to each stage of the pulse generator. Each pulse timing transmitter upon detection of a pulse triggers a laser diode to send an optical signal through a high frequency fiber optic cable to a pulse timing receiver which converts the optical signal to an electrical pulse. The electrical pulses from all pulse timing receivers are fed through an OR circuit to start a time interval measuring device and each electrical pulse is used to stop an individual channel in the measuring device thereby recording the firing sequence of the multi-stage pulse generator.

  20. Prefire identification for pulse-power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmire, J.L.; Thuot, M.E.; Warren, D.S.

    1982-08-23

    Prefires in a high-power, high-frequency, multi-stage pulse generator are detected by a system having an EMI shielded pulse timing transmitter associated with and tailored to each stage of the pulse generator. Each pulse timing transmitter upon detection of a pulse triggers a laser diode to send an optical signal through a high frequency fiber optic cable to a pulse timing receiver which converts the optical signal to an electrical pulse. The electrical pulses from all pulse timing receivers are fed through an OR circuit to start a time interval measuring device and each electrical pulse is used to stop an individual channel in the measuring device thereby recording the firing sequence of the multi-stage pulse generator.

  1. Automatic Substitute Computed Tomography Generation and Contouring for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-Alone External Beam Radiation Therapy From Standard MRI Sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowling, Jason A., E-mail: jason.dowling@csiro.au [CSIRO Australian e-Health Research Centre, Herston, Queensland (Australia); University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales (Australia); Sun, Jidi [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales (Australia); Pichler, Peter [Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Waratah, New South Wales (Australia); Rivest-Hénault, David; Ghose, Soumya [CSIRO Australian e-Health Research Centre, Herston, Queensland (Australia); Richardson, Haylea [Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Waratah, New South Wales (Australia); Wratten, Chris; Martin, Jarad [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales (Australia); Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Waratah, New South Wales (Australia); Arm, Jameen [Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Waratah, New South Wales (Australia); Best, Leah [Department of Radiology, Hunter New England Health, New Lambton, New South Wales (Australia); Chandra, Shekhar S. [School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Fripp, Jurgen [CSIRO Australian e-Health Research Centre, Herston, Queensland (Australia); Menk, Frederick W. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales (Australia); Greer, Peter B. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales (Australia); Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Waratah, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-12-01

    Purpose: To validate automatic substitute computed tomography CT (sCT) scans generated from standard T2-weighted (T2w) magnetic resonance (MR) pelvic scans for MR-Sim prostate treatment planning. Patients and Methods: A Siemens Skyra 3T MR imaging (MRI) scanner with laser bridge, flat couch, and pelvic coil mounts was used to scan 39 patients scheduled for external beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer. For sCT generation a whole-pelvis MRI scan (1.6 mm 3-dimensional isotropic T2w SPACE [Sampling Perfection with Application optimized Contrasts using different flip angle Evolution] sequence) was acquired. Three additional small field of view scans were acquired: T2w, T2*w, and T1w flip angle 80° for gold fiducials. Patients received a routine planning CT scan. Manual contouring of the prostate, rectum, bladder, and bones was performed independently on the CT and MR scans. Three experienced observers contoured each organ on MRI, allowing interobserver quantification. To generate a training database, each patient CT scan was coregistered to their whole-pelvis T2w using symmetric rigid registration and structure-guided deformable registration. A new multi-atlas local weighted voting method was used to generate automatic contours and sCT results. Results: The mean error in Hounsfield units between the sCT and corresponding patient CT (within the body contour) was 0.6 ± 14.7 (mean ± 1 SD), with a mean absolute error of 40.5 ± 8.2 Hounsfield units. Automatic contouring results were very close to the expert interobserver level (Dice similarity coefficient): prostate 0.80 ± 0.08, bladder 0.86 ± 0.12, rectum 0.84 ± 0.06, bones 0.91 ± 0.03, and body 1.00 ± 0.003. The change in monitor units between the sCT-based plans relative to the gold standard CT plan for the same dose prescription was found to be 0.3% ± 0.8%. The 3-dimensional γ pass rate was 1.00 ± 0.00 (2 mm/2%). Conclusions: The MR-Sim setup and automatic s

  2. Code length limit in phase-sensitive OTDR using ultralong (>1M bits) pulse sequences due to fading induced by fiber optical path drifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, H. F.; Shi, K.; Thomsen, B. C.; Martin-Lopez, S.; Gonzalez-Herraez, M.; Savory, S. J.

    2017-04-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that by recovering the amplitude and phase of the backscattered optical signal, a ΦOTDR using pulse coding can be treated as a fully linear system in terms of trace coding/decoding, thus allowing for the use of tens of thousands of bits with a dramatic improvement of the system performance. In this communication, as a continuation of previous work by the same authors, a preliminary study aiming at characterizing the limits of the system in terms of maximum usable code length is presented. Using a code exceeding 1million bits over a duration of 0.26ms, it is observed that fiber optical path variations exceeding ≍π occurring over a time inferior to the pulse code length can lead to localized fading in the ΦOTDR trace. The occurrence, positions and form of the fading points along the ΦOTDR trace is observed to be strongly dependent on the type, frequency and amplitude of the perturbations applied to the fiber.

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... resonance imaging (MRI) uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures ... medical conditions. MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed ...

  4. Reconfigurable optical routers based on Coupled Resonator Induced Transparency resonances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, M; Bettotti, P; Fedeli, J M; Pavesi, L

    2012-10-08

    The interferometric coupling of pairs of resonators in a resonator sequence generates coupled ring induced transparency (CRIT) resonances. These have quality factors an order of magnitude greater than those of single resonators. We show that it is possible to engineer CRIT resonances in tapered SCISSOR (Side Coupled Integrated Space Sequence of Resonator) to realize fast and efficient reconfigurable optical switches and routers handling several channels while keeping single channel addressing capabilities. Tapered SCISSORs are fabricated in silicon-on-insulator technology. Furthermore, tapered SCISSORs show multiple-channel switching behavior that can be exploited in DWDM applications.

  5. Triplet State Resonance Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Jensen, N. H.; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn

    1978-01-01

    Makes the first report on the resonance Raman spectrum of a molecule in its triplet state generated by pulse radiolysis. A solution of 0.01 mol dm-3 of p-terphenyl in benzene was studied......Makes the first report on the resonance Raman spectrum of a molecule in its triplet state generated by pulse radiolysis. A solution of 0.01 mol dm-3 of p-terphenyl in benzene was studied...

  6. Multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and fla short variable region typing of clonal complexes of Campylobacter jejuni strains of human, bovine, and poultry origins in Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragimbeau, Catherine; Schneider, François; Losch, Serge; Even, Jos; Mossong, Joël

    2008-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in Luxembourg, with a marked seasonal peak during summer. The majority of these infections are thought to be sporadic, and the relative contribution of potential sources and reservoirs is still poorly understood. We monitored human cases from June to September 2006 (n = 124) by molecular characterization of isolates with the aim of rapidly detecting temporally related cases. In addition, isolates from poultry meat (n = 36) and cattle cecal contents (n = 48) were genotyped for comparison and identification of common clusters between veterinary and human C. jejuni populations. A total of 208 isolates were typed by sequencing the fla short variable region, macrorestriction analysis resolved by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). We observed a high diversity of human strains during a given summer season. Poultry and human isolates had a higher diversity of sequence types than isolates of bovine origin, for which clonal complexes CC21 (41.6%) and CC61 (18.7%) were predominant. CC21 was also the most common complex found among human isolates (21.8%). The substantial concordance between PFGE and MLST results for this last group of strains suggests that they are clonally related. Our study indicates that while poultry remains an important source, cattle could be an underestimated reservoir of human C. jejuni cases. Transmission mechanisms of cattle-specific strains warrant further investigation.

  7. Quadrature Slotted Surface Coil Pair for Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 4 Tesla: Phantom Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solis S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A coil array was composed of two slotted surface coils forming a structure with two plates at 900, each one having 6 circular slots and is introduced in this paper. Numerical simulations of the magnetic field of this coil array were performed at 170 MHz using the finite element method to study its behaviour. This coil array was developed for brain magnetic resonance imaging to be operated at the resonant frequency of 170 MHz in the transceiver mode and quadrature driven. Numerical simulations demonstrated that electromagnetic interaction between the coil elements is negligible, and that the magnetic field showed a good uniformity. Phantom images were acquired with our coil array and standard pulse sequences on a research-dedicated 4 Tesla scanner. In vitro images showed the feasibility of this coil array for standard pulses and high field magnetic resonance imaging.

  8. Development of a Micro Pulsed Lidar and a Singly-Resonant Optical Parametric Oscillator for CO2 Dial for Use in Atmospheric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantjaroen, Chat

    According to the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), aerosols and CO2 are the largest contributors to anthropogenic radiative forcing--net negative for aerosols and positive for CO2. This relates to the amount of impact that aerosols and CO2 can have on our atmosphere and climate system. CO2 is the predominant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere and causes great impacts on our climate system. Recent studies show that a less well known atmospheric component--aerosols, which are solid particles or liquid droplets suspended in air, can cause great impact on our climate system too. They can affect our climate directly by absorbing and scattering sunlight to warm or cool our climate. They can also affect our climate indirectly by affecting cloud microphysical properties. Typically sulfate aerosols or sea salts act as condensation nuclei for clouds to form. Clouds are estimated to shade about 60% of the earth at any given time. They are preventing much of the sunlight from reaching the earth's surface and are helping with the flow of the global water cycle. These are what permit lifeforms on earth. In the IPCC report, both aerosols and CO2 also have the largest uncertainties and aerosols remains at a low level of scientific understanding. These indicate the need of more accurate measurements and that new technologies and instruments needs to be developed. This dissertation focuses on the development of two instruments--a scannable Micro-Pulsed Lidar (MPL) for atmospheric aerosol measurements and an Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO) for use as a transmitter in a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for atmospheric CO2 measurements. The MPL demonstrates successful measurements of aerosols. It provides the total aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol lidar ratio (Sa) that agree well with an instrument used by the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). It also successfully provides range-resolved information about aerosols

  9. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance petrophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Boqin; Dunn, Keh-Jim

    2005-02-01

    Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) opens a wide area for exploration in petrophysics and has significant impact to petroleum logging technology. When there are multiple fluids with different diffusion coefficients saturated in a porous medium, this information can be extracted and clearly delineated from CPMG measurements of such a system either using regular pulsing sequences or modified two window sequences. The 2D NMR plot with independent variables of T2 relaxation time and diffusion coefficient allows clear separation of oil and water signals in the rocks. This 2D concept can be extended to general studies of fluid-saturated porous media involving other combinations of two or more independent variables, such as chemical shift and T1/T2 relaxation time (reflecting pore size), proton population and diffusion contrast, etc.

  10. Quantification of gadolinium-DTPA concentrations for different inversion times using an IR-turbo flash pulse sequence: a study on optimizing multislice perfusion imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritz-Hansen, T; Rostrup, Egill; Ring, P B

    1998-01-01

    a system responding linearly to input. R1 are linearly related to changes in the concentration of gadolinium (Gd)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and R1 is a parameter that can be derived from the magnetic resonance (MR) signal. The accuracy of calculated R1 using an IR turbo fast low-angle shot......The purpose of this study was to optimize an inversion-recovery (IR) turbo fast low-angle shot (FLASH) for multislice imaging by evaluating the accuracy of calculated the relaxation-rate (R1) for different inversion times (TI). This is important for tracer kinetic modeling because it requires...... was evaluated in phantoms and for increasing TIs using spectroscopically measured R1 values as reference. Signal curves, obtained in vivo after a bolus injection of Gd-DTPA, were used in an analytical computer program to study the effect of different TI-values on accurate calculation of R1. Results show...

  11. Correlating intensity of pulse moment with exploration depth in surface NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jianwei; Li, Zhenyu; Zhang, Yufen; Bernard, Jean; Chen, Lin; Gao, Lan; Xie, Mengying

    2017-07-01

    Because of its selective sensitivity to groundwater, surface nuclear magnetic resonance (SNMR) is a method widely applied in hydrogeology and engineering geology. However, the accurate numerical relationship between pulse moment intensity and exploration depth of this method has lacked research. Optimum pulse moment is a concept proposed to describe this correlation. By analyzing, using least-square fitting, various factors that may influence this correlation, an empirical relation for the optimum pulse moment has been obtained. The relation indicates a well-known law: to get a deeper exploration depth, a larger optimum pulse moment is needed. Moreover, from the relation, we found that the increase rate of exploration depth diminishes with the pulse moment increasing. Additionally, the correlation illustrates that the optimum exploration depth of the surface NMR method is not simply proportional to the loop diameter. Hence, to further extend the exploration depth, both the pulse moment intensity and the size of transmitter loop need to be increased simultaneously. Based on a synthetic example, we demonstrate that the optimum pulse sequence which is established from our empirical formula has a better inversion result and higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) when the probable depth range of the target aquifer is known.

  12. Investigation of the effect of a variety of pulse errors on spin I=1 quadrupolar alignment echo spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiang; Sun, Cheng; Boutis, Gregory S

    2011-08-01

    We report on an analysis of a well known three-pulse sequence for generating and detecting spin I=1 quadrupolar order when various pulse errors are taken into account. In the situation of a single quadrupolar frequency, such as the case found in a single crystal, we studied the potential leakage of single and/or double quantum coherence when a pulse flip error, finite pulse width effect, RF transient or a resonance offset is present. Our analysis demonstrates that the four-step phase cycling scheme studied is robust in suppressing unwanted double and single quantum coherence as well as Zeeman order that arise from the experimental artifacts, allowing for an unbiased measurement of the quadrupolar alignment relaxation time, T(1Q). This work also reports on distortions in quadrupolar alignment echo spectra in the presence of experimental artifacts in the situation of a powdered sample, by simulation. Using our simulation tool, it is demonstrated that the spectral distortions associated with the pulse artifacts may be minimized, to some extent, by optimally choosing the time between the first two pulses. We highlight experimental results acquired on perdeuterated hexamethylbenzene and polyethylene that demonstrate the efficacy of the phase cycling scheme for suppressing unwanted quantum coherence when measuring T(1Q). It is suggested that one employ two separate pulse sequences when measuring T(1Q) to properly analyze the short time behavior of quadrupolar alignment relaxation data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Coherent combining pulse bursts in time domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvanauskas, Almantas

    2018-01-09

    A beam combining and pulse stacking technique is provided that enhances laser pulse energy by coherent stacking pulse bursts (i.e. non-periodic pulsed signals) in time domain. This energy enhancement is achieved by using various configurations of Fabry-Perot, Gires-Tournois and other types of resonant cavities, so that a multiple-pulse burst incident at either a single input or multiple inputs of the system produces an output with a solitary pulse, which contains the summed energy of the incident multiple pulses from all beams. This disclosure provides a substantial improvement over conventional coherent-combining methods in that it achieves very high pulse energies using a relatively small number of combined laser systems, thus providing with orders of magnitude reduction in system size, complexity, and cost compared to current combining approaches.

  14. Fast Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Short-Lived Radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Hansen, Karina Benthin

    1976-01-01

    We report the first application of pulsed resonance Raman spectroscopy to the study of short-lived free radicals produced by pulse radiolysis. A single pulse from a flash-lamp pumped tunable dye laser is used to excite the resonance Raman spectrum of the p-terphenyl anion radical with an initial...

  15. Forearm Muscle Volumes Can Be Accurately Quantified From High Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    OpenAIRE

    Eng, Carolyn M.; Abrams, Geoff D.; Smallwood, Laura R.; Lieber, Richard L.; Ward, Samuel R.

    2007-01-01

    Upper extremity musculoskeletal modeling is becoming increasingly sophisticated, creating a growing need for subject-specific muscle size parameters. One method for determining subject-specific muscle volume is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of MRI-derived muscle volumes in the human forearm across a variety of muscle sizes and shapes. Seventeen cadaveric forearms were scanned using a fast spoiled gradient echo pulse sequence with hig...

  16. A compact Class D RF power amplifier for mobile nuclear magnetic resonance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, J; Dykstra, R; Eccles, C; Gouws, G; Obruchkov, S

    2017-07-01

    A 20 MHz Class D amplifier with an output of 100 W of RF power has been developed. The compact size printed circuit board area of 50 cm2 and efficiency of 73% make it suitable for mobile nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) systems. Test results show that the rise and ring down times of the amplifier are less than 0.2 μs, and it is capable of producing constant amplitude pulses as short as 2 μs. Experiments using a Carr Purcell Meiboom Gill pulse sequence with a NMR MOUSE sensor confirm that the Class D amplifier is suitable for mobile NMR applications.

  17. A compact Class D RF power amplifier for mobile nuclear magnetic resonance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, J.; Dykstra, R.; Eccles, C.; Gouws, G.; Obruchkov, S.

    2017-07-01

    A 20 MHz Class D amplifier with an output of 100 W of RF power has been developed. The compact size printed circuit board area of 50 cm2 and efficiency of 73% make it suitable for mobile nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) systems. Test results show that the rise and ring down times of the amplifier are less than 0.2 μs, and it is capable of producing constant amplitude pulses as short as 2 μs. Experiments using a Carr Purcell Meiboom Gill pulse sequence with a NMR MOUSE sensor confirm that the Class D amplifier is suitable for mobile NMR applications.

  18. Separate pulmonary artery and vein magnetic resonance angiography by use of an arterial spin labeling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuaki, Tomoyuki; Ishimoto, Tsuyoshi; Miyati, Tosiaki; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Ishihara, Masaru; Kawakami, Momoe; Ogino, Tetsuo; Van Cauteren, Marc

    2014-07-01

    A separate pulmonary vein (PV) is difficult to depict with the commonly used bright-blood magnetic resonance angiography method. Until now, no study has described the depiction of peripheral PVs without the artery. Our purpose in this study was to develop an arterial spin labeling (ASL)-based magnetic resonance angiography sequence to depict the pulmonary artery (PA) and vein separately. We developed such a sequence by using two inversion recovery pulses. The first pulse was non-selective, and the second pulse was selective and was applied to the aorta and heart. All studies were conducted on a 1.5-T clinical magnetic resonance system with six different inversion times for seven healthy volunteers. For evaluation, we categorized the inversion times by using visual scoring. Then, we used the magnitude image to evaluate the PA, and we used the real image to evaluate the PV. For the PA, an inversion time of 300 ms had the lowest score (1.43), and the score changed with increasing times; an inversion time of 1,100 ms had the highest score (3.85). For the PV, an inversion time of 300 ms had the highest score (2.68), and the score decreased with increasing times. The results indicated that the PA and vein could be depicted separately by the use of an ASL-based magnetic resonance angiography method. The optimal inversion times for the PV and artery were 300 and 1,100 ms, respectively.

  19. A digital magnetic resonance imaging spectrometer using digital signal processor and field programmable gate array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Binghe, Sun; Yueping, Ma; Ruyan, Zhao

    2013-05-01

    A digital spectrometer for low-field magnetic resonance imaging is described. A digital signal processor (DSP) is utilized as the pulse programmer on which a pulse sequence is executed as a subroutine. Field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices that are logically mapped into the external addressing space of the DSP work as auxiliary controllers of gradient control, radio frequency (rf) generation, and rf receiving separately. The pulse programmer triggers an event by setting the 32-bit control register of the corresponding FPGA, and then the FPGA automatically carries out the event function according to preset configurations in cooperation with other devices; accordingly, event control of the spectrometer is flexible and efficient. Digital techniques are in widespread use: gradient control is implemented in real-time by a FPGA; rf source is constructed using direct digital synthesis technique, and rf receiver is constructed using digital quadrature detection technique. Well-designed performance is achieved, including 1 μs time resolution of the gradient waveform, 1 μs time resolution of the soft pulse, and 2 MHz signal receiving bandwidth. Both rf synthesis and rf digitalization operate at the same 60 MHz clock, therefore, the frequency range of transmitting and receiving is from DC to ~27 MHz. A majority of pulse sequences have been developed, and the imaging performance of the spectrometer has been validated through a large number of experiments. Furthermore, the spectrometer is also suitable for relaxation measurement in nuclear magnetic resonance field.

  20. Pulse Oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people need more oxygen when asleep than when awake. Some need more oxygen with activity than when ... oxygen saturation levels (below 80%) or with very dark skin. When should I use a pulse oximeter? ...

  1. Advances in magnetic resonance 5

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 5 deals with the interpretation of ESR spectra and provides descriptions of experimental apparatus. This book discusses the halogen hyperfine interactions; organic radicals in single crystals; pulsed-Fourier-transform nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer; and inhomogenizer and decoupler. The spectrometers for multiple-pulse NMR; weak collision theory of relaxation in the rotating frame; and spin Hamiltonian for the electron spin resonance of irradiated organic single crystals are also deliberated. This text likewise covers the NMR in helium three and m

  2. A medical device-grade T1 and ECV phantom for global T1 mapping quality assurance—the T1 Mapping and ECV Standardization in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (T1MES) program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Captur, Gabriella; Gatehouse, Peter; Keenan, Kathryn; Heslinga, Friso Gerben; Bruehl, Ruediger; Prothmann, Marcel; Graves, Martin J.; Eames, Richard J.; Torlasco, Camilla; Benedetti, Giulia; Donovan, Jacqueline; Itterman, Bernd; Boubertakh, Redha; Bathgate, Andrew; Royet, Celine; Pang, Wenjie; Nezafat, Reza; Salerno, Michael; Kellman, Peter; Moon, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Background T1 mapping and extracellular volume (ECV) have the potential to guide patient care and serve as surrogate end-points in clinical trials, but measurements differ between cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) scanners and pulse sequences. To help deliver T1 mapping to global clinical

  3. [Use of multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for the study of serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis isolates from Casablanca (Morocco)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerouali, K; Castelli, P; Van Looveren, M; El Mdaghri, N; Boudouma, M; Benbachir, M; Nicolas, P

    2006-04-01

    A previous study showed that B:4:P1.15 was the most frequent phenotype of Neisseria meningitidis isolated in Casablanca (Morocco). To determine if there was an epidemic clone, MLST and PFGE were used to compare 13 B:4:P1.15 strains isolated from September 1999 to December 2000. MLST showed 4 Sequence Types (ST): ST-33 was the most frequent ST (9/13 strains) and 4 strains belonged to 3 newly described STs. Twelve stains belonged to ST-32 complex, and one strain presenting a new ST (ST-2502) did not belong to any known ST complex. The analysis by PFGE showed that the strains were subdivided into 7 clusters, and that there was no epidemic clone. MLST is useful for long-term epidemiological studies on N. meningitidis strains from varied geographical origins. PFGE seemed to be well adapted to the comparison of a small number of strains isolated during a short period within a defined community.

  4. SPIDYAN, a MATLAB library for simulating pulse EPR experiments with arbitrary waveform excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribitzer, Stephan; Doll, Andrin; Jeschke, Gunnar

    2016-02-01

    Frequency-swept chirp pulses, created with arbitrary waveform generators (AWGs), can achieve inversion over a range of several hundreds of MHz. Such passage pulses provide defined flip angles and increase sensitivity. The fact that spectra are not excited at once, but single transitions are passed one after another, can cause new effects in established pulse EPR sequences. We developed a MATLAB library for simulation of pulse EPR, which is especially suited for modeling spin dynamics in ultra-wideband (UWB) EPR experiments, but can also be used for other experiments and NMR. At present the command line controlled SPin DYnamics ANalysis (SPIDYAN) package supports one-spin and two-spin systems with arbitrary spin quantum numbers. By providing the program with appropriate spin operators and Hamiltonian matrices any spin system is accessible, with limits set only by available memory and computation time. Any pulse sequence using rectangular and linearly or variable-rate frequency-swept chirp pulses, including phase cycling can be quickly created. To keep track of spin evolution the user can choose from a vast variety of detection operators, including transition selective operators. If relaxation effects can be neglected, the program solves the Liouville-von Neumann equation and propagates spin density matrices. In the other cases SPIDYAN uses the quantum mechanical master equation and Liouvillians for propagation. In order to consider the resonator response function, which on the scale of UWB excitation limits bandwidth, the program includes a simple RLC circuit model. Another subroutine can compute waveforms that, for a given resonator, maintain a constant critical adiabaticity factor over the excitation band. Computational efficiency is enhanced by precomputing propagator lookup tables for the whole set of AWG output levels. The features of the software library are discussed and demonstrated with spin-echo and population transfer simulations.

  5. SPIDYAN, a MATLAB library for simulating pulse EPR experiments with arbitrary waveform excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribitzer, Stephan; Doll, Andrin; Jeschke, Gunnar

    2016-02-01

    Frequency-swept chirp pulses, created with arbitrary waveform generators (AWGs), can achieve inversion over a range of several hundreds of MHz. Such passage pulses provide defined flip angles and increase sensitivity. The fact that spectra are not excited at once, but single transitions are passed one after another, can cause new effects in established pulse EPR sequences. We developed a MATLAB library for simulation of pulse EPR, which is especially suited for modeling spin dynamics in ultra-wideband (UWB) EPR experiments, but can also be used for other experiments and NMR. At present the command line controlled SPin DYnamics ANalysis (SPIDYAN) package supports one-spin and two-spin systems with arbitrary spin quantum numbers. By providing the program with appropriate spin operators and Hamiltonian matrices any spin system is accessible, with limits set only by available memory and computation time. Any pulse sequence using rectangular and linearly or variable-rate frequency-swept chirp pulses, including phase cycling can be quickly created. To keep track of spin evolution the user can choose from a vast variety of detection operators, including transition selective operators. If relaxation effects can be neglected, the program solves the Liouville-von Neumann equation and propagates spin density matrices. In the other cases SPIDYAN uses the quantum mechanical master equation and Liouvillians for propagation. In order to consider the resonator response function, which on the scale of UWB excitation limits bandwidth, the program includes a simple RLC circuit model. Another subroutine can compute waveforms that, for a given resonator, maintain a constant critical adiabaticity factor over the excitation band. Computational efficiency is enhanced by precomputing propagator lookup tables for the whole set of AWG output levels. The features of the software library are discussed and demonstrated with spin-echo and population transfer simulations. Copyright © 2016

  6. In vivo measurement of water self diffusion in the human brain by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Henriksen, O; Ring, P

    1987-01-01

    coefficient of water with different temperatures. This phantom study showed that the water self diffusion could be measured accurately and that the inplane deviation was less than +/- 10 per cent. Seven healthy volunteers were studied with a 10 mm thick slice through the lateral ventricles, clear differences......A new pulse sequence for in vivo diffusion measurements by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is introduced. The pulse sequence was tested on phantoms to evaluate the accuracy, reproducibility and inplane variations. The sensitivity of the sequence was tested by measuring the self diffusion...... intracranial hypertension. The results indicate that brain water self diffusion can be measured in vivo with reasonable accuracy. The clinical examples suggest that diffusion measurements may be clinically useful adding further information about in vivo MR tissue characterization....

  7. In vivo measurement of water self diffusion in the human brain by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Henriksen, O; Ring, P

    1987-01-01

    A new pulse sequence for in vivo diffusion measurements by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is introduced. The pulse sequence was tested on phantoms to evaluate the accuracy, reproducibility and inplane variations. The sensitivity of the sequence was tested by measuring the self diffusion...... coefficient of water with different temperatures. This phantom study showed that the water self diffusion could be measured accurately and that the inplane deviation was less than +/- 10 per cent. Seven healthy volunteers were studied with a 10 mm thick slice through the lateral ventricles, clear differences...... between grey and white matter as well as regional differences within the white matter were seen. In two patients with infarction, alternations in water self diffusion were seen in the region of the infarct. Likewise, pronounced changes in brain water self diffusion were observed in a patient with benign...

  8. Subjective and objective image qualities: a comparison of sagittal T2 weighted spin-echo and turbo-spin-eco sequences in magnetic resonance imaging of the spine by use of a subjective ranking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerres, G. [Institut fuer diagnostische Radiologie, Departement Radiologie, Universitaetskliniken, Kantonsspital Basel (Switzerland); Mader, I. [Radiologische Gemeinschaftspraxis Dres. Siems, Grossmann, Bayreuth (Germany); Proske, M. [Klinikum Rosenheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    1998-12-31

    We evaluated the subjective image impression of two different magnetic resonance (MR) sequences by using a subjective ranking system. This ranking system was based on 20 criteria describing several tissue characteristics such as the signal intensity of normal anatomical structures and the changes of signal intensities and shape of lesions as well as artefacts. MR of the vertebral spine was performed in 48 female and 52 male patients (mean age 44.8 years) referred consecutively for investigation of a back problem. Ninety-six pathologies were found in 82 patients. Sagittal and axial T1 weighted spin-echo before and after administration of Gadolinium (Gd-DOTA), and sagittal T2 weighted spin-echo (T2wSE) and Turbo-spin-echo (TSE) sequences were performed by means of surface coils. Using the subjective ranking system the sagittal T2wSE and sagittal TSE were compared. Both sequences were suitable for identification of normal anatomy and pathologic changes and there was no trend for increased detection of disease by one imaging sequence over the other. We found that sagittal TSE sequences can replace sagittal T2wSE sequences in spinal MR and that artefacts at the cervical and lumbar spine are less frequent using TSE, thus confirming previous studies. In this study, our ranking system reveiled, that there are differences between the subjective judgement of image qualities and objective measurement of SNR. However, this approach may not be helpful to compare two different MR sequences as it is limited to the anatomical area investigated and is time consuming. The subjective image impression, i.e. the quality of images, may not always be represented by physical parameters such as a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), radiologists should try to define influences of image quality also by subjective parameters. (orig.)

  9. Pulse-to-pulse intensity modulation and drifting subpulses in recycled pulsars

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, R; Stappers, B. W.

    2003-01-01

    We report the detection of pulse-to-pulse periodic intensity modulations, in observations of recycled pulsars. Even though the detection of individual pulses was generally not possible due to their low flux density and short duration, through the accumulation of statistics over sequences of 10^5--10^6 pulses we were able to determine the presence and properties of the pulse-to-pulse intensity variations of six pulsars. In most cases we found that the modulation included a weak, broadly quasi-...

  10. Study of a continuous plasma generated by electron bombardment and its mixing with a laser induced plasma. Influence of collisions on resonance cone phenomenon; Contribution a l`etude d`un plasma cree de facon continue par bombardement electronique et de son melange avec un photo-plasma pulse. Influence des collisions sur les cones de resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besuelle, E.

    1997-02-25

    This thesis deals with three different fields of plasma physics. In the first part, we studied free expansion of an ionised uranium vapour generated in an electron beam evaporator. The electron temperature and the electron density of the expanding plasma have been measured by a Langmuir probe. The experimental results have been compared with the ones obtained by numerical simulation using a fluid code. The calculated points are in the error bars. We observe that there are two electron populations with different temperatures, which undergo a mixing during the plasma expansion. The neutral density influence on the electron temperature by collisional relaxation is also studied. The second part deals with a plasma diagnostic which can replace Langmuir probe in the case of a cold magnetized plasma: the resonance cone phenomenon. After recalling the wave propagation theory in a cold plasma, we introduce a new calculation of the potential radiated by an antenna in a collisional magnetized plasma. The domain where the resonance cone exists in considerably reduced because of collisions. More of that, the cone angle is reduced by this phenomenon too. The experiments performed show that we must take into account a wave turbulence phenomenon to explain the High collision frequency that we observe. The third part is about the study of the expansion of a plasma into another one. We solve this problem with fluid codes and Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code. THe electron families have a counter stream motion locally. Then, we study the electrostatic extraction of two plasmas-one pulsed, one continuous-in which we observe electron unfurling. (author).

  11. Treatment Pulse Application for Magnetic Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Seob Choi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment and diagnosis can be made in difficult areas simply by changing the output pulse form of the magnetic stimulation device. However, there is a limitation in the range of treatments and diagnoses of a conventional sinusoidal stimulation treatment pulse because the intensity, width, and form of the pulse must be changed according to the lesion type. This paper reports a multidischarge method, where the stimulation coils were driven in sequence via multiple switching control. The limitation of the existing simple sinusoidal pulse form could be overcome by changing the intensity, width, and form of the pulse. In this study, a new sequential discharge method was proposed to freely alter the pulse width. The output characteristics of the stimulation treatment pulse were examined according to the trigger signal delay applied to the switch at each stage by applying a range of superposition pulses to the magnetic simulation device, which is widely used in industry and medicine.

  12. A SEmi-Adiabatic matched-phase spin echo (SEAMS) PINS pulse-pair for B1 -insensitive simultaneous multislice imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Rebecca E; Islam, Haisam M; Xu, Junqian; Balchandani, Priti

    2016-02-01

    Simultaneous multislice (SMS) imaging is a powerful technique that can reduce image acquisition time for anatomical, functional, and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging. At higher magnetic fields, such as 7 Tesla, increased radiofrequency (RF) field inhomogeneity, power deposition, and changes in relaxation parameters make SMS spin echo imaging challenging. We designed an adiabatic 180° Power Independent of Number of Slices (PINS) pulse and a matched-phase 90° PINS pulse to generate a SEmi-Adiabatic Matched-phase Spin echo (SEAMS) PINS sequence to address these issues. We used the adiabatic Shinnar Le-Roux (SLR) algorithm to generate a 180° pulse. The SLR polynomials for the 180° pulse were then used to create a matched-phase 90° pulse. The pulses were sub-sampled to produce a SEAMS PINS pulse-pair and the performance of this pulse-pair was validated in phantoms and in vivo. Simulations as well as phantom and in vivo results, demonstrate multislice capability and improved B1 -insensitivity of the SEAMS PINS pulse-pair when operating at RF amplitudes of up to 40% above adiabatic threshold. The SEAMS PINS approach presented here achieves multislice spin echo profiles with improved B1 -insensitivity when compared with a conventional spin echo. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Pulse plating

    CERN Document Server

    Hansal, Wolfgang E G; Green, Todd; Leisner, Peter; Reichenbach, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The electrodeposition of metals using pulsed current has achieved practical importance in recent years. Although it has long been known that changes in potential, with or without polarity reversal, can significantly affect the deposition process, the practical application of this has been slow to be adopted. This can largely be explained in terms of the complex relationship between the current regime and its effect on the electrodeposition process. In order to harness these effects, an understanding of the anodic and cathodic electrochemical processes is necessary, together with the effects of polarity reversal and the rate of such reversals. In this new monograph, the basics of metal electrodeposition from solution are laid out in great detail in seven distinct chapters. With this knowledge, the reader is able to predict how a given pulse train profile can be adopted to achieve a desired outcome. Equally important is the choice of a suitable rectifier and the ancillary control circuits to enable pulse platin...

  14. MEDEA II two-pulse generator development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Honig, J.; Theby, E.A. (McDonnell Douglas Research Laboratories, P. O. Box 516, St. Louis, Missouri 63166 (USA))

    1990-06-01

    This article discusses improvements in the efficiency, output power, and operational flexibility of MEDEA II, a double-pulse electron beam accelerator at McDonnell Douglas Research Laboratories. A modified charging circuit, based on the triple-resonance pulse transformer concept, was implemented on both of MEDEA II's two stages. The output switches were modified to increase maximum output voltages, and a new, second output switch with asymmetric breakdown characteristics was developed. To avoid degradation of the second-pulse output waveform at the diode, a keep-alive circuit was installed. The effects of diode closure on double-pulse operation are also discussed.

  15. MEDEA II two-pulse generator development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Honig, J.; Theby, E. A.

    1990-06-01

    This article discusses improvements in the efficiency, output power, and operational flexibility of MEDEA II, a double-pulse electron beam accelerator at McDonnell Douglas Research Laboratories. A modified charging circuit, based on the triple-resonance pulse transformer concept, was implemented on both of MEDEA II's two stages. The output switches were modified to increase maximum output voltages, and a new, second output switch with asymmetric breakdown characteristics was developed. To avoid degradation of the second-pulse output waveform at the diode, a keep-alive circuit was installed. The effects of diode closure on double-pulse operation are also discussed.

  16. Lattices of dielectric resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Trubin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This book provides the analytical theory of complex systems composed of a large number of high-Q dielectric resonators. Spherical and cylindrical dielectric resonators with inferior and also whispering gallery oscillations allocated in various lattices are considered. A new approach to S-matrix parameter calculations based on perturbation theory of Maxwell equations, developed for a number of high-Q dielectric bodies, is introduced. All physical relationships are obtained in analytical form and are suitable for further computations. Essential attention is given to a new unified formalism of the description of scattering processes. The general scattering task for coupled eigen oscillations of the whole system of dielectric resonators is described. The equations for the  expansion coefficients are explained in an applicable way. The temporal Green functions for the dielectric resonator are presented. The scattering process of short pulses in dielectric filter structures, dielectric antennas  and lattices of d...

  17. Double Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Crystal Chemistry at the Lattice Positions of Diamagnetic Atoms, Both Structural, and Foreign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shchepkin, V.D.; Vainshtein, D.I.; Dautov, R.A.; Vinokurov, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    Double nuclear magnetic resonance (DNMR) with Jeener's pulsed sequence on proton and fluorine frequencies was used to investigate the electric quadrupole interactions of (i) 23Na in Na2Cd(SO4)2·2H2O, B20=±218.5±1 kHz, B22=±98±5 kHz, (ii) of 23Na, which enter the crystal, CaF2:Na+ (0.07 wt. %)

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hricak, H.; Crooks, L.; Sheldon, P.; Kaufman, L.

    1983-02-01

    The role of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging of the kidney was analyzed in 18 persons (6 normal volunteers, 3 patients with pelvocaliectasis, 2 with peripelvic cysts, 1 with renal sinus lipomatosis, 3 with renal failure, 1 with glycogen storage disease, and 2 with polycystic kidney disease). Ultrasound and/or computed tomography (CT) studies were available for comparison in every case. In the normal kidney distinct anatomical structures were clearly differentiated by NMR. The best anatomical detail ws obtained with spin echo (SE) imaging, using a pulse sequence interval of 1,000 msec and an echo delay time of 28 msec. However, in the evaluation of normal and pathological conditions, all four intensity images (SE 500/28, SE 500/56, SE 1,000/28, and SE 1,000/56) have to be analyzed. No definite advantage was found in using SE imaging with a pulse sequence interval of 1,500 msec. Inversion recovery imaging enhanced the differences between the cortex and medulla, but it had a low signal-to-noise level and, therefore, a suboptimal overall resolution. The advantages of NMR compared with CT and ultrasound are discussed, and it is concluded that NMR imaging will prove to be a useful modality in the evaluation of renal disease.

  19. Sequence-specific {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N resonance assignments for intestinal fatty-acid-binding protein complexed with palmitate (15.4 kDA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodsdon, M.E.; Toner, J.J.; Cistola, D.P. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Intestinal fatty-acid-binding protein (I-FABP) belongs to a family of soluble, cytoplasmic proteins that are thought to function in the intracellular transport and trafficking of polar lipids. Individual members of this protein family have distinct specificities and affinities for fatty acids, cholesterol, bile salts, and retinoids. We are comparing several retinol- and fatty-acid-binding proteins from intestine in order to define the factors that control molecular recognition in this family of proteins. We have established sequential resonance assignments for uniformly {sup 13}C/{sup 15}N-enriched I-FABP complexed with perdeuterated palmitate at pH7.2 and 37{degrees}C. The assignment strategy was similar to that introduced for calmodulin. We employed seven three-dimensional NMR experiments to establish scalar couplings between backbone and sidechain atoms. Backbone atoms were correlated using triple-resonance HNCO, HNCA, TOCSY-HMQC, HCACO, and HCA(CO)N experiments. Sidechain atoms were correlated using CC-TOCSY, HCCH-TOCSY, and TOCSY-HMQC. The correlations of peaks between three-dimensional spectra were established in a computer-assisted manner using NMR COMPASS (Molecular Simulations, Inc.) Using this approach, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N resonance assignments have been established for 120 of the 131 residues of I-FABP. For 18 residues, amide {sup 1}H and {sup 15}N resonances were unobservable, apparently because of the rapid exchange of amide protons with bulk water at pH 7.2. The missing amide protons correspond to distinct amino acid patterns in the protein sequence, which will be discussed. During the assignment process, several sources of ambiguity in spin correlations were observed. To overcome this ambiguity, the additional inter-residue correlations often observed in the HNCA experiment were used as cross-checks for the sequential backbone assignments.

  20. Technical innovation in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of musculoskeletal tumors: an MR angiographic sequence using a sparse k-space sampling strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Laura M; Mugera, Charles; Soldatos, Theodoros; Flammang, Aaron; del Grande, Filippo

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate the clinical use of an MR angiography sequence performed with sparse k-space sampling (MRA), as a method for dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI, and apply it to the assessment of sarcomas for treatment response. Three subjects with sarcomas (2 with osteosarcoma, 1 with high-grade soft tissue sarcomas) underwent MRI after neoadjuvant therapy/prior to surgery, with conventional MRI (T1-weighted, fluid-sensitive, static post-contrast T1-weighted sequences) and DCE-MRI (MRA, time resolution = 7-10 s, TR/TE 2.4/0.9 ms, FOV 40 cm(2)). Images were reviewed by two observers in consensus who recorded image quality (1 = diagnostic, no significant artifacts, 2 = diagnostic, 75 % with good response, >75 % with poor response). DCE-MRI findings were concordant with histological response (arterial enhancement with poor response, no arterial enhancement with good response). Unlike conventional DCE-MRI sequences, an MRA sequence with sparse k-space sampling is easily integrated into a routine musculoskeletal tumor MRI protocol, with high diagnostic quality. In this preliminary work, tumor enhancement characteristics by DCE-MRI were used to assess treatment response.

  1. Reproducibility of area at risk assessment in acute myocardial infarction by T1- and T2-mapping sequences in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in comparison to Tc99m-sestamibi SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Birgit; Nadjiri, Jonathan; Jähnichen, Christin; Kastrati, Adnan; Martinoff, Stefan; Hadamitzky, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Area at risk (AAR) is an important parameter for the assessment of the salvage area after revascularization in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). By combining AAR assessment by T2-weighted imaging and scar quantification by late gadolinium enhancement imaging cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) offers a promising alternative to the "classical" modality of Tc99m-sestamibi single photon emission tomography (SPECT). Current T2 weighted sequences for edema imaging in CMR are limited by low contrast to noise ratios and motion artifacts. During the last years novel CMR imaging techniques for quantification of acute myocardial injury, particularly the T1-mapping and T2-mapping, have attracted rising attention. But no direct comparison between the different sequences in the setting of AMI or a validation against SPECT has been reported so far. We analyzed 14 patients undergoing primary coronary revascularization in AMI in whom both a pre-intervention Tc99m-sestamibi-SPECT and CMR imaging at a median of 3.4 (interquartile range 3.3-3.6) days after the acute event were performed. Size of AAR was measured by three different non-contrast CMR techniques on corresponding short axis slices: T2-weighted, fat-suppressed turbospin echo sequence (TSE), T2-mapping from T2-prepared balanced steady state free precession sequences (T2-MAP) and T1-mapping from modified look locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequences. For each CMR sequence, the AAR was quantified by appropriate methods (absolute values for mapping sequences, comparison with remote myocardium for other sequences) and correlated with Tc99m-sestamibi-SPECT. All measurements were performed on a 1.5 Tesla scanner. The size of the AAR assessed by CMR was 28.7 ± 20.9 % of left ventricular myocardial volume (%LV) for TSE, 45.8 ± 16.6 %LV for T2-MAP, and 40.1 ± 14.4 %LV for MOLLI. AAR assessed by SPECT measured 41.6 ± 20.7 %LV. Correlation analysis revealed best correlation with SPECT for T2-MAP at a T2-threshold of 60 ms

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of anterior cruciate ligament of the knee: a comparison of four sequences; Valoracion del ligamento cruzado anterior de la rodilla con RM: comparacion de cuatro secuencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casillas, C.; Marti-Bonmati, L.; Molla, E.; Ferrer, P.; Dosda, R. [Clinical Quiron-ATQ. Valencia (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    To compare the diagnostic efficacy of the four magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences that compose the standard protocol for the study of the knee in our center when employed in the examination of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). A prospective study was carried out based on MRI findings in the knees of 326 consecutive patients. Sagittal [proton density (PD{sub w}eighted turbo-spin-echo and T2*-weighted gradient echo], coronal (PD-weighted turbo-spin-echo with fat suppression) and transverse (T2*-weighted gradient echo with magnetization transfer) images were evaluated. Each sequence was analyzed independently by two radiologists, while another two assessed all the sequences together with the clinical findings. Four categories were established: normal ACL, partially torn, completely torn and synovialized. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) with respect to the definitive diagnosis were calculated for each sequence. The statistical analysis of the findings for each category was done using the chi-squared test and the Kappa test was employed to assess the degree of agreement. According to the final diagnosis, 263 ACL were normal, 29 were partially torn, 33 were completely torn and there was 1 case of synovialization associated with a completely torn ACL. The relationship between the analysis of the ACL according to each sequence and the definitive diagnosis was very significant (p<0.001) and the agreement was excellent. All the sequences presented similar levels of diagnostic precision. The coronal sequence had least number of diagnostic errors (2.1%). The combinations of imaging techniques that resulted in the lowest error rate with respect to the definitive diagnosis were coronal PD-weighted turbo-spin-echo with fat suppression and sagittal PD-weighted turbo-spin-echo. Coronal images are highly precise in the evaluation of ACL. Sagittal sequences are the most valid for diagnosis of torn ACL

  3. Magnetic resonance urography by virtual reality modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigi, Navid; Sangild, Thomas; Terkildsen, Søren Vorre; Deding, Dorthe; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Pedersen, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a 3D visualization of the urinary tract by a novel virtual reality approach, and to evaluate the usefulness of this method for papillary classification as compared with 2D urogram obtained by maximum intensity projection (MIP). In one healthy pig, magnetic resonance urography was performed using a T1-weighted 3D gradient echo pulse sequence. Post-processing was performed by means of an MIP algorithm and by using 3D virtual reality modelling, followed by manual classification of papillae as being either simple or compound. The 2D MIP urogram demonstrated 6 simple and 6 compound papillae, whereas the 3D urogram demonstrated 5 simple and 7 compound papillae. In both urograms, some papillae were unsuccessfully classified. The possibility of using virtual reality devices allowed 3D rotation and offered additional diagnostic information. However, further studies should reveal its feasibility in diseased kidneys.

  4. Quantum information processing and nuclear magnetic resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Cummins, H K

    2001-01-01

    as spectrometer pulse sequence programs. Quantum computers are information processing devices which operate by and exploit the laws of quantum mechanics, potentially allowing them to solve problems which are intractable using classical computers. This dissertation considers the practical issues involved in one of the more successful implementations to date, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Techniques for dealing with systematic errors are presented, and a quantum protocol is implemented. Chapter 1 is a brief introduction to quantum computation. The physical basis of its efficiency and issues involved in its implementation are discussed. NMR quantum information processing is reviewed in more detail in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 considers some of the errors that may be introduced in the process of implementing an algorithm, and high-level ways of reducing the impact of these errors by using composite rotations. Novel general expressions for stabilising composite rotations are presented in Chapter 4 and a new class o...

  5. Nanoscale nuclear magnetic resonance with chemical resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Nabeel; Pfender, Matthias; Neumann, Philipp; Reuter, Rolf; Zappe, Andrea; Fávaro de Oliveira, Felipe; Denisenko, Andrej; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Onoda, Shinobu; Isoya, Junichi; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a key analytical technique in chemistry, biology, and medicine. However, conventional NMR spectroscopy requires an at least nanoliter-sized sample volume to achieve sufficient signal. We combined the use of a quantum memory and high magnetic fields with a dedicated quantum sensor based on nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond to achieve chemical shift resolution in 1H and 19F NMR spectroscopy of 20-zeptoliter sample volumes. We demonstrate the application of NMR pulse sequences to achieve homonuclear decoupling and spin diffusion measurements. The best measured NMR linewidth of a liquid sample was ~1 part per million, mainly limited by molecular diffusion. To mitigate the influence of diffusion, we performed high-resolution solid-state NMR by applying homonuclear decoupling and achieved a 20-fold narrowing of the NMR linewidth.

  6. Nonparametric estimation of ultrasound pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Leeman, Sidney

    1994-01-01

    An algorithm for nonparametric estimation of 1D ultrasound pulses in echo sequences from human tissues is derived. The technique is a variation of the homomorphic filtering technique using the real cepstrum, and the underlying basis of the method is explained. The algorithm exploits a priori...

  7. 14N Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Signals in Paranitrotoluene and Trinitrotoluene. Spin-Lock Spin-Echo Off-Resonance Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorovič, Alan; Apih, Tomaž; Lužnik, Janko; Pirnat, Janez; Trontelj, Zvone

    A simple, yet effective technique to enhance the 14N NQR trinitrotoluene notoriously low sensitivity is the use of multipulse sequences. Here we investigate the off-resonance effects of the Spin-Lock Spin-Echo multipulse sequence, a predecessor of many advanced pulse sequences used for the same enhancement. Two samples have been used: paranitrotoluene, with a single 14N site as a model compound for trinitrotoluene, and trinitrotoluene itself, with six 14N sites. Our main focus has been the irradiation frequency dependence of the NQR signal, which is important when 14N NQR is used for remote detection of explosives. The two related principal issues are: the target temperature uncertainty and the existence of multiplets with several closely spaced resonance frequencies. The first applies to any explosive, since in remote detection the temperature is only approximately known, whereas the second applies mainly to trinitrotoluene, with 12 resonance frequencies between 837 and 871 kHz. Our frequency dependent investigation shows that the signal intensity as well as the effective spinspin relaxation time varies substantially with irradiation frequency in both samples. We provide a theoretical explanation of this variation which describes very well the observations and can be useful for increasing the reliability of remote detection signal processing.

  8. Diffusion Weighted Imaging in Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Prostate Cancer Diagnosis: Current Efficiency as a Standalone Sequence for an Unenhanced MRI Experience - a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nechifor-Boilă I.A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI is the main sequence in the multiparametric prostate MRI protocol together with T2 and dynamic contrast-enhanced T1, leading to detection rates up to 60% in prostate cancer diagnosis. However, the use of intravenous contrast can have severe side-effects, making the use of unenhanced MRI sequences essential. The aim of our study was to assess the feasibility and efficiency of DWI as a standalone MRI technique for prostate cancer diagnosis. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study at our department (09.2014-05.2015 and formed a study lot consisting in five prostate cancer patients that were scheduled for radical prostatectomy. Multiparametric MRI was performed (with DWI and T2 sequences and the images were interpreted according to the PI-RADS system. The final histopathological result after prostatectomy served as gold standard. Results: A series of 9 lesions were detected and analyzed on DWI. At qualitative interpretation, DWI had a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 50%. The corresponding positive and negative likelihood ratios were 1.71 and 0.286, respectively (p=0.417. ADC analysis revealed a mean value of 1.2*10-3mm2/s for the benign lesions while the corresponding value was 0.8*10-3 for the malignant ones, regardless of tumor size and Gleason scoring. Conclusion: DWI is a feasible technique in the current clinical environment, with a good sensitivity and a medium specificity. Furthermore, an association to the anatomical T2 sequence could enhance the diagnostic efficiency of DWI and should be assessed in larger studies.

  9. RF synchronized short pulse laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuwa, Yasuhiro, E-mail: fuwa@kyticr.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Tongu, Hiromu; Inoue, Shunsuke; Hashida, Masaki; Sakabe, Shuji [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Okamura, Masahiro [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Yamazaki, Atsushi [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A laser ion source that produces shortly bunched ion beam is proposed. In this ion source, ions are extracted immediately after the generation of laser plasma by an ultra-short pulse laser before its diffusion. The ions can be injected into radio frequency (RF) accelerating bucket of a subsequent accelerator. As a proof-of-principle experiment of the ion source, a RF resonator is prepared and H{sub 2} gas was ionized by a short pulse laser in the RF electric field in the resonator. As a result, bunched ions with 1.2 mA peak current and 5 ns pulse length were observed at the exit of RF resonator by a probe.

  10. Safety of Pulsed High Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Enhanced Drug and Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Anthony W.; Wang, Honghui; Farahani, Keyvan; Thomasson, David; O'Neill, Brian; Angstadt, Mary; Jesson, Johnny; Li, King C. P.

    2007-05-01

    For a limited range of exposure parameters, pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been shown to increase the delivery of certain systemically administered macromolecular diagnostic and therapeutic agents in mice. The mechanism for the enhanced delivery has not been demonstrated definitively and, in principle, can include thermal, cavitational, and non-cavitation mechanical effects. The sonicated tissue has no damage on histology. As a step towards clinical translation, the safety of this technique needs to be assessed in a clinically relevant manner. In this study, the safety of pulsed HIFU is evaluated with near real-time phase shift magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry and anatomic MR imaging using rabbits as subjects. MR guidance enables pulsed HIFU enhanced delivery to be implemented safely from a thermal standpoint. Although the effects of pulsed HIFU are not seen on anatomic MR images, they may be detected on MR sequences sensitive to permeability, diffusion, and elasticity. Such work that may optimize pulsed HIFU enhanced delivery is in progress.

  11. Ring resonator systems to perform optical communication enhancement using soliton

    CERN Document Server

    Amiri, Iraj Sadegh

    2014-01-01

    The title explain new technique of secured and high capacity optical communication signals generation by using the micro and nano ring resonators. The pulses are known as soliton pulses which are more secured due to having the properties of chaotic and dark soliton signals with ultra short bandwidth. They have high capacity due to the fact that ring resonators are able to generate pulses in the form of solitons in multiples and train form. These pulses generated by ring resonators are suitable in optical communication due to use the compact and integrated rings system, easy to control, flexibi

  12. Broadband excitation in solid-state NMR using interleaved DANTE pulse trains with N pulses per rotor period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xingyu; Trébosc, Julien; Lafon, Olivier; Carnevale, Diego; Ulzega, Simone; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Amoureux, Jean-Paul

    2013-11-01

    We analyze the direct excitation of wide one-dimensional spectra of nuclei with spin I=1/2 or 1 in rotating solids submitted to pulse trains in the manner of Delays Alternating with Nutations for Tailored Excitation (DANTE), either with one short rotor-synchronized pulse of duration τp in each of K rotor periods (D1(K)) or with N interleaved equally spaced pulses τp in each rotor period, globally also extending over K rotor periods (D(N)(K)). The excitation profile of D(N)(K) scheme is a comb of rf-spikelets with Nν(R)=N/T(R) spacing from the carrier frequency, and a width of each spikelet inversely proportional to the length, KT(R), of D(N)(K) scheme. Since the individual pulse lengths, τp, are typically of a few hundreds of ns, D(N)(K) scheme can readily excite spinning sidebands families covering several MHz, provided the rf carrier frequency is close enough to the resonance frequency of one the spinning sidebands. If the difference of isotropic chemical shifts between distinct chemical sites is less than about 1.35/(KT(R)), D(N)(K) scheme can excite the spinning sidebands families of several sites. For nuclei with I=1/2, if the homogeneous and inhomogeneous decays of coherences during the DANTE sequence are neglected, the K pulses of a D1(K) train have a linearly cumulative effect, so that the total nutation angle is θ(tot)=K2πν1τp, where ν1 is the rf-field amplitude. This allows obtaining nearly ideal 90° pulses for excitation or 180° rotations for inversion and refocusing across wide MAS spectra comprising many spinning sidebands. If one uses interleaved DANTE trains D(N)(K) with N>1, only spinning sidebands separated by intervals of Nν(R) with respect to the carrier frequency are observed as if the effective spinning speed was Nν(R). The other sidebands have vanishing intensities because of the cancellation of the N contributions with opposite signs. However, the intensities of the remaining sidebands obey the same rules as in spectra obtained

  13. Resonance assignment of disordered protein with repetitive and overlapping sequence using combinatorial approach reveals initial structural propensities and local restrictions in the denatured state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Nikita; Kumar, Ashutosh, E-mail: askutoshk@iitb.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Department of Bioscience and Bioengineering (India)

    2016-09-15

    NMR resonance assignment of intrinsically disordered proteins poses a challenge because of the limited dispersion of amide proton chemical shifts. This becomes even more complex with the increase in the size of the system. Residue specific selective labeling/unlabeling experiments have been used to resolve the overlap, but require multiple sample preparations. Here, we demonstrate an assignment strategy requiring only a single sample of uniformly labeled {sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-protein. We have used a combinatorial approach, involving 3D-HNN, CC(CO)NH and 2D-MUSIC, which allowed us to assign a denatured centromeric protein Cse4 of 229 residues. Further, we show that even the less sensitive experiments, when used in an efficient manner can lead to the complete assignment of a complex system without the use of specialized probes in a relatively short time frame. The assignment of the amino acids discloses the presence of local structural propensities even in the denatured state accompanied by restricted motion in certain regions that provides insights into the early folding events of the protein.

  14. High frequency and pulse scattering physical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Pierce, Allan D

    1992-01-01

    High Frequency and Pulse Scattering investigates high frequency and pulse scattering, with emphasis on the phenomenon of echoes from objects. Geometrical and catastrophe optics methods in scattering are discussed, along with the scattering of sound pulses and the ringing of target resonances. Caustics and associated diffraction catastrophes are also examined.Comprised of two chapters, this volume begins with a detailed account of geometrically based approximation methods in scattering theory, focusing on waves transmitted through fluid and elastic scatterers and glory scattering; surface ray r

  15. A set of triple-resonance nuclear magnetic resonance experiments for structural characterization of organophosphorus compounds in mixture samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskela, Harri, E-mail: Harri.T.Koskela@helsinki.fi [VERIFIN, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 31}P triple-resonance NMR pulse experiments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analysis of organophosphorus (OP) compounds in complex matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Selective extraction of {sup 1}H, {sup 31}P, and {sup 13}C chemical shifts and connectivities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More precise NMR identification of OP nerve agents and their degradation products. - Abstract: The {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C correlation NMR spectroscopy utilizes J{sub CH} couplings in molecules, and provides important structural information from small organic molecules in the form of carbon chemical shifts and carbon-proton connectivities. The full potential of the {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C correlation NMR spectroscopy has not been realized in the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) related verification analyses due to the sample matrix, which usually contains a high amount of non-related compounds obscuring the correlations of the relevant compounds. Here, the results of the application of {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 31}P triple-resonance NMR spectroscopy in characterization of OP compounds related to the CWC are presented. With a set of two-dimensional triple-resonance experiments the J{sub HP}, J{sub CH} and J{sub PC} couplings are utilized to map the connectivities of the atoms in OP compounds and to extract the carbon chemical shift information. With the use of the proposed pulse sequences the correlations from the OP compounds can be recorded without significant artifacts from the non-OP compound impurities in the sample. Further selectivity of the observed correlations is achieved with the application of phosphorus band-selective pulse in the pulse sequences to assist the analysis of multiple OP compounds in mixture samples. The use of the triple-resonance experiments in the analysis of a complex sample is shown with a test mixture containing typical scheduled OP compounds, including the characteristic degradation

  16. Two-quantum many-body coherences in two-dimensional fourier-transform spectra of exciton resonances in semiconductor quantum wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaiskaj, Denis; Bristow, Alan D; Yang, Lijun; Dai, Xingcan; Mirin, Richard P; Mukamel, Shaul; Cundiff, Steven T

    2010-03-19

    We present experimental coherent two-dimensional Fourier-transform spectra of Wannier exciton resonances in semiconductor quantum wells generated by a pulse sequence that isolates two-quantum coherences. By measuring the real part of the signals, we determine that the spectra are dominated by two-quantum coherences due to mean-field many-body interactions, rather than bound biexcitons. Simulations performed using dynamics controlled truncation agree with the experiments.

  17. Magnetic resonance urography in pediatrics: utilization of ultrafast single-shot spin echo sequences; Urografia por resonancia magnetic en pediatria: utilizacion de las secuencias ultrarrapidas single shot en eco del espin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.; Martin, J.; Duran, C. [Unidad de Diagnostico por la Imagen de Alta Tecnologia (UDIAT). Sabadell (Spain); Rigol, S.; Rojo, J. C. [Corporacion Sanatiaria Parc Tauli. Sabadell (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    To determine the value of magnetic resonance urography (MRU) using ultrafast single-shot (SS) rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) and half-Fourier (HF) SS-RARE (SS-HF-RARE or HASTE) in the evaluation of congenital urinary tract anomalies in pediatric patients, and their possible application as alternatives to intravenous urography (IVU). Eighteen children (11 boys and 7 girls) aged 2 months to 15 years (mean: 5 years) with a total of 19 congenital urinary tract anomalies were studies by MU using SS-RARE and HASTE sequences in a 1 Tesla scanner. All the patients had previously been studies by ultrasound (US) and IVU. Twelve patients required anesthesia. The images were acquired by means of a HASTE sequence with multisection technique (TR, infinite; TE{sub e}f, 87 msec; echo train, 128; interval between echoes, 10.9 msec; total acquisition time, 13 sections/12 seconds), and SS-RARE (TR, infinite; TE{sub e}f, 1.100 msec; echo train, 240, and acquisition time, 7 seconds). Four radiologists evaluated the images independently; two who reviewed the IV images in consensus and two who reviewed the MRU images in consensus. The images were evaluated to assess the dilatation of the urinary tract and their utility in detecting the level and cause of the obstruction. MRU images revealed the urinary tract dilation, the level of the obstruction and the type of anomaly in 18 patients (100%), while IVU provided this information in only 10 [ sensitivity, 53%, 95% confidence interval (29%, 76%)]. The mean time required for MRU was 20 minutes (range: 7 to 30 minutes), while that of IVU was 1,242 minutes (range: 45 to 1,440 minutes). MRU using ultrafast single-short spin echo sequences is a rapid and effective technique that permits and excellent evaluation of congenital urinary tract anomalies in pediatric patients and does not require the administration of contrast media or ionizing radiation. (Author) 10 refs.

  18. Prevalência de artefatos em exames de ressonância magnética do abdome utilizando a seqüência GRASE: comparável com as melhores seqüências rápidas? Prevalence of artifacts in abdominal magnetic resonance imaging using GRASE sequence: a comparison with TSE sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Vieira Francisco

    2005-09-01

    ência semelhante e geralmente sem interferência na avaliação das imagens.OBJECTIVE: To determine the overall frequency of artifacts per type and grade using the GRASE sequence in abdominal magnetic resonance; to compare GRASE sequences with two previously selected TSE sequences as well as sequences with best signal-noise ratio and lower incidence of artifacts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective self-paired study was carried out in 86 patients submitted to upper abdominal magnetic resonance using a GRASE sequence obtained upon respiratory triggered and fat suppression and six TSE T2-weighted sequences. Among the six TSE sequences, those bearing the best signal-noise ratio and lower number of artifacts were previously selected, which consisted of those performed with fat suppression and respiratory triggering: one using a conventional body coil (sequence 1 and a second sequence using a synergy coil (sequence 2. Image analysis was carried out by two observers upon consensus regarding the presence, grade and type of artifact thereon. Subsequently, data were statistically analyzed using the Friedman test and chi-square. RESULTS: The absolute frequency of artifacts in all sequences was 65.02%. Most common artifacts in the three sequences analyzed were breathing (30% and pulsation (33% artifacts. Only in 3% of the cases artifacts interfered with the analysis of the images. The frequency of artifacts in the different sequences was: GRASE, 67.2%; TSE sequence 1, 62.2%; TSE sequence 2, 65.5%. There was no significant statistical difference between artifact frequency seen with GRASE and TSE sequences (p = 0.845; NS. CONCLUSION: GRASE and TSE T2-weighted, respiratory triggered, fat suppressed sequences often produce artifacts, notwithstanding the coil, although, with similar frequency and generally without interfering with the evaluation of the images.

  19. Evidence of soil-building resonance, building frequency shift and (maybe) site-city interaction during the 2002 Molise seismic sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallipoli, M. R.; Masi, A.; Mucciarelli, M.; Ponzo, F.; Vona, M.

    2003-04-01

    After the 2002 seismic sequence in Molise (Italy), most of the reinforced concrete buildings in the town of Bonefro suffered slight damage, except for two RC buildings. The two buildings are located on soft sediments, close to each others and very similar in design and construction. The main difference is height: the most damaged one (EMS damage 4) is 4 floors tall, while the less damaged (EMS 2) is 3 floor. After the M=5.4 shock on Oct. 31 both were already damaged, but the second shock on Nov 1st (M=5.3) caused the major damage. Just 1 minute before the second shock we started a 5 min. seismic recording at the last floor of the tallest building. It was thus possible to record 1 min. of ambient noise followed by the strong shock, another M=4.1 event and another min. of ambient noise. We analysed the data using three different techniques: HVSR, wavelet and STFT. All results agree, showing the change of frequency due to damage and to non-linearity in building dynamic response. All the fundamental frequencies observed are in the range 1.25-2 Hz. On the other hand, the less damaged building showed its fundamental frequency at 4 Hz. We then investigated the fundamental frequency of soil with three different techniques: noise HVSR, strong motion HVSR of 5 aftershocks and 1-d modelling based on a velocity profiled derived from NASW measurements. Again, the results are in good agreement, showing that the soil frequency is very close to the one of the more damaged building. Finally, a close scrutiny of STFT analysis for separate horizontal components revealed a possible site-city interaction effect.

  20. Faster pediatric 3-T abdominal magnetic resonance imaging: comparison between conventional and variable refocusing flip-angle single-shot fast spin-echo sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruangwattanapaisarn, Nichanan [Mahidol University, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiology, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok (Thailand); Stanford University, LPCH Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Loening, Andreas M.; Saranathan, Manojkumar; Vasanawala, Shreyas S. [Stanford University, LPCH Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Litwiller, Daniel V. [GE Healthcare, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) is particularly appealing in pediatric patients because of its motion robustness. However radiofrequency energy deposition at 3 tesla forces long pauses between slices, leading to longer scans, longer breath-holds and more between-slice motion. We sought to learn whether modulation of the SSFSE refocusing flip-angle train could reduce radiofrequency energy deposition without degrading image quality, thereby reducing inter-slice pauses and overall scan times. We modulated the refocusing flip-angle train for SSFSE to minimize energy deposition while minimizing blurring and motion-related signal loss. In a cohort of 50 consecutive patients (25 boys, mean age 5.5 years, range 1 month to 17 years) referred for abdominal MRI we obtained standard SSFSE and variable refocusing flip-angle (vrfSSFSE) images and recorded sequence scan times. Two readers independently scored the images in blinded, randomized order for noise, tissue contrast, sharpness, artifacts and left lobe hepatic signal uniformity on a four-point scale. The null hypothesis of no difference between SSFSE and vrfSSFSE image-quality was assessed with a Mann-Whitney U test, and the null hypothesis of no scan time difference was assessed with the paired t-test. SSFSE and vrfSSFSE mean acquisition times were 54.3 and 26.2 s, respectively (P-value <0.0001). For each reader, SSFSE and vrfSSFSE noise, tissue contrast, sharpness and artifacts were not significantly different (P-values 0.18-0.86). However, SSFSE had better left lobe hepatic signal uniformity (P < 0.01, both readers). vrfSSFSE is twice as fast as SSFSE, with equivalent image quality with the exception of left hepatic lobe signal heterogeneity. (orig.)

  1. Superluminal pulse reflection from a weakly absorbing dielectric slab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Gang; Zhu, Shi-Yao

    2006-07-15

    Group delay for a reflected light pulse from a weakly absorbing dielectric slab is theoretically investigated, and large negative group delay is found for weak absorption near a resonance of the slab [Re(kd)=mpi]. The group delay for both the reflected and transmitted pulses will be saturated with an increase of the absorption.

  2. Quantum Computation with Ultrafast Laser Pulse Shaping

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 6. Quantum Computation with Ultrafast Laser Pulse Shaping. Debabrata Goswami. General Article Volume 10 Issue 6 June 2005 pp 8-14. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. Optimizing pTILT perfusion imaging in the presence of off-resonance frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Cheng; Sutton, Bradley P

    2013-07-01

    To optimize the perfusion measurements and to recover loss of tagging efficiency from the blood flow measurements in the presence of static field inhomogeneity with the pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling technique of pTILT, which is sensitive to off-resonance effects due to the employment of concatenated radiofrequency (RF) pulses for labeling. Numerical Bloch simulations were performed to explore the labeling responses of concatenated RF pulses (45°, ±45°) in pTILT as a function of off-resonance frequency. A correction method was proposed by curve-fitting the measured blood flow signal to the signal model obtained from the simulations. The performance of the proposed correction method was examined for three healthy subjects on a 3 Tesla magnet after good shimming as well as under a "worst-case" scenario with deliberate mis-shimming. In cases after good shimming, in which the off-resonance frequency was less than 50 Hz, the perfusion measurements by the optimized pTILT sequence were improved by 12.7% compared with the original pTILT. With a "worst-case" mis-shimming and frequency offset by 80 Hz, the blood flow signal was increased by 68.9% and 64.8% for optimized global and localized pTILT, respectively. Addressing the impact of off-resonance frequency on concatenated RF pulses, tagging efficiency can be effectively recovered in pTILT perfusion measurements. This strategy may be extended to other applications of concatenated RF pulses where sensitivity to magnetic field inhomogeneity prevents accurate quantification. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. MR-Guided Sclerotherapy of Low-Flow Vascular Malformations Using T2-Weighted Interrupted bSSFP (T2W-iSSFP): Comparison of Pulse Sequences for Visualization and Needle Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Di; Herzka, Daniel A.; Gilson, Wesley D.; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Lewin, Jonathan S.; Weiss, Clifford R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Image-guided treatment of low-flow vascular (venous or lymphatic) malformations presents a challenging visualization problem, regardless of the imaging modality being used for guidance. The purpose of this study was to employ a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence, T2-weighted interrupted balanced steady-state free precession (T2W-iSSFP), for real-time image guidance of needle insertion. Materials and Methods T2W-iSSFP uses variable flip angle balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP, a.k.a. SSFP) to establish T2-weighting and fat suppression. Swine (n = 3) and patients (n = 4, three female, all with venous malformations) were enrolled in the assessment. T2-weighted turbo spin echo (T2-TSE) with spectral adiabatic inversion recovery (SPAIR), SPAIR-T2-TSE or T2-TSE for short, was used as the reference. T2-weighted half Fourier acquired single shot turbo spin echo (T2-HASTE) with SPAIR (SPAIR-T2-HASTE, T2-HASTE for short), fat saturated bSSFP (FS-SSFP), and T2W-iSSFP were imaged. Numeric metrics, namely, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) efficiency (CNR divided by the square root of acquisition time) and local sharpness (the reciprocal of edge width), were used to assess image quality. MR-guided sclerotherapy was performed on the same patients using real-time T2W-iSSFP to guide needle insertion. Results Comparing the visualization of needles in the images of swine, the local sharpness (mm−1) was: 0.21 ± 0.06 (T2-HASTE), 0.48 ± 0.02 (FS-SSFP), and 0.49 ± 0.03 (T2W-iSSFP). T2W-iSSFP is higher than T2-HASTE (P images, their CNR efficiencies were: 797 ± 66 (T2-HASTE), 281 ± 44 (FS-SSFP), and 860 ± 29 (T2W-iSSFP). T2W-iSSFP is higher than FS-SSFP (P images are needed. PMID:24395498

  5. Gain-assisted Superluminal Propagation in Coupled Optical Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hongrok; Smith, David D.

    2005-01-01

    We predict transparent superluminal pulse propagation in co-resonant coupled optical resonators, when a gain element is placed in the resonator closest to the excitation waveguide, provided the structure is over-coupled, but the resonator farthest from the excitation waveguide is under-coupled sufficiently to avoid lasing at the split modes. The effective steady-state absorptive and dispersive response of coupled resonators is derived, and the coupled-mode approximation is used to determine the conditions for transparent superluminal pulse propagation in these systems.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stannarius, Ralf

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has become one of the most important tools to screen humans in medicine; virtually every modern hospital is equipped with a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) tomograph. The potential of NMR in 3D imaging tasks is by far greater, but there is only "a handful" of MRI studies of particulate matter. The method is expensive, time-consuming, and requires a deep understanding of pulse sequences, signal acquisition, and processing. We give a short introduction into the physical principles of this imaging technique, describe its advantages and limitations for the screening of granular matter, and present a number of examples of different application purposes, from the exploration of granular packing, via the detection of flow and particle diffusion, to real dynamic measurements. Probably, X-ray computed tomography is preferable in most applications, but fast imaging of single slices with modern MRI techniques is unmatched, and the additional opportunity to retrieve spatially resolved flow and diffusion profiles without particle tracking is a unique feature.

  7. Clinical application of functional magnetic resonance imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Alwatban, A Z W

    2002-01-01

    The work described in this thesis was carried out at the Magnetic Resonance Centre of the University of Nottingham during the time from May 1998 to April 2001, and is the work of the except where indicated by reference. The main source of signal changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRJ) is the fluctuation of paramagnetic deoxyhaemoglobin in the venous blood during different states of functional performance. For the work of this thesis, fMRI studies were carried out using a 3 T MR system with an echo planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence. Hearing research utilising fMRI has been previously reported in normal subjects. Hearing fMRI is normally performed by stimulating the auditory cortex via an acoustic task presentation such as music, tone, etc. However, performing the same research on deaf subjects requires special equipment to be designed to allow direct stimulation of the auditory nerve. In this thesis, a new method of direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve is described that uses a ...

  8. Ablation of steel by microsecond pulse trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windeler, Matthew Karl Ross

    Laser micromachining is an important material processing technique used in industry and medicine to produce parts with high precision. Control of the material removal process is imperative to obtain the desired part with minimal thermal damage to the surrounding material. Longer pulsed lasers, with pulse durations of milli- and microseconds, are used primarily for laser through-cutting and welding. In this work, a two-pulse sequence using microsecond pulse durations is demonstrated to achieve consistent material removal during percussion drilling when the delay between the pulses is properly defined. The light-matter interaction moves from a regime of surface morphology changes to melt and vapour ejection. Inline coherent imaging (ICI), a broadband, spatially-coherent imaging technique, is used to monitor the ablation process. The pulse parameter space is explored and the key regimes are determined. Material removal is observed when the pulse delay is on the order of the pulse duration. ICI is also used to directly observe the ablation process. Melt dynamics are characterized by monitoring surface changes during and after laser processing at several positions in and around the interaction region. Ablation is enhanced when the melt has time to flow back into the hole before the interaction with the second pulse begins. A phenomenological model is developed to understand the relationship between material removal and pulse delay. Based on melt refilling the interaction region, described by logistic growth, and heat loss, described by exponential decay, the model is fit to several datasets. The fit parameters reflect the pulse energies and durations used in the ablation experiments. For pulse durations of 50 us with pulse energies of 7.32 mJ +/- 0.09 mJ, the logisitic growth component of the model reaches half maximum after 8.3 mus +/- 1.1 us and the exponential decays with a rate of 64 mus +/- 15 us. The phenomenological model offers an interpretation of the material

  9. 849 RESONANCE | September 2013

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    849. RESONANCE | September 2013. Page 2. 850. RESONANCE | September 2013. Page 3. 851. RESONANCE | September 2013. Page 4. 852. RESONANCE | September 2013. Page 5. 853. RESONANCE | September 2013. Page 6. 854. RESONANCE | September 2013. Page 7. 855. RESONANCE | September 2013.

  10. Microscopic Displacement Imaging with Pulsed Field Gradient Turbo Spin-Echo NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenen, T.W.J.; Dusschoten, van D.; Jager, de P.A.; As, van H.

    2000-01-01

    We present a pulse sequence that enables the accurate and spatially resolved measurements of the displacements of spins in a variety of (biological) systems. The pulse sequence combines pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR with turbo spin–echo (TSE) imaging. It is shown here that by ensuring that the

  11. Optimal control design of preparation pulses for contrast optimization in MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reeth, Eric; Ratiney, Hélène; Tesch, Michael; Grenier, Denis; Beuf, Olivier; Glaser, Steffen J.; Sugny, Dominique

    2017-06-01

    This work investigates the use of MRI radio-frequency (RF) pulses designed within the framework of optimal control theory for image contrast optimization. The magnetization evolution is modeled with Bloch equations, which defines a dynamic system that can be controlled via the application of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle (PMP). This framework allows the computation of optimal RF pulses that bring the magnetization to a given state to obtain the desired contrast after acquisition. Creating contrast through the optimal manipulation of Bloch equations is a new way of handling contrast in MRI, which can explore the theoretical limits of the system. Simulation experiments carried out on-resonance quantify the contrast improvement when compared to standard T1 or T2 weighting strategies. The use of optimal pulses is also validated for the first time in both in vitro and in vivo experiments on a small-animal 4.7 T MR system. Results demonstrate their robustness to static field inhomogeneities as well as the fact that they can be embedded in standard imaging sequences without affecting standard parameters such as slice selection or echo type. In vivo results on rat and mouse brains illustrate the ability of optimal contrast pulses to create non-trivial contrasts on well-studied structures (white matter versus gray matter).

  12. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the ankle: Normal anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajek, P.C.; Baker, L.L.; Bjorkengren, A.; Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.; Neumann, C.H.

    1986-10-01

    An imaging-anatomic correlative study of ankle anatomy based upon six healthy adults and six fresh cadaveric specimens was performed to evaluate the diagnostic capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging CMRI). Optimal pulsing sequences and imaging planes for various structures of interest were established. MRI afforded exquisite depiction of anatomic detial, particularly the diagnostically important collateral ligaments. Limitations in the ability to delineate the joint capsule and articular cartilage were documented, with the former detectable only on T2 weighted images in the presence of synovial fluid.

  13. Cerebral vascular malformations: Applications of magnetic resonance imaging to differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imakita, S.; Nishimura, T.; Yamada, N.; Naito, H.; Takamiya, M.; Yamada, Y.; Kikuchi, H.; Yonekawa, Y.; Sawada, T.; Yamaguchi, T.

    1989-09-01

    Twelve patients with cerebral vascular malformations (5 cavernous angiomas, 1 thrombosed arteriovenous malformation, and 6 venous angiomas) were studied with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. All lesions were clearly depicted. Characteristic MR findings were obtained mainly on T2-weighted images: A markedly low intensity area was always seen. The margins of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and venous angioma were irregular while those of cavernous angioma were smooth in all planes on T2-weighted images. Gradient-echo (GrE) pulse sequence were more sensitive than T2-weighted spin echo (SE) in AVM detection. MR imaging could play an important role in the differential diagnosis of cerebral vascular malformations. (orig.).

  14. Fast Detection of Seeds and Freeze Damage of Mandarines Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Min; Milczarek, Rebecca; McCarthy, Michael

    Fast detection of seeds and freeze damage in mandarine citrus fruit was performed using magnetic resonance imaging. A 1 T industrial grade permanent magnet was used to acquire the image data. The spatial resolution of the image was 550 μm. A fast spin echo pulse sequence was used to detect freeze damage and seeds. The signal intensity of seeds and freeze damaged regions was weaker than normal tissue. Threshold based image analysis has proven successful in detecting seeds and quantifying freeze damage.

  15. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging for staging and follow-up of pediatric patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma: comparison of different sequences; Aplicacao da ressonancia magnetica de corpo inteiro para o estadiamento e acompanhamento de pacientes com linfoma de Hodgkin na faixa etaria infanto-juvenil: comparacao entre diferentes sequencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, Daniel; Oliveira, Heverton Cesar de, E-mail: daniel@centrus.com.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Luisi, Flavio Augusto; Lederman, Henrique Manoel [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/IOP/GRAACC), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Oncologia Pediatrica. Grupo de Apoio ao Adolescente e a Crianca com Cancer; Ximenes, Andrea Regina da Silveira [Clinica Centrus, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Objective: to compare the performance of the T1, T2, STIR and DWIBS (diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression) sequences in the staging and follow-up of pediatric patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma in lymph node chains, parenchymal organs and bone marrow, and to evaluate interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: the authors studied 12 patients with confirmed diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma. The patients were referred for whole body magnetic resonance imaging with T1-weighted, T2-weighted, STIR and DWIBS sequences. Results: the number of lymph node sites characterized as affected by the disease on T1- and T2-weighted sequences showed similar results (8 sites for both sequences), but lower than DWIBS and STIR sequences (11 and 12 sites, respectively). The bone marrow involvement by lymphoma showed the same values for the T1-, T2-weighted and DWIBS sequences (17 lesions), higher than the value found on STIR (13 lesions). A high rate of interobserver agreement was observed as the four sequences were analyzed. Conclusion: STIR and DWIBS sequences detected the highest number of lymph node sites characterized as affected by the disease. Similar results were demonstrated by all the sequences in the evaluation of parenchymal organs and bone marrow. A high interobserver agreement was observed as the four sequences were analyzed. (author)

  16. Goldbach Partitions and Sequences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 11. Goldbach Partitions and Sequences. Subhash Kak. General Article Volume 19 Issue 11 November 2014 pp 1028-1037. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/11/1028-1037 ...

  17. T2{sup *} mapping from multi-echo dixon sequence on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for the hepatic fat quantification: Can it be used for hepatic function assessment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jeong Min; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Kang, Hyo Jin; Lee, Sang Min; Yang, Hyun Kyung; Han, Joon Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of T2{sup *} mapping using 3D multi-echo Dixon gradient echo acquisition on gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool to evaluate hepatic function. This retrospective study was approved by the IRB and the requirement of informed consent was waived. 242 patients who underwent liver MRIs, including 3D multi-echo Dixon fast gradient-recalled echo (GRE) sequence at 3T, before and after administration of gadoxetic acid, were included. Based on clinico-laboratory manifestation, the patients were classified as having normal liver function (NLF, n = 50), mild liver damage (MLD, n = 143), or severe liver damage (SLD, n = 30). The 3D multi-echo Dixon GRE sequence was obtained before, and 10 minutes after, gadoxetic acid administration. Pre- and post-contrast T2{sup *} values, as well as T2{sup *} reduction rates, were measured from T2{sup *} maps, and compared among the three groups. There was a significant difference in T2{sup *} reduction rates between the NLF and SLD groups (−0.2 ± 4.9% vs. 5.0 ± 6.9%, p = 0.002), and between the MLD and SLD groups (3.2 ± 6.0% vs. 5.0 ± 6.9%, p = 0.003). However, there was no significant difference in both the pre- and post-contrast T2{sup *} values among different liver function groups (p = 0.735 and 0.131, respectively). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve for using T2{sup *} reduction rates to differentiate the SLD group from the NLF group was 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.63–0.83). Incorporation of T2{sup *} mapping using 3D multi-echo Dixon GRE sequence in gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI protocol may provide supplemental information for liver function deterioration in patients with SLD.

  18. A review of pulse tube refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radebaugh, Ray

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of the three types of pulse tube refrigerators: basic, resonant, and orifice types. The principles of operation are given. It is shown that the pulse tube refrigerator is a variation of the Stirling-cycle refrigerator, where the moving displacer is substituted by a heat transfer mechanism or by an orifice to bring about the proper phase shifts between pressure and mass flow rate. A harmonic analysis with phasors is described which gives reasonable results for the refrigeration power, yet is simple enough to make clear the processes which give rise to the refrigeration. The efficiency and refrigeration power are compared with those of other refrigeration cycles. A brief review is given of the research being done at various laboratories on both one- and two-stage pulse tubes. A preliminary assessment of the role of pulse tube refrigerators is discussed.

  19. Alignment enhancement of a symmetric top molecule by two short laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Christer Z; Viftrup, Simon; Stapelfeldt, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    equation. It is shown that the strongest degree of one-dimensional (single axis) field-free alignment obtainable with a single pulse can be enhanced using the two-pulse sequence in a parallel polarization geometry. The conditions for alignment enhancement are: (1) The second pulse must be sent near...... the time where the degree of alignment, due to the first pulse, peaks. (2) The intensity of the first pulse must be smaller than the intensity of the second pulse, the optimal intensity ratio being determined by the duration of the pulses. Numerically, we also discuss the existence of an optimal pulse...

  20. Inductive Pulse Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Lindblom, Adam

    2006-01-01

    Pulsed power generators are a key component in compact systems for generation of high-power microwaves (HPM). HPM generation by virtual cathode devices such as Vircators put high demands on the source. The rise time and the pulse length of the source voltage are two key issues in the generation of HPM radiation. This thesis describes the construction and tests of several inductive high power pulse generators. The pulse generators were designed with the intent to deliver a pulse with fast rise...

  1. Nonselective excitation of pulsed ELDOR using multi-frequency microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Yuki; Mutoh, Risa; Ishiura, Masahiro; Mino, Hiroyuki

    2011-12-01

    The use of a polychromatic microwave pulse to expand the pumping bandwidth in pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) was investigated. The pumping pulse was applied in resonance with the broad (˜100 mT) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal of the manganese cluster of photosystem II in the S 2 state. The observation pulses were in resonance with the narrow EPR signal of the tyrosine radical, YDrad . It was found that in the case of the polychromatic pumping pulse containing five harmonics with the microwave frequencies between 8.5 and 10.5 GHz the PELDOR effect corresponding to the dipole interaction between the Mn cluster and YDrad was about 2.9 times larger than that achieved with a monochromatic pulse. In addition to the dipolar modulation, the nuclear modulation effects were observed. The effects could be suppressed by averaging the PELDOR trace over the time interval between the observation microwave pulses. The polychromatic excitation technique described will be useful for improving the PELDOR sensitivity in the measurements of long distances in biological samples, where the pair consists of a radical with a narrow EPR spectrum and slow phase relaxation, and a metal center that has a broad EPR spectrum and a short phase relaxation time.

  2. Dual-Echo EPI sequence for integrated distortion correction in 3D time-resolved hyperpolarized (13) C MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Benjamin J; Lau, Justin Y C; Chen, Albert P; Cunningham, Charles H

    2017-04-10

    To provide built-in off-resonance correction in time-resolved, volumetric hyperpolarized (13) C metabolic imaging by implementing a novel dual-echo 3D echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence and reconstruction. A spectral-spatial pulse for single-resonance excitation followed by a dual-echo 3D EPI readout was implemented to provide 64 × 8 × 6 cm(3) coverage at 5 × 5 × 5 mm(3) nominal resolution. Multiple sources of EPI distortions were encoded using a multi-echo (1) H EPI reference scan. Phase maps computed from the reference scans were combined with a bulk (13) C frequency offset encoded in the dual-echo [1-(13) C]pyruvate images to correct geometric distortion and improve spatial registration. The proposed scheme was validated in a phantom study, and in vivo [1-(13) C]pyruvate and [1-(13) C]lactate rat images were acquired with intentional transmit frequency deviations to assess the dual-echo 3D EPI sequence. The phantom study demonstrated improved spatial registration in off-resonance corrected images. Close agreement was observed between metabolic kidney signal and the underlying anatomy in rat imaging experiments. Relative to a single-echo acquisition, the coherent addition of the two corrected echoes provided the expected increase in signal-to-noise ratio by approximately 2. A novel dual-echo 3D EPI acquisition sequence for integrated off-resonance correction in hyperpolarized (13) C imaging was developed and demonstrated. The proposed sequence offers clear advantages over flyback EPI for time-resolved metabolic mapping. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. Resonate-and-fire neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izhikevich, E M

    2001-01-01

    We suggest a simple spiking model-resonate-and-fire neuron, which is similar to the integrate-and-fire neuron except that the state variable is complex. The model provides geometric illustrations to many interesting phenomena occurring in biological neurons having subthreshold damped oscillations of membrane potential. For example, such neurons prefer a certain resonant frequency of the input that is nearly equal to their eigenfrequency, they can be excited or inhibited by a doublet (two pulses) depending on its interspike interval, and they can fire in response to an inhibitory input. All these properties could be observed in Hodgkin-Huxley-type models. We use the resonate-and-fire model to illustrate possible sensitivity of biological neurons to the fine temporal structure of the input spike train. Being an analogue of the integrate-and-fire model, the resonate-and-fire model is computationally efficient and suitable for simulations of large networks of spiking neurons.

  4. Pulsed water jet generated by pulse multiplication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvorský, R.; Sitek, Libor; Sochor, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2016), s. 959-967 ISSN 1330-3651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : high-pressure pulses * pulse intensifier * pulsed water jet * water hammer effect Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.723, year: 2016 http://hrcak.srce.hr/163752?lang=en

  5. Quantum communication between remote mechanical resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, S.; Fedortchenko, S.; Rossi, R.; Ducci, S.; Favero, I.; Coudreau, T.; Milman, P.

    2017-02-01

    Mechanical resonators represent one of the most promising candidates to mediate the interaction between different quantum technologies, bridging the gap between efficient quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication. Here, we introduce an interferometric scheme where the interaction of a mechanical resonator with input-output quantum pulses is controlled by an independent classical drive. We design protocols for state teleportation and direct quantum state transfer, between distant mechanical resonators. The proposed device, feasible with state-of-the-art technology, can serve as a building block for the implementation of long-distance quantum networks of mechanical resonators.

  6. Regular radiation field pulses produced by intracloud lightning discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krider, E. P.; Radda, G. J.; Noggle, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Sequences or bursts of uniform pulses have been recorded during a large fraction of intracloud lightning discharges in Florida and Arizona. The wave form of a typical pulse begins with a fast large-amplitude portion followed by a small and slowly varying overshoot. The full width and half maximum of the large amplitude peak is typically 0.75 microsec, and the time intervals between pulses are typically 5 microsec in both maritime and continental storms. The pulse shapes and interval times suggest that the source of these pulses in an intracloud dart-stepped leader process similar to that which has been photographed in discharges to ground.

  7. Photothermal resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for detecting photo-thermal absorbance of a material utilising a mechanically temperature sensitive resonator (20) and a sample being arrange in thermal communication with the temperature sensitive resonator. The present invention further relates...

  8. Multi circular-cavity surface coil for magnetic resonance imaging of monkey's brain at 4 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, A. I.; Solis-Najera, S. E.; Vázquez, F.; Wang, R. L.; Tomasi, D.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2014-11-01

    Animal models in medical research has been used to study humans diseases for several decades. The use of different imaging techniques together with different animal models offers a great advantage due to the possibility to study some human pathologies without the necessity of chirurgical intervention. The employ of magnetic resonance imaging for the acquisition of anatomical and functional images is an excellent tool because its noninvasive nature. Dedicated coils to perform magnetic resonance imaging experiments are obligatory due to the improvement on the signal-to-noise ratio and reduced specific absorption ratio. A specifically designed surface coil for magnetic resonance imaging of monkey's brain is proposed based on the multi circular-slot coil. Numerical simulations of the magnetic and electric fields were also performed using the Finite Integration Method to solve Maxwell's equations for this particular coil design and, to study the behavior of various vector magnetic field configurations and specific absorption ratio. Monkey's brain images were then acquired with a research-dedicated magnetic resonance imaging system at 4T, to evaluate the anatomical images with conventional imaging sequences. This coil showed good quality images of a monkey's brain and full compatibility with standard pulse sequences implemented in research-dedicated imager.

  9. Experimental study of resolution of proton chemical shifts in solids: Combined multiple pulse NMR and magic-angle spinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, L.M.; Taylor, R.E.; Paff, A.J.; Gerstein, B.C.

    1980-01-01

    High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of protons in rigid, randomly oriented solids have been measured using combined homonuclear dipolar decoupling (via multiple pulse techniques) and attenuation of chemical shift anisotropies (via magic-angle sample spinning). Under those conditions, isotropic proton chemical shifts were recorded for a variety of chemical species, with individual linewidths varying from about 55 to 110 Hz (1--2 ppm). Residual line broadening was due predominately to (i) magnetic-field instability and inhomogeneity, (ii) unresolved proton--proton spin couplings, (iii) chemical shift dispersion, (iv) residual dipolar broadening, and (v) lifetime broadening under the multiple pulse sequences used. The magnitudes of those effects and the current limits of resolution for this experiment in our spectrometer have been investigated. The compounds studied included organic solids (4, 4'-dimethylbenzophenone, 2, 6-dimethylbenzoic acid, and aspirin), polymers (polystyrene and polymethylmethacrylate), and the vitrain portion of a bituminous coal.

  10. Nonlinear resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  11. Controllable pulse parameter transcranial magnetic stimulator with enhanced circuit topology and pulse shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterchev, Angel V.; DʼOstilio, Kevin; Rothwell, John C.; Murphy, David L.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. This work aims at flexible and practical pulse parameter control in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which is currently very limited in commercial devices. Approach. We present a third generation controllable pulse parameter device (cTMS3) that uses a novel circuit topology with two energy-storage capacitors. It incorporates several implementation and functionality advantages over conventional TMS devices and other devices with advanced pulse shape control. cTMS3 generates lower internal voltage differences and is implemented with transistors with a lower voltage rating than prior cTMS devices. Main results. cTMS3 provides more flexible pulse shaping since the circuit topology allows four coil-voltage levels during a pulse, including approximately zero voltage. The near-zero coil voltage enables snubbing of the ringing at the end of the pulse without the need for a separate active snubber circuit. cTMS3 can generate powerful rapid pulse sequences (\\lt 10 ms inter pulse interval) by increasing the width of each subsequent pulse and utilizing the large capacitor energy storage, allowing the implementation of paradigms such as paired-pulse and quadripulse TMS with a single pulse generation circuit. cTMS3 can also generate theta (50 Hz) burst stimulation with predominantly unidirectional electric field pulses. The cTMS3 device functionality and output strength are illustrated with electrical output measurements as well as a study of the effect of pulse width and polarity on the active motor threshold in ten healthy volunteers. Significance. The cTMS3 features could extend the utility of TMS as a research, diagnostic, and therapeutic tool.

  12. Graphical programming for broadband pulse NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmonte, S.B. [Universidade do Estado (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletronica; Oliveira, I.S.; Guimaraes, A.P. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    In a broadband pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer we often need to sweep the excitation frequency over a wide range, and acquire the spin echo components in quadrature for further spectral analysis. Computer languages such as C or Pascal have been traditionally applied to the development of software control of laboratory equipment, and consequently, the automatization of NMR experiments. However, the use of graphical languages have proved to be a flexible and convenient way for experiment and data acquisition control. In our application we use the graphical language Labview for the automatic control of a broadband pulse NMR spectrometer, dedicated to the study of magnetic metal systems. (author) 2 refs., 2 figs.

  13. The OMERACT rheumatoid arthritis magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scoring system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Peterfy, Charles G.; Bird, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scoring system (RAMRIS), evaluating bone erosion, bone marrow edema/osteitis, and synovitis, was introduced in 2002, and is now the standard method of objectively quantifying...... Group, which used these data to provide updated considerations on image acquisition, RAMRIS definitions, and scoring systems for the original and new RA pathologies. Further, a research agenda was outlined. Results: Since 2002, longitudinal studies and clinical trials have documented RAMRIS variables...... with conventional radiography. Technical improvements, including higher field strengths and improved pulse sequences, allow higher image resolution and contrast-to-noise ratio. These have facilitated development and validation of scoring methods of new pathologies: joint space narrowing and tenosynovitis...

  14. Microwave-free nuclear magnetic resonance at molecular scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, James D. A.; Tetienne, Jean-Philippe; Broadway, David A.; Hall, Liam T.; Simpson, David A.; Stacey, Alastair

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) at the nanoscale is a major challenge, as the resolution of conventional methods is limited to mesoscopic scales. Approaches based on quantum spin probes, such as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre in diamond, have achieved nano-NMR under ambient conditions. However, the measurement protocols require application of complex microwave pulse sequences of high precision and relatively high power, placing limitations on the design and scalability of these techniques. Here we demonstrate NMR on a nanoscale organic environment of proton spins using the NV centre while eliminating the need for microwave manipulation of either the NV or the environmental spin states. We also show that the sensitivity of our significantly simplified approach matches that of existing techniques using the NV centre. Removing the requirement for coherent manipulation while maintaining measurement sensitivity represents a significant step towards the development of robust, non-invasive nanoscale NMR probes. PMID:28671183

  15. Square pulse emission with ultra-low repetition rate utilising non-linear polarisation rotation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Jin Tan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The generation of nanosecond square pulse and microsecond harmonic pulse in a passively mode-locked fibre ring laser is demonstrated by inserting a 20 km long single mode fibre in the cavity. The laser operates in anomalous region based on the non-linear polarisation rotation process. The square pulse generation is because of the dissipative soliton resonance effect, which clamps the peak intensity of the laser and broadens the pulse width. The pulse width can be tuned from 28.2 to 167.7 ns. It was found that the square pulse can deliver higher pulse energy compared with the harmonic pulse. The highest recorded pulse energy is 249.8 nJ under the maximum available pump power of 125 mW without pulse breaking.

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance diffusion pore imaging: Experimental phase detection by double diffusion encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demberg, Kerstin; Laun, Frederik Bernd; Windschuh, Johannes; Umathum, Reiner; Bachert, Peter; Kuder, Tristan Anselm

    2017-02-01

    Diffusion pore imaging is an extension of diffusion-weighted nuclear magnetic resonance imaging enabling the direct measurement of the shape of arbitrarily formed, closed pores by probing diffusion restrictions using the motion of spin-bearing particles. Examples of such pores comprise cells in biological tissue or oil containing cavities in porous rocks. All pores contained in the measurement volume contribute to one reconstructed image, which reduces the problem of vanishing signal at increasing resolution present in conventional magnetic resonance imaging. It has been previously experimentally demonstrated that pore imaging using a combination of a long and a narrow magnetic field gradient pulse is feasible. In this work, an experimental verification is presented showing that pores can be imaged using short gradient pulses only. Experiments were carried out using hyperpolarized xenon gas in well-defined pores. The phase required for pore image reconstruction was retrieved from double diffusion encoded (DDE) measurements, while the magnitude could either be obtained from DDE signals or classical diffusion measurements with single encoding. The occurring image artifacts caused by restrictions of the gradient system, insufficient diffusion time, and by the phase reconstruction approach were investigated. Employing short gradient pulses only is advantageous compared to the initial long-narrow approach due to a more flexible sequence design when omitting the long gradient and due to faster convergence to the diffusion long-time limit, which may enable application to larger pores.

  17. Neuroaesthetic Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Neuroaesthetic Resonance emerged from a mature body of patient- centered gesture-control research investigating non-formal rehabilitation via ICT-enhanced-Art to question ‘Aesthetic Resonance’. Motivating participation, ludic engagement, and augmenting physical motion in non-formal (fun) treatment...... the unencumbered motion-to-computer-generated activities - ‘Music Making’, ‘Painting’, ‘Robotic’ and ‘Video Game’ control. A focus of this position paper is to highlight how Aesthetic Resonance, in this context, relates to the growing body of research on Neuroaesthetics to evolve Neuroaesthetic Resonance....

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI: a technique to study flow an microstructure of concentrated emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. d'Avila

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI have recently been recognized as important techniques for R&D of products and processes, as is attested by several successful applications in different areas of chemical engineering in recent years. In this article we present new experimental methods based on MRI to study flow and microstructure of concentrated emulsions. The objective is to present the unique features of this noninvasive technique to accurately measure different properties of flowing particulate opaque systems. Experimental results of velocity profiles, spatial distribution of droplet sizes and spatial homogeneity of an oil-in-water dispersion in a horizontal, concentric cylinder geometry using different pulse sequences are presented. The application of these techniques allowed probing important information on flow and microstructure of multiphase systems of interest in chemical engineering and food science.

  19. A historical overview of magnetic resonance imaging, focusing on technological innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Tao; Morelli, John N; Hu, Xuemei; Hao, Dapeng; Goerner, Frank L; Ager, Bryan; Runge, Val M

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has now been used clinically for more than 30 years. Today, MRI serves as the primary diagnostic modality for many clinical problems. In this article, historical developments in the field of MRI will be discussed with a focus on technological innovations. Topics include the initial discoveries in nuclear magnetic resonance that allowed for the advent of MRI as well as the development of whole-body, high field strength, and open MRI systems. Dedicated imaging coils, basic pulse sequences, contrast-enhanced, and functional imaging techniques will also be discussed in a historical context. This article describes important technological innovations in the field of MRI, together with their clinical applicability today, providing critical insights into future developments.

  20. [Quantitative determination of bosentan by proton nuclear magnetic resonance with internal standard method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cai-Yu; Zhang, Na; He, Lan

    2014-02-01

    The study aims to establish a quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (QNMR) method for the determination of the absolute content of bosentan. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy [1H NMR] spectra were obtained in CDCl3 with the internal standard dimethyl terephthalate and zg30 pulse sequence by using a Bruker AVANCE II 400 spectrometer. The content of bosentan is determined with QNMR in comparison with the result obtained by mass balance method. The result is 96.25% by QNMR and 96.54% by mass balance method. A rapid and accurate QNMR method has been established for the quantitative determination of the absolute content of bosentan. The study provides a new way for the quality control and calibration of a new reference standard material, it could be the complementary with the mass balance method for the assay of standard reference.

  1. Lorentzian crater in superconducting microwave resonators with inserted nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezryadin, Alexey; Brenner, Matthew W.; Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Ku, Jaseung; Shah, Nayana; Goldbart, Paul M.

    2011-03-01

    We report on observations of nonequilibrium pulsing states in microwave (i.e., GHz) coplanar waveguide(CPW) resonators consisting of superconducting MoGe strips interrupted by a trench and connected by one or more suspended superconducting nanowires. The Lorentzian resonance peak shows a ``crater'' when driven past the critical current of the nanowire, leading to a ``pulsing'' state. In the pulsing state, the supercurrent grows until it reaches the critical current, at which point all stored energy quickly dissipates through Joule heating. We develop a phenomenological model of resonator-nanowire systems, which explains the experimental data quantitatively. For the case of resonators comprising two parallel nanowires and subject to an external magnetic field, we find field-driven oscillations of the onset power for crater formation, as well as the occurrence of a new state, in which the periodic pulsing effect is such that only the weaker wire participates in the dissipation process.

  2. RISK: A Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometer for Krypton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strashnov, I.; Blagburn, D. J.; Gilmour, J. D.

    2010-03-01

    A resonance ionization mass spectrometer for krypton (RISK) has been developed. Atoms are released by a step-heating and ionized by pulsed tunable lasers. The sensitivity below 1000 atoms is demonstrated by detecting 81Kr in noncumulate eucrite Stannern.

  3. Time for pulse traversal through slabs of dispersive and negative ($\\epsilon$, $\\mu$) materials

    CERN Document Server

    Nanda, Lipsa

    2007-01-01

    The traversal times for an electromagnetic pulse traversing a slab of dispersive and dissipative material with negative dielectric permittivity ($\\epsilon$) and magnetic permeability ($\\mu$) have been calculated by using the average flow of electromagnetic energy in the medium. The effects of bandwidth of the pulse and dissipation in the medium have been investigated. While both large bandwidth and large dissipation have similar effects in smoothening out the resonant features that appear due to Fabry-P\\'{e}rot resonances, large dissipation can result in very small or even negative traversal times near the resonant frequencies. We have also investigated the traversal times and Wigner delay times for obliquely incident pulses and evanescent pulses. The coupling to slab plasmon polariton modes in frequency ranges with negative $\\epsilon$ or $\\mu$ is shown to result in large traversal times at the resonant conditions. We also find that the group velocity mainly contributes to the delay times for pulse propagatin...

  4. Hybrid approaches to magnetic resonance thermometry using the proton resonance frequency shift and the spin-lattice relaxation time T1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakite, Mahamadou

    Minimally invasive thermal therapy under Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) guidance is becoming popular with several applications in the process of getting FDA approval. The ability to determine in near real-time the temperature map of a tumor and its surrounding tissue makes MR thermometry very attractive and well suited for thermal treatment. The proton resonance frequency shift (PRF) is currently the gold standard method for temperature monitoring using MRI. However, its incapacity to measure temperature in fatty tissue limits the scope of its applicability. The spin lattice relaxation time T1, on the other hand, has shown good temperature sensitivity and works well in all types of tissues. In this dissertation, we have addressed a number of challenges currently affecting MRI thermometry. A non-CPMG Turbo Spin Echo (TSE) sequence has been implemented to monitor the temperature rise due to the high RF power deposition inherent to this sequence at high field (3T and higher). This new implementation allows TSE sequences to be used safely without altering their high contrast properties which make them appealing in clinical settings. Tissue damage assessment during thermal therapy is critical for the safety of the patient. We have developed a new hybrid PRF-T1 sequence that has the capability to provide simultaneously in near real-time the temperature map and T1 information, which is a good indication of the state of the tissue. The simplicity and the real-time capability of the newly developed sequence make it an ideal tool for tissue damage assessment. Temperature monitoring during thermal therapy in organs with large fat content have been hindered by the lack of an MRI thermometry method that can provide simultaneous temperature in fat and aqueous tissue. A new sequence and acquisition scheme have been developed to address this issue. In sum, this dissertation proposed several pulse sequence implementation techniques and an acquisition scheme to overcome some of

  5. Femtosecond-Laser-Pulse Characterization and Optimization for CARS Microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Piazza

    Full Text Available We present a simple method and its experimental implementation to determine the pulse durations and linear chirps of the pump-and-probe pulse and the Stokes pulse in a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscope at sample level without additional autocorrelators. Our approach exploits the delay line, ubiquitous in such microscopes, to perform a convolution of the pump-and-probe and Stokes pulses as a function of their relative delay and it is based on the detection of the photons emitted from an appropriate non-linear sample. The analysis of the non-resonant four-wave-mixing and sum-frequency-generation signals allows for the direct retrieval of the pulse duration on the sample and the linear chirp of each pulse. This knowledge is crucial in maximizing the spectral-resolution and contrast in CARS imaging.

  6. Modelling a singly resonant, intracavity ring optical parametric oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Wei, Hou

    2003-01-01

    We study theoretically and experimentally the dynamics of a single-frequency, unidirectional ring laser with an intracavity nonlinear singly resonant OPO-crystal in a coupled resonator. We find for a range of operating conditions good agreement between model results and measurements of the laser...... and OPO power output and of the temporal development of complex dynamic phenomena such as pulse shape, pulse duration, oscillatory transients and Q-switched operation of the laser....

  7. Interplay between relativistic energy corrections and resonant excitations in x-ray multiphoton ionization dynamics of Xe atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Koudai; Son, Sang-Kil; Santra, Robin

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we theoretically study x-ray multiphoton ionization dynamics of heavy atoms taking into account relativistic and resonance effects. When an atom is exposed to an intense x-ray pulse generated by an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL), it is ionized to a highly charged ion via a sequence of single-photon ionization and accompanying relaxation processes, and its final charge state is limited by the last ionic state that can be ionized by a single-photon ionization. If x-ray multiphoton ionization involves deep inner-shell electrons in heavy atoms, energy shifts by relativistic effects play an important role in ionization dynamics, as pointed out in Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 173005 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.173005. On the other hand, if the x-ray beam has a broad energy bandwidth, the high-intensity x-ray pulse can drive resonant photoexcitations for a broad range of ionic states and ionize even beyond the direct one-photon ionization limit, as first proposed in Nat. Photon. 6, 858 (2012), 10.1038/nphoton.2012.261. To investigate both relativistic and resonance effects, we extend the xatom toolkit to incorporate relativistic energy corrections and resonant excitations in x-ray multiphoton ionization dynamics calculations. Charge-state distributions are calculated for Xe atoms interacting with intense XFEL pulses at a photon energy of 1.5 keV and 5.5 keV, respectively. For both photon energies, we demonstrate that the role of resonant excitations in ionization dynamics is altered due to significant shifts of orbital energy levels by relativistic effects. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account both effects to accurately simulate multiphoton multiple ionization dynamics at high x-ray intensity.

  8. Insights on the Structural Details of Endonuclease EcoRI-DNA Complexes by Electron Spin Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, Jessica

    2009-03-01

    Pulsed electron spin resonance (ESR) was used to probe the binding specificity of EcoRI, a restriction endonuclease. Using site-directed spin labeling, a nitroxide side chain was incorporated into the protein, enabling the use of ESR to study structural details of EcoRI. Distance measurements were performed on EcoRI mutants when bound to varying sequences of DNA using the Double Electron-Electron Resonance experiment. These distances demonstrated that the average structure in the arm regions of EcoRI, thought to play a major role in binding specificity, is the same when the protein binds to different sequences of DNA. Also, it was determined that the arms exhibit higher flexibility when bound to sequences other than the specific sequence due to the larger distance distributions acquired from these spin labeled complexes. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed on the spin-label-modified specific EcoRI-DNA crystal structure to model the average nitroxide orientation. The distance distributions from MD were found to be narrower than experiment, indicating the need for a more rigorous sampling of the nitroxide conformers in silico.

  9. Zeptosecond precision pulse shaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Jens; Wollenhaupt, Matthias; Bayer, Tim; Sarpe, Cristian; Baumert, Thomas

    2011-06-06

    We investigate the temporal precision in the generation of ultrashort laser pulse pairs by pulse shaping techniques. To this end, we combine a femtosecond polarization pulse shaper with a polarizer and employ two linear spectral phase masks to mimic an ultrastable common-path interferometer. In an all-optical experiment we study the interference signal resulting from two temporally delayed pulses. Our results show a 2σ-precision of 300 zs = 300 × 10(-21) s in pulse-to-pulse delay. The standard deviation of the mean is 11 zs. The obtained precision corresponds to a variation of the arm's length in conventional delay stage based interferometers of 0.45 Å. We apply these precisely generated pulse pairs to a strong-field quantum control experiment. Coherent control of ultrafast electron dynamics via photon locking by temporal phase discontinuities on a few attosecond timescale is demonstrated.

  10. Power supplied for pulsed laser systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ed Strickland, B.; Nelms, R. Mark

    1995-01-01

    Conventional DC power supplies are normally designed for loads with constant or near constant power requirements and do not perform well under the wide range of load variations involved in repetitively charging an energy storage capacitor from zero volts to a maximum voltage. This paper will discuss a family of capacitor charging power supplies developed in a collaborative effort between Auburn University and Maxwell Laboratories in San Diego, California. These supplies utilize resonant technology and a patented pulse-width modulation scheme.

  11. Composite Resonator Surface Emitting Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FISCHER,ARTHUR J.; CHOQUETTE,KENT D.; CHOW,WENG W.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.; GEIB,KENT M.

    2000-05-01

    The authors have developed electrically-injected coupled-resonator vertical-cavity lasers and have studied their novel properties. These monolithically grown coupled-cavity structures have been fabricated with either one active and one passive cavity or with two active cavities. All devices use a selectively oxidized current aperture in the lower cavity, while a proton implant was used in the active-active structures to confine current in the top active cavity. They have demonstrated optical modulation from active-passive devices where the modulation arises from dynamic changes in the coupling between the active and passive cavities. The laser intensity can be modulated by either forward or reverse biasing the passive cavity. They have also observed Q-switched pulses from active-passive devices with pulses as short as 150 ps. A rate equation approach is used to model the Q-switched operation yielding good agreement between the experimental and theoretical pulseshape. They have designed and demonstrated the operation of active-active devices which la.se simultaneously at both longitudinal cavity resonances. Extremely large bistable regions have also been observed in the light-current curves for active-active coupled resonator devices. This bistability can be used for high contrast switching with contrast ratios as high as 100:1. Coupled-resonator vertical-cavity lasers have shown enhanced mode selectivity which has allowed devices to lase with fundamental-mode output powers as high as 5.2 mW.

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of an N2-guanine adduct derived from the tumorigen dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in DNA: impact of adduct stereochemistry, size, and local DNA sequence on solution conformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Fabián A; Liu, Zhi; Lin, Chin H; Ding, Shuang; Cai, Yuqin; Kolbanovskiy, Alexander; Kolbanovskiy, Marina; Amin, Shantu; Broyde, Suse; Geacintov, Nicholas E

    2014-03-25

    The dimensions and arrangements of aromatic rings (topology) in adducts derived from the reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) diol epoxide metabolites with DNA influence the distortions and stabilities of double-stranded DNA, and hence their recognition and processing by the human nucleotide excision repair (NER) system. Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) is a highly tumorigenic six-ring PAH, which contains a nonplanar and aromatic fjord region that is absent in the structurally related bay region five-ring PAH benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). The PAH diol epoxide-DNA adducts formed include the stereoisomeric 14S and 14R trans-anti-DB[a,l]P-N(2)-dG and the stereochemically analogous 10S- and 10R-B[a]P-N(2)-dG (B[a]P-dG) guanine adducts. However, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) solution studies of the 14S-DB[a,l]P-N(2)-dG adduct in DNA have not yet been presented. Here we have investigated the 14S-DB[a,l]P-N(2)-dG adduct in two different sequence contexts using NMR methods with distance-restrained molecular dynamics simulations. In duplexes with dC opposite the adduct deleted, a well-resolved base-displaced intercalative adduct conformation can be observed. In full duplexes, in contrast to the intercalated 14R stereoisomeric adduct, the bulky DB[a,l]P residue in the 14S adduct is positioned in a greatly widened and distorted minor groove, with significant disruptions and distortions of base pairing at the lesion site and two 5'-side adjacent base pairs. These unique structural features are significantly different from those of the stereochemically analogous but smaller B[a]P-dG adduct. The greater size and different topology of the DB[a,l]P aromatic ring system lead to greater structurally destabilizing DNA distortions that are partially compensated by stabilizing DB[a,l]P-DNA van der Waals interactions, whose combined effects impact the NER response to the adduct. These structural results broaden our understanding of the structure-function relationship in NER.

  13. Off-resonance NOVEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sheetal K.; Mathies, Guinevere; Griffin, Robert G.

    2017-10-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is theoretically able to enhance the signal in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments by a factor γe/γn, where γ 's are the gyromagnetic ratios of an electron and a nuclear spin. However, DNP enhancements currently achieved in high-field, high-resolution biomolecular magic-angle spinning NMR are well below this limit because the continuous-wave DNP mechanisms employed in these experiments scale as ω0-n where n ˜ 1-2. In pulsed DNP methods, such as nuclear orientation via electron spin-locking (NOVEL), the DNP efficiency is independent of the strength of the main magnetic field. Hence, these methods represent a viable alternative approach for enhancing nuclear signals. At 0.35 T, the NOVEL scheme was demonstrated to be efficient in samples doped with stable radicals, generating 1H NMR enhancements of ˜430. However, an impediment in the implementation of NOVEL at high fields is the requirement of sufficient microwave power to fulfill the on-resonance matching condition, ω0I = ω1S, where ω0I and ω1S are the nuclear Larmor and electron Rabi frequencies, respectively. Here, we exploit a generalized matching condition, which states that the effective Rabi frequency, ω1S e f f, matches ω0I. By using this generalized off-resonance matching condition, we generate 1H NMR signal enhancement factors of 266 (˜70% of the on-resonance NOVEL enhancement) with ω1S/2π = 5 MHz. We investigate experimentally the conditions for optimal transfer of polarization from electrons to 1H both for the NOVEL mechanism and the solid-effect mechanism and provide a unified theoretical description for these two historically distinct forms of DNP.

  14. Automatic sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Friedrich

    2003-01-01

    Automatic sequences are sequences which are produced by a finite automaton. Although they are not random they may look as being random. They are complicated, in the sense of not being not ultimately periodic, they may look rather complicated, in the sense that it may not be easy to name the rule by which the sequence is generated, however there exists a rule which generates the sequence. The concept automatic sequences has special applications in algebra, number theory, finite automata and formal languages, combinatorics on words. The text deals with different aspects of automatic sequences, in particular:· a general introduction to automatic sequences· the basic (combinatorial) properties of automatic sequences· the algebraic approach to automatic sequences· geometric objects related to automatic sequences.

  15. Intense ultrashort pulse generation using the JAERI far-infrared free electron laser

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, R; Nishimori, N; Kikuzawa, N; Sawamura, M; Minehara, E J

    2002-01-01

    An intense ultrashort optical pulse has been quasi-continuously generated using a superconducting RF linac-based free-electron laser at a wavelength of 22.5 mu m. The pulse shape and width are measured by second-order optical autocorrelation with a birefringent Te crystal. At synchronism of the optical resonator, the pulse shape is a smooth single pulse with an FWHM width of 255 fs and energy of 74 mu J. A train of subpulses is developed by increasing the desynchronism of the optical resonator. The measured results are in good agreement with numerical simulation.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of fluid levels in an aneurysmal bone cyst and in anticoagulated human blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, T.M.; Hamlin, D.J.; Fitzsimmons, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a fluid level within an aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). Since the ABC contained gross blood at operation, an anticoagulated human blood sample was studied by MRI also, and a fluid level was again clearly visible. MRI pulse sequences emphasizing T/sub 1/ contrast showed the fluid levels most clearly in both the ABC and the blood. Sequences emphasizing T/sub 2/ contrast showed homogeneous, bright signals in the ABC and in the blood, with no visible fluid level in the ABC and a nearly invisible one in the blood. In the blood sample, the calculated plasma T/sub 1/ value was 1585 ms, and that of the red cells was 794 ms.

  17. Multiquark Resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Multiquark resonances are undoubtedly experimentally observed. The number of states and the amount of details on their properties has been growing over the years. It is very recent the discovery of two pentaquarks and the confirmation of four tetraquarks, two of which had not been observed before. We mainly review the theoretical understanding of this sector of particle physics phenomenology and present some considerations attempting a coherent description of the so called X and Z resonances. The prominent problems plaguing theoretical models, like the absence of selection rules limiting the number of states predicted, motivate new directions in model building. Data are reviewed going through all of the observed resonances with particular attention to their common features and the purpose of providing a starting point to further research.

  18. Quantum information processing and nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, H.K

    2001-07-01

    Quantum computers are information processing devices which operate by and exploit the laws of quantum mechanics, potentially allowing them to solve problems which are intractable using classical computers. This dissertation considers the practical issues involved in one of the more successful implementations to date, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Techniques for dealing with systematic errors are presented, and a quantum protocol is implemented. Chapter 1 is a brief introduction to quantum computation. The physical basis of its efficiency and issues involved in its implementation are discussed. NMR quantum information processing is reviewed in more detail in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 considers some of the errors that may be introduced in the process of implementing an algorithm, and high-level ways of reducing the impact of these errors by using composite rotations. Novel general expressions for stabilising composite rotations are presented in Chapter 4 and a new class of composite rotations, tailored composite rotations, presented in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 describes some of the advantages and pitfalls of combining composite rotations. Experimental evaluations of the composite rotations are given in each case. An actual implementation of a quantum information protocol, approximate quantum cloning, is presented in Chapter 7. The dissertation ends with appendices which contain expansions of some equations and detailed calculations of certain composite rotation results, as well as spectrometer pulse sequence programs. (author)

  19. Instantaneous coherent destruction of tunneling and fast quantum state preparation for strongly pulsed spin qubits in diamond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn

    2010-01-01

    Qubits driven by resonant strong pulses are studied and a parameter regime is explored in which the dynamics can be solved in closed form. Instantaneous coherent destruction of tunneling can be seen for longer pulses, whereas shorter pulses allow a fast preparation of the qubit state. Results...

  20. Pulse-train control of photofragmentation at constant field energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    2014-01-01

    We consider a phaselocked two-pulse sequence applied to photofragmentation in the weak-field limit. The two pulses are not overlapping in time, i.e., the energy of the pulse-train is constant for all time delays. It is shown that the relative yield of excited Br* in the nonadiabatic process: I + Br......*←IBr → I + Br, changes as a function of time delay when the two excited wave packets interfere. The underlying mechanisms are analyzed and the change in the branching ratio as a function of time delay is only a reflection of a changing frequency distribution of the pulse train; the branching ratio does...

  1. Excitation and Control of Plasma Wakefields by Multiple Laser Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, J.; Thornton, C.; Arran, C.; Shalloo, R. J.; Corner, L.; Cheung, G.; Gregory, C. D.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Matlis, N. H.; Symes, D. R.; Walczak, R.; Hooker, S. M.

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the resonant excitation of plasma waves by trains of laser pulses. We also take an important first step to achieving an energy recovery plasma accelerator by showing that a plasma wave can be damped by an out-of-resonance trailing laser pulse. The measured laser wakefields are found to be in excellent agreement with analytical and numerical models of wakefield excitation in the linear regime. Our results indicate a promising direction for achieving highly controlled, GeV-scale laser-plasma accelerators operating at multikilohertz repetition rates.

  2. Modulational-instability sigma-resonator fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honzatko, P; Peterka, P; Kanka, J

    2001-06-01

    A modulational-instability laser with a resonator in a sigma configuration has been developed. The importance of a suitable intracavity filter for removing the autocorrelation background of the output signal is shown. A pulse train with a repetition rate of 107 GHz determined by the Fabry-Perot etalon used in the resonator was obtained at 1.56mum .

  3. Prospective heart tracking for whole-heart magnetic resonance angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghari, Mehdi H; Geva, Tal; Powell, Andrew J

    2017-02-01

    To develop a prospective respiratory-gating technique (Heart-NAV) for use with contrast-enhanced three-dimensional (3D) inversion recovery (IR) whole-heart magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) acquisitions that directly tracks heart motion without creating image inflow artifact. With Heart-NAV, one of the startup pulses for the whole-heart steady-state free precession MRA sequence is used to collect the centerline of k-space, and its one-dimensional reconstruction is fed into the standard diaphragm-navigator (NAV) signal analysis process to prospectively gate and track respiratory-induced heart displacement. Ten healthy volunteers underwent non-contrast whole-heart MRA acquisitions using the conventional diaphragm-NAV and Heart-NAV with 5 and 10-mm acceptance windows in a 1.5T scanner. Five patients underwent contrast-enhanced IR whole-heart MRA using a diaphragm-NAV and Heart-NAV with a 5-mm acceptance window. For non-contrast whole-heart MRA with both the 5 and 10-mm acceptance windows, Heart-NAV yielded coronary artery vessel sharpness and subjective visual scores that were not significantly different than those using a conventional diaphragm-NAV. Scan time for Heart-NAV was 10% shorter (p heart MRA, inflow artifact was seen with the diaphragm-NAV but not with Heart-NAV. Compared with a conventional diaphragm-NAV, Heart-NAV achieves similar image quality in a slightly shorter scan time and eliminates inflow artifact. Magn Reson Med 77:759-765, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. Estimation of pulsed driven qubit parameters via quantum Fisher information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, N.; Hassan, S. S.

    2017-11-01

    We estimate the initial weight and phase parameters (θ, φ) of a single qubit system initially prepared in the coherent state \\renewcommand{\\ket}[1]{\\bigl\\vert #1 \\bigr>} \\ketθ, φ and in interaction with three different shapes of pulses; rectangular, exponential, and \\sin2 -pulses. In general, we show that the estimation degree of the weight parameter depends on the pulse shape and the initial phase angle, (φ) . For the rectangular pulse case, increasing the estimating rate of the weight parameter via the Fisher information function (F_θ) is possible with small values of the atomic detuning parameter and larger values of pulse strength. Fisher information (F_φ) increases suddenly at the resonant case to reach its maximum value if the initial phase φ=π/2 and consequently one may estimate the phase parameter with a high degree of precision. If the initial system is coded with classical information, the upper bounds of Fisher information for resonant and non-resonant cases are much larger and consequently, one may estimate the phase parameter with a high degree of accuracy. Similarly, as the detuning increases the Fisher information decreases and therefore the possibility of estimating the phase parameter decreases. For exponential and \\sin2 -pulses the Fisher information is maximum (Fθ, φ=1 ) and consequently, one can always estimate the weight and the phase parameters (θ, φ) with a high degree of precision.

  5. Comparative analysis of MR sequences to detect structural brain lesions in tuberous sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto Gama, Hugo Pereira; Campos Meirelles, Rogerio Goncalves de; Mendonca do Rego, Jose Iram [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, Section of Radiology, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rocha, Antonio Jose da; Silva, Carlos Jorge da [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, Section of Radiology, Centro de Medicina Diagnostica Fleury, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Braga, Flavio Tulio [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Section of Radiology, Centro de Medicina Diagnostica Fleury, Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Martins Maia, Antonio Carlos [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Section of Radiology, Centro de Medicina Diagnostica Fleury, Department of Neurology, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lederman, Henrique Manoel [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Division of Diagnostic Imaging in Pediatrics, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-02-01

    Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is a neurocutaneous genetically inherited disease with variable penetrance characterized by dysplasias and hamartomas affecting multiple organs. MR is the imaging method of choice to demonstrate structural brain lesions in TS. To compare MR sequences and determine which is most useful for the demonstration of each type of brain lesion in TS patients. We reviewed MR scans of 18 TS patients for the presence of cortical tubers, white matter lesions (radial bands), subependymal nodules, and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SGCA) on the following sequences: (1) T1-weighted spin-echo (T1 SE) images before and after gadolinium (Gd) injection; (2) nonenhanced T1 SE sequence with an additional magnetization transfer contrast medium pulse on resonance (T1 SE/MTC); and (3) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence. Cortical tubers were found in significantly (P<0.05) larger numbers and more conspicuously in FLAIR and T1 SE/MTC sequences. The T1 SE/MTC sequence was far superior to other methods in detecting white matter lesions (P<0.01). There was no significant difference between the T1 SE/MTC and T1 SE (before and after Gd injection) sequences in the detection of subependymal nodules; FLAIR sequence showed less sensitivity than the others in identifying the nodules. T1 SE sequences after Gd injection demonstrated better the limits of the SGCA. We demonstrated the importance of appropriate MRI sequences for diagnosis of the most frequent brain lesions in TS. Our study reinforces the fact that each sequence has a particular application according to the type of TS lesion. Gd injection might be useful in detecting SGCA; however, the parameters of size and location are also important for a presumptive diagnosis of these tumors. (orig.)

  6. Widely tunable mid-IR femtosecond resonant radiation induced by self-defocusing solitons in a quadratic nonlinear medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Liu, Xing; Guo, Hairun

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally observe widely tunable mid-IR femtosecond pulses by resonant radiation, generated by direct three-wave-mixing from a soliton in PPLN. The poling pitch gives a parametrically tunable resonant radiation, a feature absent in Kerr media.......We experimentally observe widely tunable mid-IR femtosecond pulses by resonant radiation, generated by direct three-wave-mixing from a soliton in PPLN. The poling pitch gives a parametrically tunable resonant radiation, a feature absent in Kerr media....

  7. Infrared resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization of fullerenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Helden, G.; Holleman, I.; Knippels, G.M.H.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Meijer, G.

    1997-01-01

    Gas-phase fullerenes are resonantly heated by a train of high power subpicosecond pulses from a free electron laser (FEL) to internal energies at which they efficiently undergo delayed ionization. When the laser is tuned from 6-20 mu m while the amount of laser produced parent ions is recorded,

  8. Development of Filtering Methods for PET Signals Contaminated by RF Pulses for Combined PET-MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Yoonsuk; Choi, Yong; Hong, Key Jo; Hu, Wei; Kang, Jihoon; Jung, Jin Ho; Song, Myung Sung; Park, Hyun-wook; Kim, Byung-Tae

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents the development of filtering methods for positron emission tomography (PET) signals contaminated by radio frequency (RF) pulses for combined PET and clinical 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The filtering methods include software, hardware, and hybrid correction methods. In the software correction method, PET signals are assessed, and valid signals are identified based on the characteristics of a typical PET signal using Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based programming. The hardware correction method makes use of differential-to-single-ended and low-pass filter circuits for PET analog signals. The hybrid correction method involves the sequential application of both the hardware and software methods. Both valid and contaminated PET signals are measured with an oscilloscope. An evaluation is then made of the performance (energy resolution, photopeak channel, total counts, and coincidence timing resolution) of the PET detector modules with and without various MR sequences (gradient echo, spin echo T1 sequence). For all correction methods, the energy resolution, photopeak position, and coincidence timing resolution with MR sequences are similar (noise signals and reduce count loss while preserving the valid analog signals of MR sequences, is reliable and useful for the development of simultaneous PET-MRI.

  9. 996 RESONANCE November 2013

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    996. RESONANCE. November 2013. Page 2. 997. RESONANCE. November 2013. Page 3. 998. RESONANCE. November 2013. Page 4. 999. RESONANCE. November 2013. Page 5. 1000. RESONANCE. November 2013. Page 6. 1001. RESONANCE. November 2013. Page 7. 1002. RESONANCE. November 2013 ...

  10. 817 RESONANCE September 2013

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    817. RESONANCE ⎜ September 2013. Page 2. 818. RESONANCE ⎜ September 2013. Page 3. 819. RESONANCE ⎜ September 2013. Page 4. 820. RESONANCE ⎜ September 2013. Page 5. 821. RESONANCE ⎜ September 2013. Page 6. 822. RESONANCE ⎜ September 2013. Page 7. 823. RESONANCE ⎜ September ...

  11. 369 RESONANCE April 2016

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    369. RESONANCE ⎜ April 2016. Page 2. 370. RESONANCE ⎜ April 2016. Page 3. 371. RESONANCE ⎜ April 2016. Page 4. 372. RESONANCE ⎜ April 2016. Page 5. 373. RESONANCE ⎜ April 2016. Page 6. 374. RESONANCE ⎜ April 2016. Page 7. 375. RESONANCE ⎜ April 2016.

  12. Autostereogram resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavey, Sean; Rae, Katherine; Murray, Adam; Courtial, Johannes

    2012-09-01

    Autostereograms, or "Magic Eye" pictures, are repeating patterns designed to give the illusion of depth. Here we discuss optical resonators that create light patterns which, when viewed from a suitable position by a monocular observer, are autostereograms of the three-dimensional shape of one of the mirror surfaces.

  13. Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Yoichi

    The pulse tube refrigerator is one of the regenerative cycle refrigerators such as Stirling cycle or Gifford-McMahon cycle which gives the cooling temperature below 150 K down to liquid helium temperature. In 1963, W. E. Gifford invented a simple refrigeration cycle which is composed of compressor, regenerator and simple tube named as pulse tube which gives a similar function of the expander in Stirling or Gifford-McMahon cycle. The thermodynamically performance of this pulse tube refrigerator is inferior to that of other regenerative cycles. In 1984, however, Mikulin and coworkers made a significant advance in pulse tube configuration called as orifice pulse tube. After this, several modifications of the pulse tube hot end configuration have been developed. With those modifications, the thermodynamic performance of the pulse tube refrigerator became the same order to that of Stirling and Gifford-McMahon refrigerator. This article reviews the brief history of the pulse tube refrigerator development in the view point of its thermodynamically efficiency. Simplified theories of the energy flow in the pulse tube have also been described.

  14. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Diels, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, 2e serves as an introduction to the phenomena of ultra short laser pulses and describes how this technology can be used to examine problems in areas such as electromagnetism, optics, and quantum mechanics. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena combines theoretical backgrounds and experimental techniques and will serve as a manual on designing and constructing femtosecond (""faster than electronics"") systems or experiments from scratch. Beyond the simple optical system, the various sources of ultrashort pulses are presented, again with emphasis on the basic

  15. Improved Tracking of an Atomic-Clock Resonance Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestage, John D.; Chung, Sang K.; Tu, Meirong

    2010-01-01

    An improved method of making an electronic oscillator track the frequency of an atomic-clock resonance transition is based on fitting a theoretical nonlinear curve to measurements at three oscillator frequencies within the operational frequency band of the transition (in other words, at three points within the resonance peak). In the measurement process, the frequency of a microwave oscillator is repeatedly set at various offsets from the nominal resonance frequency, the oscillator signal is applied in a square pulse of the oscillator signal having a suitable duration (typically, of the order of a second), and, for each pulse at each frequency offset, fluorescence photons of the transition in question are counted. As described below, the counts are used to determine a new nominal resonance frequency. Thereafter, offsets are determined with respect to the new resonance frequency. The process as described thus far is repeated so as to repeatedly adjust the oscillator to track the most recent estimate of the nominal resonance frequency.

  16. Second-order shaped pulsed for solid-state quantum computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Pinaki [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We present the construction and detailed analysis of highly optimized self-refocusing pulse shapes for several rotation angles. We characterize the constructed pulses by the coefficients appearing in the Magnus expansion up to second order. This allows a semianalytical analysis of the performance of the constructed shapes in sequences and composite pulses by computing the corresponding leading-order error operators. Higher orders can be analyzed with the numerical technique suggested by us previously. We illustrate the technique by analyzing several composite pulses designed to protect against pulse amplitude errors, and on decoupling sequences for potentially long chains of qubits with on-site and nearest-neighbor couplings.

  17. Thyristor stack for pulsed inductive plasma generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, C; Jacoby, J; Schweizer, W; Wiechula, J

    2009-03-01

    A thyristor stack for pulsed inductive plasma generation has been developed and tested. The stack design includes a free wheeling diode assembly for current reversal. Triggering of the device is achieved by a high side biased, self supplied gate driver unit using gating energy derived from a local snubber network. The structure guarantees a hard firing gate pulse for the required high dI/dt application. A single fiber optic command is needed to achieve a simultaneous turn on of the thyristors. The stack assembly is used for switching a series resonant circuit with a ringing frequency of 30 kHz. In the prototype pulsed power system described here an inductive discharge has been generated with a pulse duration of 120 micros and a pulse energy of 50 J. A maximum power transfer efficiency of 84% and a peak power of 480 kW inside the discharge were achieved. System tests were performed with a purely inductive load and an inductively generated plasma acting as a load through transformer action at a voltage level of 4.1 kV, a peak current of 5 kA, and a current switching rate of 1 kA/micros.

  18. An open-source software tool for the generation of relaxation time maps in magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kühne Titus

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In magnetic resonance (MR imaging, T1, T2 and T2* relaxation times represent characteristic tissue properties that can be quantified with the help of specific imaging strategies. While there are basic software tools for specific pulse sequences, until now there is no universal software program available to automate pixel-wise mapping of relaxation times from various types of images or MR systems. Such a software program would allow researchers to test and compare new imaging strategies and thus would significantly facilitate research in the area of quantitative tissue characterization. Results After defining requirements for a universal MR mapping tool, a software program named MRmap was created using a high-level graphics language. Additional features include a manual registration tool for source images with motion artifacts and a tabular DICOM viewer to examine pulse sequence parameters. MRmap was successfully tested on three different computer platforms with image data from three different MR system manufacturers and five different sorts of pulse sequences: multi-image inversion recovery T1; Look-Locker/TOMROP T1; modified Look-Locker (MOLLI T1; single-echo T2/T2*; and multi-echo T2/T2*. Computing times varied between 2 and 113 seconds. Estimates of relaxation times compared favorably to those obtained from non-automated curve fitting. Completed maps were exported in DICOM format and could be read in standard software packages used for analysis of clinical and research MR data. Conclusions MRmap is a flexible cross-platform research tool that enables accurate mapping of relaxation times from various pulse sequences. The software allows researchers to optimize quantitative MR strategies in a manufacturer-independent fashion. The program and its source code were made available as open-source software on the internet.

  19. SPECTRAL AMPLITUDE AND PHASE EVOLUTION IN PETAWATT LASER PULSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filip, C V

    2010-11-22

    The influence of the active gain medium on the spectral amplitude and phase of amplified pulses in a CPA system is studied. Results from a 10-PW example based on Nd-doped mixed glasses are presented. In conclusion, this study shows that, by using spectral shaping and gain saturation in a mixed-glass amplifier, it is possible to produce 124 fs, 1.4 kJ laser pulses. One detrimental effect, the pulse distortion due to resonant amplification medium, has been investigated and its magnitude as well as its compensation calculated.

  20. Coplanar photonic bandgap resonators for low temperature electron and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigillito, A. J.; Tyryshkin, A. M.; Lyon, S. A.

    In recent years, superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) resonators have become a useful tool for low temperature pulsed electron spin resonance (ESR), even at dilution refrigerator temperatures. Their small mode volumes make CPW resonators particularly well suited to measuring small numbers of spins near the resonator surface, since in this region the spin sensitivity is very high. While these resonators have proven useful for ESR at single microwave frequencies, it is difficult to also manipulate nuclear spins in electron-nuclear-double resonance (ENDOR) experiments, since manipulation of nuclear spins requires radio frequency (RF) magnetic fields. Ideally one would simply generate these fields by passing RF currents through the CPW, but because conventional CPW resonators are capacitively coupled, they will not transmit low-frequency RF currents. In this talk, we discuss the use of one dimensional photonic bandgap (PBG) resonators to overcome this challenge. PBG resonators are a promising alternative to conventional CPW resonators since they offer high quality factors at microwave frequencies, while simultaneously allowing transmission of nonresonant RF currents below the photonic bandgap. Here, we will discuss PBG resonator designs and present data showing their use for low temperature ESR of donors in 28Si. Initial ENDOR results will also be presented.

  1. Pulse Distortion in Saturated Fiber Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Da Ros, Francesco; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation....

  2. Resonant behavior of dielectric objects (electrostatic resonances).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredkin, D R; Mayergoyz, I D

    2003-12-19

    Resonant behavior of dielectric objects occurs at certain frequencies for which the object permittivity is negative and the free-space wavelength is large in comparison with the object dimensions. Unique physical features of these resonances are studied and a novel technique for the calculation of resonance values of permittivity, and hence resonance frequencies, is proposed. Scale invariance of resonance frequencies, unusually strong orthogonality properties of resonance modes, and a two-dimensional phenomenon of "twin" spectra are reported. The paper concludes with brief discussions of optical controllability of these resonances in semiconductor nanoparticles and a plausible, electrostatic resonance based, mechanism for nucleation and formation of ball lightning.

  3. Chaotic Pulse Trains

    CERN Document Server

    Balmforth, N J; Spiegel, E A

    1993-01-01

    Abstract: We study a third-order nonlinear ordinary differential equation whose solutions, under certain specific conditions, are individual pulses. These correspond to homoclinic orbits in the phase space of the equation and we study the possible pulse types in some detail. Sufficiently close to the conditions under which a homoclinic orbit exists, the solutions take the form of trains of well-separated pulses. A measure of closeness to homoclinic conditions provides a small parameter for the development of an asymptotic solution consisting of superposed, isolated pulses. The solvability condition in the resulting singular perturbation theory is a {\\its timing map} relating successive pulse spacings. This map of the real line onto itself, together with the known form of the homoclinic orbit, provides a concise and accurate solution of the equation.

  4. Observation of enhanced field-free molecular alignment by two laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Christer; Poulsen, Mikael Dahlerup; Peronne, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    We show experimentally that field-free alignment of iodobenzene molecules, induced by a single, intense, linearly polarized 1.4-ps-long laser pulse, can be strongly enhanced by dividing the pulse into two optimally synchronized pulses of the same duration. For a given total energy of the two-puls......-pulse sequence the degree of alignment is maximized with an intensity ratio of 1:3 and by sending the second pulse near the time where the alignment created by the first pulse peaks....

  5. Neuroaesthetic Resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Neuroaesthetic Resonance emerged from a mature body of patient- centered gesture-control research investigating non-formal rehabilitation via ICT-enhanced-Art to question ‘Aesthetic Resonance’. Motivating participation, ludic engagement, and augmenting physical motion in non-formal (fun) treatment sessions are achieved via adaptive action-analyzed activities. These interactive virtual environments are designed to empower patients’ creative and/or playful expressions via digital feedback stimu...

  6. 3D imaging using magnetic resonance tomosynthesis (MRT) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Oh; Zho, Sang-Young; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2012-08-01

    To introduce an alternative approach to three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using a method that is similar to x-ray tomosynthesis. Variable angle tilted-projection images are acquired using a multiple-oblique view (MOV) pulse sequence. Reconstruction is performed using three methods similar to that of x-ray tomosynthesis, which generate a set of tomographic images with multiple 2D projection images. The reconstruction algorithm is further modified to reformat to the practical imaging situations of MR. The procedure is therefore termed magnetic resonance tomosynthesis (MRT). To analyze the characteristics of MRT, simulations are performed. Phantom and in vivo experiments were done to suggest potential applications. Simulation results show anisotropic features that are structurally dependent in terms of resolution. Partial blurrings along slice direction were observed. In phantom and in vivo experiments, the reconstruction performance is particularly noticeable in the low SNR case where improved images with lower noise are obtained. Reformatted reconstruction using thinner slice thickness and∕or extended field-of-view can increase spatial resolution partially and alleviate slice profile imperfection. Results demonstrate that MRT can generate adequate 3D images using the MOV images. Various reconstruction methods in tomosynthesis were readily adapted, while allowing other tomosynthesis reconstruction algorithms to be incorporated. A reformatted reconstruction process was incorporated for applications relevant to MR imaging.

  7. Calculations of population transfer during intense laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, K.J.; Kulander, K.C.

    1993-08-01

    Recent experiments by several groups have examined the question of population transfer to resonantly excited states during intense short laser pulses, in particular the amount of population that remains ``trapped`` in excited states at the end of a laser pulse. In this chapter we present calculations of population transfer and resonant ionization in xenon at both 660 and 620 nm. At the longer wavelength, the seven photon channel closes at 2.5{times}10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}. Pulses with peak intensities higher than this result in ``Rydberg trapping``, the resonant transfer of population to a broad range of high-lying states. The amount of population transferred depends on both the peak intensity and pulse duration. At 620 mm there are numerous possible six photon resonances to states with p or f angular momentum. We have done a large number of calculations for 40 fs pulses at different peak intensities and have examined the population transferred to these low-lying resonant states as a function of the peak laser intensity. We do not have room to comment upon the resonantly enhanced ionized electron energy spectra that we also determine in the same calculations. Our calculations involve the direct numerical integration of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for an atom interacting with a strong laser field. The time-dependent wave function of a given valence electron is calculated on a spatial grid using a one-electron pseudo potential. This single active electron approximation (SAE) has been shown to be a good approximation for the rare gases at the intensities and wavelengths that we will consider. The SAE potential we use has an explicit angular momentum dependence which allows us to reproduce all of the excited state energies for xenon quite well.

  8. Magnetic Resonance (MR) Defecography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance (MR) Defecography Magnetic resonance (MR) defecography is a ... the limitations of MRI defecography? What is magnetic resonance (MR) defecography? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a ...

  9. Spin echo magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Bernd André; Weigel, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    The spin echo sequence is a fundamental pulse sequence in MRI. Many of today's applications in routine clinical use are based on this elementary sequence. In this review article, the principles of the spin echo formation are demonstrated on which the generation of the fundamental image contrasts T1, T2, and proton density is based. The basic imaging parameters repetition time (TR) and echo time (TE) and their influence on the image contrast are explained. Important properties such as the behavior in multi-slice imaging or in the presence of flow are depicted and the basic differences with gradient echo imaging are illustrated. The characteristics of the spin echo sequence for different magnetic field strengths with respect to clinical applications are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. 1004 RESONANCE November 2013

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    1004. RESONANCE │ November 2013. Page 2. 1005. RESONANCE │ November 2013. Page 3. 1006. RESONANCE │ November 2013. Page 4. 1007. RESONANCE │ November 2013. Page 5. 1008. RESONANCE │ November 2013. Page 6. 1009. RESONANCE │ November 2013. Page 7. 1010. RESONANCE ...

  11. Pondermotive absorption of a short intense laser pulse in a non-uniform plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, A.A.; Platonov, K.Yu. [Inst. for Laser Physics, SC `Vavilov State Optical Inst.` 12, Birzhevaya line, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tanaka, K.A.

    1998-03-01

    An analytical description of the pondermotive absorption mechanism at a short high intense laser pulse interaction with a strong inhomogeneous plasma is presented. The optimal conditions for the maximum of resonance absorption of laser pulse interaction with non-uniform plasma at normal incidence are founded. (author)

  12. Internal reflection as a cause of the correlation of counterpropagating pulses in superradiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trifonov, E.D. [Herzen Russian State Pedagogical Univ., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1994-07-01

    Resonant reflection from boundaries as an excitation region is considered as a cause of a correlation of counterpropagating pulses in superradiance. Criteria for the pulse synchronization are obtained, both for pure superradiance and for the case when phase relaxation is present. 11 refs.

  13. Sequence assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria

    2009-01-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing number of sequenced and re-sequenced genomes, many issues regarding the computational assembly of large-scale sequencing data have remain unresolved. Computational assembly is crucial in large genome projects as well for the evolving high-throughput technologies...... and plays an important role in processing the information generated by these methods. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current publicly available sequence assembly programs. We describe the basic principles of computational assembly along with the main concerns, such as repetitive sequences...... in genomic DNA, highly expressed genes and alternative transcripts in EST sequences. We summarize existing comparisons of different assemblers and provide a detailed descriptions and directions for download of assembly programs at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/assembly/methods.html....

  14. High performance pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothaus, Michael G.; Moran, Stuart L.; Hardesty, Leonard W.

    1992-06-01

    The device is a compact Marx-type generator capable of producing a high-voltage burst of pulses having risetimes less than 10 nanoseconds at repetition rates up to 10 kHz. High-pressure hydrogen switches are used as the switching elements to achieve high rep-rate. A small coaxial design provides low inductance and a fast risetime. The device may be used as a high-rep-rate high-voltage trigger generator, or as a high-voltage pulse source capable of producing up to 1 MV pulses at high repetition rates.

  15. Pulse joining cartridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovashchenko, Sergey Fedorovich; Bonnen, John Joseph Francis

    2017-09-26

    A pulsed joining tool includes a tool body that defines a cavity that receives an inner tubular member and an outer tubular member and a pulse joining cartridge. The tubular members are nested together with the cartridge being disposed around the outer tubular member. The cartridge includes a conductor, such as a wire or foil, that extends around the outer tubular member and is insulated to separate a supply segment from a return segment. A source of stored electrical energy is discharged through the conductor to join the tubular members with an electromagnetic force pulse.

  16. SHORT PULSE STRETCHER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branum, D.R.; Cummins, W.F.

    1962-12-01

    >A short pulse stretching circuit capable of stretching a short puise to enable it to be displayed on a relatively slow sweeping oscilloscope is described. Moreover, the duration of the pulse is increased by charging a capacitor through a diode and thereafter discharging the capacitor at such time as is desired. In the circuit the trigger pulse alone passes through a delay line, whereas the main signal passes through the diode only, and results in over-all circuit losses which are proportional to the low losses of the diode only. (AEC)

  17. DogPulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Christoffer; Thomsen, Josephine Raun; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents DogPulse, an ambient awareness system to support the coordination of dog walking among family members at home. DogPulse augments a dog collar and leash set to activate an ambient shape-changing lamp and visualize the last time the dog was taken for a walk. The lamp gradually...... changes its form and pulsates its lights in order to keep the family members aware of the dog walking activity. We report the iterative prototyping of DogPulse, its implementation and its preliminary evaluation. Based on our initial findings, we present the limitations and lessons learned as well...

  18. Genome Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, Shusei; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj

    2014-01-01

    The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based...... on transcriptional evidence. Analysis of repetitive sequences suggests that they are underrepresented in the reference assembly, reflecting an enrichment of gene-rich regions in the current assembly. Characterization of Lotus natural variation by resequencing of L. japonicus accessions and diploid Lotus species...... is currently ongoing, facilitated by the MG20 reference sequence...

  19. Empathy in schizophrenia: impaired resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf

    2009-09-01

    Resonance is the phenomenon of one person unconsciously mirroring the motor actions as basis of emotional expressions of another person. This shared representation serves as a basis for sharing physiological and emotional states of others and is an important component of empathy. Contagious laughing and contagious yawning are examples of resonance. In the interpersonal contact with individuals with schizophrenia we can often experience impaired empathic resonance. The aim of this study is to determine differences in empathic resonance-in terms of contagion by yawning and laughing-in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls in the context of psychopathology and social functioning. We presented video sequences of yawning, laughing or neutral faces to 43 schizophrenia outpatients and 45 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Participants were video-taped during the stimulation and rated regarding contagion by yawning and laughing. In addition, we assessed self-rated empathic abilities (Interpersonal Reactivity Index), psychopathology (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in the schizophrenia group resp. Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire in the control group), social dysfunction (Social Dysfunction Index) and executive functions (Stroop, Fluency). Individuals with schizophrenia showed lower contagion rates for yawning and laughing. Self-rated empathic concern showed no group difference and did not correlate with contagion. Low rate of contagion by laughing correlated with the schizophrenia negative syndrome and with social dysfunction. We conclude that impaired resonance is a handicap for individuals with schizophrenia in social life. Blunted observable resonance does not necessarily reflect reduced subjective empathic concern.

  20. Magnetization transfer in human achilles tendon assessed by a 3D ultrashort echo time sequence. Quantitative examinations in healthy volunteers at 3T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syha, R.; Grosse, U.; Springer, F. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Section on Experimental Radiology; Martirosian, P.; Schick, F. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Section on Experimental Radiology; Ketelsen, D.; Claussen, C.D. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2011-11-15

    Magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) imaging provides insight into interactions between free and bounded water. Newly developed ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences implemented on whole-body magnetic resonance (MR) scanners allow MTC imaging in tissues with extremely fast signal decay such as tendons. The aim of this study was to develop a technique for the quantification of the MT effect in healthy Achilles tendons in-vivo at 3 Tesla. 16 normal tendons of volunteers with no history of tendinopathy were examined using a 3D-UTE sequence with a rectangular on-resonant excitation pulse and a Fermi-shaped off-resonant MT preparation pulse. The frequency of the MT pulse was varied from 1 to 5 kHz. MT effects were calculated in terms of the MT ratio (MTR) between measurements without and with MT preparation. Direct saturation effects of MT preparation on the signal intensity were evaluated using numerical simulation of Bloch equations. One patient with tendinopathy was examined to exemplarily show changes of MTR under pathologic conditions. Calculation of MTR data was feasible in all examined tendons and showed a decrease from 0.53 {+-} 0.05 to 0.25 {+-} 0.03 (1 kHz to 5 kHz) for healthy volunteers. Evaluation of variation with gender and dominance of ankle revealed no significant differences (p > 0.05). In contrast, the patient with confirmed tendinopathy showed MTR values between 0.36 (1 kHz) and 0.19 (5 kHz). MT effects in human Achilles tendons can be reliably assessed in-vivo using a 3D UTE sequence at 3 T. All healthy tendons showed similar MTR values (coefficient of variation 10.0 {+-} 1.2 %). The examined patient showed a clearly different MT effect revealing a changed microstructure in the case of tendinopathy. (orig.)

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging features of leukoaraiosis in elderly dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpante, Elena; Cherubini, Giunio Bruto; de Stefani, Alberta; Taeymans, Olivier

    2017-07-01

    Leukoaraiosis is a descriptive term used to designate bilateral, symmetrical, white matter lesions identified in brains of elderly human patients. These lesions are isointense to normal in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T1-weighted pulse sequences, non-contrast enhancing, and hyperintense in T2-weighted and FLAIR pulse sequences. Pathophysiologic mechanisms for leukoaraiosis remain incompletely understood; however, an ischemic origin is currently being favored. Age-related changes, such as brain atrophy, ventricular enlargement, and well-demarcated sulci, have also been previously described in dogs over 9 years of age. Objectives of this retrospective case series study were to describe MRI features of leukoaraiosis and brain atrophy in a group of elderly dogs. The Dick White Referrals MRI database between October 2009 and April 2016 was reviewed. Dogs with bilaterally symmetrical periventricular areas of T2 and FLAIR hyperintensity compatible with leukoaraiosis, and older than 9 years, were included. Fourteen dogs met the inclusion criteria, with a total of 18 MRI studies available for review. Median age for sampled dogs was 13 years. Ten dogs had MRI signs of concurrent brain atrophy; one of them had signs of brain atrophy before leukoaraiotic changes could be identified. In those cases where serial MRIs were available, progressive reduction of interthalamic adhesion thickness was observed. The current study introduces leukoaraiosis as a descriptive term for the MRI sign of bilaterally symmetrical, periventricular T2, and FLAIR hyperintensities in brains of elderly dogs. Future studies are needed to determine pathophysiologic mechanisms for this MRI sign. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  2. Multiband RF pulses with improved performance via convex optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Hong; Larson, Peder E Z; Kerr, Adam; Reed, Galen; Sukumar, Subramaniam; Elkhaled, Adam; Gordon, Jeremy W; Ohliger, Michael A; Pauly, John M; Lustig, Michael; Vigneron, Daniel B

    2016-01-01

    Selective RF pulses are commonly designed with the desired profile as a low pass filter frequency response. However, for many MRI and NMR applications, the spectrum is sparse with signals existing at a few discrete resonant frequencies. By specifying a multiband profile and releasing the constraint on "don't-care" regions, the RF pulse performance can be improved to enable a shorter duration, sharper transition, or lower peak B1 amplitude. In this project, a framework for designing multiband RF pulses with improved performance was developed based on the Shinnar-Le Roux (SLR) algorithm and convex optimization. It can create several types of RF pulses with multiband magnitude profiles, arbitrary phase profiles and generalized flip angles. The advantage of this framework with a convex optimization approach is the flexible trade-off of different pulse characteristics. Designs for specialized selective RF pulses for balanced SSFP hyperpolarized (HP) (13)C MRI, a dualband saturation RF pulse for (1)H MR spectroscopy, and a pre-saturation pulse for HP (13)C study were developed and tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance in acute cardiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitel, Ingo; Friedrich, Matthias G

    2011-02-18

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) using T2-weighted sequences can visualize myocardial edema. When compared to previous protocols, newer pulse sequences with substantially improved image quality have increased its clinical utility. The assessment of myocardial edema provides useful incremental diagnostic and prognostic information in a variety of clinical settings associated with acute myocardial injury. In patients with acute chest pain, T2-weighted CMR is able to identify acute or recent myocardial ischemic injury and has been employed to distinguish acute coronary syndrome (ACS) from non-ACS as well as acute from chronic myocardial infarction.T2-weighted CMR can also be used to determine the area at risk in reperfused and non-reperfused infarction. When combined with contrast-enhanced imaging, the salvaged area and thus the success of early coronary revascularization can be quantified. Strong evidence for the prognostic value of myocardial salvage has enabled its use as a primary endpoint in clinical trials. The present article reviews the current evidence and clinical applications for T2-weighted CMR in acute cardiac disease and gives an outlook on future developments."The principle of all things is water"Thales of Miletus (624 BC - 546 BC). © 2011 Eitel and Friedrich; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  4. Controlling the acoustic streaming by pulsed ultrasounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Mauricio; Castro, Angélica

    2013-01-01

    We propose a technique based on pulsed ultrasounds for controlling, reducing to a minimum observable value the acoustic streaming in closed ultrasonic standing wave fluidic resonators. By modifying the number of pulses and the repetition time it is possible to reduce the velocity of the acoustic streaming with respect to the velocity generated by the continuous ultrasound mode of operation. The acoustic streaming is observed at the nodal plane where a suspension of 800nm latex particles was focused by primary radiation force. A mixture of 800nm and 15μm latex particles has been also used for showing that the acoustic streaming is hardly reduced while primary and secondary forces continue to operate. The parameter we call "pulse mode factor" i.e. the time of applied ultrasound divided by the duty cycle, is found to be the adequate parameter that controls the acoustic streaming. We demonstrate that pulsed ultrasound is more efficient for controlling the acoustic streaming than the variation of the amplitude of the standing waves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pulsed spallation Neutron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, J.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development at Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provides a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology.

  6. Acquisition time reduction in magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging using discrete wavelet encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrai, Hacene; Senhadji, Lotfi

    2005-11-01

    This paper describes a new magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) technique based upon the discrete wavelet transform to reduce acquisition time and cross voxel contamination. Prototype functions called wavelets are used in wavelet encoding to localize defined regions in localized space by dilations and translations. Wavelet encoding in MRSI is achieved by matching the slice selective RF pulse profiles to a set of dilated and translated wavelets. Single and dual band slice selective excitation and refocusing pulses, with profiles resembling Haar wavelets, are used in a spin-echo sequence to acquire 2D-MRSI wavelet encoding data. The 2D space region is spanned up to the desired resolution by a proportional number of dilations (increases in the localization gradients) and translations (frequency shift) of the Haar wavelets (RF pulses). Acquisition time is reduced by acquiring successive MR signals from regions of space with variable size and different locations with no requirement for a TR waiting time between acquisitions. An inverse wavelet transform is performed on the data to produce the correct spatial MR signal distribution.

  7. Composite pulses for RF phase encoded MRI: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salajeghe, Somaie; Babyn, Paul; Sarty, Gordon E

    2017-02-01

    In B1 encoded MRI, a realistic non-linear phase RF encoding coil will generate an inhomogeneous B1 field that leads to spatially dependent flip angles. The non-linearity of the B1 phase gradient can be compensated for in the reconstruction, but B1 inhomogeneity remains a problem. The effect of B1 inhomogeneity on tip angles for conventional, B0 encoded MRI, may be minimized using composite pulses. The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using composite pulses with non-linear RF phase encoding coils and to identify the most appropriate composite pulse scheme. RF encoded signals were simulated via the Bloch equation for various symmetric, asymmetric and antisymmetric composite pulses. The simulated signals were reconstructed using a constrained least squares method. Root mean square reconstruction errors varied from 6% (for an asymmetric composite pulse) to 9.7% (for an antisymmetric composite pulse). An asymmetric composite pulse scheme created images with fewer artifacts than other composite pulse schemes in inhomogeneous B0 and B1 fields making it the best choice for decreasing the effects of spatially varying flip angles. This is contrary to the conclusion that antisymmetric composite pulses are the best ones to use for spin echo sequences in conventional, B0 encoded, MRI. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental observation of dissipative soliton resonance in an anomalous-dispersion fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lina; Liu, Xueming; Mao, Dong; Wang, Leiran; Wang, Guoxi

    2012-01-02

    We have experimentally observed conventional solitons and rectangular pulses in an erbium-doped fiber laser operating at anomalous dispersion regime. The rectangular pulses exhibit broad quasi-Gaussian spectra (~40 nm) and triangular autocorrelation traces. With the enhancement of pump power, the duration and energy of the output rectangular pulses almost increase linearly up to 330 ps and 3.2 nJ, respectively. It is demonstrated that high-energy pulses can be realized in anomalous-dispersion regime, and may be explained as dissipative soliton resonance. Our results have confirmed that the formation of dissipative soliton resonance is not sensitive to the sign of cavity dispersion.

  9. Graphical programming for pulse automated NMR experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmonte, S.B. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, I.S.; Guimaraes, A.P. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1999-01-01

    We describe a software program designed to control a broadband pulse Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometer used in zero-field NMR studies of magnetic metals. The software is written in the graphical language LabVIEW. This type of programming allows modifications and the inclusion of new routines to be easily made by the non-specialist, without changing the basic structure of the program. The program corrects for differences in the gain of the two acquisition channels [U (phase) and V (quadrature)], and automatic baseline subtraction. We present examples of measurements of NMR spectra, spin-echo decay (T{sub 2}), and quadrupolar oscillations, performed in magnetic intermetallic compounds. (author)

  10. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Russell B.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  11. Molecular spinning by a chiral train of short laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floß, Johannes; Averbukh, Ilya Sh.

    2012-12-01

    We provide a detailed theoretical analysis of molecular rotational excitation by a chiral pulse train, a sequence of linearly polarized pulses with the polarization direction rotating from pulse to pulse by a controllable angle. Molecular rotation with a preferential rotational sense (clockwise or counterclockwise) can be excited by this scheme. We show that the directionality of the rotation is caused by quantum interference of different excitation pathways. The chiral pulse train is capable of selective excitation of molecular isotopologs and nuclear spin isomers in a mixture. We demonstrate this using 14N2 and 15N2 as examples for isotopologs and para- and ortho-nitrogen as examples for nuclear-spin isomers.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of rodent spinal cord with an improved performance coil at 7 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Najera, S. E.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2014-11-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging of animal models provide reliable means to study human diseases. The image acquisition particularly determined by the radio frequency coil to detect the signal emanated from a particular region of interest. A scaled-down version of the slotted surface coil was built based on the previous results of a magnetron-type surface coil for human applications. Our coil prototype had a 2 cm total diameter and six circular slots and was developed for murine spinal cord at 7 T. Electromagnetic simulations of the slotted and circular coils were also performed to compute the spatially dependent magnetic and electric fields using a simulated saline-solution sphere. The quality factor of both coils was experimentally measured giving a lower noise figure and a higher quality factor for the slotted coil outperforming the circular coil. Images of the spinal cord of a rat were acquired using standard pulse sequences. The slotted surface coil can be a good tool for spinal cord rat imaging using conventional pulse sequences at 7 T.

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance signal dynamics of liquids in the presence of distant dipolar fields, revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Wilson; Gochberg, Daniel F; Gore, John C

    2009-05-07

    The description of the nuclear magnetic resonance magnetization dynamics in the presence of long-range dipolar interactions, which is based upon approximate solutions of Bloch-Torrey equations including the effect of a distant dipolar field, has been revisited. New experiments show that approximate analytic solutions have a broader regime of validity as well as dependencies on pulse-sequence parameters that seem to have been overlooked. In order to explain these experimental results, we developed a new method consisting of calculating the magnetization via an iterative formalism where both diffusion and distant dipolar field contributions are treated as integral operators incorporated into the Bloch-Torrey equations. The solution can be organized as a perturbative series, whereby access to higher order terms allows one to set better boundaries on validity regimes for analytic first-order approximations. Finally, the method legitimizes the use of simple analytic first-order approximations under less demanding experimental conditions, it predicts new pulse-sequence parameter dependencies for the range of validity, and clarifies weak points in previous calculations.

  14. A numerical study of ultra-short-pulse reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B.I.; Afeyan, B.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chou, A.E. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering]|[California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science; Luhmann, N.C. Jr. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science

    1994-05-01

    Ultra-short-pulse reflectometry is studied by means of the numerical integration of a one-dimensional full-wave equation for ordinary modes propagating in a plasma. The numerical calculations illustrate the potential of using the reflection of ultra-short-pulse, microwaves as an effective probe of the density profile even in the presence of significant density fluctuations. The difference in time delays of differing frequency components of the microwaves can be used to deduce the density profile. The modification of the reflected pulses in the presence of density fluctuations is examined and can be understood based on considerations of Bragg resonance. A simple and effective profile-reconstruction algorithm using the zero-crossings of the reflected pulse and subsequent Abel inversion is demonstrated. The robustness of the profile reconstruction algorithm in the presence of a sufficiently small amplitude density perturbation is assessed.

  15. Ultra-short pulsed laser engineered metal-glass nanocomposites

    CERN Document Server

    Stalmashonak, Andrei; Abdolvand, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Glasses containing metallic nanoparticles exhibit very promising linear and nonlinear optical properties, mainly due to the surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) of the nanoparticles. The spectral position in the visible and near-infrared range and polarization dependence of the SPR are characteristically determined by the nanoparticles’ shapes. The focus of Ultra-Short Pulsed Laser Engineered Metal-Glass Nanocomposites is the interaction of intense ultra-short laser pulses with glass containing silver nanoparticles embedded in soda-lime glass, and nanostructural modifications in metal-glass nanocomposites induced by such laser pulses. In order to provide a comprehensive physical picture of the processes leading to laser-induced persistent shape transformation of the nanoparticles, series of experimental results investigating the dependences of laser assisted shape modifications of nanoparticles with laser pulse intensity, excitation wavelength, temperature are considered. In addition, the resulting local opti...

  16. Magnetic Resonance Characterization of Axonal Response to Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    signal from extracted and regenerated bovine myelin using a novel zero-echo-time (ZTE) pulse sequence at 3 Tesla field strength. 15. SUBJECT TERMS...methods pending resolution of this issue. Instead, we have developed imaging pulse sequences and RF coils for myelin imaging at 3T on a human MRI...concentration in white matter of the human spinal cord. Of note is that this coil is suited for imaging human-sized spinal cords ex vivo, as an important

  17. [Pulse oximetry in pediatric practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackel, H J; van Essen-Zandvliet, E E; de Jongste, J C; Kerrebijn, K F

    1990-02-01

    Pulse oximetry is a reliable technique for continuous, transcutaneous measurement of oxygen saturation and pulse frequency. Common indications for pulse oximetry in general pediatrics include: monitoring of oxygenation during an asthma attack, detection of apnea or hypoventilation, diagnosis of hypoxemia in patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency and monitoring of oxygen suppletion. In this article we discuss the various applications and limitations of pulse oximetry in clinical practice and describe a method to store, analyse and present pulse oximeter-results.

  18. Design and performance of a pulse transformer based on Fe-based nanocrystalline core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Liu; Xibo, Feng; Lin, Fuchang

    2011-08-01

    A dry-type pulse transformer based on Fe-based nanocrystalline core with a load of 0.88 nF, output voltage of more than 65 kV, and winding ratio of 46 is designed and constructed. The dynamic characteristics of Fe-based nanocrystalline core under the impulse with the pulse width of several microseconds were studied. The pulse width and incremental flux density have an important effect on the pulse permeability, so the pulse permeability is measured under a certain pulse width and incremental flux density. The minimal volume of the toroidal pulse transformer core is determined by the coupling coefficient, the capacitors of the resonant charging circuit, incremental flux density, and pulse permeability. The factors of the charging time, ratio, and energy transmission efficiency in the resonant charging circuit based on magnetic core-type pulse transformer are analyzed. Experimental results of the pulse transformer are in good agreement with the theoretical calculation. When the primary capacitor is 3.17 μF and charge voltage is 1.8 kV, a voltage across the secondary capacitor of 0.88 nF with peak value of 68.5 kV, rise time (10%-90%) of 1.80 μs is obtained.

  19. Characterization of a Pulsed HF Optical Resonance Transfer Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    110 LET WE - 4138.52 120 LET XEWE - 90.06 130 LET YEWE - 0.980 140 LET ZEWE - 0.025 150 LET BE - 20.939 160 LET AE - 0.770 170 LET CE - 0.005 180 LET...D(l) - 0.0022 190 LET D(2) - 0.001 200 LET D(3) - 0.003 210 LET D(4) - 0.002 220 LET D(5) - 0.001 230 LET ZE - ZEWE/WE 240 LET XE - XEWE /WE 250 LET

  20. A 4th-order band-pass filter using differential readout of two in-phase actuated contour-mode resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yagubizade, H.; Darvishi, M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Tas, Niels Roelof

    2013-01-01

    A 4th-order band-pass filter (BPF) based on the subtraction of two 2nd-order contour-mode Lamb-wave resonators is presented. The resonators have slightly different resonance frequencies around 380 MHz. Each resonator consists of a 500 nm pulsed-laser deposited lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin-film