WorldWideScience

Sample records for resonance diagnostic markers

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance diagnostic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, H.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance diagnostic apparatus including a coil for generating a gradient field in a plane perpendicular to a static magnetic field, means for controlling the operation of the coil to rotationally shift in angular steps the gradient direction of the gradient field at an angle pitch of some multiple of the unit index angle through a plurality of rotations to assume all the shift positions of the gradient direction, a rough image reconstructor for reconstructing a rough tomographic image on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance signals acquired during a rotation of the second gradient magnetic field, a rough image display for depicting the rough tomographic image, a final image reconstructor for reconstructing a final tomographic image on the basis of all nuclear magnetic resonance signals corresponding to all of the expected rotation shift positions acquired during a plurality of rotations and a final image display for depicting the final tomographic image

  2. Diagnostic markers for germ cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Nielsen, John E; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2015-01-01

    This concise review summarises tissue and serum markers useful for differential diagnosis of germ cell tumours (GCTs), with focus on the most common testicular GCTs (TGCTs). GCTs are characterised by phenotypic heterogeneity due to largely retained embryonic pluripotency and aberrant somatic diff...... of molecular markers, which allow specific diagnosis of various subtypes of GCT and are very useful for early detection at the precursor stage and for monitoring of patients during the follow-up....

  3. Diagnostic value of different tumor markers, our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, T.; Anwar, S.

    2000-01-01

    Variety of tumor markers with varying sensitivity and specificity are used for diagnosis of different malignancies. This study was done to determine the diagnostic value of different tumor markers in our patients with various malignancies. Out of 235 patients studied, 162 were suffering from malignant and 73 from benign diseases. Among these 84 were positive for tumor markers. Out of these positive tumor markers, 75 were suffering from malignancy. Tumor marker analyzed were ca-15-3, ca-125, BETA-HCG, CEA, PSA and alpha-FP depending upon the type of the disease these cases presented. Analysis of the results revealed that different tumor markers had sensitivity varying from 76.9-95.8% and specificity varying form 75-90.9%. CA-125 was observed to be the most specific and sensitive tumor marker for ovarian tumors followed by alpha-FP for hepatocellular tumors and CEA for gastrointestinal tumors. Similarly, PSA for prostate cancers, beta-HCG for choriocarcinoma and CA-15-3 for breast cancer. It is concluded that all the tumor markers have a variable diagnostic value, which cannot be relied upon independently, without other tests added to increase diagnostic value. (author)

  4. 21 CFR 892.1000 - Magnetic resonance diagnostic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnetic resonance diagnostic device. 892.1000 Section 892.1000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1000 Magnetic resonance diagnostic...

  5. Patterns of diagnostic marker assessment in adult diffuse glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woehrer, Adelheid; Kristensen, Bjarne W.; Vital, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The 2016 update of the WHO classification has introduced an integrated diagnostic approach that incorporates both tumor morphology and molecular information. This conceptual change has far-reaching implications, especially for neuropathologists who are in the forefront of translating molecular...... markers to routine diagnostic use. Adult diffuse glioma is a prototypic example for a group of tumors that underwent substantial regrouping, and it represents a major workload for surgical neuropathologists. Hence, we conducted a survey among members of the European Confederation of Neuropathological...

  6. Diagnostic apparatus employing nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, K.; Yamada, N.; Yoshitome, E.; Matsuura, H.

    1987-01-01

    An NMR diagnostic apparatus is described comprising means for applying a primary magnetic field to a subject; means for applying RF pulses to the subject to give nuclear magnetic resonance to the nuclei of atoms in the subject; means for applying gradient magnetic fields to project an NMR signal of the nuclei at least in one direction; means for observing the NMR signal projected by the gradient magnetic fields applying means; and arithmetic means for constructing a distribution of information on resonance energy as an image from an output signal from the observing means; wherein the gradient magnetic fields applying means comprises means for applying the gradient magnetic fields at a predetermined time and for not applying the gradient magnetic fields at another predetermined time, during the time period of one view; and wherein the gradient magnetic fields applying means further comprises means for measuring the NMR signal during the predetermined time when the gradient magnetic fields are applied, and means for measuring the intensity of the primary magnetic field during the other predetermined time when no gradient magnetic fields are applied

  7. Significance Of Immunohistochemical Markers In Diagnostics Of Urinary Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Medvedeva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of surgical and biopsy material 106 patients with diseases of urinary bladder have been under study. They received treatment at Scientific Research Institute of Fundamental and Clinical Uronephrology of Saratov State Medical University. 13 immunohistochemical markers have been evaluated: markers of proliferative activity - Ki-67, PCNA, p63, suppressor of tumor growth - p53, markers of apoptosis - Bcl-2, Bax, receptor of epidermal growth factors - EGFR, cytokeratin profile - (CK7, CK8, CK10/13, CK 17, CK18, CK19, as well as their diagnostic significance for identifying the urinary bladder cancer

  8. Antibody Arrays Identify Potential Diagnostic Markers of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Peter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Effective treatment of HCC patients is hampered by the lack of sensitive and specific diagnostic markers of HCC. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, the currently used HCC marker, misses 30%–50% of HCC patients, who therefore remain undiagnosed and untreated. In order to identify novel diagnostic markers that can be used individually or in combination with AFP, we used an antibody array platform to detect the levels of candidate proteins in the plasma of HCC patients (n = 48 and patients with chronic hepatitis B or C viral infections (n = 19 (both of which are the major risk factors of HCC. We identified 7 proteins that significantly differentiate HCC patients from hepatitis patients (p < 0.05 (AFP, CTNNB, CSF1, SELL, IGFBP6, IL6R, and VCAM1.Importantly, we also identified 8 proteins that significantly differentiate HCC patients with ‘normal’ levels of AFP (<20 ng/ml from hepatitis patients (p < 0.05 (IL1RN, IFNG, CDKN1A, RETN, CXCL14, CTNNB, FGF2, and SELL. These markers are potentially important complementary markers to AFP. Using an independent immunoassay method in an independent group of 23 HCC patients and 22 hepatitis patients, we validated that plasma levels of CTNNB were significantly higher in the HCC group (p = 0.020. In conclusion, we used an antibody array platform to identify potential circulating diagnostic markers of HCC, some of which may be valuable when used in combination with AFP. The clinical utility of these newly identified HCC diagnostic markers needs to be systematically evaluated.

  9. Diagnostic value of inflammatory markers (complete blood count ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of inflammatory markers [complete blood cell count (CBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP)] for the differentiation of acute appendicitis from nonspecific abdominal pain in children. Patients and methods In this prospective ...

  10. Diagnostic value of inflammatory markers (complete blood count ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of inflammatory markers [complete blood cell count (CBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR),. C-reactive protein (CRP)] for the differentiation of acute appendicitis from nonspecific abdominal pain in children. Patients and methods In this prospective ...

  11. Diagnostic markers of urothelial cancer based on DNA methylation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chihara, Yoshitomo; Hirao, Yoshihiko; Kanai, Yae; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Sugano, Kokichi; Kawashima, Kiyotaka; Liang, Gangning; Jones, Peter A; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Kuniyasu, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    Early detection and risk assessment are crucial for treating urothelial cancer (UC), which is characterized by a high recurrence rate, and necessitates frequent and invasive monitoring. We aimed to establish diagnostic markers for UC based on DNA methylation. In this multi-center study, three independent sample sets were prepared. First, DNA methylation levels at CpG loci were measured in the training sets (tumor samples from 91 UC patients, corresponding normal-appearing tissue from these patients, and 12 normal tissues from age-matched bladder cancer-free patients) using the Illumina Golden Gate methylation assay to identify differentially methylated loci. Next, these methylated loci were validated by quantitative DNA methylation by pyrosequencing, using another cohort of tissue samples (Tissue validation set). Lastly, methylation of these markers was analyzed in the independent urine samples (Urine validation set). ROC analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of these 12 selected markers. Of the 1303 CpG sites, 158 were hyper ethylated and 356 were hypo ethylated in tumor tissues compared to normal tissues. In the panel analysis, 12 loci showed remarkable alterations between tumor and normal samples, with 94.3% sensitivity and 97.8% specificity. Similarly, corresponding normal tissue could be distinguished from normal tissues with 76.0% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Furthermore, the diagnostic accuracy for UC of these markers determined in urine samples was high, with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Based on these preliminary findings, diagnostic markers based on differential DNA methylation at specific loci can be useful for non-invasive and reliable detection of UC and epigenetic field defect

  12. Molecular Pathology: Predictive, Prognostic, and Diagnostic Markers in Uterine Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterhouse, Lauren L; Howitt, Brooke E

    2016-09-01

    This article focuses on the diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive molecular biomarkers in uterine malignancies, in the context of morphologic diagnoses. The histologic classification of endometrial carcinomas is reviewed first, followed by the description and molecular classification of endometrial epithelial malignancies in the context of histologic classification. Taken together, the molecular and histologic classifications help clinicians to approach troublesome areas encountered in clinical practice and evaluate the utility of molecular alterations in the diagnosis and subclassification of endometrial carcinomas. Putative prognostic markers are reviewed. The use of molecular alterations and surrogate immunohistochemistry as prognostic and predictive markers is also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular pathology in adult gliomas: diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive markers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jansen, Michael

    2010-07-01

    Over the past 10 years, there has been an increasing use of molecular markers in the assessment and management of adult malignant gliomas. Some molecular signatures are used diagnostically to help pathologists classify tumours, whereas others are used to estimate prognosis for patients. Most crucial, however, are those markers that are used to predict response to certain therapies, thereby directing clinicians to a particular treatment while avoiding other potentially deleterious therapies. Recently, large-scale genome-wide surveys have been used to identify new biomarkers that have been rapidly developed as diagnostic and prognostic tools. Given these developments, the pace of discovery of new molecular assays will quicken to facilitate personalised medicine in the setting of malignant glioma.

  14. Gene transcripts as potential diagnostic markers for allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Malene Barré; Skov, Lone; Menné, Torkil

    2005-01-01

    The standard procedure for diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis is to perform a patch test. Because this has several disadvantages, the development of a new in vitro test system would be of immense value. Gene transcripts that distinguish allergics from non-allergics may have the potential...... widely available. The 26 differentially expressed genes identified in this study may potentially function as diagnostic markers for contact sensitivity....

  15. Study of skin markers for magnetic resonance imaging examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Yasuo; Umezaki, Yoshie; Miyati, Tosiaki; Yamamura, Kenichirou

    2013-01-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), skin markers are used as a landmark in order to make plans for examinations. However, there isn't a lot of research about the material and shape of skin markers. The skin marker's essential elements are safety, good cost performance, high signal intensity for T 1 weighted image (T 1 WI) and T 2 weighted image (T 2 WI), and durable. In order to get a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of T 1 WI and T 2 WI, baby oil, salad oil and olive oil were chosen, because these materials were easy to obtain and safe for the skin. The SNR of baby oil was the best. Baby oil was injected into the infusion tube, and the tube was solvent welded and cut by a heat sealer. In order to make ring shaped skin markers, both ends of the tube were stuck with adhesive tape. Three different diameters of markers were made (3, 5, 10 cmφ). Ring shaped skin markers were put on to surround the examination area, therefore, the edge of the examination area could be seen at every cross section. Using baby oil in the ring shaped infusion tube is simple, easy, and a highly useful skin marker. (author)

  16. Cerebral SPECT, a new diagnostic marker in depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, Enrique

    2001-01-01

    Over the past twenty years the functional brain imagenology has improved greatly. Today the diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic response are possible in psychiatry and neurology. The functional denomination in psychiatry has been known for more than a 100 years and it can be evident in the brain images. The relation between the blood brain flux and the brain can be seen as pictures in the Brain SPECT as hyper and hypo function areas. To carry out SPECT a venous injection of Tc-99m Technetium and (HMPAO) or (ECD) is applied in the arm. The images correspond to a period of two minutes after injection. The exam can be done until six hours after the brain fixation. The study is carried out in conditions, with the patient in repose, relaxed and without medication. The final result is an brain in colors. The yellow color gives us 95% of decrease and white color 95% of increase of the brain function. The red color gives a normal perfusion. The object of the study is to find that the Brain SPECT could be used as a new diagnostic marker of depression. The sample was 73 outpatients with major depression Our diagnostic marker is the prefrontal cortex ventral hypoperfusion (orbit frontal) in almost 100% of the patients and only 32% dorsal hypoperfusion (executive area), unlike most authors (Au)

  17. DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF SEROLOGICAL MARKERS OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei Leonidovich Maslaynski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a classic autoimmune disease associated with the production of wide range of autoantibodies, and their detection has diagnostic and prognostic implication. The objective of this study was to estimate the diagnostic value of antibodies against modified citrullinated vimentin (AMCV and nuclear antigen RA33 of the IgA rheumatoid factor (RF versus the value of routinely used profile of autoantibodies in diagnostic work-up of RA. Material and methods. 253 patients with RA prehistory of varying duration were included into the study group. The control group was comprised of 92 patients, including patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies and diffuse connective tissue diseases, as well as sex and age matched healthy controls. Serum levels of IgM and IgA RF, antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptide (ACCP, ACMV, anti-keratin antibodies (AKA, antibodies against RA33 antigen (ARA33 and antinuclear factor (ANF were measured in all patients and controls. Results and discussion. Diagnostic sensitivity of AMCV equaled 78%, ACCP — 77%, IgM RF — 71%, IgA RF — 43%, AKA — 43%, ARA33 — 31% and ANF — 31%. All anti-citrullinic antibodies (AKA, ACCP, ACMV were significantly more commonly associated with IgM RF. Among RF and ACCP seronegative patients ACMV were found in 24% cases with 20 IU/Ml detection threshold, and in 21% — with 30 IU/Ml, allowing to increase diagnostic specificity of the test up to 91% with the increment of diagnostic threshold. Incidence of ARA33 was not significantly different among the RF and ACCP positive or negative subgroups, thus making ARA33 an independent RA marker. Specificity of this marker was 87,9%, thus making it inferior to RF and ACCP by a composite of diagnostic characteristics. Conclusions. Integrated measurement of ACMV and ARA33 is a rational approach at the second stage of serologic testing work-up in suspected cases of RA onset, when initial RF and ACCP tests were negative.

  18. Intelligent DNA-based molecular diagnostics using linked genetic markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, D.K.; Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a knowledge-based system for molecular diagnostics, and its application to fully automated diagnosis of X-linked genetic disorders. Molecular diagnostic information is used in clinical practice for determining genetic risks, such as carrier determination and prenatal diagnosis. Initially, blood samples are obtained from related individuals, and PCR amplification is performed. Linkage-based molecular diagnosis then entails three data analysis steps. First, for every individual, the alleles (i.e., DNA composition) are determined at specified chromosomal locations. Second, the flow of genetic material among the individuals is established. Third, the probability that a given individual is either a carrier of the disease or affected by the disease is determined. The current practice is to perform each of these three steps manually, which is costly, time consuming, labor-intensive, and error-prone. As such, the knowledge-intensive data analysis and interpretation supersede the actual experimentation effort as the major bottleneck in molecular diagnostics. By examining the human problem solving for the task, we have designed and implemented a prototype knowledge-based system capable of fully automating linkage-based molecular diagnostics in X-linked genetic disorders, including Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Our system uses knowledge-based interpretation of gel electrophoresis images to determine individual DNA marker labels, a constraint satisfaction search for consistent genetic flow among individuals, and a blackboard-style problem solver for risk assessment. We describe the system`s successful diagnosis of DMD carrier and affected individuals from raw clinical data.

  19. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech from Speech Delay: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Strand, Edythe A.; Fourakis, Marios; Jakielski, Kathy J.; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Mabie, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to introduce the pause marker (PM), a single-sign diagnostic marker proposed to discriminate early or persistent childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) from speech delay.

  20. Role of Phosphorylated Neurofilament H as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Omar Ghonemi

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Phosphorylated Neurofilament H can be used as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in patients with TBI as seen by the presence of significant correlations between the marker levels and different clinical and radiological tools.

  1. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a diagnostic modality for carcinoma thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Nikhil; Kakar, Arun K.; Chowdhury, Veena; Gulati, Praveen; Shankar, L. Ravi; Vindal, Anubhav

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to observe the findings of magnetic resonance spectroscopy of solitary thyroid nodules and its correlation with histopathology. Materials and methods: In this study, magnetic resonance spectroscopy was carried out on 26 patients having solitary thyroid nodules. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was performed on a 1.5 T super conductive system with gradient strength of 33 mTs. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done after MRS. All 26 patients underwent surgery either because of cytopathologically proven malignancy or because of cosmetic reasons. Findings of magnetic resonance spectroscopy were compared with histopathology of thyroid specimens. Results and conclusion: It was seen that presence or absence of choline peak correlates very well with presence or absence of malignant foci with in the nodule (sensitivity = 100%; specificity = 88.88%). These results indicate that magnetic resonance spectroscopy may prove to be an useful diagnostic modality for carcinoma thyroid

  2. Magnetic resonance tomography of renal allografts - Diagnostic possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, C.; Luening, M.

    1988-01-01

    It is the aim of the use of magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) to reduce the existing insufficiency in imaging diagnostics of complications after kidney transplantation. The topical status of examination technique is presented and the criteria of normal and pathological MRT findings are described in detail. (author)

  3. Prospective comparison of magnetic resonance imaging to transient elastography and serum markers for liver fibrosis detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyvorne, Hadrien A; Jajamovich, Guido H; Bane, Octavia; Fiel, M Isabel; Chou, Hsin; Schiano, Thomas D; Dieterich, Douglas; Babb, James S; Friedman, Scott L; Taouli, Bachir

    2016-05-01

    Establishing accurate non-invasive methods of liver fibrosis quantification remains a major unmet need. Here, we assessed the diagnostic value of a multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI and magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in comparison with transient elastography (TE) and blood tests [including ELF (Enhanced Liver Fibrosis) and APRI] for liver fibrosis detection. In this single centre cross-sectional study, we prospectively enrolled 60 subjects with liver disease who underwent multiparametric MRI (DWI, DCE-MRI and MRE), TE and blood tests. Correlation was assessed between non-invasive modalities and histopathologic findings including stage, grade and collagen content, while accounting for covariates such as age, sex, BMI, HCV status and MRI-derived fat and iron content. ROC curve analysis evaluated the performance of each technique for detection of moderate-to-advanced liver fibrosis (F2-F4) and advanced fibrosis (F3-F4). Magnetic resonance elastography provided the strongest correlation with fibrosis stage (r = 0.66, P fibrosis (F2-F4), AUCs were 0.78, 0.82, 0.72, 0.79, 0.71 for MRE, TE, DCE-MRI, DWI and APRI, respectively. For detection of advanced fibrosis (F3-F4), AUCs were 0.94, 0.77, 0.79, 0.79 and 0.70, respectively. Magnetic resonance elastography provides the highest correlation with histopathologic markers and yields high diagnostic performance for detection of advanced liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, compared to DWI, DCE-MRI, TE and serum markers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Magnetic resonance tomography in oncological diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, Hans Henrik; Taksdal, Ingeborg

    2000-01-01

    MR is well suited for imaging in patients with malignant disease. It is the most sensitive and most specific method in the detection of skeletal metastases. It clearly demonstrates the extent of primary bone tumours and also reveals skip metastases and invasion into neighbouring joints, hence it is an important procedure when surgery of a bone tumour is planned. In case of a soft tissue tumour, MR is the preferable imaging modality because it demonstrates the anatomy and reveals the different tissue constituents. MR is the best method to show tumour manifestations in the central nervous system and it supplements cerebrospinal fluid examination in the detection of meningeal metastasis. MR is the method of choice if there is a cord compression. MR imaging is important in gynaecology and oncology. Cost savings have been reported due to reduced use of other diagnostic tests and expensive surgical procedures. New and faster techniques allow examination of the total body in less than 45 minutes. We expect that MR imaging will be increasingly used in the future in patients with malignant disease

  5. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech from Speech Delay: IV. the Pause Marker Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Strand, Edythe A.; Fourakis, Marios; Jakielski, Kathy J.; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Mabie, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Three previous articles provided rationale, methods, and several forms of validity support for a diagnostic marker of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), termed the pause marker (PM). Goals of the present article were to assess the validity and stability of the PM Index (PMI) to scale CAS severity. Method: PM scores and speech, prosody,…

  6. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech from Speech Delay: II. Validity Studies of the Pause Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Strand, Edythe A.; Fourakis, Marios; Jakielski, Kathy J.; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Mabie, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this 2nd article in this supplement is to report validity support findings for the Pause Marker (PM), a proposed single-sign diagnostic marker of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Method: PM scores and additional perceptual and acoustic measures were obtained from 296 participants in cohorts with idiopathic and…

  7. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech from Speech Delay: I. Development and Description of the Pause Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Strand, Edythe A.; Fourakis, Marios; Jakielski, Kathy J.; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Mabie, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article (PM I) is to describe the rationale for and development of the Pause Marker (PM), a single-sign diagnostic marker proposed to discriminate early or persistent childhood apraxia of speech from speech delay. Method: The authors describe and prioritize 7 criteria with which to evaluate the research and clinical…

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of the wrist: Diagnostic performance statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobby, Jonathan L.; Tom, Brian D.M.; Bearcroft, Philip W.P.; Dixon, Adrian K.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To review the published diagnostic performance statistics for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the wrist for tears of the triangular fibrocartilage complex, the intrinsic carpal ligaments, and for osteonecrosis of the carpal bones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used Medline and Embase to search the English language literature. Studies evaluating the diagnostic performance of MRI of the wrist in living patients with surgical confirmation of MR findings were identified. RESULTS: We identified 11 studies reporting the diagnostic performance of MRI for tears of the triangular fibrocartilage complex for a total of 410 patients, six studies for the scapho-lunate ligament (159 patients), six studies for the luno-triquetral ligament (142 patients) and four studies (56 patients) for osteonecrosis of the carpal bones. CONCLUSIONS: Magnetic resonance imaging is an accurate means of diagnosing tears of the triangular fibrocartilage and carpal osteonecrosis. Although MRI is highly specific for tears of the intrinsic carpal ligaments, its sensitivity is low. The diagnostic performance of MRI in the wrist is improved by using high-resolution T2* weighted 3D gradient echo sequences. Using current imaging techniques without intra-articular contrast medium, magnetic resonance imaging cannot reliably exclude tears of the intrinsic carpal ligaments. Hobby, J.L. (2001)

  9. Informativeness of Diagnostic Marker Values and the Impact of Data Grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hua; Bandos, Andriy I; Gur, David

    2018-01-01

    Assessing performance of diagnostic markers is a necessary step for their use in decision making regarding various conditions of interest in diagnostic medicine and other fields. Globally useful markers could, however, have ranges of values that are " diagnostically non-informative" . This paper demonstrates that the presence of marker values from diagnostically non-informative ranges could lead to a loss in statistical efficiency during nonparametric evaluation and shows that grouping non-informative values provides a natural resolution to this problem. These points are theoretically proven and an extensive simulation study is conducted to illustrate the possible benefits of using grouped marker values in a number of practically reasonable scenarios. The results contradict the common conjecture regarding the detrimental effect of grouped marker values during performance assessments. Specifically, contrary to the common assumption that grouped marker values lead to bias, grouping non-informative values does not introduce bias and could substantially reduce sampling variability. The proven concept that grouped marker values could be statistically beneficial without detrimental consequences implies that in practice, tied values do not always require resolution whereas the use of continuous diagnostic results without addressing diagnostically non-informative ranges could be statistically detrimental. Based on these findings, more efficient methods for evaluating diagnostic markers could be developed.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging markers for early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvia Marino; Rosella Ciurleo; Giuseppe Di Lorenzo; Marina Barresi; Simona De Salvo; Sabrina Giacoppo; Alessia Bramanti; Pietro Lanzafame; Placido Bramanti

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by selective and progressive degeneration, as well as loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. In PD, approximately 60-70% of nigrostriatal neurons are degenerated and 80% of content of the striatal dopamine is reduced before the diagnosis can be established according to widely accepted clinical diagnostic criteria. This condition describes a stage of disease called "prodromal", where non-motor symptoms, such as olfactory dysfunction, constipation, rapid eye movement behaviour disorder, depression, precede motor sign of PD. Detection of prodromal phase of PD is becoming an important goal for determining the prognosis and choosing a suitable treatment strategy. In this review, we present some non-invasive instrumental approaches that could be useful to identify patients in the prodromal phase of PD or in an early clinical phase, when the first motor symptoms begin to be apparent. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and advanced MRI techniques, such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging, diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging and functional MRI, are useful to differentiate early PD with initial motor symptoms from atypical parkinsonian disorders, thus, making easier early diagnosis. Functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging techniques can show abnormalities in the olfactory system in prodromal PD.

  11. Diagnostic markers of infection in curret pediatric practice | Chiabia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chemokines, cytokines, adhesion molecules, cell surface markers and polymerase chain reaction are expensive and available only in specialised research laboratories. Optimal benefit can be obtained from rational use of currently available markers either by multiple marker assays or serial measurements which increase ...

  12. Magnetic nanoparticles in magnetic resonance imaging and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rümenapp, Christine; Gleich, Bernhard; Haase, Axel

    2012-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are useful as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Paramagnetic contrast agents have been used for a long time, but more recently superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) have been discovered to influence MRI contrast as well. In contrast to paramagnetic contrast agents, SPIOs can be functionalized and size-tailored in order to adapt to various kinds of soft tissues. Although both types of contrast agents have a inducible magnetization, their mechanisms of influence on spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxation of protons are different. A special emphasis on the basic magnetism of nanoparticles and their structures as well as on the principle of nuclear magnetic resonance is made. Examples of different contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images are given. The potential use of magnetic nanoparticles as diagnostic tracers is explored. Additionally, SPIOs can be used in diagnostic magnetic resonance, since the spin relaxation time of water protons differs, whether magnetic nanoparticles are bound to a target or not.

  13. The use of magnetic resonance tomography in gastrointestinal diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geitung, Jonn Terje

    2000-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a promising method for examination of the gastrointestinal tract. In this article we present the present status and potential of MRI. Material and method: The review is based on personal experience and selected published, international papers. Results: Magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreatography (MRCP) and MRI of the liver are well documented examinations which are widely performed. These examinations partly replace existing modalities such as CT and ERCP and represent additional possibilities for examining this anatomic area. MRI is not as yet accepted as the standard examination of the pancreas, but it is regarded as comparable to CT. The adrenals may be examined even more accurately with MRI than with CT. MRI examinations of the oesophagus and gastric ventricle seem promising, but it should be said that they are in an early and not well document phase. MRI of the small and large bowels is not common. With the exception of preoperative staging of rectal cancers, it is still experimental. MR angiography, functional MRI studies and perfusion studies are not yet common in abdominal diseases. We may, however, believe that they will become important diagnostic tools. Interpretation: MRI is rapidly increasing its share of gastrointestinal imaging examinations. This is mainly due to the increased speed of newer machines. The diagnostic quality has improved and will improve more. It is thus likely that MRI will, in a large amount of abdominal imaging, replace CT and to some extent other diagnostic modalities. It is, however, not possible to replace CT for emergencies and we will probably look forward to more and better imaging with more diagnostic modalities in the future

  14. Quantifying the Accuracy of a Diagnostic Test or Marker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnet, Kristian; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Moons, Karel G. M.; Reitsma, Johannes B. R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, increasing focus has been directed to the methodology for evaluating (new) tests or biomarkers. A key step in the evaluation of a diagnostic test is the investigation into its accuracy. CONTENT: We reviewed the literature on how to assess the accuracy of diagnostic

  15. Tumor markers in finding recurrent disease iin colorectal cancer: a diagnostic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verberne, Charlotte; de Jong, W.H.; Grossmann, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Aim: In the search for evidence-based follow-up of patients after resection for colorectal cancer, numerous tumor markers have been proposed. This review has evaluated these markers and comments on the diagnostic accuracy in finding recurrent disease in relation to Carcino-Embryonic Antigen (CEA...

  16. The diagnostic accuracy of 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging for detecting root avulsions in traumatic adult brachial plexus injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Ryckie G; Itte, Vinay; Rankine, James J; Ridgway, John P; Bourke, Grainne

    2018-03-01

    Identification of root avulsions is of critical importance in traumatic brachial plexus injuries because it alters the reconstruction and prognosis. Pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging is gaining popularity, but there is limited and conflicting data on its diagnostic accuracy for root avulsion. This cohort study describes consecutive patients requiring brachial plexus exploration following trauma between 2008 and 2016. The index test was magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 Tesla and the reference test was operative exploration of the supraclavicular plexus. Complete data from 29 males was available. The diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging for root avulsion(s) of C5-T1 was 79%. The diagnostic accuracy of a pseudomeningocoele as a surrogate marker of root avulsion(s) of C5-T1 was 68%. We conclude that pseudomeningocoles were not a reliable sign of root avulsion and magnetic resonance imaging has modest diagnostic accuracy for root avulsions in the context of adult traumatic brachial plexus injuries. III.

  17. Reproducibility and variability of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging markers in cerebral small vessel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guio, F. De; Jouvent, E.; Biessels, G.J.; Black, S.E.; Brayne, C.; Chen, C.; Cordonnier, C.; Leeuw, F.E. de; Dichgans, M.; Doubal, F.; Duering, M.; Dufouil, C.; Duzel, E.; Fazekas, F.; Hachinski, V.; Ikram, M.A.; Linn, J.; Matthews, P.M.; Mazoyer, B.; Mok, V.; Norrving, B.; O'Brien, J.T.; Pantoni, L.; Ropele, S.; Sachdev, P.; Schmidt, R.; Seshadri, S.; Smith, E.E.; Sposato, L.A.; Stephan, B.; Swartz, R.H.; Tzourio, C.; Buchem, M. van; Lugt, A. van der; Oostenbrugge, R.; Vernooij, M.W.; Viswanathan, A.; Werring, D.; Wollenweber, F.; Wardlaw, J.M.; Chabriat, H.

    2016-01-01

    Brain imaging is essential for the diagnosis and characterization of cerebral small vessel disease. Several magnetic resonance imaging markers have therefore emerged, providing new information on the diagnosis, progression, and mechanisms of small vessel disease. Yet, the reproducibility of these

  18. Reproducibility and variability of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging markers in cerebral small vessel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Guio, F. (François); Jouvent, E. (Eric); G.J. Biessels (Geert Jan); S.E. Black (Sandra); C. Brayne (Carol); C. Chen (Christopher); C. Cordonnier (Charlotte); H.F. de Leeuw (Frank); C. Kubisch (Christian); Doubal, F. (Fergus); Duering, M. (Marco); C. Dufouil (Carole); Duzel, E. (Emrah); F. Fazekas (Franz); V. Hachinski (Vladimir); M.K. Ikram (Kamran); J. Linn (Jennifer); P.M. Matthews (P.); B. Mazoyer (Bernard); Mok, V. (Vincent); B. Norrving (Bo); O'Brien, J.T. (John T.); Pantoni, L. (Leonardo); S. Ropele (Stefan); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); S. Seshadri (Sudha); E.E. Smith (Eric); L.A. Sposato (Luciano A); B.C.M. Stephan; Swartz, R.H. (Richard H.); C. Tzourio (Christophe); M.A. van Buchem (Mark); A. van der Lugt (Aad); R.J. van Oostenbrugge (Robert); M.W. Vernooij (Meike); Viswanathan, A. (Anand); D.J. Werring (David); Wollenweber, F. (Frank); J.M. Wardlaw (J.); Chabriat, H. (Hugues)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBrain imaging is essential for the diagnosis and characterization of cerebral small vessel disease. Several magnetic resonance imaging markers have therefore emerged, providing new information on the diagnosis, progression, and mechanisms of small vessel disease. Yet, the reproducibility

  19. COMPLICATIONS OF ALCOHOLIC LIVER DISEASE AND DIAGNOSTIC MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Ilić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is one of the leading diseases affecting people’s health and immunity worldwide. Nearly 30 thousand people in the USA die from chronic liver damage. The liver is the central organ in the metabolism of alcohol. Alcohol is primarily a hepatotoxic agent. Hepatotoxicity of alcohol is clinically manifested by the development of alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis and alcoholic cirrhosis. It is characterized by appropriate symptomatology, depending on the degree of liver damage. Excessive use of alcohol for a long period of time, along with malnutrition, genetic and ethnic predisposition, leads to alcoholic cirrhosis and the development of its complications. Portal hypertension damages other organs and organ systems, causing hepatopulmonary syndrome, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatic encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, etc. For these reasons, alcoholism reduction is given priority, as well as reduction of morbidity and mortality of people with alcoholic chronic liver damage. Therefore, early diagnosis of alcohol abuse is necessary, as well as timely diagnosis of different degrees of alcoholic liver damage. The diagnosis of chronic alcoholic liver damage is set on the basis of confirmed data of alcohol consumption; liver function test (serum markers aminotransferase, gammaglutamyl transferase, prothrombin time, serum bilirubin and albumin level; serum markers of liver fibrosis. Fibrosis markers are directly involved in sedimentation and dissolution of extracellular matrix, i.e. in the process of fibrogenesis and fibrinolysis of liver tissues. They include markers and enzymes of metabolism, as well as cytokines and chemokines.

  20. Antithyroperoxidase Antibodies in Encephalopathy : Diagnostic Marker or Incidental Finding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dontje, B.; Van Santen, H. M.; Niermeijer, J. M.; Schonenberg-Meinema, D.; Van Trotsenburg, A. S P

    2016-01-01

    Patients with acute encephalopathy who are thoroughly examined for an underlying diagnosis and in whom infectious, metabolic, and malignant causes are excluded can form a true diagnostic dilemma. If antithyroperoxidase antibodies (anti-TPO abs) are present, the diagnosis steroid responsive

  1. Forensic pregnancy diagnostics with placental mRNA markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Gauvin (Jeanot); D. Zubakov (Dmitry); J. van Rhee-Binkhorst (Joke); A. Kloosterman (Ate); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCurrent methods for pregnancy diagnostics are based on immunodetection of pregnancy-specific proteins and in a forensic context suffer from sensitivity and specificity issues. Here, we applied reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology to 11 genes previously

  2. Gc globulin as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg

    can prevent development of shock and thereby increase survival chances. The in vivo toxicity of Gc-globulin infusion is currently being investigated in horses and other species. Gc-globulin has been demonstrated in horse plasma and its structure closely resembles that of human Gc-globulin. Gc......-globulin concentrations in horses under clinical conditions have never previously been investigated. The Ph.D. project focuses on Gc-globulin as a prognostic marker in horses with acute abdominal pain....

  3. Astrophysical neutrino production diagnostics with the Glashow resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biehl, Daniel; Fedynitch, Anatoli; Winter, Walter [DESY, Platanenallee 6, Zeuthen, 15738 Germany (Germany); Palladino, Andrea [Department of Astroparticle Physics, Gran Sasso Science Institute, Via Francesco Crispi 7, L' Aquila, 67100 Italy (Italy); Weiler, Tom J., E-mail: daniel.biehl@desy.de, E-mail: anatoli.fedynitch@desy.de, E-mail: andrea.palladino@gssi.infn.it, E-mail: tom.weiler@vanderbilt.edu, E-mail: walter.winter@desy.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 37235 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We study the Glashow resonance ν-bar {sub e} + e {sup −} → W {sup −} → hadrons at 6.3 PeV as diagnostic of the production processes of ultra-high energy neutrinos. The focus lies on describing the physics of neutrino production from pion decay as accurate as possible by including the kinematics of weak decays and Monte Carlo simulations of pp and pγ interactions. We discuss optically thick (to photohadronic interactions) sources, sources of cosmic ray ''nuclei'' and muon damped sources. Even in the proposed upgrade IceCube-Gen2, a discrimination of scenarios such as pp versus pγ is extremely challenging under realistic assumptions. Nonetheless, the Glashow resonance can serve as a smoking gun signature of neutrino production from photohadronic (Aγ) interactions of heavier nuclei, as the expected Glashow event rate exceeds that of pp interactions. We finally quantify the exposures for which the non-observation of Glashow events exerts pressure on certain scenarios.

  4. Molecular tissue changes in early myocardial ischemia: from pathophysiology to the identification of new diagnostic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljakna, Aleksandra; Fracasso, Tony; Sabatasso, Sara

    2018-03-01

    Diagnosing early myocardial ischemia (the initial 4 to 6 h after interruption of blood flow to part of the myocardium) remains a challenge for clinical and forensic pathologists. Several immunohistochemical markers have been proposed for improving postmortem detection of early myocardial ischemia; however, no single marker appears to be both sufficiently specific as well as sensitive. This review summarizes the diverse categories of molecular tissue markers that have been investigated in human autopsy samples with acute myocardial infarction as well as in the well-established and widely used in vivo animal model of early myocardial ischemia (permanent ligation of the coronary artery). Recently identified markers appearing during the initial 2 h of myocardial ischemia are highlighted. Among them, only six were tested for specificity (C5b-9, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor, heart fatty acid binding protein, connexin 43, and JunB). Despite the discovery of several potentially promising markers (in terms of early expression and specificity), many of them remain to be tested and validated for application in routine diagnostics in clinical and forensic pathology. In particular, research investigating the postmortem stability of these markers is required before any might be implemented into routine diagnostics. Establishing a standardized panel of immunohistochemical markers may be more useful for improving sensitivity and specificity than searching for a single marker.

  5. The evaluation of diagnostic value of the tumor markers: CCSA-2 and CEA in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knychalski, Bartłomiej; Lukieńczuk, Tadeusz

    2012-02-01

    Finding the biomarker or biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity in colorectal cancer, and thus a high diagnostic value will determine their clinical usefulness in clinical practice. An effective noninvasive blood test would be an ideal method to detect colorectal cancer. Discovered in 2007 a novel tumor marker CCSA-2 showes a promising results in patients with colorectal cancer. THE AIM OF THE STUDY was the evaluation of diagnostic and clinical value of a novel marker - colon cancer specific antigen-2 (CCSA-2) in colorectal adenocarcinoma in comparison to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in patients operated during the years 2008 to 2010 at Wrocław Medical University 1st Department and Clinic of General, Gastroenterological and Endocrinologic Surgery. The study was performed on 40 patients with colorectal cancer and 40 patients in control group consisted of healthy subjects who had colonoscopy examinations with negative results (no pathology in the colon was found). The obtained results were statistically analyzed using nonparametric tests - Mann Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. To determine the clinical value of CCSA-2 and CEA in those groups, their sensitivity and specifity was evaluated using ROC analysis. This analysis determines the accuracy and diagnostic value of both tests. There was a positive correlation between markers in patients with colorectal cancer and a statistically significant relationship according to which respondents with higher concentrations of CCSA-2 also have higher concentrations of CEA (R=0.754, ptumor markers increase and correlate with the clinical progression of the disease. Accuracy of CCSA-2 test using ROC analysis showed a slightly lower measurement of antigen CCSA-2 as diagnostic value in colorectal cancer in comparison to measurement of antigen CEA (accuracy of tests: CCSA-2 - 52%, CEA - 60%). CCSA-2 as a single tumor marker has a low diagnostic value in colorectal cancer because

  6. Tumor markers in finding recurrent disease in colorectal cancer: a diagnostic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Muller Kobold

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In the search for evidence-based follow-up of patients after resection for colorectal cancer, numerous tumor markers have been proposed. This review has evaluated these markers and comments on the diagnostic accuracy in finding recurrent disease in relation to Carcino-Embryonic Antigen (CEA. Methods: A comprehensive literature review (1985-2010 was performed by two independent reviewers. Sensitivity and specificity of markers mentioned in the articles were checked by recalculation. A validated quality score system was used to estimate study quality. Results: Seventeen studies focusing on eight different markers were included. Three markers were shown to have comparable or better accuracy than CEA: TPA, CA 242 and CA 72-4 in at least one study. These three markers, from four independent studies, showed a tumor marker sensitivity of > 60% in combination with an outperformance of CEA in follow-up. These results were not confirmed by six other studies investigating the same markers. Conclusion: This review revealed three tumor markers other than CEA that have been shown to adequately indicate recurrences in colorectal cancer. However, comparability of studies was difficult. Therefore a prospective study of these markers seems necessary to investigate their real value, and to overcome design and inclusion biases.

  7. Diagnostic and prognostic yield of tumor markers in cancer of unknown primary site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, T.; Ibraheim, M.I.

    2006-01-01

    A case of metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary is reported that had widely disseminated disease from the very outset. Every effort was made to find out the primary by integrating all results and specially tumor markers. It was assumed that lung was the most possible site for primary. Tumor markers did not show their diagnostic value even in combined panel, they only showed their prognostic value. (author)

  8. Development of diagnostic markers from disease resistance QTLs for marker-assisted breeding in peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding for disease resistance in peanut cultivars has been constrained due to both a narrow genetic base and a low degree of polymorphism. Earlier attempts have resulted in the development of a few hundreds of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in peanut that could define broad QTL on the physic...

  9. Species delineation and hybrid identification using diagnostic nuclear markers for Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus maculatus

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2018-06-01

    Diagnostic molecular markers are an essential tool in the study of species’ ecology and evolution, particularly in closely related and sympatric species. Furthermore, the increasing awareness of wild-hybrids has led to a renewed interest in rapid diagnostic assays. Here, we test the ability of two mitochondrial (Cytb and COI) and two nuclear markers (ETS2 and TMO-4c4) to confidently discriminate purebred P. leopardus and P. maculatus and their first-generation hybrids. A sample of 48 purebred individuals and 91 interspecific hybrids were used in this study and their delineation confirmed using a set of microsatellite markers. Our results indicate mitochondrial markers could not distinguish even between species but both nuclear markers confidently identified species and first-generation hybrids. However, later-generation hybrids could not always be confidently identified due to on-going introgression between species. Our findings provide a robust tool to distinguish purebred individuals and interspecific hybrids in a pair of species with an unexpectedly high incidence of hybridization. The quick species discrimination abilities provided by these diagnostic markers are important for stock assessment and recruitment studies of these important fishery species.

  10. Species delineation and hybrid identification using diagnostic nuclear markers for Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus maculatus

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song; Harrison, Hugo B.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2018-01-01

    Diagnostic molecular markers are an essential tool in the study of species’ ecology and evolution, particularly in closely related and sympatric species. Furthermore, the increasing awareness of wild-hybrids has led to a renewed interest in rapid diagnostic assays. Here, we test the ability of two mitochondrial (Cytb and COI) and two nuclear markers (ETS2 and TMO-4c4) to confidently discriminate purebred P. leopardus and P. maculatus and their first-generation hybrids. A sample of 48 purebred individuals and 91 interspecific hybrids were used in this study and their delineation confirmed using a set of microsatellite markers. Our results indicate mitochondrial markers could not distinguish even between species but both nuclear markers confidently identified species and first-generation hybrids. However, later-generation hybrids could not always be confidently identified due to on-going introgression between species. Our findings provide a robust tool to distinguish purebred individuals and interspecific hybrids in a pair of species with an unexpectedly high incidence of hybridization. The quick species discrimination abilities provided by these diagnostic markers are important for stock assessment and recruitment studies of these important fishery species.

  11. Acute phase proteins as diagnostic markers in horses with colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina; Scheepers, Elrien; Sanz, Macarena

    2016-01-01

    Objective – To investigate the diagnostic potential of the concentrations of acute-phase proteins serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), and fibrinogen in blood and peritoneal fluid (PF) for differentiating horses within flammatory colic (entero-colitis and peritonitis) from those with surgical...... of the model to correctly differentiate inflammatory from surgical colic was 86% determined as area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Adding blood parameters (WBC, PCV, total plasma protein, lactate, SAA, Hp, and fibrinogen concentrations) to the logistic model based on clinical parameters...... revealed that only WBC and SAA and fibrinogen concentrations improved the model. With SAA included in the model no additional blood parameters improved the model, and the final model had an area under the curve of 90%. Addition of PF parameters (hemolysis, total protein concentration, WBC, SAA, or Hp...

  12. Diagnostic value of multiple tumor markers for patients with esophageal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhu, Zhenli; Liu, Yan; Jin, Xueyuan; Xu, Zhiwei; Yu, Qiuyan; Li, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Various studies assessing the diagnostic value of serum tumor markers in patients with esophageal cancer remain controversial. This study aims to comprehensively and quantitatively summarize the potential diagnostic value of 5 serum tumour markers in esophageal cancer. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), through February 28, 2013, without language restriction. Studies were assessed for quality using QUADAS (quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy). The positive likelihood ratio (PLR) and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) were pooled separately and compared with overall accuracy measures using diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) and symmetric summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves. Of 4391 studies initially identified, 44 eligible studies including five tumor markers met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis, while meta-analysis could not be conducted for 12 other tumor markers. Approximately 79.55% (35/44) of the included studies were of relatively high quality (QUADAS score≥7). The summary estimates of the positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR) and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) for diagnosing EC were as follows: CEA, 5.94/0.76/9.26; Cyfra21-1, 12.110.59/22.27; p53 antibody, 6.71/0.75/9.60; SCC-Ag, 7.66/0.68/12.41; and VEGF-C, 0.74/0.37/8.12. The estimated summary receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the performance of all five tumor markers was reasonable. The current evidence suggests that CEA, Cyfra21-1, p53, SCC-Ag and VEGF-C have a potential diagnostic value for esophageal carcinoma.

  13. Are diagnostic criteria for eating disorders markers of medical severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, Rebecka; Hardy, Kristina K; Wilson, Jenny L; Lock, James D

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the medical severity of adolescents who had eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) with those who had anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Medical records of 1310 females aged 8 through 19 years and treated for AN, BN, or EDNOS were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with EDNOS were subcategorized into partial AN (pAN) and partial BN (pBN) when they met all Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria but 1 for AN or BN, respectively. Primary outcome variables were heart rate, systolic blood pressure, temperature, and QTc interval on electrocardiogram. Additional physiologically significant medical complications were also reviewed. A total of 25.2% of females had AN, 12.4% had BN, and 62.4% had EDNOS. The medical severity of patients with EDNOS was intermediate to that of patients with AN and BN in all primary outcomes. Patients with pAN had significantly higher heart rates, systolic blood pressures, and temperatures than those with AN; patients with pBN did not differ significantly from those with BN in any primary outcome variable; however, patients with pAN and pBN differed significantly from each other in all outcome variables. Patients with pBN and BN had longer QTc intervals and higher rates of additional medical complications reported at presentation than other groups. EDNOS is a medically heterogeneous category with serious physiologic sequelae in children and adolescents. Broadening AN and BN criteria in pediatric patients to include pAN and pBN may prove to be clinically useful.

  14. LAPTM4B Gene Expression And Polymorphism As Diagnostic Markers Of Breast Cancer In Egyptian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker Olfat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between LAPTM4B gene polymorphism and the risk of breast cancer among Egyptian female patients. Also, measurement was done of its serum level to evaluate its significance as a diagnostic marker for breast cancer.

  15. Resonant laser techniques for combustion and flow diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzon, Rolf

    1998-05-01

    This thesis presents results from two areas of research. Firstly, the resonant coherent laser techniques polarization spectroscopy (PS), degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) and stimulated emission (SE) have been developed in the general field of combustion diagnostics. Secondly, laser induced fluorescence (LIF) has been developed and applied for the visualization of mixture fractions in turbulent non reacting flows. PS was developed for instantaneous two-dimensional imaging of minor species in flames, the technique being demonstrated on OH and NO. Various aspects of imaging and of detection in general were investigated. Two-photon induced PS was demonstrated for the detection of NH{sub 3}, CO and N{sub 2} molecules. LIF was monitored simultaneously to allow a quantitative comparison between the techniques. Furthermore, PS and DFWM were developed for instantaneous two-dimensional OH temperature imaging. Through a novel experimental approach based on the use of a dual-wavelength dye laser and a diffraction grating the temperature imaging measurements were performed using only one laser and one CCD camera. A comparison between the two techniques was made. SE was through a crossed-beam arrangement developed for spatially resolved detection of flame species. Two-dimensional LIF was developed and applied for measuring mixture fractions in the shear layer between two co-flowing turbulent gaseous jets. The technique was further applied in a study of the mixing of a turbulent water jet impinging orthogonally onto a flat surface. Average concentration fields in the center-plane of the jet was compared with results from large eddy simulations and with data from the literature 221 refs, 48 figs, 5 tabs

  16. Initial results of tests of depth markers as a surface diagnostic for fusion devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Kesler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Accelerator-Based In Situ Materials Surveillance (AIMS diagnostic was developed to perform in situ ion beam analysis (IBA on Alcator C-Mod in August 2012 to study divertor surfaces between shots. These results were limited to studying low-Z surface properties, because the Coulomb barrier precludes nuclear reactions between high-Z elements and the ∼1 MeV AIMS deuteron beam. In order to measure the high-Z erosion, a technique using deuteron-induced gamma emission and a low-Z depth marker is being developed. To determine the depth of the marker while eliminating some uncertainty due to beam and detector parameters, the energy dependence of the ratio of two gamma yields produced from the same depth marker will be used to determine the ion beam energy loss in the surface, and thus the thickness of the high-Z surface. This paper presents the results of initial trials of using an implanted depth marker layer with a deuteron beam and the method of ratios. First tests of a lithium depth marker proved unsuccessful due to the production of conflicting gamma peaks, among other issues. However, successful trials with a boron depth marker show that it is possible to measure the depth of the marker layer with the method of gamma yield ratios.

  17. Development of Novel Piezoelectric Biosensor Using PZT Ceramic Resonator for Detection of Cancer Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Li; Fong, Chi-Chun; Cheung, Pik-Yuan; Yang, Mengsu

    2017-01-01

    A novel biosensor based on piezoelectric ceramic resonator was developed for direct detection of cancer markers in the study. For the first time, a commercially available PZT ceramic resonator with high resonance frequency was utilized as transducer for a piezoelectric biosensor. A dual ceramic resonators scheme was designed wherein two ceramic resonators were connected in parallel: one resonator was used as the sensing unit and the other as the control unit. This arrangement minimizes environmental influences including temperature fluctuation, while achieving the required frequency stability for biosensing applications. The detection of the cancer markers Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) and α-Fetoprotein (AFP) was carried out through frequency change measurement. The device showed high sensitivity (0.25 ng/ml) and fast detection (within 30 min) with small samples (1 μl), which is compatible with the requirements of clinical measurements. The results also showed that the ceramic resonator-based piezoelectric biosensor platform could be utilized with different chemical interfaces, and had the potential to be further developed into biosensor arrays with different specificities for simultaneous detection of multiple analytes.

  18. Proof-of-the-Concept Study on Mathematically Optimized Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Breast Cancer Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkić, Dževad; Belkić, Karen

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR)-based modalities aid breast cancer detection without exposure to ionizing radiation. Magnetic resonance imaging is very sensitive but costly and insufficiently specific. Molecular imaging through magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can provide information about key metabolites. Here, the measured/encoded time signals cannot be interpreted directly, necessitating mathematics for mapping to the more manageable frequency domain. Conventional applications of MRS are hampered by data analysis via the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and postprocessing by fitting techniques. Most in vivo MRS studies on breast cancer rely upon estimations of total choline (tCHO). These have yielded only incremental improvements in diagnostic accuracy. In vitro studies reveal richer metabolic information for identifying breast cancer, particularly in closely overlapping components of tCHO. Among these are phosphocholine (PC), a marker of malignant transformation of the breast. The FFT cannot assess these congested spectral components. This can be done by the fast Padé transform (FPT), a high-resolution, quantification-equipped method, which we presently apply to noisy MRS time signals consistent with those encoded in breast cancer. The FPT unequivocally and robustly extracted the concentrations of all physical metabolites, including PC. In sharp contrast, the FFT produced a rough envelope spectrum with a few distorted peaks and key metabolites absent altogether. As such, the FFT has poor resolution for these typical MRS time signals from breast cancer. Hence, based on Fourier-estimated envelope spectra, tCHO estimates are unreliable. Using even truncated time signals, the FPT clearly distinguishes noise from true metabolites whose concentrations are accurately extracted. The high resolution of the FPT translates directly into shortened examination time of the patient. These capabilities strongly suggest that by applying the FPT to time signals encoded in vivo from

  19. Design of a Magnetic Resonance-Safe Haptic Wrist Manipulator for Movement Disorder Diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, Dyon; Mugge, Winfred; Schouten, Alfred C.; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; Bour, Lo J.; van der Helm, Frans C. T.; Lammertse, Piet

    2017-01-01

    Tremor, characterized by involuntary and rhythmical movements, is the most common movement disorder. Tremor can have peripheral and central oscillatory components which properly assessed may improve diagnostics. A magnetic resonance (MR)-safe haptic wrist manipulator enables simultaneous measurement

  20. Magnetic motion capture system using LC resonant magnetic marker composed of Ni-Zn ferrite core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashi, S.; Toyoda, M.; Ohya, M.; Okazaki, Y.; Yabukami, S.; Ishiyama, K.; Arai, K. I.

    2006-01-01

    We have proposed a magnetic motion capture system using an LC resonant magnetic marker. The proposed system is composed of an exciting coil, an LC marker, and a 5x5-matrix search coil array (25 search coils). The LC marker is small and has a minimal circuit with no battery and can be driven wirelessly by the action of electromagnetic induction. It consists of a Ni-Zn ferrite core (3 mmφx10 mm) with a wound coil and a chip capacitor, forming an LC series circuit with a resonant frequency of 186 kHz. The relative position accuracy of the system is less than 1 mm within the area of 100 mm 3 up to 150 mm from the search coil array. Compared with dc magnetic systems, the proposed system is applicable for precision motion capture in optically isolated spaces without magnetic shielding because the system is not greatly influenced by earth field noise

  1. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech from Speech Delay: III. Theoretical Coherence of the Pause Marker with Speech Processing Deficits in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Strand, Edythe A.; Fourakis, Marios; Jakielski, Kathy J.; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Mabie, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Previous articles in this supplement described rationale for and development of the pause marker (PM), a diagnostic marker of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), and studies supporting its validity and reliability. The present article assesses the theoretical coherence of the PM with speech processing deficits in CAS. Method: PM and other…

  2. Diagnostic value of combined tumor markers detection for gastric and colorectal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenzhang; Dong Lin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of combined tumor markers detection in the clinical diagnosis for gastric cancer and colorectal cancel. Methods: The serum concentration of CEA, CA199, CA125, CA242 were measured by radioimmunoassay and Immunoradioassy in 46 patients with gastric cancer, 62 patients with colorectal cancer and 30 controls. Results: The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CEA were 37.0%, 96.7%, 59.2% respectively in gastric cancer,and 51.6%, 96.7%, 66.3% respectively in colorectal cancer, those of CA199 were 47.8%, 100.0%, 65.8% in gastric cancer, and 43.5%, 100.0%, 62, 0% in colorectal cancer, those of CA125 were 41.3%, 96.7%, 63.2% in gastric cancer, and 38.7%, 100.0%, 58.7% in colorectal cancer, those of CA242 were 54.3%, 100.0%, 71.5% in gastric cancer, and 51.6%, 100.0%, 67.4% in colorectal cancer. The diagnostic sensitivity specificity and accuracy of combined four markers were 73.9%, 93.3%, 82.9% in gastric cancer, and 77.4%, 96.7%, 83.7% in colorectal cancer. Compared with the respective value of any single marker, the diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy were significantly improved (P<0.05). Conclusion: Combined tumor markers detection could improve the diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy in gastric and colorectal cancers and was helpful for screening. (authors)

  3. Basic artefacts of diagnostic imaging by the magnetic resonance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitak, T.; Seidl, Z.; Obenberger, J.; Vaneckova, M.; Danes, J.; Krasensky, J.; Peterkova, V

    2000-01-01

    Artefacts in diagnostic imaging are defined as a geometric or anatomic misrepresentation of the reality by the image formed. The article deals with artefacts due to field and frequency shifts, in particular due to the water-fat chemical shift and due to magnetic susceptibility. The physical nature of the artefacts is explained and their diagnostic significance is discussed. (P.A.)

  4. The diagnostic importance of the new marker KIM-1 in kidney damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Marchewka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the rapid development of scientific research led to the introduction of strategies based on new markers that allow for estimation of the latent disease period before the clinical symptoms of actual kidney failure are revealed.The experimental tests carried out on animals and cell lines derived from the proximal tubule have made possible the detection of genes that are induced early after hypoxia [1].The protein products of these genes can be considered as useful markers for the diagnosis of renal failure. The induction of gene KIM-1 (called Kidney Injury Molecule-1 results in the formation of protein that can be considered as a diagnostic marker.This work describes the data on the structure, biological function and importance of determining the concentrations of KIM-1 in the diagnosis of drug-induced toxicity and kidney damage.

  5. [The diagnostic importance of the new marker KIM-1 in kidney damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Zofia; Płonka, Joanna

    2013-07-24

    In recent years, the rapid development of scientific research led to the introduction of strategies based on new markers that allow for estimation of the latent disease period before the clinical symptoms of actual kidney failure are revealed. The experimental tests carried out on animals and cell lines derived from the proximal tubule have made possible the detection of genes that are induced early after hypoxia. The protein products of these genes can be considered as useful markers for the diagnosis of renal failure. The induction of gene KIM-1 (called Kidney Injury Molecule-1) results in the formation of protein that can be considered as a diagnostic marker. This work describes the data on the structure, biological function and importance of determining the concentrations of KIM-1 in the diagnosis of drug-induced toxicity and kidney damage.

  6. The diagnostic value of a panel of serological markers in acute appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooqui, W; Pommergaard, H-C; Burcharth, J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Appendicitis is a frequent reason for hospital admissions. Elevated C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, and serum bilirubin have been suggested as individual markers for appendicitis and appendiceal perforation. The aim of this study was to analyze if a combination of serologic...... markers could increase the prognostic accuracy of diagnosing non-perforated and perforated appendicitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Demographic data, histological findings, blood tests, and clinical symptoms were collected on all patients who underwent a diagnostic laparoscopy, a laparoscopic appendectomy......, or conventional (open) appendectomy between May 2009 and May 2012 from a surgical department. The patients were grouped into those with either perforated appendicitis, non-perforated appendicitis, or differential diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate models were used to identify which markers were useful...

  7. Diagnostic significance of tumor markers CEA, CA50 and CA19-9 for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yumei; Huang Gang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression and diagnostic significance of three serum tumor markers (CEA, CA50, CA19-9) in patients with colorectal cancer, with special emphasis on their combined assay. Methods: Serum CEA, CA19-9 levels (with chemiluminescence immunoassay) and CA50 levels (with immunoradiometric assay) were determined in 94 patients with colorectal cancer, 20 patients with benign colorectal disorders and 37 controls. Results: The expressions of the serum tumor markers were significantly higher in patients with colorectal cancer than those in patients with benign colorectal disorders and controls (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the levels in the latter two groups. CEA assay had the highest sensitivity (57.4%) and specificity (85.9%). Combined assay of the three could enhance both the sensitivity (62.7%) and specificity (96.5%). The serum levels of the markers were significantly higher in patients with colonic cancer than those in patients with rectal cancer (P<0.05). The levels were positively correlated with the size of the growth and stage of the disease. Serum tumor marker levels were also significantly higher in patients with metastasis (regional/distant) than those in patients without metastasis (P<0.05). Conclusion: Determination of serum CEA, CA50 and CA19-9 levels had definite value for the diagnosis and assessment of the pathology as well as biologic behavior colorectal cancer. Combined assay of the three could enhance the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. (authors)

  8. The diagnostic value of preoperative inflammatory markers in craniopharyngioma: a multicenter cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Zheng, Shi-Hao; Yang, Min; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Li, Shi-Ting

    2018-05-01

    To compare the different levels of preoperative inflammatory markers in peripheral blood samples between craniopharyngioma (CP) and other sellar region tumors so as to explore their differential diagnostic value. The level of white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, platelet, albumin, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR (dNLR), platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR), monocyte lymphocyte ratio (MLR) and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) were compared between the CP and other sellar region tumors. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic significance of the peripheral blood inflammatory markers and their paired combinations for CP including its pathological types. Patients with CP had higher levels of pre-operative WBC, lymphocyte and PNI. The papillary craniopharyngioma (PCP) group had higher neutrophil count and NLR than the adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) and healthy control groups whereas the ACP group had higher platelet count and PNI than the PCP and healthy control groups. There were not any significant differences in preoperative inflammatory markers between the primary and recurrent CP groups. The AUC values of WBC, neutrophil, NLR + PLR and dNLR + PLR in PCP were all higher than 0.7. Inflammation seems to be closely correlated with CP's development. The preoperative inflammatory markers including WBC, neutrophil, NLR + PLR and dNLR + PLR may differentially diagnose PCP, pituitary tumor (PT) and Rathke cleft cyst (RCC). In addition, some statistical results in this study indirectly proved previous experimental conclusions and strictly matched CP's biological features.

  9. Diagnostic value of multi-tumor markers protein biochip detection for primary pulmonary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Fengpo; Wu Yiwei; Li Qingru; Fa Yihua

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of multi-tumor markers protein biochip detection for primary pulmonary cancer, 12 tumor markers including AFP, CEA, NSE, CA125, CA15-3, CA242, CA19-9, PSA, f-PSA, FER, β-HCG and HGH were measured by the protein biochip in the serum of 45 primary pulmonary cancer patients. Positive rate of tumor markers was FER (42.2%), CEA (35.6%), CA125 (24.4%), CA15-3 (17.8%), CA242 (13.3%), CA19-9 (11.1%), β-HCG(8.9%), HGH(6.7%), NSE(4.4%), AFP (0), f-PSA (0) and PSA (0), respectively. The rate of patients with one abnorma indicator was 57.8% except FER. The positive rate using multi-tumor markers protein biochip detection was significantly higher than that of single tumor marker detective method, and this detection can be used for the diagnosis of patients with primary pulmonary cancer. (authors)

  10. Diagnostic imaging of psoriatic arthritis. Part II: magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plain radiography reveals specific, yet late changes of advanced psoriatic arthritis. Early inflammatory changes are seen both on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound within peripheral joints (arthritis, synovitis, tendons sheaths (tenosynovitis, tendovaginitis and entheses (enthesitis, enthesopathy. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging enables the assessment of inflammatory features in the sacroiliac joints (sacroiliitis, and the spine (spondylitis. In this article, we review current opinions on the diagnostics of some selective, and distinctive features of psoriatic arthritis concerning magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound and present some hypotheses on psoriatic arthritis etiopathogenesis, which have been studied with the use of magnetic resonance imaging. The following elements of the psoriatic arthritis are discussed: enthesitis, extracapsular inflammation, dactylitis, distal interphalangeal joint and nail disease, and the ability of magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate undifferentiated arthritis, the value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

  11. Determination of Intestine Inflammation Markers in Diagnostic Search in Children with Intestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Pavlenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Prevalence of bowel diseases in children is the second, trailing only the diseases of gastroduodenal zone and growing in recent years. Actual one is the problem of differential diagnosis of functional and inflammatory intestinal diseases using non-invasive methods on the prehospital stage and as a screening. Objective. Comparative analysis of fecal markers of the bowel inflammation (lactoferrine and calprotectine with endoscopy and morphology of intestinal mucosa in children. Matherials and methods. 49 children aged 6–18 years were examined. All patients underwent endoscopic and morphological study of the intestine, coprotest, determination of fecal markers of bowel inflammation (lactoferrin and calprotectine. Results. It is shown that in young children, the intestinal mucosa mainly hadn’t endoscopic changes, coprotest and morphological examination didn’t reveal the signs of inflammation, fecal intestinal inflammation markers were negative (p < 0.05. In the group of older children, moderate or marked catarrhal changes were found endoscopically, coprotest results were typical of inflammation in the intestines, it was morphologically proved the presence of chronic inflammation of the mucous membrane of the colon with signs of atrophy, the results of lactoferrin and calprotectine determination were positive (p < 0.05. Conclusion. The findings suggest that the evaluation of calprotectine and lactoferrin can be used in pediatric patients because of its non-invasiveness as diagnostic screening for the selection of patients for the further endoscopic examination and diagnostic search.

  12. Process Diagnostics and Monitoring Using the Multipole Resonance Probe (MRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harhausen, J.; Awakowicz, P.; Brinkmann, R. P.; Foest, R.; Lapke, M.; Musch, T.; Mussenbrock, T.; Oberrath, J.; Ohl, A.; Rolfes, I.; Schulz, Ch.; Storch, R.; Styrnoll, T.

    2011-10-01

    In this contribution we present the application of the MRP in an industrial plasma ion assisted deposition (PIAD) chamber (Leybold optics SYRUS-pro). The MRP is a novel plasma diagnostic which is suitable for an industrial environment - which means that the proposed method is robust, calibration free, and economical, and can be used for ideal and reactive plasmas alike. In order to employ the MRP as process diagnostics we mounted the probe on a manipulator to obtain spatially resolved information on the electron density and temperature. As monitoring tool the MRP is installed at a fixed position. Even during the deposition process it provides stable measurement results while other diagnostic methods, e.g. the Langmuir probe, may suffer from dielectric coatings. In this contribution we present the application of the MRP in an industrial plasma ion assisted deposition (PIAD) chamber (Leybold optics SYRUS-pro). The MRP is a novel plasma diagnostic which is suitable for an industrial environment - which means that the proposed method is robust, calibration free, and economical, and can be used for ideal and reactive plasmas alike. In order to employ the MRP as process diagnostics we mounted the probe on a manipulator to obtain spatially resolved information on the electron density and temperature. As monitoring tool the MRP is installed at a fixed position. Even during the deposition process it provides stable measurement results while other diagnostic methods, e.g. the Langmuir probe, may suffer from dielectric coatings. Funded by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF, Fkz. 13N10462).

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnostics of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, J.P.; Tjoerstad, K.; Kaass, B.; Oedegaard, H.

    1987-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an important and frequent neurological disease and the diagnosis might be difficult. The clinical criteria of multiple sclerosis and the role of laboratory examinations in the diagnosis of the disease are discussed. In particular the help offered by the magnetic resonance imaging method is the subject of this paper. Three patients are reported and discussed

  14. Safety guidelines for magnetic resonance diagnostic facilities (1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    These guidelines provide information on levels and health effects of exposure to magnetic and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields associated with magnetic resonance (MR) devices, and on precautions to minimize effects on patients, staff, and the general public. The guidelines are for use by regulatory authorities, MR users and health professionals. 22 refs., 1 tab

  15. Diagnostic significance of combined detention of multiple tumour markers in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yanming; Qiu Jianming

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of combined detection of multiple markers in the determination of lung cancer. Methods: Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the serum CEA, CA19-9, CA125, CA15-3 was determined in eighty-six lung cancer patients, thirty benign lung disease patients and thirty healthy persons. Results; Serum concentrations of CEA, CA19-9, CA125 and CA15-3 were significantly higher in patents with lung cancer than that in the patients with benign lung disease patients and healthy persons. The single test sensitivity of CEA, CA19-9, CA125 and CA15-3 for diagnosis of lung cancer is 41.9%, 37.2%, 48.9%, 36% respectively; the combined test sensitivity is 94.2%. Conclusions: Assessing several tumour markers can help differentiating various histological type of lung cancer and increase the sensitivity

  16. Molecular Pathogenesis and Diagnostic, Prognostic and Predictive Molecular Markers in Sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño-Enríquez, Adrián; Bovée, Judith V M G

    2016-09-01

    Sarcomas are infrequent mesenchymal neoplasms characterized by notable morphological and molecular heterogeneity. Molecular studies in sarcoma provide refinements to morphologic classification, and contribute diagnostic information (frequently), prognostic stratification (rarely) and predict therapeutic response (occasionally). Herein, we summarize the major molecular mechanisms underlying sarcoma pathogenesis and present clinically useful diagnostic, prognostic and predictive molecular markers for sarcoma. Five major molecular alterations are discussed, illustrated with representative sarcoma types, including 1. the presence of chimeric transcription factors, in vascular tumors; 2. abnormal kinase signaling, in gastrointestinal stromal tumor; 3. epigenetic deregulation, in chondrosarcoma, chondroblastoma, and other tumors; 4. deregulated cell survival and proliferation, due to focal copy number alterations, in dedifferentiated liposarcoma; 5. extreme genomic instability, in conventional osteosarcoma as a representative example of sarcomas with highly complex karyotype. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diagnostic measurements of CUEBIT based on the dielectronic resonance process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, E.; Kimmel, T. D.; Brandenburg, K. H.; Wilson, R. K.; Gall, A. C.; Harriss, J. E.; Sosolik, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report the first observation of x-ray radiation from the new Clemson University Electron Beam Ion Trap (CUEBIT). The analysis of the emitted dielectronic recombination x-ray photons from highly charged argon ions allowed us to probe parameters specific to the ion cloud inside the machine. Argon dielectronic resonances could provide a standard method to cross-compare the electron beam and ion cloud characteristics of different devices

  18. Significance of serum and bile tumor markers in the diagnostic approach of patients with malignant pancreatobiliary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsios, Athanasios; Vezakis, Antonios; Kaparos, Georgios; Fragulidis, Georgios; Karakostas, Nikolaos; Kouskouni, Evangelia; Logothetis, Emmanouil; Polydorou, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Serum and bile tumor markers are under intense scrutiny for the diagnosis of malignant disease. The purpose of our study was to report the usefulness of serum and bile tumor markers for the discrimination between benign and malignant pancreatobiliary diseases. Between March 2010 and May 2013, 95 patients with obstructive jaundice or history of biliary obstruction, were included in the study. During ERCP, bile samples were obtained for measurement of tumor markers CEA, CA19- 9, CA125, CA72-4 and CA242. Serum samples were taken before ERCP for the same measurements. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with malignant disease and patients with benign disease. Serum tumor marker levels were significantly higher in patients with malignant disease. Serum CA242 and CA19-9 exhibited the highest diagnostic accuracy (76.8% and 73.7%, respectively). CA125 and CA72-4 levels in bile samples were significantly higher in patients with malignant disease. Bile CA125, CEA and CA72-4 achieved the best diagnostic accuracy (69, 65 and 65), respectively). The combined detection of CA19-9, CA242 in serum and CA125, CA72-4 in bile along with total bilirubin levels, showed the best diagnostic accuracy (81%). Serum and bile tumor markers, when studied alone, lack the diagnostic yield to discriminate benign from malignant pancreatobiliary diseases. In cases of diagnostic dilemmas the combination of serum and bile markers might be helpful.

  19. Periodontitis diagnostics using resonance Raman spectroscopy on saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Biryukova, T.; Tsvetkov, M.; Bagratashvily, V.

    2013-07-01

    In view of its wealth of molecular information, Raman spectroscopy has been the subject of active biomedical research. The aim of this work is Raman spectroscopy (RS) application for the determination of molecular biomarkers in saliva with the objective of early periodontitis detection. As was shown in our previous study, carotenoids contained in saliva can be molecular fingerprint information for the periodontitis level. It is shown here that the carotenoid RS lines at wavenumbers of 1156 and 1524 cm-1 can be easily detected and serve as reliable biomarkers of periodontitis using resonance Raman spectroscopy of dry saliva.

  20. Periodontitis diagnostics using resonance Raman spectroscopy on saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonchukov, S; Sukhinina, A; Bakhmutov, D; Biryukova, T; Tsvetkov, M; Bagratashvily, V

    2013-01-01

    In view of its wealth of molecular information, Raman spectroscopy has been the subject of active biomedical research. The aim of this work is Raman spectroscopy (RS) application for the determination of molecular biomarkers in saliva with the objective of early periodontitis detection. As was shown in our previous study, carotenoids contained in saliva can be molecular fingerprint information for the periodontitis level. It is shown here that the carotenoid RS lines at wavenumbers of 1156 and 1524 cm −1 can be easily detected and serve as reliable biomarkers of periodontitis using resonance Raman spectroscopy of dry saliva. (letter)

  1. [Dementias: diagnostic contribution of imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, E; Martínez-Granados, B; Marti-Bonmati, L; Martínez-Bisbal, M C; Gil, A; Blasco, C; Celda, B

    2007-06-01

    The objective is analyze the complementarity between 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the global diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VD). We studied 168 patients with cognitive impairment from AD, VD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and major depression. All patients were evaluated by brain MR imaging and MRS using two sample volumes localized at right medial temporal gyrus and posterior parietal gyrus. Metabolites analyzed were N-acetylaspartate (NAA), myo-Inositol (mI), Choline (Cho) and creatine (Cr), as standard references for obtaining the Co/Cr, mI/Cr and NAA/Cr ratios. Imaging and spectroscopy alterations were graded from 0 to 4 and the average of both was used to draw ROC and SROC curves. Area under ROC curve (Az) was used as a measure of discriminative ability. Combination of MR imaging and MRS significantly improved AD diagnosis (Global Az: 0.722 vs. MR imaging Az: 0.624; p: 0.003). However, the combination of MR imaging and MRS did not improve VD diagnosis. SROC curve obtained for the diagnosis of global dementia was Az: 0.6658 with 0.67 sensitivity and 0.65 specificity. Combination of both MR techniques significantly improved AD diagnosis versus MR imaging alone. More studies are needed to enhance VD classification. Metabolic data found by MRS can be useful to differentiate cognitive impairment

  2. Diagnostic value of CEA and CYFRA 21-1 tumor markers in primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Kyoko; Takayama, Koichi; Izumi, Miiru; Harada, Taishi; Furuyama, Kazuto; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2013-04-01

    Lung cancer is sometimes difficult to differentiate from benign lung diseases expressing nodular shadow in imaging study. We assessed the diagnostic value of two commonly used tumor markers in distinguishing primary lung cancer from benign lung disease. The serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin 19 fragments (CYFRA 21-1) were retrospectively analyzed in 655 lung cancer patients and 237 patients with benign lung disease. The standard cut-off levels of 3.2 ng/mL CEA and 3.5 ng/mL CYFRA 21-1 and twice these respective levels (6.4 ng/mL and 7.0 ng/mL) were used. CEA and CYFRA 21-1 levels were elevated in 32% and 11% of benign lung disease patients, respectively. CEA sensitivity and specificity for lung cancer diagnosis was 69% and 68% respectively, while that for CYFRA 21-1 was 43% and 89%, respectively. Thus, the combined value for the specificity of the two tumor markers was greater than either alone. Patients were grouped depending on their hospital status, and prevalence rates were determined. The prevalence rate of lung cancer in admitted patients was 51%, the prevalence rate of lung cancer in outpatients was 12%, and the prevalence rate of lung cancer identified during health check-ups was 0.1%. Positive predictive values (PPVs) were calculated using Bayes' theorem, and varied with the serum tumor marker and prevalence rate: PPVs of CEA [prevalence rate] were 69.2% [51%], 22.7% [12%], and 0.22% [0.1%], while PPVs of CYFRA 21-1 were 80.3% [51%], 34.8% [12%], and 0.39% [0.1%]. However, PPVs for lung cancer diagnosis at a prevalence rate of 51% were 87.3% or higher when the patient exhibited positive CEA and CYFRA 21-1, or CEA or CYFRA 21-1 levels twice the standard cut-off. Our results indicate that CEA and CYFRA 21-1 are reliable serum tumor markers for the diagnosis of lung cancer in addition to CT scans when combined or used individually at twice the standard cut-off level in high prevalence rate groups. The prevalence rate should

  3. Significance Of 30 KD Protein As A Diagnostic Marker In CSF Of tuberculour Meningits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashyap R.S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous meningitis (TBM is a sub acute or chronic inflammation of the cerebral meninges caused by tubercule bacilli, the diagnosis for which is still very intricate. To establish a rapid diagnosis, we used Sodium dodecyl suplhate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE for the detection of marker protein in CSF specific to TBM patients. CSF was collected by standard lumbar puncture technique. Polyclonal antibody was raised against sonicated M.tuberculosis of H37RV in rabbit. 145 CSF samples were collected for this study over a period of two and half years which included 44 suspected and one proven case of TBM. In this communication we have investigated for a possible presence of a marker protein(s in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of TBM patients. Two bands, a 30kd and a 14kd were detected. The 30kd band was observed in 92% cases of TBM patients. The 14kd band was not much of diagnostic importance since it was found in only about 45%. None of the control group patients had these protein bands. The 30 kd protein band either disappeared or became faint on anti-TB medication. To evaluate whether the eluted 30 kd protein was a mycobacterium tuberculosis product, gel retardation assay was also performed. The 30kd protein did not react with the polyclonal antisera. The CSF biochemical picture correlated well with the presence of this protein band. This study suggests that 30kd protein band observed in CSF is not a Mycobacterium product and is not only an important diagnostic marker for early diagnosis of TBM but may also be useful for monitoring the post treatment phase.

  4. Serum Golgi protein 73 is a prognostic rather than diagnostic marker in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Min; Chen, Zhan-Hong; Li, Xing; Li, Xiao-Yun; Wen, Jing-Yun; Lin, Qu; Ma, Xiao-Kun; Wei, Li; Chen, Jie; Ruan, Dan-Yun; Lin, Ze-Xiao; Wang, Tian-Tian; Wu, Dong-Hao; Wu, Xiang-Yuan

    2017-11-01

    Serum Golgi protein 73 (sGP73) is a candidate diagnostic biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, current evidence of its diagnostic value is conflicting, primarily due to the small sample sizes of previous studies, and its prognostic role in HCC also remains unclear. In the present study, sGP73 levels in 462 patients with HCC, 186 patients with liver cirrhosis, and 83 healthy controls were evaluated using ELISA, and it was identified that the median sGP73 levels were significantly higher in the HCC (18.7 ng/ml) and liver cirrhosis (18.5 ng/ml) patients than in the healthy controls (0 ng/ml; both P<0.001); however, the levels did not significantly differ between the HCC and liver cirrhosis groups (P=0.632). sGP73 had an inferior sensitivity and specificity for HCC diagnosis (27.79 and 77.96%, respectively) compared with α-fetoprotein (57.36 and 90.96%, respectively; P<0.001). In the HCC group, a high level of sGP73 was associated with aggressive clinicopathological features and independently predicted poor overall survival (OS) time (P<0.001). Additionally, in patients with resectable HCC, a high level of sGP73 was associated with significantly decreased disease-free survival (P<0.001) and OS (P=0.039) times compared with a low level of sGP73. This study demonstrated that sGP73 is unsuitable as a diagnostic marker for the early detection of HCC; however, it is an independent negative prognostic marker, providing a novel risk stratification factor and a potential therapeutic molecular target for HCC.

  5. Evaluation of serum angiotension converting enzyme (SACE) as a diagnostic marker for pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhari, S.N.H.; Naeem, M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: A number of supportive laboratory tests such as ECG, Chest x-ray, ABGs SLDH, SGOT, S. Bilirubin and D-dimer with variable sensitivity and specificity are available to facilitate the clinical diagnosis of acute Pulmonary Embolism (PE). Serum Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (SACE) which is produced mainly by the pulmonary vascular endothelial cells, is found altered during a variety of diffuse lung diseases. This study was designed to evaluate the validity of SACE level as a marker for hypoxic damage to the pulmonary endothelium in PE. Design: A prospective study carried out on forty patients with high clinical suspicion of PE. Besides routine diagnostic tests mentioned above all of them had ventilation Perfusion isotope (v/q) scans (as a diagnostic test) and SACE level checked. Setting: Shaikh Zayed Hospital Lahore. Results: Among forty consecutive patients with age range 25-59 years (mean: 42 Yr). Twenty six patients (65%) with abnormal scans reported as High probability were included in group-A (True Positive), whereas 14(35)% patients having low-probability (suspected or Normal scan were included in group-b, low SACE level (<28iu/l) was found in 19/26 (sensitivity of 73% in group-A (positive Predictive Value: 47%) and 9/14(sensitivity of 64%) in Group-B. Whereas mean levels for both groups were 34.55 and 54.84 respectively. Rise in LDH was pronounced in group A. Only chest x-ray and ECGS were found to be more sensitive for group-A than group-B. Changes in ABGs (type-1 resp. Failure) had low sensitivity. Conclusion: Among clinically suspected cases of PE, fall in SACE level can be used as a sensitive and reliable diagnostic marker as more than 75% of the enzyme in produced in the lungs compared with other enzymes which have extra-pulmonary source. (author)

  6. Radiofrequency power deposition during magnetic resonance diagnostic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandolfo, M.; Vecchia, P.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy (MRI, MRS) require that subjects be exposed to radiofrequency field, and the corresponding energy absorption leads to tissue heating. The main question, thus, to be considered in connection to safety and health aspects is related to the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the imaged subject and the exposure durations which might put a practical limit on the pulse sequence which can be used. In this paper some models and experimental results for radiofrequency power deposition in MRI and MRS machines are reviewed. Models show that energy dissipation is a function of the frequency, RF incident power density, exposure duration, coupling between the RF coil and the subject, and several properties of the exposed tissue, including conductivity, dielectric constant, specific gravity, size, and orientation relative to the field polarization. The ability of the body's normal thermoregulatory responses to cope with high levels of RF energy deposition must be also taken into account

  7. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging of Tumor Metabolic Markers for Cancer Diagnosis, Metabolic Phenotyping, and Characterization of Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhong He

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells display heterogeneous genetic characteristics, depending on the tumor dynamic microenvironment. Abnormal tumor vasculature and poor tissue oxygenation generate a fraction of hypoxic tumor cells that have selective advantages in metastasis and invasion and often resist chemo- and radiation therapies. The genetic alterations acquired by tumors modify their biochemical pathways, which results in abnormal tumor metabolism. An elevation in glycolysis known as the “Warburg effect” and changes in lipid synthesis and oxidation occur. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS has been used to study tumor metabolism in preclinical animal models and in clinical research on human breast, brain, and prostate cancers. This technique can identify specific genetic and metabolic changes that occur in malignant tumors. Therefore, the metabolic markers, detectable by MRS, not only provide information on biochemical changes but also define different metabolic tumor phenotypes. When combined with the contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, which has a high sensitivity for cancer diagnosis, in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI improves the diagnostic specificity of malignant human cancers and is becoming an important clinical tool for cancer management and care. This article reviews the MRSI techniques as molecular imaging methods to detect and quantify metabolic changes in various tumor tissue types, especially in extracranial tumor tissues that contain high concentrations of fat. MRI/MRSI methods have been used to characterize tumor microenvironments in terms of blood volume and vessel permeability. Measurements of tissue oxygenation and glycolytic rates by MRS also are described to illustrate the capability of the MR technology in probing molecular information non-invasively in tumor tissues and its important potential for studying molecular mechanisms of human cancers in physiological conditions.

  8. Diagnostic utility of candidate definitions for demonstrating axial spondyloarthritis on magnetic resonance imaging of the spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ulrich; Zhao, Zheng; Rufibach, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A recent consensus statement has suggested ≥3 corner inflammatory lesions (CILs) or several corner fatty lesions (CFLs) as candidate criteria indicative of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic...

  9. Model-Independent Evaluation of Tumor Markers and a Logistic-Tree Approach to Diagnostic Decision Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizeng Ni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity and specificity of using individual tumor markers hardly meet the clinical requirement. This challenge gave rise to many efforts, e.g., combing multiple tumor markers and employing machine learning algorithms. However, results from different studies are often inconsistent, which are partially attributed to the use of different evaluation criteria. Also, the wide use of model-dependent validation leads to high possibility of data overfitting when complex models are used for diagnosis. We propose two model-independent criteria, namely, area under the curve (AUC and Relief to evaluate the diagnostic values of individual and multiple tumor markers, respectively. For diagnostic decision support, we propose the use of logistic-tree which combines decision tree and logistic regression. Application on a colorectal cancer dataset shows that the proposed evaluation criteria produce results that are consistent with current knowledge. Furthermore, the simple and highly interpretable logistic-tree has diagnostic performance that is competitive with other complex models.

  10. Exosomal proteins as potential diagnostic markers in advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristine Raaby; Paulsen, Birgitte Sandfeld; Bæk, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. At the time of diagnosis, more than half of the patients will have disseminated disease and, yet, diagnosing can be challenging. New methods are desired to improve the diagnostic work-up. Exosomes are cell...... control subjects based on the differential display of exosomal protein markers. Methods: Plasma was isolated from 109 NSCLC patients with advanced stage (IIIa–IV) disease and 110 matched control subjects initially suspected of having cancer, but diagnosed to be cancer free. The Extracellular Vesicle Array...... (EV Array) was used to phenotype exosomes directly from the plasma samples. The array contained 37 antibodies targeting lung cancer-related proteins and was used to capture exosomes, which were visualised with a cocktail of biotin-conjugated CD9, CD63 and CD81 antibodies. Results: The EV Array...

  11. Diagnostic markers of serious bacterial infections in febrile infants younger than 90 days old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrati, Adi; Ben Tov, Amir; Reif, Shimon

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess correlations between demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics and the risk of serious bacterial infection (SBI) in febrile urinary tract infection (43 infants; 90% of all SBI), three infants had bacteremia, one had bacterial pneumonia and one had bacterial meningitis. Significant independent clinical predictors for the diagnosis of SBI included duration of fever, absence of rhinitis and the absence of lung and skin manifestations. Significant independent laboratory predictors were absolute neutrophil count (ANC), platelets, blood urea nitrogen and C-reactive protein (CRP) level. On receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the CRP area under the curve (0.819) was significantly superior to ANC and leukocyte count. Of the clinical and laboratory variables selected for evaluation, qualitative CRP was the strongest independent predictor for diagnosing SBI and a significantly better diagnostic marker than clinical characteristics, ANC and white blood cell count. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Circulating microRNA-200 Family as Diagnostic Marker in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer A Dhayat

    Full Text Available In this clinical study, we aimed to evaluate the role of circulating microRNA-200 family as a non-invasive tool to identify patients with cirrhosis-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC.Prognosis of HCC remains poor with increasing incidence worldwide, mainly related to liver cirrhosis. So far, no reliable molecular targets exist for early detection of HCC at surgically manageable stages. Recently, we identified members of the microRNA-200 family as potential diagnostic markers of cirrhosis-associated HCC in patient tissue samples. Their value as circulating biomarkers for HCC remained undefined.Blood samples and clinicopathological data of consecutive patients with liver diseases were collected prospectively. Expression of the microRNA-200 family was investigated by qRT-PCR in blood serum samples of 22 HCC patients with and without cirrhosis. Serum samples of patients with non-cancerous chronic liver cirrhosis (n = 22 and of healthy volunteers (n = 15 served as controls.MicroRNA-141 and microRNA-200a were significantly downregulated in blood serum of patients with HCC compared to liver cirrhosis (p<0.007 and healthy controls (p<0.002. MicroRNA-141 and microRNA-200a could well discriminate patients with cirrhosis-associated HCC from healthy volunteers with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC values of 0.85 and 0.82, respectively. Additionally, both microRNAs could differentiate between HCC and non-cancerous liver cirrhosis with a fair accuracy.Circulating microRNA-200 family members are significantly deregulated in patients with HCC and liver cirrhosis. Further studies are necessary to confirm the diagnostic value of the microRNA-200 family as accurate serum marker for cirrhosis-associated HCC.

  13. TIE2-expressing monocytes as a diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma correlates with angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Tokuhiro; Kanto, Tatsuya; Kuroda, Shoko; Yoshio, Sachiyo; Higashitani, Koyo; Kakita, Naruyasu; Miyazaki, Masanori; Sakakibara, Mitsuru; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Kasahara, Akinori; Tomimaru, Yoshito; Tomokuni, Akira; Nagano, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Norio; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2013-04-01

    Angiogenesis is a critical step in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Myeloid lineage cells, such as macrophages and monocytes, have been reported to regulate angiogenesis in mouse tumor models. TIE2, a receptor of angiopoietins, conveys pro-angiogenic signals and identifies a monocyte/macrophage subset with pro-angiogenic activity. Here, we analyzed the occurrence and kinetics of TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEMs) in HCC patients. This study enrolled 168 HCV-infected patients including 89 with HCC. We examined the frequency of TEMs, as defined as CD14+CD16+TIE2+ cells, in the peripheral blood and liver. The localization of TEMs in the liver was determined by immunofluorescence staining. Micro-vessel density in the liver was measured by counting CD34+ vascular structures. We found that the frequency of circulating TEMs was significantly higher in HCC than non-HCC patients, while being higher in the liver than in the blood. In patients who underwent local radio-ablation or resection of HCC, the frequency of TEMs dynamically changed in the blood in parallel with HCC recurrence. Most TEMs were identified in the perivascular areas of tumor tissue. A significant positive correlation was observed between micro-vessel density in HCC and frequency of TEMs in the blood or tumors, suggesting that TEMs are involved in HCC angiogenesis. Receiver operating characteristic analyses revealed the superiority of TEM frequency to AFP, PIVKA-II and ANG-2 serum levels as diagnostic marker for HCC. TEMs increase in patients with HCC and their frequency changes with the therapeutic response or recurrence. We thus suggest that TEM frequency can be used as a diagnostic marker for HCC, potentially reflecting angiogenesis in the liver. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  14. Diagnostic value of combined detection of serum tumor markers for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanping; Wang Qun; Zhao Zihong; Zhou Shan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of combined detection of serum tumor markers, including CEA, CA125, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and cytokeratin fragment antigen 21-1 (CYFRA21-1) for lung cancer patients. Methods: The subjects involved 138 diagnosed lung cancer patients (82 males, 56 females, average age 58.6 years, from October 2010 to March 2012), 96 patients with benign lung diseases (56 males, 40 females, average age 51.3 years) and 45 healthy adults (30 males, 15 females, average age 43.9 years). The pathological types of lung cancer consisted of 66 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 52 adenocarcinoma and 20 small cell lung cancer (SCLC). The serum levels of CEA, CA125, NSE and CYFRA21-1 were measured with electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The diagnostic efficacy for different pathological types was compared among each single tumor marker and combination of tumor markers. One-way analysis of variance q test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The serum levels of CEA, CA125, NSE and CYFRA21-1 in patients with lung cancer were higher than those in patients with benign lung diseases and in healthy subjects (CEA: (19.99±30.99), (10.78±19.77), (3.25±3.42) μg/L; CA125: (79.70±95.98), (44.96±44.97), (20.66±7.13) μg/L; NSE: (35.23±40.22), (15.31±8.42), (13.30±5.65) μg/L; CYFRA21-1: (18.07±43.71), (8.30±8.83), (3.13±1.60) μg/L; F=4.481, 5.436, 4.776, 6.002, all P<0.05). The highest level of CEA, NSE or CYFRA21-1 were found in adenocarcinoma (F=4.932, P<0.05), SCLC (F=5.119, P<0.05) or SCC (F=5.378, P<0.05), respectively. The highest sensitivity tumor markers for SCC, SCLC and adenocarcinoma were CYFRA21-1 (78.8%, 52/66), NSE (75.0%, 15/20) and CEA (57.7%, 30/52), respectively. In combined detection, the highest sensitivity combinations for SCC, SCLC and adenocarcinoma were CEA + CYFRA21-1 + NSE (89.4%, 59/66), CEA + CYFRA21-1 + NSE (80.0%, 16/20) and CEA + CA125 + NSE (78.8%, 41/52), respectively. Conclusions: Combined detection

  15. Podocyturia as a Diagnostic Marker for Preeclampsia amongst High-Risk Pregnant Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Jim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary podocyte (podocyturia has been studied as a diagnostic marker for preeclampsia. We sought to validate its use in preeclampsia and in differentiating it from other high risk pregnancy states. We studied an obstetric population at high risk to develop preeclampsia (study group and uncomplicated pregnancies (control group by analyzing their urine sediment for podocytes within 24 hours of delivery. Podocytes were identified by immunohistochemistry using the podocyte-specific protein synaptopodin. Of the 56 patients who were enrolled, 29 patients were diagnosed with preeclampsia, 9 patients had hypertensive conditions such as chronic and gestational hypertension, 6 patients had Type I/II and gestational diabetes mellitus, 3 patients were classified as others, and 9 patients exhibited uncomplicated pregnancies. Podocyturia was identified in 11 out of 29 (38% of patients with preeclampsia/eclampsia, 3 out of 9 (33% with gestational and chronic hypertension, and 3 out of 6 (50% with Type I/II and gestational diabetes mellitus. None of the 9 patients (0% with uncomplicated pregnancies demonstrated podocyturia. The sensitivity and specificity of podocyturia for preeclampsia were found to be 38% and 70%. Our study showed that podocyturia does not appear to be a sensitive nor a specific marker to diagnose preeclampsia.

  16. CEA in activated macrophages. New diagnostic possibilities for tumor markers in early colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japink, Dennis; Leers, Mathie P G; Sosef, Meindert N; Nap, Marius

    2009-08-01

    Serum tumor markers show low sensitivity, making them unsuitable for early detection of cancer. Activated macrophages (AM) from peripheral blood can accumulate tumor marker substances and facilitate early detection in prostate cancer. Here it was investigated whether carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-containing macrophages (CEACM) can be used to detect colorectal cancer (CRC) at earlier stages than can serum CEA. Peripheral blood was collected from patients with CRC (n=48), inflammatory colorectal disease (n=5) and from healthy controls (n=18). After separating and labeling AM with CD14-APC/CD16-FITC, AM were intracellularly labeled with anti-CEA antibody and flow cytometrically analyzed. Serum CEA and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. The fraction-size of CEACM discriminated between controls and CRC patients, irrespective of AJCC stage (AJCC stage I-IV, pCEA values were significantly elevated in AJCC stage II, III and IV (p=0.02, 0.006 and <0.0001, respectively). Combining CEACM with CRP levels separated CRC from inflammatory colorectal disease. CEACM combined with CRP appears to have diagnostic potential in early CRC.

  17. THE ROLE OF NEOPTERIN AS A POSSIBLE DIAGNOSTIC MARKER PREVALENCE EXTERNAL GENITAL ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. I. Novikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Todetermine the diagnostic value of neopterin as a marker of dysfunction of peritoneal immune factors for estimating the severity of external genital endometriosis (EGE.Material and methods. The concentration of neopterin in the peritoneal fluid (PF and venous blood of 16 patients with EGE and 10 patients with benign ovarian cysts were evaluated.Results. There wasn’t significant relationship between the concentration of the neopterin in the venous blood and clinical data. There weren't significant relationship between the concentration of the neopterin in the venous blood and clinical data. There were the significant correlation between the concentration of neopterin in the PF of patients with EGE and pain by the B'n'B scale (r = 0.545, p = 0.044 and pain by NRC scale of (r = 0.362 p = 0.203. There were correlation between the concentration of neopterin in the PF of patients with EGE and the severity of endometriosis by rAFS scale (r = 0.598, p = 0.051, and between the neopterin concentration in PF and adhesions (r = 0.487, p = 0.128.Conclusion. Thus, it is possible to use the the neopterin concentrations in the PF of patients with EGE as a marker of disease severity and as a predictor of recurrence endometriosis.

  18. Diagnostic/prognostic molecular cytogenetic follow-up applied in satellited marker cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papenhausen, P.R.; Anderson, S.

    1994-09-01

    Special caution needs to be exercised in offering a good prognosis in Prader-Willi probe negative 15-derived marker cases, since it is clear that phenotypic effects can still be associated with the apparent presence of proximal sequences. We have had two postnatal cases in this category, one which was inherited from an unaffected paternal (non-mosaic) carrier, possibly demonstrating imprinting effects. Familial studies are continuing in this case. Although the D22/S9 locus appears diagnostic of cateye syndrome (CES), the dual specificity of the 14/22 centromeric probe leaves the possibility of a poor prognosis 14 derivation when the CES probe is negative. Therefore, it is imperative that proximal long arm 13, 14, 21 and more proximal 15 FISH probes be implemented so that a phenotypically correlated database may indicate the proper FISH probes necessary for accurate prognosis. Bisatellited markers is which a bipartite centromeric probe signal was found were considered to be higher risk than those with the single signal in counseling.

  19. Diagnostic test pepsinogen I and combination with tumor marker CEA in gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, J.; Sarumpaet, K.; Ganie, R. A.

    2018-03-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fifth leading cause of cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality globally. Human pepsinogens (HP) are considered promising serological biomarkers for the screening of atrophic gastritis (AG) and GC. HP are biochemically and immunochemically classified into two groups: pepsinogen I (PG I) and PG II. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a glycoprotein, which is present in normal mucosal cells but increased amounts are associated with adenocarcinoma, especially colorectal cancer. CEA in combination with other tumour markers can be used in pre-operative staging and thereby assist in the planning of the type of surgery required and future management options. The purpose of this study was to diagnose test PG I and combination with tumor marker CEA in 32 patients suspected with GC. There was a significant difference in levels of CEA between GC group with non-GC with a value p <0.001. PGI sensitivity was 70.58% and specificity 93.3%. The sensitivity of PGI and CEA combination of 94.1% and specificity 80%. The area of AUC obtained was 92.7% at 95% confidence interval (82.7-100%). This AUC value indicated that the value of diagnostic accuracy of the PGI and CEA combinations of 92.7%.

  20. EMMPRIN and its ligand cyclophilin A as novel diagnostic markers in inflammatory cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seizer, Peter; Geisler, Tobias; Bigalke, Boris; Schneider, Martin; Klingel, Karin; Kandolf, Reinhard; Stellos, Konstantinos; Schreieck, Jürgen; Gawaz, Meinrad; May, Andreas E

    2013-03-10

    During inflammatory cardiomyopathy matrix metalloproteinases are crucially involved in cardiac remodeling. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the "extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer" EMMPRIN (CD147) and its ligand Cyclophilin A (CyPA) are upregulated in inflammatory cardiomyopathy and may serve as diagnostic markers. Therefore, a series of 102 human endomyocardial biopsies were analyzed for the expression of EMMPRIN and CyPA and correlated with histological and immunohistological findings. Endomyocardial biopsies were stained for EMMPRIN and CyPA in addition to standard histology (HE, Trichrom) and immunohistological stainings (MHC-II, CD68, CD3). 39 (38.2%) biopsies met the immunohistological criteria of an inflammatory cardiomyopathy. EMMPRIN, which was predominantly expressed on cardiomyocytes, was slightly (but significantly) upregulated in non inflammatory cardiomyopathies compared to normal histopathological findings and highly upregulated in inflammatory cardiomyopathy compared to both non inflammatory cardiomyopathy and normal histopathology. In contrast, CyPA reveals no enhanced expression in non inflammatory cardiomyopathies and a highly enhanced expression in inflammatory cardiomyopathy, where it is closely associated with leucocytes infiltrates. We found a strong correlation between both EMMPRIN and CyPA with the expression of MHC-II molecules (correlation coefficient 0.475 and 0.527, pEMMPRIN and CyPA with CD68 (correlation coefficient 0.393 and 0.387, pEMMPRIN is enhanced in both inflammatory and non inflammatory cardiomyopathies and can serve as a marker of myocardial remodeling. CyPA may represent a novel and specific marker for cardiac inflammation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of serum amyloid A and C-reactive protein as diagnostic markers of systemic inflammation in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michelle Brønniche; Langhorn, Rebecca; Goddard, Amelia

    2014-01-01

    The diagnostic performance of canine serum amyloid A (SAA) was compared with that of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the detection of systemic inflammation in dogs. Sera from 500 dogs were retrospectively included in the study. C-reactive protein and SAA were measured using validated automated assays....... The overlap performance, clinical decision limits, overall diagnostic performance, correlations, and agreement in the clinical classification between these 2 diagnostic markers were compared. Significantly higher concentrations of both proteins were detected in dogs with systemic inflammation (SAA range: 48.......75 to > 2700 mg/L; CRP range: 0.4 to 907.4 mg/L) compared to dogs without systemic inflammation (SAA range: 1.06 to 56.4 mg/L; CRP range: 0.07 to 24.7 mg/L). Both proteins were shown to be sensitive and specific markers of systemic inflammation in dogs. Significant correlations and excellent diagnostic...

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features as Surrogate Markers of X-Linked Hypophosphatemic Rickets Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempicki, Marta; Rothenbuhler, Anya; Merzoug, Valérie; Franchi-Abella, Stéphanie; Chaussain, Catherine; Adamsbaum, Catherine; Linglart, Agnès

    2017-01-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) is the most common form of inheritable rickets. Rickets treatment is monitored by assessing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, clinical features, and radiographs. Our objectives were to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of XLH and to assess correlations with disease activity. Twenty-seven XLH patients (median age 9.2 years) were included in this prospective single-center observational study. XLH activity was assessed using height, leg bowing, dental abscess history, and serum ALP levels. We looked for correlations between MRI features and markers of disease activity. On MRI, the median maximum width of the physis was 5.6 mm (range 4.8-7.8; normal 1.5 mm in all of the patients. The appearance of the zone of provisional calcification was abnormal on 21 MRI images (78%), Harris lines were present on 24 (89%), and bone marrow signal abnormalities were present on 16 (59%). ALP levels correlated with the maximum physeal widening and with the transverse extent of the widening. MRI of the knee provides precise rickets patterns that are correlated with ALP, an established biochemical marker of the disease, avoiding X-ray exposure and providing surrogate quantitative markers of disease activity. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. The Y4-RNA fragment, a potential diagnostic marker, exists in saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Ishikawa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The 94-nt full-length Y4-RNA is thought to have roles in the initiation of DNA replication and RNA quality control. Although its 31/32-nt fragment also exists abundantly in plasma, little is known about its physiological role. Since the 31/32-nt Y4-RNA fragment in sera is reported to be more abundant in patients with coronary artery disease than healthy persons, the fragment may have a potential for a diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarker for some diseases regardless of its functionality. As a step toward further investigation of its potential utility, we examined if the 31/32-nt Y4-RNA fragment also exists in saliva that can be obtained noninvasively, and showed that, in addition to the 31/32-nt fragment, 14- and 11-nt Y4-RNA fragments are present in all saliva RNA samples from four healthy persons. We established a PCR method to accurately quantitate the amount of the 31/32-nt Y4-RNA fragment, and estimated its amount in saliva of healthy persons to be 0.06 ± 0.04 fmol per nanogram of saliva RNA. We also tried to develop an easier quantitation method using a DNA molecular beacon. Keywords: Y4-RNA fragment, Saliva RNA, Diagnostic/prognostic marker, Next-generation sequencing, RT-PCR, Molecular beacon

  4. Assessment of diagnostic value of tumor markers for colorectal neoplasm by logistic regression and ROC curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, G.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To assess the diagnostic value of CEA CA199 and CA50 for colorectal neoplasm by logistic regression and ROC curve. Methods: The subjects include 75 patients of colorectal cancer, 35 patients of benign intestinal disease and 49 health controls. CEA CA199 and CA50 are measured by CLIA ECLIA and IRMA respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) of CEA CA 199 CA50 and logistic regression results are compared. [Result] In the cancer-benign group, the AUC of CA50 is larger than the AUC of CA199 Compared with the AUC of combination of CEA CA199 and CA50 (0.604),the AUC of combination of CEA and CA50 (0.875) is larger and it is also larger than any other AUC of CEA CA199 or CA50 alone. In the cancerhealth group, the AUC of combination of CEA CA199 and CA50 is larger than any other AUC of CEA CA199 or CA50 alone. No matter in the cancer-benign group or cancerhealth group. The AUC of CEA is larger than the AUC of CA199 or CA50. Conclusion: CEA is useful in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. In the process of differential diagnosis, the combination of CEA and CA50 can give more information, while the combination of three tumor markers does not perform well. Furthermore, as a statistical method, logistic regression can improve the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. (author)

  5. SHOX2 gene methylation as a diagnostic marker of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konecny, M.; Markus, J.; Dolesova, L.; Waczulikova, I.; Majer, I.; Novosadova, H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In the actual study we have detected in the group of patients with mailgnant and also non-malignant disease the presence of DNA methylation of SHOX2 gene. The basic aim was to evaluate the reliability of detection of SHOX2 methylation in blood plasma as a potential alternative to used bronchial lavage. Further, we also determine the correlation of test results with samples of lavage and blood plasma. Materials and methods: The specimens were achieved of each patient from bronchial lavage and also peripheral blood and from january to december 2014 we analysed 69 parallel samples. DNA from bronchial lavage was purified with commercial kit Epi pro Lung BL DNA preparation kit (Epigenomics) and samples from peripheral blood using Epi pro Colon Plasma Quick kit (Epigenomics). Quantitative PCR analysis was accomplished using Epi pro Lung BL real-time PCR kit (Epigenomics) on the ABI 7500 Fast real-time PCR instrument (Life Technologies). Methylation results were performed with ΔΔCT method. Statistical characteristics of patients and other clinical data we analysed by methods of bi variant and descriptive statistics, like hood ratio by Cohen kappa and significance of observed differences by Maxwell and McNemar chi-quadrant test. Results: Altogether we analysed 69 parallel samples and methylation of SHOX2 gene was identified in 63,8% of samples. Overall the methylation was detected in 31 out of 37 lavage and 20 out of 31 blood samples. Diagnostic performance of the model with bio marker of SHOX2 methylation in lavage samples was determined at the level of 89,19% sensitivity and 84,62% specificity, on the other hand model with bio marker of SHOX2 methylation in plasma samples showed 80,65% sensitivity and 78,57% specificity. Conclusion: Generally, we established that methylation analysis of SHOX2 gene in bronchial lavage samples represents a reliable test, which may be used as an additional marker in the lung cancer diagnostics. Test of blood plasma features

  6. Resonance broadening of Hg lines as a density diagnostic in high intensity discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawler, J E

    2004-01-01

    The use of width measurements on resonance broadened lines of Hg as a density diagnostic in high intensity discharge (HID) lamps is reviewed and further developed in this paper. Optical depths of Hg I lines at 491.6 nm, 577.0 nm, and 1014 nm are computed as a function of temperature to confirm that these lines are optically thin in most HID lamps. The effect of quadratic and quartic radial temperature variation on the width of resonance broadened lines is computed for arc core temperatures from 4000 K to 7000 K. Such variations in temperature, and inverse variations in Hg density, are found to increase the line widths by less than 10% for 'side-on' emission measurements averaged over the arc radius. Theoretical profiles of resonance broadened spectral lines, both radially averaged and as a function of chord offset, are presented. Observations of resonance broadened lines in a metal-halide HID lamp are presented and analysed. It is concluded that the widths of resonance broadened lines provide a convenient and reliable diagnostic for the arc core Hg density but are generally not very sensitive to the radial temperature and Hg density gradient

  7. Diagnostic and Prognostic Utility of the Synaptic Marker Neurogranin in Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarawneh, Rawan; D’Angelo, Gina; Crimmins, Dan; Herries, Elizabeth; Griest, Terry; Fagan, Anne M.; Zipfel, Gregory J.; Ladenson, Jack H.; Morris, John C.; Holtzman, David M.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Synaptic loss is an early pathologic substrate of Alzheimer disease (AD). Neurogranin is a postsynaptic neuronal protein that has demonstrated utility as a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) marker of synaptic loss in AD. OBJECTIVE To investigate the diagnostic and prognostic utility of CSF neurogranin levels in a large, well-characterized cohort of individuals with symptomatic AD and cognitively normal controls. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A cross-sectional and longitudinal observational study of cognitive decline in patients with symptomatic AD and cognitively normal controls was performed. Participants were individuals with a clinical diagnosis of early symptomatic AD and cognitively normal controls who were enrolled in longitudinal studies of aging and dementia at the Charles F. and Joanne Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center, Washington University School of Medicine, from January 21, 2000, through March 21, 2011. Data analysis was performed from November 1, 2013, to March 31, 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Correlations between baseline CSF biomarker levels and future cognitive decline in patients with symptomatic AD and cognitively normal controls overtime. RESULTS A total of 302 individuals (mean [SE] age, 73.1 [0.4] years) were included in this study (95 patients [52 women and 43 men] with AD and 207 controls [125 women and 82 men]). The CSF neurogranin levels differentiated patients with early symptomatic AD from controls with comparable diagnostic utility (mean [SE] area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.71 [0.03]; 95% CI, 0.64–0.77) to the other CSF biomarkers. The CSF neurogranin levels correlated with brain atrophy (normalized whole-brain volumes: adjusted r = −0.38, P = .02; hippocampal volumes: adjusted r = −0.36, P = .03; entorhinal volumes: adjusted r = −0.46, P = .006; and parahippocampal volumes: adjusted r = −0.47, P = .005, n = 38) in AD and with amyloid load (r = 0.39, P = .02, n = 36) in preclinical

  8. Effect of Gold Marker Seeds on Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Murshed, E-mail: Murshed.Hossain@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Schirmer, Timo [Global MR Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Munich (Germany); Richardson, Theresa; Chen, Lili; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Ma Changming [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance stereoscopic imaging (MRSI) of the prostate is an emerging technique that may enhance targeting and assessment in radiotherapy. Current practices in radiotherapy invariably involve image guidance. Gold seed fiducial markers are often used to perform daily prostate localization. If MRSI is to be used in targeting prostate cancer and therapy assessment, the impact of gold seeds on MRSI must be investigated. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of gold seeds on the quality of MRSI data acquired in phantom experiments. Methods and Materials: A cylindrical plastic phantom with a spherical cavity 10 centimeters in diameter wss filled with water solution containing choline, creatine, and citrate. A gold seed fiducial marker was put near the center of the phantom mounted on a plastic stem. Spectra were acquired at 1.5 Tesla by use of a clinical MRSI sequence. The ratios of choline + creatine to citrate (CC/Ci) were compared in the presence and absence of gold seeds. Spectra in the vicinity of the gold seed were analyzed. Results: The maximum coefficient of variation of CC/Ci induced by the gold seed was found to be 10% in phantom experiments at 1.5 T. Conclusion: MRSI can be used in prostate radiotherapy in the presence of gold seed markers. Gold seeds cause small effects (in the order of the standard deviation) on the ratio of the metabolite's CC/Ci in the phantom study done on a 1.5-T scanner. It is expected that gold seed markers will have similar negligible effect on spectra from prostate patients. The maximum of 10% of variation in CC/Ci found in the phantom study also sets a limit on the threshold accuracy of CC/Ci values for deciding whether the tissue characterized by a local spectrum is considered malignant and whether it is a candidate for local boost in radiotherapy dose.

  9. Effect of Gold Marker Seeds on Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Murshed; Schirmer, Timo; Richardson, Theresa; Chen, Lili; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Ma Changming

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance stereoscopic imaging (MRSI) of the prostate is an emerging technique that may enhance targeting and assessment in radiotherapy. Current practices in radiotherapy invariably involve image guidance. Gold seed fiducial markers are often used to perform daily prostate localization. If MRSI is to be used in targeting prostate cancer and therapy assessment, the impact of gold seeds on MRSI must be investigated. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of gold seeds on the quality of MRSI data acquired in phantom experiments. Methods and Materials: A cylindrical plastic phantom with a spherical cavity 10 centimeters in diameter wss filled with water solution containing choline, creatine, and citrate. A gold seed fiducial marker was put near the center of the phantom mounted on a plastic stem. Spectra were acquired at 1.5 Tesla by use of a clinical MRSI sequence. The ratios of choline + creatine to citrate (CC/Ci) were compared in the presence and absence of gold seeds. Spectra in the vicinity of the gold seed were analyzed. Results: The maximum coefficient of variation of CC/Ci induced by the gold seed was found to be 10% in phantom experiments at 1.5 T. Conclusion: MRSI can be used in prostate radiotherapy in the presence of gold seed markers. Gold seeds cause small effects (in the order of the standard deviation) on the ratio of the metabolite's CC/Ci in the phantom study done on a 1.5-T scanner. It is expected that gold seed markers will have similar negligible effect on spectra from prostate patients. The maximum of 10% of variation in CC/Ci found in the phantom study also sets a limit on the threshold accuracy of CC/Ci values for deciding whether the tissue characterized by a local spectrum is considered malignant and whether it is a candidate for local boost in radiotherapy dose.

  10. Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    Dry erase whiteboards come with toxic dry erase markers and toxic cleaning products. Dry erase markers labeled "nontoxic" are not free of toxic chemicals and can cause health problems. Children are especially vulnerable to environmental health hazards; moreover, schools commonly have problems with indoor air pollution, as they are more densely…

  11. The diagnostic accuracy of acetabular labral tears using magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance arthrography: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Toby O. [University of East Anglia, Faculty of Health, Queen' s Building, Norwich (United Kingdom); Hilton, Gemma [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Norwich (United Kingdom); Toms, Andoni P.; Donell, Simon T. [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, University of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom); Hing, Caroline B. [St. George' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) have been advocated for the diagnosis of acetabular labral tears. The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of MRI and MRA in diagnosing acetabular labral tears using meta-analysis. Pertinent published and unpublished literature databases were reviewed. A two-by-two table was constructed to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of MRI or MRA investigations against surgical outcomes. Pooled sensitivity and specificity and Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC) evaluations were performed. Methodological quality of each study was assessed using the QUADAS (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies) tool. Nineteen papers assessing 881 hips were reviewed. Conventional MRI was assessed in 13 studies and MRA was assessed in 16 studies. Whilst both MRI (0.5-3T) and MRA (0.5-3T) presented with a moderate sensitivity and specificity (sensitivity 66%, 87%; specificity 79%, 64%), diagnostic accuracy of MRA appeared to be superior to MRI in detecting acetabular labral tears on ROC curve interpretation. The literature poorly described population characteristics, assessor blinding, with limited sample sizes. MRI and MRA may be useful adjuncts in the diagnosis of acetabular labral tears in adults. MRA appears to be superior to conventional MRI. (orig.)

  12. Application of support vector machine model for enhancing the diagnostic value of tumor markers in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hui; Huang Gang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the early diagnostic value of tumor markers for gastric cancer using support vector machine (SVM) model. Methods: Subjects involved in the study consisted of 262 cases with gastric cancer, 156 cases with benign gastric diseases and 149 healthy controls. From those subjects, five tumor markers, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate (CA) 125, CA19-9, alphafetoprotein (AFP) and CA50, were assayed and collected to make the datasets. To modify SVM model to fit the diagnostic classifiers, radial basis function was adopted and kernel function was optimized and validated by grid search and cross validation. For comparative study, methods of combination tests of five markers, Logistic regression, and decision tree were also used. Results: For gastric cancer, the diagnostic accuracy of the combination tests, Logistic regression, decision tree and SVM model were 46.2%, 64.5%, 63.9% and 95.1% respectively. SVM model significantly elevated the diagnostic value comparing with other three methods. Conclusion: The application of SVM model is of high value in enhancing the tumor marker for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. (authors)

  13. Clinical diagnostic criteria of multiple sclerosis: the role of magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belair, M.; Girard, M.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this article is to summarize the diagnostic criteria recommended by the International Panel on the Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis in 2001. The recommendations of another working group, the Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers Consensus Meeting, which met in Vancouver in 2001, concerning the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with multiple sclerosis are also presented in an effort to standardize the protocols for magnetic resonance imaging of these patients. (author)

  14. [Molecular markers of Alzheimer disease early diagnostic: investigation perspectives of peripheral tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltsev, M A; Zuev, V A; Kozhevnikova, E O; Linkova, N S; Kvetnaia, T V; Polyakova, V O; Kvetnoy, I M

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of elderly and old age people. For intravital diagnosis of the expression of signaling molecules - AD markers, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral tissues are used: lymphocytes and blood platelets, buccal and olfactory epithelium, skin fibroblasts. There are several changes in the production of hyper phosphorylated form of τ-protein, BACE1 and peptide Аβ42 in CSF in case of AD, but CSF taking may have a number of side effects. Less traumatic taking of sampling tissues for the diagnosis of AD is in use of epithelium biopsy and blood portion. An increase in the expression of the hyper phosphorylated form of τ-protein is shown in blood lymphocytes of AD patients. An increase in the content of high molecular weight forms of phosphorylated t-protein and amyloid precursor protein-APP was also revealed in blood platelets of AD patients. Changes in the amount of 2 miRNA families - miR-132 family and miR-134 family were revealed in blood cells 1-5 years before the manifestation of clinical signs of AD. An increase in the concentration of bound calcium, synthesis of peptides Aβ40 and Aβ42, τ protein was observed in AD skin fibroblasts. In the olfactory and buccal epithelium an increase in the expression of hyper phosphorylated form of τ-protein and Aβ peptide was detected in patients with AD. Verification of AD markers in peripheral tissues for biopsy have the important significant for life diagnostics, prevention and and target AD treatment.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy- emerging trends in medical diagnostics and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, Sudha

    1997-01-01

    A dramatic acceleration in the application of magnetic resonance techniques in the field of medical sciences has been witnessed over the past decade. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been called the most significant development since the discovery of x-rays. As a method of visualizing cross-sectional anatomy, MRI is without peer. MRI images can now provide in-vivo anatomical details that were earlier available only with invasive procedures. Yet, despite its extraordinary potential, MRI has had limited success, if any, in tissue characterization using the three image parameters T 1 , T 2 and proton density ρ. MR spectroscopy has however bridged this gap to a large extent and opened up the possibility of studying in vivo chemistry. In the present article an attempt has been made to give a brief account of the application of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy in medical diagnostics and therapy. The basic principles pertaining to MRI and MRS are also discussed in brief. (author)

  16. Quantification of the 3D relative movement of external marker sets vs. bones based on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeux, M; Marin, F; Charleux, F; Dürselen, L; Ho Ba Tho, M C

    2006-11-01

    Most in vivo knee kinematic analyses are based on external markers attached to the shank and the thigh. Literature data show that markers positioning and soft tissues artifacts affect the kinematic parameters of the bones true movement. Most of the techniques of quantification used were invasive. The aim of the present study was to develop and apply a non-invasive methodology to compute the relative movement between the bones and the markers. Magnetic resonance imaging acquisitions were performed on the right knee of eleven volunteers without knee injury. The subjects were equipped with external magnetic resonance imaging-compatible marker sets. A foot drive device allowed the subjects to perform an actively loaded knee extension. The whole volume of the subject's knee was processed for four sequentially held knee flexion positions during the knee movement. The bones and external marker sets geometry were reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging images. Then a registration algorithm was applied to the bones and the relative movement of the thigh and shank marker sets with respect to their underlying bones was computed. The protocol resulted in a good geometrical accuracy and reproducibility. Marker sets movement differ from that of the bones with a maximum of 22 mm in translation and 15 degrees in rotation and it affects the knee kinematics. Marker sets relative movement modify the knee movement finite helical axes direction (range 10-35 degrees ) and localization (range 0-40 mm). The methodology developed can evaluate external marker set system to be used for kinematic analysis in a clinical environment.

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid adenosine deaminase levels as a diagnostic marker in tuberculous meningitis in adult Nepalese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Chander

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF adenosine deaminase (ADA levels in tuberculous meningitis (TBM and non-TBM -viral meningitis cases and to determine its diagnostic significance as a biochemical marker of TBM infection.Methods: The study population comprised two different patient groups. TBM - group I - 28 cases and non-TBM-viral meningitis - 22 cases. These were enrolled consecutively in the study and CSF specimens were collected from them. ADA estimation was carried out by spectrophotometry.Results: ADA levels (mean依 SD in the TBM and non-TBM groups were 16.46依6.24 U/L and 5.13依2.96 U/L, respectively (highly significant P10 IU/L, the test showed a good sensitivity of 82.14% (95% CI 64.41-92.12 and a high specificity of 90.91% (95% CI 72.19-97.47. Positive and negative predictive value and positive and negative likelihood ratios and accuracy of the test in TBM cases were 92% (95% CI 75.03-97.77, 80% (95% CI 60.86-91.13, 9.03 (95% CI 2.38- 34.25, 0.19 (95% CI 0.09-0.44 and 86%, respectively.Conclusion: CSF ADA levels are elevated in the TBM cases as compared to the non-TBM - viral meningitis cases with a good sensitivity and a high specificity. It is a simple and inexpensive diagnostic adjunctive test in the rapid and early diagnosis of TBM.

  18. Innovative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Markers of Hereditary Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koemans, Emma A; van Etten, Ellis S; van Opstal, Anna M; Labadie, Gerda; Terwindt, Gisela M; Wermer, Marieke J H; Webb, Andrew G; Gurol, Edip M; Greenberg, Steven M; van Buchem, Mark A; van der Grond, Jeroen; van Rooden, Sanneke

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore whether using 7 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging, additional brain changes can be observed in hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type (HCHWA-D) patients as compared with the established magnetic resonance imaging features of sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy. The local institutional review board approved this prospective cohort study. In all cases, informed consent was obtained. This prospective parallel cohort study was conducted between 2012 and 2014. We performed T 2 *-weighted magnetic resonance imaging performed at 7 Tesla in presymptomatic mutation carriers (n=11, mean age 35±12 years), symptomatic HCHWA-D patients (n=15, mean age 45±14 years), and in control subjects (n=29, mean age 45±14 years). Images were analyzed for the presence of changes that have not been reported before in sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy and HCHWA-D. Innovative observations comprised intragyral hemorrhaging and cortical changes. The presence of these changes was systematically assessed in all participants of the study. Symptomatic HCHWA-D-patients had a higher incidence of intragyral hemorrhage (47% [7/15], controls 0% [0/29], P <0.001), and a higher incidence of specific cortical changes (40% [6/15] versus 0% [0/29], P <0.005). In presymptomatic HCHWA-D-mutation carriers, the prevalence of none of these markers was increased compared with control subjects. The presence of cortical changes and intragyral hemorrhage are imaging features of HCHWA-D that may help recognizing sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy in living patients. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. ATF1 and RAS in exosomes are potential clinical diagnostic markers for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanhua; Wang, Wei; Yang, Baozhi; Tian, Hongge

    2017-10-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide. It is highly lethal yet can be treated when found in early stage. Thus, early detection is of significant important for early diagnosis of cervical cancer. Exosomes have been used as biomarkers in clinical diagnosis. It is unknown that whether blood exosomes associated with cervical cancer can be detected and if these exosomes can accurately represent the developmental stage of cervical cancer. Mouse models were made out of a relapsed cervical cancer patient's tumour sample for original and recurrent cervical cancer, and gene analysis in both tumours and exosomes in these mouse models were performed. We found that activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) and RAS genes were significantly up-regulated in tumours of both primary and recurrent cervical cancer mouse model, and they can also be detected in the blood exosomes of the mouse model. Our results indicated that ATF1 and RAS could be potential candidate biomarkers for cervical cancer in early diagnosis. ATF1 and RAS genes were found significantly elevated in tumours of primary and recurrent cervical cancer mouse model, and they were also detected in the blood exosomes. Therefore, ATF1 and RAS could be used as a diagnostic marker for cervical cancer in the future. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. CRX is a diagnostic marker of retinal and pineal lineage tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Santagata

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available CRX is a homeobox transcription factor whose expression and function is critical to maintain retinal and pineal lineage cells and their progenitors. To determine the biologic and diagnostic potential of CRX in human tumors of the retina and pineal, we examined its expression in multiple settings.Using situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we show that Crx RNA and protein expression are exquisitely lineage restricted to retinal and pineal cells during normal mouse and human development. Gene expression profiling analysis of a wide range of human cancers and cancer cell lines also supports that CRX RNA is highly lineage restricted in cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of 22 retinoblastomas and 13 pineal parenchymal tumors demonstrated strong expression of CRX in over 95% of these tumors. Importantly, CRX was not detected in the majority of tumors considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumors (n = 78. The notable exception was medulloblastoma, 40% of which exhibited CRX expression in a heterogeneous pattern readily distinguished from that seen in retino-pineal tumors.These findings describe new potential roles for CRX in human cancers and highlight the general utility of lineage restricted transcription factors in cancer biology. They also identify CRX as a sensitive and specific clinical marker and a potential lineage dependent therapeutic target in retinoblastoma and pineoblastoma.

  1. Effect of cyclosporine therapy in transplanted patients-diagnostic values of tubular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Gruev

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of cyclosporine A (CsA into the clinical practice has resulted in a major improvement in the short-term outcomes of solid organ transplantation and treatment of autoimune diseases. Chronic ScA nephrotoxicity has been described in kidneys of recepients of renal and other organ allografts. However, the exact mechanism underlying the development of fibrosis in chronic CsA nephrotoxicity has remained poorly understood. Evaluation with the validation data set showed that noninvasive urine protein differentiation might be a useful diagnostic strategy in nephrology. Over the past decade numerous studies in patients after transplantation have demonstrated that renal tubular cell injury after a toxic insult, results in sloughing of tubular debris and cell into the tubular lumen with eventual obstruction of tubular flow, increased intratubular pressure and backleak of glomerular filtrate out of the tubule. Urinary enzymes and low molecular proteins have been recommended as useful markers for the detection of changes in the kidney tissue in cases after renal transplantation. The aim of our study was to monitor the concentration and eventual nephrotoxic effect of Cyclosporine A using the concentration of low molecular proteins α-1-microglobulin and β−2-microglobulin, serum Cystatin C, as well as the concentration of isoform of GST-α and π.

  2. Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Rodriguez, Maria Teresa

    2007-01-01

    The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular and undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas). The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %), in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %), and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %). No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy. (Author)

  3. Fat infiltration on magnetic resonance imaging of the sacroiliac joints has limited diagnostic utility in nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ulrich; Pedersen, Susanne J; Zubler, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    To explore whether morphological features of fat infiltration (FI) on sacroiliac joint (SIJ) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contribute to diagnostic utility in 2 inception cohorts of patients with nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA).......To explore whether morphological features of fat infiltration (FI) on sacroiliac joint (SIJ) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contribute to diagnostic utility in 2 inception cohorts of patients with nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA)....

  4. Initial experience of using an iron-containing fiducial marker for radiotherapy of prostate cancer: Advantages in the visualization of markers in Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Osamu; Iida, Takayoshi; Komeda, Hisao; Tamaki, Masayoshi; Seike, Kensaku; Kato, Daiki; Yokoyama, Takamasa; Hirose, Shigeki; Kawaguchi, Daisuke

    2016-12-01

    Visualization of markers is critical for imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the size of the marker varies according to the imaging technique. While a large-sized marker is more useful for visualization in MRI, it results in artifacts on CT and causes substantial pain on administration. In contrast, a small-sized marker reduces the artifacts on CT but hampers MRI detection. Herein, we report a new ironcontaining marker and compare its utility with that of non-iron-containing markers. Five patients underwent CT/MRI fusion-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and the markers were placed by urologists. A Gold Anchor™ (GA; diameter, 0.28 mm; length, 10 mm) was placed using a 22G needle on the right side of the prostate. A VISICOIL™ (VIS; diameter, 0.35 mm; length, 10 mm) was placed using a 19G needle on the left side. MRI was performed using T2*-weighted imaging. Three observers evaluated and scored the visual qualities of the acquired images. The mean score of visualization was almost identical between the GA and VIS in radiography and cone-beam CT (Novalis Tx). The artifacts in planning CT were slightly larger using the GA than using the VIS. The visualization of the marker on MRI using the GA was superior to that using the VIS. In conclusion, the visualization quality of radiography, conebeam CT, and planning CT was roughly equal between the GA and VIS. However, the GA was more strongly visualized than was the VIS on MRI due to iron containing.

  5. Nuclear Species-Diagnostic SNP Markers Mined from 454 Amplicon Sequencing Reveal Admixture Genomic Structure of Modern Citrus Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Most cultivated Citrus species originated from interspecific hybridisation between four ancestral taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, and C. micrantha) with limited further interspecific recombination due to vegetative propagation. This evolution resulted in admixture genomes with frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Moreover, a major part of the phenotypic diversity of edible citrus results from the initial differentiation between these taxa. Deciphering the phylogenomic structure of citrus germplasm is therefore essential for an efficient utilization of citrus biodiversity in breeding schemes. The objective of this work was to develop a set of species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the four Citrus ancestral taxa covering the nine chromosomes, and to use these markers to infer the phylogenomic structure of secondary species and modern cultivars. Species-diagnostic SNPs were mined from 454 amplicon sequencing of 57 gene fragments from 26 genotypes of the four basic taxa. Of the 1,053 SNPs mined from 28,507 kb sequence, 273 were found to be highly diagnostic for a single basic taxon. Species-diagnostic SNP markers (105) were used to analyse the admixture structure of varieties and rootstocks. This revealed C. maxima introgressions in most of the old and in all recent selections of mandarins, and suggested that C. reticulata × C. maxima reticulation and introgression processes were important in edible mandarin domestication. The large range of phylogenomic constitutions between C. reticulata and C. maxima revealed in mandarins, tangelos, tangors, sweet oranges, sour oranges, grapefruits, and orangelos is favourable for genetic association studies based on phylogenomic structures of the germplasm. Inferred admixture structures were in agreement with previous hypotheses regarding the origin of several secondary species and also revealed the probable origin of several acid citrus varieties. The developed species-diagnostic SNP

  6. Magnetic resonance colonography versus colonoscopy as a diagnostic investigation for colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purkayastha, S.; Tekkis, P.P.; Athanasiou, T.; Aziz, O.; Negus, R.; Gedroyc, W.; Darzi, A.W.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: Magnetic resonance colonography (MRC) is emerging as a potential complementary investigation for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and also for benign pathology such as diverticular disease. A meta-analysis reporting the use of MRC is yet to be performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MRC compared with the gold-standard investigation, conventional colonoscopy (CC). METHODS: A literature search was carried out to identify studies containing comparative data between MRC findings and CC findings. Quantitative meta-analysis for diagnostic tests was performed, which included the calculation of independent sensitivities, specificities, diagnostic odds ratios, the construction of summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves, pooled analysis and sensitivity analysis. The study heterogeneity was evaluated by the Q-test using a random-effect model to accommodate the cluster of outcomes between individual studies. RESULTS: In all, 8 comparative studies were identified, involving 563 patients. The calculated pooled sensitivity for all lesions was 75% (95% CI: 47% to 91%), the specificity was 96% (95% CI: 86% to 98%) and the area under the ROC curve was 90% (weighted). On sensitivity analysis, MRC had a better diagnostic accuracy for CRC than for polyps, with a sensitivity of 91% (95% CI: 97% to 91%), a specificity of 98% (95% CI: 66% to 99%) and an area under the ROC curve of 92%. There was no significant heterogeneity between the studies with regard to the diagnostic accuracy of MRC for CRC. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggests that MRC is an imaging technique with high discrimination for cases presenting with colorectal cancer. The exact diagnostic role of MRC needs to be clarified (e.g. suitable for an elderly person with suspected CRC). Further evaluation is necessary to refine its applicability and diagnostic accuracy in comparison with other imaging methods such as computed tomography colonography

  7. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the truncus pulmonalis. Principles of magnetic resonance flux measurements for pulmonal hypertension diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abolmaali, N.

    2006-01-01

    This book gives a detailed introduction into the use of magnetic resonance flux measurements for the examination of pulmonal circulation. It presents the results of phantom experiments and evaluates and verifies sequence techniques optimised for the examination of the pulmonary circulation. This is followed by a description of an elegant experimental design for the quantification of pulmonal hypertension which is unique in its kind. The model can predict the consequences of acute, resistance-related pulmonal hypertension in a reproducible and reversible manner. It thus provides a means of evaluating pulmonal applications of magnetic resonance imaging. The idea for these studies and its implementation are an outstanding example of teamwork and interdisciplinary cooperation. Applying the results to the patient after the statistical analysis is only a small step. The book presents the results of extensive normal value studies which will make it possible to use the measurement technology in paediatric cardiology. Its range of application also includes congenital heart defects, especially ventricular septal defects and primary as well as secondary forms of pulmonal hypertension. It is not only suitable for primary diagnostics but also for post-treatment follow-up and assessment of patients' progress

  8. Advances in the Genetic Characterization of Cutaneous Mesenchymal Neoplasms: Implications for Tumor Classification and Novel Diagnostic Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Leigh A; Doyle, Leona A

    2017-06-01

    Cutaneous mesenchymal neoplasms often pose significant diagnostic challenges; many such entities are rare or show clinical and histologic overlap with both other mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal lesions. Recent advances in the genetic classification of many cutaneous mesenchymal neoplasms have not only helped define unique pathologic entities and increase our understanding of their biology, but have also provided new diagnostic markers. This review details these recent discoveries, with a focus on their implications for tumor classification and diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantification of Circulating Free DNA as a Diagnostic Marker in Gall Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Swati; Tewari, Shikha; Husain, Nuzhat; Agarwal, Akash; Pandey, Anshuman; Singhal, Ashish; Lohani, Mohtashim

    2017-01-01

    Gall bladder Carcinoma (GBC) is the fifth most common cancer of the digestive tract and frequently diagnosed in late stage of disease. Estimation of circulating free DNA (cfDNA) in serum has been applied as a "liquid biopsy" in several deep seated malignancies. Its value in diagnosis of gall bladder carcinoma has not been studied. The present study was designed to assess the role of cfDNA in the diagnosis of GBC and correlate levels with the TNM stage. Serum was collected from 34 patients with GBC and 39 age and sex matched controls including 22 cholecystitis and 17 healthy individuals. Serum cfDNA levels were measured through quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) by amplification of β-globin gene. Performance of the assay was calculated through the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The cfDNA level was significantly lower in healthy controls and cholecystitis (89.32 ± 59.76 ng/ml, 174.21 ± 99.93 ng/ml) compared to GBC (1245.91 ± 892.46 ng/ml, p = <0.001). The cfDNA level was significantly associated with TNM stage, lymph node involvement and jaundice (0.002, 0.027, and 0.041, respectively). Area under curve of ROC analysis for cancer group versus healthy and cholecystitis group was 1.00 and 0.983 with sensitivity of 100 %, 88.24 % and specificity of 100 % respectively. Quantitative analysis of cfDNA may distinguish cholecystitis and gall bladder carcinoma and may serve as new diagnostic, noninvasive marker adjunct to imaging for the diagnosis of GBC.

  10. Diagnostic yield of lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging requested by paediatric urology consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ibieta, M; Rojas Ticona, J; Villamil, V; Guirao Piñera, M J; López García, A; Zambudio Carmona, G

    2017-11-01

    In the historical series, the diagnostic yield of lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging to rule out occult spinal dysraphism (or occult myelodysplasia), requested by paediatric urology, ranged from 2% to 15%. The aim of this study was to define our cost-effectiveness in children with urinary symptoms and to define endpoints that increase the possibility of finding occult spinal dysraphism. A screening was conducted on patients with urinary dysfunction for whom an magnetic resonance imaging was requested by the paediatric urology clinic, for persistent symptoms after treatment, voiding dysfunction or other clinical or urodynamic findings. We analysed clinical (UTI, daytime leaks, enuresis, voiding dysfunction, urgency, renal ultrasonography, lumbosacral radiography, history of acute urine retention, skin stigma and myalgia) and urodynamic endpoints (hyperactivity or areflexia, voiding dysfunction, interrupted pattern, accommodation value and maximum flow). A univariate analysis was conducted with SPSS 20.0. We analysed 21 patients during the period 2011-2015. The median age was 6 years (3-10). Three patients (14.3%) had occult spinal dysraphism: one spinal lipoma, one filum lipomatosus and one caudal regression syndrome with channel stenosis. The endpoints with statistically significant differences were the myalgias and the history of acute urine retention (66.7% vs. 5.6%, P=.04; OR= 34; 95%CI: 1.5-781 for both endpoints). The diagnostic yield of magnetic resonance imaging requested for children with urinary dysfunctions without skin stigma or neuro-orthopaedic abnormalities is low, although nonnegligible. In this group, the patients with a history of acute urine retention and muscle pain (pain, «cramps») can experience a greater diagnostic yield or positive predictive value. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging in local staging of endometrial carcinoma: diagnostic performance, pitfalls, and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandrino, Franco; La Paglia, Ernesto; Musante, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in local staging of endometrial carcinoma, and to review the results and pitfalls described in the literature. Thirty women with a histological diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Unenhanced T2-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced Ti-weighted sequences were obtained. Hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy was performed in all patients. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy were calculated for the detection of deep myometrial and cervical infiltration. For deep myometrial infiltration T2-weighted sequences reached a sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 76%, PPV of 73%, NVP of 87%, and accuracy of 80%, while contrast-enhanced scans reached a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 80%, PPV of 82%, NPV of 89%, and accuracy of 85%. For cervical infiltration T2-weighted sequences reached a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 88%, PPV of 50%, NPV of 96%, and accuracy of 87%, while contrast-enhanced scans reached a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 94%, PPV of 75%, NPV of 100%, and accuracy of 95%. Unenhanced and dynamic gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance allows accurate assessment of myometrial and cervical infiltration. Information provided by magnetic resonance imaging can define prognosis and management.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of the shoulder: a review of potential sources of diagnostic errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, K.W.; Helms, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Shoulder magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR arthrography are frequently utilized in the evaluation of shoulder pain and instability. The clinical scenario and imaging findings may be confusing to clinicians and radiologists and may present diagnostic challenges for those involved in evaluating and treating shoulder pathology. Often rotator cuff and labral abnormalities may be coexistent, clinical manifestations of denervation syndromes may be confusing to clinicians, and normal anatomic variations, imaging pitfalls, and various artifacts may cause dilemmas for the radiologist. This article will review the most frequently encountered mimickers and pitfalls of MR imaging of the shoulder. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of Fibroblast Activation Protein-Alpha (FAP) as a Diagnostic Marker and Therapeutic Target in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    low molecular weight recombinant human gelatin: development of a substitute for animal- derived gelatin with superior features, Protein Expr. Purif...by the honey - bee , could be modified to a form that was no longer hydro- lyzed by the native activator protease DPP4 but, instead, was hydrolyzed by...TITLE: Evaluation of Fibroblast Activation Protein -Alpha (FAP) as a Diagnostic Marker and Therapeutic Target in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL

  14. Identifying Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) and Developing Diagnostic Markers Linked to Orange Rust Resistance in Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiping; Islam, Md S; Sood, Sushma; Maya, Stephanie; Hanson, Erik A; Comstock, Jack; Wang, Jianping

    2018-01-01

    Sugarcane ( Saccharum spp.) is an important economic crop, contributing up to 80% of table sugar used in the world and has become a promising feedstock for biofuel production. Sugarcane production has been threatened by many diseases, and fungicide applications for disease control have been opted out for sustainable agriculture. Orange rust is one of the major diseases impacting sugarcane production worldwide. Identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and developing diagnostic markers are valuable for breeding programs to expedite release of superior sugarcane cultivars for disease control. In this study, an F 1 segregating population derived from a cross between two hybrid sugarcane clones, CP95-1039 and CP88-1762, was evaluated for orange rust resistance in replicated trails. Three QTLs controlling orange rust resistance in sugarcane (qORR109, qORR4 and qORR102) were identified for the first time ever, which can explain 58, 12 and 8% of the phenotypic variation, separately. We also characterized 1,574 sugarcane putative resistance ( R ) genes. These sugarcane putative R genes and simple sequence repeats in the QTL intervals were further used to develop diagnostic markers for marker-assisted selection of orange rust resistance. A PCR-based Resistance gene-derived maker, G1 was developed, which showed significant association with orange rust resistance. The putative QTLs and marker developed in this study can be effectively utilized in sugarcane breeding programs to facilitate the selection process, thus contributing to the sustainable agriculture for orange rust disease control.

  15. Diagnostic value of stool DNA testing for multiple markers of colorectal cancer and advanced adenoma: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Xia, Bing-Qing; Jiang, Bo; Wang, Guozhen; Yang, Yi-Peng; Chen, Hao; Li, Bing-Sheng; Xu, An-Gao; Huang, Yun-Bo; Wang, Xin-Ying

    2013-08-01

    The diagnostic value of stool DNA (sDNA) testing for colorectal neoplasms remains controversial. To compensate for the lack of large-scale unbiased population studies, a meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of sDNA testing for multiple markers of colorectal cancer (CRC) and advanced adenoma. The PubMed, Science Direct, Biosis Review, Cochrane Library and Embase databases were systematically searched in January 2012 without time restriction. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model using sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic OR (DOR), summary ROC curves, area under the curve (AUC), and 95% CIs as effect measures. Heterogeneity was measured using the χ(2) test and Q statistic; subgroup analysis was also conducted. A total of 20 studies comprising 5876 individuals were eligible. There was no heterogeneity for CRC, but adenoma and advanced adenoma harboured considerable heterogeneity influenced by risk classification and various detection markers. Stratification analysis according to risk classification showed that multiple markers had a high DOR for the high-risk subgroups of both CRC (sensitivity 0.759 [95% CI 0.711 to 0.804]; specificity 0.883 [95% CI 0.846 to 0.913]; AUC 0.906) and advanced adenoma (sensitivity 0.683 [95% CI 0.584 to 0.771]; specificity 0.918 [95% CI 0.866 to 0.954]; AUC 0.946) but not for the average-risk subgroups of either. In the methylation subgroup, sDNA testing had significantly higher DOR for CRC (sensitivity 0.753 [95% CI 0.685 to 0.812]; specificity 0.913 [95% CI 0.860 to 0.950]; AUC 0.918) and advanced adenoma (sensitivity 0.623 [95% CI 0.527 to 0.712]; specificity 0.926 [95% CI 0.882 to 0.958]; AUC 0.910) compared with the mutation subgroup. There was no significant heterogeneity among studies for subgroup analysis. sDNA testing for multiple markers had strong diagnostic significance for CRC and advanced adenoma in high-risk subjects. Methylation makers had more diagnostic value than mutation

  16. Serum levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 as diagnostic markers of acute pyelonephritis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Mahyar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available &lt;b&gt;Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; Early diagnosis and treatment of acute pyelonephritis in children is of special importance in order to prevent serious complications. This study was conducted to determine the diagnostic value of serum interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8 in children with acute pyelonephritis. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/b&gt; Eighty seven patients between 1 month to 12 years old with urinary tract infection (UTI were divided into 2 groups based on the result of 99m-technetium dimercapto-succinic acid (DMSA renal scan: acute pyelonephritis (n=37 and lower UTI (n=50 groups. White blood cell (WBC count, neutrophil (Neutl count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP concentration, platelet count, and serum IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations of both groups were measured and compared . &lt;b&gt;Results:&lt;/b&gt; There was a significant difference between two groups regarding WBC count, Neutl count, ESR, and CRP concentration (P&lt;0.05. In addition, the difference between the two groups regarding serum IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations was not significant (IL-6, 60 and 35.4 pg/mL and IL-8, 404 and 617 pg/mL, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of serum IL-6 and IL-8 for diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis were 73%, 42% and 78%, 32%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values of serum IL-6 and IL-8 were less than those of acute phase serum reactants such as CRP. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/b&gt; This study showed that there was no significant difference between acute pyelonephritis and lower UTI groups regarding serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels. Therefore, despite confirming results of previous studies, it seems that IL-6 and IL-8 are not suitable markers for differentiating between acute pyelonephritis and lower UTI.

  17. Postural orthostatic tachycardia is not a useful diagnostic marker for chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roerink, M E; Lenders, J W M; Schmits, I C; Pistorius, A M A; Smit, J W; Knoop, H; van der Meer, J W M

    2017-02-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is considered a diagnostic marker for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The aims of this study were to (i) compare POTS prevalence in a CFS cohort with fatigued patients not meeting CFS criteria, and (ii) assess activity, impairment and response to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in CFS patients with POTS (POTS-CFS) and without POTS (non-POTS-CFS). Prospective cohort study at the Radboud University Medical Centre in the Netherlands. Between June 2013 and December 2014, 863 consecutive patients with persistent fatigue were screened. Patients underwent an active standing test, filled out questionnaires and wore an activity-sensing device for a period of 12 days. A total of 419 patients with CFS and 341 non-CFS fatigued patients were included in the study. POTS prevalence in adult patients with CFS was 5.7% vs. 6.9% in non-CFS adults (P = 0.54). In adolescents, prevalence rates were 18.2% and 17.4%, respectively (P = 0.93). Adult patients with POTS-CFS were younger (30 ± 12 vs. 40 ± 13 years, P = 0.001) and had a higher supine heart rate (71 ± 11 vs. 65 ± 9 beats per min, P = 0.009) compared with non-POTS-CFS patients. Severity and activity patterns did not differ between groups. In patients with CFS, criteria for Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease (SEID) were met in 76% of adults and 67% of adolescents. In these patients with CFS fulfilling the SEID criteria, the prevalence of POTS was not different from that in the overall CFS population. POTS-CFS adolescents had less clinically significant improvement after CBT than non-POTS-CFS adolescents (58% vs. 88%, P = 0.017). In adults with CFS, the prevalence of POTS was low, was not different from the rate in non-CFS fatigued patients and was not related to disease severity or treatment outcome. In POTS-CFS adolescents, CBT was less successful than in non-POTS-CFS patients. The evaluation of POTS appears to be of limited value for the diagnosis of CFS. © 2016 The

  18. Screening of potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets against colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian XQ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available XiaoQing Tian, DanFeng Sun, ShuLiang Zhao, Hua Xiong, JingYuan Fang Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Digestive Disease, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Objective: To identify genes with aberrant promoter methylation for developing novel diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets against primary colorectal cancer (CRC. Methods: Two paired CRC and adjacent normal tissues were collected from two CRC patients. A Resi: MBD2b protein-sepharose-4B column was used to enrich the methylated DNA fragments. Difference in the average methylation level of each DNA methylation region between the tumor and control samples was determined by log2 fold change (FC in each patient to screen the differentially methylated DNA regions. Genes with log2FC value ≥4 or ≤-4 were identified to be hypermethylated and hypomethylated, respectively. Then, the underlying functions of methylated genes were speculated by Gene Ontology database and pathway enrichment analyses. Furthermore, a protein–protein interaction network was built using Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins database, and the transcription factor binding sites were screened via the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE database. Results: Totally, 2,284 and 1,142 genes were predicted to have aberrant promoter hypermethylation or hypomethylation, respectively. MAP3K5, MAP3K8, MAPK14, and MAPK9 with promoter hypermethylation functioned via MAPK signaling pathway, focal adhesion, or Wnt signaling pathway, whereas MAP2K1, MAPK3, MAPK11, and MAPK7 with promoter hypomethylation functioned via TGF-beta signaling pathway, neurotrophin signaling pathway, and chemokine signaling pathway. CREBBP, PIK3R1, MAPK14, APP, ESR1, MAPK3, and HRAS were the seven hubs in the constructed protein–protein interaction network. RPL22, RPL36, RPLP2, RPS7, and RPS9 were commonly regulated by

  19. Visibility of an iron-containing fiducial marker in magnetic resonance imaging for high-precision external beam prostate radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Osamu; Komeda, Hisao; Hirose, Shigeki; Taniguchi, Takuya; Ono, Kousei; Matsuo, Masayuki

    2017-11-29

    Visualization of fiducial gold markers is critical for registration on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for imaging-guided radiotherapy. Although larger markers provide better visualization on MRI, they tend to generate artifacts on CT. MRI is strongly influenced by the presence of metals, such as iron, in the body. Here we compared efficacies of a 0.5% iron-containing gold marker (GM) and a traditional non-iron-containing marker. Twenty-seven patients underwent CT/MRI fusion-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Markers were placed by urologists under local anesthesia. Gold Anchor (GA; diameter: 0.28 mm; length: 10 mm), an iron-containing marker, was placed on the right side of the prostate using a 22-G needle and VISICOIL (VIS; diameter: 0.35 mm; length: 10 mm), a non-iron-containing marker, was placed on the left side using a 19-G needle. T2*-weighted images MRI sequences were obtained. Two radiation oncologists and a radiation technologist evaluated and assigned scores for visual quality on a five-point scale (1, poor; 5, best visibility). Artifact generation on CT was slightly greater with GA than with VIS. The mean marker visualization scores on MRI of all three observers were significantly superior for GA than for VIS (3.5 vs 3.2, 3.9 vs 3.2, and 4.0 vs 2.9). The actual size of the spherical GA was about 2 mm in diameter, but the signal void on MRI was approximately 5 mm. Although both markers were well visualized and can be recommended clinically, the results suggest that GA has some subtle advantages for quantitative visualization that could prove useful in certain situations of stereotactic body radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Plasma diagnostics using laser-excited coupled and transmission ring resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    In this paper a simple two-level laser model is used to investigate the frequency response of coupled-cavity laser interferometers. It is found that under certain circumstances, often satisfied by molecular gas lasers, the frequency response exhibits a resonant behavior. This behavior severely complicates the interpretation of coupled-cavity laser interferometer measurements of rapidly varying plasmas. To circumvent this limitation a new type of laser interferometer plasma diagnostic with significantly improved time response was developed. In this interferometer the plasma is located in one arm of a transmission ring resonator cavity that is excited by an externally positioned laser. Thus, the laser is decoupled from the interferometer cavity and the time response of the interferometer is then limited by the Q of the ring resonator cavity. This improved time response is acquired without loss of spatial resolution, but requires a more sensitive signal detector since the laser is no longer used as a detector as it is in conventional coupled-cavity laser interferometers. Thus, the new technique incorporates the speed of the Mach--Zender interferometer and the sensitivity of the coupled-cavity laser interferometer. The basic operating principles of this type of interferometer have been verified using a CO 2 laser

  1. Morphological hippocampal markers for automated detection of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment converters in magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Luca; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Pievani, Michela; Reiber, Johan H C; Ganzola, Rossana; Milles, Julien

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the use of hippocampal shape-based markers for automatic detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment converters (MCI-c). Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of 50 AD subjects, 50 age-matched controls, 15 MCI-c, and 15 MCI-non-converters (MCI-nc) were taken. Manual delineations of both hippocampi were obtained from normalized images. Fully automatic shape modeling was used to generate comparable meshes for both structures. Repeated permutation tests, run over a randomly sub-sampled training set (25 controls and 25 ADs), highlighted shape-based markers, mostly located in the CA1 sector, which consistently discriminated ADs and controls. Support vector machines (SVMs) were trained, using markers from either one or both hippocampi, to automatically classify control and AD subjects. Leave-1-out cross-validations over the remaining 25 ADs and 25 controls resulted in an optimal accuracy of 90% (sensitivity 92%), for markers in the left hippocampus. The same morphological markers were used to train SVMs for MCI-c versus MCI-nc classification: markers in the right hippocampus reached an accuracy (and sensitivity) of 80%. Due to the pattern recognition framework, our results statistically represent the expected performances of clinical set-ups, and compare favorably to analyses based on hippocampal volumes.

  2. Diffusion-weighted perinatal postmortem magnetic resonance imaging as a marker of postmortem interval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Child Health, Imaging and Biophysics, London (United Kingdom); Price, Gemma C. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Carmichael, David W. [UCL Institute of Child Health, Imaging and Biophysics, London (United Kingdom); Jones, Rod; Norman, Wendy; Taylor, Andrew M. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Cardiorespiratory Division, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Child Health, Histopathology, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate perinatal body organ apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values at postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR) in order to evaluate postmortem changes. Postmortem diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the thorax and abdomen were performed with diffusion gradient values b = 0, 500, and 1000 s/mm{sup 2} on 15 foetal and childhood cases (mean 33.3 ± 7.8 weeks gestation) compared to 44 live infants (mean age 75.5 ± 53.4 days). Mean ADC values were calculated from regions of interest (ROIs) for the lungs, liver, spleen and renal cortex, compared to normative live infantile body ADC values of similar gestational age. Mean ADC values were significantly lower in postmortem cases than in normal controls for liver (0.88 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s ± SD 0.39 vs. 1.13 ± 0.13; p < 0.05) and renal cortex (0.85 ± 0.26 vs. 1.19 ± 0.13; p < 0.05) but not spleen or muscle. Mean lung ADC values were significantly higher than normal controls (1.06 ± 0.18 vs. 0 ± 0; p < 0.001), and there was a significant correlation between postmortem interval and lung ADC (R{sup 2} = 0.55). Lung PMMR ADC values are related to postmortem interval, making them a potential marker of time since death. Further research is needed to understand the organ-specific changes which occur in the postmortem period. (orig.)

  3. Mass spectrometric identification of diagnostic markers for chronic prostatitis in seminal plasma by analysis of seminal plasma protein clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokka, A; Mehik, A; Tonttila, P; Vaarala, M

    2017-08-15

    There are few specific diagnostic markers for chronic prostatitis. Therefore, we used mass spectrometry to evaluate differences in seminal plasma protein expression among patients with prostatitis and young and middle-aged healthy controls. We analysed pooled seminal plasma protein samples from four prostatitis patients (two pools), three young controls (one pool), and three middle-aged controls (one pool). The samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Of the 349 proteins identified, 16 were differentially expressed between the two control pools. Five proteins were up- or down-regulated in both of the prostatitis pools compared to middle-aged controls but not between young and middle-aged pools. Progestagen-associated endometrial protein (PAEP) was over-expressed in prostatitis samples compared to young and middle-aged controls. Our findings and those of previous studies indicate that PAEP is a potential seminal plasma marker for chronic prostatitis. In conclusion, we found age-related changes in seminal plasma protein expression. PAEP expression in seminal plasma should be investigated further to evaluate its potential as a diagnostic marker for chronic prostatitis.

  4. The Identification of Novel Diagnostic Marker Genes for the Detection of Beer Spoiling Pediococcus damnosus Strains Using the BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Behr

    Full Text Available As the number of bacterial genomes increases dramatically, the demand for easy to use tools with transparent functionality and comprehensible output for applied comparative genomics grows as well. We present BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr (BADGE, a tool for the rapid prediction of diagnostic marker genes (DMGs for the differentiation of bacterial groups (e.g. pathogenic / nonpathogenic. DMG identification settings can be modified easily and installing and running BADGE does not require specific bioinformatics skills. During the BADGE run the user is informed step by step about the DMG finding process, thus making it easy to evaluate the impact of chosen settings and options. On the basis of an example with relevance for beer brewing, being one of the oldest biotechnological processes known, we show a straightforward procedure, from phenotyping, genome sequencing, assembly and annotation, up to a discriminant marker gene PCR assay, making comparative genomics a means to an end. The value and the functionality of BADGE were thoroughly examined, resulting in the successful identification and validation of an outstanding novel DMG (fabZ for the discrimination of harmless and harmful contaminations of Pediococcus damnosus, which can be applied for spoilage risk determination in breweries. Concomitantly, we present and compare five complete P. damnosus genomes sequenced in this study, finding that the ability to produce the unwanted, spoilage associated off-flavor diacetyl is a plasmid encoded trait in this important beer spoiling species.

  5. The Identification of Novel Diagnostic Marker Genes for the Detection of Beer Spoiling Pediococcus damnosus Strains Using the BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Jürgen; Geissler, Andreas J; Schmid, Jonas; Zehe, Anja; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-01-01

    As the number of bacterial genomes increases dramatically, the demand for easy to use tools with transparent functionality and comprehensible output for applied comparative genomics grows as well. We present BlAst Diagnostic Gene findEr (BADGE), a tool for the rapid prediction of diagnostic marker genes (DMGs) for the differentiation of bacterial groups (e.g. pathogenic / nonpathogenic). DMG identification settings can be modified easily and installing and running BADGE does not require specific bioinformatics skills. During the BADGE run the user is informed step by step about the DMG finding process, thus making it easy to evaluate the impact of chosen settings and options. On the basis of an example with relevance for beer brewing, being one of the oldest biotechnological processes known, we show a straightforward procedure, from phenotyping, genome sequencing, assembly and annotation, up to a discriminant marker gene PCR assay, making comparative genomics a means to an end. The value and the functionality of BADGE were thoroughly examined, resulting in the successful identification and validation of an outstanding novel DMG (fabZ) for the discrimination of harmless and harmful contaminations of Pediococcus damnosus, which can be applied for spoilage risk determination in breweries. Concomitantly, we present and compare five complete P. damnosus genomes sequenced in this study, finding that the ability to produce the unwanted, spoilage associated off-flavor diacetyl is a plasmid encoded trait in this important beer spoiling species.

  6. How doctors generate diagnostic hypotheses: a study of radiological diagnosis with functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Melo

    Full Text Available In medical practice, diagnostic hypotheses are often made by physicians in the first moments of contact with patients; sometimes even before they report their symptoms. We propose that generation of diagnostic hypotheses in this context is the result of cognitive processes subserved by brain mechanisms that are similar to those involved in naming objects or concepts in everyday life.To test this proposal we developed an experimental paradigm with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI using radiological diagnosis as a model. Twenty-five radiologists diagnosed lesions in chest X-ray images and named non-medical targets (animals embedded in chest X-ray images while being scanned in a fMRI session. Images were presented for 1.5 seconds; response times (RTs and the ensuing cortical activations were assessed. The mean response time for diagnosing lesions was 1.33 (SD ±0.14 seconds and 1.23 (SD ±0.13 seconds for naming animals. 72% of the radiologists reported cogitating differential diagnoses during trials (3.5 seconds. The overall pattern of cortical activations was remarkably similar for both types of targets. However, within the neural systems shared by both stimuli, activation was significantly greater in left inferior frontal sulcus and posterior cingulate cortex for lesions relative to animals.Generation of diagnostic hypotheses and differential diagnoses made through the immediate visual recognition of clinical signs can be a fast and automatic process. The co-localization of significant brain activation for lesions and animals suggests that generating diagnostic hypotheses for lesions and naming animals are served by the same neuronal systems. Nevertheless, diagnosing lesions was cognitively more demanding and associated with more activation in higher order cortical areas. These results support the hypothesis that medical diagnoses based on prompt visual recognition of clinical signs and naming in everyday life are supported by similar

  7. Assessment of structural lesions in sacroiliac joints enhances diagnostic utility of magnetic resonance imaging in early spondylarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ulrich; Lambert, Robert G W; Pedersen, Susanne J

    2010-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic utility of T1-weighted and STIR magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences in early spondylarthritis (SpA) using a standardized approach to the evaluation of sacroiliac (SI) joints, and to test whether systematic calibration of readers directed at recognition of abnormal......To compare the diagnostic utility of T1-weighted and STIR magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences in early spondylarthritis (SpA) using a standardized approach to the evaluation of sacroiliac (SI) joints, and to test whether systematic calibration of readers directed at recognition...

  8. Diagnostic value of combined determination of serum tumor markers (NSE, CA-242, TPA, CEA) levels in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Juzhen; Cai Tietie; Qin Shana

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of combined determination of serum NSE, CA242, tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) and CEA levels in patients with primary lung cancer. Methods: Serum NSE, CA242, TPA and CEA levels were determined with ELISA in (1) 102 patients with various types of primary lung carcinoma (adenocarcinoma 38, squamous cell carcinoma 32, small cell lung carcinoma 32) (2) 33 patients with open lung T. B. and (3) 30 controls. Results: (1) In patients with lung cancer, serum levels of all the four markers were increased and significantly higher than their respective values in patients with open lung T.B. and controls. (2) Positive rate of combined any two markers were 75% for adenocarcinoma, 50% for squamous cell carcinoma and 65% for small cell lung carcinoma, while false positive rate was only 9% for T.B patients and none for the controls. (3) The most appropriate single marker for each specific type of lung cancer was: NSE for SCLC (sensitivity 72%, specificity 97%, CA242 for adenocarcinoma sensitivity 62%, specificity 90%). Conclusion: Combined determination of these tumor markers would improve the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of primary lung carcinoma. (authors)

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging-a diagnostic tool for postoperative evaluation of dental implants: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Laura; Ludwig, Ute; Hövener, Jan-Bernd; Nelson, Katja; Flügge, Tabea

    2018-04-01

    Compared with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might be superior for the diagnosis of nerve lesions associated with implant placement. A patient presented with unilateral pain associated with dysesthesia in the region of the right lower lip and chin after implant placement. Conventional orthopantomography could not identify an association between the position of the inferior alveolar nerve and the implant. For 3-dimensional display of the implant in relation to the surrounding anatomy, CBCT was compared with MRI. MRI enabled the precise depiction of the implant position and its spatial relation to the inferior alveolar nerve, whereas the nerve position and its exact course within the mandible could not be directly displayed in CBCT. MRI may be a valuable, radiation-free diagnostic tool for the visualization of intraoral hard and soft tissues, offering an objective assessment of nerve injuries by a direct visualization of the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Diagnostic value of tumor markers for lung adenocarcinoma-associated malignant pleural effusion: a validation study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mei; Zhu, Jing; Liang, Liqun; Zeng, Ni; Wu, Yanqiu; Wan, Chun; Shen, Yongchun; Wen, Fuqiang

    2017-04-01

    Pleural effusion is one of the most common complications of lung adenocarcinoma and is diagnostically challenging. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic performance of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin fragment (CYFRA) 21-1, and cancer antigen (CA) 19-9 for lung adenocarcinoma-associated malignant pleural effusion (MPE) through a validation study and meta-analysis. Pleural effusion samples were collected from 81 lung adenocarcinoma-associated MPEs and 96 benign pleural effusions. CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The capacity of tumor markers was assessed with receiver operating characteristic curve analyses and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Standard methods for meta-analysis of diagnostic studies were used to summarize the diagnostic performance of CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 for lung adenocarcinoma-associated MPE. The pleural levels of CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 were significantly increased in lung adenocarcinoma-associated MPE compared to benign pleural effusion. The cut-off points for CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 were optimally set at 4.55 ng/ml, 43.10 μg/ml, and 12.89 U/ml, and corresponding AUCs were 0.93, 0.85, and 0.81, respectively. The combination of CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 increased the sensitivity to 95.06%, with an AUC of 0.95. Eight studies were included in this meta-analysis. CEA showed the best diagnostic performance with pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio of 0.75, 0.96, 16.01, 0.23, and 81.49, respectively. The AUC was 0.93. CEA, CYFRA 21-1, and CA19-9 play a role in the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma-associated MPE. The combination of these tumor markers increases the diagnostic accuracy.

  11. Development of silicon photonic microring resonator biosensors for multiplexed cytokine assays and in vitro diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchansky, Matthew Sam

    In order to guide critical care therapies that are personalized to a patient's unique disease state, a diagnostic or theranostic medical device must quickly provide a detailed biomolecular understanding of disease onset and progression. This detailed molecular understanding of cellular processes and pathways requires the ability to measure multiple analytes in parallel. Though many traditional sensing technologies for biomarker analysis and fundamental biological studies (i.e. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, real-time polymerase chain reaction, etc.) rely on single-parameter measurements, it has become increasingly clear that the inherent complexity of many human illnesses and pathways necessitates quantitative and multiparameter analysis of biological samples. Currently used analytical methods are deficient in that they often provide either highly quantitative data for a single biomarker or qualitative data for many targets, but methods that simultaneously provide highly quantitative analysis of many targets have yet to be adequately developed. Fields such as medical diagnostics and cellular biology would benefit greatly from a technology that enables rapid, quantitative and reproducible assays for many targets within a single sample. In an effort to fill this unmet need, this doctoral dissertation describes the development of a clinically translational biosensing technology based on silicon photonics and developed in the chemistry research laboratory of Ryan C. Bailey. Silicon photonic microring resonators, a class of high-Q optical sensors, represent a promising platform for rapid, multiparameter in vitro measurements. The original device design utilizes 32-ring arrays for real-time biomolecular sensing without fluorescent labels, and these optical biosensors display great potential for more highly multiplexed (100s-1000s) measurements based on the impressive scalability of silicon device fabrication. Though this technology can be used to detect a variety of

  12. Optimized diagnostic performance of brain magnetic resonance imaging in children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rac, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to search for correlations between anatomic changes in the pituitary gland and hormonal disturbances in children with short stature. Material and methods: Children with short stature were enrolled when criteria of pituitary growth hormone deficiency were partly or completely met. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 87 children and particular attention was given to the pituitary gland. Measurements were compared with pituitary dimensions accepted as normal in the literature. Contrast with GdDTPA was used to visualize the pituitary gland and associated structures (stalk, infundibulum). T1-weighted images in the sagittal and coronal planes were obtained. The results were statistically analyzed with non-parametric tests. Conclusions: 1. Magnetic resonance imaging is a very sensitive method for detecting changes in the pituitary gland and may well be recommended as a method of choice even though the percentage of changes detected with it is rather small. 2. The use of contrast agent may be abandoned to limit costs when searching for cause of growth deficit in children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency, save for the following cases: hypoplasia or aplasia of the pituitary gland, transection of the stalk, empty sella syndrome or tumor in the central nervous system. 3. Pituitary volume and height appear to be of greatest diagnostic significance, while width (which varies little) can serve as an auxiliary parameter. (author)

  13. The diagnostic value of tumor markers and endoscopy in patients with gastric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Turk

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Tumor markers cannot detect any kind of digestive system malignancy. Physicians must pay attention to premalignant lesions due to gastric cancer development. We must pay more attention to diagnose gastric malignancy in patients who have increased CEA and CA 19-9 levels. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2015; 4(2.000: 74-78

  14. Combined assessment of DYRK1A, BDNF and homocysteine levels as diagnostic marker for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janel, N; Alexopoulos, P; Badel, A; Lamari, F; Camproux, A C; Lagarde, J; Simon, S; Feraudet-Tarisse, C; Lamourette, P; Arbones, M; Paul, J L; Dubois, B; Potier, M C; Sarazin, M; Delabar, J M

    2017-06-20

    Early identification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk factors would aid development of interventions to delay the onset of dementia, but current biomarkers are invasive and/or costly to assess. Validated plasma biomarkers would circumvent these challenges. We previously identified the kinase DYRK1A in plasma. To validate DYRK1A as a biomarker for AD diagnosis, we assessed the levels of DYRK1A and the related markers brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and homocysteine in two unrelated AD patient cohorts with age-matched controls. Receiver-operating characteristic curves and logistic regression analyses showed that combined assessment of DYRK1A, BDNF and homocysteine has a sensitivity of 0.952, a specificity of 0.889 and an accuracy of 0.933 in testing for AD. The blood levels of these markers provide a diagnosis assessment profile. Combined assessment of these three markers outperforms most of the previous markers and could become a useful substitute to the current panel of AD biomarkers. These results associate a decreased level of DYRK1A with AD and challenge the use of DYRK1A inhibitors in peripheral tissues as treatment. These measures will be useful for diagnosis purposes.

  15. The diagnostic value of three sacroiliac joint pain provocation tests for sacroiliitis identified by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbak, B; Jurik, A G; Jensen, R K

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to investigate the diagnostic value of three sacroiliac (SI) joint pain provocation tests for sacroiliitis identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and stratified by gender. METHOD: Patients without clinical signs of nerve root compression were...

  16. Diagnostic value of biohumoral markers of necrosis and inflammation in patients with right ventricular myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozović, V; Rafajlovski, S; Gligić, B; Miailović, Z; Obradović, S; Ratković, N; Djenić, N; Baskot, B

    2007-07-01

    Patients with right ventricular myocardial infarction (RVMI) and patients with left ventricular myocardial infarction (LVMI) of the anterior wall with ST-elevation (STEMI), due to the profundity and volume of the necrosis, tend to have a more severe and more complicated clinical outcome as well as a higher mortality level compared to patients with myocardial infarction of inferoposterior localization in the left ventricle (IPILK), without the right ventricle being overtaken. C-Reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive and reliable indicator of acute inflammation and is in good correlation with creatin kinasis (CK) or the enzymes which indicate necrosis markers in acute myocardial infarction (AIM). Because of this, a common biohumoral answer is of greater importance and more reliable both diagnostically and prognostically; it signifies a more severe and more complicated clinical outcome, especially on the rupture of the myocardium. The main goal of this study was to compare the maximum values of enzymes and CRP in patients with RVMI and LVMI who had first STEMI and who were in the acute phase treated with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). During a six-year period (2000-05), in the Clinic for Urgent Internal Medicine at the Military Medical Academy, a total of 74 patients included in a prospective study were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of patients with RMI 19 (25.67%), and the second group of patients with LMI 55 (74.33%). The patients in both groups received a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), if they had been admitted in the first 4 hrs from the beginning of the chest pain, and if there were no contraindications. All the others received thrombolitic therapy, and a "rescue" PCI if needed, in the next 24-48 hours. The risk factors, clinical outcome, necrosis and inflammation biomarkers (enzymes and CRP), coronary status, restenosis of stent, and intra-hospital mortality rate in the first month, as well as a long term

  17. Additional diagnostic value of tumor markers in cytological fluid for diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer

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    Hur Jin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytological fluid from a needle aspiration biopsy (NAB is obtained directly from tumor tissue, therefore many biomarker candidates will be present in high concentrations. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess and validate the tumor markers CYFRA 21–1, CEA, and SCC in cytological fluid obtained from NAB samples to determine if they improved the performance of NAB for diagnosing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods A total of 194 patients (M:F = 128:66, mean age 63.7 years with suspected malignant pulmonary lesions were prospectively enrolled and underwent percutaneous NAB. Levels of CYFRA 21–1, CEA, and SCC were measured by immunoassay in serum and cytological fluid obtained during aspiration biopsy. Cut-off values to determined malignancy were 3.3 ng/mL in serum and 15.7 ng/mL in cytological fluid for CYFRA 21–1, 5 ng/mL and 0.6 ng/mL for CEA, and 2 ng/mL and 0.86 ng/mL for SCC. Results Of 194 patients, 139 patients (71.6% had NSCLC and 55 (28.4% had benign lesions. Sensitivity increased significantly for NAB combined with cytological tumor markers compared with NAB alone (CYFRA 21–1: 95% versus 83.5%, p Conclusion Of the tested tumor markers, cytological fluid measurements of CYFRA 21–1 improved the diagnostic performance of NAB for NSCLC.

  18. EVALUATION OF HYPERBILIRUBINAEMIA AS A NEW DIAGNOSTIC MARKER FOR ACUTE APPENDICITIS AND ITS ROLE IN THE PREDICTION OF APPENDICULAR PERFORATION

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    Lalit Kumar Regar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND There are various investigations recommended to diagnose acute appendicitis; however, till date there is no confirmatory laboratory marker to diagnose preoperatively acute appendicitis & appendicular perforation. The purpose of study is to evaluate hyperbilirubinaemia as a new diagnostic marker for acute appendicitis and its role in the prediction of appendicular perforation. Preoperative assessment of serum bilirubin appears to be a promising new laboratory marker for diagnosing acute appendicitis & have a predictive potential for the diagnosis of appendicular perforation. METHODS A prospective analytical study of 100 cases comprising of a non-randomised cohort. RESULTS Hyperbilirubinaemia was found in most of the patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis (68.23% or appendicular perforation (73.33%. The mean total bilirubin level in patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis was 1.34 mg% while in patients diagnosed with appendicular perforation was 2.12 mg%. CONCLUSIONS Preoperative assessment of serum bilirubin should be routinely performed in cases of acute appendicitis as it can help in diagnosis of acute appendicitis as well as also serve as an important maker of acute gangrenous appendicitis.

  19. The Effects of Signal Erosion and Core Genome Reduction on the Identification of Diagnostic Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-20

    Health Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin , NT, 15 Australia; ePacific Biosciences; fDivision of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 16...that a significant number of near-neighbor genomes must be 217 sequenced in order to identify a set of molecular markers that are highly 218...of potentially deadly infections. However, as our study demonstrates, 244 the genomic targets of molecular assays need to first be thoroughly

  20. Analytical investigation of microwave resonances of a curling probe for low and high-pressure plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshadi, Ali; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2017-01-01

    The concept of ‘active plasma resonance spectroscopy’ (APRS) has attracted greater interest in recent years as an established plasma diagnostic technique. The APRS describes a class of related methods utilizing the intrinsic ability of plasma to resonate at or near the electron plasma frequency {ω\\text{pe}} . The Curling probe (CP) as a novel realization of the APRS idea, is a miniaturized spiral slot embedded flatly in the chamber wall. Consequently, a plasma diagnostic technique with minimum disturbance and without metal contamination can be developed. To measure the plasma parameters the CP is fed with a weak frequency-swept signal from the exterior of the plasma chamber by a network analyzer which also records the response of the plasma versus the frequency. The resonance behavior is strongly dependent on the electron density and the gas pressure. The CP has also the advantage of resonating at a frequency greater than {ω\\text{pe}} which is dependent on the spiral’s length. The double resonance characteristic gives the CP the ability to be applied in varying plasma regimes. Assuming that the spiralization does not have a considerable effect on the resonances, a ‘straightened’ infinite length CP has recently been investigated (Arshadi and Brinkmann 2016 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 25 045014) to obtain the surface wave resonances. This work generalizes the approach and models the CP by a rectangular slot-type resonator located between plasma and quartz. Cold plasma theory and Maxwell’s equations are utilized to compute the electromagnetic fields propagating into the plasma by the diffraction of an incident plane wave at the slot. A mathematical model is employed and both kinds of resonances are derived. The analytical study of this paper shows good agreement with the numerical results of the probe inventors.

  1. Streptavidin Modified ZnO Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator for Detection of Tumor Marker Mucin 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dan; Guo, Peng; Xiong, Juan; Wang, Shengfu

    2016-09-01

    A ZnO-based film bulk acoustic resonator has been fabricated using a magnetron sputtering technology, which was employed as a biosensor for detection of mucin 1. The resonant frequency of the thin-film bulk acoustic resonator was located near at 1503.3 MHz. The average electromechanical coupling factor {K}_{eff}^2 and quality factor Q were 2.39 % and 224, respectively. Using the specific binding system of avidin-biotin, the streptavidin was self-assembled on the top gold electrode as the sensitive layer to indirectly test the MUC1 molecules. The resonant frequency of the biosensor decreases in response to the mass loading in range of 20-500 nM. The sensor modified with the streptavidin exhibits a high sensitivity of 4642.6 Hz/nM and a good selectivity.

  2. Evaluation of the Novel Monoclonal Antibody Against DOG1 as a Diagnostic Marker for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hadi, M.; Hamam, S.M.; Bessa, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. With the growing effectiveness and availability of first and second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) drugs, the accurate diagnosis of GIST has become imperative. The problem is that some GISTs with KIT or Alpha-type platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFRA) mutations may have low KIT expression by immunohistochemistry yet will still benefit from TKI drugs. Molecular analysis is a costly and laborious process. Therefore the emergence of a new sensitive immunohistochemical marker for GISTs would be ideal. Recently antibodies against D iscovered on GIST-1 ( DOG1) have been generated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the monoclonal DOG1.1 antibody as a diagnostic marker for GISTs and to compare immunohistochemical staining and diagnostic efficacy of DOG1.1 with that of KIT in GISTs. Materials and Methods: Forty seven paraffin embedded GISTs were immuno stained with both Kit and DOG1.1 antibodies. Immunoreactivity was graded semiquantitatively from 0 to 4. Some other mesenchymal tumors were included in the study and stained for both markers to test for their specificity. Results: Out of the 47 GISTs, 44 were immunoreactive for both KIT and DOG1.1 antibodies (93.62%). Two cases (4.25%) were KIT-positive DOG-negative and the remaining case was DOG-positive KIT-negative (2.13%). A statistically significant concordance was found between KIT and DOG1.1 immunoreactivity (p=0.004), with moderate agreement between immunostaining scores (kappa =0.379). As regards tumor site, a statistically significant association was found between high DOG1.1 scores and gastric GIST (p=0.008). High KIT and DOG1.1 immunostaining scores were significantly associated with high risk tumors (p=0.002 and p=0.002 respectively). DOG1.1 immunoreactivity was focal in more than half of the cases. The overall diagnostic accuracy of DOG1.1 was 96.5%, with a specificity and

  3. Diagnostics of microwave assisted electron cyclotron resonance plasma source for surface modification of nylon 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Supriya E.; Das, Partha Sarathi; Bansode, Avinash; Dhamale, Gayatri; Ghorui, S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Sahasrabudhe, S. N.; Mathe, Vikas L.

    2018-01-01

    Looking at the increasing scope of plasma processing of materials surface, here we present the development and diagnostics of a microwave assisted Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma system suitable for surface modification of polymers. Prior to the surface-treatment, a detailed diagnostic mapping of the plasma parameters throughout the reactor chamber was carried out by using single and double Langmuir probe measurements in Ar plasma. Conventional analysis of I-V curves as well as the elucidation form of the Electron Energy Distribution Function (EEDF) has become the source of calibration of plasma parameters in the reaction chamber. The high energy tail in the EEDF of electron temperature is seen to extend beyond 60 eV, at much larger distances from the ECR zone. This proves the suitability of the rector for plasma processing, since the electron energy is much beyond the threshold energy of bond breaking in most of the polymers. Nylon 6 is used as a representative candidate for surface processing in the presence of Ar, H2 + N2, and O2 plasma, treated at different locations inside the plasma chamber. In a typical case, the work of adhesion is seen to almost get doubled when treated with oxygen plasma. Morphology of the plasma treated surface and its hydrophilicity are discussed in view of the variation in electron density and electron temperature at these locations. Nano-protrusions arising from plasma treatment are set to be responsible for the hydrophobicity. Chemical sputtering and physical sputtering are seen to influence the surface morphology on account of sufficient electron energies and increased plasma potential.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging versus computed tomography in stress fractures of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganiyusufoglu, A.K.; Onat, L.; Karatoprak, O.; Enercan, M.; Hamzaoglu, A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with computed tomography (CT) in stress fractures of the lumbar spine. Materials and methods: Radiological and clinical data from 57 adolescents and young adults with a diagnosis of stress injury of the lumbar spine were retrospectively reviewed. All cases had undergone both 1.5 T MRI and 16-section CT examinations. All MRI and CT images were retrospectively reviewed and evaluated in separate sessions. The fracture morphology (complete/incomplete, localization) and vertebral levels were noted at both the CT and MRI examinations. Bone marrow/peri-osseous soft-tissue oedema was also determined at MRI. Results: In total, 73 complete and 32 incomplete stress fractures were detected with CT. Sixty-seven complete, 24 incomplete fractures and eight stress reactions were detected using MRI in the same study group. Marrow oedema was also seen in eight of the complete and 20 of the incomplete fractures. The specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of MRI in detecting fracture lines were 99.6, 86.7, and 97.2%, respectively. MRI was more accurate at the lower lumbar levels in comparison to upper lumbar levels. Conclusion: MRI has a similar diagnostic accuracy to CT in determining complete fractures with or without accompanying marrow oedema and incomplete fractures with accompanying marrow oedema, especially at the lower lumbar levels, which constitutes 94% of all fractures. At upper lumbar levels and in the incomplete fractures of the pars interarticularis with marked surrounding sclerosis, MRI has apparent limitations compared to CT imaging.

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging versus computed tomography in stress fractures of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganiyusufoglu, A.K., E-mail: kursady33@yahoo.co [Department of Radiology, Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Onat, L. [Department of Radiology, Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Karatoprak, O.; Enercan, M.; Hamzaoglu, A. [Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    Aim: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with computed tomography (CT) in stress fractures of the lumbar spine. Materials and methods: Radiological and clinical data from 57 adolescents and young adults with a diagnosis of stress injury of the lumbar spine were retrospectively reviewed. All cases had undergone both 1.5 T MRI and 16-section CT examinations. All MRI and CT images were retrospectively reviewed and evaluated in separate sessions. The fracture morphology (complete/incomplete, localization) and vertebral levels were noted at both the CT and MRI examinations. Bone marrow/peri-osseous soft-tissue oedema was also determined at MRI. Results: In total, 73 complete and 32 incomplete stress fractures were detected with CT. Sixty-seven complete, 24 incomplete fractures and eight stress reactions were detected using MRI in the same study group. Marrow oedema was also seen in eight of the complete and 20 of the incomplete fractures. The specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of MRI in detecting fracture lines were 99.6, 86.7, and 97.2%, respectively. MRI was more accurate at the lower lumbar levels in comparison to upper lumbar levels. Conclusion: MRI has a similar diagnostic accuracy to CT in determining complete fractures with or without accompanying marrow oedema and incomplete fractures with accompanying marrow oedema, especially at the lower lumbar levels, which constitutes 94% of all fractures. At upper lumbar levels and in the incomplete fractures of the pars interarticularis with marked surrounding sclerosis, MRI has apparent limitations compared to CT imaging.

  6. DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY OF CLINICAL AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN KNEE MENISCI AND LIGAMENTOUS INJURIES

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    Nilesh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of clinical diagnosis compared to MRI findings in ligamentous and meniscal injuries with respect to arthroscopic confirmation as a gold standard. METHODS 485 patients with knee injuries were prospectively assessed by clinical evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging and correlated after therapeutic arthroscopy. The overall accuracy, clinically productive values of sensitivity and specificity was derived. The actual value of the test with respect to positive predictive and negative predictive value was also derived, taking arthroscopic findings as confirmatory. The overall partial and total agreement among the clinical, MRI and arthroscopy was documented. RESULTS The overall accuracy for clinical examination was 85, 92, 100 and 100 and accuracy for MRI was 90, 97, 97 and 97 for detecting medial meniscus, lateral meniscus, ACL and PCL tears respectively. Clinically lateral meniscus tears are difficult to diagnose clinically with negative predictive value (90 whereas ACL injuries do not need MRI for diagnosis as evident by a high negative predictive value (100 of clinical examination. Total agreement with the clinical findings confirmed by arthroscopy was 64.40% which was relatively high as compared to total agreement of MRI findings which was only 31.50%. We found similar total agreement versus total disagreement of both clinical and MRI to be only 2.74% indicating very high accuracy in clinical diagnosis of meniscal and ligamentous injuries combined. CONCLUSION The clinical evaluation alone is sufficient to diagnose meniscal and ACL/PCL pathologies and MRI should be considered only as a powerful negative diagnostic tool. The arthroscopy decision should not be heavily dependent on MRI for ligamentous injuries but reverse is true for meniscal lesions. MR evaluation functions as a powerful negative diagnostic tool to rule out doubtful and complex knee injuries.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of cerebrospinal fluid protein markers for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Canada: a 6-year prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background To better characterize the value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins as diagnostic markers in a clinical population of subacute encephalopathy patients with relatively low prevalence of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), we studied the diagnostic accuracies of several such markers (14-3-3, tau and S100B) in 1000 prospectively and sequentially recruited Canadian patients with clinically suspected sCJD. Methods The study included 127 patients with autopsy-confirmed sCJD (prevalence = 12.7%) and 873 with probable non-CJD diagnoses. Standard statistical measures of diagnostic accuracy were employed, including sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), predictive values (PVs), likelihood ratios (LRs), and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results At optimal cutoff thresholds (empirically selected for 14-3-3, assayed by immunoblot; 976 pg/mL for tau and 2.5 ng/mL for S100B, both assayed by ELISA), Se and Sp respectively were 0.88 (95% CI, 0.81-0.93) and 0.72 (0.69-0.75) for 14-3-3; 0.91 (0.84-0.95) and 0.88 (0.85-0.90) for tau; and 0.87 (0.80-0.92) and 0.87 (0.84-0.89) for S100B. The observed differences in Sp between 14-3-3 and either of the other 2 markers were statistically significant. Positive LRs were 3.1 (2.8-3.6) for 14-3-3; 7.4 (6.9-7.8) for tau; and 6.6 (6.1-7.1) for S100B. Negative LRs were 0.16 (0.10-0.26) for 14-3-3; 0.10 (0.06-0.20) for tau; and 0.15 (0.09-0.20) for S100B. Estimates of areas under ROC curves were 0.947 (0.931-0.961) for tau and 0.908 (0.888-0.926) for S100B. Use of interval LRs (iLRs) significantly enhanced accuracy for patient subsets [e.g., 41/120 (34.2%) of tested sCJD patients displayed tau levels > 10,000 pg/mL, with an iLR of 56.4 (22.8-140.0)], as did combining tau and S100B [e.g., for tau > 976 pg/mL and S100B > 2.5 ng/mL, positive LR = 18.0 (12.9-25.0) and negative LR = 0.02 (0.01-0.09)]. Conclusions CSF 14-3-3, tau and S100B proteins are useful diagnostic markers of sCJD even in a low

  8. The Importance of Clinical and Diagnostic Markers of Aggression of Non-Functional Pituitary Adenomas

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    Yu.M. Urmanova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sixty patients with non-functional pituitary adenomas were observed. Most patients had large-cell chromophobe pituitary adenomas (81.6%. Small-cell chromophobe adenomas occurred in 10 % cases. Only 1 patient (3.3 % had giant carcinoma with regrowth and metastasis into the brain. Markers of aggression of non-functional pituitary adenomas are the young age of a patient, expressed first symptoms of disease manifestation, large size of tumor, asymmetry and deformation of pituitary, invasion of tumor to the neighboring tissues/arteries/cavernous sinus, presence of small cell and dark-cell chromophobe adenoma, panhypopituitarism.

  9. Serum Advanced Oxidation Protein Products in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Possible Markers of Diagnostic Significance

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    Abhishek Singh Nayyar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations (levels ofserum total proteins and advanced oxidation protein products as markers of oxidantmediated protein damage in the sera of patients with oral cancers.Methods: The study consisted of the sera analyses of serum total protein andadvanced oxidation protein products’ levels in 30 age and sex matched controls, 60patients with reported pre-cancerous lesions and/or conditions and 60 patients withhistologically proven oral squamous cell carcinoma. One way analyses of variance wereused to test the difference between groups. To determine which of the two groups’ meanswere significantly different, the post-hoc test of Bonferroni was used. The results wereaveraged as mean ± standard deviation. In the above test, P values less than 0.05 weretaken to be statistically significant. The normality of data was checked before thestatistical analysis was performed.Results: The study revealed statistically significant variations in serum levels ofadvanced oxidation protein products (P<0.001. Serum levels of total protein showedextensive variations; therefore the results were largely inconclusive and statisticallyinsignificant.Conclusion: The results emphasize the need for more studies with larger samplesizes to be conducted before a conclusive role can be determined for sera levels of totalprotein and advanced oxidation protein products as markers both for diagnosticsignificance and the transition from the various oral pre-cancerous lesions and conditionsinto frank oral cancers.

  10. Sensitive molecular diagnostics using surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulds, Karen; Graham, Duncan; McKenzie, Fiona; MacRae, Douglas; Ricketts, Alastair; Dougan, Jennifer

    2009-02-01

    Surface enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) is an analytical technique with several advantages over competitive techniques in terms of improved sensitivity and multiplexing. We have made great progress in the development of SERRS as a quantitative analytical method, in particular for the detection of DNA. SERRS is an extremely sensitive and selective technique which when applied to the detection of labelled DNA sequences allows detection limits to be obtained which rival, and in most cases, are better than fluorescence. Here the conditions are explored which will enable the successful detection of DNA using SERRS. The enhancing surface which is used is crucial and in this case suspensions of nanoparticles were used as they allow quantitative behaviour to be achieved and allow analogous systems to current fluorescence based systems to be made. The aggregation conditions required to obtain SERRS of DNA are crucial and herein we describe the use of spermine as an aggregating agent. The nature of the label which is used, be it fluorescent, positively or negatively charged also effects the SERRS response and these conditions are again explored here. We have clearly demonstrated the ability to identify the components of a mixture of 5 analytes in solution by using two different excitation wavelengths and also of a 6-plex using data analysis techniques. These conditions will allow the use of SERRS for the detection of target DNA in a meaningful diagnostic assay.

  11. RADAR upper hybrid resonance scattering diagnostics of small-scale fluctuations and waves in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulyiginskiy, D.G.; Gurchenko, A.D.; Gusakov, E.Z.; Korkin, V.V.; Larionov, M.M.; Novik, K.M.; Petrov, Yu.V.; Popov, A.Yu.; Saveliev, A.N.; Selenin, V.L.; Stepanov, A.Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The upper hybrid resonance (UHR) scattering technique possessing such merits as one-dimensional probing geometry, enhancement of cross section, and fine localization of scattering region is modified in the new diagnostics under development to achieve wave number resolution. The fluctuation wave number is estimated in the new technique from the scattering signal time delay measurements. The feasibility of the scheme is checked in the proof of principal experiment in a tokamak. The time delay of the UHR scattering signal exceeding 10 ns is observed. The small scale low frequency density fluctuations are investigated in the UHR RADAR backscattering experiment. The UHR cross-polarization scattering signal related to small scale magnetic fluctuations is observed. The lower hybrid (LH) wave propagation and both linear and nonlinear wave conversion are investigated. The small wavelength (λ≤0.02 cm) high number ion Bernstein harmonics, resulting from the linear wave conversion of the LH wave are observed in a tokamak plasma for the first time

  12. DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE ANGIOGRAPHY FOR UNRUPTURED CEREBRAL ANEURYSMS IN CORRELATION WITH DIGITAL SUBTRACTION ANGIOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Aracki-Trenkić

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial aneurysm is a focal, abnormal dilation of an artery of the brain. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA is a non-invasive technique for vascular imaging and is thus widely used for screening for intracranial vascular lesions. The aim of the study was to show the diagnostic accuracy of 3D Time-of-Flight (3D TOF MRA in the detection of unruptured cerebral aneurysms with the use of digital subtraction angiography (DSA as the gold standard. A total of 2.612 consecutive patients underwent 3DTOF MRA. It showed unruptured aneurysms in 94 (3.6% patients. They included 68 women and 26 men ranging in age from 29 to 76 years (mean, 52.5 years. Twenty-six of them, 20 women and 6 men, underwent DSA. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for the correlation of size. Fisher’s test was used for the correlation of location. The statistical level of significance was set at p0.05 of aneurysms between TOF MRA and DSA. MRA is an accurate and non-invasive method for diagnosis of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. The results of study show the compatibility of MRA findings, the location and the size of an aneurysm in comparison with the “gold standard” – cerebral DSA.

  13. Diagnostic assessment of the heart after infarction: what is the role of magnetic resonance imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivelitz, D.E.; Taupitz, M.; Hamm, B.

    1999-01-01

    There have been considerable advances in the diagnostic assessment of the heart by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in recent years. Thus, MRI as a one-stop shop modality for the comprehensive noninvasive evaluation of coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction may soon become a reality. This article presents an overview of the present possibilities and future potential of evaluating myocardial anatomy, function, perfusion, and coronary anatomy after myocardial infarction. Cine MRI provides a reliable analysis of regional and global disturbances of cardiac wall motion with a high temporal and spatial resolution. Tagging techniques permit the noninvasive labelling of parts of the myocardium and the identification of three-dimensional patterns of contraction. Myocardial perfusion and disturbed wall motion under pharmacologic stress can be reliably assessed by MRI as well. What is unique is the visualization of myocardial edema, which is made possible by the high soft-tissue contrast resolution. The as yet limited potential to assess coronary arteries and coronary bypasses is likewise discussed. (orig.) [de

  14. The Effects of Signal Erosion and Core Genome Reduction on the Identification of Diagnostic Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. Sahl

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Whole-genome sequence (WGS data are commonly used to design diagnostic targets for the identification of bacterial pathogens. To do this effectively, genomics databases must be comprehensive to identify the strict core genome that is specific to the target pathogen. As additional genomes are analyzed, the core genome size is reduced and there is erosion of the target-specific regions due to commonality with related species, potentially resulting in the identification of false positives and/or false negatives.

  15. Aptamers: Novel Molecules as Diagnostic Markers in Bacterial and Viral Infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia M. Zimbres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide the entire human population is at risk of infectious diseases of which a high degree is caused by pathogenic protozoans, worms, bacteria, and virus infections. Moreover the current medications against pathogenic agents are losing their efficacy due to increasing and even further spreading drug resistance. Therefore, there is an urgent need to discover novel diagnostic as well as therapeutic tools against infectious agents. In view of that, the Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX represents a powerful technology to target selectively pathogenic factors as well as entire bacteria or viruses. SELEX uses a large combinatorial oligonucleic acid library (DNA or RNA which is processed a by high-flux in vitro screen of iterative cycles. The selected ligands, termed aptamers, are characterized by high specificity and affinity to their target molecule, which are already exploited in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In this minireview we will discuss the current status of the SELEX technique applied on bacterial and viral pathogens.

  16. Diagnostic value of CD-10 marker in differentiating of papillary thyroid carcinoma from benign thyroid lesions

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    Mojgan Mokhtari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using of CD10 in accordance with clinical and histological features of thyroid lesions could be used as both diagnostic and prognostic tool, which consequently influence the management and their prognosis for survival of patients with thyroid neoplasms especially papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. The aim of this study was to determine its expression in PTC and different benign thyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, paraffin-embedded tissues of patients with definitive pathologic diagnosis of different benign thyroid lesions and PTC were retrieved. Immunostained sections of each slides was performed using immunohistochemistry methods and expression of CD10 was compared in two groups of benign thyroid lesions and PTC. Results: From selected cases 134 sections studied in two groups of PTC (n = 67 and benign thyroid lesions (n = 67. CD10 were immunohistochemically positive in 29.9% of PTC cases, but in none of the thyroid benign lesions (0% (P 0.05. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicate that due to the higher expression of CD10 in PTC than benign thyroid lesions it might be used for differentiating mentioned lesions. But for using it as a diagnostic tool further studies with larger sample size and determination of its sensitivity, specificity and cut-off point is necessary.

  17. Elevated pleural effusion IL-17 is a diagnostic marker and outcome predictor in lung cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Interleukin 17 (IL-17) is a proinflammatory cytokine produced mainly by CD4+ T-lymphocytes and may be important in tumor cell growth and progression. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of pleural effusion levels of IL-17 in lung cancer patients with malignant pleural effusion (MPE). Methods Pleural effusion samples were collected from 78 lung cancer patients with MPE and from 45 patients with nonmalignant pleural effusion. Pleural fluid concentrations of IL-17 were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results Malignant effusion exhibited higher IL-17 levels than nonmalignant effusion (20.49 ± 5.27 pg/ml vs. 13.16 ± 2.25 pg/ml; P < 0.01). Lung cancer patients with pleural fluid IL-17 levels below 15 pg/ml had longer overall survival than those patients with higher levels (10.8 months vs. 4.7 months; P < 0.05). On the basis of multivariate analysis, we found that pleural fluid IL-17 level was an independent prognostic factor in lung cancer patients with MPE. Conclusions Measurement of IL-17 levels might be a useful diagnostic and prognostic test for lung cancer patients with MPE. PMID:24887477

  18. Deciphering the Theobroma cacao self-incompatibility system: from genomics to diagnostic markers for self-compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanaud, Claire; Fouet, Olivier; Legavre, Thierry; Lopes, Uilson; Sounigo, Olivier; Eyango, Marie Claire; Mermaz, Benoit; Da Silva, Marcos Ramos; Loor Solorzano, Rey Gaston; Argout, Xavier; Gyapay, Gabor; Ebaiarrey, Herman Ebai; Colonges, Kelly; Sanier, Christine; Rivallan, Ronan; Mastin, Géraldine; Cryer, Nicholas; Boccara, Michel; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Efombagn Mousseni, Ives Bruno; Peres Gramacho, Karina; Clément, Didier

    2017-10-13

    Cocoa self-compatibility is an important yield factor and has been described as being controlled by a late gameto-sporophytic system expressed only at the level of the embryo sac. It results in gametic non-fusion and involves several loci. In this work, we identified two loci, located on chromosomes 1 and 4 (CH1 and CH4), involved in cocoa self-incompatibility by two different processes. Both loci are responsible for gametic selection, but only one (the CH4 locus) is involved in the main fruit drop. The CH1 locus acts prior to the gamete fusion step and independently of the CH4 locus. Using fine-mapping and genome-wide association studies, we focused analyses on restricted regions and identified candidate genes. Some of them showed a differential expression between incompatible and compatible reactions. Immunolocalization experiments provided evidence of CH1 candidate genes expressed in ovule and style tissues. Highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) diagnostic markers were designed in the CH4 region that had been identified by fine-mapping. They are characterized by a strong linkage disequilibrium with incompatibility alleles, thus allowing the development of efficient diagnostic markers predicting self-compatibility and fruit setting according to the presence of specific alleles or genotypes. SSR alleles specific to self-compatible Amelonado and Criollo varieties were also identified, thus allowing screening for self-compatible plants in cocoa populations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. Leptin and insulin growth factor 1: diagnostic markers of the refeeding syndrome and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnenaei, Manal O; Alaghband-Zadeh, Jamshid; Sherwood, Roy; Awara, Mahmoud A; Moniz, Caje; le Roux, Carel W

    2011-09-01

    Refeeding syndrome is difficult to diagnose since the guidelines for identifying those at risk are largely based on subjective clinical parameters and there are no predictive biochemical markers. We examined the suitability of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and leptin as markers to identify patients at risk of the refeeding syndrome before initiation of parenteral nutrition (PN). A total of thirty-five consecutive patients referred for commencement of PN were included. Serum leptin and IGF1 were measured before starting PN. Electrolytes, liver and renal function tests were conducted before and daily for 1 week after initiating PN. The primary outcome was a decrease in phosphate 12-36 h after initiating PN. 'Refeeding index' (RI) was defined as leptin × IGF1 divided by 2800 to produce a ratio of 1·0 in patients who are well nourished. RI had better sensitivity (78 %; 95 % CI 40, 97 %) and specificity (78 %; 95 % CI 40, 97 %) with a likelihood ratio of 3·4, at a cut-off value of 0·19 for predicting a ≥ 30 % decrease in phosphate concentration within 12-36 h after starting PN, compared with IGF1 or leptin alone. However, IGF1 was a better predictor of mortality than either leptin or the RI. The present study is the first to derive and test the 'RI', and find that it is a sensitive and specific predictor of the refeeding syndrome in hospitalised patients before starting PN.

  20. Mitochondrial and Y chromosome haplotype motifs as diagnostic markers of Jewish ancestry: a reconsideration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eTofanelli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Several authors have proposed haplotype motifs based on site variants at the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA and the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY to trace the genealogies of Jewish people. Here, we analyzed their main approaches and test the feasibility of adopting motifs as ancestry markers through construction of a large database of mtDNA and NRY haplotypes from public genetic genealogical repositories. We verified the reliability of Jewish ancestry prediction based on the Cohen and Levite Modal Haplotypes in their classical 6 STR marker format or in the extended 12 STR format, as well as four founder mtDNA lineages (HVS-I segments accounting for about 40% of the current population of Ashkenazi Jews. For this purpose we compared haplotype composition in individuals of self-reported Jewish ancestry with the rest of European, African or Middle Eastern samples, to test for non-random association of ethno-geographic groups and haplotypes. Overall, NRY and mtDNA based motifs, previously reported to differentiate between groups, were found to be more represented in Jewish compared to non-Jewish groups. However, this seems to stem from common ancestors of Jewish lineages being rather recent respect to ancestors of non-Jewish lineages with the same haplotype signatures. Moreover, the polyphyly of haplotypes which contain the proposed motifs and the misuse of constant mutation rates heavily affected previous attempts to correctly dating the origin of common ancestries. Accordingly, our results stress the limitations of using the above haplotype motifs as reliable Jewish ancestry predictors and show its inadequacy for forensic or genealogical purposes.

  1. Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donné, A.J.H.; Costley, A.E.; Barnsley, R.

    2007-01-01

    of the measurements—time and spatial resolutions, etc—will in some cases be more stringent. Many of the measurements will be used in the real time control of the plasma driving a requirement for very high reliability in the systems (diagnostics) that provide the measurements. The implementation of diagnostic systems...... on ITER is a substantial challenge. Because of the harsh environment (high levels of neutron and gamma fluxes, neutron heating, particle bombardment) diagnostic system selection and design has to cope with a range of phenomena not previously encountered in diagnostic design. Extensive design and R......&D is needed to prepare the systems. In some cases the environmental difficulties are so severe that new diagnostic techniques are required. The starting point in the development of diagnostics for ITER is to define the measurement requirements and develop their justification. It is necessary to include all...

  2. Additional diagnostic value of tumor markers in cytological fluid for diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Jin; Chung, Kyung Young; Lee, Hye Sun; Choi, Byoung Wook; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Nam, Ji Eun; Kim, Young Jin; Hong, Yoo Jin; Kim, Hee Yeong; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kim, Joo-Hang

    2012-01-01

    Cytological fluid from a needle aspiration biopsy (NAB) is obtained directly from tumor tissue, therefore many biomarker candidates will be present in high concentrations. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess and validate the tumor markers CYFRA 21–1, CEA, and SCC in cytological fluid obtained from NAB samples to determine if they improved the performance of NAB for diagnosing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 194 patients (M:F = 128:66, mean age 63.7 years) with suspected malignant pulmonary lesions were prospectively enrolled and underwent percutaneous NAB. Levels of CYFRA 21–1, CEA, and SCC were measured by immunoassay in serum and cytological fluid obtained during aspiration biopsy. Cut-off values to determined malignancy were 3.3 ng/mL in serum and 15.7 ng/mL in cytological fluid for CYFRA 21–1, 5 ng/mL and 0.6 ng/mL for CEA, and 2 ng/mL and 0.86 ng/mL for SCC. Of 194 patients, 139 patients (71.6%) had NSCLC and 55 (28.4%) had benign lesions. Sensitivity increased significantly for NAB combined with cytological tumor markers compared with NAB alone (CYFRA 21–1: 95% versus 83.5%, p < 0.001, CEA: 92.1% versus 83.5%, p = 0.002, SCC: 91.4% versus 83.5%, p = 0.003). Accuracy improved significantly for NAB combined with cytological CYFRA 21–1 compared with NAB alone (95.9% versus 88.1%, p < 0.001). The area under curve (AUC) of NAB with cytological CYFRA 21–1 was significantly larger than for NAB alone (0.966 versus 0.917, p = 0.009). Of the tested tumor markers, cytological fluid measurements of CYFRA 21–1 improved the diagnostic performance of NAB for NSCLC

  3. Human heart-type fatty acid-binding protein as an early diagnostic marker of doxorubicin cardiac toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf H. ElGhandour

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cardiotoxicity following treatment with doxorubicin-based chemotherapy in patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL may lead to late onset cardiomyopathy. So, early prediction of toxicity can lead to prevention of heart failure in these patients. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of H-FABP as an early diagnostic marker of anthracycline-induced cardiac toxicity together with brain natriuretic peptide (BNP as an indication of ventricular dysfunction in such patients. Our study was conducted on 40 NHL patients who received 6 cycles of a doxorubicin containing chemotherapy protocol (CHOP, not exceeding the total allowed dose of doxorubicin (500 mg/m2. Ten healthy controls were included in our study. Human heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP was assessed 24 hours after the first cycle of CHOP. Plasma levels of BNP were estimated both before starting chemotherapy and after the last cycle of CHOP. Resting echocardiography was also performed before and at the end of chemotherapy cycles. The ejection fraction (EF of 8 of our patients decreased below 50% at the end of the sixth cycle. Elevated levels of both H-FABP and BNP were found in all patients wth EF below 50% and both markers showed a positive correlation with each other. We concluded that H-FABP may serve as a reliable early marker for prediction of cardiomyopathy induced by doxorubicin. Thus, in patients with elevated H-FABP, alternative treatment modalities with no cardiac toxicity may be considered in order to prevent subsequent heart failure in these patients.

  4. Cardiac magnetic resonance markers of progressive RV dilation and dysfunction after tetralogy of Fallot repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wald, Rachel M.; Valente, Anne Marie; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Babu-Narayan, Sonya V.; Assenza, Gabriele Egidy; Schreier, Jenna; Gatzoulis, Michael A.; Kilner, Philip J.; Koyak, Zeliha; Mulder, Barbara; Powell, Andrew J.; Geva, Tal

    2015-01-01

    Patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) are followed serially by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) for surveillance of RV dilation and dysfunction. We sought to define the prevalence of progressive RV disease and the optimal time interval between CMR evaluations. Candidates were selected

  5. Circulating Serum miRNAs as Diagnostic Markers for Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Rahman N Zekri

    Full Text Available The study was designed to assess the possibility of using circulating miRNAs (serum miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers in colorectal cancer (CRC and to identify their possibility as candidates for targeted therapy.The study involved two sample sets: 1- a training set which included 90 patients with colorectal related disease (30 with CRC, 18 with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, 18 with colonic polyps (CP and 24 with different colonic symptoms but without any colonoscopic abnormality who were enrolled as control group and 2- a validation set which included 100 CRC patients. Serum miRNAs were extracted from all subjects to assess the expression profiles for the following miRNAs (miR-17, miR-18a, miR-19a, miR-19b, miR-20a, miR-21, miR-146a, miR-223, miR-24, miR-454, miR-183, miR-135a, miR- 135b and miR- 92a using the custom miScript miRNA PCR-based sybergreen array. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the studied miRNAs for colorectal cancer diagnosis.Data analysis of miRNA from the training set showed that; compared to control group, only miR-19b was significantly up-regulated in patients with IBD group (fold change = 5.24, p = 0.016, whereas in patients with colonic polyps, miR-18a was significantly up-regulated (fold change = 3.49, p-value = 0.018. On the other hand, miR-17, miR-19a, miR-20a and miR-223 were significantly up-regulated (fold change = 2.35, 3.07, 2.38 and 10.35; respectively and p-value = 0.02, 0.015, 0.017 and 0.016; respectively in CRC patients. However, the validation set showed that only miR-223 was significantly up-regulated in CRC patients (fold change = 4.06, p-value = 0.04.Aberrant miRNA expressions are highly involved in the cascade of colorectal carcinogenesis. We have found that (miR-17, miR-19a, miR-20a and miR-223 could be used as diagnostic biomarkers for CRC. On the other hand, miR-19b and miR-18a could be used as diagnostic biomarkers for

  6. Antibodies to phosphatidylserine/prothrombin complex as an additional diagnostic marker of APS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žigon, P; Čučnik, S; Ambrožič, A; Sodin Šemrl, S; Kveder, T; Božič, B

    2012-06-01

    Antiprothrombin antibodies can be measured by ELISA using either a prothrombin/phosphatidylserine complex (aPS/PT) or prothrombin alone (aPT) as antigen. We aimed to compare the clinical features of autoimmune patients with avidity of aPS/PT and determine the diagnostic efficiency of aPS/PT and aPT for assessing antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). aPS/PT were of low (n = 9), heterogeneous (n = 31) and high (n = 8) avidity out of 48 cases. None of the samples with low avidity were positive in aPT ELISA. Among patients with heterogeneous or high avidity aPS/PT, there was a significantly greater number of patients with APS as compared to patients with low avidity (38/39 vs. 7/9; p < 0.05). No SLE patients had high avidity antiprothrombin antibodies.

  7. Rectal sensory threshold for pain is a diagnostic marker of irritable bowel syndrome and functional abdominal pain in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halac, Ugur; Noble, Angela; Faure, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of the rectal sensory threshold for pain (RSTP) in children and adolescents with chronic abdominal pain. Fifty-one patients (25 girls; median age 14.2 years; range 8.4-17.6) with abdominal pain >2 months underwent a series of rectal distensions with an electronic barostat. RSTP and viscerosomatic referrals were assessed. Three months after the barostat, the final diagnosis was documented. Thirty-five patients had a functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) (irritable bowel syndrome or functional abdominal pain), and 16 had an organic disease. RSTP was lower in the FGID group than in the organic disease group (25.4mm Hg vs 37.1mm Hg; P = .0002). At the cutoff of 30mm Hg, the RSTP measurement for the diagnosis of FGID had a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 77%. Both groups similarly reported aberrant viscerosomatic projections. In children, RSTP is a diagnostic marker of irritable bowel syndrome and functional abdominal pain. Viscerosomatic referrals are similar in children with FGID and organic diseases.

  8. Reactive oxygen species modulator 1 (Romo1) as a novel diagnostic marker for lung cancer-related malignant effusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hyeun; Park, Myung Jae; Choi, Sue In; Lee, Eun Joo; Lee, Sang Yeub; In, Kwang Ho

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Reactive oxygen species modulator 1 (Romo1) is a novel protein that plays an important role in intracellular reactive oxygen species generation. Recently, Romo1 has been suggested to have diagnostic and prognostic potential in lung cancer. However, there is no data on the diagnostic value of Romo1 level in malignant pleural effusion. We evaluated the clinical usefulness of Romo1 in pleural fluid for the diagnosis of malignant effusion in lung cancer patients. Pleural fluid Romo1 level was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared between lung cancer-associated malignant effusion (n = 53; 29 adenocarcinomas and 24 squamous cell carcinomas) and benign pleural effusions (n = 91; 31 tuberculous pleurisy, 30 parapneumonic effusion, and 30 transudate). The discriminative power of Romo1 for lung cancer-associated malignant effusion was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and compared with those of other tumor markers. Median Romo1 level in lung cancer-associated malignant effusion was 99.3 ng/mL, which was significantly higher than that in benign pleural effusions (P effusion from benign effusions was 67.0 ng/mL with a sensitivity of 73.8% and a specificity of 84.1%. The area under the curve was 0.837 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.750–0.886), which was significantly better than that of cytokeratin 19 fragments (P effusion. PMID:28121949

  9. Serum tumor marker CYFRA 21-1 in the diagnostics of squamous cell lung cancer - comparison with CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzinec, P.; Letkovicova, M.; Arpasova, M.; Zuffova, H.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the diagnostic value tumor marker CYFRA 21-1 for squamous cell lung cancer (SQCLC) in comparison with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Ninety-one patients were induced in this study: 56 with SQCLC - Group I, 25 with other types of lung cancer - Group II, 10 with benign respiratory tract diseases - Group III. Median CYFRA 21-1 serum concentration (ng/ml) was: in Group I: 4.52 (0.94 - >16), in Group II: 3.58 (1.72 - >16), in Group III: 2.05 (0.99 - 3.41). Median CEA serum concentration (ng/ml) was: in Group I: 4.49 (076- >20), in Group II: 3.32 (1.17 - >20), in Group III: 3.09 (1.84 - 6.37). There was a highly significant difference between the levels of CYFRA 21-1 in group I and Group III (p < 0.001), but there was no statistically significant difference between the levels of CEA in Group I and III. Sensitivity of CYFRA 21-1 by the cut-off 3.33 ng/ml in the diagnostics of SQCLC was 0.68, specificity 0.090, positive predictive value 0.91, negative predictive value 0.65. Sensitivity of CEA by cut-off 4.61 ng/ml was 0.5 by the same specificity 0.90. CYFRA 21-1 has high sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value in the diagnostics of SQCLC. Sensitivity of CYFRA 21-1 is significantly higher than sensitivity of CEA in this settings. (author)

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging for detecting root avulsions in traumatic adult brachial plexus injuries: protocol for a systematic review of diagnostic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Ryckie G; Takwoingi, Yemisi; Wormald, Justin C R; Ridgway, John P; Tanner, Steven; Rankine, James J; Bourke, Grainne

    2018-05-19

    Adult brachial plexus injuries (BPI) are becoming more common. The reconstruction and prognosis of pre-ganglionic injuries (root avulsions) are different to other types of BPI injury. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being used to identify root avulsions, but the evidence from studies of its diagnostic accuracy are conflicting. Therefore, a systematic review is needed to address uncertainty about the accuracy of MRI and to guide future research. We will conduct a systematic search of electronic databases alongside reference tracking. We will include studies of adults with traumatic BPI which report the accuracy of preoperative MRI (index test) against surgical exploration of the roots of the brachial plexus (reference standard) for detecting either of the two target conditions (any root avulsion or any pseudomeningocoele as a surrogate marker of root avulsion). We will exclude case reports, articles considering bilateral injuries and studies where the number of true positives, false positives, false negatives and true negatives cannot be derived. The methodological quality of the included studies will be assessed using a tailored version of the QUADAS-2 tool. Where possible, a bivariate model will be used for meta-analysis to obtain summary sensitivities and specificities for both target conditions. We will investigate heterogeneity in the performance of MRI according to field strength and the risk of bias if data permits. This review will summarise the current diagnostic accuracy of MRI for adult BPI, identify shortcomings and gaps in the literature and so help to guide future research. PROSPERO CRD42016049702 .

  11. The Diagnostic Role of Magnetic Resonance Enterography as a Complementary Test to Colonoscopy in Active Crohn?s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Aryan, Arvin; Azizi, Zahra; Teimouri, Azam; Ebrahimi Daryani, Nasser; Aletaha, Najme; Jahanbakhsh, Ali; Nouritaromlou, Mohammad Kazem; Alborzi, Forough; Mami, Masoud; Basirat, Vahid; Javid Anbardan, Sanam

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND According to recent studies comparing magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) with ileocolonoscopy for assessing inflammation of small bowel and colonic segments in adults with active Crohn?s disease (CD), we aimed to compare the accuracy of these two diagnostic methods in Iranian population. METHODS During 2013-2014 a follow-up study was done on 30 patients with active CD in a gastroenterology clinic affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. MRE and ileocolonoscopy were p...

  12. Machine learning classification with confidence: application of transductive conformal predictors to MRI-based diagnostic and prognostic markers in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouretdinov, Ilia; Costafreda, Sergi G; Gammerman, Alexander; Chervonenkis, Alexey; Vovk, Vladimir; Vapnik, Vladimir; Fu, Cynthia H Y

    2011-05-15

    There is rapidly accumulating evidence that the application of machine learning classification to neuroimaging measurements may be valuable for the development of diagnostic and prognostic prediction tools in psychiatry. However, current methods do not produce a measure of the reliability of the predictions. Knowing the risk of the error associated with a given prediction is essential for the development of neuroimaging-based clinical tools. We propose a general probabilistic classification method to produce measures of confidence for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. We describe the application of transductive conformal predictor (TCP) to MRI images. TCP generates the most likely prediction and a valid measure of confidence, as well as the set of all possible predictions for a given confidence level. We present the theoretical motivation for TCP, and we have applied TCP to structural and functional MRI data in patients and healthy controls to investigate diagnostic and prognostic prediction in depression. We verify that TCP predictions are as accurate as those obtained with more standard machine learning methods, such as support vector machine, while providing the additional benefit of a valid measure of confidence for each prediction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnostic performance of tumor markers AFP and PIVKA-II in Chinese hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shujing; Jiang, Feifei; Wang, Ying; Yu, Yanhua; Ren, Siqian; Wang, Xiaowei; Yin, Peng; Lou, Jinli

    2017-06-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein is an effective biomarker as an aid in hepatocellular carcinoma detection in many countries. However, alpha-fetoprotein has its limitations, especially in early hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis. Protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II is another biomarker that is used for hepatocellular carcinoma detection. The aim of this study is to compare the diagnostic performance of alpha-fetoprotein and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II alone and in combination to explore improving biomarker performance as an aid in early hepatocellular carcinoma detection. In this study a total of 582 serum samples including 132 hepatocellular carcinoma patients, 250 non-hepatocellular carcinoma patients, and 200 healthy volunteers were collected. Alpha-fetoprotein and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II levels were measured by both chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay on LUMIPULSE platform and by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay on ARCHITECT platform. Receiver operation characteristic curve analyses were performed for each biomarker and in combination. The results showed that Alpha-fetoprotein and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II in combination have shown higher area under the curve compared to alpha-fetoprotein alone for diagnosis in whole patients (0.906 vs 0.870) in hepatocellular carcinoma early-stage patients (0.809 vs 0.77) and in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma patients (0.851 vs 0.788) with ARCHITECT platform. Protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II showed higher area under the curve than alpha-fetoprotein for diagnosis of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma patients (0.901 vs 0.788).We conclude that Combining alpha-fetoprotein and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II may improve the diagnostic value for early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma. Protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II performs better

  14. Diagnostic Accuracy of Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Characterizing Lung Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Nagihan; Arslan, Arzu; Donmez, Muhammed; Sarisoy, Hasan Tahsin

    2016-01-01

    Background Imaging plays a critical role not only in the detection, but also in the characterization of lung masses as benign or malignant. Objectives To determine the diagnostic accuracy of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lung masses. Patients and Methods Ninety-four masses were included in this prospective study. Five dynamic series of T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (FFE) images were obtained, followed by a T1-weighted FFE sequence in the late phase (5th minutes). Contrast enhancement patterns in the early (25th second) and late (5th minute) phase images were evaluated. For the quantitative evaluation, signal intensity (SI)-time curves were obtained and the maximum relative enhancement, wash-in rate, and time-to-peak enhancement of masses in both groups were calculated. Results The early phase contrast enhancement patterns were homogeneous in 78.2% of the benign masses, while heterogeneous in 74.4% of the malignant tumors. On the late phase images, 70.8% of the benign masses showed homogeneous enhancement, while most of the malignant masses showed heterogeneous enhancement (82.4%). During the first pass, the maximum relative enhancement and wash-in rate values of malignant masses were significantly higher than those of the benign masses (P = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). The cutoff value at 15% yielded a sensitivity of 85.4%, specificity of 61.2%, and positive predictive value of 68.7% for the maximum relative enhancement. Conclusion Contrast enhancement patterns and SI-time curve analysis of MRI are helpful in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lung masses. PMID:27703654

  15. Diagnostic Performance of a Rapid Magnetic Resonance Imaging Method of Measuring Hepatic Steatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Michael J.; Gan, Eng K.; Adams, Leon A.; Ayonrinde, Oyekoya T.; Bangma, Sander J.; Bhathal, Prithi S.; Olynyk, John K.; St. Pierre, Tim G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Hepatic steatosis is associated with an increased risk of developing serious liver disease and other clinical sequelae of the metabolic syndrome. However, visual estimates of steatosis from histological sections of biopsy samples are subjective and reliant on an invasive procedure with associated risks. The aim of this study was to test the ability of a rapid, routinely available, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method to diagnose clinically relevant grades of hepatic steatosis in a cohort of patients with diverse liver diseases. Materials and Methods Fifty-nine patients with a range of liver diseases underwent liver biopsy and MRI. Hepatic steatosis was quantified firstly using an opposed-phase, in-phase gradient echo, single breath-hold MRI methodology and secondly, using liver biopsy with visual estimation by a histopathologist and by computer-assisted morphometric image analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the diagnostic performance of the MRI method against the biopsy observations. Results The MRI approach had high sensitivity and specificity at all hepatic steatosis thresholds. Areas under ROC curves were 0.962, 0.993, and 0.972 at thresholds of 5%, 33%, and 66% liver fat, respectively. MRI measurements were strongly associated with visual (r2 = 0.83) and computer-assisted morphometric (r2 = 0.84) estimates of hepatic steatosis from histological specimens. Conclusions This MRI approach, using a conventional, rapid, gradient echo method, has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing liver fat at all grades of steatosis in a cohort with a range of liver diseases. PMID:23555650

  16. Establishing a diagnostic system for detecting Ralstonia solanacearum and genetic differentiation using RAPD molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edisson Chavarro Mesa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymerase chain reaction-based diagnostic test (PCR has been developed for amplifying a región and obtaining a 292 bp product by using specific 16S rDNA primers for the rapid and precise identification of the causative agent (Ralstonia solanacearum of bacterial withering of potato in asymptomatic tubers. The bacteria was isolated from potato tubers and banana fruit using culturing techniques and immunological and molecular ELISA-NCM and PCR tests, respectively. PCR detected the presence of R. solanacearum on asymptomatic tubers by contrast with ELISA-NCM which did not detect this pathogen. Analysing random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD led to differentiating and grouping R. solanacearum by geographical región and bacterial strain, suggesting that differences exist amongst existing collections according to their place of origin, presenting high genetic variability. The results showed that PCR is a sensitive and specific test for detecting R. solanacearum and can therefore be implemented as a method for controlling this pathogen in seed production and certification programmes in áreas free of the disease. The pathogen has been shown to be genetically heterogeneous according to the samples' geographical área thereby hampering control in áreas of Colombia experiencing phytosanitary problems with R. solanacearum in potato crops Key words: bacterial withered, moko, PCR-16S rADN, ELISA-NCM, PCR-RAPD.

  17. Diagnostic Utility of High Sensitivity Troponins for Echocardiographic Markers of Structural Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tom Kai Ming; Dugo, Clementina; Gillian, Yvonne; Yvonne, Wynne; Heather, Semple; Kevin, Smith; Peter, Cleave; Jonathan, Christiansen; Andrew, To; Nezar, Amir; Scott, Tony; Ross, Boswell; Patrick, Gladding

    2018-02-15

    The conventional use of high-sensitivity troponins (hs-troponins) is for diagnosing myocardial infarction however they also have a role in chronic disease management. This pilot study assessed the relationship of hs-troponins with echocardiographic markers of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and structural heart disease (SHD). Patients undergoing computer gomography (CT) coronary angiogram for low-intermediate risk chest pain and healthy volunteers were recruited. Hs-troponins Singulex I, Abbott I and Roche T and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were evaluated in relation to SHD parameters including left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH Echo ) and left atrial enlargement (LAE Echo ) on echocardiography. 78 subjects who underwent echocardiography were included in this study. C-statistics (95% confidence interval) of the four biomarkers for predicting LVH Echo were 0.84 (0.72-0.92), 0.84 (0.73-0.92), 0.75 (0.63-0.85) and 0.62 (0.49-0.74); for LAE Echo 0.74 (0.6-0.85), 0.78 (0.66-0.88), 0.55 (0.42-0.67) and 0.68 (0.62-0.85); and composite SHD 0.79 (0.66-0.88), 0.87 (0.75-0.94), 0.62 (0.49-0.73) and 0.74 (0.62-0.84) respectively. Optimal cut points for SHD were >1.2 ng/L, >1.6 ng/L, >8 ng/L and >18 pmol/L respectively. These results advocate the potential role of hs-troponins as screening tools for structural heart disease with theranostic implications.

  18. Gene expression profiles in prostate cancer: identification of candidate non-invasive diagnostic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengual, L; Ars, E; Lozano, J J; Burset, M; Izquierdo, L; Ingelmo-Torres, M; Gaya, J M; Algaba, F; Villavicencio, H; Ribal, M J; Alcaraz, A

    2014-04-01

    To analyze gene expression profiles of prostate cancer (PCa) with the aim of determining the relevant differentially expressed genes and subsequently ascertain whether this differential expression is maintained in post-prostatic massage (PPM) urine samples. Forty-six tissue specimens (36 from PCa patients and 10 controls) and 158 urine PPM-urines (113 from PCa patients and 45 controls) were collected between December 2003 and May 2007. DNA microarrays were used to identify genes differentially expressed between tumour and control samples. Ten genes were technically validated in the same tissue samples by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Forty two selected differentially expressed genes were validated in an independent set of PPM-urines by qRT-PCR. Multidimensional scaling plot according to the expression of all the microarray genes showed a clear distinction between control and tumour samples. A total of 1047 differentially expressed genes (FDR≤.1) were indentified between both groups of samples. We found a high correlation in the comparison of microarray and RT-qPCR gene expression levels (r=.928, P<.001). Thirteen genes maintained the same fold change direction when analyzed in PPM-urine samples and in four of them (HOXC6, PCA3, PDK4 and TMPRSS2-ERG), these differences were statistically significant (P<.05). The analysis of PCa by DNA microarrays provides new putative mRNA markers for PCa diagnosis that, with caution, can be extrapolated to PPM-urines. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Additional diagnostic value of systolic dysfunction induced by dipyridamole stress cardiac magnetic resonance used in detecting coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husser, Oliver; Bodí, Vicente; Sanchís, Juan; Mainar, Luis; Núñez, Julio; López-Lereu, María P; Monmeneu, José V; Ruiz, Vicente; Rumiz, Eva; Moratal, David; Chorro, Francisco J; Llácer, Angel

    2009-04-01

    Dipyridamole stress perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is used to detect coronary artery disease (CAD). However, few data are available on the diagnostic value of the systolic dysfunction induced by dipyridamole. This study investigated whether the induction of systolic dysfunction supplements the diagnostic information provided by perfusion imaging in the detection of CAD. Overall, 166 patients underwent dipyridamole CMR and quantitative coronary angiography, with CAD being defined as a stenosis > or =70%. Systolic dysfunction at rest, systolic dysfunction with dipyridamole, induced systolic dysfunction, and stress first-pass perfussion deficit (PD) and delayed enhancement were quantified. In the multivariate analysis, PD (hazard ratio [HR]=1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-1.91;Pstatistic for predicting CAD (0.81 vs. 0.87; P=.02). Combining induced systolic dysfunction with perfusion imaging increases the diagnostic accuracy of detecting CAD and enables patients with severe ischemia and a high probability of CAD to be identified.

  20. MicroRNAs as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Martinez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is characterized by primary damage to the brain from the external mechanical force and by subsequent secondary injury due to various molecular and pathophysiological responses that eventually lead to neuronal cell death. Secondary brain injury events may occur minutes, hours, or even days after the trauma, and provide valuable therapeutic targets to prevent further neuronal degeneration. At the present time, there is no effective treatment for TBI due, in part, to the widespread impact of numerous complex secondary biochemical and pathophysiological events occurring at different time points following the initial injury. MicroRNAs control a range of physiological and pathological functions such as development, differentiation, apoptosis and metabolism, and may serve as potential targets for progress assessment and intervention against TBI to mitigate secondary damage to the brain. This has implications regarding improving the diagnostic accuracy of brain impairment and long-term outcomes as well as potential novel treatments. Recent human studies have identified specific microRNAs in serum/plasma (miR-425-p, -21, -93, -191 and -499 and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF (miR-328, -362-3p, -451, -486a as possible indicators of the diagnosis, severity, and prognosis of TBI. Experimental animal studies have examined specific microRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for moderate and mild TBI (e.g., miR-21, miR-23b. MicroRNA profiling was altered by voluntary exercise. Differences in basal microRNA expression in the brain of adult and aged animals and alterations in response to TBI (e.g., miR-21 have also been reported. Further large-scale studies with TBI patients are needed to provide more information on the changes in microRNA profiles in different age groups (children, adults, and elderly.

  1. Anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin antibodies: an additional diagnostic marker for APS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnolato, Francesca; Chighizola, Cecilia B; Encabo, Susan; Shums, Zakera; Norman, Gary L; Tripodi, Armando; Chantarangkul, Veena; Bertero, Tiziana; De Micheli, Valeria; Borghi, Maria Orietta; Meroni, Pier Luigi

    2013-07-01

    Among the diagnostic assays for anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS), lupus anticoagulant (LA) is the strongest predictor of thrombosis; however, it presents several limitations as interference with anticoagulant therapy and poor inter-laboratory agreement. Two-thirds of LA activity is apparently due to antibodies against prothrombin (PT), usually detectable by ELISA. Binding of PT to phosphatidylserine (PS) has been shown to enhance solid-phase anti-PT assay sensitivity. To determine the prevalence of antibodies against PS/PT (aPS/PT) in APS, we tested the semiquantitative QUANTA Lite(®) aPS/PT ELISA in a cohort of 80 APS patients. The prevalence of aPS/PT was 81.3%, rising to 87.6% when considering LA-positive subjects only. We observed a strong correlation between aPS/PT and LA (p = 0.006). To note, APS patients with thrombotic manifestations displayed significantly higher IgG aPS/PT titers compared to 20 aPL asymptomatic carriers (p = 0.012). To rule out a possible cross-reactivity of anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies (aβ2GPI) with PS/PT complex, we tested two monoclonal aβ2GPI antibodies and an affinity-purified (AP) polyclonal aβ2GPI IgG obtained from the serum of a patient reacting against both β2GPI and PS/PT. The two monoclonal antibodies did not show any reactivity against PS/PT complex, similarly the AP IgGs did not react toward PS/PT antigen while preserved their aβ2GPI activity. Our findings suggest that aPS/PT are a definite antibody population in APS. Moreover, the good correlation between aPS/PT ELISA and LA may support its use as a surrogate test for LA, particularly useful to overcome the technical limitations of the functional assay.

  2. In vivo quantification of fluorescent molecular markers in real-time by ratio Imaging for diagnostic screening and image-guided surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaards, A.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; Trachtenberg, J.; Wilson, B. C.; Lilge, L.

    2007-01-01

    Future applications of "molecular diagnostic screening" and "molecular image-guided surgery" will demand images of molecular markers with high resolution and high throughput (similar to >= 30 frames/second). MRI, SPECT, PET, optical fluorescence tomography, hyper-spectral fluorescence imaging, and

  3. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography as a diagnostic tool for common bile duct stones - A comparison with ERCP and clinical follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kats, J; Kraai, M; Dijkstra, AJ; Koster, K; ter Borg, F; Hazenberg, HJA; Schattenkerk, ME; des Plantes, BGZ; Eddes, EH

    2003-01-01

    Background/Aims: The diagnostic potential of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography (MRCP) has improved as a result of evolving technique. MRCP has the advantage of negligible morbidity and mortality in contrast to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). This study was

  4. Magnetic resonance in the diagnostic imaging study of mesial temporal sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, E.; Sanchez, J. C.; Rodriguez, I.; Altuzarra, A.; Machado, F.; Aguilar, D.

    2001-01-01

    Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) consists of hippocampal atrophy and gliosis and is the most common cause of temporal lobe epilepsy. The objective of the authors was to establish a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol for its diagnosis. A prospective study was carried out in 72 patients with drug resistant complex partial seizures (42 women and 30 men ranging in age from 6 to 66 year: mean: 30 years). Using a 1.5-Tesla magnet, paracoronal sections were made in hippocampi for T1-weighted inversion-recovery images and volume measurements, fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) and T2 relaxometry. A control group of 30 health volunteers was included in the study. MTS was considered to be indicated by the presence of atrophy and hyperintensity in hippocampi on T2-weighted images. There were no differences among the hippocampi of the healthy individuals. The confidence intervals (mean± 1.96 SD) were 4169 mm''3-5911 mm''3 for volume of right side, 4097 mm''3-5940 mm''3 for volume of left side and 98-113 ms for T2 relaxation time. MTS was detected in 40 patients (55.5%): 23 cases involving the left side, 13 involving the right and 4 cases of bilateral asymmetric involvement. The 95% confidence intervals for the diagnostic validity of the results (sensitivity/specificity) were (88.8%-97.2%)/(87.6%-96.4%) for T1 volumetry, (88.8%-97.2%)(95.7%-100.3%) for FLAIR and (85.4%-96.6%)/(85.4%-96.6%) for T2 relaxometry. In 5 cases of MTS, astrophy of other extra hippocampal structures was also observed, and MTS was associated with an extra hippocampal lesion (dual pathology), especially neurona migration disorders, in 8 patients. Seventeen patients (23.5%) presented lesions without MTS (tumors, cortical dysplasias and heterotopias) and there was no MRI evidence of anomalies in 15 (21%). Twenty-five patients underwent surgical treatment: 20 with MTS (19 diagnosed according to MRI and one in whom there had been no abnormal findings), 4 with tumors and 1 with a ballooned cell

  5. Temporomandibular disorders – validity of clinical diagnostics compared to magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    BADEL, TOMISLAV; MAROTTI, MILJENKO; SAVIĆ PAVIČIN, IVANA; DULČIĆ, NIKŠA; ZADRAVEC, DIJANA; KERN, JOSIPA

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Orthopedic examination techniques of the musculoskeletal system contribute to the successful diagnostics of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The purpose of this study is to determine the validity of TMD clinical diagnostics by comparing the findings of manual functional analysis (MFA) and the results of MRI of temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The diagnostic significance of limited mouth opening and pain upon passive mouth opening were taken into consideration. M...

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance arthrography of the shoulder: dependence on the level of training of the performing radiologist for diagnostic accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodoropoulos, John S. [University of Toronto, Division of Orthopaedics, Mount Sinai Hospital and the University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Andreisek, Gustav [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Mount Sinai Hospital and the University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); University Hospital Zuerich, Institute for Diagnostic Radiology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Harvey, Edward J. [McGill University, Division of Orthopaedics, MUHC - Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Wolin, Preston [Center for Athletic Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Discrepancies were identified between magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and clinical findings in patients who had MR imaging examinations evaluated by community-based general radiologists. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of MR imaging examinations of the shoulder with regard to the training level of the performing radiologist. A review of patient charts identified 238 patients (male/female, 175/63; mean age, 40.4 years) in whom 250 arthroscopies were performed and who underwent MR imaging or direct MR arthrography in either a community-based or hospital-based institution prior to surgery. All MR imaging and surgical reports were reviewed and the diagnostic performance for the detection of labral, rotator cuff, biceps, and Hill-Sachs lesions was determined. Kappa and Student's t test analyses were performed in a subset of cases in which initial community-based MR images were re-evaluated by hospital-based musculoskeletal radiologists, to determine the interobserver agreement and any differences in image interpretation. The diagnostic performance of community-based general radiologists was lower than that of hospital-based sub-specialized musculoskeletal radiologists. A sub-analysis of re-evaluated cases showed that musculoskeletal radiologists performed better. {kappa} values were 0.208, 0.396, 0.376, and 0.788 for labral, rotator cuff, biceps, and Hill-Sachs lesions (t test statistics: p =<0.001, 0.004, 0.019, and 0.235). Our results indicate that the diagnostic performance of MR imaging and MR arthrography of the shoulder depends on the training level of the performing radiologist, with sub-specialized musculoskeletal radiologists having a better diagnostic performance than general radiologists. (orig.)

  7. Patterns of Gram-stained fecal flora as a quick diagnostic marker in patients with severe SIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kentaro; Ogura, Hiroshi; Tomono, Kazunori; Tasaki, Osamu; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Morotomi, Masami; Matsushima, Asako; Nakahori, Yasutaka; Yamano, Shuhei; Osuka, Akinori; Kuwagata, Yasuyuki; Sugimoto, Hisashi

    2011-06-01

    The gut is an important target organ of injury during critically ill conditions. Although Gram staining is a common and quick method for identifying bacteria, its clinical application has not been fully evaluated in critically ill conditions. This study's aims were to identify patterns of Gram-stained fecal flora and compare them to cultured bacterial counts and to investigate the association between the patterns and septic complications in patients with severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Fifty-two patients with SIRS were included whose Gram-stained fecal flora was classified into three patterns. In a diverse pattern, large numbers of multiple kinds of bacteria completely covered the field. In a single pattern, one specific kind of bacteria or fungi predominantly covered the field. In a depleted pattern, most bacteria were diminished in the field. In the analysis of fecal flora, the numbers of total obligate anaerobes in the depleted pattern was significantly lower than those in the diverse pattern and single pattern (p Gram-stained fecal flora can be classified into three patterns and are associated with both cultured bacterial counts and clinical information. Gram-stained fecal bacteria can be used as a quick bedside diagnostic marker for severe SIRS patients.

  8. A study on β-defensin-2 and histatin-5 as a diagnostic marker of early childhood caries progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jurczak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, a continuous growth of interest has been observed in antimicrobial peptides (AMPs in the light of an alarming increase in resistance of bacteria and fungi against antibiotics. AMPs are used as biomarkers in diagnosis and monitoring of oral cavity pathologies. Therefore, the determination of specific protein profiles in children diagnosed with early childhood caries (ECC might be a basis for effective screening tests and specialized examinations which may enable progression of disease METHODS: The objective of the studies was to determine the role of histatin-5 and β-defensing-2 as a diagnostic marker of early childhood caries progression. In this work, results of concentration determination of two salivary proteins (histatin-5 and β-defensin-2 were presented. In addition, bacterial profiles from dental plaque in various stages of ECC and control were marked. The assessment of alteration in the concentration of these two proteins in a study group of children with various stages of ECC and a control group consisting of children with no symptoms was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays RESULTS: The statistical analysis showed a significant increase in the concentration of histatin-5 and β-defensin-2 in the study group compared to the control group and correlated with the progression of the disease CONCLUSIONS: The confirmation of concentration changes in these proteins during the progression of dental caries may discover valuable disease progression biomarkers

  9. Diagnostic yield of combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion weighted imaging in intracranial neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayat E. El Sherbeny

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: MRS has a robust diagnostic accuracy in cases of well defined high or low grade brain neoplasms. ADC value had the ability to confirm and differentiate low from high grade tumors in many situations where there were diagnostic confusions with MRS due to borderline values.

  10. Tumors markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi-Mizumoto, N.H.

    1989-01-01

    In order to study blood and cell components alterations (named tumor markers) that may indicate the presence of a tumor, several methods are presented. Aspects as diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic value and clinical evaluation are discussed. (M.A.C.)

  11. Positivity of magnetic resonance imaging the GIROIMAG-01: Diagnostic tools in injuries of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda Guerra, Manuel Ernesto; Corujo Torres, Pedro A.; Gonzalez Ferro, Idalia; Daudinot Gomez, Barbara; Montoya Pedron, Arquimedes

    2001-01-01

    A study was made to compare the positivity of magnetic resonance imaging with that of other imaging and neuropsychological diagnostic tools in injuries of the central nervous system in order to determine the sensitivity, specificity, strength and the test error with the GIROIMAG-01 Cuban tomograph in the diagnostic of these injuries. An intentional sample of 398 patients was selected. Only those patients who had undergone computed axial tomography, electroencephalogram or evoked multimodal potentials or both, whose results were registered in the study requests, could be selected. The most representative injuries among the diagnoses made were the degenerative diseases, the brain and cerebellar tumors, the cerebrovascular accidents, the demyelinizating diseases and hydrocephalous. It was demonstrated that this tomograph has an elevated sensitivity and specificity for the detection of injuries of the central nervous system

  12. Magnetic resonance angiography signal intensity as a marker of hemodynamic impairment in intracranial arterial stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi Leng

    Full Text Available Intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS is the predominant cause of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack in Asia. Change of signal intensities (SI across an ICAS on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA may reflect its hemodynamic severity.In-patients with a symptomatic single ICAS detected on 3D time-of-flight MRA were recruited from 2 hospitals. Baseline and 1-year follow-up data were collected. Signal intensity ratio (SIR [ =  (mean post-stenotic SI -mean background SI/(mean pre-stenotic SI - mean background SI] was evaluated on baseline MRA to represent change of SIs across an ICAS. Acute infarct volume was measured on baseline diffusion-weighted images (DWI. Relationships between SIR and baseline characteristics as well as 1y outcomes were evaluated.Thirty-six subjects (86.1% males, mean age 55.0 were recruited. Overall, mean SIR was 0.84±0.23. Mean SIRs were not significantly different between the 23 (63.9% anatomically severe stenoses and the 13 (36.1% anatomically moderate stenoses (0.80±0.23 versus 0.92±0.21, p = 0.126. SIR was significantly, linearly and negatively correlated to acute infarct volume on DWI (Spearman correlation coefficient -0.471, p = 0.011. Two patients (5.6% had recurrent ischemic strokes at 1y, not related to SIR values.Change of signal intensities across an ICAS on MRA may reflect its hemodynamic and functional severity. Future studies are warranted to further verify the relationships between this index and prognosis of patients with symptomatic ICAS.

  13. Diagnostic sensitivity of radiography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging for detecting shoulder osteochondrosis/osteochondritis dissecans in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Corey R; Cook, Cristi R; Cook, James L

    2015-01-01

    Radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasonography are commonly used for diagnosis of shoulder osteochondrosis and osteochondritis dissecans (OC/OCD) in dogs, however there is a lack of published information on the relative diagnostic sensitivities of these modalities. The purpose of this prospective study was to compare diagnostic sensitivities of these modalities for detecting shoulder OC/OCD in a group of dogs, using arthroscopy as the reference standard. Inclusion criteria were history and clinical findings consistent with osteochondrosis and/or osteochondritis dissecans involving at least one shoulder. With informed client consent, both shoulders for all included dogs were examined using standardized radiography, ultrasonography, MRI, and arthroscopy protocols. One of three veterinary surgeons recorded clinical and arthroscopic findings without knowledge of diagnostic imaging findings. One of two veterinary radiologists recorded diagnostic imaging findings without knowledge of clinical and arthroscopic findings. Eighteen client-owned dogs (n = 36 shoulders) met inclusion criteria. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy (correct classification rate) values for detecting presence or absence of shoulder osteochondrosis/osteochondritis dissecans were as follows: radiography (88.5%, 90%, 88.9%), ultrasonography (92%, 60%, 82.6%), and MRI (96%, 88.9%, 94.4%). Odds of a correct diagnosis for MRI were 3.2 times more than ultrasonography and two times more than radiography. For MRI detection of lesions, the sagittal T2 or PD-FAT SAT sequences were considered to be most helpful. For radiographic detection of lesions, the additional supinated-mediolateral and pronated-mediolateral projections were considered to be most helpful. Findings from the current study support more evidence-based diagnostic imaging recommendations for dogs with clinically suspected shoulder osteochondrosis or osteochondritis dissecans. © 2014 American College of

  14. The diagnostic value of dynamic magnetic resonance urography in children with urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarabi V

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Urinary tract infection 0 in children causes renal scarring and permanent damage to the organ. In this study, we compared the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance urogram for urinary tract anomalies with other conventional imaging methods in children with UTI. "n"nMethods : In this case-control study, 190 children (mean age 3.23±3.59 yrs with UTI were recruited from the Pediatric Ward of Rasul-e-Akram Hospital during 2007-2009. The patients were divided into two groups based on the applied imaging technique: MRU (cases and conventional imaging groups (controls."n"nResults : Abnormal imaging detection rates for Ultrasonography were 32%, X-ray of kidneys, ureters and bladder (KUB 9%, Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP 26%, Voiding Cystoure therogram (VCUG 54%, Dimercaptosuccinic Acid scan (DMSA indicating non-obstructive (reflux uropathy in 76% (mean age 3.5 yrs and MRU 43% (mean age 1.6 yrs, respectively. A meaningful correlation was observed between MRU and DMSA scan with IVP results (Kappa=0.75. KUB and Ultrasonography had similar results in cases with abnormal MRU and DMSA scan (P=0.121. MRU had strong agreement with VCUG and IVP for the detection of obstructive uropathy and scar due to congenital malformation

  15. Nitroxide radicals as contrast substances for magnetic resonance imaging diagnostics. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhelev, Z.

    2016-01-01

    In last ten years, there is a significant progress in the selective and localized detection of redox-active compounds in the cells, tissues, and intact organisms. This progress is due to the development of new synthetic and genetically encoded redox-sensitive contrast substances, as well as due to the improvement of the techniques for their imaging: fluorescent, chemiluminescent, magnetic resonance, nuclear, ultrasonic. One of the most attractive redox-sensitive contrast substances are cyclic (stable) nitroxide radicals. They can be visualized and analyzed in vitro and in vivo by a variety of magnetic resonance techniques - electron-paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Overhauser-enhanced MRI (OMRI). This review describes the merits and demerits of the nitroxide-enhanced EPR and MRI and the perspectives for their application in biomedical studies and clinical practice. The article is intended for a wide range of readers - from students to specialists in the field. Key words: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Electron-Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Overhauser-Enhanced MRI (O MRI). Nitroxide

  16. Sirtuin1 single nucleotide polymorphism (A2191G is a diagnostic marker for vibration-induced white finger disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelter-Mahlknecht Susanne

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibration-induced white finger disease (VWF, also known as hand-arm vibration syndrome, is a secondary form of Raynaud’s disease, affecting the blood vessels and nerves. So far, little is known about the pathogenesisof the disease. VWF is associated with an episodic reduction in peripheral blood flow. Sirtuin 1, a class III histone deacetylase, has been described to regulate the endothelium dependent vasodilation by targeting endothelial nitric oxide synthase. We assessed Sirt1single nucleotide polymorphisms in patients with VWF to further elucidate the role of sirtuin 1 in the pathogenesis of VWF. Methods Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 74 patients with VWF (male 93.2%, female 6.8%, median age 53 years and from 317 healthy volunteers (gender equally distributed, below 30 years of age. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and screened for potential Sirt1single nucleotide polymorphisms. Four putative genetic polymorphisms out of 113 within the Sirt1 genomic region (NCBI Gene Reference: NM_012238.3 were assessed. Allelic discrimination was performed by TaqMan-polymerasechainreaction-based allele-specific genotyping single nucleotide polymorphism assays. Results Sirt1single nucleotide polymorphism A2191G (Assay C_25611590_10, rs35224060 was identified within Sirt1 exon 9 (amino acid position 731, Ile → Val, with differing allelic frequencies in the VWF population (A/A: 70.5%, A/G: 29.5%, G/G: 0% and the control population (A/A: 99.7%, A/G: 0.3%, G/G: 0.5%, with significance levels of P U test (two-tailed P t-test and Chi-square test with Yates correction (all two-tailed: P Conclusion We identified theSirt1A2191Gsingle nucleotide polymorphism as a diagnostic marker for VWF.

  17. Expression of lumican in hidroacanthoma simplex and clonal-type seborrheic keratosis as a potent differential diagnostic marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Ryoko; Ansai, Shin-Ichi; Ishiwata, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Matsuda, Yoko; Naito, Zenya; Kawana, Seiji

    2014-08-01

    Lumican, a member of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan family, regulates the assembly and diameter of collagen fibers in the extracellular matrix of various tissues. The lumican expression correlates with pathological conditions and the growth and metastasis of various malignancies. In cutaneous neoplasms, the lumican expression is lower in advanced-stage malignant melanomas that invade the dermis than in early-stage melanomas. Furthermore, we have recently reported that the expression pattern of lumican is different from that of actinic keratosis and the Bowen disease. Lumican is positive in the poroid cells of intraepidermal sweat ducts; therefore, we examined the expression patterns of lumican in acanthotic-type seborrheic keratosis and Pinkus-type poroma followed by clonal-type seborrheic keratosis and hidroacanthoma simplex. The neoplastic cells of acanthotic-type seborrheic keratosis exhibited positive immunostaining in only 1 of 31 cases (3.23%), whereas the poroid cells of Pinkus-type poroma exhibited positive immunoreactivity in 26 of 28 patients (92.8%). In the hidroacanthoma simplex cases, lumican was expressed in poroid cells forming intraepidermal nests in 22 of 28 patients (78.6%), whereas the neoplastic cells in most cases of clonal-type seborrheic keratosis were negative for lumican. In some seborrheic keratosis cases that were positive for lumican in neoplastic cells, lumican was observed in squamoid cells but not in basaloid cells. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the immunoreactivity of lumican in seborrheic keratosis and in basaloid cells. These findings suggest that lumican is a potent differential diagnostic marker that distinguishes hidroacanthoma simplex from clonal-type seborrheic keratosis.

  18. Global methylation silencing of clustered proto-cadherin genes in cervical cancer: serving as diagnostic markers comparable to HPV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kai-Hung; Lin, Cuei-Jyuan; Liu, Chou-Jen; Liu, Dai-Wei; Huang, Rui-Lan; Ding, Dah-Ching; Weng, Ching-Feng; Chu, Tang-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic remodeling of cell adhesion genes is a common phenomenon in cancer invasion. This study aims to investigate global methylation of cell adhesion genes in cervical carcinogenesis and to apply them in early detection of cancer from cervical scraping. Genome-wide methylation array was performed on an investigation cohort, including 16 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN3) and 20 cervical cancers (CA) versus 12 each of normal, inflammation and CIN1 as controls. Twelve members of clustered proto-cadherin (PCDH) genes were collectively methylated and silenced, which were validated in cancer cells of the cervix, endometrium, liver, head and neck, breast, and lung. In an independent cohort including 107 controls, 66 CIN1, 85 CIN2/3, and 38 CA, methylated PCDHA4 and PCDHA13 were detected in 2.8%, 24.2%, 52.9%, and 84.2% (P < 10 −25 ), and 2.8%, 24.2%, 50.6%, and 94.7% (P < 10 −29 ), respectively. In diagnosis of CIN2 or more severe lesion of the cervix, a combination test of methylated PCDHA4 or PCDHA13 from cervical scraping had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 74.8%, 80.3%, 73%, and 81.8%, respectively. Testing of this combination from cervical scraping is equally sensitive but more specific than human papillomavirus (HPV) test in diagnosis of CIN2 or more severe lesions. The study disclosed a collective methylation of PCDH genes in cancer of cervix and other sites. At least two of them can be promising diagnostic markers for cervical cancer noninferior to HPV

  19. Evaluation of Serum CEA, CA19-9, CA72-4, CA125 and Ferritin as Diagnostic Markers and Factors of Clinical Parameters for Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yanfeng; Wang, Jinping; Zhou, Yue; Sheng, Sen; Qian, Steven Y.; Huo, Xiongwei

    2018-01-01

    Blood-based protein biomarkers have recently shown as simpler diagnostic modalities for colorectal cancer, while their association with clinical pathological characteristics is largely unknown. In this study, we not only examined the sensitivity and reliability of single/multiple serum markers for diagnosis, but also assessed their connection with pathological parameters from a total of 279 colorectal cancer patients. Our study shown that glycoprotein carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) owns the h...

  20. Diagnostic Accuracy of Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Detection of Myometrial Invasion in Endometrial Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masroor, I.; Hussain, Z.; Taufiq, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DWMRI) in the detection of myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer taking histopathology as gold standard. Study Design: Cross-sectional validation study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Radiology, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January to December 2012. Methodology: DWMRI (b-value = 50,400 and 800 s/mm2) was performed in 85 patients of biopsy-proven endometrial carcinoma before hysterectomy using body and spine coil at 1.5 Tesla. DWI was evaluated for presence of myometrial invasion by tumor with histopathology as gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, the negative predictive value and positive predictive value and accuracy of DWI were assessed against the gold standard. Results: On DWI, superficial myometrial invasion was found in 42 patients and deep myometrial invasion in 43. On histopathology, superficial myometrial invasion was found in 53 patients and deep myometrial invasion in 32. Hence sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy for the assessment of myometrial invasion by endometrial tumor on DW images was 90 percentage, 73 percentage, 67 percentage, 92 percentage and 80 percentage, respectively. Diagnostic accuracy of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in detection of myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer was 80 percentage. Conclusion: DWI is highly accurate in assessing myometrial invasion and can be used as an adjunct to routine MRI for pre-operative evaluation of myometrial invasion of endometrial cancer. (author)

  1. The Diagnostic Value of Transvaginal Sonograph (TVS), Color Doppler, and Serum Tumor Marker CA125, CEA, and AFP in Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Zhou-Long

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the diagnostic value of transvaginal sonograph (TVS), color Doppler, and serum tumor marker CA125, CEA, and AFP in ovarian cancer. From June, 2011 to May, 2013, 102 cases with adnexal mass were recruited in this study (32 cases of malignant ovarian cancer and 70 cases of benign ovarian tumor according to pathological diagnosis). TVS, color Doppler, and serum tumor markers were used for tumor diagnosis. The sensitivity, specifity, positive prediction, negative prediction, and Youden's index were analyzed. Of the 102 patients, 32 were diagnosed with malignant ovarian cancer and 70 were diagnosed with benign ovarian tumor according to pathological diagnosis. Based on TVS results, 37 cases were malignant while 65 cases were benign. Based on color Doppler results, 34 cases were malignant while 68 cases were benign. Based on TVS and color Doppler results, 35 cases were malignant while 65 were benign. Based on CA125 test results, 34 cases were malignant while 68 cases were benign. Based on CEA test results, 8 cases were malignant and 94 cases were benign. Bases on AFP test results, 9 cases were malignant while 93 cases were benign. Based on the results of combination tumor marker test, 38 cases were malignant while 64 cases were benign. The combination of TVS, color Doppler, and tumor marker test showed optimal diagnostic value with a sensitivity of 90.63 %, specificity of 97.14 %, positive prediction of 93.94 %, negative prediction of 98.55 %, and Youden's index of 94.02 %. The combination of TVS, color Doppler, and tumor marker test is of great diagnostic value, which should be widely used in clinical practice.

  2. Bioinformatics analysis for evaluation of the diagnostic potentialities of miR-19b, -125b and -205 as liquid biopsy markers of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryzgunova, O. E.; Lekchnov, E. A.; Zaripov, M. M.; Yurchenko, Yu. B.; Yarmoschuk, S. V.; Pashkovskaya, O. A.; Rykova, E. Yu.; Zheravin, A. A.; Laktionov, P. P.

    2017-09-01

    Presence of tumor-derived cell-free miRNA in biological fluids as well as simplicity and robustness of cell-free miRNA quantification makes them suitable markers for cancer diagnostics. Based on previously published data demonstrating diagnostic potentialities of miR-205 in blood and miR-19b as well as miR-125b in urine of prostate cancer patients, bioinformatics analysis was carried out to follow their involvement in prostate cancer development and select additional miRNA-markers for prostate cancer diagnostics. Studied miRNAs are involved in different signaling pathways and regulate a number of genes involved in cancer development. Five of their targets (CCND1, BRAF, CCNE1, CCNE2, RAF1), according to the STRING database, act as part of the same signaling pathway. RAF1 is regulated by miR-19b and miR-125b, and it was shown to be involved in prostate cancer development by DIANA and STRING databases. Thus, other microRNAs regulating RAF1 expression such as miR-16, -195, -497, and -7 (suggested by DIANA, TargetScan, MiRTarBase and miRDB databases) can potentially be regarded as prostate cancer markers.

  3. Possibilities of computer and magnetic-resonance tomography in liver neoplasm diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momot, N.V.; Shpak, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    With the purpose of comparison of CT and MRI possibilities in diagnostics of focal liver lesions 238 patients were studied by CT and 38 - by MRI. Results of investigation were verified by surgery, needle-fine biopsy, dynamic observation. CT is a method of a choice in diagnostics of focal liver lesions. MRI has some advantages in revealing of small metastases and neoplasms located on diaphragmal surface of the liver, in evaluation of hepatic portal structures and tumor relation with surrounding tissues and vessels

  4. Identification and reproducibility of diagnostic DNA markers for tuber starch and yield optimization in a novel association mapping population of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhals, E M; Ortega, F; Barandalla, L; Aragones, A; Ruiz de Galarreta, J I; Liao, J-C; Sanetomo, R; Walkemeier, B; Tacke, E; Ritter, E; Gebhardt, C

    2016-04-01

    SNPs in candidate genes Pain - 1, InvCD141 (invertases), SSIV (starch synthase), StCDF1 (transcription factor), LapN (leucine aminopeptidase), and cytoplasm type are associated with potato tuber yield, starch content and/or starch yield. Tuber yield (TY), starch content (TSC), and starch yield (TSY) are complex characters of high importance for the potato crop in general and for industrial starch production in particular. DNA markers associated with superior alleles of genes that control the natural variation of TY, TSC, and TSY could increase precision and speed of breeding new cultivars optimized for potato starch production. Diagnostic DNA markers are identified by association mapping in populations of tetraploid potato varieties and advanced breeding clones. A novel association mapping population of 282 genotypes including varieties, breeding clones and Andean landraces was assembled and field evaluated in Northern Spain for TY, TSC, TSY, tuber number (TN) and tuber weight (TW). The landraces had lower mean values of TY, TW, TN, and TSY. The population was genotyped for 183 microsatellite alleles, 221 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in fourteen candidate genes and eight known diagnostic markers for TSC and TSY. Association test statistics including kinship and population structure reproduced five known marker-trait associations of candidate genes and discovered new ones, particularly for tuber yield and starch yield. The inclusion of landraces increased the number of detected marker-trait associations. Integration of the present association mapping results with previous QTL linkage mapping studies for TY, TSC, TSY, TW, TN, and tuberization revealed some hot spots of QTL for these traits in the potato genome. The genomic positions of markers linked or associated with QTL for complex tuber traits suggest high multiplicity and genome wide distribution of the underlying genes.

  5. Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2014-01-01

    A chapter in a book about terminology within the field of medievalism: the chapter discusses the resonance of medieval music and ritual in modern (classical) music culture and liturgical practice.......A chapter in a book about terminology within the field of medievalism: the chapter discusses the resonance of medieval music and ritual in modern (classical) music culture and liturgical practice....

  6. Role of 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance hysterosalpingography in the diagnostic work-up of female infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Valentina; Guerrieri, Daniele; Pietrangeli, Daniela; Santucci, Domiziana; Argirò, Renato; de Felice, Carlo

    2016-09-01

    Imaging evaluation plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of female infertility. In recent years, the possibility to evaluate tubal patency using 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance (1.5T MR) has been studied. To assess the feasibility of 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance (3.0T MR) hysterosalpingography and its role in the diagnostic work-up of female infertility and to evaluate if this fast "one-stop-shop" imaging approach should be proposed as a first-line examination. A total of 116 infertile women were enrolled in this prospective study; all underwent 3.0T MR hysterosalpingography. After standard imaging of the pelvis, tubal patency was assessed by acquiring 3D dynamic time-resolved T1-weighted (T1W) sequences during manual injection of 4-5 mL of contrast solution consisting of gadolinium and normal sterile saline. Images were evaluated by two radiologists with different experience in MR imaging (MRI). The examination was successfully completed in 96.5% of cases, failure rate was 3.5%. Dynamic sequences showed bilateral tubal patency in 64.3%, unilateral tubal patency in 25.9%, and bilateral tubal occlusion in 9.8%. Extratubal abnormalities were found in 69.9% of patients. Comprehensive analysis of morphological and dynamic sequences showed extratubal abnormalities in 43.1% of patients with bilateral tubal patency. 3.0T MR hysterosalpingography is a feasible, simple, fast, safe, and well-tolerated examination, which allows evaluation of tubal patency and other pelvic causes of female infertility in a single session, and it may thus represent a "one-stop-shop" solution in female infertility diagnostic work-up. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  7. Diagnostic confidence analysis in the magnetic resonance imaging of ovarian and deep endometriosis: comparison with surgical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, Luca; Sulcis, Rosa; Ibba, Giannina; Piga, Mario [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria, Department of Radiology, Monserrato (Italy); Melis, Gian Benedetto; Guerriero, Stefano [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria, Department of Gynecology, Monserrato (Italy); Alcazar, Juan Luis [University of Navarra, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    To assess the diagnostic confidence of multiple readers in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnosis of endometriosis. Sixty-five patients (mean age 33; range 19-45 years) who had undergone MRI were retrospectively evaluated. Five regions were analysed and the presence of endometriosis was scored on a five-point scale in order to assess the diagnostic confidence. Statistical analysis included receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the Cohen weighted test and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), accuracy, positive likelihood ratio (LR+) and negative likelihood ratio (LR-). The areas under the curve (AUC) in the detection of ovarian endometrioma were 0.942, 0.893 and 0.883 for readers 1, 2 and 3, respectively; in the uterosacral ligament (USL) AUCs were 0.907, 0.804 and 0.842; in the vaginal fornix (VF) 0.819, 0.733 and 0.69; in the anterior compartment 0.916, 0.833 and 0.873; and in the rectum/sigma/pouch of Douglas (RSD) 0.936, 0.856 and 0.834. Diagnostic confidence of the observers is different according to the region of the nodules of endometriosis and it can be challenging in the VF and for the less experience readers also in the AC and RSD. Moreover the degree of uncertain diagnosis for the less expert readers may reach up to one third of the examinations. (orig.)

  8. Diagnostic confidence analysis in the magnetic resonance imaging of ovarian and deep endometriosis: comparison with surgical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, Luca; Sulcis, Rosa; Ibba, Giannina; Piga, Mario; Melis, Gian Benedetto; Guerriero, Stefano; Alcazar, Juan Luis

    2014-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic confidence of multiple readers in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnosis of endometriosis. Sixty-five patients (mean age 33; range 19-45 years) who had undergone MRI were retrospectively evaluated. Five regions were analysed and the presence of endometriosis was scored on a five-point scale in order to assess the diagnostic confidence. Statistical analysis included receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the Cohen weighted test and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), accuracy, positive likelihood ratio (LR+) and negative likelihood ratio (LR-). The areas under the curve (AUC) in the detection of ovarian endometrioma were 0.942, 0.893 and 0.883 for readers 1, 2 and 3, respectively; in the uterosacral ligament (USL) AUCs were 0.907, 0.804 and 0.842; in the vaginal fornix (VF) 0.819, 0.733 and 0.69; in the anterior compartment 0.916, 0.833 and 0.873; and in the rectum/sigma/pouch of Douglas (RSD) 0.936, 0.856 and 0.834. Diagnostic confidence of the observers is different according to the region of the nodules of endometriosis and it can be challenging in the VF and for the less experience readers also in the AC and RSD. Moreover the degree of uncertain diagnosis for the less expert readers may reach up to one third of the examinations. (orig.)

  9. Diagnostic Markers of Primary Infertility in Women of Reproductive Age with Hypothalamic Dysfunction in the Pubertal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Zhukovets

    2017-09-01

    inflammatory reactions at the systemic level and in the endometrium. In women of Group 2, the NF-kB level in UA was 1.4 times higher than in Group 1 (P=0.000. Conclusion: every fourth woman of reproductive age with HD in the puberty period has primary infertility. The results obtained indicate the activation of the Th-1 immune response with the formation of the inflammatory reactions at the systemic level and in the endometrium. Diagnostically significant markers of primary infertility are the serum TNF-α level and the UA levels of IL-1β and NF-kB.

  10. Serum Calprotectin in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Promising Diagnostic Marker, How Far Is It Related to Activity and Sonographic Findings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.E. Mansour

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Calprotectin was found to have high association with laboratory and ultrasonography markers of inflammation in RA patients, so it is recommended for use as a marker of inflammatory activity in RA patients especially for the follow-up of patients on biological therapy to assess its efficacy.

  11. Diagnostic value of 3D time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography for detecting intracranial aneurysm: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HaiFeng, Liu; YongSheng, Xu; YangQin, Xun; Yu, Dou; ShuaiWen, Wang; XingRu, Lu; JunQiang, Lei

    2017-11-01

    This meta-analysis is to comprehensively evaluate the diagnostic performance of three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (3D-TOF-MRA) for detecting intracranial aneurysm (IA). PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane library were systematically searched for retrieving eligible studies. Study inclusion, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were performed by two researchers independently. Pooled sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and area under the curve (AUC) were calculated to assess the diagnostic value. In addition, heterogeneity and subgroup analysis were carried out. In total, 18 studies comprising 3463 patients were selected. The results of 3D-TOF-MRA for diagnosing IA were SEN 0.89 (95% CI 0.82-0.94), SPE 0.94 (0.86-0.97), PLR 13.79 (5.92-32.12), NLR 0.11 (0.07-0.19), DOR 121.90 (38.81-382.94), and AUC 0.96 (0.94-0.98), respectively. In the subgroup analysis, studies without subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) tend to perform statistical significantly better (P 3D-TOF-MRA had better SEN in aneurysms > 3 mm than the aneurysms ≤ 3 mm in diameter: 0.89 (0.87-0.92) vs. 0.78 (0.71-0.84) with P 3D-TOF-MRA has an excellent diagnostic performance for the overall assessment of IA and may serve as an alternative for further patient management with IA.

  12. Magnetic resonance metabolomics of intact tissue: a biotechnological tool in cancer diagnostics and treatment evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathen, Tone F; Sitter, Beathe; Sjøbakk, Torill E; Tessem, May-Britt; Gribbestad, Ingrid S

    2010-09-01

    Personalized medicine is increasingly important in cancer treatment for its role in staging and its potential to improve stratification of patients. Different types of molecules, genes, proteins, and metabolites are being extensively explored as potential biomarkers. This review discusses the major findings and potential of tissue metabolites determined by high-resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy for cancer detection, characterization, and treatment monitoring.

  13. Development of diagnostic markers for use in breeding potatoes resistant to Globodera pallida pathotype Pa2/3 using germplasm derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena CPC 2802.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Claire; Griffin, Denis; Jones, Peter W; Bryan, Glenn J; McLean, Karen; Bradshaw, John E; Milbourne, Dan

    2010-02-01

    Quantitative resistance to Globodera pallida pathotype Pa2/3, originally derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena Commonwealth Potato Collection (CPC) accession 2802, is present in several potato cultivars and advanced breeding lines. One genetic component of this resistance, a large effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) on linkage group IV (which we have renamed GpaIV(adg)(s)) has previously been mapped in the tetraploid breeding line 12601ab1. In this study, we show that GpaIV(adg)(s) is also present in a breeding line called C1992/31 via genetic mapping in an F(1) population produced by crossing C1992/31 with the G. pallida susceptible cultivar Record. C1992/31 is relatively divergent from 12601ab1, confirming that GpaIV(adg)(s) is an ideal target for marker-assisted selection in currently available germplasm. To generate markers exhibiting diagnostic potential for GpaIV(adg)(s), three bacterial artificial chromosome clones were isolated from the QTL region, sequenced, and used to develop 15 primer sets generating single-copy amplicons, which were examined for polymorphisms exhibiting linkage to GpaIV(adg)(s) in C1992/31. Eight such polymorphisms were found. Subsequently, one insertion/deletion polymorphism, three single nucleotide polymorphisms and a specific allele of the microsatellite marker STM3016 were shown to exhibit diagnostic potential for the QTL in a panel of 37 potato genotypes, 12 with and 25 without accession CPC2082 in their pedigrees. STM3016 and one of the SNP polymorphisms, C237(119), were assayed in 178 potato genotypes, arising from crosses between C1992/31 and 16 G. pallida susceptible genotypes, undergoing selection in a commercial breeding programme. The results suggest that the diagnostic markers would most effectively be employed in MAS-based approaches to pyramid different resistance loci to develop cultivars exhibiting strong, durable resistance to G. pallida pathotype Pa2/3.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging for diagnostic evaluation of hernia of an invertebral disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, H.K.; Oppel, G.; Bluemm, R.; Uhlenbrock, D.

    1988-01-01

    The article reports experience gained within three years with diagnostic NMR imaging of the lumbar spine. On the basis of results obtained by almost 500 examinations, an optimisation concept with regard to measuring sequences and orientation of sectional cuts is presented. Imaging of the spine in three planes, with sectional layer thickness between 3 and 5 mm, using a 1.5 Tesla system, seems to yield the diagnostic optimum, and in our opinion is superior over invasive myelography and CT scanning. A prospective study we made indicates a hit rate of 97.2%, and of 100% for evaluation of the results obtained with the 1.5 Tesla system together with an evaluation of the paraxial sections. The magnetic field intensity of 1.5 Tesla especially improves the quality of images of paraxial cuts as compared with the 0.5 Tesla field system, due to the better contrast-to-noise ratio, and thinner sections. (orig.) [de

  15. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy markers of axons and astrogliosis in relation to specific features of white matter injury in preterm infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Panigrahy, Ashok; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Rosser, Tena; Paquette, Lisa; Nelson, Marvin D.; Haynes, Robin L.; Painter, Michael J.; Blueml, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) and diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) are commonly observed signal abnormalities on MRI scans of high-risk preterm infants near term-equivalent age. To establish whether these features are indicative abnormalities in axonal development or astroglia, we compared pWMLs and DEHSI to markers of axons and astrogliosis, derived from magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Data from 108 preterm infants (gestational age at birth 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; age at scan 41.2 weeks ± 6.0) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Linear regression analyses were used to test the effects of pWMLs and DEHSI on N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and myoinositol concentrations, respectively. Across the full sample, pWMLs were associated with a reduction in NAA whereas moderate to severe DEHSI altered the normal age-dependent changes in myoinositol such that myoinositol levels were lower at younger ages with no change during the perinatal period. Subgroup analyses indicated that the above associations were driven by the subgroup of neonates with both pWMLs and moderate to severe DEHSI. Overall, these findings suggest that pWMLs in conjunction with moderate/severe DEHSI may signify a population of infants at risk for long-term adverse neurodevelopmental outcome due to white matter injury and associated axonopathy. The loss of normal age-associated changes in myoinositol further suggests disrupted astroglial function and/or osmotic dysregulation. (orig.)

  16. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: a potential non-invasive marker of tumour aggressiveness in localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, N.M. de; Riches, S.F.; Van As, N.J.; Morgan, V.A.; Ashley, S.A.; Fisher, C.; Payne, G.S.; Parker, C.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) as a marker for disease aggressiveness by comparing tumour apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) between patients with low- versus higher-risk localized prostate cancer. Method: Forty-four consecutive patients classified as low- [n = 26, stageT1/T2a, Gleason score ≤ 6, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 10 (group 2)] risk, who subsequently were monitored with active surveillance or started neoadjuvant hormone and radiotherapy, respectively, underwent endorectal MRI. T2-weighted (T2W) and DW images (5 b values, 0-800 s/mm 2 ) were acquired and isotropic ADC maps generated. Regions of interest (ROIs) on T2W axial images [around whole prostate, central gland (CG), and tumour] were transferred to ADC maps. Tumour, CG, and peripheral zone (PZ = whole prostate minus CG and tumour) ADCs (fast component from b = 0-100 s/mm 2 , slow component from b = 100-800 s/mm 2 ) were compared. Results: T2W-defined tumour volume medians, and quartiles were 1.2 cm 3 , 0.7 and 3.3 cm 3 (group 1); and 6 cm 3 , 1.3 and 16.5 cm 3 (group 2). There were significant differences in both ADC fast (1778 ± 264 x 10 -6 versus 1583 ± 283 x 10 -6 mm 2 /s, p = 0.03) and ADC slow (1379 ± 321 x 10 -6 versus 1196 ± 158 x 10 -6 mm 2 /s, p = 0.001) between groups. Tumour volume (p = 0.002) and ADC slow (p = 0.005) were significant differentiators of risk group. Conclusion: Significant differences in tumour ADCs exist between patients with low-risk, and those with higher-risk localized prostate cancer. DW-MRI merits further study with respect to clinical outcomes

  17. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy markers of axons and astrogliosis in relation to specific features of white matter injury in preterm infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Schmithorst, Vincent J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rosser, Tena [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Paquette, Lisa [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Nelson, Marvin D. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Haynes, Robin L. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Painter, Michael J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Blueml, Stefan [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Rudi Schulte Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) and diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) are commonly observed signal abnormalities on MRI scans of high-risk preterm infants near term-equivalent age. To establish whether these features are indicative abnormalities in axonal development or astroglia, we compared pWMLs and DEHSI to markers of axons and astrogliosis, derived from magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Data from 108 preterm infants (gestational age at birth 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; age at scan 41.2 weeks ± 6.0) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Linear regression analyses were used to test the effects of pWMLs and DEHSI on N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and myoinositol concentrations, respectively. Across the full sample, pWMLs were associated with a reduction in NAA whereas moderate to severe DEHSI altered the normal age-dependent changes in myoinositol such that myoinositol levels were lower at younger ages with no change during the perinatal period. Subgroup analyses indicated that the above associations were driven by the subgroup of neonates with both pWMLs and moderate to severe DEHSI. Overall, these findings suggest that pWMLs in conjunction with moderate/severe DEHSI may signify a population of infants at risk for long-term adverse neurodevelopmental outcome due to white matter injury and associated axonopathy. The loss of normal age-associated changes in myoinositol further suggests disrupted astroglial function and/or osmotic dysregulation. (orig.)

  18. Efficacy of diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging for articular cartilage lesions of the glenohumeral joint in patients with instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, Meredith L.; Collins, Mark S.; Wenger, Doris E.; Morgan, Joseph A.; Dahm, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was primarily to assess the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting articular cartilage injuries in patients with glenohumeral instability. A secondary purpose was to assess the diagnostic performance of MRI for detection of Hill-Sachs and Bankart lesions. A cohort of 87 consecutive patients who underwent diagnostic MRI and shoulder arthroscopy for instability from 1997 to 2006 were identified. Fifty-five patients (63.2%) underwent MRI with intra-articular contrast medium and 32 patients (36.8%) underwent MRI without contrast medium. MR images were reviewed by two radiologists and interpreted by consensus for the presence of articular cartilage lesions (including Hill-Sachs and Bankart lesions), which were then confirmed by reviewing the operative report and images recorded at arthroscopy. Mean patient age was 27.0 ± 10.2 years with a mean clinical and radiographic follow-up of 29 (range 3-72) months. Cartilage injuries were detected arthroscopically in 55 patients (63%). Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions were identified arthroscopically in 66 patients (75.9%) and 55 patients (63.2%) respectively. The overall sensitivity and specificity for detection of glenohumeral articular cartilage lesions by MRI were 87.2% and 80.6% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI in detecting Bankart lesions was 98.4% (95% CI 91.9, 99.7) and 95.2% (95% CI 77.3, 99.2) respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI in detecting Hill-Sachs lesions was 96.3% (95% CI 87.6, 98.9%) and 90.6% (95% CI 75.7, 96.9) respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between MRI examinations with and without intra-articular gadolinium (p = 0.89). Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of articular cartilage injuries in patients with glenohumeral instability. MRI with or without intra-articular contrast medium in this study were equally reliable as a non

  19. Efficacy of diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging for articular cartilage lesions of the glenohumeral joint in patients with instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Meredith L.; Collins, Mark S.; Wenger, Doris E. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Morgan, Joseph A.; Dahm, Diane L. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was primarily to assess the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting articular cartilage injuries in patients with glenohumeral instability. A secondary purpose was to assess the diagnostic performance of MRI for detection of Hill-Sachs and Bankart lesions. A cohort of 87 consecutive patients who underwent diagnostic MRI and shoulder arthroscopy for instability from 1997 to 2006 were identified. Fifty-five patients (63.2%) underwent MRI with intra-articular contrast medium and 32 patients (36.8%) underwent MRI without contrast medium. MR images were reviewed by two radiologists and interpreted by consensus for the presence of articular cartilage lesions (including Hill-Sachs and Bankart lesions), which were then confirmed by reviewing the operative report and images recorded at arthroscopy. Mean patient age was 27.0 {+-} 10.2 years with a mean clinical and radiographic follow-up of 29 (range 3-72) months. Cartilage injuries were detected arthroscopically in 55 patients (63%). Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions were identified arthroscopically in 66 patients (75.9%) and 55 patients (63.2%) respectively. The overall sensitivity and specificity for detection of glenohumeral articular cartilage lesions by MRI were 87.2% and 80.6% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI in detecting Bankart lesions was 98.4% (95% CI 91.9, 99.7) and 95.2% (95% CI 77.3, 99.2) respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI in detecting Hill-Sachs lesions was 96.3% (95% CI 87.6, 98.9%) and 90.6% (95% CI 75.7, 96.9) respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between MRI examinations with and without intra-articular gadolinium (p = 0.89). Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of articular cartilage injuries in patients with glenohumeral instability. MRI with or without intra-articular contrast medium in this study were equally reliable as a non

  20. Evaluation of an image-based tracking workflow using a passive marker and resonant micro-coil fiducials for automatic image plane alignment in interventional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, M; Breton, E; Cuvillon, L; Pan, L; Lorenz, C H; de Mathelin, M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an original workflow is presented for MR image plane alignment based on tracking in real-time MR images. A test device consisting of two resonant micro-coils and a passive marker is proposed for detection using image-based algorithms. Micro-coils allow for automated initialization of the object detection in dedicated low flip angle projection images; then the passive marker is tracked in clinical real-time MR images, with alternation between two oblique orthogonal image planes along the test device axis; in case the passive marker is lost in real-time images, the workflow is reinitialized. The proposed workflow was designed to minimize dedicated acquisition time to a single dedicated acquisition in the ideal case (no reinitialization required). First experiments have shown promising results for test-device tracking precision, with a mean position error of 0.79 mm and a mean orientation error of 0.24°.

  1. Ultrasound versus Magnetic Resonance Arthrography in Acetabular Labral Tear Diagnostics: A Prospective Comparison in 20 Dysplastic Hips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troelsen, A.; Jacobsen, S.; Bolvig, L.; Gelineck, J.; Roemer, L.; Soeballe, K. [Orthopedic Research Unit and Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital of Aarhus, A arhus (Denmark)

    2007-11-15

    Background: Acetabular labral tears are highly associated with hip dysplasia. Magnetic resonance arthrography (MR arthrography) is the expensive and time-consuming contemporary gold-standard method in the radiological assessment of acetabular labral tears. Purpose: To assess the diagnostic ability of noninvasive ultrasound (US) examination compared to MR arthrography in diagnosing acetabular labral tears in dysplastic hip joints. Material and Methods: The study compared US examination and MR arthrography diagnosis of labral tears in 20 consecutively referred dysplastic hip joints. Results: The ability to diagnose acetabular labral tears upon US examination was calculated: sensitivity 44%, specificity 75%, positive predictive value 88%, and negative predictive value 25%. Conclusion: The ability of US examination in diagnosing acetabular labral tears is not yet good enough. The technique is still to be developed, and more experience, especially with the interpretation of US examinations, is needed.

  2. Prostate cancer in magnetic resonance imaging: diagnostic utilites of spectroscopic sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caivano, Rocchina; Cirillo, Patrizia; Lotumolo, Antonella; Fortunato, Giovanna; Zandolino, Alexis; Cammarota, Aldo; Balestra, Antonio; Macarini, Luca; Vita, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our work is to determine the efficacy of a combined study 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging (3T MRI), with phased-array coil, for the detection of prostate cancer using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and diffusion-weighted images (DWI) in identifying doubt nodules. In this study, we prospectively studied 46 patients who consecutively underwent digital-rectal exploration for high doses of prostate specific antigen (PSA), as well as a MRI examination and a subsequent rectal biopsy. The study of magnetic resonance imaging was performed with a Philips Achieva 3T scanner and phased-array coil. The images were obtained with turbo spin-echo sequences T2-weighted images, T1-weighted before and after the administration of contrast medium, DWI sequences and 3D spectroscopic sequences. The ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy was performed approximately 15 days after the MRI. The data obtained from MR images and spectroscopy were correlated with histological data. MRI revealed sensitivity and specificity of 88% and 61% respectively and positive predictive value (PPV) of 73%, negative predicted value (NPV) of 81% and accuracy of 76%. In identifying the location of prostate cancer, the sensitivity of 3T MRS was 92%, with a specificity of 89%, PPV of 87%, NPV of 88% and accuracy of 87%; DWI showed a sensitivity of 88%, specificity of 61%, PPV of 73%, NPV of 81% and accuracy of 76%. The 3T MR study with phased-array coil and the use of DWI and spectroscopic sequences, in addition to T2-weighted sequences, revealed to be accurate in the diagnosis of prostate cancer and in the identification of nodules to be biopsied. It may be indicated as a resolute way before biopsy in patients with elevated PSA value and can be proposed in the staging and follow-up.

  3. The diagnostic value of serum tumor markers CEA, CA19-9, CA125, CA15-3, and TPS in metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weigang; Xu, Xiaoqin; Tian, Baoguo; Wang, Yan; Du, Lili; Sun, Ting; Shi, Yanchun; Zhao, Xianwen; Jing, Jiexian

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to understand the diagnostic value of serum tumor markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), cancer antigen 125 (CA125), cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3), and tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS) in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). A total of 164 metastatic breast cancer patients in Shanxi Cancer Hospital were recruited between February 2016 and July 2016. 200 breast cancer patients without metastasis in the same period were randomly selected as the control group. The general characteristics, immunohistochemical, and pathological results were investigated between the two groups, and tumor markers were determined. There were statistical differences in the concentration and the positive rates of CEA, CA19-9, CA125, CA15-3, and TPS between the MBC and control group (Ptumor marker at 56.7% and 97.0%, respectively. In addition, two tumor markers were used for the diagnosis of MBC and the CEA and TPS combination had the highest diagnostic sensitivity with 78.7%, while the CA15-3 and CA125 combination had the highest specificity of 91.5%. Analysis of tumor markers of 164 MBC found that there were statistical differences in the positive rates of CEA and CA15-3 between bone metastases and other metastases (χ 2 =6.00, P=0.014; χ 2 =7.32, P=0.007, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity values of the CEA and CA15-3 combination in the diagnosis of bone metastases were 77.1% and 45.8%, respectively. The positive rate of TPS in the lung metastases group was lower than in other metastases (χ 2 =8.06, P=0.005).There were significant differences in the positive rates of CA15-3 and TPS between liver metastases and other metastases (χ 2 =15.42, Ptumor markers have varying diagnostic value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Next-generation sequencing to identify candidate genes and develop diagnostic markers for a novel Phytophthora resistance gene, RpsHC18, in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chao; Sun, Suli; Li, Yinping; Duan, Canxing; Zhu, Zhendong

    2018-03-01

    A novel Phytophthora sojae resistance gene RpsHC18 was identified and finely mapped on soybean chromosome 3. Two NBS-LRR candidate genes were identified and two diagnostic markers of RpsHC18 were developed. Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora sojae is a destructive disease of soybean. The most effective disease-control strategy is to deploy resistant cultivars carrying Phytophthora-resistant Rps genes. The soybean cultivar Huachun 18 has a broad and distinct resistance spectrum to 12 P. sojae isolates. Quantitative trait loci sequencing (QTL-seq), based on the whole-genome resequencing (WGRS) of two extreme resistant and susceptible phenotype bulks from an F 2:3 population, was performed, and one 767-kb genomic region with ΔSNP-index ≥ 0.9 on chromosome 3 was identified as the RpsHC18 candidate region in Huachun 18. The candidate region was reduced to a 146-kb region by fine mapping. Nonsynonymous SNP and haplotype analyses were carried out in the 146-kb region among ten soybean genotypes using WGRS. Four specific nonsynonymous SNPs were identified in two nucleotide-binding sites-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes, RpsHC18-NBL1 and RpsHC18-NBL2, which were considered to be the candidate genes. Finally, one specific SNP marker in each candidate gene was successfully developed using a tetra-primer ARMS-PCR assay, and the two markers were verified to be specific for RpsHC18 and to effectively distinguish other known Rps genes. In this study, we applied an integrated genomic-based strategy combining WGRS with traditional genetic mapping to identify RpsHC18 candidate genes and develop diagnostic markers. These results suggest that next-generation sequencing is a precise, rapid and cost-effective way to identify candidate genes and develop diagnostic markers, and it can accelerate Rps gene cloning and marker-assisted selection for breeding of P. sojae-resistant soybean cultivars.

  5. Shoulder impingement syndrome: diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and radiographic signs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.P.; Chandnani, V.P.; Baird, D.E.; Deberardino, T.M.; Swenson, G.W.; Hansen, M.F.

    1994-01-01

    Shoulder impingement syndrome is commonly encountered in orthopaedics. In a blinded retrospective study, magnetic resonance imaging and roentgenographic signs in 41 patients with clinical signs of impingement syndrome were compared with 40 control patients. Statistically significant differences between the groups included the absence of subacromial fat, as well as the presence of a supraspinatus tear, subacromial osteophytes, and a decreased coracohumeral distance. Other signs reported to occur in patients with impingement syndrome did not vary significantly in the population studied. 20 refs., 12 figs

  6. Ultra-Wideband Sensors for Improved Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cardiovascular Monitoring and Tumour Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Seifert

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The specific advantages of ultra-wideband electromagnetic remote sensing (UWB radar make it a particularly attractive technique for biomedical applications. We partially review our activities in utilizing this novel approach for the benefit of high and ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and other applications, e.g., for intensive care medicine and biomedical research. We could show that our approach is beneficial for applications like motion tracking for high resolution brain imaging due to the non-contact acquisition of involuntary head motions with high spatial resolution, navigation for cardiac MRI due to our interpretation of the detected physiological mechanical contraction of the heart muscle and for MR safety, since we have investigated the influence of high static magnetic fields on myocardial mechanics. From our findings we could conclude, that UWB radar can serve as a navigator technique for high and ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging and can be beneficial preserving the high resolution capability of this imaging modality. Furthermore it can potentially be used to support standard ECG analysis by complementary information where sole ECG analysis fails. Further analytical investigations have proven the feasibility of this method for intracranial displacements detection and the rendition of a tumour’s contrast agent based perfusion dynamic. Beside these analytical approaches we have carried out FDTD simulations of a complex arrangement mimicking the illumination of a human torso model incorporating the geometry of the antennas applied.

  7. Ultra-wideband sensors for improved magnetic resonance imaging, cardiovascular monitoring and tumour diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Florian; Kosch, Olaf; Seifert, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The specific advantages of ultra-wideband electromagnetic remote sensing (UWB radar) make it a particularly attractive technique for biomedical applications. We partially review our activities in utilizing this novel approach for the benefit of high and ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and other applications, e.g., for intensive care medicine and biomedical research. We could show that our approach is beneficial for applications like motion tracking for high resolution brain imaging due to the non-contact acquisition of involuntary head motions with high spatial resolution, navigation for cardiac MRI due to our interpretation of the detected physiological mechanical contraction of the heart muscle and for MR safety, since we have investigated the influence of high static magnetic fields on myocardial mechanics. From our findings we could conclude, that UWB radar can serve as a navigator technique for high and ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging and can be beneficial preserving the high resolution capability of this imaging modality. Furthermore it can potentially be used to support standard ECG analysis by complementary information where sole ECG analysis fails. Further analytical investigations have proven the feasibility of this method for intracranial displacements detection and the rendition of a tumour's contrast agent based perfusion dynamic. Beside these analytical approaches we have carried out FDTD simulations of a complex arrangement mimicking the illumination of a human torso model incorporating the geometry of the antennas applied.

  8. Identification and evaluation of two diagnostic markers linked to Fusarium wilt resistance (race 4) in banana (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Hu, Yulin; Sun, Dequan; Staehelin, Christian; Xin, Dawei; Xie, Jianghui

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4) results in vascular tissue damage and ultimately death of banana (Musa spp.) plants. Somaclonal variants of in vitro micropropagated banana can hamper success in propagation of genotypes resistant to FOC4. Early identification of FOC4 resistance in micropropagated banana plantlets is difficult, however. In this study, we identified sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers of banana associated with resistance to FOC4. Using pooled DNA from resistant or susceptible genotypes and 500 arbitrary 10-mer oligonucleotide primers, 24 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) products were identified. Two of these RAPD markers were successfully converted to SCAR markers, called ScaU1001 (GenBank accession number HQ613949) and ScaS0901 (GenBank accession number HQ613950). ScaS0901 and ScaU1001 could be amplified in FOC4-resistant banana genotypes ("Williams 8818-1" and Goldfinger), but not in five tested banana cultivars susceptible to FOC4. The two SCAR markers were then used to identify a somaclonal variant of the genotype "Williams 8818-1", which lost resistance to FOC4. Hence, the identified SCAR markers can be applied for a rapid quality control of FOC4-resistant banana plantlets immediately after the in vitro micropropagation stage. Furthermore, ScaU1001 and ScaS0901 will facilitate marker-assisted selection of new banana cultivars resistant to FOC4.

  9. Diagnostic value of 3D time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography for detecting intracranial aneurysm: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, HaiFeng; Xu, YongSheng [First Hospital of LanZhou University, Department of Radiology, Lanzhou, Gansu (China); First Clinical Medical College of LanZhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu (China); Xun, YangQin [Lanzhou University, Evidence-based Medicine Center, Lanzhou (China); Dou, Yu; Wang, ShuaiWen; Lu, XingRu; Lei, JunQiang [First Hospital of LanZhou University, Department of Radiology, Lanzhou, Gansu (China)

    2017-11-15

    This meta-analysis is to comprehensively evaluate the diagnostic performance of three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (3D-TOF-MRA) for detecting intracranial aneurysm (IA). PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane library were systematically searched for retrieving eligible studies. Study inclusion, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were performed by two researchers independently. Pooled sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and area under the curve (AUC) were calculated to assess the diagnostic value. In addition, heterogeneity and subgroup analysis were carried out. In total, 18 studies comprising 3463 patients were selected. The results of 3D-TOF-MRA for diagnosing IA were SEN 0.89 (95% CI 0.82-0.94), SPE 0.94 (0.86-0.97), PLR 13.79 (5.92-32.12), NLR 0.11 (0.07-0.19), DOR 121.90 (38.81-382.94), and AUC 0.96 (0.94-0.98), respectively. In the subgroup analysis, studies without subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) tend to perform statistical significantly better (P < 0.05) in detecting IAs than studies with SAH 0.99 (0.98-1.00) vs. 0.89 (0.86-0.91). The diagnostic value of studies with a two-image reconstruction method was higher than studies with only one image reconstruction method: 0.99 (0.98-1.00) vs. 0.91 (0.89-0.94) with P < 0.05. The 3D-TOF-MRA had better SEN in aneurysms > 3 mm than the aneurysms ≤ 3 mm in diameter: 0.89 (0.87-0.92) vs. 0.78 (0.71-0.84) with P < 0.05. This study demonstrated that 3D-TOF-MRA has an excellent diagnostic performance for the overall assessment of IA and may serve as an alternative for further patient management with IA. (orig.)

  10. Brain Atlas Fusion from High-Thickness Diagnostic Magnetic Resonance Images by Learning-Based Super-Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinpeng; Zhang, Lichi; Xiang, Lei; Shao, Yeqin; Wu, Guorong; Zhou, Xiaodong; Shen, Dinggang; Wang, Qian

    2017-03-01

    It is fundamentally important to fuse the brain atlas from magnetic resonance (MR) images for many imaging-based studies. Most existing works focus on fusing the atlases from high-quality MR images. However, for low-quality diagnostic images (i.e., with high inter-slice thickness), the problem of atlas fusion has not been addressed yet. In this paper, we intend to fuse the brain atlas from the high-thickness diagnostic MR images that are prevalent for clinical routines. The main idea of our works is to extend the conventional groupwise registration by incorporating a novel super-resolution strategy. The contribution of the proposed super-resolution framework is two-fold. First, each high-thickness subject image is reconstructed to be isotropic by the patch-based sparsity learning. Then, the reconstructed isotropic image is enhanced for better quality through the random-forest-based regression model. In this way, the images obtained by the super-resolution strategy can be fused together by applying the groupwise registration method to construct the required atlas. Our experiments have shown that the proposed framework can effectively solve the problem of atlas fusion from the low-quality brain MR images.

  11. Development of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors for use in the diagnostics of malignant and infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdous, S.; Anwar, S.; Rafya, R.

    2018-06-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has become an important optical biosensing technology due to its real-time, label-free, and noninvasive nature. These techniques allow for rapid and ultra-sensitive detection of biological analytes, with applications in medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and agriculture. SPR is widely used in the detection of biomolecular interactions, and improvements are required for both sensitivity and in vivo uses for practical applications. In this study, we developed an SPR biosensor to provide a highly sensitive and specific approach to early-stage detection of viral and malignant diseases, such as cancer tumors, for which biomarker detection is very important. A cancer cell line (HeLa cells) with biomarker Rodamine 6G was experimentally analyzed in vitro with our constructed SPR biosensor. It was observed that the biosensor can offer a potentially powerful solution for tumor screening with dominant angular shift. The angular shift for both regents is dominant with a time curve at a wavelength of 632.8 nm of a He–Ne laser. We have successfully captured and detected a biomarker in vitro for cancer diagnostics using the developed instrument.

  12. Diagnostic accuracy and prognostic impact of restaging by magnetic resonance imaging after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Jung Wook; Kim, Hee Cheol; Lee, Soon Jin; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Lee, Woo Yong; Park, Yoon Ah; Cho, Yong Beom; Chun, Ho-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prognostic role of restaging rectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with preoperative CRT has not been established. The goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic role of radiological staging by rectal MRI after preoperative chemoradiation (CRT) in patients with rectal cancer. Methods: A total of 231 consecutive patients with rectal cancer who underwent preoperative CRT and radical resection from January 2008 to December 2009 were prospectively enrolled. The diagnostic accuracy and prognostic significance of post-CRT radiological staging by MRI was evaluated. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of radiological diagnosis of good responders (ypTNM stage 0–I) were 32%, 90%, 65%, and 69%, respectively. The overall accuracy of MRI restating for good responders was 68%. The 5-year disease-free survival rates of patients with radiological and pathological TNM stage 0, stage I, and stage II–III were 100%, 94%, and 76%, respectively (P = 0.037), and 97%, 87%, and 73%, respectively (P = 0.007). On multivariate analysis, post-CRT radiological staging by MRI was an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival. Conclusion: Radiological staging by MRI after preoperative CRT may be an independent predictor of survival in patients with rectal cancer

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging and biomarkers of serum and urine wile diagnostics of kidney cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickolsky Yu.Ye.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: improvement of differential diagnostics of benign and malignant renal tumors basing on complex estimation of the results of MRTand the level of such biomarkers as vascular endothelial growth factor, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in blood serum and urine. Material and Methods. A total of 106 patients including the main group of 60 patients with renal cancer (RC, the group of comparison of 16 patients with benign renal tumors and the control group of 30 practically healthy persons were examined. ELISA was employed for detection of the biomarkers in blood serum and urine. The tumors were diagnosed by MRT Results. The increase of the level of the biomarkers in blood serum and urine was registered independently of the character of neoplastic process; more significant increase was observed in patients with RC, especially at the early stages of the disease. Some peculiarities of changing of the level of the biomarkers depending on the dimensions of malignant tumors were found. Conclusion. At the early stages of RC complex detection of the abovementioned biomarkers in blood serum and urine can serve an additional clinical diagnostic and prognostic criterion.

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance, computed tomography and contrast enhanced ultrasound in radiological multimodality assessment of peribiliary liver metastases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenza Granata

    Full Text Available We compared diagnostic performance of Magnetic Resonance (MR, Computed Tomography (CT and Ultrasound (US with (CEUS and without contrast medium to identify peribiliary metastasis.We identified 35 subjects with histological proven peribiliary metastases who underwent CEUS, CT and MR study. Four radiologists evaluated the presence of peribiliary lesions, using a 4-point confidence scale. Echogenicity, density and T1-Weigthed (T1-W, T2-W and Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI signal intensity as well as the enhancement pattern during contrast studies on CEUS, CT and MR so as hepatobiliary-phase on MRI was assessed.All lesions were detected by MR. CT detected 8 lesions, while US/CEUS detected one lesion. According to the site of the lesion, respect to the bile duct and hepatic parenchyma: 19 (54.3% were periductal, 15 (42.8% were intra-periductal and 1 (2.8% was periductal-intrahepatic. According to the confidence scale MRI had the best diagnostic performance to assess the lesion. CT obtained lower diagnostic performance. There was no significant difference in MR signal intensity and contrast enhancement among all metastases (p>0.05. There was no significant difference in CT density and contrast enhancement among all metastases (p>0.05.MRI is the method of choice for biliary tract tumors but it does not allow a correct differential diagnosis among different histological types of metastasis. The presence of biliary tree dilatation without hepatic lesions on CT and US/CEUS study may be an indirect sign of peribiliary metastases and for this reason the patient should be evaluated by MRI.

  15. Clinical diagnostic study by means of magnetic resonance imaging for lesions of the major salivary gland region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iihama, Tsuyoshi; Mataga, Izumi; Kato, Joji

    1994-01-01

    The diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for lesions situated in the major salivary glands was clinically discussed in this study. A total of 46 patients with salivary gland disorders treated in our department over the past five years were assessed by mean of MRI, and in 11 patients the findings were compared with the histopathological features of lesions sectioned at the same level postoperatively. In addition, preliminary investigations to introduce a new qualitative diagnostic procedure for estimation of salivary gland function in geriatric patients were attempted. In this investigation, T 1 and T 2 values, and signal intensity ratios of the submandibular gland were measured in elderly patients complaining of dry mouth and in healthy controls. Likewise, salivary gland function was examined by taste stimulation induced by applying citric acid to the tongue surface just before starting MRI. MRI clearly demonstrated lesions in the salivary glands. The histopathological diagnosis could not be accurately predicted by signal intensity. However, benign tumors showed higher intensity signals than did malignant tumors on T 2 -weighted images. Cystic lesions could be differentiated from tumors by signal intensity. Histopathological features of salivary gland tumors corresponded to the MRI signal intensity. Relaxation times of T 1 and T 2 values and signal intensity in each major salivary gland were diminished in elderly patients in a resting condition. Only T 1 values in healthy subjects remarkably responded to taste stimulation. These results suggest that MRI is useful and beneficial not only in the qualitative diagnosis of tumors arising from salivary glands but also in the estimation of salivary gland function. MRI should therefore be included in routine diagnostic examinations for salivary gland disorders. (author)

  16. Over-Expression of Dopamine D2 Receptor and Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channel Genes in Drug-Naive Schizophrenic Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes as Potential Diagnostic Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Zvara

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting nearly 1% of the human population. Current diagnosis of schizophrenia is based on complex clinical symptoms. The use of easily detectable peripheral molecular markers could substantially help the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders. Recent studies showed that peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL express subtypes of D1 and D2 subclasses of dopamine receptors. Recently, dopamine receptor D3 (DRD3 was found to be over-expressed in schizophrenic PBL and proposed to be a diagnostic and follow-up marker for schizophrenia. In this study we screened PBL of 13 drug-naive/drug-free schizophrenic patients to identify additional markers of schizophrenia. One of the benefits of our study is the use of blood samples of non-medicated, drug-naive patients. This excludes the possibility that changes detected in gene expression levels might be attributed to the medication rather than to the disorder itself. Among others, genes for dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2 and the inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir2.3 were found to be over-expressed in microarray analysis. Increased mRNA levels were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR using the SybrGreen method and dual labeled TaqMan probes. The use of both molecular markers allows a more rapid and precise prediction of schizophrenia and might help find the optimal medication for schizophrenic patients.

  17. Diagnostic role of magnetic resonance angiography in Swyer James syndrome: Case series of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parashari Umesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Swyer James syndrome is a rare syndrome which occurs due to viral illness in early childhood. The post infective obliterative bronchiolitis results in arrest of lung growth and alveolarization with reduced vascularity resulting in classical radiological features. We describe two cases of patients fulfilling all the criteria of the syndrome - 1 Unilateral hyperlucent small lung in chest radiograph with air trapping on expiration, small ipsilateral hila and pulmonary artery. 2 Diffuse decrease in attenuation of lung parenchyma with bronchiectasis and reduction in vascularity. 3 Unilateral pruned tree appearance on angiography (MRA. The clinical presentation was recurrent chest infection in a child and infrequent bouts of hemoptysis in a middle aged female. The study demonstrates the role of magnetic resonance angiography in diagnosing the condition.

  18. QTL-seq approach identified genomic regions and diagnostic markers for rust and late leaf spot resistance in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manish K; Khan, Aamir W; Singh, Vikas K; Vishwakarma, Manish K; Shasidhar, Yaduru; Kumar, Vinay; Garg, Vanika; Bhat, Ramesh S; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Janila, Pasupuleti; Guo, Baozhu; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2017-08-01

    Rust and late leaf spot (LLS) are the two major foliar fungal diseases in groundnut, and their co-occurrence leads to significant yield loss in addition to the deterioration of fodder quality. To identify candidate genomic regions controlling resistance to rust and LLS, whole-genome resequencing (WGRS)-based approach referred as 'QTL-seq' was deployed. A total of 231.67 Gb raw and 192.10 Gb of clean sequence data were generated through WGRS of resistant parent and the resistant and susceptible bulks for rust and LLS. Sequence analysis of bulks for rust and LLS with reference-guided resistant parent assembly identified 3136 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for rust and 66 SNPs for LLS with the read depth of ≥7 in the identified genomic region on pseudomolecule A03. Detailed analysis identified 30 nonsynonymous SNPs affecting 25 candidate genes for rust resistance, while 14 intronic and three synonymous SNPs affecting nine candidate genes for LLS resistance. Subsequently, allele-specific diagnostic markers were identified for three SNPs for rust resistance and one SNP for LLS resistance. Genotyping of one RIL population (TAG 24 × GPBD 4) with these four diagnostic markers revealed higher phenotypic variation for these two diseases. These results suggest usefulness of QTL-seq approach in precise and rapid identification of candidate genomic regions and development of diagnostic markers for breeding applications. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    an impetus or drive to that account: change, innovation, rupture, or discontinuity. Resonances: Historical Essays on Continuity and Change explores the historiographical question of the modes of interrelation between these motifs in historical narratives. The essays in the collection attempt to realize...

  20. The diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in soft tissue abscesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, Ozkan; Koparan, Halil Ibrahim [Yuezuencue Yil University, Department of Radiology, Van (Turkey); Avcu, Serhat, E-mail: serhatavcu@hotmail.com [Yuezuencue Yil University, Department of Radiology, Van (Turkey); Kalender, Ali Murat [Yuezuencue Yil University, Department of Orthopaedics, General Surgery, Van (Turkey); Kisli, Erol [Yuezuencue Yil University, Department of General Surgery, Van (Turkey)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To study the diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in soft tissue abscesses. Materials and methods: Fifty patients were included in this study who were thought to have soft tissue abscess or cystic lesion as a result of clinical and radiological examinations. Localisations of the lesions were: 1 periorbital, 3 breast, 14 intraabdominal, and 32 intramuscular lesions. After other radiological examinations, DWI was performed. The signal intensity values of the lesions were evaluated qualitatively according to the hyperintensity on b-1000 DWI, using 1.5 T MR system. All of the lesions were aspirated after DWI, and detection of pus in the aspiration material was accepted as gold standard for the diagnosis of abscess. Results: In 38 of the 50 patients, hyperintensity was obtained on diffusion-weighted images. False-positive results were maintained in 2 of these patients, and true-positive results were maintained in 36 of them. In 11 of the 50 patients, hypointensity was visualised on diffusion-weighted images. False-negative results were maintained in 3 of these patients, and true-negative results were maintained in 8 of them. An abscess which was seen on post-contrast conventional MRI could not be seen on DWI, and this was regarded as false-negative. Conclusion: The sensitivity and specificity of diffusion-weighted images for detecting soft tissue abscesses were found to be 92% and 80%, respectively. DWI has a high diagnostic value in soft tissue abscesses, and is an important imaging modality that may be used for the differentiation of cysts and abscesses.

  1. The diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in soft tissue abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, Ozkan; Koparan, Halil Ibrahim; Avcu, Serhat; Kalender, Ali Murat; Kisli, Erol

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To study the diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in soft tissue abscesses. Materials and methods: Fifty patients were included in this study who were thought to have soft tissue abscess or cystic lesion as a result of clinical and radiological examinations. Localisations of the lesions were: 1 periorbital, 3 breast, 14 intraabdominal, and 32 intramuscular lesions. After other radiological examinations, DWI was performed. The signal intensity values of the lesions were evaluated qualitatively according to the hyperintensity on b-1000 DWI, using 1.5 T MR system. All of the lesions were aspirated after DWI, and detection of pus in the aspiration material was accepted as gold standard for the diagnosis of abscess. Results: In 38 of the 50 patients, hyperintensity was obtained on diffusion-weighted images. False-positive results were maintained in 2 of these patients, and true-positive results were maintained in 36 of them. In 11 of the 50 patients, hypointensity was visualised on diffusion-weighted images. False-negative results were maintained in 3 of these patients, and true-negative results were maintained in 8 of them. An abscess which was seen on post-contrast conventional MRI could not be seen on DWI, and this was regarded as false-negative. Conclusion: The sensitivity and specificity of diffusion-weighted images for detecting soft tissue abscesses were found to be 92% and 80%, respectively. DWI has a high diagnostic value in soft tissue abscesses, and is an important imaging modality that may be used for the differentiation of cysts and abscesses.

  2. Country-wide surveillance of molecular markers of antimalarial drug resistance in Senegal by use of positive Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndiaye, Magatte; Sow, Doudou; Nag, Sidsel

    2017-01-01

    of drug resistance. Therefore, surveillance of drug resistance in the malaria parasites is essential. The objective of this pilot study was to test the feasibility of routinely sampled malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) at a national scale to assess the temporal changes in the molecular profiles...... of antimalarial drug resistance markers of Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Overall, 9,549 positive malaria RDTs were collected from 14 health facilities across the country. A limited random set of RDTs were analyzed regarding Pfcrt gene polymorphisms at codon 72-76. Overall, a high but varied prevalence (> 50...

  3. Towards a molecular taxonomic key of the Aurantioideae subfamily using chloroplastic SNP diagnostic markers of the main clades genotyped by competitive allele-specific PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oueslati, Amel; Ollitrault, Frederique; Baraket, Ghada; Salhi-Hannachi, Amel; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2016-08-18

    Chloroplast DNA is a primary source of molecular variations for phylogenetic analysis of photosynthetic eukaryotes. However, the sequencing and analysis of multiple chloroplastic regions is difficult to apply to large collections or large samples of natural populations. The objective of our work was to demonstrate that a molecular taxonomic key based on easy, scalable and low-cost genotyping method should be developed from a set of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) diagnostic of well-established clades. It was applied to the Aurantioideae subfamily, the largest group of the Rutaceae family that includes the cultivated citrus species. The publicly available nucleotide sequences of eight plastid genomic regions were compared for 79 accessions of the Aurantioideae subfamily to search for SNPs revealing taxonomic differentiation at the inter-tribe, inter-subtribe, inter-genus and interspecific levels. Diagnostic SNPs (DSNPs) were found for 46 of the 54 clade levels analysed. Forty DSNPs were selected to develop KASPar markers and their taxonomic value was tested by genotyping 108 accessions of the Aurantioideae subfamily. Twenty-seven markers diagnostic of 24 clades were validated and they displayed a very high rate of transferability in the Aurantioideae subfamily (only 1.2 % of missing data on average). The UPGMA from the validated markers produced a cladistic organisation that was highly coherent with the previous phylogenetic analysis based on the sequence data of the eight plasmid regions. In particular, the monophyletic origin of the "true citrus" genera plus Oxanthera was validated. However, some clarification remains necessary regarding the organisation of the other wild species of the Citreae tribe. We validated the concept that with well-established clades, DSNPs can be selected and efficiently transformed into competitive allele-specific PCR markers (KASPar method) allowing cost-effective highly efficient cladistic analysis in large collections at

  4. Apprasial of the diagnostic value of combined detection of serum tumor markers (AFP, CEA, SF, TSA) for common malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jingyin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the detection rate of common malignancies with combined determination of four serum tumor markers (AFP, CEA, SF, TSA). Methods: Serum AFP, CEA, SF (with RIA) and TSA (with biochemical method) contents were determined in 612 patients with various kinds of proved malignancies. Results: Positive rates of combined determination of these four tumor markers for detection of common malignancies were: 95.2%(79/83) for liver carcinoma, 92.6% (125/135) for lung carcinoma, 88.5% (115/130) for gastric cancer, 83.3% (60/72) for colorectal cancer, 84.2% (85/101) for breast cancer, 90.0% (9/10) for chorionepithelioma and 88.9% (72/81) for ovarian cancer. Conclusion: Combined determination of these four tumor markers for screening malignancies is simple, cheap, practical and worth popularization. (authors)

  5. The Use of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnostic Workup and Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Haemers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and imposes a huge clinical and economic burden. AF is correlated with an increased morbidity and mortality, mainly due to stroke and heart failure. Cardiovascular imaging modalities, including echocardiography, computed tomography (CT, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR, play a central role in the workup and treatment of AF. One of the major advantages of CMR is the high contrast to noise ratio combined with good spatial and temporal resolution, without any radiation burden. This allows a detailed assessment of the structure and function of the left atrium (LA. Of particular interest is the ability to visualize the extent of LA wall injury. We provide a focused review of the value of CMR in identifying the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of AF, its role in stroke prevention and in the guidance of radiofrequency catheter ablation. CMR is a promising technique that could add valuable information for therapeutic decision making in specific subpopulations with AF.

  6. The diagnostic value of magnetic resonance urography using a balanced turbo field echo sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifci, Egemen; Coban, Goekcen [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Konya (Turkey); Cicek, Tufan; Goenuelalan, Umut [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Urology, Konya (Turkey)

    2016-12-15

    The aim of the study was to compare the inter-observer variability and the accuracy of magnetic resonance urography (MRU) using a thin sectional balanced-turbo field echo (B-TFE) sequence for detecting ureteral calculi and to determine the effect of additional factors (size, density and location of the calculus) on the sensitivity and specificity of the MRU. MRU and CT images were evaluated independently by two radiologists according to presence, density and localization of calculi. The degrees of inter-rater agreement for categorical items were evaluated by the Kappa coefficient. According to the 1st and 2nd observers, the sensitivity of MRU was 65.9 %, 71.8 % and the specificity of MRU was 95.9 %, 100 %, respectively. Inter-observer agreement was 84.6 % for stone detection. The larger size had a better effect on detectability (p < 0.05). Also, the higher density had a better impact on detectability (p < 0.05). Our study has shown that B-TFE MRU was useful to detect ureteral calculi. However, B-TFE MRU has low sensitivity and high specificity in comparison with CT images. MRU is a reasonable alternative imaging technique for follow-up periods of selective groups like patients with large urinary stones, children or pregnant patients when ionizing radiation is undesirable. (orig.)

  7. Ectopic Molar Pregnancy: Diagnostic Efficacy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasushi; Ohira, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Teruyuki; Shiozawa, Tanri

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic molar pregnancy is extremely rare, and preoperative diagnosis is difficult. Our literature search found only one report of molar pregnancy diagnosed preoperatively. Moreover, there is no English literature depicting magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings of ectopic molar pregnancy. We report a case of ectopic molar pregnancy preoperatively diagnosed using MRI. A literature review of 31 cases of ectopic molar pregnancy demonstrated that lesions have been found in the fallopian tube (19 cases, 61%), ovary (5 cases, 16%), cornu (3 cases, 10%), peritoneum (2 cases, 6%), uterine cervix (1 case, 3%), and cesarean scar (1 case, 3%). Abdominal pain and abnormal vaginal bleeding were reported in 70% and 61% of the patients, respectively. Twenty-one cases (67%) presented with rupture and hemoperitoneum. All patients underwent surgical resection or dilatation and curettage. Methotrexate therapy was performed in one case because residual trophoblastic tissue was suspected. A second operation was performed in one case of ovarian molar pregnancy because serum hCG levels increased again after primary focal ovarian resection. No patients developed metastatic disease or relapsed. These findings suggest the prognosis of ectopic molar pregnancy to be favorable.

  8. Ectopic Molar Pregnancy: Diagnostic Efficacy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Yamada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic molar pregnancy is extremely rare, and preoperative diagnosis is difficult. Our literature search found only one report of molar pregnancy diagnosed preoperatively. Moreover, there is no English literature depicting magnetic resonance image (MRI findings of ectopic molar pregnancy. We report a case of ectopic molar pregnancy preoperatively diagnosed using MRI. A literature review of 31 cases of ectopic molar pregnancy demonstrated that lesions have been found in the fallopian tube (19 cases, 61%, ovary (5 cases, 16%, cornu (3 cases, 10%, peritoneum (2 cases, 6%, uterine cervix (1 case, 3%, and cesarean scar (1 case, 3%. Abdominal pain and abnormal vaginal bleeding were reported in 70% and 61% of the patients, respectively. Twenty-one cases (67% presented with rupture and hemoperitoneum. All patients underwent surgical resection or dilatation and curettage. Methotrexate therapy was performed in one case because residual trophoblastic tissue was suspected. A second operation was performed in one case of ovarian molar pregnancy because serum hCG levels increased again after primary focal ovarian resection. No patients developed metastatic disease or relapsed. These findings suggest the prognosis of ectopic molar pregnancy to be favorable.

  9. High frequency bulk resonators for bio/chemical diagnostics and monitoring applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto

    In the environmental monitoring eld there is a vast variety of possible applications for microfabricated MEMS sensors. As an example, a network of miniaturized sensors could detect toxic gases, harmful airbornes, explosives in air or, in liquid, monitor the quality of drinking water. The integrat......In the environmental monitoring eld there is a vast variety of possible applications for microfabricated MEMS sensors. As an example, a network of miniaturized sensors could detect toxic gases, harmful airbornes, explosives in air or, in liquid, monitor the quality of drinking water...... be operated in gaseous environments thanks to the high Qfactors and show very high mass sensitivities and very small mass resolutions. The resonators have been microfabricated at the DTU-Danchip facility exploiting the microfabrication knowledge already present in the DyNEMS group. The devices have been...... and as temperature sensors in humid environment. Moreover, they have been used as tool to investigate the interaction between water molecules and DNA. Finally, nanograss have been etched into the body of the microresonators in order to improve the mass sensitivy of the devices. On the whole, the experimental results...

  10. Myxofibrosarcoma: prevalence and diagnostic value of the ''tail sign'' on magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefkowitz, Robert A.; Landa, Jonathan; Hwang, Sinchun; Panicek, David M.; Zabor, Emily C.; Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Agaram, Narasimhan P.

    2013-01-01

    Myxofibrosarcoma frequently shows curvilinear extensions of high T2 signal that also enhance on magnetic resonance imaging; these ''tails'' represent fascial extension of tumor at histopathological examination. This study was performed to determine whether the tail sign is helpful in distinguishing myxofibrosarcoma from other myxoid-containing neoplasms. The study group consisted of 44 patients with pathologically proven myxofibrosarcoma; the control group consisted of 52 patients with a variety of other myxoid-predominant tumors. Three musculoskeletal radiologists independently evaluated T2-weighted (and/or short-tau inversion recovery) and post-contrast MR images for the presence of one or more enhancing, high-signal intensity, curvilinear projections from the primary mass. Sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of myxofibrosarcoma were calculated for each reader. Interobserver variability was assessed with kappa statistic and percentage agreement. A tail sign was deemed present in 28, 30, and 34 cases of myxofibrosarcoma and in 11, 9, and 5 of the controls for the three readers respectively, yielding a sensitivity of 64-77 % and a specificity of 79-90 %. The interobserver agreement was moderate-to-substantial (kappa = 0.626). The tail sign at MRI is a moderately specific and sensitive sign for the diagnosis of myxofibrosarcoma relative to other myxoid-containing tumors. (orig.)

  11. The Triangular Sign, a Useful Diagnostic Marker for Biliary Atresia: A Case Series of Three Irish Infants

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, A

    2018-06-01

    The triangular cord (TC) sign is the appearance of a triangular shaped echogenic density visualised immediately cranial to the portal vein bifurcation on ultrasonographic examination. Several studies have reported that this ultrasonographic sign is a reliable and helpful marker in identifying Biliary Atresia (BA).

  12. Combined assessment of DYRK1A, BDNF and homocysteine levels as diagnostic marker for Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janel, N; Alexopoulos, P; Badel, A; Lamari, F; Camproux, A C; Lagarde, J; Simon, S; Feraudet-Tarisse, C; Lamourette, P; Arbones, M; Paul, J L; Dubois, B; Potier, M C; Sarazin, M; Delabar, J M

    2017-01-01

    Early identification of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk factors would aid development of interventions to delay the onset of dementia, but current biomarkers are invasive and/or costly to assess. Validated plasma biomarkers would circumvent these challenges. We previously identified the kinase DYRK1A in plasma. To validate DYRK1A as a biomarker for AD diagnosis, we assessed the levels of DYRK1A and the related markers brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and homocysteine in two unrelated AD patient cohorts with age-matched controls. Receiver-operating characteristic curves and logistic regression analyses showed that combined assessment of DYRK1A, BDNF and homocysteine has a sensitivity of 0.952, a specificity of 0.889 and an accuracy of 0.933 in testing for AD. The blood levels of these markers provide a diagnosis assessment profile. Combined assessment of these three markers outperforms most of the previous markers and could become a useful substitute to the current panel of AD biomarkers. These results associate a decreased level of DYRK1A with AD and challenge the use of DYRK1A inhibitors in peripheral tissues as treatment. These measures will be useful for diagnosis purposes. PMID:28632203

  13. Diagnostic evaluation of ischemic heart disease by X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Yoshiaki; Kobayashi, Shiro; Takasu, Junichiro; Sakakibara, Makoto; Imai, Hitoshi; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Morooka, Nobuhiro; Watanabe, Shigeru; Inagaki, Yoshiaki

    1987-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of X-ray computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting and evaluating ischemic heart disease, conventional and enhanced CT were performed for 180 patients (150 with transmural infarction, 12 with subendocardial infarction, and 18 with angina pectoris). MRI examinations were performed for 38 patients (31 with transmural infarction, three with subendocardial infarction, and four with angina pectoris). With enhanced CT, two findings in the myocardium were direct evidence of myocardial infarction: 1) filling defects on the early scans, and 2) late enhancement of the myocardium on the delayed scans. The former were observed mainly at the sites of recent anterior myocardial infarction and the latter were seen in about half of the patients with recent and remote anterior myocardial infarctions. However, these findings were inadequately imaged in patients with inferoposterior infarction and subendocardial infarction. Among 137 patients with transmural infarction, enhanced CT revealed left ventricular aneurysms in 51 (37 %) and ventricular thrombi in 26 (19 %). ECG-gated MRI apparatus having a superconducting magnetic operating at 0.25 Tesla was used, and data for this study were collected using the single-slice spin echo technique. In eight of nine patients with acute myocardial infarction, gated MRI demonstrated the infarcted myocardium as regions of high signal intensity relative to that of the adjacent normal myocardium. Such a difference in MRI signal intensity was scarcely recognized in the chronic stage of myocardial infarction, but the indirect findings of infarction, such as regional wall thinning, wall motion disturbances, left ventricular aneurysms, and ventricular thrombi were easily detected using MRI. No characteristic finding was obtained by CT or MRI in patients with angina pectoris. (author)

  14. Magnetic Resonance Neurography in Chronic Lumbosacral and Pelvic Pain: Diagnostic and Management Impact-Institutional Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessouky, Riham; Xi, Yin; Scott, Kelly M; Khaleel, Mohammed; Gill, Kevin; Jones, Stephanie; Khalifa, Dalia N; Tantawy, Hazim I; Aidaros, Magdy A; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2018-06-01

    Low back and pelvic pain are among the most prevalent conditions worldwide, with major social and economic costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) of lumbosacral plexus in the management and outcomes of these patients with chronic pain. Consecutive patients with chronic lumbosacral and pelvic pain referred for MRN over a year were included. Preimaging and postimaging clinical diagnosis and treatment, pain levels, and location were recorded. Pain-free survival was compared between treatments using a Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 202 patients with mean age 53.7 ± 14.8 years and a male/female ratio of 1:1.53 were included. Of these patients, 115 presented with radiculopathy (57%), 56 with pelvic pain (28%), and 31 with groin pain (15%). Mean initial pain level was 6.9 ± 1.9. Mean symptom duration was 4.21 ± 5.86 years. Of these patients, 143 (71%) had a change in management because of MRN. After MRN, reduction in pain levels was observed in 21 of 32 patients receiving conservative treatment (66%), 42 of 67 receiving injections (63%), and 27 of 33 receiving surgery (82%). Follow-ups were available in 131 patients. Median pain-free survival was 12 months. Patients treated with surgery had significantly lower pain recurrence than patients receiving other treatments in the same time frame (hazard ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-9.2; P = 0.0061). MRN use in chronic lumbosacral and pelvic pain led to a meaningful change in diagnosis and treatment. After MRN, conservative treatment and injections provided pain relief; however, patients benefited more from surgery than from any other treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Diagnostic performance of radiographers as compared to radiologists in magnetic resonance colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijta, F.M.; Florie, J.; Jensch, S.; Bipat, S.; Nievelstein, R.A.J.; Poulus, M.; Thomassen-de Graaf, M.A.; Montauban van Swijndregt, A.D.; Stoker, J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of radiographers compared to radiologists in the detection of colorectal lesions in MR colonography. Material and methods: 159 patients at increased risk of colorectal cancer were included. Four different experienced observers, one MR radiologist, one radiologist in training and two radiographers evaluated all MR colonography examinations. The protocol included T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences in prone and supine position. Colonoscopy was used as reference standard. Mean sensitivity rates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined on a per-patient and per-polyp basis, segmented by size (≥6 mm and ≥10 mm). Specificity was calculated on a per-patient basis. The McNemar and chi-square (χ 2 ) test was used to determine significant differences. Results: At colonoscopy 74 patients (47%) had normal findings; 23 patients had 40 polyps with a size ≥6 mm. In 10 patients at least 1 polyp ≥10 mm was found (20 polyps in total). Similar sensitivities for patients with lesions ≥10 mm were found for radiologists and radiographers (65% (95%CI: 44-86%) vs. 50% (95%CI: 28-72%)) (p = n.s.). For lesions ≥10 mm combined per-patient specificity for radiologists and radiographers was 96% (95%CI: 94-98%) and 73% (95%CI: 68-79%) (p < 0.0001). Combined per-patient sensitivity for lesions ≥6 mm differed significantly between both groups of observers (57% (95%CI: 42-71%) vs. 33% (95%CI: 19-46%)) (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Radiographers have comparable sensitivity but lower specificity relative to radiologists in the detection of colorectal lesions ≥10 mm at MR colonography. Adequate training in evaluating MR colonography is necessary, especially for readers with no prior experience with colonography.

  16. T1 mapping cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to detect myocarditis—Impact of slice orientation on the diagnostic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnen, Sebastian, E-mail: s.bohnen@uke.de [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, University Heart Center, General and Interventional Cardiology, Hamburg (Germany); Radunski, Ulf K., E-mail: u.radunski@uke.de [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, University Heart Center, General and Interventional Cardiology, Hamburg (Germany); Lund, Gunnar K., E-mail: glund@uke.de [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Tahir, Enver, E-mail: e.tahir@uke.de [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Avanesov, Maxim, E-mail: m.avanesov@uke.de [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Stehning, Christian, E-mail: christian.stehning@philips.com [Philips Research, Hamburg (Germany); Schnackenburg, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.schnackenburg@philips.com [Philips Healthcare Germany, Hamburg (Germany); Adam, Gerhard, E-mail: g.adam@uke.de [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Blankenberg, Stefan, E-mail: s.blankenberg@uke.de [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, University Heart Center, General and Interventional Cardiology, Hamburg (Germany); Muellerleile, Kai, E-mail: kamuellerleile@uke.de [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, University Heart Center, General and Interventional Cardiology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Background: T1 mapping is a promising diagnostic tool to improve the diagnostic accuracy of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with suspected myocarditis. However, there are currently no data on the potential influence of slice orientation on the diagnostic performance of CMR. Thus, we compared the diagnostic performance of global myocardial T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) values to differentiate patients with myocarditis from healthy individuals between different slice orientations. Methods: This study included 48 patients with clinically defined myocarditis and 13 healthy controls who underwent CMR at 1.5 T. A modified Look-Locker inversion-recovery (MOLLI) sequence was used for T1 mapping before and 15 min after administration of 0.075 mmol/kg Gadolinium-BOPTA. T1 mapping was performed on three short and on three long axes slices, respectively. Native T1, post-contrast T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) −BOPTA maps were calculated using a dedicated plug-in written for the OsiriX software and compared between the mean value of three short-axes slices (3SAX), the central short-axis (1SAX), the mean value of three long-axes slices (3LAX), the four-chamber view (4CH), the three-chamber view (3CH) and the two-chamber view (2CH). Results: There were significantly lower native T1 values on 3LAX (1081 ms (1037–1131 ms)) compared to 3SAX (1107 ms (1069–1143 ms), p = 0.0022) in patients with myocarditis, but not in controls (1026 ms (1009–1059 ms) vs. 1039 ms (1023–1055 ms), p = 0.2719). The areas under the curve (AUC) to discriminate between myocarditis and healthy controls by native myocardial T1 were 0.85 (p < 0.0001) on 3SAX, 0.85 (p < 0.0001) on 1SAX, 0.76 (p = 0.0002) on 3LAX, 0.70 (p = 0.0075) on 4CH, 0.72 (p = 0.0020) on 3CH and 0.75 (p = 0.0003) on 2CH. The AUCs for ECV-BOPTA were 0.83 (p < 0.0001) on 3 SAX, 0.82 (p < 0.0001) on 1SAX, 0.77 (p = 0.0005) on 3LAX, 0.71 (p = 0.0079) on 4CH, 0.69 (p = 0.0371) on 3CH and 0.75 (p = 0.0006) on

  17. T1 mapping cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to detect myocarditis—Impact of slice orientation on the diagnostic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnen, Sebastian; Radunski, Ulf K.; Lund, Gunnar K.; Tahir, Enver; Avanesov, Maxim; Stehning, Christian; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Adam, Gerhard; Blankenberg, Stefan; Muellerleile, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Background: T1 mapping is a promising diagnostic tool to improve the diagnostic accuracy of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with suspected myocarditis. However, there are currently no data on the potential influence of slice orientation on the diagnostic performance of CMR. Thus, we compared the diagnostic performance of global myocardial T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) values to differentiate patients with myocarditis from healthy individuals between different slice orientations. Methods: This study included 48 patients with clinically defined myocarditis and 13 healthy controls who underwent CMR at 1.5 T. A modified Look-Locker inversion-recovery (MOLLI) sequence was used for T1 mapping before and 15 min after administration of 0.075 mmol/kg Gadolinium-BOPTA. T1 mapping was performed on three short and on three long axes slices, respectively. Native T1, post-contrast T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) −BOPTA maps were calculated using a dedicated plug-in written for the OsiriX software and compared between the mean value of three short-axes slices (3SAX), the central short-axis (1SAX), the mean value of three long-axes slices (3LAX), the four-chamber view (4CH), the three-chamber view (3CH) and the two-chamber view (2CH). Results: There were significantly lower native T1 values on 3LAX (1081 ms (1037–1131 ms)) compared to 3SAX (1107 ms (1069–1143 ms), p = 0.0022) in patients with myocarditis, but not in controls (1026 ms (1009–1059 ms) vs. 1039 ms (1023–1055 ms), p = 0.2719). The areas under the curve (AUC) to discriminate between myocarditis and healthy controls by native myocardial T1 were 0.85 (p < 0.0001) on 3SAX, 0.85 (p < 0.0001) on 1SAX, 0.76 (p = 0.0002) on 3LAX, 0.70 (p = 0.0075) on 4CH, 0.72 (p = 0.0020) on 3CH and 0.75 (p = 0.0003) on 2CH. The AUCs for ECV-BOPTA were 0.83 (p < 0.0001) on 3 SAX, 0.82 (p < 0.0001) on 1SAX, 0.77 (p = 0.0005) on 3LAX, 0.71 (p = 0.0079) on 4CH, 0.69 (p = 0.0371) on 3CH and 0.75 (p = 0.0006) on

  18. Assessment of diagnostic value of various tumors markers (CEA, CA199, CA50) for colorectal neoplasm with logistic regression and ROC curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Ping; Huang Gang; Han Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic value of CEA, CA199 and CA50 for colorectal neoplasm by logistic regression and ROC curve. Methods: Serum CEA (with CLIA), CA199 (with ECLIA) and CA50 (with IRMA) levels were measured in 75 patients with colorectal cancer, 35 patients with benign colorectal disorders and 49 controls. The area under the ROC curve (AUC)s of CEA, CA199, CA50 from logistic regression results were compared. Results: In the cancer-benign disorder group, the AUC of CA50 was larger than the AUC of CA199. AUC of combined CEA, CA50 was largest: not only larger than any AUC of CEA, CA50, CA199 alone but also larger than the AUC of the combined three markers (0.875 vs 0.604). In cancer-control group, the AUC of combination of CEA, CA199 and CA50 was larger than any AUC of CEA, CA199 or CA50 alone. Both in the cancer-benign disorder group or cancer-control group, the AUC of CEA was larger than the AUC of CA199 or CA50. Conclusion: CEA is of definite value in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. For differential diagnosis, the combination of CEA and CA50 can give more information, while the combination of three tumor markers is less helpful. As an advanced statistical method, logistic regression can improve the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. (authors)

  19. Indirect magnetic resonance arthrography of the shoulder; a reliable diagnostic tool for investigation of suspected labral pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallahi, Farshid [North Cumbria University Hospitals NHS Trust, Carlisle (United Kingdom); North Cumbria University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Carlisle (United Kingdom); Green, Nick; Gadde, Sarat; Jeavons, Lisa; Armstrong, Patrick; Jonker, Leon [North Cumbria University Hospitals NHS Trust, Carlisle (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-15

    Indirect magnetic resonance arthrography (I-MRA) confers significant logistical advantages over direct MRA and does not require articular injection. In this study, we determined the diagnostic performance of I-MRA in relation to conventional MRI and arthroscopy or surgery in detecting tears of the glenoid labrum, including Bankart lesions and superior labral antero-posterior (SLAP) tears in a standard clinical setting. Ninety-one symptomatic patients underwent conventional MRI and I-MRA of the affected shoulder, followed by either arthroscopy or open surgery. The scans were interpreted independently by two experienced radiology consultants with a special interest in musculoskeletal radiology. Using the surgical findings as the standard of reference, sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of conventional non-contrast MRI and I-MRA in the detection of labral tears were calculated. The sensitivity of I-MRA was 95 and 97 %, respectively, for two radiologists as opposed to 79 and 83 % for conventional MRI. For both radiologists, the specificity of I-MRA, as well as MRI, was 91 % for detection of labral tears of all types. Accuracy of diagnosis was 93 and 95 %, respectively, for two radiologists with indirect MRA, compared to 84 and 86 % with non-contrast MRI. This retrospective study shows that I-MRA is a highly accurate and sensitive method for the detection of labral tears. The data obtained supports the use of I-MRA as standard practice in patients with shoulder instability due to suspected labral pathology where further investigative imaging is indicated. (orig.)

  20. Diagnostic value and prognostic implications of early cardiac magnetic resonance in survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Alessandro; Susana, Angela; De Lazzari, Manuel; Migliore, Federico; Vescovo, Giovanni; Scarpa, Daniele; Baritussio, Anna; Tarantini, Giuseppe; Cacciavillani, Luisa; Giorgi, Benedetta; Basso, Cristina; Iliceto, Sabino; Bucciarelli Ducci, Chiara; Corrado, Domenico; Marra, Martina Perazzolo

    2018-03-15

    In patients who survived out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), it is crucial to establish the underlying cause and its potential reversibility. The purpose of this study was to assess the incremental diagnostic and prognostic role of early cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in survivors of OHCA. Among 139 consecutive OHCA patients, the study enrolled 44 patients (median age 43 years; 84% male) who underwent coronary angiography and CMR ≤7 days after admission. The CMR protocol included T2-weighted sequences for myocardial edema and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) sequences for myocardial fibrosis. Coronary angiography identified obstructive coronary artery disease in 18 of 44 patients in whom CMR confirmed the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease by demonstrating subendocardial or transmural LGE. The presence of myocardial edema allowed differentiation between acute myocardial ischemia (n = 12) and postinfarction myocardial scar (n = 6). Among the remaining 26 patients without obstructive coronary artery disease, CMR in 19 (73%) showed dilated cardiomyopathy in 5, myocarditis in 4, mitral valve prolapse associated with LGE in 3, ischemic scar in 2, idiopathic nonischemic scar in 2, arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy in 1, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in 1, and takotsubo cardiomyopathy in 1. In this subgroup of 26 patients, 6 (23%) had myocardial edema. During mean follow-up of 36 ± 17 months, all 18 patients with myocardial edema had an uneventful outcome, whereas 9 of 26 (35%) without myocardial edema experienced sudden arrhythmic death (n = 1), appropriate defibrillator interventions (n = 5), and nonarrhythmic death (n = 3; P = .006). In survivors of OHCA, early CMR with a comprehensive tissue characterization protocol provided additional diagnostic and prognostic value. The identification of myocardial edema was associated with a favorable long-term outcome. Copyright © 2018 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Indirect magnetic resonance arthrography of the shoulder; a reliable diagnostic tool for investigation of suspected labral pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallahi, Farshid; Green, Nick; Gadde, Sarat; Jeavons, Lisa; Armstrong, Patrick; Jonker, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Indirect magnetic resonance arthrography (I-MRA) confers significant logistical advantages over direct MRA and does not require articular injection. In this study, we determined the diagnostic performance of I-MRA in relation to conventional MRI and arthroscopy or surgery in detecting tears of the glenoid labrum, including Bankart lesions and superior labral antero-posterior (SLAP) tears in a standard clinical setting. Ninety-one symptomatic patients underwent conventional MRI and I-MRA of the affected shoulder, followed by either arthroscopy or open surgery. The scans were interpreted independently by two experienced radiology consultants with a special interest in musculoskeletal radiology. Using the surgical findings as the standard of reference, sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of conventional non-contrast MRI and I-MRA in the detection of labral tears were calculated. The sensitivity of I-MRA was 95 and 97 %, respectively, for two radiologists as opposed to 79 and 83 % for conventional MRI. For both radiologists, the specificity of I-MRA, as well as MRI, was 91 % for detection of labral tears of all types. Accuracy of diagnosis was 93 and 95 %, respectively, for two radiologists with indirect MRA, compared to 84 and 86 % with non-contrast MRI. This retrospective study shows that I-MRA is a highly accurate and sensitive method for the detection of labral tears. The data obtained supports the use of I-MRA as standard practice in patients with shoulder instability due to suspected labral pathology where further investigative imaging is indicated. (orig.)

  2. Methodological aspects of magnetic resonance tomographic diagnostics of metastatic compressive fractures of the spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Павлович Мягков

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study – to define an information value of the different pulse patterns for a qualitative estimation of MR-signals in the body of compressed vertebras.Methods: 50 patients with metastatic compressive fractures (MCF were examined using MRT. 30 (60% mans and 20 (40% woman, average age 60,8 +/- 12,5 years. Fractures in the different parts of spine were considered: cervical – 6 (12,0; thoracic – 25 (50,0 %; lumbar – 19 (38 %. Metastasis in the spine are more frequent at a cancer of mammary gland (20,0 %, kidneys (17,5 % and prostate gland (15,0 %, less frequent at a cancer of lungs, thyroid gland and sarcomas (7,5 %.MRT was done for all patients using apparatus with magnetic force 0,2, 1,5 and 0,36Т (AIRIS Mate, ECHELON of "HitachimedicalCorp.", Japan, “I-Open 0, 36” Chinein 3 projections receiving Т1-, Т2- weighted (Т1WI, Т2WI and diffusion-weighted images (DWIand also images with suppression of signals from an adipose tissue (STIR, Fat/sat.Results: the more obvious pulse patterns (PP at MCF of spine are – STIR (97,8 %, Т1WI и DWI (80 %. DWI can be used as a screening and addition for above-listed PP. The more objective criterion for a judgment about MCF is abnormal uptake of CM (60 % on diffuse type.Conclusions: for MRT visualization of MCF the most optimal are the next PP – STIR, Т1WI and DWI, with a sensitivity, respectively – 97,8 %, 80 %, and 80 %. DWI must supplement but not substitute all existing PP. On the post-contrast T1WI an objective criterion for MRT diagnostics of MCF is an abnormal uptake of CM on diffuse type. An alteration of signal characteristics in the body of compressed vertebras is an evidence of an alteration of structure, but for more precise definition of its character it is necessary to study its morphological alterations

  3. Systematic development of Phytophthora species-specific mitochondrial diagnostic markers for economically important members of the genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Phytophthora contains many invasive species to the USA that have the potential to cause significant damage to agriculture and native ecosystems. A genus and species-specific diagnostic assay was previously reported based on mitochondrial gene order differences that allowed for the systemat...

  4. Development and dissection of diagnostic SNP markers for the downy mildew resistance genes Pl Arg and Pl 8 and maker-assisted gene pyramiding in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L L; Talukder, Z I; Hulke, B S; Foley, M E

    2017-06-01

    Diagnostic DNA markers are an invaluable resource in breeding programs for successful introgression and pyramiding of disease resistance genes. Resistance to downy mildew (DM) disease in sunflower is mediated by Pl genes which are known to be effective against the causal fungus, Plasmopara halstedii. Two DM resistance genes, Pl Arg and Pl 8 , are highly effective against P. halstedii races in the USA, and have been previously mapped to the sunflower linkage groups (LGs) 1 and 13, respectively, using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In this study, we developed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) maps encompassing the Pl arg and Pl 8 genes and identified diagnostic SNP markers closely linked to these genes. The specificity of the diagnostic markers was validated in a highly diverse panel of 548 sunflower lines. Dissection of a large marker cluster co-segregated with Pl Arg revealed that the closest SNP markers NSA_007595 and NSA_001835 delimited Pl Arg to an interval of 2.83 Mb on the LG1 physical map. The SNP markers SFW01497 and SFW06597 delimited Pl 8 to an interval of 2.85 Mb on the LG13 physical map. We also developed sunflower lines with homozygous, three gene pyramids carrying Pl Arg , Pl 8 , and the sunflower rust resistance gene R 12 using the linked SNP markers from a segregating F 2 population of RHA 340 (carrying Pl 8 )/RHA 464 (carrying Pl Arg and R 12 ). The high-throughput diagnostic SNP markers developed in this study will facilitate marker-assisted selection breeding, and the pyramided sunflower lines will provide durable resistance to downy mildew and rust diseases.

  5. Crohn's Disease Evaluated with Magnetic Resonance Enteroclysis: Diagnostic Performance of Experienced and Inexperienced Readers before and after Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negaard, A.; Mulahasanovic, A.; Reisaeter, L.A.; Aasekjaer, K.; Sandvik, L.; Klow, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance enteroclysis (MRE) is suggested to become the preferred radiological method in small-bowel Crohn's disease (CD). However, the performance of inexperienced readers may influence the diagnostic value of the method and has not been previously investigated. Purpose: To compare readings of MRE in small-bowel CD performed by experienced and inexperienced readers before and after training.Material and Methods: One experienced radiologist (observer 1) and two trainees (observers 2 and 3) reviewed 60 MRE examinations. A second reading was performed after training. Bowel wall thickness (BWT), ulcers (BWU), stenosis (BWS), fistulas (FIS), and abscesses (ABS) were evaluated. A reference standard based on clinical records was established. Results: BWT in the terminal ileum was evaluated with high diagnostic performance (sensitivity: observer 1, 83%; observer 2, 72%; observer 3, 78%). Only BWU was diagnosed with a higher sensitivity by observer 1 (78% vs. 33% and 39%, respectively; P=0.02). False-positive findings for BWT in the jejunum (observer 2: 7; observer 3: 4) and fistulas and abscesses (observer 2: 11/5; observer 3: 5/4) were made by the trainees. Interobserver agreement in the jejunum was poor (observer 1/observer 2: κ=0.23; observer 1/observer 3: κ=-0.03) and in the ileum good (observer 1/observer 2: κ=0.78; observer 1/observer 3: κ=0.73). After training, evaluation of BWU (observer 2: 56%, P=0.22; observer 3: 44%, P=0.03), BWT (observer 2: 2; observer 3: 2), and interobserver agreement in the jejunum improved (observer 1/observer 2: κ=0.66; observer 1/observer 3: κ=0.66). However, the number of diagnosed fistulas and abscesses remained high. Conclusion: Before training, most findings of Crohn's disease in the terminal ileum were evaluated with high diagnostic performance by all readers. However, the inexperienced readers evaluated BWU with a low sensitivity and overestimated the number of FIS, number of ABS, and increased BWT in

  6. Evaluation of tumour markers as differential diagnostic tool in patients with suspicion of liver metastases from breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, Vaclav; Holubec, Lubos; Treska, Vladislav; Vrzalova, Jindra; Skalicky, Tomas; Sutnar, Alan; Kormunda, Stanislav; Bruha, Jan; Vycital, Ondrej; Finek, Jindrich; Pesta, Martin; Pecen, Ladislav; Topolcan, Ondrej

    2011-04-01

    The liver is the site of breast cancer metastasis in 50% of patients with advanced disease. Tumour markers have been demonstrated as being useful in follow-up of patients with breast cancer, in early detection of recurrence of breast cancer after radical surgical treatments, and in assessing oncologic therapy effect, but no study has been carried out on their usefullness in distinguishing benign liver lesions from breast cancer metastases. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the importance of tumour markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen CA19-9 (CA19-9), thymidine kinase (TK), tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS) and cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA 21-1) in differential diagnosis between benign liver lesions and liver metastases of breast cancer. The study includes 3 groups: 22 patients with liver metastases of breast cancer; 39 patients with benign liver lesions (hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, liver cyst, hepatocellular adenoma); and 21 patients without any liver disease or lesion that were operated on for benign extrahepatic diseases (groin hernia, varices of lower limbs) as a control group. The serum levels of tumour markers were assessed by means of immunoanalytical methods. Preoperative serum levels of CYFRA 21-1, TPA, TPS and CEA were significantly higher in patients with liver metastases of breast cancer in contrast to healthy controls and patients with benign liver lesions (p-value<0.05). Serum levels of CA19-9 and TK were higher in patients with malignancy in comparison with benign liver disease and healthy controls but these differences were not statistically significant. Tumour markers CEA, CYFRA 21-1, TPA and TPS can be recommended as a good tool for differential diagnosis between liver metastases of breast cancer and benign liver lesions.

  7. Wisteria floribunda Agglutinin and Its Reactive-Glycan-Carrying Prostate-Specific Antigen as a Novel Diagnostic and Prognostic Marker of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Kazuhisa; Tobisawa, Yuki; Kaya, Takatoshi; Kaneko, Tomonori; Hatakeyama, Shingo; Mori, Kazuyuki; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Koie, Takuya; Suda, Yoshihiko; Ohyama, Chikara; Yoneyama, Tohru

    2017-01-26

    Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) preferably binds to LacdiNAc glycans, and its reactivity is associated with tumor progression. The aim of this study to examine whether the serum LacdiNAc carrying prostate-specific antigen-glycosylation isomer (PSA-Gi) and WFA-reactivity of tumor tissue can be applied as a diagnostic and prognostic marker of prostate cancer (PCa). Between 2007 and 2016, serum PSA-Gi levels before prostate biopsy (Pbx) were measured in 184 biopsy-proven benign prostatic hyperplasia patients and 244 PCa patients using an automated lectin-antibody immunoassay. WFA-reactivity on tumor was analyzed in 260 radical prostatectomy (RP) patients. Diagnostic and prognostic performance of serum PSA-Gi was evaluated using area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC). Prognostic performance of WFA-reactivity on tumor was evaluated via Cox proportional hazards regression analysis and nomogram. The AUC of serum PSA-Gi detecting PCa and predicting Pbx Grade Group (GG) 3 and GG ≥ 3 after RP was much higher than those of conventional PSA. Multivariate analysis showed that WFA-reactivity on prostate tumor was an independent risk factor of PSA recurrence. The nomogram was a strong model for predicting PSA-free survival provability with a c -index ≥0.7. Serum PSA-Gi levels and WFA-reactivity on prostate tumor may be a novel diagnostic and pre- and post-operative prognostic biomarkers of PCa, respectively.

  8. The Diagnostic Role of Magnetic Resonance Enterography as a Complementary Test to Colonoscopy in Active Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Arvin; Azizi, Zahra; Teimouri, Azam; Ebrahimi Daryani, Nasser; Aletaha, Najme; Jahanbakhsh, Ali; Nouritaromlou, Mohammad Kazem; Alborzi, Forough; Mami, Masoud; Basirat, Vahid; Javid Anbardan, Sanam

    2016-04-01

    BACKGROUND According to recent studies comparing magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) with ileocolonoscopy for assessing inflammation of small bowel and colonic segments in adults with active Crohn's disease (CD), we aimed to compare the accuracy of these two diagnostic methods in Iranian population. METHODS During 2013-2014 a follow-up study was done on 30 patients with active CD in a gastroenterology clinic affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. MRE and ileocolonoscopy were performed for all the patients. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS (version 18) and p-valuewomen with mean age of 37.30±13.66 years (range: 19-67 years). MRE had sensitivity and specificity of 50% and 90% with positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 71.43 and 78.26, respectively for localizing sigmoid lesions and ileum had sensitivity and specificity of 84.21 and 45.45 with PPV and NPV of 72.73 and 62.50, respectively. CONCLUSION While moderate sensitivity and high specificity of MRE in localizing colonic lesions makes it an appropriate confirmatory test after colonoscopy, the reported high sensitivity and moderate specificity of MRE versus colonoscopy in detecting ileal lesions makes it a suitable screening test for ileal lesions. Finally we can conclude that MRE can be an important complementary test to colonoscopy in detecting active disease.

  9. Determination of hemispheric language dominance in the surgical epilepsy patient: diagnostic properties of functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spritzer, Scott D; Hoerth, Matthew T; Zimmerman, Richard S; Shmookler, Aaron; Hoffman-Snyder, Charlene R; Wellik, Kay E; Demaerschalk, Bart M; Wingerchuk, Dean M

    2012-09-01

    Presurgical evaluation for refractory epilepsy typically includes assessment of cognitive and language functions. The reference standard for determination of hemispheric language dominance has been the intracarotid amobarbital test (IAT) but functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is increasingly used. To critically assess current evidence regarding the diagnostic properties of fMRI in comparison with the IAT for determination of hemispheric language dominance. The objective was addressed through the development of a structured critically appraised topic. This included a clinical scenario, structured question, literature search strategy, critical appraisal, results, evidence summary, commentary, and bottom-line conclusions. Participants included consultant and resident neurologists, a medical librarian, clinical epidemiologists, and content experts in the fields of epilepsy and neurosurgery. A systematic review and meta-analysis that compared the sensitivity and specificity of fMRI to IAT-determined language lateralization was selected for critical appraisal. The review included data from 23 articles (n=442); study methodology varied widely. fMRI was 83.5% sensitive and 88.1% specific for detection of hemispheric language dominance. There are insufficient data to support routine use of fMRI for the purpose of determining hemispheric language dominance in patients with intractable epilepsy. Larger, well-designed studies of fMRI for language and other cognitive outcomes as part of the presurgical and postsurgical evaluation of epilepsy patients are necessary.

  10. [Magnetic resonance semiotics of prostate cancer according to the PI-RADS classification. The clinical diagnostic algorithm of a study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobkin, A S; Shariya, M A; Chaban, A S; Voskanvan, G A; Vinarov, A Z

    2015-01-01

    to elaborate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signs of prostate cancer (PC) in accordance with the PI-RADS classification during multiparametric MRI (mpMRI). A total of 89 men aged 20 to 82 years were examined. A control group consisted of 8 (9%) healthy volunteers younger than 30 years of age with no urological history to obtain control images and MRI plots and 20 (22.5%) men aged 26-76 years, whose morphological changes were inflammatory and hyperplastic. The second age-matched group included 61 (68.5%) patients diagnosed with prostate cancer at morphological examination. A set of studies included digital rectal examination, serum prostate-specific antigen, and transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. All the patients underwent prostate mpMRI applying a 3.0 T Achieva MRI scanner (Philips, the Netherlands). The patients have been found to have mpMRI signs that were typical of PC; its MRI semiotics according to the PI-RADS classification is presented. Each mpMRI procedure has been determined to be of importance and informative value in detecting PC. The comprehensive mpMRI approach to diagnosing PC improves the quality and diagnostic value of prostate MRI.

  11. Evaluation of Serum CEA, CA19-9, CA72-4, CA125 and Ferritin as Diagnostic Markers and Factors of Clinical Parameters for Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanfeng; Wang, Jinping; Zhou, Yue; Sheng, Sen; Qian, Steven Y; Huo, Xiongwei

    2018-02-09

    Blood-based protein biomarkers have recently shown as simpler diagnostic modalities for colorectal cancer, while their association with clinical pathological characteristics is largely unknown. In this study, we not only examined the sensitivity and reliability of single/multiple serum markers for diagnosis, but also assessed their connection with pathological parameters from a total of 279 colorectal cancer patients. Our study shown that glycoprotein carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) owns the highest sensitivity among single marker in the order of CEA > cancer antigen 72-4 (CA72-4) > cancer antigen 19-9 9 (CA19-9) > ferritin > cancer antigen 125 (CA125), while the most sensitive combined-markers for two to five were: CEA + CA72-4; CEA + CA72-4 + CA125; CEA + CA19-9 + CA72-4 + CA125; and CEA + CA19-9 + CA72-4 + CA125 + ferritin, respectively. We also demonstrated that patients who had positive preoperative serum CEA, CA19-9, or CA72-4 were more likely with lymph node invasion, positive CA125 were prone to have vascular invasion, and positive CEA or CA125 were correlated with perineural invasion. In addition, positive CA19-9, CA72-4, or CA125 was associated with poorly differentiated tumor, while CEA, CA19-9, CA72-4, CA125 levels were positively correlated with pathological tumor-node-metastasis stages. We here conclude that combined serum markers can be used to not only diagnose colorectal cancer, but also appraise the tumor status for guiding treatment, evaluation of curative effect, and prognosis of patients.

  12. Predicting refeeding hypophosphataemia: insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1) as a diagnostic biochemical marker for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyale, Atul; Ashley, Sarah L; Taylor, David R; Elnenaei, Manal O; Alaghband-Zadeh, Jamshid; Sherwood, Roy A; le Roux, Carel W; Vincent, Royce P

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome (RS) is a potentially fatal condition that can occur following the re-introduction of nutrition after a period of starvation. Hypophosphataemia following the reintroduction of nutrition is often the only reliable biochemical marker of RS. Refeeding index (RI) generated from baseline insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and leptin has been proposed as a useful biochemical marker for the identification of patients at risk of developing refeeding hypophosphataemia (RH). A prospective study included 52 patients referred for parenteral nutrition (PN). The sensitivity and specificity of IGF-1 measured using a sensitive assay was compared to the RI in predicting the development of RH (a ≥ 30% drop in PO4 during the first 36-h of PN administration). Leptin and IGF-1 were analysed on baseline samples using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunoassay. Daily blood samples were collected from all patients for routine biochemistry for the full duration of PN administration. High sensitivity IGF-1 measurement alone was comparable with the RI, using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, with areas under the curve being 0.79 and 0.80, respectively, and superior to leptin alone (0.72) for predicting ≥ 30% drop in PO4. The cut-off value for IGF-1 that gave best sensitivity (91% [95% CI 75-98%]) and specificity (65% [95% CI 41-85%]) was 63.7 µg/L, with a likelihood ratio of 2.59. Baseline IGF-1 is an objective, sensitive and specific biochemical marker in identifying patients who are at high risk of developing RH prior to PN administration and therefore may have a role in clinical practice. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-labeled cells as an effective vehicle for tracking the GFP gene marker using magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Mascheri, N; Dharmakumar, R; Fan, Z; Paunesku, T; Woloschak, G; Li, D

    2010-01-01

    Background Detection of a gene using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is hindered by the magnetic resonance (MR) targeting gene technique. Therefore it may be advantageous to image gene-expressing cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles by MRI. Methods The GFP-R3230Ac (GFP) cell line was incubated for 24 h using SPIO nanoparticles at a concentration of 20 μg Fe/mL. Cell samples were prepared for iron content analysis and cell function evaluation. The labeled cells were imaged using fluorescent microscopy and MRI. Results SPIO was used to label GFP cells effectively, with no effects on cell function and GFP expression. Iron-loaded GFP cells were successfully imaged with both fluorescent microscopy and T2*-weighted MRI. Prussian blue staining showed intracellular iron accumulation in the cells. All cells were labeled (100% labeling efficiency). The average iron content per cell was 4.75±0.11 pg Fe/cell (P<0.05 versus control). Discussion This study demonstrates that the GFP expression of cells is not altered by the SPIO labeling process. SPIO-labeled GFP cells can be visualized by MRI; therefore, GFP, a gene marker, was tracked indirectly with the SPIO-loaded cells using MRI. The technique holds promise for monitoring the temporal and spatial migration of cells with a gene marker and enhancing the understanding of cell- and gene-based therapeutic strategies. PMID:18956269

  14. Is Serum Prostate-specific Antigen a Diagnostic Marker for Benign and Malignant Breast Tumors in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed Hasan Emami; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Abdollahi, Alireza; Taran, Ludmila; Shoar, Saeed; Omranipour, Ramesh

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Prostrate-specific antigen (PSA) is a marker of prostate gland malignancy which has been considered in cases with breast cancer in recent years. The goal of this study was to determine total and free PSA levels in cases with malignant and benign breast lesions. Ninety women with histological proved malignant breast masses and 90 with benign breast masses were enrolled. Total and free PSA levels along with histological grade and conditions of vascular and perinural invasion, status of hormonal tumor receptors, immune-histo-chemistry markers recorded for all cases. Total and free PSA levels were assessed after treatment in cases with malignant masses. Total and free PSA levels were significantly higher in cases with malignant masses. The best cut off point for total PSA to differentiate benign and malignant masses was 0.31 and the best cut off point for free PSA to differentiate benign and malignant masses was 0.19. After treatment, mean free PSA level was significantly lower than free PSA before treatment (0.23 vs 0.3, pbenign and malignant breast masses.

  15. Image fusion analysis of 99mTc-HYNIC-Tyr3-octreotide SPECT and diagnostic CT using an immobilisation device with external markers in patients with endocrine tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, Michael; Hausler, Florian; Moncayo, Roy; Decristoforo, Clemens; Virgolini, Irene; Bale, Reto; Kovacs, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of multimodality imaging using a novel repositioning device with external markers for fusion of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and computed tomography (CT) images. The additional benefit derived from this methodological approach was analysed in comparison with SPECT and diagnostic CT alone in terms of detection rate, reliability and anatomical assignment of abnormal findings with SPECT. Fifty-three patients (30 males, 23 females) with known or suspected endocrine tumours were studied. Clinical indications for somatostatin receptor (SSTR) scintigraphy (SPECT/CT image fusion) included staging of newly diagnosed tumours (n=14) and detection of unknown primary tumour in the presence of clinical and/or biochemical suspicion of neuroendocrine malignancy (n=20). Follow-up studies after therapy were performed in 19 patients. A mean activity of 400 MBq of 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr 3 -octreotide was given intravenously. SPECT using a dual-detector scintillation camera and diagnostic multi-detector CT were sequentially performed. To ensure reproducible positioning, patients were fixed in an individualised vacuum mattress with modality-specific external markers for co-registration. SPECT and CT data were initially interpreted separately and the fused images were interpreted jointly in consensus by nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology physicians. SPECT was true-positive (TP) in 18 patients, true-negative (TN) in 16, false-negative (FN) in ten and false-positive (FP) in nine; CT was TP in 18 patients, TN in 21, FP in ten and FN in four. With image fusion (SPECT and CT), the scan result was TP in 27 patients (50.9%), TN in 25 patients (47.2%) and FN in one patient, this FN result being caused by multiple small liver metastases; sensitivity was 95% and specificity, 100%. The difference between SPECT and SPECT/CT was statistically as significant as the difference between CT and SPECT/CT image fusion (P<0

  16. Molecular markers and new diagnostic methods to differentiate malignant from benign mesothelial pleural proliferations: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Rossella; Alì, Greta; Fontanini, Gabriella

    2018-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumor associated with asbestos exposure. Histopathological analysis of pleural tissues is the gold standard for diagnosis; however, it can be difficult to differentiate malignant from benign pleural lesions. The purpose of this review is to describe the most important biomarkers and new diagnostic tools suggested for this differential diagnosis. There are many studies concerning the separation between MPM and benign pleural proliferations from both pleural tissues or effusions; most of them are based on the evaluation of one or few biomarkers by immunohistochemistry (IHC) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), whereas others focused on the identification of MPM signatures given by microRNA (miRNA) or gene expression profiles as well as on the combination of molecular data and classification algorithms. None of the reported biomarkers showed adequate diagnostic accuracy, except for p16 [evaluated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)] and BAP1 (evaluated by IHC), both biomarkers are recommended by the International Mesothelioma Interest Group guidelines for histological and cytological diagnosis. BAP1 and p16 showed a specificity of 100% in discerning malignant from benign lesions because they are exclusively unexpressed or deleted in MPM. However, their sensitivity, even when used together, is not completely sufficient, and absence of their alterations cannot confirm the benign nature of the lesion. Recently, the availability of new techniques and increasing knowledge regarding MPM genetics led to the definition of some molecular panels, including genes or miRNAs specifically deregulated in MPM, that are extremely valuable for differential diagnosis. Moreover, the development of classification algorithms is facilitating the application of molecular data for clinical practice. Data regarding new diagnostic tools and MPM signatures are absolutely promising; however, before their application in

  17. Mucorales-specific T cells emerge in the course of invasive mucormycosis and may be used as a surrogate diagnostic marker in high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Leonardo; Vallerini, Daniela; Barozzi, Patrizia; Riva, Giovanni; Forghieri, Fabio; Zanetti, Eleonora; Quadrelli, Chiara; Candoni, Anna; Maertens, Johan; Rossi, Giulio; Morselli, Monica; Codeluppi, Mauro; Paolini, Ambra; Maccaferri, Monica; Del Giovane, Cinzia; D'Amico, Roberto; Rumpianesi, Fabio; Pecorari, Monica; Cavalleri, Francesca; Marasca, Roberto; Narni, Franco; Luppi, Mario

    2011-11-17

    Mucorales-specific T cells were investigated in 28 hematologic patients during the course of their treatment. Three developed proven invasive mucormycosis (IM), 17 had infections of known origin but other than IM, and 8 never had fever during the period of observation. Mucorales-specific T cells could be detected only in patients with IM, both at diagnosis and throughout the entire course of the IM, but neither before nor for long after resolution of the infection. Such T cells predominantly produced IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-10, and to a lesser extent IL-17 and belonged to either CD4(+) or CD8(+) subsets. The specific T cells that produced IFN-γ were able to directly induce damage to Mucorales hyphae. None of the 25 patients without IM had Mucorales-specific T cells. Specific T cells contribute to human immune responses against fungi of the order Mucorales and could be evaluated as a surrogate diagnostic marker of IM.

  18. Medical History of Elderly Patients in the Emergency Setting: Not an Easy Point-of-Care Diagnostic Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Lindner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Medical histories are a crucially important diagnostic tool. Elderly patients represent a large and increasing group of emergency patients. Due to cognitive deficits, taking a reliable medical history in this patient group can be difficult. We sought to evaluate the medical history-taking in emergency patients above 75 years of age with respect to duration and completeness. Methods. Anonymous data of consecutive patients were recorded. Times for the defined basic medical history-taking were documented, as were the availability of other sources and times to assess these. Results. Data of 104 patients were included in the analysis. In a quarter of patients (25%, n=26 no complete basic medical history could be obtained. In the group of patients where complete data could be gathered, only 16 patients were able to provide all necessary information on their own. Including other sources like relatives or GPs prolonged the time until complete medical history from 7.3 minutes (patient only to 26.4 (+relatives and 56.3 (+GP minutes. Conclusions. Medical histories are important diagnostic tools in the emergency setting and are prolonged in the elderly, especially if additional documentation and third parties need to be involved. New technologies like emergency medical cards might help to improve the availability of important patient data but implementation of these technologies is costly and faces data protection issues.

  19. Evaluation of different magnetic resonance imaging contrast materials to be used as dummy markers in image-guided brachytherapy for gynecologic malignancies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Camila Pessoa; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade; Taverna, Khallil Chaim; Pastorello, Bruno Fraccini; Rubo, Rodrigo Augusto; Borgonovi, Arthur Felipe; Stuart, Silvia Radwanski; Rodrigues, Laura Natal

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify a contrast material that could be used as a dummy marker for magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and Methods Magnetic resonance images were acquired with six different catheter-filling materials-water, glucose 50%, saline, olive oil, glycerin, and copper sulfate (CuSO4) water solution (2.08 g/L)-inserted into compatible computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging ring applicators placed in a phantom made of gelatin and CuSO4. The best contrast media were tested in four patients with the applicators in place. Results In T2-weighted sequences, the best contrast was achieved with the CuSO4-filled catheters, followed by saline- and glycerin-filled catheters, which presented poor visualization. In addition (also in T2-weighted sequences), CuSO4 presented better contrast when tested in the phantom than when tested in the patients, in which it provided some contrast but with poor identification of the first dwell position, mainly in the ring. Conclusion We found CuSO4 to be the best solution for visualization of the applicator channels, mainly in T2-weighted images in vitro, although the materials tested presented low signal intensity in the images obtained in vivo, as well as poor precision in determining the first dwell position. PMID:27403016

  20. Evaluation of different magnetic resonance imaging contrast materials to be used as dummy markers in image-guided brachytherapy for gynecologic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, Camila Pessoa; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade; Rubo, Rodrigo Augusto; Stuart, Silvia Radwanski; Rodrigues, Laura Natal, E-mail: camyps@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (InRad/HC/FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto de Radiologia; Taverna, Khallil Chaim; Pastorello, Bruno Fraccini [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Radiologia e Oncologia. Lab. de Ressonancia Magnetica em Neurorradiologia; Borgonovi, Arthur Felipe [Royal Philips Electronics, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2016-05-15

    Objective: to identify a contrast material that could be used as a dummy marker for magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods: magnetic resonance images were acquired with six different catheter-filling materials - water, glucose 50%, saline, olive oil, glycerin, and copper sulfate (CuSO{sub 4}) water solution (2.08 g/L) - inserted into compatible computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging ring applicators placed in a phantom made of gelatin and CuSO{sub 4}. The best contrast media were tested in four patients with the applicators in place. Results: in T2-weighted sequences, the best contrast was achieved with the CuSO{sub 4}-filled catheters, followed by saline- and glycerin-filled catheters, which presented poor visualization. In addition (also in T2-weighted sequences), CuSO{sub 4} presented better contrast when tested in the phantom than when tested in the patients, in which it provided some contrast but with poor identification of the first dwell position, mainly in the ring. Conclusion: we found CuSO{sub 4} to be the best solution for visualization of the applicator channels, mainly in T2-weighted images in vitro, although the materials tested presented low signal intensity in the images obtained in vivo, as well as poor precision in determining the first dwell position. (author)

  1. Evaluation of Homocysteine, Lipoprotein(a and Endothelin as diagnostic markers of Coronary Artery Disease in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Saini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Indians have been reported to have high prevalence rates of coronary artery disease (CAD even in the absence of traditional risk factors. The objective of this study was to assess the role of endothelin, lipoprotein(a, homocysteine and lipid profile as markers of CAD in Indian population. It was a hospital based observational case-control study, which included 60 documented patients of CAD, and 50 age and sex matched controls. Routine biochemical parameters were performed. Lipoprotein(a, homocysteine and endothelin levels were estimated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of endothelin (9.78±0.40 pg/ml vs. 7.86±0.31 pg/ml, lipoprotein(a (51.42±1.71 mg/dl vs. 36.26±1.21 mg/dl, homocysteine (21.31±1.22 µmol/L vs. 10.41±0.844 µmol/L and LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio (4.23±0.32 vs. 2.60±0.10 were significantly higher whereas that of HDL (29.82±1.39 mg/dl vs. 40.82±6.24 mg/dl was significantly lower in patients of CAD as compared to the controls (p0.7 for all the markers. Higher levels of homocysteine, endothelin, and lipoprotein(a were independently associated with increased risk of CAD. Thus, they may be helpful in risk assessment in premature cardiovascular disease and in individuals where traditional risk factors are not present.

  2. Diagnostic usefulness of endorectal magnetic resonance imaging with dynamic contrast-enhancement in patients with localized prostate cancer. Mapping studies with biopsy specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Nobumichi; Samma, Shoji; Joko, Masanori; Akiyama, Tatsuya; Takewa, Megumi; Kitano, Satoru; Okajima, Eigoro

    1999-01-01

    New diagnostic criteria for dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in prostate cancer are presented. The diagnostic usefulness of endorectal MR imaging with dynamic contrast-enhancement in localized prostate cancer and the validity of these criteria were evaluated. Eighteen untreated patients who were suspected of localized prostate cancer were included in the study. They received endorectal dynamic MR imaging before systematic sextant needle biopsy. First, a mapping study with the findings of MR images and histopathology of biopsy specimens was performed in eight patients out of 18 to compare the difference in T2-weighted images with the endorectal coil and the body coil in the same individuals. Second, another mapping study was performed in all 18 patients by analyzing the findings of endorectal dynamic MR images. For the diagnosis of prostate cancer in MR imaging, we offered diagnostic criteria from our experience in addition to those in plain T2-weighted images from the literature. The overall diagnostic rates of endorectal dynamic MR imaging were 88.9% in accuracy, 100% in sensitivity, and 81.8% in specificity. In the comparison of the endorectal and body coils in T2-weighted images in eight patients, there was no difference in the diagnostic rates except for one more histopathologic false positive portion in endorectal MR imaging. In the second mapping study in 18 patients, the diagnostic rates were 92.6% in accuracy, 88.9% in sensitivity and 93.3% in specificity. Endorectal dynamic imaging raised the diagnostic sensitivity from 77.8 to 88.9%. The data demonstrated the validity of this diagnostic criteria and the diagnostic usefulness of endorectal dynamic MR imaging in localized prostate cancer. (author)

  3. Troponin-positive chest pain with unobstructed coronary arteries: incremental diagnostic value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathik, Bhupesh; Raman, Betty; Mohd Amin, Nor Hanim; Mahadavan, Devan; Rajendran, Sharmalar; McGavigan, Andrew D; Grover, Suchi; Smith, Emma; Mazhar, Jawad; Bridgman, Cameron; Ganesan, Anand N; Selvanayagam, Joseph B

    2016-10-01

    Troponin-positive chest pain patients with unobstructed coronaries represent a clinical dilemma. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has an increasingly prominent role in the assessment of these patients; however, its utility in addition to expert clinical judgement is unclear. We sought to determine the incremental diagnostic value of CMR and the heterogeneity in diagnoses by experienced cardiologists when presented with blinded clinical and investigative data in this population. A total of 125 consecutive patients presenting to a tertiary centre between 2010 and 2014 with cardiac chest pain, elevated troponin (>29 ng/L), and unobstructed coronaries were enrolled and underwent CMR. A panel of three experienced cardiologists unaware of the CMR diagnosis and blinded to each other's assessment provided a diagnosis based on clinical and investigative findings. A consensus panel diagnosis was defined as two or more cardiologists sharing the same clinical diagnosis. Findings were classified into acute myocarditis, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), or indeterminate. CMR provided a diagnosis in 87% of patients. Consensus panel diagnosis and CMR were concordant in 65/125 (52%) patients. There was an only moderate level of agreement between the three cardiologists (k = 0.47, P < 0.05) and a poor level of agreement between the consensus panel and CMR (k = 0.38, P < 0.05) with the most disagreement seen in patients with AMI diagnosed on CMR. The clinical diagnosis of patients with non-obstructive coronaries and positive troponin remains a challenge. The concordance between CMR and clinical diagnosis is poor. CMR provides a diagnosis in majority of these patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The Diagnostic Role of Magnetic Resonance Enterography as a Complementary Test to Colonoscopy in Active Crohn’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Arvin; Azizi, Zahra; Teimouri, Azam; Ebrahimi Daryani, Nasser; Aletaha, Najme; Jahanbakhsh, Ali; Nouritaromlou, Mohammad Kazem; Alborzi, Forough; Mami, Masoud; Basirat, Vahid; Javid Anbardan, Sanam

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND According to recent studies comparing magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) with ileocolonoscopy for assessing inflammation of small bowel and colonic segments in adults with active Crohn’s disease (CD), we aimed to compare the accuracy of these two diagnostic methods in Iranian population. METHODS During 2013-2014 a follow-up study was done on 30 patients with active CD in a gastroenterology clinic affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. MRE and ileocolonoscopy were performed for all the patients. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS (version 18) and p-value<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS Of the 30 patients with active CD, 11(36.7%) were men and 19 (63.3%) were women with mean age of 37.30±13.66 years (range: 19-67 years). MRE had sensitivity and specificity of 50% and 90% with positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 71.43 and 78.26, respectively for localizing sigmoid lesions and ileum had sensitivity and specificity of 84.21 and 45.45 with PPV and NPV of 72.73 and 62.50, respectively. CONCLUSION While moderate sensitivity and high specificity of MRE in localizing colonic lesions makes it an appropriate confirmatory test after colonoscopy, the reported high sensitivity and moderate specificity of MRE versus colonoscopy in detecting ileal lesions makes it a suitable screening test for ileal lesions. Finally we can conclude that MRE can be an important complementary test to colonoscopy in detecting active disease. PMID:27252815

  5. Diagnostic contribution of cardiac magnetic resonance in patients with acute coronary syndrome and culprit-free angiograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawecki, Damian; Morawiec, Beata; Monney, Pierre; Pellaton, Cyril; Wojciechowska, Celina; Jojko, Joanna; Basiak, Marcin; Przywara-Chowaniec, Brygida; Fournier, Stephane; Nowalany-Kozielska, Ewa; Schwitter, Juerg; Muller, Olivier

    2015-01-14

    In spite of robust knowledge about underlying ischemic myocardial damage, acute coronary syndromes (ACS) with culprit-free angiograms raise diagnostic concerns. The present study aimed to evaluate the additional value of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) over commonly available non-CMR standard tests, for the differentiation of myocardial injury in patients with ACS and non-obstructed coronary arteries. Patients with ACS, elevated hs-TnT, and a culprit-free angiogram were prospectively enrolled into the study between January 2009 and July 2013. After initial evaluation with standard tests (ECG, echocardiography, hs-TnT) and provisional exclusion of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in coronary angiogram, patients were referred for CMR with the suspicion of myocarditis or Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC). According to the result of CMR, patients were reclassified as having myocarditis, AMI, TTC, or non-injured myocardium as assessed by late gadolinium enhancement. Out of 5110 patients admitted with ACS, 75 had normal coronary angiograms and entered the study; 69 of them (92%) were suspected for myocarditis and 6 (8%) for TTC. After CMR, 49 patients were finally diagnosed with myocarditis (65%), 3 with TTC (4%), 7 with AMI (9%), and 16 (21%) with non-injured myocardium. The provisional diagnosis was changed or excluded in 23 patients (31%), with a 9% rate of unrecognized AMI. The study results suggest that the evaluation of patients with ACS and culprit-free angiogram should be complemented by a CMR examination, if available, because the initial work-up with non-CMR tests leads to a significant proportion of misdiagnosed AMI.

  6. p16 as a diagnostic marker of cervical neoplasia: a tissue microarray study of 796 archival specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesnikova, Iana; Lidang, Marianne; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    from archival formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded donor tissues from 796 patients, and included cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)1 (n = 249), CIN2 (n = 233), CIN3 (n = 181), and invasive cervical carcinoma (n = 133). p16INK4a expression was scored using two different protocols: 1......BACKGROUND: To evaluate the usefulness of this biomarker in the diagnosis of cases of cervical neoplasia we studied the immunohistochemical expression of p16INK4a in a large series of archival cervical biopsies arranged into tissue microarray format. METHODS: TMAs were constructed with tissue cores...... dysplasia or the presence of invasive carcinoma. CONCLUSION: Immunohistochemical analysis of p16INK4a expression is a useful diagnostic tool. Expression is related to the degree of histological dysplasia, suggesting that it may have prognostic and predicative value in the management of cervical neoplasia....

  7. β-trace protein as a diagnostic marker for perilymphatic fluid fistula: a prospective controlled pilot study to test a sample collection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann-Harildstad, Gregor; Stenklev, Niels Christian; Myrvoll, Elin; Jablonski, Greg; Klingenberg, Olav

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis of perilymphatic fluid (PLF) fistula is still challenging. Perilymphatic fluid fistula is one possible complication after stapedotomy or cochlear implant surgery. We have performed a prospective diagnostic pilot study to further investigate β-trace protein (β-TP) as a marker for PLF fistula. In this pilot study, we tested the sensitivity of the β-TP marker using a simple method for sample collection from the tympanic cavity. Prospective controlled diagnostic study. Two-center tertiary referral hospitals. A total of 35 adult patients undergoing ear surgery were included. Subjects were divided into 2 groups: 1) 19 patients undergoing stapedotomy were investigated for PLF fistula in samples obtained from the tympanic cavity and 2) 16 patients undergoing myringoplasty were investigated for PLF fistula in samples from the tympanic cavity. This group served as the control. Mean age +/- SD at surgery was 49.9 +/- 8.0 years in the study group and 39.69 +/- 15.47 years in the control group. β-Trace protein (prostaglandin D synthase) in tympanic cavity samples and serum samples was analyzed. The samples were collected by gradually filling the tympanic cavity with 100 to 200 μl sodium chloride and by immediately collecting a volume of 60 to 100 μl in a mucus specimen set container. The concentration of β-TP was quantified using laser nephelometry. The median β-TP in the study group was 0.8 mg/L (range, 0.05-4.5 mg/L). In the control group, the median β-TP value was 0.16 mg/L (range, 0.01-0.36 mg/L). Thirty-five percent of the values in the study group were below the highest value in the negative control group. The β-TP values of the tympanic cavity samples were significantly higher in the study group than in controls (p = 0.0001). The serum values were 0.55 +/- 0.18 and 0.53 +/- 0.11 mg/L, respectively. It may be feasible to test for PLF fistula using β-TP in samples from the tympanic cavity. Our results, however, suggest a relative low diagnostic

  8. Diagnostic values of serum tumor markers Cyfra21-1, SCCAg, ferritin, CEA, CA19-9, and AFP in oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chuanshu; Yang, Kai; Tang, Hong; Chen, Dan

    2016-01-01

    At present, the research on serum tumor markers in the early diagnosis of malignant tumors has aroused widespread concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic values of serum tumor markers cytokeratin 19 fragment (Cyfra21-1), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCAg), ferritin, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), and α-fetoprotein (AFP) for patients with oral/oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma (OSCC/OPSCC). One hundred and sixty-nine cases of patients with OSCC/OPSCC as the experimental group, 86 cases of oral benign tumor patients as the control group, and 30 cases of healthy people as the normal control group were studied. The levels of serum Cyfra21-1, SCCAg, ferritin, CEA, CA19-9, and AFP were measured using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The levels of serum Cyfra21-1, SCCAg, ferritin, and CEA in patients with OSCC/OPSCC were significantly higher than those of benign tumor and healthy control group (Ptumor, and healthy group (P>0.05). The level of serum Cyfra21-1 in patients with early OSCC/OPSCC (stage I + II) was significantly higher than that of benign tumor and healthy control group (PCEA, CA19-9, and AFP showed no significant difference between patients with early OSCC/OPSCC, benign tumor, and healthy control group (P>0.05). The levels of serum Cyfra21-1, SCCAg, ferritin, and CEA in the middle-late stage of patients with OSCC/OPSCC (stage III + IV) were significantly higher than those of patients with the early OSCC/OPSCC, benign tumor, and healthy control group (PCEA were 2.17, 0.72, 109.95, and 1.99 ng/mL, respectively. The sensitivities were 60.36%, 73.37%, 81.66%, and 66.27%, respectively. The specificities were 81.03%, 68.10%, 40.52%, and 61.21%, respectively. Cyfra21-1, SCCAg, ferritin, and CEA had diagnostic values for patients with OSCC/OPSCC. Meanwhile, Cyfra21-1 had better early diagnostic value for patients with OSCC/OPSCC.

  9. The investigation of the truncated mbtA gene within the mycobactin cluster of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis as a novel diagnostic marker for real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kruijf, Marcel; Coffey, Aidan; O'Mahony, Jim

    2017-05-01

    The inability of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) to produce endogenous mycobactin in-vitro is most likely due to the presence of a truncated mbtA gene within the mycobactin cluster of MAP. The main goal of this study was to investigate this unique mbtA truncation as a potential novel PCR diagnostic marker for MAP. Novel primers were designed that were located within the truncated region and the contiguous MAP2179 gene. Primers were evaluated against non-MAP isolates and no amplicons were generated. The detection limit of this mbtA-MAP2179 target was evaluated using a range of MAP DNA concentrations, MAP inoculated faecal material and 20 MAP isolates. The performance of mbtA-MAP2179 was compared to the established f57 target. The detection limits recorded for MAP K-10 DNA and from MAP K-10 inoculated faecal samples were 0.34pg and 10 4 CFU/g respectively for both f57 and mbtA-MAP2179. A detection limit of 10 3 CFU/g was recorded for both targets, but not achieved consistently. The detection limit of MAP from inoculated faecal material was successful at 10 3 CFU/g for mbtA-MAP2179 when FAM probe real-time PCR was used. A MAP cell concentration of 10 2 CFU/g was detected successfully, but again not consistently achieved. All 20 mycobacterial isolates were successfully identified as MAP by f57 and mbtA-MAP2179. Interestingly, the mbtA-MAP2179 real-time PCR assay resulted in the formation of a unique melting curve profile that contained two melting curve peaks rather than one single peak. This melting curve phenomenon was attributed towards the asymmetrical GC% distribution within the mbtA-MAP2179 amplicon. This study investigated the implementation of the mbtA-MAP2179 target as a novel diagnostic marker and the detection limits obtained with mbtA-MAP2179 were comparable to the established f57 target, making the mbtA-MAP2179 an adequate confirmatory target. Moreover, the mbtA-MAP2179 target could be implemented in multiplex real-time PCR assays and

  10. Diagnostic Accuracy of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Fusion Guided Targeted Biopsy Evaluated by Transperineal Template Saturation Prostate Biopsy for the Detection and Characterization of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortezavi, Ashkan; Märzendorfer, Olivia; Donati, Olivio F; Rizzi, Gianluca; Rupp, Niels J; Wettstein, Marian S; Gross, Oliver; Sulser, Tullio; Hermanns, Thomas; Eberli, Daniel

    2018-02-21

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging/transrectal ultrasound fusion guided targeted biopsy against that of transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy to detect prostate cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 415 men who consecutively presented for prostate biopsy between November 2014 and September 2016 at our tertiary care center. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was performed using a 3 Tesla device without an endorectal coil, followed by transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy with the BiopSee® fusion system. Additional fusion guided targeted biopsy was done in men with a suspicious lesion on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, defined as Likert score 3 to 5. Any Gleason pattern 4 was defined as clinically significant prostate cancer. The detection rates of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and fusion guided targeted biopsy were compared with the detection rate of transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy using the McNemar test. We obtained a median of 40 (range 30 to 55) and 3 (range 2 to 4) transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy and fusion guided targeted biopsy cores, respectively. Of the 124 patients (29.9%) without a suspicious lesion on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging 32 (25.8%) were found to have clinically significant prostate cancer on transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy. Of the 291 patients (70.1%) with a Likert score of 3 to 5 clinically significant prostate cancer was detected in 129 (44.3%) by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging fusion guided targeted biopsy, in 176 (60.5%) by transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy and in 187 (64.3%) by the combined approach. Overall 58 cases (19.9%) of clinically significant prostate cancer would have been missed if fusion guided targeted biopsy had been performed exclusively. The sensitivity of

  11. Diagnostic values of serum tumor markers Cyfra21-1, SCCAg, ferritin, CEA, CA19-9, and AFP in oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan CS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chuanshu Yuan, Kai Yang, Hong Tang, Dan Chen Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Background: At present, the research on serum tumor markers in the early diagnosis of malignant tumors has aroused widespread concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic values of serum tumor markers cytokeratin 19 fragment (Cyfra21-1, squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCAg, ferritin, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9, and α-fetoprotein (AFP for patients with oral/oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma (OSCC/OPSCC. Methods: One hundred and sixty-nine cases of patients with OSCC/OPSCC as the experimental group, 86 cases of oral benign tumor patients as the control group, and 30 cases of healthy people as the normal control group were studied. The levels of serum Cyfra21-1, SCCAg, ferritin, CEA, CA19-9, and AFP were measured using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Results: The levels of serum Cyfra21-1, SCCAg, ferritin, and CEA in patients with OSCC/OPSCC were significantly higher than those of benign tumor and healthy control group (P<0.05. The levels of CA19-9 and AFP showed no significant difference between patients with OSCC/OPSCC, benign tumor, and healthy group (P>0.05. The level of serum Cyfra21-1 in patients with early OSCC/OPSCC (stage I + II was significantly higher than that of benign tumor and healthy control group (P<0.05. However, the levels of serum SCCAg, ferritin, CEA, CA19-9, and AFP showed no significant difference between patients with early OSCC/OPSCC, benign tumor, and healthy control group (P>0.05. The levels of serum Cyfra21-1, SCCAg, ferritin, and CEA in the middle-late stage of patients with OSCC/OPSCC (stage III + IV were significantly higher than those of patients with the early OSCC/OPSCC, benign tumor, and healthy control group (P<0.05. The diagnostic cutoff levels of Cyfra21

  12. Improvement of fetus growth restriction diagnostics in pregnant women by means of biochemical markers that characterize the disorder of stress-adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kolokot

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Object of the work. Regulatory and adaptive processes of the system “mother –placenta – fetus” state determination and detection of pregnant women adaptive capabilities specific features in case of fetus growth restriction based on a number of the blood plasma biochemical indicators. Materials and methods. Markers of oxidative stress were detected spectrophotometrically in the blood plasma according to generally accepted methods: oxidative modification of proteins, stable metabolites of nitrogen oxide, L-arginine, malondialdehyde, thiol compounds and reduced glutathione. Statistical processing of data was made by methods of variational statistics with Microsoft Office Excel 2010, Statistica 6.0. Results. The use applicability of the number of biochemical markers which are predictors of perinatal complications has been scientifically substantiated. Using biochemical diagnostic technique it has been shown that fetus growth restriction syndrome is accompanied by disorders of regulatory and adaptive processes of the system “mother –placenta – fetus”. In particular, the level of proteins and lipids oxidative modification increases, nitric oxide synthase activity decreases and reserves of L-arginine and thiol compounds decrease in the blood plasma. Conclusions. Comparative analysis of a number of biochemical markers determination results of stress-realizing system activity in pregnant women with fetus growth restriction and in women with a physiological pregnancy has revealed a significant (P ≤ 0.05 increase in markers of protein oxidative modification blood levels (the level of dinitrophenylhydrazones of aliphatic aldehyd of basic amino acid residues and dinitrophenylhydrazones of carbonyl compounds of basic amino acid residues in the spontaneous sample increased by 14.2 % and 16.3 %, respectively, and in the stimulated sample by 46.6 % and 43.0 %, the level of malondialdehyde increased by 42.9 %. Reduction of the stress

  13. Validation of 14-3-3 Protein as a Marker in Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Matthias; Ebert, Elisabeth; Stoeck, Katharina; Karch, André; Collins, Steven; Calero, Miguel; Sklaviadis, Theodor; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Golanska, Ewa; Baldeiras, Ines; Satoh, Katsuya; Sanchez-Valle, Raquel; Ladogana, Anna; Skinningsrud, Anders; Hammarin, Anna-Lena; Mitrova, Eva; Llorens, Franc; Kim, Yong Sun; Green, Alison; Zerr, Inga

    2016-05-01

    At present, the testing of 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a standard biomarker test in suspected sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) diagnosis. Increasing 14-3-3 test referrals in CJD reference laboratories in the last years have led to an urgent need to improve established 14-3-3 test methods. The main result of our study was the validation of a commercially available 14-3-3 ELISA next to the commonly used Western blot method as a high-throughput screening test. Hereby, 14-3-3 protein expression was quantitatively analyzed in CSF of 231 sCJD and 2035 control patients. We obtained excellent sensitivity/specificity values of 88 and 96% that are comparable to the established Western blot method. Since standard protocols and preanalytical sample handling have become more important in routine diagnostic, we investigated in a further step the reproducibility and stability of 14-3-3 as a biomarker for human prion diseases. Ring trial data from 2009 to 2013 revealed an increase of Fleiss' kappa from 0.51 to 0.68 indicating an improving reliability of 14-3-3 protein detection. The stability of 14-3-3 protein under short-term and long-term storage conditions at various temperatures and after repeated freezing/thawing cycles was confirmed. Contamination of CSF samples with blood appears likely to be an important factor at a concentration of more than 2500 erythrocytes/μL. Hemolysis of erythrocytes with significant release of 14-3-3 protein started after 2 days at room temperature. We first define clear standards for the sample handling, short- and long-term storage of CSF samples as well as the handling of blood- contaminated samples which may result in artificially elevated CSF levels of 14-3-3.

  14. [Application of a continual improvement approach to selecting diagnostic markers for acute pancreatitis in an emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, María; Flores, Emilio; López-Garrigós, Maite; Díaz, Elena; Esteban, Patricia; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    To apply a continual improvement model to develop an algorithm for ordering laboratory tests to diagnose acute pancreatitis in a hospital emergency department. Quasi-experimental study using the continual improvement model (plan, do, check, adjust cycles) in 2 consecutive phases in emergency patients: amylase and lipase results were used to diagnose acute pancreatitis in the first phase; in the second, only lipase level was first determined; amylase testing was then ordered only if the lipase level fell within a certain range. We collected demographic data, number amylase and lipase tests ordered and the findings, final diagnosis, and the results of a questionnaire to evaluate satisfaction with emergency care. The first phase included 517 patients, of whom 20 had acute pancreatitis. For amylase testing sensitivity was 0.70; specificity, 0.85; positive predictive value (PPV), 17; and negative predictive value (NPV), 0.31. For lipase testing these values were sensitivity, 0.85; specificity, 0.96; PPV, 21, and NPV, 0.16. When both tests were done, sensitivity was 0.85; specificity 0.99; PPV, 85; and NPV, 0.15. The second phase included data for 4815 patients, 118 of whom had acute pancreatitis. The measures of diagnostic yield for the new algorithm were sensitivity, 0.92; specificity, 0.98; PPV, 46; and NPV, 0.08]. This study demonstrates a process for developing a protocol to guide laboratory testing in acute pancreatitis in the hospital emergency department. The proposed sequence of testing for pancreatic enzyme levels can be effective for diagnosing acute pancreatitis in patients with abdominal pain.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging in the radiation treatment planning of localized prostate cancer using intra-prostatic fiducial markers for computed tomography co-registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, C.C.; Damyanovich, A.; Haycocks, T.; Haider, M.; Bayley, A.; Catton, C.N.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility, and potential implications, of using intra-prostatic fiducial markers, rather than bony landmarks, for the co-registration of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images in the radiation treatment planning of localized prostate cancer. Methods: All men treated with conformal therapy for localized prostate cancer underwent routine pre-treatment insertion of prostatic fiducial markers to assist with gross target volume (GTV) delineation and to identify prostate positioning during therapy. Six of these men were selected for investigation. Phantom MRI measurements were obtained to quantify image distortion, to determine the most suitable gold alloy marker composition, and to identify the spin-echo sequences that optimized both marker identification and the contrast between the prostate and the surrounding tissues. The GTV for each patient was contoured independently by three radiation oncologists on axial planning CT slices, and on axial MRI slices fused to the CT slices by matching the implanted fiducial markers. From each set of contours the scan common volume (SCV), and the scan encompassing volume (SEV), were obtained. The ratio SEV/SCV for a given scan is a measure of inter-observer variation in contouring. For each of the 18 patient-observer combinations the observer common volume (OCV) and the observer encompassing volume (OEV) was obtained. The ratio OEV/OCV for a given patient-observer combination is a measure of the inter-modality variation in contouring. The distance from the treatment planning isocenter to the prostate contours was measured and the discrepancy between the CT- and the MR-defined contour recorded. The discrepancies between the CT- and MR-defined contours of the posterior prostate were recorded in the sagittal plane at 1-cm intervals above and below the isocenter. Results: Phantom measurements demonstrated trivial image distortion within the required field of view, and an 18K Au/Cu alloy to

  16. Augmented telomerase activity, reduced telomere length and the presence of alternative lengthening of telomere in renal cell carcinoma: plausible predictive and diagnostic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Deeksha; Sharma, Ujjawal; Khajuria, Ragini; Singh, Shrawan Kumar; Kakkar, Nandita; Prasad, Rajendra

    2015-05-15

    In this study, we analyzed 100 cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) for telomerase activity, telomere length and alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) using the TRAP assay, TeloTTAGGG assay kit and immunohistochemical analysis of ALT associated promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies respectively. A significantly higher (P=0.000) telomerase activity was observed in 81 cases of RCC which was correlated with clinicopathological features of tumor for instance, stage (P=0.008) and grades (P=0.000) but not with the subtypes of RCC (P = 0.355). Notwithstanding, no correlation was found between telomerase activity and subtypes of RCC. Strikingly, the telomere length was found to be significantly shorter in RCC (P=0.000) to that of corresponding normal renal tissues and it is well correlated with grades (P=0.016) but not with stages (P=0.202) and subtypes (P=0.669) of RCC. In this study, telomere length was also negatively correlated with the age of patients (r(2)=0.528; P=0.000) which supports the notion that it could be used as a marker for biological aging. ALT associated PML bodies containing PML protein was found in telomerase negative cases of RCC. It suggests the presence of an ALT pathway mechanism to maintain the telomere length in telomerase negative RCC tissues which was associated with high stages of RCC, suggesting a prevalent mechanism for telomere maintenance in high stages. In conclusion, the telomerase activity and telomere length can be used as a diagnostic as well as a predictive marker in RCC. The prevalence of ALT mechanism in high stages of RCC is warranted for the development of anti-ALT inhibitors along with telomerase inhibitor against RCC as a therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mitochondrial markers predict recurrence, metastasis and tamoxifen-resistance in breast cancer patients: Early detection of treatment failure with companion diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotgia, Federica; Fiorillo, Marco; Lisanti, Michael P

    2017-09-15

    tamoxifen-resistance and tumor recurrence, at their initial diagnosis, in patients with advanced breast cancer. In the long-term, these mitochondrial biomarkers could provide a new companion diagnostics platform to help clinicians to accurately predict the response to hormonal therapy in ER(+) breast cancer patients, facilitating more personalized and effective treatment. Similarly, these mitochondrial markers could be used as companion diagnostics, to determine which breast cancer patients would benefit most from clinical treatments with mitochondrially-targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. Finally, we also showed that these mitochondrial markers are superior when directly compared with conventional biomarkers, such as Ki67 and PCNA.

  18. Analysis of microRNA expression profiling identifies miR-155 and miR-155* as potential diagnostic markers for active tuberculosis: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Lu, Chanyi; Diao, Ni; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Sen; Wang, Feifei; Gao, Yan; Chen, Jiazhen; Shao, Lingyun; Lu, Jingning; Zhang, Xuelian; Weng, Xinhua; Wang, Honghai; Zhang, Wenhong; Huang, Yuxian

    2012-01-01

    To explore biologic behaviors and disease relevance of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the development of active tuberculosis (ATB), we investigated the expression profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) purified protein derivative (PPD)-induced miRNAs to determine the specific miRNAs involved in the pathogenesis of ATB. The expression profile of miRNA under PPD challenge was first measured using microarray analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from ATB patients and healthy controls (HC). The remarkably reactive miRNAs were then validated in a larger cohort by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to evaluate the diagnostic value of the determined PPD-responsive miRNAs. The potential targets for those miRNAs were also predicted by computational programs. Fourteen of 866 human miRNAs exhibited at least 1.8-fold difference in the ratio of expression level before and after stimulation with PPD between the ATB and HC groups. The qRT-PCR study validated the findings from microarray-based screening, in which miR-155 exhibited a fold change of 1.4 in the HC group and 3.7 in the ATB group upon PPD stimulation (p microRNAs exhibited no differences between the ATB and HC groups. miR-155 and miR-155* exhibited characteristic expression by TB-specific antigen, suggesting that they can be potential diagnostic markers under the challenge of specific MTB antigens. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. MicroRNA-4639 Is a Regulator of DJ-1 Expression and a Potential Early Diagnostic Marker for Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimeng Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and has profound impacts on the daily lives of patients. However, there is a lack of effective biomarkers for early diagnosis, and the mechanisms of PD pathogenesis remain obscure. microRNAs (miRNAs are post-transcriptional gene regulators and can be easily detected in plasma, which suggests a promising role as diagnostic markers. Here, we aimed to explore a peripheral biomarker, which not only can be applied for early diagnosis of PD but also has the potential to be a therapeutic target. Through miRNA microarray screening and further validation in plasma from 169 sporadic PD patients, 170 healthy controls, and 60 essential tremor (ET patients, hsa-miR-4639-5p level was identified to be significantly up-regulated in PD patients. Also, it was able to discriminate between early PD patients (disease duration ≤2 years or Hoehn and Yahr stage 1–2.5 and healthy controls. Furthermore, hsa-miR-4639-5p was shown to negatively regulate DJ-1 (PARK7, a well-known PD-related gene, in the post-transcriptional level. Abnormal up-regulation of hsa-miR-4639-5p caused down-regulation of DJ-1 protein level, leading to severe oxidative stress and neuronal death. In conclusion, hsa-miR-4639-5p has the potential to be a peripheral diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target for early PD.

  20. Diagnostic value of T1 and T2 * relaxation times and off-resonance saturation effects in the evaluation of Achilles tendinopathy by MRI at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Ulrich; Syha, Roland; Hein, Tobias; Gatidis, Sergios; Grözinger, Gerd; Schabel, Christoph; Martirosian, Petros; Schick, Fritz; Springer, Fabian

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate and compare the diagnostic value of T1 , T2 * relaxation times and off-resonance saturation ratios (OSR) in healthy controls and patients with different clinical and morphological stages of Achilles tendinopathy. Forty-two healthy Achilles tendons and 34 tendons of 17 patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic tendinopathy were investigated clinically with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences on a 3T whole-body MR scanner and a dynamic ultrasound examination. In addition, T1 and T2 * relaxation times were assessed using an ultrashort echo time (UTE) imaging sequence with flip angle and echo time variation. For the calculation of OSR values a Gaussian off-resonance saturation pulse (frequency offset: 750-5000 Hz) was used. The diagnostic value of the derived MR values was assessed and compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. ROC curves demonstrate the highest overall test performance for OSR values at 2000 Hz off-resonance in differentiating slightly (OSR-2000 [AUC: 0.930] > T2 * [AUC: 0.884] > T1 [AUC: 0.737]) and more severe pathologically altered tendon areas (OSR-2000 [AUC: 0.964] > T2 * [AUC: 0.917] > T1 [AUC: 0.819]) from healthy ones. OSR values at a frequency offset of 2000 Hz demonstrated a better sensitivity and specificity for detecting mild and severe stages of tendinopathy compared to T2 * and particularly when compared to T1 relaxation times. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Marker allergens of weed pollen - basic considerations and diagnostic benefits in the clinical routine: Part 16 of the Series Molecular Allergology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemeseder, Teresa; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Hawranek, Thomas; Gadermaier, Gabriele

    The term weed is referring to plants used as culinary herbs and medicinal plants as well as ecologically adaptive and invasive segetal plants. In Europe, pollen of ragweed, mugwort, English plantain and pellitory are the main elicitors of weed pollen allergies. Presently, 35 weed pollen allergens have been identified. The most relevant belong to the protein families of pectate lyases, defensin-like proteins, non-specific lipid transfer proteins, and Ole e 1-like proteins. The sensitization frequency depends on geographic regions and might affect more than 50 % of pollen allergic patients in distinct regions. Due to overlapping flowering seasons, similar habitats, polysensitizations and cross-reactive (pan)-allergens, it is difficult to diagnose genuine weed pollen sensitization using pollen extracts. Marker allergens for component-resolved diagnostics are available for the important weed pollen. These are Amb a 1 (ragweed), Art v 1 (mugwort), Pla l 1 (English plantain) and Par j 2 (pellitory). Molecule-based approaches can be used to identify the primary sensitizer and thus enable selection of the appropriate weed pollen extracts for allergen immunotherapy.

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of computer tomography angiography and magnetic resonance angiography in the stenosis detection of autologuous hemodialysis access: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic performances of computer tomography angiography (CTA and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA for detection and assessment of stenosis in patients with autologuous hemodialysis access. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Search of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library database from January 1984 to May 2013 for studies comparing CTA or MRA with DSA or surgery for autologuous hemodialysis access. Eligible studies were in English language, aimed to detect more than 50% stenosis or occlusion of autologuous vascular access in hemodialysis patients with CTA and MRA technology and provided sufficient data about diagnosis performance. Methodological quality was assessed by the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Studies (QUADAS instrument. Sensitivities (SEN, specificities (SPE, positive likelihood ratio (PLR, negative likelihood values (NLR, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR and areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC were pooled statistically. Potential threshold effect, heterogeneity and publication bias was evaluated. The clinical utility of CTA and MRA in detection of stenosis was also investigated. RESULT: Sixteen eligible studies were included, with a total of 500 patients. Both CTA and MRA were accurate modality (sensitivity, 96.2% and 95.4%, respectively; specificity, 97.1 and 96.1%, respectively; DOR [diagnostic odds ratio], 393.69 and 211.47, respectively for hemodialysis vascular access. No significant difference was detected between the diagnostic performance of CTA (AUC, 0.988 and MRA (AUC, 0.982. Meta-regression analyses and subgroup analyses revealed no statistical difference. The Deek's funnel plots suggested a publication bias. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic performance of CTA and MRA for detecting stenosis of hemodialysis vascular access had no statistical difference. Both techniques may function as an alternative or an important complement to conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA and may be

  3. Comprehensive profiling and marker identification in non-volatile citrus oil residues by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Guillaume; Boccard, Julien; Mehl, Florence; Debrus, Benjamin; Marcourt, Laurence; Merle, Philippe; Delort, Estelle; Baroux, Lucie; Sommer, Horst; Rudaz, Serge; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2014-05-01

    The detailed characterization of cold-pressed lemon oils (CPLOs) is of great importance for the flavor and fragrance (F&F) industry. Since a control of authenticity by standard analytical techniques can be bypassed using elaborated adulterated oils to pretend a higher quality, a combination of advanced orthogonal methods has been developed. The present study describes a combined metabolomic approach based on UHPLC-TOF-MS profiling and (1)H NMR fingerprinting to highlight metabolite differences on a set of representative samples used in the F&F industry. A new protocol was set up and adapted to the use of CPLO residues. Multivariate analysis based on both fingerprinting methods showed significant chemical variations between Argentinian and Italian samples. Discriminating markers identified in mixtures belong to furocoumarins, flavonoids, terpenoids and fatty acids. Quantitative NMR revealed low citropten and high bergamottin content in Italian samples. The developed metabolomic approach applied to CPLO residues gives some new perspectives for authenticity assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in differentiating high-from low-grade gliomas: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qun; Zhang, JiaShu; Wu, Chen; Li, FangYe; Chen, XiaoLei; Xu, BaiNan; Zhang, Hui; Zhu, WeiJie

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a powerful tool for preoperative grading of gliomas. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic performance of MRS in differentiating high-grade gliomas (HGGs) from low-grade gliomas (LGGs). PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched for relevant studies of glioma grading assessed by MRS through 27 March 2015. Based on the data from eligible studies, pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio and areas under summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC) of different metabolite ratios were obtained. Thirty articles comprising a total sample size of 1228 patients were included in our meta-analysis. Quantitative synthesis of studies showed that the pooled sensitivity/specificity of Cho/Cr, Cho/NAA and NAA/Cr ratios was 0.75/0.60, 0.80/0.76 and 0.71/0.70, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) of the SROC was 0.83, 0.87 and 0.78, respectively. MRS demonstrated moderate diagnostic performance in distinguishing HGGs from LGGs using tumoural metabolite ratios including Cho/Cr, Cho/NAA and NAA/Cr. Although there was no significant difference in AUC between Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA groups, Cho/NAA ratio showed higher sensitivity and specificity than Cho/Cr ratio and NAA/Cr ratio. We suggest that MRS should combine other advanced imaging techniques to improve diagnostic accuracy in differentiating HGGs from LGGs. (orig.)

  5. Non-invasive diagnostic workup of patients with suspected stable angina by combined computed tomography coronary angiography and magnetic resonance perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschbaum, S.W.; Nieman, K.; Springeling, T.

    2011-01-01

    The background of this study was to evaluate additional adenosine magnetic resonance perfusion (MRP) imaging in the diagnostic workup of patients with suspected stable angina with computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) as first-line diagnostic modality. Two hundred and thirty symptomatic patients (male, 52%; age, 56 year) with suspected stable angina underwent CTCA. In patients with a stenosis of >50% as visually assessed, MRP was performed and the quantitative myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI) was calculated. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) using invasive coronary flow measurements served as the standard of reference. CTCA showed non-significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in 151/230 (66%) patients and significant CAD in 79/230 patients (34%), of whom 50 subsequently underwent MRP and CFR. MRP showed reduced perfusion in 32 patients (64%), which was confirmed by CFR in 27 (84%). All 18 cases of normal MRP (36%) were confirmed by CFR. The positive likelihood ratio of MRP for the presence of functional significant disease in patients with a lesion on CTCA was 4.49 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.12-9.99). The negative likelihood ratio was 0.05 (95% CI 0.01-0.34). CTCA as first-line diagnostic modality excluded coronary artery disease in a high percentage of patients referred for diagnostic workup of suspected stable angina. MRP made a significant contribution to the detection of functional significant lesions in patients with a positive CTCA. (author)

  6. Comparison of the diagnostic performance of digital breast tomosynthesis and magnetic resonance imaging added to digital mammography in women with known breast cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Hwa; Chang, Jung Min; Moon, Woo Kyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, 101 Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Hyeong-Gon [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Gangnan Healthcare Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Hye Ryoung [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gweon, Hye Mi [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To compare the diagnostic performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) added to mammography in women with known breast cancers. Three radiologists independently reviewed image sets of 172 patients with 184 cancers; mammography alone, DBT plus mammography and MRI plus mammography, and scored for cancer probability using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Jack-knife alternative free-response receiver-operating characteristic (JAFROC), which allows diagnostic performance estimation using single lesion as a statistical unit in a cancer-only population, was used. Sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) were compared using the McNemar and Fisher-exact tests. The JAFROC figures of merit (FOMs) was lower in DBT plus mammography (0.937) than MRI plus mammography (0.978, P = 0.0006) but higher than mammography alone (0.900, P = 0.0013). The sensitivity was lower in DBT plus mammography (88.2 %) than MRI plus mammography (97.8 %) but higher than mammography alone (78.3 %, both P < 0.0001). The PPV was significantly higher in DBT plus mammography (93.3 %) than MRI plus mammography (89.6 %, P = 0.0282). DBT provided lower diagnostic performance than MRI as an adjunctive imaging to mammography. However, DBT had higher diagnostic performance than mammography and higher PPV than MRI. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of the diagnostic performance of digital breast tomosynthesis and magnetic resonance imaging added to digital mammography in women with known breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Hwa; Chang, Jung Min; Moon, Woo Kyung; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Yi, Ann; Koo, Hye Ryoung; Gweon, Hye Mi

    2016-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) added to mammography in women with known breast cancers. Three radiologists independently reviewed image sets of 172 patients with 184 cancers; mammography alone, DBT plus mammography and MRI plus mammography, and scored for cancer probability using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Jack-knife alternative free-response receiver-operating characteristic (JAFROC), which allows diagnostic performance estimation using single lesion as a statistical unit in a cancer-only population, was used. Sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) were compared using the McNemar and Fisher-exact tests. The JAFROC figures of merit (FOMs) was lower in DBT plus mammography (0.937) than MRI plus mammography (0.978, P = 0.0006) but higher than mammography alone (0.900, P = 0.0013). The sensitivity was lower in DBT plus mammography (88.2 %) than MRI plus mammography (97.8 %) but higher than mammography alone (78.3 %, both P < 0.0001). The PPV was significantly higher in DBT plus mammography (93.3 %) than MRI plus mammography (89.6 %, P = 0.0282). DBT provided lower diagnostic performance than MRI as an adjunctive imaging to mammography. However, DBT had higher diagnostic performance than mammography and higher PPV than MRI. (orig.)

  8. Age-Specific Associations of Renal Impairment With Magnetic Resonance Imaging Markers of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease in Transient Ischemic Attack and Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bian; Lau, Kui Kai; Li, Linxin; Lovelock, Caroline; Liu, Ming; Kuker, Wilhelm; Rothwell, Peter M

    2018-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and chronic renal impairment may be part of a multisystem small-vessel disorder, but their association may simply be as a result of shared risk factors (eg, hypertension) rather than to a systemic susceptibility to premature SVD. However, most previous studies were hospital based, most had inadequate adjustment for hypertension, many were confined to patients with lacunar stroke, and none stratified by age. In a population-based study of transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke (OXVASC [Oxford Vascular Study]), we evaluated the magnetic resonance imaging markers of cerebral SVD, including lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, cerebral microbleeds, and enlarged perivascular space. We studied the age-specific associations of renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 ) and total SVD burden (total SVD score) adjusting for age, sex, vascular risk factors, and premorbid blood pressure (mean blood pressure during 15 years preevent). Of 1080 consecutive patients, 1028 (95.2%) had complete magnetic resonance imaging protocol and creatinine measured at baseline. Renal impairment was associated with total SVD score (odds ratio [OR], 2.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-2.75; P <0.001), but only at age <60 years (<60 years: OR, 3.97; 95% CI, 1.69-9.32; P =0.002; 60-79 years: OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.72-1.41; P =0.963; ≥80 years: OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.59-1.54; P =0.832). The overall association of renal impairment and total SVD score was also attenuated after adjustment for age, sex, history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premorbid average systolic blood pressure (adjusted OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.56-1.02; P =0.067), but the independent association of renal impairment and total SVD score at age <60 years was maintained (adjusted OR, 3.11; 95% CI, 1.21-7.98; P =0.018). Associations of renal impairment and SVD were consistent for each SVD marker at age <60 years but

  9. Diagnostic significance of gadolinium-DTPA (diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in thrombolytic treatment for acute myocardial infarction: its potential in assessing reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wall, E E; van Dijkman, P R; de Roos, A; Doornbos, J; van der Laarse, A; Manger Cats, V; van Voorthuisen, A E; Matheijssen, N A; Bruschke, A V

    1990-01-01

    The diagnostic value of gadolinium-DTPA (diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in patients treated by thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction was assessed in 27 consecutive patients who had a first acute myocardial infarction (14 anterior, 13 inferior) and who underwent thrombolytic treatment and coronary arteriography within 4 hours of the onset of symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed 93 hours (range 15-241) after the onset of symptoms. A Philips Gyroscan (0.5 T) was used, and spin echo measurements (echo time 30 ms) were made before and 20 minutes after intravenous injection of 0.1 mmol/kg gadolinium-DTPA. In all patients contrast enhancement of the infarcted areas was seen after Gd-DTPA. The signal intensities of the infarcted and normal values were used to calculate the intensity ratios. Mean (SD) intensity ratios after Gd-DTPA were significantly increased (1.15 (0.17) v 1.52 (0.29). Intensity ratios were higher in the 17 patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging more than 72 hours after the onset of symptoms than in the 10 who underwent magnetic resonance imaging earlier, the difference being significantly greater after administration of Gd-DTPA (1.38 (0.12) v 1.61 (0.34). When patients were classified according to the site and size of the infarcted areas, or to reperfusion (n = 19) versus non-reperfusion (n = 8), the intensity ratios both before and after Gd-DTPA did not show significant differences. Magnetic resonance imaging with Gd-DTPA improved the identification of acutely infarcted areas, but with current techniques did not identify patients in whom thrombolytic treatment was successful. Images PMID:2310640

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging of right ventricular morphology and function in the assessment of suspected pulmonary hypertension results from the ASPIRE registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swift Andrew J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR imaging is accurate and reproducible for the assessment of right ventricular (RV morphology and function. However, the diagnostic accuracy of CMR derived RV measurements for the detection of pulmonary hypertension (PH in the assessment of patients with suspected PH in the clinic setting is not well described. Methods We retrospectively studied 233 consecutive treatment naïve patients with suspected PH including 39 patients with no PH who underwent CMR and right heart catheterisation (RHC within 48hours. The diagnostic accuracy of multiple CMR measurements for the detection of mPAP ≥ 25 mmHg was assessed using Fisher’s exact test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Results Ventricular mass index (VMI was the CMR measurement with the strongest correlation with mPAP (r = 0.78 and the highest diagnostic accuracy for the detection of PH (area under the ROC curve of 0.91 compared to an ROC of 0.88 for echocardiography calculated mPAP. Late gadolinium enhancement, VMI ≥ 0.4, retrograde flow ≥ 0.3 L/min/m2 and PA relative area change ≤ 15% predicted the presence of PH with a high degree of diagnostic certainty with a positive predictive value of 98%, 97%, 95% and 94% respectively. No single CMR parameter could confidently exclude the presence of PH. Conclusion CMR is a useful alternative to echocardiography in the evaluation of suspected PH. This study supports a role for the routine measurement of ventricular mass index, late gadolinium enhancement and the use of phase contrast imaging in addition to right heart functional indices in patients undergoing diagnostic CMR evaluation for suspected pulmonary hypertension.

  11. Breast-specific gamma camera imaging with 99mTc-MIBI has better diagnostic performance than magnetic resonance imaging in breast cancer patients: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aimi; Li, Panli; Liu, Qiufang; Song, Shaoli

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic role of breast-specific gamma camera imaging (BSGI) with technetium-99m-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile ( 99m Tc-MIBI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with breast cancer through a meta-analysis. Three reviewers searched articles published in medical journals before June 2016 in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Springer Databases; the references listed in original articles were also retrieved. We used the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS) tool to assess the quality of the included studies. Heterogeneity, pooled sensitivity and specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves were calculated by Meta-DiSc software to estimate the diagnostic performance of BSGI and MRI. Ten studies with 517 patients were included after meeting the inclusion criteria. We did a subgroup analysis of the same data type. The pooled sensitivities of BSGI and MRI were: 0.84 (95% CI, 0.79-0.88) and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.84-0.92) respectively, and the pooled specificities of BSGI and MRI were: 0.82 (95% CI, 0.74-0.88) and 0.39 (95% CI, 0.30-0.49) respectively. The areas under the SROC curve of BSGI and MRI were 0.93 and 0.72 respectively. The results of our meta-analysis indicated that compared with MRI, BSGI has similar sensitivity, higher specificity, better diagnostic performance, and can be widely used in clinical practice.

  12. On-line high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-nuclear magnetic resonance method of the markers of nerve agents for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Avik; Gupta, Hemendra K; Garg, Prabhat; Jain, Rajeev; Dubey, Devendra K

    2009-07-03

    This paper details an on-flow liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-UV-NMR) method for the retrospective detection and identification of alkyl alkylphosphonic acids (AAPAs) and alkylphosphonic acids (APAs), the markers of the toxic nerve agents for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Initially, the LC-UV-NMR parameters were optimized for benzyl derivatives of the APAs and AAPAs. The optimized parameters include stationary phase C(18), mobile phase methanol:water 78:22 (v/v), UV detection at 268nm and (1)H NMR acquisition conditions. The protocol described herein allowed the detection of analytes through acquisition of high quality NMR spectra from the aqueous solution of the APAs and AAPAs with high concentrations of interfering background chemicals which have been removed by preceding sample preparation. The reported standard deviation for the quantification is related to the UV detector which showed relative standard deviations (RSDs) for quantification within +/-1.1%, while lower limit of detection upto 16mug (in mug absolute) for the NMR detector. Finally the developed LC-UV-NMR method was applied to identify the APAs and AAPAs in real water samples, consequent to solid phase extraction and derivatization. The method is fast (total experiment time approximately 2h), sensitive, rugged and efficient.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging-detected extramural venous invasion in rectal cancer before and after preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Diagnostic performance and prognostic significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Sun [Chung-Ang University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); National Cancer Centre, Department of Radiology, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Ju; Hur, Bo Yun [National Cancer Centre, Department of Radiology, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Chan; Hyun, Jong Hee; Chang, Hee Jin; Baek, Ji Yeon; Kim, Dae Yong; Oh, Jae Hwan [National Cancer Centre, Centre for Colorectal Cancer, Goyang, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Young [National Cancer Centre, Centre for Colorectal Cancer, Goyang, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-02-15

    We evaluated the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in terms of identifying extramural venous invasion (EMVI) in rectal cancer patients with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and its prognostic significance. During 2008-2010, 200 patients underwent surgery following preoperative CRT for rectal cancer. Two radiologists independently reviewed all pre- and post-CRT MRI retrospectively. We investigated diagnostic performance of pre-CRT MR-EMVI (MR-EMVI) and post-CRT MR-EMVI (yMR-EMVI), based on pathological EMVI as the standard of reference. We assessed correlation between MRI findings and patients' prognosis, such as disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Additionally, subgroup analysis in MR- or yMR-EMVI-positive patients was performed to confirm the significance of the severity of EMVI in MRI on patient's prognosis. The sensitivity and specificity of yMR-EMVI were 76.19% and 79.75% (area under the curve: 0.830), respectively. In univariate analysis, yMR-EMVI was the only significant MRI factor in DFS (P = 0.027). The mean DFS for yMR-EMVI (+) patients was significantly less than for yMR-EMVI (-) patients: 57.56 months versus 72.46 months. yMR-EMVI demonstrated good diagnostic performance. yMR-EMVI was the only significant EMVI-related MRI factor that correlated with patients' DFS in univariate analysis; however, it was not significant in multivariate analysis. (orig.)

  14. Selective Two-Photon Absorptive Resonance Femtosecond-Laser Electronic-Excitation Tagging (STARFLEET) Velocimetry in Flow and Combustion Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Naibo; Halls, Benjamin R.; Stauffer, Hans U.; Roy, Sukesh; Danehy, Paul M.; Gord, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Selective Two-Photon Absorptive Resonance Femtosecond-Laser Electronic-Excitation Tagging (STARFLEET), a non-seeded ultrafast-laser-based velocimetry technique, is demonstrated in reactive and non-reactive flows. STARFLEET is pumped via a two-photon resonance in N2 using 202.25-nm 100-fs light. STARFLEET greatly reduces the per-pulse energy required (30 µJ/pulse) to generate the signature FLEET emission compared to the conventional FLEET technique (1.1 mJ/pulse). This reduction in laser energy results in less energy deposited in the flow, which allows for reduced flow perturbations (reactive and non-reactive), increased thermometric accuracy, and less severe damage to materials. Velocity measurements conducted in a free jet of N2 and in a premixed flame show good agreement with theoretical velocities and further demonstrate the significantly less-intrusive nature of STARFLEET.

  15. Diagnostic Value of Multislice Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Retroperitoneal Spread of Testicular Cancer: A Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.; Jurik, A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Testicular cancer is the most frequent malignant disorder in men aged 15-35 years. Generally, diagnosing and follow-up include computer tomography (CT) examinations to detect possible retroperitoneal spread (abdomen and pelvis), resulting in at least eight CT examinations. This patient group is thereby exposed to a non-neglectable radiation dose, increasing the risk of future radiation-induced secondary cancer. This is especially problematic in potentially surgically cured patients with stage 1 testicular cancer. Thus, it can be beneficial to substitute CT with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), provided there is valid evidence that the diagnostic value of MRI is at least comparable to current multislice CT (MSCT). The purpose of this study was to analyze whether there is evidence to recommend a substitution of MSCT with MRI in the diagnosis of retroperitoneal spread of testicular cancer. A literature search on the diagnostic accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity of MSCT and MRI in the diagnosis of retroperitoneal spread of testicular cancer was performed in the following databases: PubMed, EmBase, and ISI Web of Science. The search was limited to include the period from 2000 to September 2008, and to human and English-language publications. Forty-four publications were obtained for formal review (27 from PubMed, 15 from EmBase, two from ISI Web of Science). None of the publications reviewed encompassed diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of MSCT, and they lacked systematic comparison of MSCT and MRI. Only one study included sensitivity and specificity of MRI compared to single-slice CT. Both methods had a sensitivity and a specificity of approximately 70%. The literature review did not reveal valid data regarding diagnostic accuracy of MRI compared with MSCT for diagnosing retroperitoneal spread of testicular cancer. A prospective blinded comparative study is needed to provide valid evidence

  16. Diagnostic Value of Multislice Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Retroperitoneal Spread of Testicular Cancer: A Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J. (Dept. of Medical Physics, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aarhus Sygehus, Aarhus (Denmark)); Jurik, A.G. (Dept. of Radiology, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aarhus Sygehus, Aarhus (Denmark))

    2009-11-15

    Testicular cancer is the most frequent malignant disorder in men aged 15-35 years. Generally, diagnosing and follow-up include computer tomography (CT) examinations to detect possible retroperitoneal spread (abdomen and pelvis), resulting in at least eight CT examinations. This patient group is thereby exposed to a non-neglectable radiation dose, increasing the risk of future radiation-induced secondary cancer. This is especially problematic in potentially surgically cured patients with stage 1 testicular cancer. Thus, it can be beneficial to substitute CT with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), provided there is valid evidence that the diagnostic value of MRI is at least comparable to current multislice CT (MSCT). The purpose of this study was to analyze whether there is evidence to recommend a substitution of MSCT with MRI in the diagnosis of retroperitoneal spread of testicular cancer. A literature search on the diagnostic accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity of MSCT and MRI in the diagnosis of retroperitoneal spread of testicular cancer was performed in the following databases: PubMed, EmBase, and ISI Web of Science. The search was limited to include the period from 2000 to September 2008, and to human and English-language publications. Forty-four publications were obtained for formal review (27 from PubMed, 15 from EmBase, two from ISI Web of Science). None of the publications reviewed encompassed diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of MSCT, and they lacked systematic comparison of MSCT and MRI. Only one study included sensitivity and specificity of MRI compared to single-slice CT. Both methods had a sensitivity and a specificity of approximately 70%. The literature review did not reveal valid data regarding diagnostic accuracy of MRI compared with MSCT for diagnosing retroperitoneal spread of testicular cancer. A prospective blinded comparative study is needed to provide valid evidence

  17. Identification of QTLs for resistance to powdery mildew and SSR markers diagnostic for powdery mildew resistance genes in melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukino, Nobuko; Ohara, Takayoshi; Monforte, Antonio J; Sugiyama, Mitsuhiro; Sakata, Yoshiteru; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Matsumoto, Satoru

    2008-12-01

    Powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii is an important foliar disease in melon. To find molecular markers for marker-assisted selection, we constructed a genetic linkage map of melon based on a population of 93 recombinant inbred lines derived from crosses between highly resistant AR 5 and susceptible 'Earl's Favourite (Harukei 3)'. The map spans 877 cM and consists of 167 markers, comprising 157 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 7 sequence characterized amplified region/cleavage amplified polymorphic sequence markers and 3 phenotypic markers segregating into 20 linkage groups. Among them, 37 SSRs and 6 other markers were common to previous maps. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified two loci for resistance to powdery mildew. The effects of these QTLs varied depending on strain and plant stage. The percentage of phenotypic variance explained for resistance to the pxA strain was similar between QTLs (R (2) = 22-28%). For resistance to pxB strain, the QTL on linkage group (LG) XII was responsible for much more of the variance (41-46%) than that on LG IIA (12-13%). The QTL on LG IIA was located between two SSR markers. Using an independent population, we demonstrated the effectiveness of these markers. This is the first report of universal and effective markers linked to a gene for powdery mildew resistance in melon.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging-determined synovial membrane volume as a marker of disease activity and a predictor of progressive joint destruction in the wrists of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Hansen, M; Stoltenberg, M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the synovial membrane volume, determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as a marker of joint disease activity and a predictor of progressive joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Twenty-six patients with RA, randomized to receive disease-modifying a......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the synovial membrane volume, determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as a marker of joint disease activity and a predictor of progressive joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Twenty-six patients with RA, randomized to receive disease......-Pratt analysis). The rate of erosive progression on MRI was highly correlated with baseline scores and, particularly, with area under the curve (AUC) values of synovial membrane volume (Spearman's sigma = 0.69, P

  19. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after ventricular tachyarrhythmias increases diagnostic precision and reduces the need for family screening for inherited cardiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marstrand, Peter; Axelsson, Anna; Thune, Jens Jakob

    2016-01-01

    -CAG) (81%), exercise stress test (47%), late potentials (54%), electrophysiological study (44%), pharmacological provocation (44%), and/or myocardial biopsy (16%). Family screening was indicated for 53 probands (67%) prior to CMR. After full workup, only 43 cases (54%) warranted evaluation of relatives (19......AIMS: Guidelines recommend evaluation of family members of sudden cardiac death victims. However, initiation of cascade screening in families with uncertain diagnoses is not cost-effective and may cause unnecessary concern. For these reasons, we set out to assess to what extent cardiac magnetic...... resonance imaging (CMR) would increase the diagnostic precision and thereby possibly change the indication for family screening in patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmias. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively collected data from 79 patients hospitalized with aborted cardiac arrest (resuscitated from...

  20. Low field-low cost: Can low-field magnetic resonance systems replace high-field magnetic resonance systems in the diagnostic assessment of multiple sclerosis patients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertl-Wagner, B.B.; Reith, W.; Sartor, K.

    2001-01-01

    As low-field MR imaging is becoming a widely used imaging technique, we aimed at a prospective assessment of differences in imaging quality between low- and high-field MR imaging in multiple sclerosis patients possibly interfering with diagnostic or therapeutic decision making. Twenty patients with clinically proven multiple sclerosis were examined with optimized imaging protocols in a 1.5- and a 0.23-T MR scanner within 48 h. Images were assessed independently by two neuroradiologists. No statistically significant interrater discrepancies were observed. A significantly lower number of white matter lesions could be identified in low-field MR imaging both on T1- and on T2-weighted images (T2: high field 700, low field 481; T1: high field 253, low field 177). A total of 114 enhancing lesions were discerned in the high-field MR imaging as opposed to 45 enhancing lesions in low-field MR imaging. Blood-brain barrier disruption was identified in 11 of 20 patients in the high-field MR imaging, but only in 4 of 20 patients in low-field MR imaging. Since a significantly lower lesion load is identified in low-field MR imaging than in high-field MR imaging, and blood-brain barrier disruption is frequently missed, caution must be exercised in interpreting a normal low-field MR imaging scan in a patient with clinical signs of multiple sclerosis and in interpreting a scan without enhancing lesions in a patient with known multiple sclerosis and clinical signs of exacerbation. (orig.)

  1. VEGF-C Is a Thyroid Marker of Malignancy Superior to VEGF-A in the Differential Diagnostics of Thyroid Lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosma Woliński

    Full Text Available Thyroid nodular goiter is one of the most common medical conditions affecting even over a half of adult population. The risk of malignancy is rather small but noticeable-estimated by numerous studies to be about 3-10%. The definite differentiation between benign and malignant ones is a vital issue in endocrine practice. The aim of the current study was to assess the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A and VEGF-C on the mRNA level in FNAB washouts in case of benign and malignant thyroid nodules and to evaluate the diagnostic value of these markers of malignancy.Patients undergoing fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB in our department between January 2013 and May 2014 were included. In case of all patients who gave the written consent, after ultrasonography (US and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB performed as routine medical procedure the needle was flushed with RNA Later solution, the washouts were frozen in -80 Celsius degrees. Expression of VEGF-A and VEGF-C and GADPH (reference gene was assessed in washouts on the mRNA level using the real-time PCR technique. Probes of patients who underwent subsequent thyroidectomy and were diagnosed with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC; proved by post-surgical histopathology were analyzed. Similar number of patients with benign cytology were randomly selected to be a control group.Thirty one DTCs and 28 benign thyroid lesions were analyzed. Expression of VEGF-A was insignificantly higher in patients with DTCs (p = 0.13. Expression of VEGF-C was significantly higher in patients with DTC. The relative expression of VEGF-C (in comparison with GAPDH was 0.0049 for DTCs and 0.00070 for benign lesions, medians - 0.0036 and 0.000024 respectively (p<0.0001.Measurement of expression VEGF-C on the mRNA level in washouts from FNAB is more useful than more commonly investigated VEGF-A. Measurement of VEGF-C in FNAB washouts do not allow for fully reliable differentiation of benign and

  2. Antiphosphatidylserine/prothrombin antibodies (aPS/PT) as potential diagnostic markers and risk predictors of venous thrombosis and obstetric complications in antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hui; Zheng, Hui; Yin, Yu-Feng; Hu, Qiong-Yi; Teng, Jia-Lin; Sun, Yue; Liu, Hong-Lei; Cheng, Xiao-Bing; Ye, Jun-Na; Su, Yu-Tong; Wu, Xin-Yao; Zhou, Jin-Feng; Norman, Gary L; Gong, Hui-Yun; Shi, Xin-Ming; Peng, Yi-Bing; Wang, Xue-Feng; Yang, Cheng-De

    2018-03-28

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and clinical associations of antiphosphatidylserine/prothrombin antibodies (aPS/PT) with thrombosis and pregnancy loss in Chinese patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and seronegative APS (SNAPS). One hundred and eighty six Chinese patients with APS (67 primary, 119 secondary), 48 with SNAPS, 176 disease controls (79 systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE], 29 Sjogren's syndrome [SS], 30 ankylosing spondylitis [AS], 38 rheumatoid arthritis [RA]) and 90 healthy donors were examined. IgG and IgM aPS/PT, IgG/IgM/IgA anticardiolipin (aCL) and IgG/IgM/IgA anti-β2-glycoprotein I (anti-β2GPI) antibodies were tested by ELISA. One hundred and sixty (86.0%) of APS patients were positive for at least one aPS/PT isotype. One hundred and thirty five (72.6%) were positive for IgG aPS/PT, 124/186 (66.7%) positive for IgM aPS/PT and 99 (53.2%) positive for both. Approximately half of the SNAPS patients were positive for IgG and/or IgM aPS/PT. Highly significant associations between IgG aPS/PT and venous thrombotic events (odds ratio [OR]=6.72) and IgG/IgM aPS/PT and pregnancy loss (OR=9.44) were found. Levels of IgM aPS/PT were significantly different in APS patients with thrombotic manifestations and those with fetal loss (p=0.014). The association between IgG/IgM aPS/PT and lupus anticoagulant (LAC) was highly significant (pAPS was 101.6. Notably, 91.95% (80/87) of LAC-positive specimens were positive for IgG and/or IgM aPS/PT, suggesting aPS/PT is an effective option when LAC testing is not available. Anti-PS/PT antibody assays demonstrated high diagnostic performance for Chinese patients with APS, detected some APS patients negative for criteria markers and may serve as potential risk predictors for venous thrombosis and obstetric complications.

  3. Molecular cloning of plane pollen allergen Pla a 3 and its utility as diagnostic marker for peach associated plane pollen allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangorsch, A; Larsson, H; Messmer, M; García-Moral, A; Lauer, I; Wolfheimer, S; Schülke, S; Bartra, J; Vieths, S; Lidholm, J; Scheurer, S

    2016-05-01

    Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTP) are considered to provoke allergic symptoms to plane tree pollen, which are frequently associated with peach allergy. The objective was to clone the cDNA of plane pollen nsLTP Pla a 3, to characterize IgE-binding and allergenic potency of recombinant Pla a 3 in comparison to its natural counterpart and peach nsLTP Pru p 3. Natural Pla a 3 was purified from plane pollen and analysed by mass spectrometry (MS). Recombinant Pla a 3 was characterized by SDS-PAGE and CD spectroscopy. Specific IgE to extract, components of plane pollen and Pru p 3 was measured by ImmunoCAP in sera of patients allergic to either plane pollen (n = 10), peach (n = 15) or both (n = 15). Biological potency of the proteins was investigated by in vitro mediator release assays and IgE cross-reactivity by competitive ELISA. Two Pla a 3 isoforms were identified. Recombinant Pla a 3 showed high purity, structural integrity, IgE-binding capacity comparable to nPla a 3 and biological potency. Sensitization to plane pollen extract was confirmed in 24/25 plane pollen allergics. The frequency of sensitization to Pla a 3 was 53% among patients allergic to both plane pollen and peach and 10% among plane pollen allergics tolerating peach where most patients were sensitized to Pla a 1. Pla a 3 and Pru p 3 showed strong bi-directional IgE cross-reactivity in patients allergic to peach and plane pollen, but not in peach allergics tolerating plane pollen. Levels of IgE-binding were generally higher to Pru p 3 than to Pla a 3. Sensitization to Pla a 3 is relevant in a subgroup of plane pollen allergics with concomitant peach allergy. IgE testing with Pla a 3 may serve as a marker to identify plane pollen allergic patients at risk of LTP-mediated food reactions and thereby improve in vitro diagnostic procedures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Limited diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and clinical tests for detecting partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Matthias; Schmitt, Cornelia; Haupert, Alexander; Kohn, Dieter; Lorbach, Olaf

    2017-12-01

    The reliable diagnosis of partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff is still elusive in clinical practise. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging and clinical tests for detecting partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff as well as the combination of these parameters. 334 consecutive shoulder arthroscopies for rotator cuff pathologies performed during the time period between 2010 and 2012 were analyzed retrospectively for the findings of common clinical signs for rotator cuff lesions and preoperative MR imaging. These were compared with the intraoperative arthroscopic findings as "gold standard". The reports of the MR imaging were evaluated with regard to the integrity of the rotator cuff. The Ellman Classification was used to define partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff in accordance with the arthroscopic findings. Descriptive statistics, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were calculated. MR imaging showed 80 partial-thickness and 70 full-thickness tears of the rotator cuff. The arthroscopic examination confirmed 64 partial-thickness tears of which 52 needed debridement or refixation of the rotator cuff. Sensitivity for MR imaging to identify partial-thickness tears was 51.6%, specificity 77.2%, positive predictive value 41.3% and negative predictive value 83.7%. For the Jobe-test, sensitivity was 64.1%, specificity 43.2%, positive predictive value 25.9% and negative predictive value 79.5%. Sensitivity for the Impingement-sign was 76.7%, specificity 46.6%, positive predictive value 30.8% and negative predictive value 86.5%. For the combination of MR imaging, Jobe-test and Impingement-sign sensitivity was 46.9%, specificity 85.4%, positive predictive value 50% and negative predictive value 83.8%. The diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging and clinical tests (Jobe-test and Impingement-sign) alone is limited for detecting partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff. Additionally

  5. Diagnostic value of the evaluation of the glycogen content in muscle diseases by carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehenson, P.; Syrota, A.; Labrune, P.; Odievre, M.; Fardeau, M.

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a method for the evaluation of the muscle glycogen content by natural abundance C13 NMR and we here evaluate its diagnostic value on a large number of muscle diseases (20 glycogenoses and 42 other myopathies) and 8 normal subjects. The results show high values of the glycogen/creatine ratio in muscle glycogenoses, with no overlap with other diseased or normal subjects. This evaluation of the muscle glycogen content, which is performed at rest and thus easily applicable, in particular for children, is thus very sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of muscle glycogenosis. (authors). 9 refs

  6. Diagnostic value of whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for detection of primary and metastatic malignancies: A meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin, E-mail: lllb146@163.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Li, Qiong [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Nie, Wei [Department of Respiratory Disease, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Liu, Shiyuan, E-mail: lsy20112077@163.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To perform a meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic performance of whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (WB-DWI) technique in detection of primary and metastatic malignancies compared with that of whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (WB-PET/CT). Materials and methods: Search Pubmed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library database from January 1984 to July 2013 for studies comparing WB-DWI with WB-PET/CT for detection of primary and metastatic malignancies. Methodological quality was assessed by the quality assessment of diagnostic studies (QUADAS) instrument. Sensitivities, specificities, predictive values, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and areas under the summary receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated. Potential threshold effect, heterogeneity and publication bias were investigated. Result: Thirteen eligible studies were included, with a total of 1067 patients. There was no significant threshold effect. WB-DWI had a similar AUC (0.966 (95% CI, 0.940–0.992) versus 0.984 (95% CI, 0.965–0.999)) with WB-PET/CT. No significant difference was detected between AUC of WB-DWI and WB-PET/CT. WB-DWI had a pooled sensitivity of 0.897 (95% CI, 0.876–0.916) and a pooled specificity of 0.954 (95% CI, 0.944–0.962). WB-PET/CT had a pooled sensitivity of 0.895 (95% CI, 0.865–0.920) and a pooled specificity of 0.975 (95% CI, 0.966–0.981). Heterogeneity was found to stem primarily from data type (per lesion versus per patient), MR sequence (DWIBS only and DWIBS with other sequence), and primary lesion type (single type and multiple type). The Deeks's funnel plots suggested the absence of publication bias. Conclusion: WB-DWI has similar, good diagnostic performance for the detection of primary and metastatic malignancies compared with WB-PET/CT. DWIBS with other MR sequences could further improve the diagnostic performance. More high-quality studies regarding comparison of WB-DWI and WB

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of 3-T magnetic resonance imaging with 3D T1 VIBE versus computer tomography in pars stress fracture of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, E.C.; Robertson, A.F.; Malara, F.A.; O' Shea, T.; Roebert, J.K.; Rotstein, A.H. [Victoria House Medical Imaging, Prahran, Victoria (Australia); Schneider, M.E. [Monash University, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)

    2016-11-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with thin-slice 3D T1 VIBE sequence to 128-slice computer tomography (CT) in pars stress fractures of the lumbar spine. 3-T MRI and CT of 24 patients involving 70 pars interarticularis were retrospectively reviewed by four blinded radiologists. The fracture morphology (complete, incomplete, or normal) was assessed on MRI and CT at different time points. Pars interarticularis bone marrow edema (present or absent) was also evaluated on MRI. In total, 14 complete fractures, 31 incomplete fractures and 25 normal pars were detected by CT. Bone marrow edema was seen in seven of the complete and 25 of the incomplete fractures. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI in detecting fractures (complete and incomplete) were 97.7, 92.3, and 95.7 %, respectively. MRI was 100 % accurate in detecting complete fractures. For incomplete fractures, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MRI were 96.7, 92.0, and 94.6 %, respectively. 3-T MRI with thin-slice 3D T1 VIBE is 100 % accurate in diagnosing complete pars fractures and has excellent diagnostic ability in the detection and characterization of incomplete pars stress fractures compared to CT. MRI has the added advantages of detecting bone marrow edema and does not employ ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of 3-T magnetic resonance imaging with 3D T1 VIBE versus computer tomography in pars stress fracture of the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, E.C.; Robertson, A.F.; Malara, F.A.; O'Shea, T.; Roebert, J.K.; Rotstein, A.H.; Schneider, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with thin-slice 3D T1 VIBE sequence to 128-slice computer tomography (CT) in pars stress fractures of the lumbar spine. 3-T MRI and CT of 24 patients involving 70 pars interarticularis were retrospectively reviewed by four blinded radiologists. The fracture morphology (complete, incomplete, or normal) was assessed on MRI and CT at different time points. Pars interarticularis bone marrow edema (present or absent) was also evaluated on MRI. In total, 14 complete fractures, 31 incomplete fractures and 25 normal pars were detected by CT. Bone marrow edema was seen in seven of the complete and 25 of the incomplete fractures. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI in detecting fractures (complete and incomplete) were 97.7, 92.3, and 95.7 %, respectively. MRI was 100 % accurate in detecting complete fractures. For incomplete fractures, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MRI were 96.7, 92.0, and 94.6 %, respectively. 3-T MRI with thin-slice 3D T1 VIBE is 100 % accurate in diagnosing complete pars fractures and has excellent diagnostic ability in the detection and characterization of incomplete pars stress fractures compared to CT. MRI has the added advantages of detecting bone marrow edema and does not employ ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  9. Thyroid perfusion imaging as a diagnostic tool in Graves' disease. Arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging vs. colour-coded Doppler ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muessig, K. [University Hospital of Duesseldorf (Germany). Dept. of Metabolic Diseases; Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research, Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. for Clinical Diabetology; University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany). Div. of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Nephrology, Angiology, and Clinical Chemistry; Schraml, C.; Schwenzer, N.F. [University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology, Section on Experimental Radiology; University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Rietig, R.; Balletshofer, B. [University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany). Div. of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Nephrology, Angiology, and Clinical Chemistry; Martirosian, P.; Haering, H.U.; Schick, F. [University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology, Section on Experimental Radiology; Claussen, C.D. [University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Though increased thyroid perfusion assessed by colour-coded Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) is characteristic of Graves' disease (GD), sometimes perfusion assessment by CDUS is not possible. In these cases, arterial spin labelling (ASL), a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique allowing non-invasive thyroid perfusion quantification, may have additional diagnostic value. We aimed to evaluate the potential of ASL-MRI for assessment of increased blood perfusion in patients with GD compared to CDUS. Materials and Methods: Thyroid perfusion was measured by CDUS (volume flow rate calculated from pulsed wave Doppler signals and vessel diameter) and ASL-MRI at 1.5 T in 7 patients with GD and 10 healthy controls. Results: In patients with GD, average perfusion in both thyroid lobes was markedly increased compared to controls. Both techniques applied for volume related perfusion as well as absolute volume flow in thyroid feeding vessels provided similar results (all p = 0.0008). Using a cut-off value of 22 ml/min for the volume flow rate assessed by CDUS in the four feeding vessels allowed discrimination between patients with GD and controls in all cases. After adjusting thyroid perfusion for the differences in organ volume, both CDUS and ASL revealed also complete discrimination between health and disease. Conclusion: Thyroid perfusion measurement by ASL-MRI reliably discriminate GD from normal thyroid glands. In patients in whom thyroid arteries cannot be depicted by CDUS for technical or anatomical reasons, ASL-MRI may have additional diagnostic value. (orig.)

  10. Diagnostic value of the flow profile in the distal descending aorta by phase-contrast magnetic resonance for predicting severe coarctation of the aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzarelli, Stefano; Ordovas, Karen Gomes; Hope, Michael D; Meadows, Jeffery J; Higgins, Charles B; Meadows, Alison Knauth

    2011-06-01

    To compare aortic flow profiles at the level of the proximal descending (PDAo) and distal descending aorta (DDAo) in patients investigated for coarctation of the aorta (CoA), and compare their respective diagnostic value for predicting severe CoA. Diastolic flow decay in the PDAo predicts severe CoA, but flow measurements at this level are limited by flow turbulence, aliasing, and stent-related artifacts. We studied 49 patients evaluated for CoA with phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI). Parameters of diastolic flow decay in the PDAo and DDAo were compared. Their respective diagnostic value was compared with the standard reference of transcatheter peak gradient ≥20 mmHg. Flow measurement in the PDAo required repeated acquisition with adjustment of encoding velocity or location of the imaging plane in 69% of patients; measurement in the DDAo was achieved in single acquisition in all cases. Parameters of diastolic flow decay in the PDAo and DDAo, including rate-corrected (RC) deceleration time and RC flow deceleration yielded a good correlation (r = 0.78; P RC deceleration time at DDAo (sensitivity 85%, specificity 85%). Characterization of aortic flow profiles at the DDAo offers a quick and reliable noninvasive means of assessing hemodynamically significant CoA. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Diagnostic efficacy of standard knee magnetic resonance imaging and radiography in evaluating integrity of anterior cruciate ligament before unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altınel, Levent; Er, Mehmet Serhan; Kaçar, Emre; Erten, Recep Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and plain radiographs in determining the status of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) for surgical decision-making processes in cases of medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). A total of 59 knees of 36 consecutive patients who underwent knee replacement surgery were analyzed retrospectively. MRI scans were assessed independently by 3 observers (radiologists), while the plain radiographs were evaluated by an independent radiologist. Results were compared with the intraoperative ACL status. Cross tabulation was used for descriptive statistics to analyze sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MRI and plain radiographs. When the same observer assessed and classified the MRI twice, the reproducibility of the classification system varied from moderate to excellent. However, the interobserver concordance was moderate. The sensitivity of MRI was 73% and the specificity was 81%, while the sensitivity and specificity of plain radiographs was 36% and 79%, respectively. The accuracy of MRI was 80%, while that of the radiographs was 71%. Detection of intact ACL may be possible on available plain radiographs without necessity for additional means such as MRI, which may cause increase costs and loss of time. In cases where there is uncertainty regarding ACL integrity in degenerative knees, although standard MRI provides additional information on ACL status, it is not of sufficient diagnostic value.

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance angiography for detection of coronary artery disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Leo, Giovanni [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Radiology Unit, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Fisci, Erica [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Genova (Italy); Secchi, Francesco [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Radiology Unit, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, PhD Course in Integrative Biomedical Research, Milan (Italy); Ali, Marco [Universita degli Studi di Milano, PhD Course in Integrative Biomedical Research, Milan (Italy); Ambrogi, Federico [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Milan (Italy); Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Sardanelli, Francesco [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Radiology Unit, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    To review the diagnostic performance of MR coronary angiography (MRCA) for coronary artery disease (CAD). Two independent reviewers searched on MEDLINE/EMBASE with the following inclusion criteria: 01/01/2000-03/23/2015 publication date; per-patient sensitivity/specificity for >50 % stenosis confirmed by conventional coronary angiography with raw data provided or retrievable; sample size >10. Quality was appraised using QUADAS2. Nine hundred eighteen studies were retrieved, 24 of them, including 1,638 patients, were selected. Using a bivariate model, the pooled sensitivity was 89 % (95 % confidence interval 86-92 %), the pooled specificity 72 % (63-79 %). Meta-regression did not show a significant impact on sensitivity/specificity for both year of publication and disease prevalence (p ≥ 0.114). Sensitivity of contrast-enhanced examinations (95 %, 90-97 %) was higher (p = 0.005) than that of unenhanced examinations (87 %, 83-90 %). Specificity of whole-heart acquisition mode (78 %, 72-84 %) was higher (p = 0.006) than that of targeted mode (57 %, 45-69 %). Specificity at 3 T (83 %, 69-92 %) was higher (p = 0.067) than that at 1.5 T (68 %, 60-76 %). Risk of bias and concerns regarding applicability were low. Sensitivity and specificity of MRCA for CAD were 89 % and 72 %, respectively. A specificity higher than 80 % may be obtained at 3 T. Whole-heart contrast-enhanced protocols should be preferred for a higher diagnostic performance. (orig.)

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance angiography for detection of coronary artery disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Leo, Giovanni; Fisci, Erica; Secchi, Francesco; Ali, Marco; Ambrogi, Federico; Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Sardanelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    To review the diagnostic performance of MR coronary angiography (MRCA) for coronary artery disease (CAD). Two independent reviewers searched on MEDLINE/EMBASE with the following inclusion criteria: 01/01/2000-03/23/2015 publication date; per-patient sensitivity/specificity for >50 % stenosis confirmed by conventional coronary angiography with raw data provided or retrievable; sample size >10. Quality was appraised using QUADAS2. Nine hundred eighteen studies were retrieved, 24 of them, including 1,638 patients, were selected. Using a bivariate model, the pooled sensitivity was 89 % (95 % confidence interval 86-92 %), the pooled specificity 72 % (63-79 %). Meta-regression did not show a significant impact on sensitivity/specificity for both year of publication and disease prevalence (p ≥ 0.114). Sensitivity of contrast-enhanced examinations (95 %, 90-97 %) was higher (p = 0.005) than that of unenhanced examinations (87 %, 83-90 %). Specificity of whole-heart acquisition mode (78 %, 72-84 %) was higher (p = 0.006) than that of targeted mode (57 %, 45-69 %). Specificity at 3 T (83 %, 69-92 %) was higher (p = 0.067) than that at 1.5 T (68 %, 60-76 %). Risk of bias and concerns regarding applicability were low. Sensitivity and specificity of MRCA for CAD were 89 % and 72 %, respectively. A specificity higher than 80 % may be obtained at 3 T. Whole-heart contrast-enhanced protocols should be preferred for a higher diagnostic performance. (orig.)

  14. A comparison of early diagnostic utility of Alzheimer disease biomarkers in brain magnetic resonance and cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge Argilés, J A; Blanco Cantó, M A; Leiva Salinas, C; Flors, L; Muñoz Ruiz, C; Sánchez Payá, J; Gasparini Berenguer, R; Leiva Santana, C

    2014-09-01

    The goals of this study were to compare the early diagnostic utility of Alzheimer disease biomarkers in the CSF with those in brain MRI in conditions found in our clinical practice, and to ascertain the diagnostic accuracy of both techniques used together. Between 2008 and 2009, we included 30 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who were examined using 1.5 Tesla brain MRI and AD biomarker analysis in CSF. MRI studies were evaluated by 2 radiologists according to the Korf́s visual scale. CSF biomarkers were analysed using INNOTEST reagents for Aβ1-42, total-tau and phospho-tau181p. We evaluated clinical changes 2 years after inclusion. By 2 years after inclusion, 15 of the original 30 patients (50%) had developed AD (NINCDS-ADRA criteria). The predictive utility of AD biomarkers in CSF (RR 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1-6.7; Pde Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Utility of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance-Derived Wave Intensity Analysis As a Marker of Ventricular Function in Children with Heart Failure and Normal Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntsinjana, Hopewell N; Chung, Robin; Ciliberti, Paolo; Muthurangu, Vivek; Schievano, Silvia; Marek, Jan; Parker, Kim H; Taylor, Andrew M; Biglino, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to explore the diagnostic insight of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived wave intensity analysis to better study systolic dysfunction in young patients with chronic diastolic dysfunction and preserved ejection fraction (EF), comparing it against other echocardiographic and CMR parameters. Evaluating systolic and diastolic dysfunctions in children is challenging, and a gold standard method is currently lacking. Patients with presumed diastolic dysfunction [ n  = 18; nine aortic stenosis (AS), five hypertrophic, and four restrictive cardiomyopathies] were compared with age-matched control subjects ( n  = 18). All patients had no mitral or aortic incompetence, significant AS, or reduced systolic EF. E / A ratio, E / E ' ratio, deceleration time, and isovolumetric contraction time were assessed on echocardiography, and indexed left atrial volume (LAVi), acceleration time (AT), ejection time (ET), and wave intensity analyses were calculated from CMR. The latter was performed on CMR phase-contrast flow sequences, defining a ratio of the peaks of the early systolic forward compression wave (FCW) and the end-systolic forward expansion wave (FEW). Significant differences between patients and controls were seen in the E / E ' ratio (8.7 ± 4.0 vs. 5.1 ± 1.3, p  = 0.001) and FCW/FEW ratio (2.5 ± 1.6 vs. 7.2 ± 4.2 × 10 -5 m/s, p  wave intensity-derived ratio summarizing systolic and diastolic function could provide insight into ventricular function in children, on top of CMR and echocardiography, and it was here able to identify an element of ventricular dysfunction with preserved EF in a small group of young patients.

  16. Diagnostic utility of magnetic resonance imaging and radiography in juvenile spondyloarthritis: evaluation of the sacroiliac joints in controls and affected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremko, Jacob L; Liu, Lei; Winn, Naomi J; Ellsworth, Janet E; Lambert, Robert G W

    2014-05-01

    To compare the utility of radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of juvenile-onset spondyloarthritis in pediatric patients presenting with low back and/or sacroiliac (SI) pain of potentially inflammatory etiology. Radiographs and MRI studies of the SI joints in 26 patients with juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA) and 35 controls were assessed independently by 2 radiologists, with discrepancies arbitrated by a third. Radiographs and MRI were blinded and read in separate batches in random order. Erosion was common and was the most useful diagnostic feature on radiography [positive likelihood ratio (LR) = 3.5] and was especially diagnostic of SpA on MRI (LR = 6.7). Subchondral sclerosis was common but was the least specific feature for both modalities. Joint space narrowing had some utility on radiography (LR = 2.0) and MRI (LR = 2.7) but was uncommon and had poor reader reliability. Bone marrow edema (LR = 3.1) and subarticular fat infiltration (LR = 4.5), detectable only on MRI, were both useful features. Global diagnostic impression of MRI (LR = 9.4) had very high utility for the diagnosis of JSpA, exceeding radiography (LR = 4.4) because of superior specificity. In addition, global diagnosis of SpA is much more reliably made on MRI (κ = 0.80) compared to radiography (κ = 0.30). Specificity and reliability of MRI of the SI joints are superior to radiography for the diagnosis of juvenile-onset SpA and, where available, MRI should replace radiography as the first line of investigation.

  17. Clinical analysis of four serum tumor markers in 458 patients with ovarian tumors: diagnostic value of the combined use of HE4, CA125, CA19-9, and CEA in ovarian tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen F

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Fawen Chen,1,2 Jing Shen,3 Jianwei Wang,1 Pengwei Cai,1 Yi Huang3 1Department of Clinical Laboratory, Fujian Provincial Hospital South Branch, 2Department of Blood Transfusion, 3Department of Clinical Laboratory, Fujian Provincial Hospital, Provincial Clinical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To investigate the diagnostic values of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4, carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA for ovarian tumors. Methods: The participants were divided into three groups: 386 healthy women (control group, 262 patients with benign ovarian tumors (the benign group, and 196 patients with malignant pelvic tumors (the malignant group. The serum levels of HE4, CA125, CA19-9, and CEA were analyzed by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. Results: It showed that serum levels of HE4, CA125, CA19-9, and CEA of patients with ­malignant ovarian tumors were significantly higher than those in the control group and benign group (P<0.01. HE4 had a high specificity (96.56% in malignant ovarian tumors. The tumor markers HE4, CA125, CA19-9, and CEA had a sensitivity of 63.78%, 62.75%, 35.71%, and 38.78%, respectively. The combined use of two or more tumor markers (parallel test had a higher diagnostic sensitivity but lower specificity than a single tumor marker. The combined efficiency of HE4 and CA125 was the highest, with a sensitivity and specificity of 80.10% and 69.08%, respectively. HE4 and CA125 combined with the Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm provided an efficient means of screening and diagnosis of ovarian malignancies. The diagnostic sensitivity increased to 88.52% when three or four tumor markers were used but showed no significant difference compared with the combination of HE4 and CA125 (P>0.05. Conclusion: The combination of three or four tumor markers did not improve the diagnostic efficacy when compared with the combination

  18. Combined optical emission and resonant absorption diagnostics of an Ar-O{sub 2}-Ce-reactive magnetron sputtering discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Mel, A.A. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel, Université de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssinière B.P. 32229, Nantes Cedex 3 44322 (France); Ershov, S. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Britun, N., E-mail: nikolay.britun@umons.ac.be [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Ricard, A. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, Toulouse Cedex 9 F-31062 (France); Konstantinidis, S. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Snyders, R. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Materia Nova Research Center, Parc Initialis, Avenue Copernic 1, Mons B-7000 (Belgium)

    2015-01-01

    We report the results on combined optical characterization of Ar-O{sub 2}-Ce magnetron sputtering discharges by optical emission and resonant absorption spectroscopy. In this study, a DC magnetron sputtering system equipped with a movable planar magnetron source with a Ce target is used. The intensities of Ar, O, and Ce emission lines, as well as the absolute densities of Ar metastable and Ce ground state atoms are analyzed as a function of the distance from the magnetron target, applied DC power, O{sub 2} content, etc. The absolute number density of the Ar{sup m} is found to decrease exponentially as a function of the target-to-substrate distance. The rate of this decrease is dependent on the sputtering regime, which should be due to the different collisional quenching rates of Ar{sup m} by O{sub 2} molecules at different oxygen contents. Quantitatively, the absolute number density of Ar{sup m} is found to be equal to ≈ 3 × 10{sup 8} cm{sup −3} in the metallic, and ≈ 5 × 10{sup 7} cm{sup −3} in the oxidized regime of sputtering, whereas Ce ground state densities at the similar conditions are found to be few times lower. The absolute densities of species are consistent with the corresponding deposition rates, which decrease sharply during the transition from metallic to poisoned sputtering regime. - Highlights: • Optical emission and resonant absorption spectroscopy are employed to study Ar-O{sub 2}-Ce magnetron sputtering discharges. • The density of argon metastables is found to decrease exponentially when increasing the target-to-substrate distance. • The collision-quenching rates of Ar{sup m} by O{sub 2} molecules at different oxygen contents is demonstrated. • The deposition rates of cerium and cerium oxide thin films decrease sharply during the transition from the metallic to the poisoned sputtering regime.

  19. The possibilities of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnostics of complications after metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Vergay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to find adverse periprosthetic local tissue reactions after metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty with ASR XL heads. Material and methods: 119 patients with 134 ASR XL head - Corail prostheses were treated in 2007-2009. The results were studied in 94 cases (105 prostheses - 84%. Average follow-up time consisted 62 ± 3 months. MRI was performed in 12 patients (13 hips who had clinical nonsatisfaction. Obtained data were compared with 21 MRI (24 hips of controlled group with good and perfect clinical results. Results. We found variations of normal periprosthetic tissue condition. Adverse reactions were identified in 10 cases. To improve the quality of pictures we developed special MRI adjustments and regimes of work. Conclusion: MRI diagnostics is indicated for the patients with metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty in order to identify adverse local tissue reactions. The improvement of picture quality needs special adjustment of MRI equipment.

  20. Diagnostic equivalence of conventional and fast spin echo magnetic resonance imaging of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munk, P.L.; Hilborn, M.D.; Vellet, A.D.; University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta,; Romano, C.C.; University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta,

    1997-01-01

    Many techniques and pulse sequences have been devised for the assessment of the anterior cruciate ligament. The present study compares fast spin echo (FSE) imaging to conventional spin echo imaging at a field strength of 1.5 T in an effort to determine if these sequences are diagnostically equivalent. Where available, arthroscopy was also done. A total of 52 patients were imaged using both FSE and conventional spin echo sequences. Eight volunteers were used as controls. Arthroscopy was performed on 10 patients. The anterior cruciate ligament was assessed in a blinded fashion by three radiologists. The Kappa statistic was then used to determine the percentage agreement between FSE and conventional spin echo imaging. Fast spin echo sequencing demonstrated a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 94.8% and an accuracy of 96.3% when compared to arthroscopy. Conventional spin echo imaging and arthroscopy had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 84.6% and an accuracy of 88.9%. The remaining 34 patients who did not undergo arthroscopy were followed clinically because clinical and imaging findings were not suggestive of ACL tears. These demonstrated 72% agreement between FSE and conventional spin echo imaging using the Kappa statistic, with regards to calling ACL normal or having only a low-grade partial tear. Fast spin echo imaging produces images of the anterior cruciate ligament that have similar diagnostic accuracy to conventional spin echo images (P<0.05) within a much shorter scan time. These results however, require further validation in a larger group, preferably with arthroscopic correlation. (author)

  1. Prostate carcinoma: current diagnostic strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzschild, Monica Maria Agata Stiepcich; Ferraz, Maria Lucia Cardoso Gomes; Oliveira, Jose Marcelo Amatuzzi; Andriolo, Adagmar

    2001-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second cause of cancer death in men in the Western world. Despite progress in the treatment of advanced disease, it is recognized that the only possibility of reduction in prostate cancer death is nearly diagnosis when the disease is localized. In the present study our aim was to review the current strategy for diagnosis of prostate carcinoma. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a valuable tumor marker and has demonstrated effectiveness in detecting prostate carcinoma, monitoring therapeutic efficacy, and disclosing disease recurrence. However, alternative methods are been proposed just as the free to total PSA ratio, PSA density, PSA velocity, which could improve the diagnostic sensibility and the specificity. Image diagnostic methods include transrectal ultra sound, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance image, and bone cintigraphy. The ultra sound is the best approach to guide the prostate biopsy and, together with the magnetic resonance is still useful for loco regional graduation. Computerized tomography as magnetic resonance image can be used for identification of linfonodal involvement. Bone cintigraphy is the best method for the identification of metastatic disease. (author)

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging as a diagnostic tool in case of ovarian masses in girls and young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiesińska-Figatowska, Monika; Jurkiewicz, Elzbieta; Iwanowska, Beata; Uliasz, Maria; Romaniuk-Doroszewska, Anna; Bragoszewska, Hanna; Ceran, Alicja; Olszewski, Andrzej

    2007-05-01

    Gynecological examination and transvaginal ultrasound are difficult or impossible in girls and young women who have not started their sexual life. CT is not a method of choice in this age group because of the ionizing radiation and iodine-containing contrast media. MRI is chosen then. Pelvic MRI was performed in 15 patients aged 9-19 years with suspected ovarian mass after they had had unclear gynecological and sonographic examinations. 1.5 T MRI systems were used. SE,T(F)SE and SPIR sequences were applied in T1- and T2-weighted images in three planes. Contrast media were administered in 7 patients. In a group of 3 girls with acute abdominal pain, polycystic ovaries, ovarian hemorrhagic cyst, and fibroma of the ovary were diagnosed. In a group of 11 patients with chronic abdominal pain, dermoid cysts of the ovaries were found in 7 cases, in one bilateral and accompanied by ectopic kidney. In 2 patients, serous cysts were diagnosed. In 2 cases an ovarian origin of the mass was excluded: multilocular cystic lesion in the presacral region and a hydatid mole were revealed. A neoplastic ovarian mass was diagnosed in a girl with increasing circumference of the abdomen. The accuracy of MRI in localizing lesions was 100%. Its accuracy in precisely characterizing lesions was 83.3%. Magnetic resonance imaging, with its noninvasiveness, high spatial resolution, and tissue specificity, is a method of choice in the diagnosis or exclusion of ovarian pathology in children and adolescents.

  3. Myxofibrosarcoma: prevalence and diagnostic value of the ''tail sign'' on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefkowitz, Robert A.; Landa, Jonathan; Hwang, Sinchun; Panicek, David M. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY (United States); Zabor, Emily C.; Moskowitz, Chaya S. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York, NY (United States); Agaram, Narasimhan P. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Myxofibrosarcoma frequently shows curvilinear extensions of high T2 signal that also enhance on magnetic resonance imaging; these ''tails'' represent fascial extension of tumor at histopathological examination. This study was performed to determine whether the tail sign is helpful in distinguishing myxofibrosarcoma from other myxoid-containing neoplasms. The study group consisted of 44 patients with pathologically proven myxofibrosarcoma; the control group consisted of 52 patients with a variety of other myxoid-predominant tumors. Three musculoskeletal radiologists independently evaluated T2-weighted (and/or short-tau inversion recovery) and post-contrast MR images for the presence of one or more enhancing, high-signal intensity, curvilinear projections from the primary mass. Sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of myxofibrosarcoma were calculated for each reader. Interobserver variability was assessed with kappa statistic and percentage agreement. A tail sign was deemed present in 28, 30, and 34 cases of myxofibrosarcoma and in 11, 9, and 5 of the controls for the three readers respectively, yielding a sensitivity of 64-77 % and a specificity of 79-90 %. The interobserver agreement was moderate-to-substantial (kappa = 0.626). The tail sign at MRI is a moderately specific and sensitive sign for the diagnosis of myxofibrosarcoma relative to other myxoid-containing tumors. (orig.)

  4. Clinical features of congenital cystic disease of the mediastinum. Diagnostic usefulness of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bando, Masashi; Ishii, Yoshiki; Sugiyama, Yukihiko; Furuse, Makoto; Murayama, Fumio; Sohara, Yasunori

    2000-01-01

    We describe 18 cases of congenital mediastinal cysts, including 4 bronchogenic cysts, 5 pericardial cysts, and 9 thymic cysts. Fifteen of the 18 patients (62.5%) were asymptomatic, and the cysts were found incidentally on a chest radiograph conducted as a part of a physical screening. In 2 of the 4 cases of bronchogenic cysts, the cystic lesions were located in the posterior mediastinum and in the cephalad recess of the azgos vein (CRAzV). In 3 of the 5 cases of pericardial cysts, the lesions were located in the right cardio-phrenic region. In the remaining 2 cases, the cysts were located in the CRAzV and in the posterior mediastinum. Seventeen patients who had histologically proven mediastinal cysts were investigated by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In all 3 cases of bronchogenic cysts, MR signals of the cysts were of higher intensity than those of muscle on T1-weighted images. Neither the pericardial cysts nor the thymic cysts showed high signal intensity on T1-weighted images. Macroscopically, the intracystic fluids in all of the bronchogenic cysts contained viscid mucus that probably caused high signal intensities on the T1-weighted images. MR imaging is not only useful in revealing the location of mediastinal cysts, but also in the differential diagnosis of congenital mediastinal cysts. (author)

  5. An Endogenous Electron Spin Resonance (ESR signal discriminates nevi from melanomas in human specimens: a step forward in its diagnostic application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Cesareo

    Full Text Available Given the specific melanin-associated paramagnetic features, the Electron Spin Resonance (ESR, called also Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, EPR analysis has been proposed as a potential tool for non-invasive melanoma diagnosis. However, studies comparing human melanoma tissues to the most appropriate physiological counterpart (nevi have not been performed, and ESR direct correlation with melanoma clinical features has never been investigated. ESR spectrum was obtained from melanoma and non-melanoma cell-cultures as well as mouse melanoma and non-melanoma tissues and an endogenous ESR signal (g = 2.005 was found in human melanoma cells and in primary melanoma tissues explanted from mice, while it was always absent in non-melanoma samples. These characteristics of the measured ESR signal strongly suggested its connection with melanin. Quantitative analyses were then performed on paraffin-embedded human melanoma and nevus sections, and validated on an independent larger validation set, for a total of 112 sections (52 melanomas, 60 nevi. The ESR signal was significantly higher in melanomas (p = 0.0002 and was significantly different between "Low Breslow's and "High Breslow's" depth melanomas (p<0.0001. A direct correlation between ESR signal and Breslow's depth, expressed in millimetres, was found (R = 0.57; p<0.0001. The eu/pheomelanin ratio was found to be significantly different in melanomas "Low Breslow's" vs melanomas "High Breslow's" depth and in nevi vs melanomas "High Breslow's depth". Finally, ROC analysis using ESR data discriminated melanomas sections from nevi sections with up to 90% accuracy and p<0.0002. In the present study we report for the first time that ESR signal in human paraffin-embedded nevi is significantly lower than signal in human melanomas suggesting that spectrum variations may be related to qualitative melanin differences specifically occurring in melanoma cells. We therefore conclude that this ESR signal

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging in fetuses, children and adults: A systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayyil, Sudhin, E-mail: s.thayyil@ucl.ac.u [Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute for Women' s Health, London (United Kingdom); Chandrasekaran, Manigandan [UCL Institute for Women' s Health, London (United Kingdom); Chitty, Lyn S. [UCL Institute for Women' s Health, London (United Kingdom); Clinical Molecular Genetics Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie [Medical Statistics, UCL Institute of Child Health (United Kingdom); Skordis-Worrall, Jolene [Centre for International Health and Development, UCL Institute of Child Health (United Kingdom); Bennett-Britton, Ian [Centre for International Health and Development, UCL Institute of Child Health (United Kingdom); Health Economics and Financing Program, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Cohen, Marta [Department of Histopathology, Sheffield Children' s Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Withby, Elspeth [Department of Academic Radiology, Sheffield Children' s Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Department of Histopathology, UCL Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Robertson, Nicola J. [UCL Institute for Women' s Health, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M. [Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    To determine, in a systematic review, the diagnostic accuracy, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of less invasive autopsy by post-mortem MR imaging, in fetuses, children and adults. We searched Medline, Embase, the Cochrane library and reference lists to identify all studies comparing post-mortem MR imaging with conventional autopsy, published between January 1990 and March 2009. 539 abstracts were identified; 15 papers met the inclusion criteria; data from 9 studies were extracted (total: 146 fetuses, 11 children and 24 adults). In accurately identifying the final cause of death or most clinically significant abnormality, post-mortem MR imaging had a sensitivity and specificity of 69% (95% CI-56%, 80%) and 95% (95% CI-88%, 98%) in fetuses, and 28% (95% CI-13%, 47%) and 64% (95% CI-23%, 94%) in children and adults, respectively; however the published data is limited to small, heterogenous and poorly designed studies. Insufficient data is available on acceptability and economic evaluation of post-mortem MR imaging. Well designed, large, prospective studies are required to evaluate the accuracy of post-mortem MR imaging, before it can be offered as a clinical tool.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging in fetuses, children and adults: A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayyil, Sudhin; Chandrasekaran, Manigandan; Chitty, Lyn S.; Wade, Angie; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Bennett-Britton, Ian; Cohen, Marta; Withby, Elspeth; Sebire, Neil J.; Robertson, Nicola J.; Taylor, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    To determine, in a systematic review, the diagnostic accuracy, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of less invasive autopsy by post-mortem MR imaging, in fetuses, children and adults. We searched Medline, Embase, the Cochrane library and reference lists to identify all studies comparing post-mortem MR imaging with conventional autopsy, published between January 1990 and March 2009. 539 abstracts were identified; 15 papers met the inclusion criteria; data from 9 studies were extracted (total: 146 fetuses, 11 children and 24 adults). In accurately identifying the final cause of death or most clinically significant abnormality, post-mortem MR imaging had a sensitivity and specificity of 69% (95% CI-56%, 80%) and 95% (95% CI-88%, 98%) in fetuses, and 28% (95% CI-13%, 47%) and 64% (95% CI-23%, 94%) in children and adults, respectively; however the published data is limited to small, heterogenous and poorly designed studies. Insufficient data is available on acceptability and economic evaluation of post-mortem MR imaging. Well designed, large, prospective studies are required to evaluate the accuracy of post-mortem MR imaging, before it can be offered as a clinical tool.

  8. The Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Tumor Markers (CEA, SCC, CYFRA 21-1, TPS) in Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Vivian; Meirovitz, Amichay; Leibovici, Vera; Rachmut, Jacob; Peretz, Tamar; Eliashar, Ron; Gross, Menachem

    2015-10-01

    Establishing prognostic factors is very important in the management of cancer patients. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical significance of a panel of tumor markers, including CEA (Carcino Embryonic Antigen), SCC (Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen), TPS (Tissue Polypeptide Specific Antigen) and CYFRA 21-1 in head and neck cancer patients, for assessing treatment response and prognosis of patients. We evaluated 312 blood samples from 143 head and neck cancer patients, from several sub-groups: 82 Larynx Carcinoma pre- and 38 post-therapy, 46 Oral Cavity pre and 29 post-therapy, 12 nasopharynx, 16 parotid and other salivary gland patients. Blood tumor markers levels were evaluated by conventional ELISA assays. Correlations of marker levels to stage of disease, lymph node involvement and therapy, were performed. Serum levels of all four tumor markers were higher before therapy and decreased thereafter in all patients. The decrease in TPS level following therapy was significant (p=0.03). Significantly higher levels of TPS and similarly higher levels of the other tumor markers were demonstrated in advanced disease (stages III and IV) patients, as opposed to early disease (stages I and II) patients (p=0.012). Node positive patients had significantly higher TPS levels as compared to node negative (p=0.02). The same trend was shown by the other markers as well, but did not reach statistical significance. TPS was best correlated to survival of patients; those having low levels had the best clinical outcome and longer survival. CEA, SCC, TPS and CYFRA 21-1 can all serve as useful tumor markers in HNC patients. They assessed response to therapy and were prognostic for recurrence. TPS proved to be the most sensitive predictor of advanced disease and poor prognosis. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  9. The progress in diagnostic imaging for staging of bladder and prostate cancer. Endorectal magnetic resonance imaging and magnetization transfer contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, Kiminobu; Hayashi, Norio; Yanagawa, Makoto; Kawamura, Juichi; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Takeda, Kan; Sugimura, Yoshiki

    1999-01-01

    We retrospectively studied the staging accuracy of endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in comparison with transrectal ultrasound examination (TRUS) for 71 localized bladder cancers and 19 localized prostate cancers (PC) radically resected. The accuracy of clinical staging for bladder cancer in endorectal MRI and TRUS was 85.9% and 69.2%, respectively. The presence or absence of the continuity of submucosal enhancement on T2-weighted MRI images could be useful for the staging of bladder cancer. The accuracy of the seminal vesicular invasion for prostate cancer in endorectal MRI and TRUS was 95% and 63%, respectively. To determine whether magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) provides additional information in the diagnosis of prostate cancer, the magnetization transfer ratios (MTRs) were calculated in 22 patients with PC, 5 with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 4 controls. The mean MTR in the peripheral zone of the normal prostate (8.0%±3.4 [standard deviation]) showed a statistically significant decrease relative to that in the inner zone of the normal prostate (27.4%±3.4, p<0.01), BPH (25.5%±3.7, p<0.01), pre-treatment PC (30.6%±5.9, p<0.01), and PC after hormonal therapy (20.3%±6.3, p<0.01). The mean MTR in pre-treatment PC was significantly higher than that in BPH, or in PC after hormonal therapy (p<0.01). MTC was considered to be useful for conspicuity of prostate cancer lesion. (author)

  10. [Magnetic resonance imaging as a prenatal diagnostic tool supplementary to ultrasound in diagnosing fetal and gestational abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Shay; Agid, Ronit; Elchalal, Uriel; Ezra, Yossi; Gomori, J Moshe; Nadjari, Michelle

    2002-04-01

    The use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as a prenatal and gestational imaging modality supplementary to ultrasound has become widespread with the advent of rapid MR sequences in the last few years. These sequences allow acquisition of high-resolution images of the fetus in a single breath-holding period of the mother, with minimal fetal motion artifacts. We describe our experience with this modality in the diagnosis of prenatal and gestational abnormalities. The study population consisted of 39 pregnant women who had a total of 40 MRI examinations from 7/1998 to 7/2000. The indication for all examinations was a suspected fetal or gestational abnormality as suggested by ultrasound scan, laboratory tests or by family history. In 31 cases (77.5%) a correlation was found between the ultrasound findings and the MR imaging, of which in 6 cases (15%) the MRI added new valuable information. In 9 cases (22.5%) the MRI ruled out findings suspected by ultrasound. The prenatal findings were compared with postnatal clinical follow-up, imaging or pathology report in 26 cases (66.6%). In two cases the clinical outcome and postnatal imaging were discordant with the prenatal imaging findings in ultrasound and MRI. Although not proven, MRI is considered safe during pregnancy because it does not use ionizing radiation. It depicts fetal anatomy and pathology well. Also uterine, placental and other maternal structures are well demonstrated. This tool is useful in cases in which there is a suspicion of a malformed fetus or abnormal placenta by an ultrasound examination or in cases in which an ultrasound examination is limited by technical factors. MRI was found to help parents and doctors decide about the fate of a suspected abnormal pregnancy by adding valuable information supplemental to ultrasound examination.

  11. Imaging diagnostics in ovarian cancer: magnetic resonance imaging and a scoring system guiding choice of primary treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Sigrid M; Dueholm, Margit; Marinovskij, Edvard; Blaakær, Jan

    2017-03-01

    To analyze the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and systematic evaluation at surgery to predict optimal cytoreduction in primary advanced ovarian cancer and to develop a preoperative scoring system for cancer staging. Preoperative MRI and standard laparotomy were performed in 99 women with either ovarian or primary peritoneal cancer. Using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis of a systematic description of the tumor in nine abdominal compartments obtained by MRI and during surgery plus clinical parameters, a scoring system was designed that predicted non-optimal cytoreduction. Non-optimal cytoreduction at operation was predicted by the following: (A) presence of comorbidities group 3 or 4 (ASA); (B) tumor presence in multiple numbers of different compartments, and (C) numbers of specified sites of organ involvement. The score includes: number of compartments involved (1-9 points), >1 subdiaphragmal location with presence of tumor (1 point); deep organ involvement of liver (1 point), porta hepatis (1 point), spleen (1 point), mesentery/vessel (1 point), cecum/ileocecal (1 point), rectum/vessels (1 point): ASA groups 3 and 4 (2 points). Use of the scoring system based on operative findings gave an area under the curve (AUC) of 91% (85-98%) for patients in whom optimal cytoreduction could not be achieved. The score AUC obtained by MRI was 84% (76-92%), and 43% of non-optimal cytoreduction patients were identified, with only 8% of potentially operable patients being falsely evaluated as suitable for non-optimal cytoreduction at the most optimal cut-off value. Tumor in individual locations did not predict operability. This systematic scoring system based on operative findings and MRI may predict non-optimal cytoreduction. MRI is able to assess ovarian cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis with satisfactory concordance with laparotomic findings. This scoring system could be useful as a clinical guideline and should be evaluated and

  12. The diagnostic value of axially loaded magnetic resonance imaging in patients with degenerative disorders of lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingyu; Chen Jianyu; Shen Jun; Zhang Xiaoya; Liang Biling

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of axially loaded MR imaging with supine position in patients with degenerative disorders of lumbar spine. Methods Thirty asymptomatic volunteers and 89 patients were examined in psoas-relaxed position (PRP) and axially compressed supine position (ACE) of the lumbar spine. Sixty-one patients with low back pain, 19 with sciatica and 9 with neurogenic claudication were included in the symptomatic study group. The disc levels from L3 to S1 were examined. Results: In 30 asymptomatic volunteers, a significant decrease in dural sac cross-sectional area (DSCA) was found at 14 disc levels (15.6%)in 10 individuals(33.3% ) during ACE ( >15 mm 2 ). In 89 patients, a significant decrease in DSCA was found at 55 disc levels (20.6%) in 38 patients (42.7%) during ACE ( >15 mm 2 ), and the mean decrease was 28 mm 2 . During ACE, 32 disc levels with an increasing severity of disc herniation were noted in 26 patients, 16 disc levels with neural foramen stenosis were found in 12 patients, 11 disc levels with ligamentum flavum thickening were observed in 10 patients, 3 cases facet dislocation and 3 cases lumbar spondylolisthesis were also seen. In 22 of the 89 patients (24.7%), additional valuable information (AVI) was found during ACE, including 7 patients (7/9) with neurogenic claudication, 8 patients (8/19)with sciatica, and 11.5% (7/61) of the patients with low back pain. Conclusion: As compared with conventional imaging methods, axially loaded imaging provides AVI, and more occult lesions can be found during ACE. ACE MRI is a valuable tool in diagnosing degenerative disorders of lumbar spine. (authors)

  13. Diagnostic Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mouse Model Using Macrophage-Targeted Gadolinium-Containing Synthetic Lipopeptide Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu T Shen

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in Western cultures. The vast majority of cardiovascular events, including stroke and myocardial infarction, result from the rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, which are characterized by high and active macrophage content. Current imaging modalities including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI aim to characterize anatomic and structural features of plaques rather than their content. Previously, we reported that macrophage-targeted delivery of gadolinium (Gd-based contrast agent (GBCA-HDL using high density lipoproteins (HDL-like particles significantly enhances the detection of plaques in an apolipoprotein (apo E knockout (KO mouse model, with an atherosclerotic wall/muscle normalized enhancement ratio (NER of 120% achieved. These particles are comprised of lipids and synthetic peptide fragments of the major protein of HDL, apo A-I, that contain a naturally occurring modification which targets the particles to macrophages. Targeted delivery minimizes the Gd dose and thus reduces the adverse effects of Gd. The aims of the current study were to test whether varying the GBCA-HDL particle shape and composition can further enhance atherosclerotic plaque MRI and control organ clearance of these agents. We show that the optimized GBCA-HDL particles are efficiently delivered intracellularly to and uptaken by both J774 macrophages in vitro and more importantly, by intraplaque macrophages in vivo, as evidenced by NER up to 160% and higher. This suggests high diagnostic power of our GBCA-HDL particles in the detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. Further, in contrast to discoidal, spherical GBCA-HDL exhibit hepatic clearance, which could further diminish adverse renal effects of Gd. Finally, activated macrophages are reliable indicators of any inflamed tissues and are implicated in other areas of unmet clinical need such as rheumatoid arthritis, sepsis and cancer, suggesting the

  14. The diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance venography in the detection of deep venous thrombosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, G.; Fawzi Matuk, R.; Venugopal, V.; Verde, F.; Magnuson, T.H.; Schweitzer, M.A.; Steele, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To search the literature for further evidence for the use of magnetic resonance venography (MRV) in the detection of suspected DVT and to re-evaluate the accuracy of MRV in the detection of suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Materials and methods: PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane, and Web of Science were searched. Study quality and the risk of bias were evaluated using the QUADAS 2. A random effects meta-analysis including subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed. Results: The search resulted in 23 observational studies all from academic centres. Sixteen articles were included in the meta-analysis. The summary estimates for MRV as a diagnostic non-invasive tool revealed a sensitivity of 93% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 89% to 95%) and specificity of 96% (95% CI: 94% to 97%). The heterogeneity of the studies was high. Inconsistency (I2) for sensitivity and specificity was 80.7% and 77.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Further studies investigating the use of MRV in the detection of suspected DVT did not offer further evidence to support the replacement of ultrasound with MRV as the first-line investigation. However, MRV may offer an alternative tool in the detection/diagnosis of DVT for whom ultrasound is inadequate or not feasible (such as in the obese patient). -- Highlights: •We aimed to search the literature for evidence for the use of MRV in the detection of suspected DVT. •We questioned the use of MRV in special populations like the obese where contrast venography may not be feasible or safe. •MRV may not replace ultrasound as the first-line modality for DVT detection. •Consider MRV use in special populations like the obese where other diagnostic tools are not feasible. •Studies to compare MRV vs. ultrasound as a screening tool for DVT in the obese should be considered

  15. Diagnostic Accuracy and Inter-Observer Agreement of Shoulder Magnetic Resonance Arthrography in the Detection of Labral Lesion and Assessment of Lesion Location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ji Young; Song, Sook Yun; Choi, Jin Ha; Shin, Sang Jin [School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Mokdong Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and inter-observer agreement of magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography in the detection of labral lesions by location and to describe useful MR imaging findings of labral tears. Sixty-eight patients who underwent both pre-operative MR arthrography and arthroscopy were included. The location of the labrum was classified into anterior (2-6 o'clock), superior (12-2 o'clock), and posterior (6-12 o'clock). Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and inter-observer agreement of MR arthrography for the diagnosis of labral lesions by location were calculated. Frequency of MR imaging findings such as detachment, high signal intensity cleft, contour change, absence, and signal change of the labrum by location were analyzed. 35 anterior, 44 superior and 15 posterior labral lesions were detected by arthroscopy. The corresponding sensitivities were 91.4%, 79.5%, and 40.0%, specificities were 90.9%, 20.8%, and 86.8%, accuracies were 91.2%, 58.8%, and 76.5%, and kappa values were 0.823, 0.252, and 0.394, for anterior, superior, posterior lesions, respectively. The most common MR imaging findings were detachment in 60.0% of anterior labrums, high signal intensity cleft in 52.3% of superior labrums, and normal in 60.0% of posterior labrums. Diagnostic accuracy and inter-observer agreement of MR arthrography in the diagnosis of labral lesions are high in anterior labrums and low in superior or posterior labrums. The useful MR imaging findings of labral tears were different according to labral location.

  16. The Effects of Voxel Localization and Time of Echo on the Diagnostic Accuracy of Cystic Brain Tumors in 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezvanizadeh, Alireza; Firouznia, Kavous; Salehi-Sadaghiani, Mohammad; Mohseni, Meisam; Gharaei, Dona; Ghanaati, Hossein; Saligheh Rad, Hamidreza; Masoudnia, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Although magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been shown as an effective diagnostic tool in distinguishing inflammation from neoplasm in cystic brain lesions, the optimum approach in selecting the portions of lesions in MRS and the possible effects of different times of echoes (TEs) remains unknown. To determine the most effective TE in diagnosing neoplastic lesions based on detecting choline (Cho), N acetyl aspartate (NAA) and creatinine (Cr). Moreover, the role of voxel localization on the diagnosis of the neoplastic nature of the lesions is assessed through comparing the abovementioned metabolite ratios in the rim and center of each lesion with the same TE. In 16 patients with brain cystic tumors, MRS was performed at TEs of 30, 135 and 270 ms for detection of Cho, NAA and Cr metabolites using a 3 tesla MRI unit. The percentage of analyzed ratios greater than a cut-off point of 1.3 for Cho/Cr and 1.6 for Cho/NAA were calculated. Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA ratio means at all TEs were more at the central area in comparison with the periphery, although none of the differences were statistically significant. There was no statistically significant difference among the compared TEs. The percentages of ratios above the cut-off point at all TEs were more in the rim compared to the center and in the union of both compared to the rim or center. All the patients had at least one voxel with a Cho/Cr ratio of more than 1.3 when the voxel was chosen according to the hotspots shown in the chemical shift imaging map, regardless of their location at all examined TEs. Selection of voxels with the guide of chemical shift imaging map yields to 100% diagnostic sensitivity. If not accessible, the use of the union of peripheral and central voxels enhances the sensitivity when compared to usage of peripheral or central voxels solely

  17. Diagnostic value of combined magnetic resonance imaging examination of brachial plexus and electrophysiological studies in multifocal motor neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basta Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by slowly progressive asymetrical weakness of limbs without sensory loss. The objective of this study was to investigate the involvement of brachial plexus using combined cervical magnetic stimulation and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of plexus brachialis in patients with MMN. We payed special attention to the nerve roots forming nerves inervating weak muscles, but without detectable conduction block (CB using conventional nerve conduction studies. Methods. Nine patients with proven MMN were included in the study. In all of them MRI of the cervical spine and brachial plexus was performed using a Siemens Avanto 1.5 T unit, applying T1 and turbo spinecho T1 sequence, axial turbo spin-echo T2 sequence and a coronal fat-saturated turbo spin-echo T2 sequence. Results. In all the patients severe asymmetric distal weakness of muscles inervated by radial, ulnar, median and peroneal nerves was observed and the most striking presentation was bilateral wrist and finger drop. Three of them had additional proximal weakness of muscles inervated by axillar and femoral nerves. The majority of the patients had slightly increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF protein content. Six of the patients had positive serum polyclonal IgM anti-GM1 antibodies. Electromyoneurography (EMG showed neurogenic changes, the most severe in distal muscles inervated by radial nerves. All the patients had persistent partial CBs outside the usual sites of nerve compression in radial, ulnar, median and peroneal nerves. In three of the patients cervical magnetic stimulation suggested proximal CBs between cervical root emergence and Erb’s point (prolonged motor root conduction time. In all the patients T2-weighted MRI revealed increased signal intensity in at least one cervical root, truncus or fasciculus of brachial plexus. Conclusion. We found clinical correlation between muscle weakness

  18. THE PHYSICAL ORIGIN AND THE DIAGNOSTIC POTENTIAL OF THE SCATTERING POLARIZATION IN THE Li I RESONANCE DOUBLET AT 6708 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belluzzi, Luca; Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio; Trujillo Bueno, Javier

    2009-01-01

    High-sensitivity measurements of the linearly polarized solar limb spectrum produced by scattering processes in quiet regions of the solar atmosphere showed that the Q/I profile of the lithium doublet at 6708 A has an amplitude ∼10 -4 and a curious three-peak structure, qualitatively similar to that found and confirmed by many observers in the Na I D 2 line. Given that a precise measurement of the scattering polarization profile of the lithium doublet lies at the limit of the present observational possibilities, it is worthwhile to clarify the physical origin of the observed polarization, its diagnostic potential, and what kind of Q/I shapes can be expected from theory. To this end, we have applied the quantum theory of atomic level polarization taking into account the hyperfine structure of the two stable isotopes of lithium, as well as the Hanle effect of a microturbulent magnetic field of arbitrary strength. We find that quantum interferences between the sublevels pertaining to the upper levels of the D 2 and D 1 line transitions of lithium do not cause any observable effect on the emergent Q/I profile. Our theoretical calculations show that only two Q/I peaks can be expected, with the strongest one caused by the D 2 line of 7 Li I and the weakest one due to the D 2 line of 6 Li I. Interestingly, we find that these two peaks in the theoretical Q/I profile stand out clearly only when the kinetic temperature of the thin atmospheric region that produces the emergent spectral line radiation is lower than 4000 K. The fact that such a thin atmospheric region is located around a height of 200 km in standard semi-empirical models, where the kinetic temperature is about 5000 K, leads us to suggest that the most likely Q/I profile produced by the Sun in the lithium doublet should be slightly asymmetric and dominated by the 7 Li I peak.

  19. Molecular markers for diagnostic cytology of neoplasms in the head region of the pancreas: mutation of K-ras and overexpression of the p53 protein product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Es, J. M.; Polak, M. M.; van den Berg, F. M.; Ramsoekh, T. B.; Craanen, M. E.; Hruban, R. H.; Offerhaus, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    To determine the potential efficiency of molecular markers specific for neoplastic change--mutations of the K-ras oncogene and the p53 tumour suppressor gene--in diagnosing pancreatic carcinoma. Archival cytology samples obtained from 17 patients with established pancreatic carcinoma were assayed

  20. Potential markers for early diagnostics of Colorectal cancer and Inflammatory bowel disease in humans : intestinal microorganisms and immune system (teammates or rivals)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, P.; Kučerová, Petra; Červinková, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2017), s. 59-64 E-ISSN 2560-8304 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1609 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : colorectal cancer * inflammatory bowel disease * immune markers Subject RIV: EC - Immunology OBOR OECD: Immunology

  1. A near infra-red video system as a protective diagnostic for electron cyclotron resonance heating operation in the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preynas, M.; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Reintrog, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Corre, Y.; Moncada, V.; Travere, J.-M. [IRFM, CEA-Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-11-15

    The Wendelstein 7-X stellarator is a large nuclear fusion device based at Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik in Greifswald in Germany. The main plasma heating system for steady state operation in W7-X is electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). During operation, part of plama facing components will be directly heated by the non-absorbed power of 1 MW rf beams of ECRH. In order to avoid damages of such components made of graphite tiles during the first operational phase, a near infra-red video system has been developed as a protective diagnostic for safe and secure ECRH operation. Both the mechanical design housing the camera and the optical system are very flexible and respect the requirements of steady state operation. The full system including data acquisition and control system has been successfully tested in the vacuum vessel, including on-line visualization and data storage of the four cameras equipping the ECRH equatorial launchers of W7-X.

  2. Diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of periosteal reactions in bone sarcomas using conventional radiography as the reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá Neto, José Luiz; Simão, Marcelo Novelino; Crema, Michel Daoud; Engel, Edgard Eduard; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting periosteal reactions and to compare MRI and conventional radiography (CR) in terms of the classification of periosteal reactions. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study of 42 consecutive patients (mean age, 22 years; 20 men) with a confirmed diagnosis of osteosarcoma or Ewing's sarcoma, MRI and CR images having been acquired pretreatment. Three blinded radiologists detected periosteal reactions and evaluated each periosteal reaction subtype in CR and MRI images: Codman's triangle; laminated; and spiculated. The CR was used as a benchmark to calculate the diagnostic performance. We used the kappa coefficient to assess interobserver reproducibility. A two-tailed Fisher's exact test was used in order to assess contingency between CR and MRI classifications. Results: In the detection of periosteal reactions, MRI showed high specificity, a high negative predictive value, and low-to-moderate sensitivity. For CR and for MRI, the interobserver agreement for periosteal reaction was almost perfect, whereas, for the classification of different subtypes of periosteal reaction, it was higher for the Codman's triangle subtype and lower for the spiculated subtype. There was no significant difference between MRI and CR in terms of the classifications (p < 0.05). Conclusion: We found no difference between MRI and CR in terms of their ability to classify periosteal reactions. MRI showed high specificity and almost perfect interobserver agreement for the detection of periosteal reactions. The interobserver agreement was variable for the different subtypes of periosteal reaction. PMID:28670029

  3. Diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of periosteal reactions in bone sarcomas using conventional radiography as the reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz de Sá Neto

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in detecting periosteal reactions and to compare MRI and conventional radiography (CR in terms of the classification of periosteal reactions. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study of 42 consecutive patients (mean age, 22 years; 20 men with a confirmed diagnosis of osteosarcoma or Ewing's sarcoma, MRI and CR images having been acquired pretreatment. Three blinded radiologists detected periosteal reactions and evaluated each periosteal reaction subtype in CR and MRI images: Codman's triangle; laminated; and spiculated. The CR was used as a benchmark to calculate the diagnostic performance. We used the kappa coefficient to assess interobserver reproducibility. A two-tailed Fisher's exact test was used in order to assess contingency between CR and MRI classifications. Results: In the detection of periosteal reactions, MRI showed high specificity, a high negative predictive value, and low-to-moderate sensitivity. For CR and for MRI, the interobserver agreement for periosteal reaction was almost perfect, whereas, for the classification of different subtypes of periosteal reaction, it was higher for the Codman's triangle subtype and lower for the spiculated subtype. There was no significant difference between MRI and CR in terms of the classifications (p < 0.05. Conclusion: We found no difference between MRI and CR in terms of their ability to classify periosteal reactions. MRI showed high specificity and almost perfect interobserver agreement for the detection of periosteal reactions. The interobserver agreement was variable for the different subtypes of periosteal reaction.

  4. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against glutamate carboxypeptidase II, the diagnostic and potential therapeutic prostate cancer marker, via the method of surface plasmon resonance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tykvart, Jan; Šácha, Pavel; Konvalinka, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 279, SI suppl. 1 (2012), s. 90-90 ISSN 1742-464X. [IUBMB Congress /22./ and FEBS Congress /37./. 04.09.2012-09.09.2012, Seville] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : glutamate carboxypeptidase II Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  5. Study of the Expression of Survivin & Its Splice Variants; ΔEx3, 2b and 3b as Diagnostic Molecular Markers in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Babaei

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Survivin is a new member of the Inhibitor Apotosis Protein family (IAP which plays an important role in the regulation of both cell cycle and apoptosis. Its distinct expression in tumor cells as compared to normal adult cells introduces Survivin as the fourth transcriptom demonstrated in tumors. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and scientist`s efforts to classify it has lead to various molecular subtypes and controversial results. Because of the high prevalence of these tumors and lack of suitable molecular markers for diagnosis and prognosis, there are ongoing efforts to find molecular markers which can distinguish nontumoral from tumor tissues. In this study we evaluate the potential usefulness of Survivin and its splice variants ΔEx3, 2b and 3b as molecular markers in breast cancer. Methods: We studied 18 tumor and 17 non tumor adjacent tissues. Transcription levels were measured by Semiquantitative Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR and normalized by ß2m as an internal control. Results: 1Survivin and its splice variants; Δex3, 2b and 3b showed differentially higher expression levels in tumors than adjacent normal tissues. 2 The expression levels of Survivin, Survivin-ΔEx3 and Survivin-3b were significantly correlated with the type of tumors. 3 Survivin-2b was expressed in a few samples. 4 Survivin-3b was detected only in tumor samples. Also, our results showed that ΔEx3 variant can be introduced as a dominant expressed variant in breast cancer. Conclusion: Our data indicated that the expression of Survivin, Survivin ∆Ex3 and especially, Survivin-3b were correlated with cancerous nature of tumors and Survivin-∆Ex3 was the most common expressed variant in breast carcinomas. These results besides confirming the potential usefulness of Survivin and its splice variants as molecular markers in breast cancer, demonstrated the role of the gene and its splice variants, especially 3b

  6. A novel diagnostic parameter, foraminal stenotic ratio using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging, as a discriminator for surgery in symptomatic lumbar foraminal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kentaro; Abe, Yuichiro; Satoh, Shigenobu; Yanagibashi, Yasushi; Hyakumachi, Takahiko; Masuda, Takeshi

    2017-08-01

    No previous studies have reported the radiological features of patients requiring surgery in symptomatic lumbar foraminal stenosis (LFS). This study aims to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of a novel technique, foraminal stenotic ratio (FSR), using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging for LFS at L5-S by comparing patients requiring surgery, patients with successful conservative treatment, and asymptomatic patients. This is a retrospective radiological comparative study. We assessed the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results of 84 patients (168 L5-S foramina) aged ≥40 years without L4-L5 lumbar spinal stenosis. The foramina were divided into three groups following standardized treatment: stenosis requiring surgery (20 foramina), stenosis with successful conservative treatment (26 foramina), and asymptomatic stenotic foramen (122 foramina). Foraminal stenotic ratio was defined as the ratio of the length of the stenosis to the length of the foramen on the reconstructed oblique coronal image, referring to perineural fat obliterations in whole oblique sagittal images. We also evaluated the foraminal nerve angle and the minimum nerve diameter on reconstructed images, and the Lee classification on conventional T1 images. The differences in each MRI parameter between the groups were investigated. To predict which patients require surgery, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted after calculating the area under the ROC curve. The FSR showed a stepwise increase when comparing asymptomatic, conservative, and surgical groups (mean, 8.6%, 38.5%, 54.9%, respectively). Only FSR was significantly different between the surgical and conservative groups (p=.002), whereas all parameters were significantly different comparing the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. The ROC curve showed that the area under the curve for FSR was 0.742, and the optimal cutoff value for FSR for predicting a surgical requirement in symptomatic patients was 50

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging obtained after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in predicting the local tumor stage and circumferential resection margin status of rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Hoon; Kim, Young Hoon; Lee, Yoon Jin; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kang, Sung Bum; Kim, Duck Woo; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Hye Seung [Dept. of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Min [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    To measure the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) obtained after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with rectal cancer for a prediction of the local tumor stage and circumferential resection margin (CRM). Two independent radiologists reviewed CT and MRI obtained after neoadjuvant CRT. The accuracy of the local tumor staging and the diagnostic performance for the prediction of CRM involvement were calculated. The agreement between the measurements of the distance to potential CRM on both imaging modalities and the histopathology findings was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. 57 patients (mean age, 59.2 years; 24 females) were included. The accuracy of T and N staging were 43.9% (95% confidence interval, 30.8-57.7%) and 77.2% (64.2-87.3%) on CT and 63.2% (49.4-75.6%) and 77.2% (64.2-87.3%) on MRI for Observer 1. The accuracy of T and N staging were 54.4% (40.7-67.7%) and 77.2% (64.2-87.3%) on CT and 68.4% (54.7-80.1%) and 80.7% (68.1-90.0%) on MRI for Observer 2. Sensitivity and specificity on CRM involvement were 83.3% (43.7-97.0%) and 88.2% (76.6-94.5%) on CT and 100% (61.0-100%) and 90.2% (79.0-95.7%) on MRI for Observer 1. Sensitivity and specificity on CRM involvement were 66.7% (30.0-90.3%) and 88.2% (76.7-94.5%) on CT and 100% (61.0-100%) and 90.2% (79.0-95.7%) on MRI for Observer 2. Bland-Altman plots showed wide discrepancies between measurements of the distance to CRM on each CT and MRI and those on histopathology findings. CT and MRI showed limited performance in predicting the local tumor staging and CRM involvement in patients with neoadjuvant CRT although MRI tended to show a better performance than CT.

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging obtained after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in predicting the local tumor stage and circumferential resection margin status of rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Hoon; Kim, Young Hoon; Lee, Yoon Jin; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kang, Sung Bum; Kim, Duck Woo; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Hye Seung; Lee, Sang Min

    2014-01-01

    To measure the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) obtained after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with rectal cancer for a prediction of the local tumor stage and circumferential resection margin (CRM). Two independent radiologists reviewed CT and MRI obtained after neoadjuvant CRT. The accuracy of the local tumor staging and the diagnostic performance for the prediction of CRM involvement were calculated. The agreement between the measurements of the distance to potential CRM on both imaging modalities and the histopathology findings was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. 57 patients (mean age, 59.2 years; 24 females) were included. The accuracy of T and N staging were 43.9% (95% confidence interval, 30.8-57.7%) and 77.2% (64.2-87.3%) on CT and 63.2% (49.4-75.6%) and 77.2% (64.2-87.3%) on MRI for Observer 1. The accuracy of T and N staging were 54.4% (40.7-67.7%) and 77.2% (64.2-87.3%) on CT and 68.4% (54.7-80.1%) and 80.7% (68.1-90.0%) on MRI for Observer 2. Sensitivity and specificity on CRM involvement were 83.3% (43.7-97.0%) and 88.2% (76.6-94.5%) on CT and 100% (61.0-100%) and 90.2% (79.0-95.7%) on MRI for Observer 1. Sensitivity and specificity on CRM involvement were 66.7% (30.0-90.3%) and 88.2% (76.7-94.5%) on CT and 100% (61.0-100%) and 90.2% (79.0-95.7%) on MRI for Observer 2. Bland-Altman plots showed wide discrepancies between measurements of the distance to CRM on each CT and MRI and those on histopathology findings. CT and MRI showed limited performance in predicting the local tumor staging and CRM involvement in patients with neoadjuvant CRT although MRI tended to show a better performance than CT

  9. Diagnostic performance of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging fusion images of gynecological malignant tumors. Comparison with positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajo, Kazuya; Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Inoue, Atsuo

    2010-01-01

    We compared the diagnostic accuracy of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) and PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fusion images for gynecological malignancies. A total of 31 patients with gynecological malignancies were enrolled. FDG-PET images were fused to CT, T1- and T2-weighted images (T1WI, T2WI). PET-MRI fusion was performed semiautomatically. We performed three types of evaluation to demonstrate the usefulness of PET/MRI fusion images in comparison with that of inline PET/CT as follows: depiction of the uterus and the ovarian lesions on CT or MRI mapping images (first evaluation); additional information for lesion localization with PET and mapping images (second evaluation); and the image quality of fusion on interpretation (third evaluation). For the first evaluation, the score for T2WI (4.68±0.65) was significantly higher than that for CT (3.54±1.02) or T1WI (3.71±0.97) (P<0.01). For the second evaluation, the scores for the localization of FDG accumulation showing that T2WI (2.74±0.57) provided significantly more additional information for the identification of anatomical sites of FDG accumulation than did CT (2.06±0.68) or T1WI (2.23±0.61) (P<0.01). For the third evaluation, the three-point rating scale for the patient group as a whole demonstrated that PET/T2WI (2.72±0.54) localized the lesion significantly more convincingly than PET/CT (2.23±0.50) or PET/T1WI (2.29±0.53) (P<0.01). PET/T2WI fusion images are superior for the detection and localization of gynecological malignancies. (author)

  10. Injury of the posterior ligamentous complex of the thoracolumbar spine: a prospective evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Alexander R; Rihn, Jeffrey A; Saravanja, Davor; Anderson, David G; Hilibrand, Alan S; Albert, Todd J; Fehlings, Michael G; Morrison, William; Flanders, Adam E; France, John C; Arnold, Paul; Anderson, Paul A; Friel, Brian; Malfair, David; Street, John; Kwon, Brian; Paquette, Scott; Boyd, Michael; Dvorak, Marcel F S; Fisher, Charles

    2009-11-01

    Prospective diagnostic imaging study. To determine the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing injury of the posterior ligamentous complex (PLC) in patients with thoracolumbar trauma. Treatment decisions in thoracolumbar injury patients are currently based on the status of the PLC. It is, therefore, important to understand the accuracy of MRI in diagnosing varying degrees of PLC injury. Prior studies report that MRI is up to 100% sensitive for diagnosing PCL injury. Patients with an acute injury from T1 to L3 who required posterior surgery were prospectively studied. A musculoskeletal radiologist, based on the preoperative MRI findings, characterized each of the 6 components of the PLC as intact, incompletely disrupted, or disrupted. During the surgical procedure, the surgeon identified each component of the PLC as intact, incompletely disrupted, or disrupted. The radiologist's interpretation and surgical findings were compared. Forty-two patients with 62 levels of injury were studied. There were 33 males (78.6%) and 9 females (21.4%), and the average age was 35.7 years. According to the kappa score, there was a moderate level of agreement between the radiologist's interpretation and the intraoperative findings for all PLC components except the thoracolumbar fascia, for which there was slight agreement. The sensitivity for the various PLC components ranged from 79% (left facet capsule) to 90% (interspinous ligament). The specificity ranged from 53% (thoracolumbar fascia) to 65% (ligamentum flavum). There was less agreement between the radiologist and surgeon for the patients with less severe neurologic compromise, i.e., those patients with an AIS grade of either D or E. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI for diagnosing injury of the PLC are lower than previously reported in the literature. The integrity of the PLC as determined by MRI should not be used in isolation to determine treatment.

  11. Diagnostic and prognostic value of right ventricular strain in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and relatively preserved functional capacity studied with echocardiography and magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Junior, Augusto Alberto; Ota-Arakaki, Jaquelina Sonoe; Ramos, Roberta Pulcheri; Uellendahl, Marly; Mancuso, Frederico José Neves; Gil, Manuel Adan; Fischer, Cláudio Henrique; Moises, Valdir Ambrosio; de Camargo Carvalho, Antonio Carlos; Campos, Orlando

    2017-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction harbingers adverse prognosis in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Although conventional two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) is limited for RV systolic function quantitation, RV strain can be a useful tool. The diagnostic and prognostic impact of 2DE speckle-tracking RV longitudinal strain was evaluated, including other 2DE systolic indexes, in a group of PAH patients without severe impairment of functional capacity, chronic pulmonary thromboembolism or left ventricular dysfunction. Sixty-six group I PAH patients, 67 % NYHA functional class I or II (none in IV) were studied by 2DE to obtain: RV fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, RV myocardial performance index, tissue Doppler tricuspid annulus systolic velocity. Global, free wall (RVFreeWSt) and septal RV longitudinal systolic strain were obtained. RV ejection fraction by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR-RVEF) was also assessed. All patients were followed up to 3.9 years (mean 3.3 years). Combined endpoints were hospitalization for worsening PAH or cardiovascular death. Among all the 2DE indexes of RV systolic function, RVFreeWSt exhibited the best correlation with CMR-RVEF (r = 0.83; p < 0.005). Combined endpoints occurred in 15 (22.7 %) patients (6 hospitalizations and 9 deaths). Multivariate analysis identified RVFreeWSt ≤-14 % as the only 2DE independent variable associated with combined endpoints [HR 4.66 (1.25-17.37); p < 0.05]. We conclude that RVFreeWSt may be a suitable non-geometric 2DE surrogate of CMR-RVEF in PAH patients, constituting a powerful independent predictor of long-term outcome in this cohort with relatively preserved functional capacity.

  12. The diagnostic value of magnetic resonance arthrography of the shoulder in detection and grading of SLAP lesions: Comparison with arthroscopic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Mohammed Farghally; Youssef, Ahmed Omar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to determine the usefulness of magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) in diagnosis and grading of superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesions of the Glenoid Labrum Compared with surgery Material and methods: This was a prospective study including fifty nine clinically diagnosed SLAP patients. The study was done during the period from January 2008 to June 2010. All patients were submitted to history taking, clinical examination and conventional MRI examination of the shoulder, MRA was done in patients with negative conventional MRI, all of these patients underwent arthroscopy for diagnosis wither open or arthroscopy for diagnosis and treatment and results were compared with MRA findings. Main outcome measures: Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and overall accuracy of MR arthrography in detection and grading of SLAP lesions of the gelnoid labrum. Results: Out of fifty nine patients, 25 patients had positive MR findings in conventional MRI, and 34 patients had negative MR findings, who underwent MR arthrography; 10 out of them had normal arthrogram (only 6 of them underwent arthroscopy), 22 had SLAP (superior labrum anterior to posterior) lesions, one had Bankart's lesion and one had internal impingement syndrome. These results were compared with arthroscopy results. The overall sensitivity of MRA in detection of SLAP lesions was 90% while the specificity was 50%, negative predictive value (NPV) was 66.6% and positive predicative value (PPV) was 81.8%. MRA and arthroscopy results were concurrent in 79.3% patients. Conclusion: MR arthrography is a sensitive minimally invasive technique for detection and grading of SLAP lesions, it can help in avoiding patients unnecessary diagnostic arthroscopy

  13. The diagnostic value of magnetic resonance arthrography of the shoulder in detection and grading of SLAP lesions: Comparison with arthroscopic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Mohammed Farghally, E-mail: Mohammed_amin37@yahoo.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis ElMinya University, ElMinya High Road, ElMinya (Egypt); Youssef, Ahmed Omar [Department of Orthropedic Surgery El Minya University, ElMinya (Egypt)

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to determine the usefulness of magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) in diagnosis and grading of superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesions of the Glenoid Labrum Compared with surgery Material and methods: This was a prospective study including fifty nine clinically diagnosed SLAP patients. The study was done during the period from January 2008 to June 2010. All patients were submitted to history taking, clinical examination and conventional MRI examination of the shoulder, MRA was done in patients with negative conventional MRI, all of these patients underwent arthroscopy for diagnosis wither open or arthroscopy for diagnosis and treatment and results were compared with MRA findings. Main outcome measures: Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and overall accuracy of MR arthrography in detection and grading of SLAP lesions of the gelnoid labrum. Results: Out of fifty nine patients, 25 patients had positive MR findings in conventional MRI, and 34 patients had negative MR findings, who underwent MR arthrography; 10 out of them had normal arthrogram (only 6 of them underwent arthroscopy), 22 had SLAP (superior labrum anterior to posterior) lesions, one had Bankart's lesion and one had internal impingement syndrome. These results were compared with arthroscopy results. The overall sensitivity of MRA in detection of SLAP lesions was 90% while the specificity was 50%, negative predictive value (NPV) was 66.6% and positive predicative value (PPV) was 81.8%. MRA and arthroscopy results were concurrent in 79.3% patients. Conclusion: MR arthrography is a sensitive minimally invasive technique for detection and grading of SLAP lesions, it can help in avoiding patients unnecessary diagnostic arthroscopy.

  14. Diagnostic value of the nerve root sedimentation sign, a radiological sign using magnetic resonance imaging, for detecting lumbar spinal stenosis: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liangming; Chen, Ruiqiang; Xie, Peigen; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Yang; Rong, Limin [Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Spine Surgery, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-11-28

    This study aimed to determine the diagnostic value of the nerve root sedimentation sign, a relatively new radiological sign using magnetic resonance imaging, for diagnosing lumbar spinal stenosis. The literature search was based on PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database up to March 2014. A total of 120 articles were identified. Seven studies involving 1,182 patients were included. The quality of the methodology of the seven studies was good. Overall, the pooled weighted value showed that the sedimentation sign had moderate sensitivity of 0.80 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.77-0.83] and high specificity of 0.96 (95 % CI 0.94-0.98). The area under the curve was 0.76. Subgroup analysis showed that the degree of morphological spinal stenosis was responsible for the heterogeneity. In the patients with severe morphological lumbar spinal stenosis, the sedimentation sign had even higher sensitivity and specificity: 0.899 (95 % CI 0.87-0.92) and 0.99 (95 % CI 0.98-1.00), respectively. The area under the curve was 0.96. In the patients with lumbar spinal stenosis without definition of morphological stenosis, there was a notable threshold effect and significant heterogeneity. The area under the curve was 0.63. Current evidence suggests that the sedimentation sign has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing severe lumbar spinal stenosis. Its performance in diagnosing moderate and mild spinal stenosis, however, has yet to be corroborated in properly designed studies. (orig.)

  15. Diagnostic value of cerebrospinal fluid cytology in comparison with tumor marker activity in central nervous system metastases secondary to breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, F; Bjerregaard, B; Sölétormos, G

    1993-01-01

    : Cytology and activity of the tumor markers tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) and creatine kinase-BB isoenzyme (CK-BB) were evaluated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 71 consecutive patients with breast cancer suspected for CNS metastases. RESULTS: Forty-three patients had no CNS metastases, 12 patients...... (Spearmans-Rho, 0.49; P Cytologic evaluation of CSF obtained by lumbar punctures is a reliable procedure. In CSF from ICV reservoirs, cytologic evaluation is of limited use, but CK-BB and TPA is of potential value....

  16. Serum markers of liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne Skovgård; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tougas, Gervais

    2010-01-01

    -epitopes, may be targeted for novel biochemical marker development in fibrosis. We used the recently proposed BIPED system (Burden of disease, Investigative, Prognostic, Efficacy and Diagnostic) to characterise present serological markers. METHODS: Pubmed was search for keywords; Liver fibrosis, neo......, a systematic use of the neo-epitope approach, i.e. the quantification of peptide epitopes generated from enzymatic cleavage of proteins during extracellular remodeling, may prove productive in the quest to find new markers of liver fibrosis....

  17. [Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pathomechanism, new diagnostic markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieć-Wilk, Beata; Klupa, Tomasz; Dembińska-Kieć, Aldona

    2010-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complex of a wide spectrum of liver pathology--from steatosis alone, to cirrhosis and liver cancer. The pathogenic concept of NAFLD covers overnutrition with fatty acids, underactivity. Insulin resistance is believed to play the main role in this process. NAFLD is mostly related to visceral adiposity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes melitus. The presented work is a review of in vitro and in vivo modern studies, as well as clinical observations on molecular mechanisms leading to development and progress of NAFLD. Up till today their is no treatment od NAFLD, and this pathology is not benign--it may lead to patients' death in 10 years. The clinical approach to NAFLD is prevention of it's development. The manuscript is a review of new biochemical markers allowing for early detection of metabolic disorders leading to NAFLD development, thus to sufficient prevention of this pathology in patients.

  18. Diagnostic utility of procalcitonin versus C-reactive protein as markers for early-onset neonatal sepsis at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amponsah, Seth Kwabena; Adjei, George Obeng; Sulley, Abdul Malik

    2017-01-01

    '' group compared to 31.6% (6/19) in the ''probable group'' (p5 mg/L was 54.4% (12/22) in the ''highly probable'' group compared to 26.3% (5/19) in the ''probable group'' (p = 0.07). The receiver operator characteristics for PCT and CRP were; sensitivity (87.5% vrs 50......%), specificity (63.0% vrs 72.2%), positive predictive value (44.1% vrs 37.5%) and negative predictive value (93.8% vrs 81.3%), respectively. Conclusion: PCT was a better predictive marker for neonatal sepsis within the first 12 hours of life than CRP in this setting, however, its low specificity relative to CRP...

  19. Circulating Plasma Levels of MicroRNA-21 and MicroRNA-221 Are Potential Diagnostic Markers for Primary Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemeny, Nancy; Kingham, T. Peter; Allen, Peter J.; D’Angelica, Michael I.; DeMatteo, Ronald P.; Betel, Doron; Klimstra, David; Jarnagin, William R.; Ventura, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potential biomarkers in various malignancies. We aim to characterize miRNA expression in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and identify circulating plasma miRNAs with potential diagnostic and prognostic utility. Methods Using deep-sequencing techniques, miRNA expression between tumor samples and non-neoplastic liver parenchyma were compared. Overexpressed miRNAs were measured in plasma from an independent cohort of patients with cholangiocarcinoma using RT-qPCR and compared with that healthy volunteers. The discriminatory ability of the evaluated plasma miRNAs between patients and controls was evaluated with receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results Small RNAs from 12 ICC and 11 tumor-free liver samples were evaluated. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using the miRNA expression data showed clear grouping of ICC vs. non-neoplastic liver parenchyma. We identified 134 down-regulated and 128 upregulated miRNAs. Based on overexpression and high fold-change, miR21, miR200b, miR221, and miR34c were measured in plasma from an independent cohort of patients with ICC (n = 25) and healthy controls (n = 7). Significant overexpression of miR-21 and miR-221 was found in plasma from ICC patients. Furthermore, circulating miR-21 demonstrated a high discriminatory ability between patients with ICC and healthy controls (AUC: 0.94). Conclusion Among the differentially expressed miRNAs in ICC, miR-21 and miR-221 are overexpressed and detectable in the circulation. Plasma expression levels of these miRNAs, particularly miR-21, accurately differentiates patients with ICC from healthy controls and could potentially serve as adjuncts in diagnosis. Prospective validation and comparison with other hepatobiliary malignancies is required to establish their potential role as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. PMID:27685844

  20. Clinical characteristics and serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide as a diagnostic marker of Kawasaki disease in infants younger than 3 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyun Kyung; Lee, Do Kyung; Kwon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Hae Soon; Sohn, Sejung; Hong, Young Mi

    2014-08-01

    The incidence of Kawasaki disease (KD) is rare in young infants (less than 3 months of age), who present with only a few symptoms that fulfill the clinical diagnostic criteria. The diagnosis for KD can therefore be delayed, leading to a high risk of cardiac complications. We examined the clinical characteristics and measured the serum levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels of these patients for assessing its value in the early detection of KD. We retrospectively reviewed the data of young infants diagnosed with KD from 2004 to 2012. The control group included 20 hospitalized febrile patients. Laboratory data, including NT-proBNP were obtained for each patient in both groups. Incomplete KD was observed in 21/24 patients (87.5%). The mean fever duration on admission was 1.36±1.0 days in the KD group. Common symptoms included erythema at the site of Bacille Calmette-Guerin inoculation (70.8%), skin rash (50.0%), changes of oropharyngeal mucosa (29.1%), and cervical lymphadenopathy (20.8%). The mean number of major diagnostic criteria fulfilled was 2.8±1.4. Five KD patients (20.8%) had only one symptom matching these criteria. The incidence of coronary artery complications was 12.5%. The mean serum NT-proBNP level in the acute phase, in the KD and control groups, were 4,159±3,714 pg/mL and 957±902 pg/mL, respectively, which decreased significantly in the convalescent phase. Incomplete KD was observed in 87.5% patients. Serum NT-proBNP might be a valuable biomarker for the early detection of KD in febrile infants aged <3 months.

  1. [Detecting the markers of HIV infection with the new enzyme immunoassay diagnostic kit "DS-EIA-HIV-AB-AG-SPECTRUM" at the laboratories of AIDS prevention and control centers in the Volga Federal District].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, N I; Peksheva, O Iu

    2009-03-01

    A possibility of simultaneously detecting specific antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) at lower concentrations than those by immunoblotting (IB), and well as an additional possibility of earlier diagnosis of HIV infection, by identifying the HIV-1 antigen p24 lay the foundation of the "DS-EIA-HIV-AB-AG-SPECTRUM" test system made by OOO "Research-and-Production Association "Diagnosticheskiye Sistemy" (Diagnostic Systems). These peculiarities were compared with those of IB at a number of laboratories of AIDS prevention and control centers in the Volga Federal District, by using native serum/plasma samples and a specially designed control panel. The analysis of the conducted studies to identify HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies and HIV-1 antigen p24 in 65 plasma/serum samples in the "DS-EIA-HIV-AB-AG-SPECTRUM" and "LIA-HIV-1/2" (OOO "Niarmedik plus") test systems while confirming the positive result indicated agreement in 57 (87.7%) cases. The diagnostic possibilities of the "DS-EIA-HIV-AB-AG-SPECTRUM" test system versus the "New Lav-Blot I" one to make a laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection were studied. Irrefragable answers as to the availability of HIV-1 markers in the study serum samples on the enciphered panel were provided by IB in 73.3% of cases and EIA in 92%.

  2. Magnetic resonance in the diagnostic imaging study of mesial temporal sclerosis; Diagnostico por imagen con resonancia magnetica de la esclerosis temporal mesial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, E; Sanchez, J C; Rodriguez, I; Altuzarra, A; Machado, F [Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves. Granada (Spain); Aguilar, D [Hospital Clinico Universitario San Cecilio. Granada (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) consists of hippocampal atrophy and gliosis and is the most common cause of temporal lobe epilepsy. The objective of the authors was to establish a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol for its diagnosis. A prospective study was carried out in 72 patients with drug resistant complex partial seizures (42 women and 30 men ranging in age from 6 to 66 year: mean: 30 years). Using a 1.5-Tesla magnet, paracoronal sections were made in hippocampi for T1-weighted inversion-recovery images and volume measurements, fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) and T2 relaxometry. A control group of 30 health volunteers was included in the study. MTS was considered to be indicated by the presence of atrophy and hyperintensity in hippocampi on T2-weighted images. There were no differences among the hippocampi of the healthy individuals. The confidence intervals (mean{+-} 1.96 SD) were 4169 mm''3-5911 mm''3 for volume of right side, 4097 mm''3-5940 mm''3 for volume of left side and 98-113 ms for T2 relaxation time. MTS was detected in 40 patients (55.5%): 23 cases involving the left side, 13 involving the right and 4 cases of bilateral asymmetric involvement. The 95% confidence intervals for the diagnostic validity of the results (sensitivity/specificity) were (88.8%-97.2%)/(87.6%-96.4%) for T1 volumetry, (88.8%-97.2%)(95.7%-100.3%) for FLAIR and (85.4%-96.6%)/(85.4%-96.6%) for T2 relaxometry. In 5 cases of MTS, astrophy of other extra hippocampal structures was also observed, and MTS was associated with an extra hippocampal lesion (dual pathology), especially neurona migration disorders, in 8 patients. Seventeen patients (23.5%) presented lesions without MTS (tumors, cortical dysplasias and heterotopias) and there was no MRI evidence of anomalies in 15 (21%). Twenty-five patients underwent surgical treatment: 20 with MTS (19 diagnosed according to MRI and one in whom there had been no abnormal findings), 4 with tumors and 1 with a ballooned

  3. Magnetic resonance in the diagnostic imaging study of mesial temporal sclerosis; Diagnostico por imagen con resonancia magnetica de la esclerosis temporal mesial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, E.; Sanchez, J. C.; Rodriguez, I.; Altuzarra, A.; Machado, F. [Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves. Granada (Spain); Aguilar, D. [Hospital Clinico Universitario San Cecilio. Granada (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) consists of hippocampal atrophy and gliosis and is the most common cause of temporal lobe epilepsy. The objective of the authors was to establish a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol for its diagnosis. A prospective study was carried out in 72 patients with drug resistant complex partial seizures (42 women and 30 men ranging in age from 6 to 66 year: mean: 30 years). Using a 1.5-Tesla magnet, paracoronal sections were made in hippocampi for T1-weighted inversion-recovery images and volume measurements, fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) and T2 relaxometry. A control group of 30 health volunteers was included in the study. MTS was considered to be indicated by the presence of atrophy and hyperintensity in hippocampi on T2-weighted images. There were no differences among the hippocampi of the healthy individuals. The confidence intervals (mean{+-} 1.96 SD) were 4169 mm''3-5911 mm''3 for volume of right side, 4097 mm''3-5940 mm''3 for volume of left side and 98-113 ms for T2 relaxation time. MTS was detected in 40 patients (55.5%): 23 cases involving the left side, 13 involving the right and 4 cases of bilateral asymmetric involvement. The 95% confidence intervals for the diagnostic validity of the results (sensitivity/specificity) were (88.8%-97.2%)/(87.6%-96.4%) for T1 volumetry, (88.8%-97.2%)(95.7%-100.3%) for FLAIR and (85.4%-96.6%)/(85.4%-96.6%) for T2 relaxometry. In 5 cases of MTS, astrophy of other extra hippocampal structures was also observed, and MTS was associated with an extra hippocampal lesion (dual pathology), especially neurona migration disorders, in 8 patients. Seventeen patients (23.5%) presented lesions without MTS (tumors, cortical dysplasias and heterotopias) and there was no MRI evidence of anomalies in 15 (21%). Twenty-five patients underwent surgical treatment: 20 with MTS (19 diagnosed according to MRI and one in whom there had been no abnormal findings

  4. The Diagnostic Value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in Association with Serum Tumor Marker Assays in Breast Cancer Recurrence and Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. After initial treatment of breast cancer (BC, monitoring locoregional recurrence and distant metastases is a great clinical challenge. Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of PET/CT in association with serum tumor makers in BC follow-up. Methods. Twenty-six women with a history of modified radical mastectomy were evaluated by 18F-FDG PET/CT. The results of PET/CT were compared with those of conventional imaging techniques (CITs (including mammography, chest radiography, CT, MRI, ultrasound, and bone scintigraphy. Serum tumor markers of CEA, CA 125, and CA 15-3 in the BC patients were also analyzed in association with the results of PET/CT. Results. Compared with CITs, PET/CT was more sensitive to detect the malignant foci and had better patient-based sensitivity and specificity. The mean CA 15-3 serum level was significantly higher in the confirmed positive patients of PET/CT results than in the confirmed negative ones, while there were no significant differences in the serum levels of CEA and CA 125 of both groups. Conclusion. PET/CT is a highly efficient tool for BC follow-up compared with CITs. The high serum levels of CA 15-3 in confirmed positive PET/CT patients indicated the clinical value of CA 15-3 in BC follow-up.

  5. Usefulness of Cardiac MIBG Scintigraphy, Olfactory Testing and Substantia Nigra Hyperechogenicity as Additional Diagnostic Markers for Distinguishing between Parkinson's Disease and Atypical Parkinsonian Syndromes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Fujita

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the utility of the combined use of cardiac 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG scintigraphy, olfactory testing, and substantia nigra (SN hyperechogenicity on transcranial sonography (TCS in differentiating Parkinson's disease (PD from atypical parkinsonian syndromes (APSs, such as multiple system atrophy (MSA and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP.Cardiac MIBG scintigraphy, card-type odor identification testing (Open Essence (OE, Wako, Japan, and TCS were performed with 101 patients with PD and 38 patients with APSs (MSA and PSP. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used to assess the sensitivity and specificity of these batteries for diagnosing PD from APSs. The diagnostic accuracy of the three tests was also assessed among patients at the early disease stage (drug-naïve patients with a disease duration of 3 years or less.In differentiating PD from APSs, the area under the ROC curve was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.65-0.83, 0.8 (95% CI, 0.73-0.87, and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.67-0.82 for TCS, cardiac MIBG scintigraphy, and olfactory testing, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 53.1% and 91.7%, respectively, for TCS, 70.3% and 86.8%, respectively, for cardiac MIBG scintigraphy, 58.4% and 76.3%, respectively, for OE. Among early-stage patients, sensitivity and specificity were 50.0% and 93.8%, respectively, for TCS, 57.1% and 87.5%, respectively, for cardiac MIBG scintigraphy, and 54.8% and 79.2%, respectively, for OE. At least one positive result from 3 tests improved sensitivity (86.1% but decreased specificity (63.2%. In contrast, at least 2 positive results from 3 tests had good discrimination for both early-stage patients (50.0% sensitivity and 93.8% specificity and patients overall (57.8% sensitivity and 95.8% specificity. Positive results for all 3 tests yielded 100% specificity but low sensitivity (25%.At least 2 positive results from among TCS, cardiac MIBG scintigraphy, and olfactory

  6. CD147 overexpression may serve as a promising diagnostic and prognostic marker for gastric cancer: evidence from original research and literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chenghao; Dong, Xiaoxia; Wu, Junbo; Xiao, Feifan; Shang, Jun; Liu, Liang; Yang, Yuan; Luo, Dongmei; Li, Qiuting; Song, Qian; Yang, Jingcheng; Zhang, Chengdong; Shen, Li; Luo, Zhiguo

    2017-05-09

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. The expression of CD147 protein is associated with GC. However, the clinical role of CD147 in GC has not been investigated extensively. Hence, we focused on studying the association between the expression of CD147 and clinicopathological features of GC patients in this study. Firstly, sixteen publications (1752 cases and 391 controls) and one from our own original research (143 cases) were included in the meta-analysis to obtain a more precise estimation of the diagnostic value of CD147. The results showed that expression rate of CD147 in the GC group is higher than that in control group. Moreover, gender, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, and depth of invasion are all associated with CD147. Further, sections of gastric tissue from 143 cases underwent immunohistochemical staining for evaluation of CD147 protein expression. Our retrospective analysis demonstrated CD147 protein expression was significantly associated with clinical N stage, and tumor stage. Meanwhile, it can also serve as an independent prognosis biomarker. In conclusion, our results support the role of CD147 as a good indicator of diagnosis and prognosis.

  7. Role of alpha-crystallin, early-secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein and culture filtrate protein 10 as novel diagnostic markers in osteoarticular tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Rizvi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarticular tuberculosis constitutes about 3% of all tuberculosis cases. Early and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis is a challenging problem especially in the case of osteoarticular tuberculosis owing to the lower number of bacilli. However, an accurate and timely diagnosis of the disease results in an improved efficacy of the given treatment. Besides the limitations of conventional methods, nowadays molecular diagnostic techniques have emerged as a major breakthrough for the early diagnosis of tuberculosis with high sensitivity and specificity. Alpha-crystallin is a dominantly expressed protein responsible for the long viability of the pathogen during the latent phase under certain stress conditions such as hypoxia and nitric oxide stress. Two other proteins—early secreted antigenic target-6 and culture filtrate protein-10—show high expression in the active infective phase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this article, we focus on the different proteins expressed dominantly in latent/active tuberculosis, and which may be further used as prognostic biomarkers for diagnosing tuberculosis, both in latent and active phases.

  8. Comparative analysis of the diagnostic and prognostic value of exercise ECG and thallium-201 scintigraphic markers of myocardial ischemia in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    A considerable amount of data now exists that indicates that exercise ECG--due to its suboptimal sensitivity and specificity--has limited diagnostic and prognostic value in asymptomatic subjects, patients with chest pain of unclear etiology or those with chronic stable angina pectoris, and in patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction. Because of this and the well-recognized advantages of thallium-201 scintigraphy, there appears to be a strong rationale for recommending exercise perfusion imaging, rather than exercise ECG alone, as the preferred method for detecting CAD and staging its severity. This recommendation seems justified given the fact that (1) thallium-201 scintigraphy is far more sensitive and specific in detecting myocardial ischemia than exercise testing; (2) unlike stress ECG, thallium-201 scintigraphy can localize ischemia to a specific area of areas subtended by a specific coronary artery; and (3) thallium-201 scintigraphy has been shown to be more reliable to risk stratification of individual patients than exercise testing alone. The more optimal prognostic efficiency of thallium-201 scintigraphy is due, in part, to the fact that the error rate in falsely classifying patients as low-risk is substantially and significantly smaller with thallium-201 scintigraphy than with stress ECG. 52 references

  9. Artemisia umbelliformis Lam. and Génépi Liqueur: Volatile Profile as Diagnostic Marker for Geographic Origin and To Predict Liqueur Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggia, Lorenzo; Pignata, Giuseppe; Sgorbini, Barbara; Colombo, Maria Laura; Marengo, Arianna; Casale, Manuela; Nicola, Silvana; Bicchi, Carlo; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2017-04-05

    Artemisia umbelliformis, commonly known as "white génépi", is characterized by a volatile fraction rich in α- and β-thujones, two monoterpenoids; under European Union (EU) regulations these are limited to 35 mg/L in Artemisia-based beverages because of their recognized activity on the human central nervous system. This study reports the results of an investigation to define the geographical origin and thujone content of individual plants of A. umbelliformis from different geographical sites, cultivated experimentally at a single site, and to predict the thujone content in the resulting liqueurs through their volatile fraction. Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and non-separative HS-SPME-MS were used as analytical platforms to create a database suitable for chemometric description and prediction through linear discriminant analysis (LDA). HS-SPME-MS was applied to shorten analysis time. With both approaches, a diagnostic prediction of (i) plant geographical origin and (ii) thujone content of plant-related liqueurs could be made.

  10. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging as marker of synovial membrane regeneration and recurrence of synovitis after arthroscopic knee joint synovectomy: a one year follow up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Ejbjerg, B; Stoltenberg, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: By repeated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study synovial membrane regeneration and recurrence of synovitis after arthroscopic knee joint synovectomy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other (non-RA) causes of persistent knee joint synovitis. METHODS: Contrast enhanced...... at two months. No significant differences between volumes in RA and non-RA knees were seen. Synovial membrane volumes at two months were significantly inversely correlated with the duration of clinical remission, for all knees considered together (Spearman's correlation r(s)=-0.67; p

  11. A relationship between the integrated assessment of magnetic resonance imaging markers for cerebral small vessel disease and the clinical and functional status in the acute period of ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kulesh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD is the most common neurological pathological process and contributes to the process of aging and to the development of dementia and stroke. At the same time, the role of CSVD as a factor influencing the course of acute ischemic stroke (IS has been little studied. There is no generally accepted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scale for the integrated assessment of CSVD markers.Objective: to carry out an integrated assessment of the MRI manifestations of CSVD in acute ischemic stroke and to analyze a correlation of both individual markers and the final indicator with the clinical and functional status of patients.Patients and methods. 100 patients with acute IS were examined. All patients underwent standard clinical, laboratory and instrumental examinations, as well as brain MRI estimating the number of lacunae, visible perivascular spaces (PVSs and leukoaraiosis. The number of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs was additionally calculated in 57 patients. Integral scale scores were calculated by gradation and summation of four MRI markers of CSVD.Results. The patients with acute IS showed the high representativeness of individual markers for CSVD. The values of MRI markers for CSVD correlated with age, education level, and cardiovascular parameters in patients. An integrated CSVD severity assessment scale was developed. The overall manifestations of CSVD, which were assessed using this scale, were associated with the severity of a stenotic process in the brachycephalic arteries, with BP levels at admission, ejection fraction, hyperglycemia, and atherogenic index of blood lipids. The high CSVD score was also correlated with low mobility and more severe disability in patients being discharged from hospital. The high severity of CSVD was associated with lower neurological deficit regression during inpatient treatment. Subgroup analysis showed the greatest negative impact of CSVD on the severity of stroke in female patients

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with retrograde intralumen contrast enhancement of the rectum in diagnostics of rectovaginal fistulas after combination therapy of rectal cancer. Experience of application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usova, A.; Frolova, I.; Afanasev, S.; Tarasova, A.; Molchanov, S.

    2016-02-01

    Experiment of use of MRI in diagnostics of rectovaginal fistulas after combination therapy of rectal cancer is shown on clinical examples. We used retrograde contrasting of a rectum with 150ml ultrasonic gel to make MRI more informative in case of low diagnostic efficiency of ultrasound, colonoscopy and gynecological examination.

  13. Dengue Virus NS1 Protein as a Diagnostic Marker: Commercially Available ELISA and Comparison to qRT-PCR and Serological Diagnostic Assays Currently Used by the State of Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason H. Ambrose

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The proper management of patients infected with dengue virus requires early detection. Here, real-time molecular assays have proven useful but have limitations, whereas ELISAs that detect antibodies are still favored but results are obtained too late to be of clinical value. The production of DENV NS1 peaks early during infection and its detection can combine the advantages of both diagnostic approaches. Methods. This study compared assays currently used for detecting DENV infection at the Florida Department of Health including anti-DENV IgM and IgG ELISAs as well as qRT-PCR, against a commercially available DENV NS1 ELISA. These comparisons were made among a group of 21 human sera. Results. Nine of 14 (64.3% DENV qRT-PCR+ samples were also DENV NS1+. Interestingly, the 5 NS1− samples that were qRT-PCR+ were additionally IgM− and IgG+ suggesting a nonprimary infection. Compared to qRT-PCR, the NS1 assay had a sensitivity of 64.3%, specificity 100%, PPV of 100%, and NPV of 58.3%. Conclusions. The NS1 ELISA performed as expected in known DENV qRT-PCR+ samples; however negative NS1 results for qRT-PCR+ and IgG+ sera seemingly reduced the usefulness of the NS1 ELISA for nonprimary cases. We therefore conclude that diagnosis obtained via DENV NS1 ELISA deserves further investigation.

  14. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin -6 as diagnostic markers of diabetic complications in children with type I diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nashar, N.A.; Moawad, A.T.; Nassar, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    and those without complications and also when compared to controls. We can conclude that early detection of serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-6 and microalbuminuria in TIDM may be useful markers for early diagnosis of microvascular complications

  15. Plasma diagnostics discharge parameters and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Auciello, Orlando

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Diagnostics, Volume 1: Discharge Parameters and Chemistry covers seven chapters on the important diagnostic techniques for plasmas and details their use in particular applications. The book discusses optical diagnostic techniques for low pressure plasmas and plasma processing; plasma diagnostics for electrical discharge light sources; as well as Langmuir probes. The text also describes the mass spectroscopy of plasmas, microwave diagnostics, paramagnetic resonance diagnostics, and diagnostics in thermal plasma processing. Electrical engineers, nuclear engineers, microwave engineers, che

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Angus

    1990-01-01

    An assessment is made of the clinical benefits of expensive diagnostic technology, such as the magnetic resonance imaging. It is concluded that to most radiologists, magnetic resonance imaging has a definite place in the diagnostic scenario, especially for demonstrating central nervous system lesions in multiple sclerosis. While it is recognized that medical and financial resources are limited, it is emphasised that the cost to society must be balanced against the patient benefit. 17 refs

  17. Intravoxel Incoherent Motion and Quantitative Non-Gaussian Diffusion MR Imaging: Evaluation of the Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Several Markers of Malignant and Benign Breast Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iima, Mami; Kataoka, Masako; Kanao, Shotaro; Onishi, Natsuko; Kawai, Makiko; Ohashi, Akane; Sakaguchi, Rena; Toi, Masakazu; Togashi, Kaori

    2018-05-01

    Purpose To investigate the performance of integrated approaches that combined intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and non-Gaussian diffusion parameters compared with the Breast Imaging and Reporting Data System (BI-RADS) to establish multiparameter thresholds scores or probabilities by using Bayesian analysis to distinguish malignant from benign breast lesions and their correlation with molecular prognostic factors. Materials and Methods Between May 2013 and March 2015, 411 patients were prospectively enrolled and 199 patients (allocated to training [n = 99] and validation [n = 100] sets) were included in this study. IVIM parameters (flowing blood volume fraction [fIVIM] and pseudodiffusion coefficient [D*]) and non-Gaussian diffusion parameters (theoretical apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC] at b value of 0 sec/mm 2 [ADC 0 ] and kurtosis [K]) by using IVIM and kurtosis models were estimated from diffusion-weighted image series (16 b values up to 2500 sec/mm 2 ), as well as a synthetic ADC (sADC) calculated by using b values of 200 and 1500 (sADC 200-1500 ) and a standard ADC calculated by using b values of 0 and 800 sec/mm 2 (ADC 0-800 ). The performance of two diagnostic approaches (combined parameter thresholds and Bayesian analysis) combining IVIM and diffusion parameters was evaluated and compared with BI-RADS performance. The Mann-Whitney U test and a nonparametric multiple comparison test were used to compare their performance to determine benignity or malignancy and as molecular prognostic biomarkers and subtypes of breast cancer. Results Significant differences were found between malignant and benign breast lesions for IVIM and non-Gaussian diffusion parameters (ADC 0 , K, fIVIM, fIVIM · D*, sADC 200-1500, and ADC 0-800 ; P < .05). Sensitivity and specificity for the validation set by radiologists A and B were as follows: sensitivity, 94.7% and 89.5%, and specificity, 75.0% and 79.2% for sADC 200-1500 , respectively; sensitivity, 94.7% and 96.1%, and

  18. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-06

    Mar 6, 2011 ... Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging is becoming a routine diagnostic technique. BRUCE s sPOTTiswOOdE, PhD. MRC/UCT Medical Imaging Research Unit, University of Cape Town, and Division of Radiology, Stellenbosch University. Bruce Spottiswoode ...

  19. The possibilities and limitations of neuronavigation method in the treatment of intracranial pathology, on the basis of anatomic registering markers and preoperative magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lickendorf, M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The evaluation of technical parameters of the system and the evaluation of the influence of changing intraoperative conditions on the accuracy of the indications of the neuronavigational system has the key meaning in the effectiveness on the work of a neurosurgeon. On the other hand the employment of neuronavigation during an operation on the brain allows to get an insight into the dynamics and directions of the shifts of individual brain structures in regard to themselves and hard integuments. Material and methods: In the experimental part of the work an analysis was done of the theoretical and actual accuracy of indications of the neuronavigational system obtained after the registering process in modal and clinical conditions. In the clinical part of the work, during the operations of 69 patients with the use of the neuronavigational system an analysis was done of the dynamics and the direction of shifts of the brain's surface and the boundaries of pathological focus in regard to the placement and volume of the pathological focus, volume of the peritumorous edema and the usage of the escape of the cerebrospinal fluid, as well as resulting from those shifts the divergence in the indications of the neuronavigational system. Results and conclusions: A smaller accuracy of the neuronavigational system in clinical than in modal conditions was proved. Anatomical registering markers cause the shifts of areas of greatest accuracy to the face area of patients, not including in its range the back sides of the head and there localized 65.4% of pathological focuses. In model and clinical conditions significant differences between computer error of the RMSE registering process and the marker localization error empirically defined were proved. In result of the analysis of the shifts of the cerebral cortex during the operation of tumors: Meta, Astr. II, Astr. III, GBM, vascular and intrachamberal it was proved that the peritumorous edema, the volume of the

  20. Tracking micro-optical resonances for identifying and sensing novel procaspase-3 protein marker released from cell cultures in response to toxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ying-Jen; Vollmer, Frank; Xiang, Wei; Klucken, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    The response of cells to toxins is commonly investigated by detecting intracellular markers for cell death, such as caspase proteins. This requires the introduction of labels by the permeabilization or complete lysis of cells. Here we introduce a non-invasive tool for monitoring a caspase protein in the extracellular medium. The tool is based on highly sensitive optical micro-devices, referred to as whispering-gallery mode biosensors (WGMBs). WGMBs are functionalized with antibodies for the specific and label-free detection of procaspase-3 released from human embryonic kidney HEK293 and neuroglioma H4 cells after introducing staurosporine and rotenone toxins, respectively. Additional tests show that the extracellular accumulation of procaspase-3 is concomitant with a decrease in cell viability. The hitherto unknown release of procaspase-3 from cells in response to toxins and its accumulation in the medium is further investigated by Western blot, showing that the extracellular detection of procaspase-3 is interrelated with cytotoxicity of alpha-synuclein protein (aSyn) overexpressed in H4 cells. These studies provide evidence for procaspase-3 as a novel extracellular biomarker for cell death, with applications in cytotoxicity tests. Such WGMBs could be applied to further identify as-yet unknown extracellular biomarkers using established antibodies against intracellular antigens. (paper)

  1. Subclinical abnormal gyration pattern, a potential anatomic marker of epileptogenic zone in patients with magnetic resonance imaging negative frontal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regis, J.; Tamura, M.; Park, M.C.; McGonigal, A.; Riviere, D.; Coulon, O.; Bartolomei, F.; Girard, N.; Figarella-Branger, D.; Chauvel, P.; Mangin, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy surgery for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-negative patients has a less favorable outcome. Objective: Detection of subclinical abnormal gyration (SAG) patterns and their potential contribution to assessment of the topography of the epileptogenic zone (EZ) is addressed in MRI-negative patients with frontal lobe epilepsy. Methods: Between September 1998 and July 2005, 12 MRI-negative frontal lobe epilepsy patients underwent stereo-electro-encephalography with postcorticectomy follow-up of longer than 1 year (average, 3.3 years). Original software (BrainVISA/Anatomist, http://brainvisa.info) trained on a database of normal volunteers was used to determine which sulci had morphology out of the normal range (SAG). Topography of the EZ, SAG pattern, corticectomy, postoperative seizure control, and histopathology were analyzed. Results: At last follow-up, 8 of 12 patients (66.7%) were Engel class I (7 IA and 1 IB), 2 class II, and 2 class IV. Small focal cortical dysplasia was histologically diagnosed in 9 of the 12 patients (75%), including 7 of 8 seizure-free patients (87.5%). A SAG pattern was found to be in the EZ area in 9 patients (75%), in the ipsilateral frontal lobe out of the EZ in 2, and limited to the contralateral hemisphere in 1. Conclusion: SAG patterns appear to be associated with the topography of the EZ in MRI-negative frontal lobe epilepsy and may have a useful role in preoperative assessment. Small focal cortical dysplasia not detected with MRI is often found on histopathological examination, particularly in the depth of the posterior part of the superior frontal sulcus and intermediate frontal sulcus, suggesting a specific developmental critical zone in these locations. (authors)

  2. Diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging and pre-surgical evaluation in the assessment of traumatic intra-articular knee disorders in children and adolescents: what conditions still pose diagnostic challenges?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gans, Itai; Ganley, Theodore J. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Orthopaedics, 34th and Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bedoya, Maria A.; Ho-Fung, Victor [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-08-31

    Diagnosis of intra-articular lesions in children based on clinical examination and MRI is particularly challenging. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of MRI and pre-surgical evaluation of the knee in pediatric patients relative to arthroscopic evaluation as the gold standard. We report diagnoses frequently missed or inaccurately diagnosed pre-operatively. We conducted a retrospective review of MRI and pre-surgical evaluation in children and adolescents ages 1-17 years who were treated by knee arthroscopy during a 21/2-year period. All MRIs were reviewed by a pediatric radiologist blinded to clinical findings. Pediatric orthopedic clinic notes were reviewed for pre-surgical evaluation (based on physical exam, radiograph, MR images and radiologist's MRI report). Arthroscopic findings were used as the gold standard. We calculated the percentages of diagnoses at arthroscopy missed on both MRI and pre-surgical evaluation. Diagnostic accuracy between children and adolescents and in patients with one pathological lesion vs. those with >1 lesion was analyzed. We performed a second review of MR images of the missed or over-called MRI diagnoses with knowledge of arthroscopic findings. We included 178 children and adolescents. The most common diagnoses missed on MRI or pre-surgical evaluation but found at arthroscopy were: discoid meniscus (8/30, or 26.7% of cases); lateral meniscal tears (15/80, or 18.8% of cases); intra-articular loose bodies (5/36, or 13.9% of cases), and osteochondral injuries (9/73, or 12.3% of cases). Overall diagnostic accuracy of MRI and pre-surgical evaluation was 92.7% and 95.3%, respectively. No significant difference in diagnostic accuracy between children and adolescents was observed. When multiple intra-articular lesions were present, lateral meniscal tears were more likely to be inaccurately diagnosed (missed or over-called) on both MRI (P = 0.009) and pre-surgical evaluation (P < 0.001). Overall diagnostic accuracy of MRI and pre

  3. Diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging and pre-surgical evaluation in the assessment of traumatic intra-articular knee disorders in children and adolescents: what conditions still pose diagnostic challenges?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, Itai; Ganley, Theodore J.; Bedoya, Maria A.; Ho-Fung, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of intra-articular lesions in children based on clinical examination and MRI is particularly challenging. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of MRI and pre-surgical evaluation of the knee in pediatric patients relative to arthroscopic evaluation as the gold standard. We report diagnoses frequently missed or inaccurately diagnosed pre-operatively. We conducted a retrospective review of MRI and pre-surgical evaluation in children and adolescents ages 1-17 years who were treated by knee arthroscopy during a 21/2-year period. All MRIs were reviewed by a pediatric radiologist blinded to clinical findings. Pediatric orthopedic clinic notes were reviewed for pre-surgical evaluation (based on physical exam, radiograph, MR images and radiologist's MRI report). Arthroscopic findings were used as the gold standard. We calculated the percentages of diagnoses at arthroscopy missed on both MRI and pre-surgical evaluation. Diagnostic accuracy between children and adolescents and in patients with one pathological lesion vs. those with >1 lesion was analyzed. We performed a second review of MR images of the missed or over-called MRI diagnoses with knowledge of arthroscopic findings. We included 178 children and adolescents. The most common diagnoses missed on MRI or pre-surgical evaluation but found at arthroscopy were: discoid meniscus (8/30, or 26.7% of cases); lateral meniscal tears (15/80, or 18.8% of cases); intra-articular loose bodies (5/36, or 13.9% of cases), and osteochondral injuries (9/73, or 12.3% of cases). Overall diagnostic accuracy of MRI and pre-surgical evaluation was 92.7% and 95.3%, respectively. No significant difference in diagnostic accuracy between children and adolescents was observed. When multiple intra-articular lesions were present, lateral meniscal tears were more likely to be inaccurately diagnosed (missed or over-called) on both MRI (P = 0.009) and pre-surgical evaluation (P < 0.001). Overall diagnostic accuracy of MRI and pre

  4. Visual Evoked Potential and Magnetic Resonance Imaging are More Effective Markers of Multiple Sclerosis Progression than Laser Polarimetry with Variable Corneal Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantorová, Ema; Ziak, Peter; Kurča, Egon; Koyšová, Mária; Hladká, Mária; Zeleňák, Kamil; Michalik, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the role of laser polarimetry and visual evoked potentials (VEP) as potential biomarkers of disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). A total of 41 patients with MS (82 eyes) and 22 age-related healthy volunteers (44 eyes) completed the study. MS patients were divided into two groups, one (ON) with a history of optic neuritis (17 patients, 34 eyes) and another group (NON) without it (24 patients, 48 eyes). The MS patients and controls underwent laser polarimetry (GDx) examination of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). In the MS group, we also examined: Kurtzke "expanded disability status scale" (EDSS), the duration of the disorder, VEP - latency and amplitude, and conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA, Mann-Whitney, and Spearman correlation analyses. In the MS group, brain atrophy and new T2 brain lesions in MRI correlated with both VEP latencies and amplitudes. Separate comparisons revealed VEP latency testing to be less sensitive in ON than in NON-patients. In ON patients, VEP amplitudes correlated mildly with brain atrophy (r = -0.15) and strongly with brain new MRI lesions (r = -0.8). In NON-patients, highly significant correlation of new MRI brain lesions with VEP latencies (r = 0.63, r = 0.6) and amplitudes (r = -0.3, r = -4.2) was found. EDSS also correlated with brain atrophy in this group (r = 0.5). Our study did not find a correlation of GDx measures with MRI tests. The GDx method was not able to detect whole brain demyelinization and the degeneration process, but was only able to reveal the involvement of optic nerves in ON and NON-patients. In our study, we found that both methods (VEP and GDx) can be used for the detection of optic nerve damage, but VEP was found to be superior in evaluating whole brain demyelinization and axonal degeneration. Both VEP and MRI, but not GDx, have an important role in monitoring

  5. A Novel Diagnostic Aid for Detection of Intra-Abdominal Adhesions to the Anterior Abdominal Wall Using Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randall, D.; Fenner, J.; Gillott, R.; Broek, R.P.G ten; Strik, C.; Spencer, P.; Bardhan, K.D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Abdominal adhesions can cause serious morbidity and complicate subsequent operations. Their diagnosis is often one of exclusion due to a lack of a reliable, non-invasive diagnostic technique. Development and testing of a candidate technique are described below. Method. During

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging techniques for treatment response evaluation in patients with head and neck tumors, a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, Anouk; van Laar, Peter Jan; Holtman, Gea A.; Westerlaan, Henriette E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Novel advanced MRI techniques are investigated in patients treated for head and neck tumors as conventional anatomical MRI is unreliable to differentiate tumor from treatment related imaging changes. Purpose As the diagnostic accuracy of MRI techniques to detect tumor residual or

  7. Diagnostic inflammatory markers for bronchial asthma | Mostafa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 1 (2005) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. The Standardized Histogram Shift of T2 Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) Signal Intensities of Nephroblastoma Does Not Predict Histopathological Diagnostic Information

    OpenAIRE

    M?ller, Sabine; David, Ruslan; Marias, Kostas; Graf, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess standardized histograms of signal intensities of T2-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) modality before and after preoperative chemotherapy for nephroblastoma (Wilms? tumor). All analyzed patients are enrolled in the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) 2001/GPOH trial.1 The question to be answered is whether the comparison of the histograms can add new knowledge by comparing them with the histology of the tumor after preoperative ch...

  9. Genetic variation of rs438601 marker in the Iranian Population: An informative marker for molecular diagnosis of hemophilia B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Dorri

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The study findings demonstrated that rs438601 marker due to high heterozygosity could be suggested as an appropriate diagnostic marker in linkage analysis and carrier detection of hemophilia B in regard with a sample of Iranian population.

  10. Characterization of gut microbiota profiles in coronary artery disease patients using data mining analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism: gut microbiota could be a diagnostic marker of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emoto, Takuo; Yamashita, Tomoya; Kobayashi, Toshio; Sasaki, Naoto; Hirota, Yushi; Hayashi, Tomohiro; So, Anna; Kasahara, Kazuyuki; Yodoi, Keiko; Matsumoto, Takuya; Mizoguchi, Taiji; Ogawa, Wataru; Hirata, Ken-Ichi

    2017-01-01

    The association between atherosclerosis and gut microbiota has been attracting increased attention. We previously demonstrated a possible link between gut microbiota and coronary artery disease. Our aim of this study was to clarify the gut microbiota profiles in coronary artery disease patients using data mining analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). This study included 39 coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and 30 age- and sex- matched no-CAD controls (Ctrls) with coronary risk factors. Bacterial DNA was extracted from their fecal samples and analyzed by T-RFLP and data mining analysis using the classification and regression algorithm. Five additional CAD patients were newly recruited to confirm the reliability of this analysis. Data mining analysis could divide the composition of gut microbiota into 2 characteristic nodes. The CAD group was classified into 4 CAD pattern nodes (35/39 = 90 %), while the Ctrl group was classified into 3 Ctrl pattern nodes (28/30 = 93 %). Five additional CAD samples were applied to the same dividing model, which could validate the accuracy to predict the risk of CAD by data mining analysis. We could demonstrate that operational taxonomic unit 853 (OTU853), OTU657, and OTU990 were determined important both by the data mining method and by the usual statistical comparison. We classified the gut microbiota profiles in coronary artery disease patients using data mining analysis of T-RFLP data and demonstrated the possibility that gut microbiota is a diagnostic marker of suffering from CAD.

  11. Tune-Based Halo Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Tune-based halo diagnostics can be divided into two categories -- diagnostics for halo prevention, and diagnostics for halo measurement. Diagnostics for halo prevention are standard fare in accumulators, synchrotrons, and storage rings, and again can be divided into two categories -- diagnostics to measure the tune distribution (primarily to avoid resonances), and diagnostics to identify instabilities (which will not be discussed here). These diagnostic systems include kicked (coherent) tune measurement, phase-locked loop (PLL) tune measurement, Schottky tune measurement, beam transfer function (BTF) measurements, and measurement of transverse quadrupole mode envelope oscillations. We refer briefly to tune diagnostics used at RHIC and intended for the SNS, and then present experimental results. Tune-based diagnostics for halo measurement (as opposed to prevention) are considerably more difficult. We present one brief example of tune-based halo measurement

  12. Potential Audiological and MRI Markers of Tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Kamakshi V; Thomas, Binu P; Nandy, Rajesh; Mao, Deng; Lu, Hanzhang

    2017-09-01

    Subjective tinnitus, or ringing sensation in the ear, is a common disorder with no accepted objective diagnostic markers. The purpose of this study was to identify possible objective markers of tinnitus by combining audiological and imaging-based techniques. Case-control studies. Twenty adults drawn from our audiology clinic served as participants. The tinnitus group consisted of ten participants with chronic bilateral constant tinnitus, and the control group consisted of ten participants with no history of tinnitus. Each participant with tinnitus was closely matched with a control participant on the basis of age, gender, and hearing thresholds. Data acquisition focused on systematic administration and evaluation of various audiological tests, including auditory-evoked potentials (AEP) and otoacoustic emissions, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tests. A total of 14 objective test measures (predictors) obtained from audiological and MRI tests were subjected to statistical analyses to identify the best predictors of tinnitus group membership. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator technique for feature extraction, supplemented by the leave-one-out cross-validation technique, were used to extract the best predictors. This approach provided a conservative model that was highly regularized with its error within 1 standard error of the minimum. The model selected increased frontal cortex (FC) functional MRI activity to pure tones matching their respective tinnitus pitch, and augmented AEP wave N₁ amplitude growth in the tinnitus group as the top two predictors of tinnitus group membership. These findings suggest that the amplified responses to acoustic signals and hyperactivity in attention regions of the brain may be a result of overattention among individuals that experience chronic tinnitus. These results suggest that increased functional MRI activity in the FC to sounds and augmented N₁ amplitude growth may potentially be the objective diagnostic

  13. The total right/left-volume index: a new and simplified cardiac magnetic resonance measure to evaluate the severity of Ebstein anomaly of the tricuspid valve: a comparison with heart failure markers from various modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hösch, Olga; Sohns, Jan Martin; Nguyen, Thuy-Trang; Lauerer, Peter; Rosenberg, Christina; Kowallick, Johannes Tammo; Kutty, Shelby; Unterberg, Christina; Schuster, Andreas; Faßhauer, Martin; Staab, Wieland; Paul, Thomas; Lotz, Joachim; Steinmetz, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The classification of clinical severity of Ebstein anomaly still remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to focus on the interaction of the pathologically altered right heart with the anatomically-supposedly-normal left heart and to derive from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) a simple imaging measure for the clinical severity of Ebstein anomaly. Twenty-five patients at a mean age of 26±14 years with unrepaired Ebstein anomaly were examined in a prospective study. Disease severity was classified using CMR volumes and functional measurements in comparison with heart failure markers from clinical data, ECG, laboratory and cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and echocardiography. All examinations were completed within 24 hours. A total right/left-volume index was defined from end-diastolic volume measurements in CMR: total right/left-volume index=(RA+aRV+fRV)/(LA+LV). Mean total right/left-volume index was 2.6±1.7 (normal values: 1.1±0.1). This new total right/left-volume index correlated with almost all clinically used biomarkers of heart failure: brain natriuretic peptide (r=0.691; P=0.0003), QRS (r=0.432; P=0.039), peak oxygen consumption/kg (r=-0.479; P=0.024), ventilatory response to carbon dioxide production at anaerobic threshold (r=0.426; P=0.048), the severity of tricuspid regurgitation (r=0.692; P=0.009), tricuspid valve offset (r=0.583; P=0.004), and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (r=0.554; P=0.006). Previously described severity indices ([RA+aRV]/[fRV+LA+LV]) and fRV/LV end-diastolic volume corresponded only to some parameters. In patients with Ebstein anomaly, the easily acquired index of right-sided to left-sided heart volumes from CMR correlated well with established heart failure markers. Our data suggest that the total right/left-volume index should be used as a new and simplified CMR measure, allowing more accurate assessment of disease severity than previously described scoring systems. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. A Geant4-based Simulation to Evaluate the Feasibility of Using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) in Determining Atomic Compositions of Body Tissue in Cancer Diagnostics and Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbo, Yekaterina; Wijesooriya, Krishni; Liyanage, Nilanga

    2017-01-01

    Customarily applied in homeland security for identifying concealed explosives and chemical weapons, NRF (Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence) may have high potential in determining atomic compositions of body tissue. High energy photons incident on a target excite the target nuclei causing characteristic re-emission of resonance photons. As the nuclei of each isotope have well-defined excitation energies, NRF uniquely indicates the isotopic content of the target. NRF radiation corresponding to nuclear isotopes present in the human body is emitted during radiotherapy based on Bremsstrahlung photons generated in a linear electron accelerator. We have developed a Geant4 simulation in order to help assess NRF capabilities in detecting, mapping, and characterizing tumors. We have imported a digital phantom into the simulation using anatomical data linked to known chemical compositions of various tissues. Work is ongoing to implement the University of Virginia's cancer center treatment setup and patient geometry, and to collect and analyze the simulation's physics quantities to evaluate the potential of NRF for medical imaging applications. Preliminary results will be presented.

  15. New opportunities in endocrine ophthalmopathy diagnostics (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta S. Taskina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine ophthalmopathy (EOP is a progressive autoimmune disease that affects soft retrobulbar tissues in thyroid gland diseases. The statistical data on this disease are presented. The review presents both generally accepted and alternative approaches to the diagnosis of EOP different stages. Detailed clinical symptoms, main severity and activity score classifications of EOP, the required list of physical and instrumental examinations are given. We described the diagnostic value of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, optical coherence tomography, Heidelberg Retina Tomography, radioisotope studies, triplex scanning of the major vessels of the eye, the Doppler mapping method, indocyanine-green angiography, as well as the histological examination of soft retrobulbar tissues biopsy in EOP. Generally accepted diagnostic methods of EOP have their disadvantages. Therefore, nowadays the promising direction is immunological, biochemical and genetic studies of EOP activity markers. The peculiarity of these methods in EOP diagnosis is an accuracy, possibility of multiple measurements, few side effects and a relatively low cost. Further studies of key mechanisms of the development of edema, leukocyte infiltration with subsequent formation of fibrosis of extraocular muscles and retrobulbar fiber in EOP is of significance, which may improve diagnostics of clinical complicated cases and initial stages of the disease.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging techniques for treatment response evaluation in patients with high-grade glioma, a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijken, Bart R.J. van [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Laar, Peter Jan van; Hoorn, Anouk van der [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Holtman, Gea A. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of General Practice, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-10-15

    Treatment response assessment in high-grade gliomas uses contrast enhanced T1-weighted MRI, but is unreliable. Novel advanced MRI techniques have been studied, but the accuracy is not well known. Therefore, we performed a systematic meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic accuracy of anatomical and advanced MRI for treatment response in high-grade gliomas. Databases were searched systematically. Study selection and data extraction were done by two authors independently. Meta-analysis was performed using a bivariate random effects model when ≥5 studies were included. Anatomical MRI (five studies, 166 patients) showed a pooled sensitivity and specificity of 68% (95%CI 51-81) and 77% (45-93), respectively. Pooled apparent diffusion coefficients (seven studies, 204 patients) demonstrated a sensitivity of 71% (60-80) and specificity of 87% (77-93). DSC-perfusion (18 studies, 708 patients) sensitivity was 87% (82-91) with a specificity of 86% (77-91). DCE-perfusion (five studies, 207 patients) sensitivity was 92% (73-98) and specificity was 85% (76-92). The sensitivity of spectroscopy (nine studies, 203 patients) was 91% (79-97) and specificity was 95% (65-99). Advanced techniques showed higher diagnostic accuracy than anatomical MRI, the highest for spectroscopy, supporting the use in treatment response assessment in high-grade gliomas. (orig.)

  17. Diagnostic Performance of Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Non-Calcified Equivocal Breast Findings: Results from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bennani-Baiti

    Full Text Available To evaluate the performance of MRI for diagnosis of breast cancer in non-calcified equivocal breast findings.We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of peer-reviewed studies in PubMed from 01/01/1986 until 06/15/2015. Eligible were studies applying dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI as an adjunct to conventional imaging (mammography, ultrasound to clarify equivocal findings without microcalcifications. Reference standard for MRI findings had to be established by histopathological sampling or imaging follow-up of at least 12 months. Number of true or false positives and negatives and other characteristics were extracted, and possible bias was determined using the QUADAS-2 applet. Statistical analyses included data pooling and heterogeneity testing.Fourteen out of 514 studies comprising 2,316 lesions met our inclusion criteria. Pooled diagnostic parameters were: sensitivity (99%, 95%-CI: 93-100%, specificity (89%, 95%-CI: 85-92%, PPV (56%, 95%-CI: 42-70% and NPV (100%, 95%-CI: 99-100%. These estimates displayed significant heterogeneity (P<0.001.Breast MRI demonstrates an excellent diagnostic performance in case of non-calcified equivocal breast findings detected in conventional imaging. However, considering the substantial heterogeneity with regard to prevalence of malignancy, problem solving criteria need to be better defined.

  18. (SSR) markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2013-06-26

    Jun 26, 2013 ... analysis was in general agreement with PCoA in discrimi- nating the cultivars. Conclusions. Estimation of morphological diversity may provide addi- tional information on the present finding. Nonetheless, the 29 SSR markers provided considerable genetic reso- lution and this genetic diversity analysis ...

  19. (SSR) markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-30

    Jul 30, 2014 ... India and the country is currently the leading producer, consumer and exporter of ... registration with the competent authority for plant variety protection. Conventionally ... detection of duplicates, parental verification in crosses, gene tagging in .... allelic patterns as revealed by the current set of SSR markers.

  20. Chromosomal location of genomic SSR markers associated

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Among the same earlier tested 230 primers, one SSR marker (Xgwm311) also amplified a fragment which is present in the resistant parent and in the resistant bulks, but absent in the susceptible parent and in the susceptible bulks. To understand the chromosome group location of these diagnostic markers, Xgwm382 and ...

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of the Thessaly test, standardised clinical history and other clinical examination tests (Apley's, McMurray's and joint line tenderness) for meniscal tears in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Mark; Anthony, Iain; Francq, Bernard; Brooksbank, Katriona; Downie, Paul; Powell, Andrew; Jones, Bryn; MacLean, Angus; McConnachie, Alex; Norrie, John

    2015-08-01

    Reliable non-invasive diagnosis of meniscal tears is difficult. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used but is expensive and incidental findings are problematic. There are a number of physical examination tests for the diagnosis of meniscal tears that are simple, cheap and non-invasive. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the Thessaly test and to determine if the Thessaly test (alone or in combination with other physical tests) can obviate the need for further investigation by MRI or arthroscopy for patients with a suspected meniscal tear. Single-centre prospective diagnostic accuracy study. Although the study was performed in a secondary care setting, it was designed to replicate the results that would have been achieved in a primary care setting. Two cohorts of patients were recruited: patients with knee pathology (n = 292) and a control cohort with no knee pathology (n = 75). Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of the Thessaly test in determining the presence of meniscal tears. Participants were assessed by both a primary care clinician and a musculoskeletal clinician. Both clinicians performed the Thessaly test, McMurray's test, Apley's test, joint line tenderness test and took a standardised clinical history from the patient. The Thessaly test had a sensitivity of 0.66, a specificity of 0.39 and a diagnostic accuracy of 54% when utilised by primary care clinicians. This compared with a sensitivity of 0.62, a specificity of 0.55 and diagnostic accuracy of 59% when used by musculoskeletal clinicians. The diagnostics accuracy of the other tests when used by primary care clinicians was 54% for McMurray's test, 53% for Apley's test, 54% for the joint line tenderness test and 55% for clinical history. For primary care clinicians, age and past history of osteoarthritis were both significant predictors of MRI diagnosis of meniscal tears. For musculoskeletal clinicians age and a positive diagnosis of meniscal tears on clinical history

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethier, R.; Melanson, D.; Peters, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    Ten years following computerized tomography, a new technique called nuclear magnetic resonance revolutionizes the field of diagnostic imaging. A major advantage of nuclear magnetic resonance is that the danger of radiation is non-existent as compared to computerized tomography. When parts of the human body are subject to radio-frequencies while in a fixed magnetic field, its most detailed structures are revealed. The quality of images, the applications, as well as the indications are forever increasing. Images obtained at the level of the brain and spinal cord through nuclear magnetic resonance supercede those obtained through computerized tomography. Hence, it is most likely that myelography, along with pneumoencephalography will be eliminated as a diagnostic means. It is without a doubt that nuclear magnetic resonance is tomorrow's computerized tomography [fr

  3. [Diagnostic efficiency of decline rate of signal intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient with different b values for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions on diffusion-weighted 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Liu, Wanhua; Ye, Yuanyuan; Wang, Rui; Li, Fengfang; Peng, Chengyu

    2014-06-17

    To investigate the diagnostic efficiency of decline rate of signal intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient with different b values for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions on diffusion-weighted 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 152 patients with 162 confirmed histopathologically breast lesions (85 malignant and 77 benign) underwent 3.0 T diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Four b values (0, 400, 800 and 1 000 s/mm²) were used. The signal intensity and ADC values of breast lesions were measured respectively. The signal intensity decline rate (SIDR) and apparent diffusion coefficient decline rate (ADCDR) were calculated respectively. SIDR = (signal intensity of lesions with low b value-signal intensity of lesions with high b value)/signal intensity of lesions with low b value, ADCDR = (ADC value of lesions with low b value-ADC value of lesions with high b value) /ADC value of lesions with low b value. The independent sample t-test was employed for statistical analyses and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for evaluating the diagnosis efficiency of SIDR and ADCDR values. Significant differences were observed in SIDR between benign and malignant breast lesions with b values of 0-400, 400-800 and 800-1 000 s/mm². The sensitivities of SIDR for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions were 61.2%, 68.2% and 67.1%, the specificities 74.0%, 85.7% and 67.5%, the diagnosis accordance rates 67.3%, 76.5% and 67.3%, the positive predictive values 72.2%, 84.1% and 69.5% and the negative predictive values 63.3%, 71.0% and 65.0% respectively. Significant differences were observed in ADCDR between benign and malignant breast lesions with b values of 400-800 s/mm² and 800-1 000 s/mm². The sensitivities of SDR for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions were 80.0% and 65.9%, the specificities 72.7% and 65.0%, the diagnostic accordance rates 76.5% and 65.4%, the positive predictive values 76.4% and 67

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging as a diagnostic method for assessing function. New procedures for the non-invasive quantification of cerebral blood volume and blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueckel, F.; Rempp, K.; Becker, G.; Koepke, J.; Loose, R.; Brix, G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a brief introduction to the current status of cerebral blood volume and blood flow imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. A new method for the quantitative assessment of regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) on the basis of the indicator dilution theory is described and preliminary quantitative results from healthy volunteers are presented. The mean values for the rCBV are 8,27±1,85 ml/100 g for grey matter and 3,78±1,34 ml/100 g for white matter. The mean values for the rCBF are 44,8±11,29 ml/min/100 g for the grey matter and 20,88±8,42 ml/min/100 g for the white matter. These results are in good agreement with PET results from the literature. (orig.) [de

  5. Metilación del receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides: marcador diagnóstico de malignidad en cáncer de tiroides Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Marrero Rodríguez

    2007-12-01

    follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy.

  6. Contributions of neuroimaging, balance testing, electrophysiology and blood markers to the assessment of sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G A; Iverson, G L; Guskiewicz, K M; Ptito, A; Johnston, K M

    2009-05-01

    To review the diagnostic tests and investigations used in the management of sports concussion, in the adult and paediatric populations, to (a) monitor the severity of symptoms and deficits, (b) track recovery and (c) advance knowledge relating to the natural history and neurobiology of the injury. Qualitative literature review of the neuroimaging, balance testing, electrophysiology, blood marker and concussion literature. PubMed and Medline databases were reviewed for investigations used in the management of adult and paediatric concussion, including structural imaging (computerised tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging), functional imaging (single photon emission computerised tomography, positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging), spectroscopy (magnetic resonance spectroscopy, near infrared spectroscopy), balance testing (Balance Error Scoring System, Sensory Organization Test, gait testing, virtual reality), electrophysiological tests (electroencephalography, evoked potentials, event related potentials, magnetoencephalography, heart rate variability), genetics (apolipoprotein E4, channelopathies) and blood markers (S100, neuron-specific enolase, cleaved Tau protein, glutamate). For the adult and paediatric populations, each test has been classified as being: (1) clinically useful, (2) a research tool only or (3) not useful in sports-related concussion. The current status of the diagnostic tests and investigations is analysed, and potential directions for future research are provided. Currently, all tests and investigations, with the exception of clinical balance testing, remain experimental. There is accumulating research, however, that shows promise for the future clinical application of functional magnetic resonance imaging in sport concussion assessment and management.

  7. The changes of the frequency specific impedance of the human body due to the resonance in the kHz range in cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, K. P.; Nawrocka-Bogusz, H.

    2011-12-01

    The frequency-specific absorption of kHz signals has been postulated for different tissues, trace elements, vitamins, toxins, pathogens, allergens etc. for low-power (μV) signals. An increase in the impedance of the human body is observed only up to the given power of the applied signal. The highest amplification of the given signal being damped by the body makes it possible to determine the intensity of the given process in the body (e.g. amount of the toxin, trace element, intensity of the allergy) being connected with a given frequency spectrum of the signal. The mechanism of frequency-specific absorption can be explained by means of the Quantum Field Theory being applied to the structure of the water. Substantially high coincidence between the frequencies of the rotation of free quasi-excited electrons in coherent domains of water and the frequencies being used in the MORA diagnostics (Med-Tronic GmbH, EN ISO 13485, EN ISO 9001) can be observed. These frequencies are located in the proximity of f = 7kHz · i (i = 1,3,5,7,...). This fact suggests that the coherent domains with the admixtures of the given substances create structure-specific coherent domains that possess frequency-specific absorption spectra. The diagnostic tool called "MORA System diagnosis" was used to investigate 102 patients with different types and stages of cancer. Many signals were observed to be absorbed by many cancer patients, e.g.: 'Cellular defense system', 'Degeneration tendencies', Manganese, Magnesium, Zinc, Selenium, Vitamin E, Glutamine, Glutathione, Cysteine, Candida albicans, Mycosis. The results confirm the role of oxidative stress, immunological system deficiency and mitochondria malfunction in the development of cancer.

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory markers in patients with multiple sclerosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejčíková, Z; Mareš, J; Přikrylová Vranová, H; Klosová, J; Sládková, V; Doláková, J; Zapletalová, J; Kaňovský, P

    2015-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Autoimmune inflammation is common in the early stages of MS. This stage is followed by the neurodegenerative process. The result of these changes is axon and myelin breakdown. Although MS is according to McDonald's revised diagnostic criteria primarily a clinical diagnosis, paraclinical investigation methods are an important part in the diagnosis of MS. In common practice, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord, examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and examination of visual evoked potentials are used. There are an increasing number of studies dealing with biomarkers in CSF and their role in the diagnosis and treatment of MS. We hypothesized that the levels of some markers could be changed in MS in comparison with controls. We studied five inflammatory markers [interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8, interleukin-10 (IL-10), beta-2-microglobulin, orosomucoid]. CSF and serum levels of inflammatory markers were assessed in 38 patients with newly diagnosed MS meeting McDonald's revised diagnostic criteria and in 28 subjects as a control group (CG). Levels of beta-2-microglobulin and interleukin-8 in CSF were found to be significantly higher in MS patients in comparison to CG (p < 0.001 resp. p = 0.007). No differences in other CSF markers (IL-6, IL-10 and orosomucoid) and serum levels of all markers between both groups were found. The levels of two studied inflammatory markers were found to be increased at the time of first clinical symptoms of MS. Research on the role of inflammatory and neurodegenerative markers in MS should continue.

  9. Diagnostic nerve ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeumer, T.; Grimm, A.; Schelle, T.

    2017-01-01

    For the diagnostics of nerve lesions an imaging method is necessary to visualize peripheral nerves and their surrounding structures for an etiological classification. Clinical neurological and electrophysiological investigations provide functional information about nerve lesions. The information provided by a standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination is inadequate for peripheral nerve diagnostics; however, MRI neurography is suitable but on the other hand a resource and time-consuming method. Using ultrasonography for peripheral nerve diagnostics. With ultrasonography reliable diagnostics of entrapment neuropathies and traumatic nerve lesions are possible. The use of ultrasonography for neuropathies shows that a differentiation between different forms is possible. Nerve ultrasonography is an established diagnostic tool. In addition to the clinical examination and clinical electrophysiology, structural information can be obtained, which results in a clear improvement in the diagnostics. Ultrasonography has become an integral part of the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in neurophysiological departments. Nerve ultrasonography is recommended for the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in addition to clinical and electrophysiological investigations. It should be used in the clinical work-up of entrapment neuropathies, traumatic nerve lesions and spacy-occupying lesions of nerves. (orig.) [de

  10. Marker lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, D.V.

    1980-01-01

    A marker lamp is described which consists of a block of transparent plastics material encapsulated in which is a radioactive light source. These lights comprise a small sealed glass capsule, the hollow inside surface of which is coated with phosphor and which contains tritium or similar radioactive gas. The use of such lamps for identification marking of routes, for example roads, and for identification of underwater oil pipelines is envisaged. (U.K.)

  11. Diagnostic performance of susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of sub-coracoacromial spurs causing subacromial impingement syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nörenberg, Dominik; Armbruster, Marco; Bender, Yi-Na; Walter, Thula; Ebersberger, Hans U; Diederichs, Gerd; Hamm, Bernd; Ockert, Ben; Makowski, Marcus R

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the potential of susceptibility-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging (SWMR) for the detection of sub-coracoacromial spurs in patients with clinically suspected subacromial impingement syndrome (SAIS), compared to standard MR-sequences and radiographs. Forty-four patients with suspected SAIS were included. All patients underwent radiography, standard MRI of the shoulder and SWMR. Radiograph-based identification of sub-coracoacromial spurs served as goldstandard. Radiographs identified twenty-three spurs in twenty-three patients. Twenty-one patients without spur formation served as reference group. Detection rate, sensitivity/specificity and interobserver-agreements were calculated. Linear regression was applied to determine the relationship between size measurements on radiographs and MRI. Detection rates for spurs on standard MRI and SWMR were 47.8 % and 91.3 % compared to radiography (pformation in patients with SAIS and is superior to standard MR-sequences using radiography as goldstandard. • SWMR has the potential to reliably identify sub-coracoacromial spurs without radiation exposure. • SWMR provides comparable detection rates to conventional radiography for sub-coracoacromial spur formation. • SWMR yields higher detection rates compared to standard-MR regarding sub-coracoacromial spur formation. • SWMR can be implemented in routine shoulder MRI protocols.

  12. Merits of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of myositis ossificans circumscripta. Apport de l'imagerie par resonance magnetique (IRM) dans le diagnostic de la myosite ossifiante circonscrite (MOC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchardy, L.; Garcia, J. (Hopital Cantonal Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1994-02-01

    A retrospective study of 5 cases, 4 of myositis ossificans circumscripta (MOC) and 1 of non-ossificans myositis, is presented. The clinical presentation was a painful soft-tissues swelling, and the final diagnosis was established by biopsy in 3 cases and clinical evolution in 2 cases. Different types of imaging techniques were performed: 4 MRI, 2 arteriographies, 3 Tc 99m scintigraphies, 3 US, 3 CT and plain film radiographs for all patients. MOC is a benign process (as opposed to myositis ossificans progressiva, which is an hereditary pathology with a fatal prognosis) with 3 phases of evolution: an acute or pseudo-inflammatory phase, a sub-acute or pseudo-tumoral phase and a chronic phase with a spontaneous healing. The radiologic diagnostic findings are dependent of the phase of the disease. The calcifications are seen earlier with scintigraphy than plain films, with US being less helpful. A heterogenous mass and calcifications are seen with CT. MRI allows the characterization of oedema during the acute phase and sometimes can exclude a malignant process. MRI is the best method for an early diagnosis, the differential diagnosis and to follow the evolution. (authors). 26 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Development of automatic extraction of the corpus callosum from magnetic resonance imaging of the head and examination of the early dementia objective diagnostic technique in feature analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Naoki; Kaneko, Tomoyuki

    2005-01-01

    We examined the objective diagnosis of dementia based on changes in the corpus callosum. We examined midsagittal head MR images of 17 early dementia patients (2 men and 15 women; mean age, 77.2±3.3 years) and 18 healthy elderly controls (2 men and 16 women; mean age, 73.8±6.5 years), 35 subjects altogether. First, the corpus callosum was automatically extracted from the MR images. Next, early dementia was compared with the healthy elderly individuals using 5 features of the straight-line methods, 5 features of the Run-Length Matrix, and 6 features of the Co-occurrence Matrix from the corpus callosum. Automatic extraction of the corpus callosum showed an accuracy rate of 84.1±3.7%. A statistically significant difference was found in 6 of the 16 features between early dementia patients and healthy elderly controls. Discriminant analysis using the 6 features demonstrated a sensitivity of 88.2% and specificity of 77.8%, with an overall accuracy of 82.9%. These results indicate that feature analysis based on changes in the corpus callosum can be used as an objective diagnostic technique for early dementia. (author)

  14. A Novel Diagnostic Aid for Detection of Intra-Abdominal Adhesions to the Anterior Abdominal Wall Using Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Randall

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Abdominal adhesions can cause serious morbidity and complicate subsequent operations. Their diagnosis is often one of exclusion due to a lack of a reliable, non-invasive diagnostic technique. Development and testing of a candidate technique are described below. Method. During respiration, smooth visceral sliding motion occurs between the abdominal contents and the walls of the abdominal cavity. We describe a technique involving image segmentation and registration to calculate shear as an analogue for visceral slide based on the tracking of structures throughout the respiratory cycle. The presence of an adhesion is attributed to a resistance to visceral slide resulting in a discernible reduction in shear. The abdominal movement due to respiration is captured in sagittal dynamic MR images. Results. Clinical images were selected for analysis, including a patient with a surgically confirmed adhesion. Discernible reduction in shear was observed at the location of the adhesion while a consistent, gradually changing shear was observed in the healthy volunteers. Conclusion. The technique and its validation show encouraging results for adhesion detection but a larger study is now required to confirm its potential.

  15. A Novel Diagnostic Aid for Detection of Intra-Abdominal Adhesions to the Anterior Abdominal Wall Using Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, David; Fenner, John; Gillott, Richard; Ten Broek, Richard; Strik, Chema; Spencer, Paul; Bardhan, Karna Dev

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Abdominal adhesions can cause serious morbidity and complicate subsequent operations. Their diagnosis is often one of exclusion due to a lack of a reliable, non-invasive diagnostic technique. Development and testing of a candidate technique are described below. Method. During respiration, smooth visceral sliding motion occurs between the abdominal contents and the walls of the abdominal cavity. We describe a technique involving image segmentation and registration to calculate shear as an analogue for visceral slide based on the tracking of structures throughout the respiratory cycle. The presence of an adhesion is attributed to a resistance to visceral slide resulting in a discernible reduction in shear. The abdominal movement due to respiration is captured in sagittal dynamic MR images. Results. Clinical images were selected for analysis, including a patient with a surgically confirmed adhesion. Discernible reduction in shear was observed at the location of the adhesion while a consistent, gradually changing shear was observed in the healthy volunteers. Conclusion. The technique and its validation show encouraging results for adhesion detection but a larger study is now required to confirm its potential.

  16. A Novel Diagnostic Aid for Detection of Intra-Abdominal Adhesions to the Anterior Abdominal Wall Using Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, David; Fenner, John; Gillott, Richard; ten Broek, Richard; Strik, Chema; Spencer, Paul; Bardhan, Karna Dev

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Abdominal adhesions can cause serious morbidity and complicate subsequent operations. Their diagnosis is often one of exclusion due to a lack of a reliable, non-invasive diagnostic technique. Development and testing of a candidate technique are described below. Method. During respiration, smooth visceral sliding motion occurs between the abdominal contents and the walls of the abdominal cavity. We describe a technique involving image segmentation and registration to calculate shear as an analogue for visceral slide based on the tracking of structures throughout the respiratory cycle. The presence of an adhesion is attributed to a resistance to visceral slide resulting in a discernible reduction in shear. The abdominal movement due to respiration is captured in sagittal dynamic MR images. Results. Clinical images were selected for analysis, including a patient with a surgically confirmed adhesion. Discernible reduction in shear was observed at the location of the adhesion while a consistent, gradually changing shear was observed in the healthy volunteers. Conclusion. The technique and its validation show encouraging results for adhesion detection but a larger study is now required to confirm its potential. PMID:26880884

  17. Complications in diagnostic imaging. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansell, G.; Wilkins, R.A.; Medical Research Council, Harrow

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-seven chapters review various complications which may arise for patients and staff in medical diagnostic imaging. Five of these chapters are indexed separately covering topics on the complications of using radiopharmaceuticals, safety considerations in magnetic resonance imaging, radiation hazards of diagnostic radiology and medico-legal problems involving diagnostic radiology in both the UK and the USA. (UK)

  18. Diagnostic performance of susceptibility-weighted magnet