WorldWideScience

Sample records for resolving mass hierarchy

  1. Resolving the neutrino mass hierarchy and CP degeneracy by two identical detectors with different baselines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishitsuka, Masaki; Kajita, Takaaki; Minakata, Hisakazu; Nunokawa, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    We explore the possibility of the simultaneous determination of neutrino mass hierarchy and the CP violating phase by using two identical detectors placed at different baseline distances. We focus on a possible experimental setup using a neutrino beam from the J-PARC facility in Japan with a beam power of 4 MW and megaton (Mton)-class water Cherenkov detectors, one placed in Kamioka and the other somewhere in Korea. We demonstrate, under reasonable assumptions of systematic uncertainties, that the two-detector complex with each fiducial volume of 0.27 Mton has a potential of resolving the neutrino mass hierarchy up to sin 2 2θ 13 >0.03 (0.055) at 2σ (3σ) C.L. for any values of δ and at the same time has the sensitivity to CP violation by 4+4 years running of ν e and ν e appearance measurement. The significantly enhanced sensitivity is due to clean detection of the modulation of the neutrino energy spectrum, which is enabled by the cancellation of systematic uncertainties between two identical detectors which receive the neutrino beam with the same energy spectrum in the absence of oscillations

  2. Hybrid method to resolve the neutrino mass hierarchy by supernova (anti)neutrino induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vale, D. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Bijenička c. 32, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Rauscher, T. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Paar, N., E-mail: dvale@phy.hr, E-mail: Thomas.Rauscher@unibas.ch, E-mail: npaar@phy.hr [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2016-02-01

    We introduce a hybrid method to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy by simultaneous measurements of responses of at least two detectors to antineutrino and neutrino fluxes from accretion and cooling phases of core-collapse supernovae. The (anti)neutrino-nucleus cross sections for {sup 56}Fe and {sup 208}Pb are calculated in the framework of the relativistic nuclear energy density functional and weak interaction Hamiltonian, while the cross sections for inelastic scattering on free protons p(ν-bar {sub e},e{sup +})n are obtained using heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory. The modelling of (anti)neutrino fluxes emitted from a protoneutron star in a core-collapse supernova include collective and Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects inside the exploding star. The particle emission rates from the elementary decay modes of the daughter nuclei are calculated for normal and inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. It is shown that simultaneous use of (anti)neutrino detectors with different target material allows to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy from the ratios of ν{sub e}- and ν-bar {sub e}-induced particle emissions. This hybrid method favors neutrinos from the supernova cooling phase and the implementation of detectors with heavier target nuclei ({sup 208}Pb) for the neutrino sector, while for antineutrinos the use of free protons in mineral oil or water is the appropriate choice.

  3. Hybrid method to resolve the neutrino mass hierarchy by supernova (anti)neutrino induced reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, D.; Rauscher, T.; Paar, N.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce a hybrid method to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy by simultaneous measurements of responses of at least two detectors to antineutrino and neutrino fluxes from accretion and cooling phases of core-collapse supernovae. The (anti)neutrino-nucleus cross sections for 56Fe and 208Pb are calculated in the framework of the relativistic nuclear energy density functional and weak interaction Hamiltonian, while the cross sections for inelastic scattering on free protons p(bar nue,e+)n are obtained using heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory. The modelling of (anti)neutrino fluxes emitted from a protoneutron star in a core-collapse supernova include collective and Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects inside the exploding star. The particle emission rates from the elementary decay modes of the daughter nuclei are calculated for normal and inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. It is shown that simultaneous use of (anti)neutrino detectors with different target material allows to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy from the ratios of νe- and bar nue-induced particle emissions. This hybrid method favors neutrinos from the supernova cooling phase and the implementation of detectors with heavier target nuclei (208Pb) for the neutrino sector, while for antineutrinos the use of free protons in mineral oil or water is the appropriate choice.

  4. Resolving neutrino mass hierarchy from supernova (anti)neutrino-nucleus reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Deni; Paar, Nils

    2015-10-01

    Recently a hybrid method has been introduced to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by simultaneous measurements of detector responses induced by antineutrino and neutrino fluxes from accretion and cooling phase of type II supernova. The (anti)neutrino-nucleus cross sections for 12C, 16O, 56Fe and 208Pb are calculated in the framework of relativistic nuclear energy density functional and weak interaction Hamiltonian, while the cross sections for inelastic scattering on free protons in mineral oil and water, p (v¯e,e+)n are obtained using heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory. The simulations of (anti)neutrino fluxes emitted from a proto-neutron star in a core-collapse supernova include collective and Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects inside star. It is shown that simultaneous use of ve/v¯e detectors with different target material allow to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy from the ratios of ve/v¯e induced particle emissions. The hybrid method favors detectors with heavier target nuclei (208Pb) for the neutrino sector, while for antineutrinos the use of free protons in mineral oil and water is more appropriate.

  5. Neutrino mass matrix and hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaus, Peter; Meshkov, Sydney

    2003-01-01

    We build a model to describe neutrinos based on strict hierarchy, incorporating as much as possible, the latest known data, for Δsol and Δatm, and for the mixing angles determined from neutrino oscillation experiments, including that from KamLAND. Since the hierarchy assumption is a statement about mass ratios, it lets us obtain all three neutrino masses. We obtain a mass matrix, Mν and a mixing matrix, U, where both Mν and U are given in terms of powers of Λ, the analog of the Cabibbo angle λ in the Wolfenstein representation, and two parameters, ρ and κ, each of order one. The expansion parameter, Λ, is defined by Λ2 = m2/m3 = √(Δsol/Δatm) ≅ 0.16, and ρ expresses our ignorance of the lightest neutrino mass m1, (m1 ρΛ4m3), while κ scales s13 to the experimental upper limit, s13 = κΛ2 ≅ 0.16κ. These matrices are similar in structure to those for the quark and lepton families, but with Λ about 1.6 times larger than the λ for the quarks and charged leptons. The upper limit for the effective neutrino mass in double β-decay experiments is 4 x 10-3eV if s13 = 0 and 6 x 10-3eV if s13 is maximal. The model, which is fairly unique, given the hierarchy assumption and the data, is compared to supersymmetric extension and texture zero models of mass generation

  6. Neutrino mass hierarchy and matter effects

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2013-01-01

    Matter effects modify the mixing and the effective masses of neutrinos in a way which depends on the neutrino mass hierarchy. Consequently, for normal and inverted hierarchies the oscillations and flavor conversion results are different. Sensitivity to the mass hierarchy appears whenever the matter effects on the 1-3 mixing and mass splitting become substantial. This happens in supernovae in wide energy range and in the matter of the Earth. The Earth density profile is a multi-layer medium wh...

  7. Fermion mass hierarchies in theories of technicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    Models in which light fermion masses result from dynamical symmetry breaking often produce these masses in a hierarchial pattern. The author exhibits two scenarios for obtaining such hierarchies and illustrates each with a simple model of mass generation. In the first scenario, the light fermion masses are separated by powers of a weak coupling constant; in the second scenario, they are separated by a ratio of large mass scales

  8. Probing Neutrino Mass Hierarchy with Supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Sovan

    2013-01-01

    The rise time of electron antineutrino lightcurve from a Galactic supernova (SN), observable at the IceCube Cherenkov detector, can provide signature of the neutrino mass hierarchy at “large” 1-3 leptonic mixing angle ϑ 13 . In the early accretion phase of the SN, the neutrino oscillations are nontrivial. Due to the matter suppression of collective effects at these early post bounce times, only the MSW resonances in the outer layers of the SN influence the neutrino flux. When the oscillations are taken into account, the signal in IceCube shows sufficiently fast rise time for the inverted mass hierarchy compared to the normal hierarchy. An investigation with an extensive set of stellar core-collapse simulations, provides both qualitative and quantitative robustness of these features. Thus opening another avenue to explore the neutrino mass hierarchy with the rise time of a supernova burst

  9. On the Hierarchy of Neutrino Masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jezabek, M.; Urban, P.

    2002-01-01

    We present a model of neutrino masses combining the seesaw mechanism and strong Dirac mass hierarchy and at the same time exhibiting a significantly reduced hierarchy at the level of active neutrino masses. The heavy Majorana masses are assumed to be degenerate. The suppression of the hierarchy is due to a symmetric and unitary operator R whose role is discussed. The model gives realistic mixing and mass spectrum. The mixing of atmospheric neutrinos is attributed to the charged lepton sector whereas the mixing of solar neutrinos is due to the neutrino sector. Small U e3 is a consequence of the model. The masses of the active neutrinos are given by μ 3 ≅ √(Δm 2 O ) and μ 1 /μ 2 = ≅ tan 2 (θ O ). (author)

  10. PINGU sensitivity to neutrino mass hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groß, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy (NMH) is among the most fundamental questions in particle physics. Recent measurements of 1) a large mixing angle between the first and the third neutrino mass eigenstates and 2) the first observation of atmospheric neutrino oscillations at tens of GeV with neutrino telescopes, open the intriguing new possibility to exploit matter effects in neutrino oscillation to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. A further extension of IceCube/DeepCore called PINGU (Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade) has been recently envisioned with the ultimate goal to measure neutrino mass hierarchy. PINGU would consist of additional IceCube-like strings of detectors deployed in the deepest and cleanest ice in the center of IceCube. More densely deployed instrumentation would provide a threshold substantially below 10 GeV and enhance the sensitivity to the mass hierarchy signal in atmospheric neutrinos. Here we discuss an estimate of the PINGU sensitivity to the mass hierarchy determined using an approximation with an Asimov dataset and an oscillation parameter fit

  11. Determining the neutrino mass hierarchy with cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bernardis, Francesco; Kitching, Thomas D.; Heavens, Alan; Melchiorri, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    The combination of current large-scale structure and cosmic microwave background anisotropies data can place strong constraints on the sum of the neutrino masses. Here we show that future cosmic shear experiments, in combination with cosmic microwave background constraints, can provide the statistical accuracy required to answer questions about differences in the mass of individual neutrino species. Allowing for the possibility that masses are nondegenerate we combine Fisher matrix forecasts for a weak lensing survey like Euclid with those for the forthcoming Planck experiment. Under the assumption that neutrino mass splitting is described by a normal hierarchy we find that the combination Planck and Euclid will possibly reach enough sensitivity to put a constraint on the mass of a single species. Using a Bayesian evidence calculation we find that such future experiments could provide strong evidence for either a normal or an inverted neutrino hierarchy. Finally we show that if a particular neutrino hierarchy is assumed then this could bias cosmological parameter constraints, for example, the dark energy equation of state parameter, by > or approx. 1σ, and the sum of masses by 2.3σ. We finally discuss the impact of uncertainties on the theoretical modeling of nonlinearities. The results presented in this analysis are obtained under an approximation to the nonlinear power spectrum. This significant source of uncertainty needs to be addressed in future work.

  12. Inverted radiative hierarchy of quark masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhiani, Z.G.; Rattazzi, R.

    1992-01-01

    Inverted radiative hierarchy of quark masses is investigated. The authors suggest that the mass hierarchy is first generated in a sector of heavy isosinglet fermions due to radiative effects and then projected in the inverted way to the usual quarks by means of a universal seesaw. The simple left-right symmetric gauge model is presented with the P- and CP-parities and the exact isotopical symmetry which are softly (or spontaneously) broken in the Higgs potential. This approach naturally explains the observed pattern of quark masses and mixing, providing the quantitatively correct formula for the Cabibbo angle. Top quark is predicted to be in the 90-150 GeV range

  13. Models of neutrino masses: Anarchy versus hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, Guido; Feruglio, Ferruccio; Masina, Isabella

    2003-01-01

    We present a quantitative study of the ability of models with different levels of hierarchy to reproduce the solar neutrino solutions, in particular the LA solution. As a flexible testing ground we consider models based on SU(5)xU(1) F . In this context, we have made statistical simulations of models with different patterns from anarchy to various types of hierarchy: normal hierarchical models with and without automatic suppression of the 23 (sub)determinant and inverse hierarchy models. We find that, not only for the LOW or VO solutions, but even in the LA case, the hierarchical models have a significantly better success rate than those based on anarchy. The normal hierarchy and the inverse hierarchy models have comparable performances in models with see-saw dominance, while the inverse hierarchy models are particularly good in the no see-saw versions. As a possible distinction between these categories of models, the inverse hierarchy models favour a maximal solar mixing angle and their rate of success drops dramatically as the mixing angle decreases, while normal hierarchy models are far more stable in this respect. (author)

  14. Effects of neutrino oscillation on supernova neutrino. Inverted mass hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Keitaro; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2003-01-01

    We study the effects of neutrino oscillation on supernova neutrinos in the case of the inverted mass hierarchy (m 3 1 2 ) as well as the normal mass hierarchy (m 1 2 3 ). Numerical analysis using realistic supernova and presupernova models allows us to investigate quantitatively the possibility to probe neutrino oscillation parameters. We show that information about the mass hierarchy can be obtained if θ 13 is rather large (sin 2 2θ 13 > 10 -3 ) and that θ 13 can be probed effectively by SuperKamiokande if the neutrino mass hierarchy is inverted. Errors due to the uncertainty in the original neutrino spectra and the Earth effect are also discussed. (author)

  15. Natural fermion mass hierarchy and mixings in family unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dent, James B.; Feger, Robert; Kephart, Thomas W.; Nandi, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present an SU(9) model of family unification with three light chiral families, and a natural hierarchy of charged fermion masses and mixings. The existence of singlet right handed neutrinos with masses about two orders of magnitude smaller than the GUT scale, as needed to understand the light neutrinos masses via the see-saw mechanism, is compelling in our model.

  16. Fermion mass hierarchies and flavor mixing from T' symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Guijun

    2008-01-01

    We construct a supersymmetric model based on T ' x Z 3 x Z 9 flavor symmetry. At the leading order, the charged lepton mass matrix is not diagonal, T ' is broken completely, and the hierarchy in the charged lepton masses is generated naturally. Nearly tribimaximal mixing is predicted, and subleading effects induce corrections of order λ 2 , where λ is the Cabibbo angle. Both the up quark and down quark mass matrices' textures of the well-known U(2) flavor theory are produced at the leading order; realistic hierarchies in quark masses and Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements are obtained. The vacuum alignment and subleading corrections are discussed in detail.

  17. Earth Effects and Mass Hierarchy with Supernova Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb

    2009-01-01

    Collective neutrino flavor transformations take place deep inside a supernova if the neutrino mass hierarchy is inverted, even for extremely small values of θ 13 . We show that the presence (or absence) of Earth matter effects in antineutrino signal is directly related to the absence (or presence) of these collective effects, when the mixing angle θ 13 is small. Thus a neutrino signal from a galactic supernova may enable us to distinguish between the hierarchies even for small values of θ 13 .

  18. Hierarchy plus anarchy in quark masses and mixings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a parametrization of the effect of unknown corrections from new physics on quark and lepton mass matrices. This parametrization is used in order to study how the hierarchies of quark masses and mixing angles are modified by random perturbations of the Yukawa matrices. We discuss several examples of flavor relations predicted by different textures, analyzing how these relations are influenced by the random perturbations. We also comment on the unlikely possibility that unknown corrections contribute significantly to the hierarchy of masses and mixings

  19. Neutrino mass hierarchy determination for θ13 = 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, Raj; Ghoshal, Pomita; Goswami, Srubabati; Sankar, S. Uma

    2010-01-01

    We examine the possibility of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy in the limit θ 13 = 0 using atmospheric neutrinos as the source. In this limit, θ 13 driven matter effects are absent so independent measurements of Δ 31 and Δ 32 can, in principle, lead to hierarchy determination. Since their difference is Δ 21 , one needs an experimental arrangement where Δ 21 L/E > or approx. 1 can be achieved. This can be satisfied by atmospheric neutrinos which have a large range of L and E. Still, we find that hierarchy determination in the θ 13 = 0 limit with atmospheric neutrinos is not a realistic possibility, even in conjunction with a beam experiment like T2K or NOνA. We discuss why, and also reiterate the general conditions for hierarchy determination if θ 13 = 0.

  20. Objective Bayesian analysis of neutrino masses and hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavens, Alan F.; Sellentin, Elena

    2018-04-01

    Given the precision of current neutrino data, priors still impact noticeably the constraints on neutrino masses and their hierarchy. To avoid our understanding of neutrinos being driven by prior assumptions, we construct a prior that is mathematically minimally informative. Using the constructed uninformative prior, we find that the normal hierarchy is favoured but with inconclusive posterior odds of 5.1:1. Better data is hence needed before the neutrino masses and their hierarchy can be well constrained. We find that the next decade of cosmological data should provide conclusive evidence if the normal hierarchy with negligible minimum mass is correct, and if the uncertainty in the sum of neutrino masses drops below 0.025 eV. On the other hand, if neutrinos obey the inverted hierarchy, achieving strong evidence will be difficult with the same uncertainties. Our uninformative prior was constructed from principles of the Objective Bayesian approach. The prior is called a reference prior and is minimally informative in the specific sense that the information gain after collection of data is maximised. The prior is computed for the combination of neutrino oscillation data and cosmological data and still applies if the data improve.

  1. Quark mass hierarchies from the universal seesaw mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, A.; Michel, L.; Sage, M.L.; Wali, K.C.

    1994-01-01

    The paper is an extension of the previous work based on the idea of a universal seesaw mechanism to explain the hierarchies in the fermion mass spectrum. A model is proposed within the framework of left-right symmetry with a minimal Higgs system and an axial U(1) symmetry imposed to distinguish the generations. Previous work was confined, for mathematical simplifications, to the case of nonsingular mass matrices. In the present paper, singular matrices are considered. A systematic perturbative technique is developed to display the mass eigenvalues in terms of the vacuum expectation values of the assumed Higgs multiplets. The model successfully correlates the mass hierarchies among the quarks to the assumed hierarchies in the vacuum expectation values without appealing to a hierarchy in the Yukawa-type fermion--Higgs-boson couplings. By considering a general Higgs potential appropriate to the model, we study its minimization and prove that there exists an open subdomain in the parameter space where the orbit of the lowest minima of the potential corresponds to the kind of hierarchy in the vacuum expectation values needed for the success of the model

  2. Effects of neutrino oscillation on supernova neutrino: inverted mass hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Keitaro; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2003-01-01

    We study the effects of neutrino oscillation on supernova neutrino in the case of the inverted mass hierarchy (m 3 1 2 ). This is an extended study of our previous study where all analyses are performed with normal mass hierarchy (m 1 2 3 ). Numerical analysis using a realistic supernova and presupernova model allow us to discuss quantitatively a possibility to probe neutrino oscillation parameters. We show that we can break partly the degeneracy of the solar neutrino problem (LMA or SMA) and probe the magnitude of θ 13 to some extent by the ratios of high-energy events and low-energy events at SuperKamiokande and SNO and the presence of the Earth effects. Further, if the magnitude of θ 13 is known roughly, we can identify the mass hierarchy

  3. The family mass hierarchy problem in bosonic technicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, A.; Samuel, S.

    1990-01-01

    We use a multiple Higgs system to analyze the family mass hierarchy problem in bosonic technicolor. Dependence on a wide range of Yukawa couplings, λ, for quark and lepton mass generation is greatly reduced, i.e., λ ≅ 0.1 to 1. Third and second generation masses are produced at tree-level, the latter via a see-saw mechanism. We use radiative corrections as a source for many mixing angles and first generation masses. A hierarchy of family masses with small of-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa entries naturally arises. A higher scale of 1-10 TeV for Higgs masses and supersymmetry breaking is needed to alleviate difficulties with flavor-changing effects. Such a large scale is a feature of bosonic technicolor and no fine-tuning is required to obtain electroweak breaking at ≅ 100 GeV. Bosonic technicolor is therefore a natural framework for multi-Higgs systems. (orig.)

  4. Neutrino mass hierarchy determination via atmospheric neutrinos with future detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, Raj; Ghoshal, Pomita; Goswami, Srubabati; Mehta, Poonam; Sankar, S Uma; Shalgar, Shashank

    2008-01-01

    The issue of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the outstanding questions in neutrino physics. We consider the potential of hierarchy determination using atmospheric neutrinos as the source in three different proposed future detectors: A large Iron Calorimeter detector, a megaton Water Cerenkov detector and a large-mass Liquid Argon detector. If the mixing angle θ 13 is about 10 deg. (close to CHOOZ upper bound), the hierarchy sensitivity is essentially determined by resonant matter effects. To maximize the potential of these effects in atmospheric neutrinos, charge discrimination capability in the detector is desirable. Hence, detectors with this capability have an advantage in hierarchy determination. We compare and contrast the performance of the above three detectors in this respect. We perform a realistic analysis of the above future detectors for atmospheric neutrinos and show that it is possible to achieve a significant hierarchy sensitivity if the detector characteristics are favourable. Note: The abstract has been modified from its original form to incorporate suggestions received during the conference. The poster is being submitted in its original form.

  5. Hierarchy in fermion masses and the phantom axion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanopoulos, D.V.

    1981-01-01

    An SU(5) model is presented with hierarchical fermion masses without strong CP violation and with an almost unobservable axion. The key point is to ''tie'' the highly desirable U(1)sub(P-Q) symmetry to the symmetry needed for the fermion mass hierarchy. Since the symmetry is broken at super-high energies (10 15 GeV), the axion becomes super-difficult to detect. This is the Phantom Axion. (author)

  6. Mass hierarchies from anomalies: A peek behind the Planck curtain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1996-01-01

    The masses of quarks and leptons suggest a strong hierarchical structure. We argue that their patterns can be reproduced through the introduction of a new Abelian symmetry. The data suggest that this symmetry is anomalous. We suggest that the cancellation of its anomalies occurs through the Green-Schwarz mechanism. An important check of this idea is that it links the Weinberg angle to a mass ration of the elementary fermions. The Green-Schwarz mechanism occurs naturally in many superstring compactifications, and produces a small parameter, which we use to determine the quark mass hierarchy. We show that hierarchy and mixings among the chiral fermions is a consequence of the Green-Schwarz mechanism. We present several models where this idea is realized. 16 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Determination of neutrino mass hierarchy and θ13 with a remote detector of reactor antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Learned, John G.; Pakvasa, Sandip; Dye, Stephen T.; Svoboda, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a method for determining the hierarchy of the neutrino mass spectrum and θ 13 through remote detection of electron antineutrinos from a nuclear reactor. This method utilizing a single, 10-kiloton scintillating liquid detector at a distance of 49-63 kilometers from the reactor complex measures mass-squared differences involving ν 3 with a one(ten)-year exposure provided sin 2 (2θ 13 )>0.05(0.02). Our technique applies the Fourier transform to the event rate as a function of neutrino flight distance over neutrino energy. Sweeping a relevant range of δm 2 resolves separate spectral peaks for δm 2 31 and δm 2 32 . For normal (inverted) hierarchy |δm 2 31 | is greater (lesser) than |δm 2 32 |. This robust determination requires a detector energy resolution of 3.5%/√(E).

  8. Trinification, the hierarchy problem, and inverse seesaw neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauet, Christophe; Paes, Heinrich; Wiesenfeldt, Soeren

    2011-01-01

    In minimal trinification models light neutrino masses can be generated via a radiative seesaw mechanism, where the masses of the right-handed neutrinos originate from loops involving Higgs and fermion fields at the unification scale. This mechanism is absent in models aiming at solving or ameliorating the hierarchy problem, such as low-energy supersymmetry, since the large seesaw scale disappears. In this case, neutrino masses need to be generated via a TeV-scale mechanism. In this paper, we investigate an inverse seesaw mechanism and discuss some phenomenological consequences.

  9. Signatures of the neutrino mass hierarchy in supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.H.; Huang, Chu-Ching; Lai, Kwang-Chang

    2015-01-01

    The undetermined neutrino mass hierarchy may leave an observable imprint on the neutrino fluxes from a core-collapse supernova (SN). The interpretation of the observables, however, is subject to the uncertain SN models and the flavor conversion mechanism of neutrinos in a SN. We attempt to propose a qualitative interpretation of the expected neutrino events at terrestrial detectors, focusing on the accretion phase of the neutrino burst. The flavor conversions due to neutrino self-interaction, the MSW effect, and the Earth regeneration effect are incorporated in the calculation. It leads to several distinct scenarios that are identified by the neutrino mass hierarchies and the collective flavor transitions. Consequences resulting from the variation of incident angles and SN models are also discussed

  10. Strings and extra dimensions: Mass hierarchies and experimental signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniadis I.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lowering the string scale in the TeV region provides a theoretical framework for solving the mass hierarchy problem and unifying all interactions. The apparent weakness of gravity can then be accounted by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the submillimeter region, and transverse to a braneworld where our universe must be confined. I review the main properties of this scenario and its experimental implications.

  11. Large mass hierarchies from strongly-coupled dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athenodorou, Andreas [Department of Physics, University of Cyprus,B.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Bennett, Ed [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University,Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI),Nagoya University,Furo, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Bergner, Georg [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics,University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Elander, Daniel [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics andMandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand,1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Johannesburg, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Lin, C.-J. David [Institute of Physics, National Chiao-Tung University,1001 Ta-Hsueh Road, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); CNRS, Aix Marseille Université, Université de Toulon, Centre de Physique Théorique,UMR 7332, F-13288 Marseille (France); Lucini, Biagio; Piai, Maurizio [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University,Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-20

    Besides the Higgs particle discovered in 2012, with mass 125 GeV, recent LHC data show tentative signals for new resonances in diboson as well as diphoton searches at high center-of-mass energies (2 TeV and 750 GeV, respectively). If these signals are confirmed (or other new resonances are discovered at the TeV scale), the large hierarchies between masses of new bosons require a dynamical explanation. Motivated by these tentative signals of new physics, we investigate the theoretical possibility that large hierarchies in the masses of glueballs could arise dynamically in new strongly-coupled gauge theories extending the standard model of particle physics. We study lattice data on non-Abelian gauge theories in the (near-)conformal regime as well as a simple toy model in the context of gauge/gravity dualities. We focus our attention on the ratio R between the mass of the lightest spin-2 and spin-0 resonances, that for technical reasons is a particularly convenient and clean observable to study. For models in which (non-perturbative) large anomalous dimensions arise dynamically, we show indications that this mass ratio can be large, with R>5. Moreover, our results suggest that R might be related to universal properties of the IR fixed point. Our findings provide an interesting step towards understanding large mass ratios in the non-perturbative regime of quantum field theories with (near) IR conformal behaviour.

  12. Stability of mass hierarchy in locally supersymmetric grand unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, H.; Helayel-Neto, J.A.; Koh, I.G.

    1984-06-01

    Some locally supersymmetric SU(5) grand unified models with a sliding singlet and two pairs of 5sub(tilde) and 5sub(tilde)* Higgs multiplets are considered from the viewpoint of universal baryon asymmetry and the one-loop stability of mass hierarchy. A new mechanism based on ''sliding singlet reflection symmetry'' to avoid the problem of the mass hierarchical stability is proposed. The stability is shown up to two-loop levels for some models. All order stability is also discussed. (author)

  13. Radiatively generated hierarchy of lepton and quark masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, A.E. Cárcamo; Kovalenko, Sergey; Schmidt, Ivan [Centro Científico Tecnológico de Valparaíso-CCTVal, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María,Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2017-02-24

    We propose a model for radiatively generating the hierarchy of the Standard Model (SM) fermion masses: tree-level top quark mass; 1-loop bottom, charm, tau and muon masses; 2-loop masses for the light up, down and strange quarks as well as for the electron; and 4-loop masses for the light active neutrinos. Our model is based on a softly-broken S{sub 3}×Z{sub 2} discrete symmetry. Its scalar sector consists only of one SM Higgs doublet and three electrically neutral SM-singlet scalars. We do not need to invoke either electrically charged scalar fields, or an extra SU{sub 2L} scalar doublet, or the spontaneous breaking of the discrete group, which are typical for other radiative models in the literature. The model features a viable scalar dark matter candidate.

  14. Permutation symmetry and the origin of fermion mass hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, K.S.; Mohapatra, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    A realization of the ''flavor-democracy'' approach to quark and lepton masses is provided in the context of the standard model with a horizontal S 3 permutation symmetry. In this model, t and b quarks pick up mass at the tree level, c, s-quark and τ-lepton masses arise at the one-loop level, u, d, and μ masses at the two-loop level, and the electron mass at the three-loop level, thus reproducing the observed hierarchial structure without fine tuning of the Yukawa couplings. The pattern of quark mixing angles also emerges naturally, with V us ,V cb ∼O(ε), V ub ∼O(ε 2 ), where ε is a loop expansion parameter

  15. PINGU and the neutrino mass hierarchy: Statistical and systematical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capozzi, F.; Marrone, A.; Lisi, E.

    2016-01-01

    The proposed PINGU project (Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade) is supposed to determine neutrino mass hierarchy through matter effects of atmospheric neutrinos crossing the Earth core and mantle, which leads to variations in the events spectrum in energy and zenith angle. The presence of non-negligible (and partly unknown) systematics on the spectral shape can make the statistical analysis particularly challenging in the limit of high statistics. Assuming plausible spectral shape uncertainties at the percent level (due to effective volume, cross section, resolution functions, oscillation parameters, etc.), we obtain a significant reduction in the sensitivity to the hierarchy. The obtained results show the importance of a dedicated research program aimed at a better characterization and reduction of the uncertainties in future high-statistics experiments with atmospheric neutrinos.

  16. Identifying the neutrino mass hierarchy with supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomas, Ricard

    2006-01-01

    We review how a high-statistics observation of the neutrino signal from a future galactic core-collapse supernova (SN) may be used to discriminate between different neutrino mixing scenarios. We discuss two complementary methods that allow for the positive identification of the mass hierarchy without knowledge of the emitted neutrino fluxes, provided that the 13-mixing angle is large, sin 2 θ 13 -5 . These two approaches are the observation of modulations in the neutrino spectra by Earth matter effects or by the passage of shock waves through the SN envelope. If the value of the 13-mixing angle is unknown, using additionally the information encoded in the prompt neutronization ν e burst-a robust feature found in all modern SN simulations-can be sufficient to fix both the neutrino hierarchy and to decide whether θ 13 is 'small' or 'large'

  17. CP violation and neutrino masses and mixings from quark mass hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, W.; Covi, L.; Emmanuel-Costa, D.; Wiesenfeldt, S.

    2007-10-01

    We study the connection between quark and lepton mass matrices in a supersymmetric SO(10) GUT model in six dimensions, compactified on an orbifold. The physical quarks and leptons are mixtures of brane and bulk states. This leads to a characteristic pattern of mass matrices and high-energy CP violating phases. The hierarchy of up and down quark masses determines the CKM matrix and most charged lepton and neutrino masses and mixings. The small hierarchy of neutrino masses is a consequence of the mismatch of the up and down quark mass hierarchies. The effective CP violating phases in the quark sector, neutrino oscillations and leptogenesis are unrelated. In the neutrino sector we can accomodate naturally sin θ 23 ∝1, sin θ 13 1 2 ∝√(Δm 2 sol ) 3 ∝√(Δm 2 atm ). (orig.)

  18. CP violation and neutrino masses and mixings from quark mass hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, Wilfried; Covi, Laura; Emmanuel-Costa, David; Wiesenfeldt, Soeren

    2007-01-01

    We study the connection between quark and lepton mass matrices in a supersymmetric SO(10) GUT model in six dimensions, compactified on an orbifold. The physical quarks and leptons are mixtures of brane and bulk states. This leads to a characteristic pattern of mass matrices and high-energy CP violating phases. The hierarchy of up and down quark masses determines the CKM matrix and most charged lepton and neutrino masses and mixings. The small hierarchy of neutrino masses is a consequence of the mismatch of the up and down quark mass hierarchies. The effective CP violating phases in the quark sector, neutrino oscillations and leptogenesis are unrelated. In the neutrino sector we can accomodate naturally sin θ 23 ∼ 1, sin θ 13 ∼ 1 ∼ 2 ∼ (Δm 2 sol ) 1/2 3 ∼ (Δm 2 atm ) 1/2

  19. Quark-lepton complementarity relation and neutrino mass hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrandis, Javier; Pakvasa, Sandip

    2005-01-01

    Latest measurements have revealed that the deviation from a maximal solar mixing angle is approximately the Cabibbo angle [i.e., quark-lepton complementarity (QLC) relation]. We argue that it is not plausible that this deviation from maximality, be it a coincidence or not, comes from the charged lepton mixing. Consequently we have calculated the required corrections to the exactly bimaximal neutrino mass matrix ansatz necessary to account for the solar mass difference and the solar mixing angle. We point out that the relative size of these two corrections depends strongly on the hierarchy case under consideration. We find that the inverted hierarchy case with opposite CP parities, which is known to guarantee the renormalization group equations stability of the solar mixing angle, offers the most plausible scenario for a high-energy origin of a QLC-corrected bimaximal neutrino mass matrix. This possibility may allow us to explain the QLC relation in connection with the origin of the charged fermion mass matrices

  20. Neutrino mass matrix: Inverted hierarchy and CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigerio, Michele; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2003-01-01

    We reconstruct the neutrino mass matrix in the flavor basis, in the case of an inverted mass hierarchy (ordering), using all available experimental data on neutrino masses and oscillations. We analyze the dependence of the matrix elements m αβ on the CP violating Dirac δ and Majorana ρ and σ phases, for different values of the absolute mass scale. We find that the present data admit various structures of the mass matrix: (i) hierarchical structures with a set of small (zero) elements; (ii) structures with equalities among various groups of elements: e-row and/or μτ-block elements, diagonal and/or off-diagonal elements; (iii) 'democratic' structure. We find the values of phases for which these structures are realized. The mass matrix elements can anticorrelate with flavor: inverted partial or complete flavor alignment is possible. For various structures of the mass matrix we identify the possible underlying symmetry. We find that the mass matrix can be reconstructed completely only in particular cases, provided that the absolute scale of the mass is measured. Generally, the freedom related to the Majorana phase σ will not be removed, thus admitting various types of mass matrix

  1. Predicting {theta}{sub 13} and the neutrino mass scale from quark lepton mass hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, W.; Domcke, V.; Schmitz, K.

    2011-11-15

    Flavour symmetries of Froggatt-Nielsen type can naturally reconcile the large quark and charged lepton mass hierarchies and the small quark mixing angles with the observed small neutrino mass hierarchies and their large mixing angles. We point out that such a flavour structure, together with the measured neutrino mass squared differences and mixing angles, strongly constrains yet undetermined parameters of the neutrino sector. Treating unknown O(1) parameters as random variables, we obtain surprisingly accurate predictions for the smallest mixing angle, sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13}=0.07{sup +0.11}{sub -0.05}, the smallest neutrino mass, m{sub 1}=2.5{sup +1.7}{sub -1.6} x 10{sup -3} eV, and one Majorana phase, {alpha}{sub 21}/{pi}=1.0{sup +0.2}{sub -0.2}. (orig.)

  2. Stability of mass hierarchy in models with a sliding singlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.Yu.; Tainov, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    In the broad class of models with a heavy sliding singlet and softly broken supersymmetry (e.g. by the effects of N=1 supergravity) it is shown that the doublet-triplet hierarchy obtained at the tree level is not destroyed by quantum correction at any loop order. As an example the simplest SU(5) model with a stable doublet-triplet hierarchy is proposed. The necessary and sufficient conditions of the hierarchy stability are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Atmospheric neutrino oscillations, θ13 and neutrino mass hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabeu, J.; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Petcov, S.T.

    2003-01-01

    We derive predictions for the Nadir angle (θ n ) dependence of the ratio N μ /N e of the rates of the μ-like and e-like multi-GeV events measured in water-Cerenkov detectors in the case of 3-neutrino oscillations of the atmospheric ν e (ν-bar e ) and ν μ (ν-bar μ ), driven by one neutrino mass squared difference, vertical bar Δm 2 31 vertical bar ∼(2.5-3.0)x10 -3 eV 2 >> Δm 2 21 . This ratio is particularly sensitive to the Earth matter effects in the atmospheric neutrino oscillations, and thus to the values of sin 2 θ 13 and sin 2 θ 23 , θ 13 and θ 23 being the neutrino mixing angle limited by CHOOZ and Palo Verde experiments and that responsible for the dominant atmospheric ν μ →ν τ (ν-bar μ →ν-bar τ ) oscillations. It is also sensitive to the type of neutrino mass spectrum which can be with normal (Δm 2 31 >0) or with inverted (Δm 2 31 2 θ 13 > or approx. 0.01, sin 2 θ 23 > or approx. 0.5 and at cosθ n > or approx. 0.4, the Earth matter effects modify substantially the θ n -dependence of the ratio N μ /N e and in a way which cannot be reproduced with sin 2 θ 13 =0 and a different value of sin 2 θ 23 . For normal hierarchy the effects can be as large as ∼25% for cosθ n ∼(0.5-0.8), can reach ∼35% in the Earth core bin cosθ n ∼(0.84-1.0), and might be observable. They are typically by ∼10% smaller in the inverted hierarchy case. An observation of the Earth matter effects in the Nadir angle distribution of the ratio N μ /N e would clearly indicate that sin 2 θ 13 > or approx. 0.01 and sin 2 θ 23 > or approx. 0.50

  4. JUNO. Determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy using reactor neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wonsak, Bjoern [Hamburg University, Inst. Exp. Phys., Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a medium-baseline reactor neutrino experiment located in China. Its aim is to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy at more than 3 sigma significance after six years of data taking by using a 20kt liquid scintillator detector. To achieve this goal, an energy resolution of less than 3%/√(E) is necessary, creating strict requirements on the detector design and the liquid scintillator. Moreover, JUNO will be the only experiment in the near future able to measure the solar mixing parameters with a precision of better than 1%. This is at the same level as our current knowledge on flavour mixing in the quark sector, marking an important milestone of neutrino physics. In addition, supernova neutrinos, geo-neutrinos, sterile neutrinos as well as solar and atmospheric neutrinos can be studied. JUNO was approved in 2013 and the construction of the underground facility started early this year. In this talk the status of the experiment and its prospects is discussed.

  5. Probing neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the charged-current and neutral-current interaction rates of supernova neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lee, Fei-Fan; Lee, Feng-Shiuh; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, $\

  6. Probing neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the charged-current and neutral-current interaction rates of supernova neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lee, Fei-Fan; Lee, Feng-Shiuh; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che; Yang, Yi

    2016-07-01

    The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, ν(bar nu) + p → ν(bar nu) + p, and inverse beta decays (IBD), bar nue + p → n + e+, of supernova neutrinos in scintillation detectors. Neutrino flavor conversions inside the supernova are sensitive to neutrino mass hierarchy. Due to Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the full swapping of bar nue flux with the bar nux (x = μ, τ) one occurs in the inverted hierarchy, while such a swapping does not occur in the normal hierarchy. As a result, more high energy IBD events occur in the detector for the inverted hierarchy than the high energy IBD events in the normal hierarchy. By comparing IBD interaction rate with the mass hierarchy independent NC interaction rate, one can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  7. Probing neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the charged-current and neutral-current interaction rates of supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lee, Fei-Fan; Lee, Feng-Shiuh; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, ν(ν-bar)+p→ν(ν-bar)+p, and inverse beta decays (IBD), ν-bar_e+p→n+e"+, of supernova neutrinos in scintillation detectors. Neutrino flavor conversions inside the supernova are sensitive to neutrino mass hierarchy. Due to Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the full swapping of ν-bar_e flux with the ν-bar_x (x=μ, τ) one occurs in the inverted hierarchy, while such a swapping does not occur in the normal hierarchy. As a result, more high energy IBD events occur in the detector for the inverted hierarchy than the high energy IBD events in the normal hierarchy. By comparing IBD interaction rate with the mass hierarchy independent NC interaction rate, one can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  8. Implications of nonzero θ13 for the neutrino mass hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, D J; Cogswell, B K; Burroughs, H R; Escamilla-Roa, J; Latimer, D C

    2012-01-01

    The Daya Bay, RENO, and Double Chooz experiments have discovered a large non-zero value for θ 13 . We present a global analysis that includes these three experiments, Chooz, the Super-K atmospheric data, and the ν μ → ν e T2K and MINOS experiments that are sensitive to the hierarchy and the sign of θ 13 . We report preliminary results in which we fix the mixing parameters other than θ 13 to those from a recent global analysis. Given there is no evidence for a non-zero CP violation, we assume δ = 0. T2K and MINOS lie in a region of L/E where there is a hierarchy degeneracy in the limit of θ 13 → 0 and no matter interaction. For nonzero θ 13 , the symmetry is partially broken, but a degeneracy under the simultaneous exchange of both hierarchy and the sign of θ 13 remains. Matter effects break this symmetry such that the positions of the peaks in the oscillation probabilities maintain the two-fold symmetry, while the magnitude of the oscillations is sensitive to the hierarchy. This renders T2K and NOvA, with different baselines and different matter effects, better able in combination to distinguish the hierarchy and the sign of θ 13 . The present T2K and MINOS data do not distinguish between hierarchies or the sign of θ 13 , but the large value of θ 13 yields effects from atmospheric data that do. We find for normal hierarchy, positive θ 13 , sin 2 2θ 13 = 0.090 ± 0.020 and is 0.2% probable it is the correct combination; for normal hierarchy, negative θ 13 , sin 2 2θ 13 = 0.108 ± 0.023 and is 2.2% probable; for inverse hierarchy, positive θ 13 , sin 2 2θ 13 = 0.110±0.022 and is 7.1% probable; for inverse hierarchy, negative θ 13 , sin 2 2θ 13 = 0.113 ± 0.022 and is 90.5% probable, results that are inconsistent with two similar analyses.

  9. A Dynamical Origin of the Mass Hierarchy among Neutrinos, Charged Leptons, and Quarks

    OpenAIRE

    Akama, Keiichi; Katsuura, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    We propose a dynamical mass-generation scenario which naturally realizes the mass hierarchy among the neutrinos, charged leptons and quarks, where the mass is dominated by the self-mass induced through the anomalous (i.e. non-minimal) gauge interactions.

  10. Theoretical resolving power of a radiofrequency mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coc, A.; Le Gac, R.; Saint Simon, M. de; Thibault, C.; Touchard, F.

    1988-01-01

    Radiofrequency mass spectrometers of L.G. Smith's type can reach a resolving power of 10 6 -10 7 and a precision of 10 -9 -10 -10 . The resolving power, shape of peaks and limitations are described. As an example, the spectrometer to be used in an experiment aimed at measuring the anti p/p mass ratio is considered. (orig.)

  11. Neutrino mass hierarchy and δCP investigation within the biprobability (P-PT) plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mandip

    2016-01-01

    This article illustrates the possibility of investigating the mass hierarchy and CP-violating phase δ CP in the context of CP trajectory diagrams in the biprobability plane. The separation between the normal mass hierarchy (NH) and inverted mass hierarchy (IH) CP trajectory ellipses in the P-P T plane seems to be very promising as a means of investigating the mass hierarchy. An illustration of the separation between the two hierarchy ellipses in the E-L plane is very helpful to cover all the desired baselines and beam energies and also to analyze the benefits and drawbacks in one step. If we know the mass hierarchy, then, from the large sizes of CP trajectory ellipses that are possible at appropriately long baselines (L) and at specific values of beam energy (E), it becomes possible to investigate at least narrow ranges of the CP/T-violating phase δ CP . The possibility of more than one set of (θ 13 ,δ CP ) parameters corresponding to any chosen coordinate in the P-P T plane, known as parameter degeneracy, may hinder the exact determination of the mass hierarchy as well as the δ CP value. To circumvent this degeneracy in the (θ 13 ,δ CP ) parameter space, in the case of opposite-sign solutions corresponding to the NH and IH cases, sufficiently long baselines are needed, so as to separate the opposite hierarchy ellipses to create an observable separation; in the case of same-sign solutions corresponding to either NH or IH, we need to choose an experimental configuration with L≃2535 km, E≃5 GeV for the n=1 scenario

  12. Finite-temperature behavior of mass hierarchies in supersymmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsparg, P.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that Witten's mechanism for producing a large gauge hierarchy in supersymmetric theories leads to a novel symmetry behavior at finite temperature. The exponentially large expectation value in such models develops at a critical temperature of order of the small (supersymmetry-breaking) scale. The phase transition can proceed without need of vacuum tunnelling. Models based on Witten's mechanism thus require a reexamination of the standard cosmological treatment of grand unified theories. (orig.)

  13. Determining the neutrino mass hierarchy with INO, T2K, NOvA and reactor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Anushree; Choubey, Sandhya; Thakore, Tarak

    2013-01-01

    The relatively large measured value of θ 13 has opened up the possibility of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy through earth matter effects. Amongst the current accelerator experiments only NOvA has a long enough baseline to observe earth matter effects. However, even NOvA is plagued with uncertainty on the knowledge of the true value of Δ CP which drastically reduces its sensitivity to the neutrino mass hierarchy. Earth matter effects in atmospheric neutrinos on the other hand is almost independent of δ CP . The 50 kton magnetized Iron CALorimeter at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (ICAL at the rate lNO) will be observing atmospheric neutrinos. The charge identification capability of this detector gives it an edge over others for mass hierarchy determination through observation of earth matter effects. We study in detail the neutrino mass hierarchy sensitivity of the data from this experiment simulated using the Nuance based generator developed for ICAL at the rate lNO and folded with the detector resolution and efficiencies obtained by the INO collaboration from a full detector Geant based simulation. The data from ICAL at the rate lNO is then combined with simulated of T2K, NOvA Double Chooz, RENO and Daya Bay experiments and a combined sensitivity study to the mass hierarchy performed. With 10 years of ICAL at the rate lNO data combined with T2K, NOvA and reactor data, one could get 2.8σ - 5σ discovery for the neutrino mass hierarchy depending on the true value of (θ23, θ13 and δ CP . (author)

  14. Aspect of Fermion Mass Hierarchy within Flavor Democracy for Yukawa Couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Katsuichi; Yamamoto, Katsuji

    We discuss the fermion mass hierarchy by including vector-like fermions which are accommodated in E6 GUTs within flavor democracy for Yukawa couplings. In this framework, all Yukawa couplings for the standard Higgs doublet have the same strength, and all Yukawa couplings for the singlet Higgs have the same strength (New ansatz). In addition, singlet Higgs and right-handed neutrinos exist. Under this condition, the mass hierarchy mt ≫ mb ˜ mτ as well as mt ≫ mc, mu can be naturally explained.

  15. Determining neutrino mass hierarchy from electron disappearance at a low energy neutrino factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raut, Sushant K.

    2013-01-01

    Reactor neutrino experiments have recently measured the value of θ 13 , to be non-zero and moderately large. This makes the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy possible. However, our lack of knowledge of δ CP results in a parameter degeneracy, which makes this task difficult. The electron neutrino disappearance probability does not depend on δ CP . Therefore, in principle, it is possible to determine the hierarchy independently of δ CP using this channel. Previous studies of neutrino factories have not considered this channel, because the effect of systematics in electron disappearance is substantial. However, we show that for the moderately large value of θ 13 measured, hierarchy determination is possible in spite of systematic effects. We consider a low energy neutrino factory (LENF) setup with a totally active scintillator detector (TASD) with charge-identification. We optimize the setup in muon energy and baseline, for different allowed values of θ 13 and runtime. We find that a LENF with baseline of around 1300 km and muon energy around 3-4 GeV is well suited for hierarchy determination. For the RENO best-fit value of θ 13 , this setup can determine the hierarchy at 5ω, for all values of δ CP and for both hierarchies. (author)

  16. Experimental conditions for determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy with reactor antineutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Youl Pac

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the optimized experimental requirements to determine neutrino mass hierarchy using electron antineutrinos (ν¯e generated in a nuclear reactor. The features of the neutrino mass hierarchy can be extracted from the |Δm312| and |Δm322| oscillations by applying the Fourier sine and cosine transforms to the L/E spectrum. To determine the neutrino mass hierarchy above 90% probability, the requirements on the energy resolution as a function of the baseline are studied at sin2⁡2θ13=0.1. If the energy resolution of the neutrino detector is less than 0.04/Eν and the determination probability obtained from Bayes' theorem is above 90%, the detector needs to be located around 48–53 km from the reactor(s to measure the energy spectrum of ν¯e. These results will be helpful for setting up an experiment to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, which is an important problem in neutrino physics.

  17. Froggatt-Nielsen hierarchy and the neutrino mass matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamikado, H.; Takasugi, E.

    2008-05-01

    We study the neutrino mass matrix derived from the seesaw mechanism in which the neutrino Yukawa couplings and the heavy Majorana neutrino mass matrix are controlled by the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. In order to obtain the large neutrino mixings, two Froggatt-Nielsen fields are introduced with a complex vacuum expectation values. As a by-product, CP violation is systematically induced even if the order one couplings of FN fields are real. We show several predictions of this model, such as θ 13 , the Dirac CP phase, two Majorana CP phases, the effective mass of the neutrinoless double beta decay and the leptogenesis. The prediction of the branching ratio of μ→eγ is also given in SUSY model. (orig.)

  18. Probing neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the charged-current and neutral-current interaction rates of supernova neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Kwang-Chang [Center for General Education, Chang Gung University,Kwei-Shan, Taoyuan, 333, Taiwan (China); Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Lee, Fei-Fan [Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Lee, Feng-Shiuh [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Lin, Guey-Lin [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Liu, Tsung-Che [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Yang, Yi [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China)

    2016-07-22

    The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, ν(ν-bar)+p→ν(ν-bar)+p, and inverse beta decays (IBD), ν-bar{sub e}+p→n+e{sup +}, of supernova neutrinos in scintillation detectors. Neutrino flavor conversions inside the supernova are sensitive to neutrino mass hierarchy. Due to Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the full swapping of ν-bar{sub e} flux with the ν-bar{sub x} (x=μ, τ) one occurs in the inverted hierarchy, while such a swapping does not occur in the normal hierarchy. As a result, more high energy IBD events occur in the detector for the inverted hierarchy than the high energy IBD events in the normal hierarchy. By comparing IBD interaction rate with the mass hierarchy independent NC interaction rate, one can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  19. Determination of neutrino mass hierarchy by 21 cm line and CMB B-mode polarization observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Yoshihiko, E-mail: oyamayo@post.kek.jp [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Shimizu, Akie [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Kohri, Kazunori [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2013-01-29

    We focus on the ongoing and future observations for both the 21 cm line and the CMB B-mode polarization produced by a CMB lensing, and study their sensitivities to the effective number of neutrino species, the total neutrino mass, and the neutrino mass hierarchy. We find that combining the CMB observations with future square kilometer arrays optimized for 21 cm line such as Omniscope can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy at 2{sigma}. We also show that a more feasible combination of Planck + POLARBEAR and SKA can strongly improve errors of the bounds on the total neutrino mass and the effective number of neutrino species to be {Delta}{Sigma}m{sub {nu}}{approx}0.12 eV and {Delta}N{sub {nu}}{approx}0.38 at 2{sigma}, respectively.

  20. Probing the neutrino mass hierarchy with the rise time of a supernova burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpico, Pasquale D.; Chakraborty, Sovan; Fischer, Tobias; Hüdepohl, Lorenz; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Mirizzi, Alessandro

    2012-04-01

    The rise time of a Galactic supernova (SN) ν¯e light curve, observable at a high-statistics experiment such as the Icecube Cherenkov detector, can provide a diagnostic tool for the neutrino mass hierarchy at “large” 1-3 leptonic mixing angle ϑ13. Thanks to the combination of matter suppression of collective effects at early post-bounce times on one hand and the presence of the ordinary Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect in the outer layers of the SN on the other hand, a sufficiently fast rise time on O(100)ms scale is indicative of an inverted mass hierarchy. We investigate results from an extensive set of stellar core-collapse simulations, providing a first exploration of the astrophysical robustness of these features. We find that for all the models analyzed (sharing the same weak interaction microphysics) the rise times for the same hierarchy are similar not only qualitatively, but also quantitatively, with the signals for the two classes of hierarchies significantly separated. We show via Monte Carlo simulations that the two cases should be distinguishable at IceCube for SNe at a typical Galactic distance 99% of the time. Finally, a preliminary survey seems to show that the faster rise time for inverted hierarchy as compared to normal hierarchy is a qualitatively robust feature predicted by several simulation groups. Since the viability of this signature ultimately depends on the quantitative assessment of theoretical/numerical uncertainties, our results motivate an extensive campaign of comparison of different code predictions at early accretion times with implementation of microphysics of comparable sophistication, including effects such as nucleon recoils in weak interactions.

  1. Neutrino Masses with Inverse Hierarchy from Broken $L_{e}-L_{\\mu}-L_{\\tau}$: a Reappraisal

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido; Altarelli, Guido; Franceschini, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    We discuss a class of models of neutrino masses and mixings with inverse hierarchy based on a broken U(1)_F flavour symmetry with charge L_e-L_\\mu-L_\\tau. The symmetry breaking sector receives separate contributions from flavon vev breaking terms and from soft mass breaking in the right handed Majorana sector. The model is able to reproduce in a natural way all observed features of the charged lepton mass spectrum and of neutrino masses and mixings (even with arbitrarily small \\theta_{13}), with the exception of a moderate fine tuning which is needed to accomodate the observed small value of r = Delta m^2_{sol} / Delta m^2_{atm}.

  2. A Clifford algebra approach to chiral symmetry breaking and fermion mass hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei

    2017-09-01

    We propose a Clifford algebra approach to chiral symmetry breaking and fermion mass hierarchies in the context of composite Higgs bosons. Standard model fermions are represented by algebraic spinors of six-dimensional binary Clifford algebra, while ternary Clifford algebra-related flavor projection operators control allowable flavor-mixing interactions. There are three composite electroweak Higgs bosons resulted from top quark, tau neutrino, and tau lepton condensations. Each of the three condensations gives rise to masses of four different fermions. The fermion mass hierarchies within these three groups are determined by four-fermion condensations, which break two global chiral symmetries. The four-fermion condensations induce axion-like pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons and can be dark matter candidates. In addition to the 125 GeV Higgs boson observed at the Large Hadron Collider, we anticipate detection of tau neutrino composite Higgs boson via the charm quark decay channel.

  3. Fermion mass hierarchies in low-energy supergravity and superstring models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binetruy, P.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the problem of the fermion mass hierarchy in supergravity models with flat directions of the scalar potential associated with some gauge singlet moduli fields. The low-energy Yukawa couplings are non-trivial homogeneous functions of the moduli and a geometric constraint between them plays, in a large class of models, a crucial role in generating hierarchies. Explicit examples are given for no-scale type supergravity models. The Yukawa couplings are dynamical variables at low energy, to be determined by a minimization process which amounts to fixing ratios of the moduli fields. The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model is studied and the constraints needed on the parameters in order to have a top quark much heavier than the other fermions are worked out. The bottom mass is explicitly computed and shown to be compatible with the experimental data for a large region of the parameter space. ((orig.))

  4. The neutrino mass hierarchy measurement with a neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsirigotis, A. G. [Physics Laboratory, Hellenic Open University (Greece); Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    With the measurement of a non zero value of the θ{sub 13} neutrino mixing parameter, interest in neutrinos as source of the baryon asymmetry of the universe has increased. Among the measurements of a rich and varied program in near future neutrino physics is the determination of the mass hierarchy. We present the status of a study of the feasibility of using a densely instrumented undersea neutrino detector to determine the mass hierarchy, utilizing the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect on atmospheric neutrino oscillations. The detector will use technology developed for KM3NeT. We present the systematic studies of the optimization of a detector in the required 5–10 GeV energy regime. These studies include new tracking and interaction identification algorithms as well as geometrical optimizations of the detector.

  5. Durable and mass producible polymer surface structures with different combinations of micro–micro hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yu; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A

    2016-01-01

    Extensive studies have been performed with the aim of fabricating hierarchical surface structures inspired by nature. However, synthetic hierarchical structures have to sacrifice mechanical resistance to functionality by introducing finer scaled structures. Therefore, surfaces are less durable. Surface micro–micro hierarchy has been proven to be effective in replacing micro–nano hierarchy in the sense of superhydrophobicity. However, less attention has been paid to the combined micro–micro hierarchies with surface pillars and pits incorporated together. The fabrication of this type of hierarchy may be less straightforward, with the possibility of being a complicated multi-step process. In this study, we present a simple yet mass producible fabrication method for hierarchical structures with different combinations of surface pillars and pits. The fabrication was based on only one aluminum (Al) mold with sequential mountings. The fabricated structures exhibit high mechanical durability and structural stabilities with a normal load up to 100 kg. In addition, the theoretical estimation of the wetting state shows a promising way of stabilizing a water droplet on the surface pit structures with a more stable Cassie–Baxter state. (paper)

  6. A comprehensive study of neutrino spin-flavour conversion in supernovae and the neutrino mass hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2003-10-01

    Resonant spin-flavour (RSF) conversions of supernova neutrinos, which are induced by the interaction between the nonzero neutrino magnetic moment and supernova magnetic fields, are studied for both normal and inverted mass hierarchy. As the case for the pure matter-induced neutrino oscillation (Mikheyev–Smirnov–Wolfenstein (MSW) effect), we find that the RSF transitions are strongly dependent on the neutrino mass hierarchy as well as the value of θ13. Flavour conversions are solved numerically for various neutrino parameter sets, with the presupernova profile calculated by Woosley and Weaver. In particular, it is very interesting that the RSF-induced νe→bar nue transition occurs if the following conditions are all satisfied: the value of μνB (μν is the neutrino magnetic moment and B is the magnetic field strength) is sufficiently strong, the neutrino mass hierarchy is inverted, and the value of θ13 is large enough to induce adiabatic MSW resonance. In this case, the strong peak due to the original νe emitted from the neutronization burst would exist in the time profile of the neutrino events detected at the Super-Kamiokande detector. If this peak were observed in reality, it would provide fruitful information on the neutrino properties. On the other hand, the characteristics of the neutrino spectra are also different between the neutrino models, but we find that there remains degeneracy among several models. Dependence on presupernova models is also discussed.

  7. Measuring the neutrino mass hierarchy with the future KM3NeT/ORCA detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofestaedt, Jannik

    2017-02-22

    The neutrino mass hierarchy can be determined by measuring the energy- and zenith-angle-dependent oscillation pattern of few-GeV atmospheric neutrinos that have traversed the Earth. This measurement is the main science goal of KM3NeT/ORCA ('Oscillation Research with Cosmics in the Abyss'), a planned multi-megaton underwater Cherenkov detector in the Mediterranean Sea. A key task is the reconstruction of shower-like events induced by electron neutrinos in charged-current interactions, which substantially affect the neutrino mass hierarchy sensitivity. In this thesis, numerous aspects of the expected neutrino detection performance of the planned ORCA detector are investigated. A new reconstruction algorithm for neutrino-induced shower-like events is developed. Excellent reconstruction accuracies are achieved, with a neutrino energy resolution better than 26%/24%, and a median neutrino direction resolution better than 11 /9 for electron neutrinos/antineutrinos in charged-current interactions with energies above 7 GeV. It is shown that these resolutions are close to the reconstruction accuracy limits imposed by intrinsic fluctuations in the Cherenkov light signatures. These intrinsic resolution limits are based on generic assumptions about event reconstruction in Cherenkov detectors and are derived as part of this thesis. Differences in event reconstruction capabilities between water- and ice-based Cherenkov detectors are discussed. The configuration of existing trigger algorithms is optimised for the ORCA detector. Based on the developed shower reconstruction, a detector optimisation study of the photosensor density is performed. In addition, it is shown that optical background noise in the deep Mediterranean Sea is not expected to compromise the feasibility of the neutrino mass hierarchy measurement with ORCA. Together, these investigations contribute significantly to the estimated neutrino mass hierarchy sensitivity of ORCA published in the 'Letter of

  8. Z-Z' mass hierarchy in a supersymmetric model with a secluded U(1)'-breaking sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erler, Jens; Langacker, Paul; Li Tianjun

    2002-01-01

    We consider the Z ' /Z mass hierarchy in a supersymmetric model in which the U(1) ' is broken in a secluded sector coupled to the ordinary sector only by gauge and possibly soft terms. A large mass hierarchy can be achieved while maintaining the normal sparticle spectra if there is a direction in which the tree level potential becomes flat when a particular Yukawa coupling vanishes. We describe the conditions needed for the desired breaking pattern, to avoid unwanted global symmetries, and for an acceptable effective μ parameter. The electroweak breaking is dominated by A terms rather than scalar masses, leading to tan β≅1. The spectrum of the symmetry breaking sector is displayed. There is significant mixing between the MSSM particles and new standard model singlets, for both the Higgs scalars and the neutralinos. A larger Yukawa coupling for the effective μ parameter is allowed than in the NMSSM because of the U(1) ' contribution to the running from a high scale. The upper bound on the tree-level mass of the lightest CP even Higgs doublet mass is about cx174 GeV, where c is of order unity, but the actual mass eigenvalues are generally smaller because of singlet mixing

  9. Flavor connections and neutrino mass hierarchy in variant invisible axion models without domain wall problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, C.Q.; Ng, J.N.

    1988-08-01

    New types of invisible axion model based on the recent variant axion models are presented. They belong to the N=1 type model and hence are free of domain wall problems. The Peccei-Quinn symmetry transformations are not totally generation and flavor blind, which may help in understanding the small values of electron and u-quark and large t-quark masses. The light neutrino mass pattern in the two Higgs singlet models can have a very different hierarchy that differs from the other type invisible axion model. (Author) (25 refs.)

  10. Formulating weak CP-violation in terms of quark mass hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, A.

    1982-06-01

    That physics which explains Cabibbo mixing is shown to also put a lower bound on Kobayashi-Maskawa CP-violation. The observed amount epsilon = 0.002 of CP-violation in the Ksub(L) - Ksub(S) system in turn sharply requires 25 GeV <= msub(t) <= 59 GeV; msub(t) being the top-quark mass. Assuming a vanishing weak (ala strong) CP-violation amplitude for msub(u) → 0, as strongly indicated by the data, epsilon is formulated as a second order quantity in the fermionic mass hierarchy. (author)

  11. Neutrino mass hierarchy and three-flavor spectral splits of supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Tomas, Ricard; Tamborra, Irene

    2010-01-01

    It was recently realized that three-flavor effects could peculiarly modify the development of spectral splits induced by collective oscillations, for supernova neutrinos emitted during the cooling phase of a protoneutron star. We systematically explore this case, explaining how the impact of these three-flavor effects depends on the ordering of the neutrino masses. In inverted mass hierarchy, the solar mass splitting gives rise to instabilities in regions of the (anti)neutrino energy spectra that were otherwise stable under the leading two-flavor evolution governed by the atmospheric mass splitting and by the 1-3 mixing angle. As a consequence, the high-energy spectral splits found in the electron (anti)neutrino spectra disappear, and are transferred to other flavors. Imperfect adiabaticity leads to smearing of spectral swap features. In normal mass hierarchy, the three-flavor and the two-flavor instabilities act in the same region of the neutrino energy spectrum, leading to only minor departures from the two-flavor treatment.

  12. The double mass hierarchy pattern: Simultaneously understanding quark and lepton mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollik, Wolfgang Gregor; Saldaña Salazar, Ulises Jesús

    2015-03-01

    The charged fermion masses of the three generations exhibit the two strong hierarchies m3 ≫m2 ≫m1. We assume that also neutrino masses satisfy mν3 >mν2 >mν1 and derive the consequences of the hierarchical spectra on the fermionic mixing patterns. The quark and lepton mixing matrices are built in a general framework with their matrix elements expressed in terms of the four fermion mass ratios, mu /mc, mc /mt, md /ms and ms /mb, and me /mμ, mμ /mτ, mν1 /mν2 and mν2 /mν3, for the quark and lepton sector, respectively. In this framework, we show that the resulting mixing matrices are consistent with data for both quarks and leptons, despite the large leptonic mixing angles. The minimal assumption we take is the one of hierarchical masses and minimal flavor symmetry breaking that strongly follows from phenomenology. No special structure of the mass matrices has to be assumed that cannot be motivated by this minimal assumption. This analysis allows us to predict the neutrino mass spectrum and set the mass of the lightest neutrino well below 0.01 eV. The method also gives the 1σ allowed ranges for the leptonic mixing matrix elements. Contrary to the common expectation, leptonic mixing angles are found to be determined solely by the four leptonic mass ratios without any relation to symmetry considerations as commonly used in flavor model building. Still, our formulae can be used to build up a flavor model that predicts the observed hierarchies in the masses - the mixing follows then from the procedure which is developed in this work.

  13. μ-τ symmetry and charged lepton mass hierarchy in a supersymmetric D4 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagedorn, C.; Ziegler, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a supersymmetric D 4 xZ 5 model which leads to vanishing reactor mixing angle θ 13 =0 and maximal atmospheric mixing θ 23 =π/4 in the lepton sector at leading order, due to the preservation of nontrivial distinct D 4 subgroups in the charged lepton and neutrino sectors, respectively. The solar mixing angle θ 12 remains undetermined and is expected to be of order one. Since right-handed charged leptons transform as singlets under D 4 , the charged lepton mass hierarchy can be naturally accounted for. The model predicts inverted mass hierarchy for neutrinos. Additionally, we show that, unlike in most of the other models of this type, all vacuum expectation values of gauge singlets (flavons) can be determined through mass parameters of the superpotential. Next-to-leading order corrections to lepton masses and mixings are calculated and shown to be under control; in particular, the corrections to θ 23 =π/4 and θ 13 =0 are of the order of the generic expansion parameter ε≅0.04 and arise dominantly from the charged lepton sector.

  14. Determining the hierarchy of neutrino masses with high density magnetized detectors at the Beta Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donini, A.; Fernandez-Martinez, E.; Rigolin, S.; Migliozzi, P.; Lavina, L. Scotto; Selvi, M.; De Fatis, T. Tabarelli; Terranova, F.

    2008-01-01

    Multi-kton iron detectors can be simultaneously exploited as far detectors for high energy Beta Beams and to determine the atmospheric ν μ flux in the multi-GeV range. These measurements can be combined in a highly non trivial manner to improve the sensitivity to the hierarchy of neutrino masses. Considering a Super-SPS based Beta Beam and a 40 kton far detector located ∼700 km from the source (CERN to Gran Sasso distance), we demonstrate that even with moderate detector granularities the sign of Δm 13 2 can be determined for θ 13 values greater than 4 deg.

  15. Identifying Neutrino Mass Hierarchy at Extremely Small θ13 through Earth Matter Effects in a Supernova Signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Dighe, Amol; Mirizzi, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Collective neutrino flavor transformations deep inside a supernova are sensitive to the neutrino mass hierarchy even at extremely small values of θ 13 . Exploiting this effect, we show that comparison of the antineutrino signals from a galactic supernova in two megaton class water Cherenkov detectors, one of which is shadowed by Earth, will enable us to distinguish between the hierarchies if sin 2 θ 13 -5 , where long baseline neutrino experiments would be ineffectual

  16. Effect of atmospheric flux uncertainties on the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandroos Joakim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The next generation of large-volume neutrino telescopes will include low-energy subarrays which will be able to measure neutrinos with energies of a few GeV. In this energy range the primary signal below the horizon is neutrinos created by cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere. The measured event rate will depend on the neutrino mass hierarchy, allowing determination of this quantity to a significance level of about 3.5 sigma within a 5-year period, mostly limited by systematic uncertainties. We present here the impact of the uncertainties on the atmospheric neutrino flux normalization on the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy. We suggest constraining the systematic uncertainties by including the downgoing neutrino sample, which will increase the significance. This work was performed using simulation data from the low-energy extension to the IceCube detector located at the geographic south pole, PINGU, and is relevant to a wide range of other experiments.

  17. Geometrical neutrino mass hierarchy and a 17-keV ντ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, K.S.; Mohapatra, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    We present an extension of the singlet majoron gauge model which realizes a novel scheme of geometrical neutrino mass hierarchy proposed recently by Glashow, wherein ν e and ν μ are Majorana particles with m νe ∼m νμ ∼10 -3 eV while ν τ is a Dirac particle with a mass of 17 keV. Our model explains the solar-neutrino deficit via the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism and accounts for the recently reported anomaly in beta-decay spectra in a natural manner without any undesirable fine tuning of parameters. An interesting consequence of the model is that ν τ is short lived with a lifetime of ∼10 -3-- 10 -1 sec

  18. Hint from the interfamily mass hierarchy: Two vectorlike families in the TeV range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K. S.; Pati, Jogesh C.; Stremnitzer, Hanns

    1995-03-01

    Two vectorlike familes QL,R=(U, D, N, E)L,R and Q'L,R=(U', D', N', E')L,R with masses of order 1 TeV, one of which is a doublet of SU(2)L and the other a doublet of SU(2)R, have been predicted to exist, together with the three observed chiral families, in the context of a viable and economical SUSY preon model. The model itself possesses many attractive features which include explanations of the origins of (i) diverse mass scales, (ii) family replication, (iii) protection of the masses of the composite quarks and leptons compared to their compositeness scales, and (iv) interfamily mass hierarchy. The existence of the two vectorlike familes, a prediction of the model, turns out to be crucial especially for an explanation of the interfamily mass hierarchy (IFMH). Given the simplicity of the explanation, the observed IFMH in turn appears to us to be a strong hint in favor of the existence of the two vectorlike families. This paper is devoted to a detailed study of the expected masses, mixings and decay modes of the fermions belonging to the two vectorlike families, in the context of the SUSY preon model, with the inclusion of the renormalization effects due to the standard model gauge interactions. Including QCQ renormalization effects, the masses of the vectorlike quarks are expected to lie in the range of 500 GeV to about 2.5 TeV, while those of the vectorlike leptons are expected to be in the range of 200 GeV to 1 TeV. Their mass pattern and decay modes exhibit certain distinguishing features and characteristic signals. For example, when the CERN LHC and, possibly a future version of the SSC are built, pair production of the vectorlike quarks would lead to systems such as (bb¯+4Z+W+W-) and (bb¯+2Z+W+W-), while an e-e+ linear collider (NLC) of suitable energy can produce appreciably a single neutral heavy lepton N together, with ντ, followed by the decay of N into (Z+ντ)-->(e-e+)+ντ. This last signal may conceivably materialize even at CERN LEP 200 if N is

  19. Mass hierarchy sensitivity of medium baseline reactor neutrino experiments with multiple detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Xin Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the neutrino mass hierarchy (MH determination of medium baseline reactor neutrino experiments with multiple detectors, where the sensitivity of measuring the MH can be significantly improved by adding a near detector. Then the impact of the baseline and target mass of the near detector on the combined MH sensitivity has been studied thoroughly. The optimal selections of the baseline and target mass of the near detector are ∼12.5 km and ∼4 kton respectively for a far detector with the target mass of 20 kton and the baseline of 52.5 km. As typical examples of future medium baseline reactor neutrino experiments, the optimal location and target mass of the near detector are selected for the specific configurations of JUNO and RENO-50. Finally, we discuss distinct effects of the reactor antineutrino energy spectrum uncertainty for setups of a single detector and double detectors, which indicate that the spectrum uncertainty can be well constrained in the presence of the near detector.

  20. Mass hierarchy sensitivity of medium baseline reactor neutrino experiments with multiple detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong-Xin, E-mail: hxwang@iphy.me [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhan, Liang; Li, Yu-Feng; Cao, Guo-Fu [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Shen-Jian [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2017-05-15

    We report the neutrino mass hierarchy (MH) determination of medium baseline reactor neutrino experiments with multiple detectors, where the sensitivity of measuring the MH can be significantly improved by adding a near detector. Then the impact of the baseline and target mass of the near detector on the combined MH sensitivity has been studied thoroughly. The optimal selections of the baseline and target mass of the near detector are ∼12.5 km and ∼4 kton respectively for a far detector with the target mass of 20 kton and the baseline of 52.5 km. As typical examples of future medium baseline reactor neutrino experiments, the optimal location and target mass of the near detector are selected for the specific configurations of JUNO and RENO-50. Finally, we discuss distinct effects of the reactor antineutrino energy spectrum uncertainty for setups of a single detector and double detectors, which indicate that the spectrum uncertainty can be well constrained in the presence of the near detector.

  1. RESOLVING THE LUMINOSITY PROBLEM IN LOW-MASS STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Vorobyov, Eduard I., E-mail: michael.dunham@yale.edu, E-mail: eduard.vorobiev@univie.ac.at [Institute of Astronomy, University of Vienna, Vienna 1180 (Austria)

    2012-03-01

    We determine the observational signatures of protostellar cores by coupling two-dimensional radiative transfer calculations with numerical hydrodynamical simulations that predict accretion rates that both decline with time and feature short-term variability and episodic bursts caused by disk gravitational instability and fragmentation. We calculate the radiative transfer of the collapsing cores throughout the full duration of the collapse, using as inputs the core, disk, protostellar masses, radii, and mass accretion rates predicted by the hydrodynamical simulations. From the resulting spectral energy distributions, we calculate standard observational signatures (L{sub bol}, T{sub bol}, L{sub bol}/L{sub smm}) to directly compare to observations. We show that the accretion process predicted by these models reproduces the full spread of observed protostars in both L{sub bol}-T{sub bol} and L{sub bol}-M{sub core} space, including very low luminosity objects, provides a reasonable match to the observed protostellar luminosity distribution, and resolves the long-standing luminosity problem. These models predict an embedded phase duration shorter than recent observationally determined estimates (0.12 Myr versus 0.44 Myr), and a fraction of total time spent in Stage 0 of 23%, consistent with the range of values determined by observations. On average, the models spend 1.3% of their total time in accretion bursts, during which 5.3% of the final stellar mass accretes, with maximum values being 11.8% and 35.5% for the total time and accreted stellar mass, respectively. Time-averaged models that filter out the accretion variability and bursts do not provide as good of a match to the observed luminosity problem, suggesting that the bursts are required.

  2. Search for indications of the neutrino mass hierarchy using IceCube/DeepCore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuermann, Martin; Vehring, Markus; Wallraff, Marius; Wiebusch, Christopher [III. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    In 2015, the Nobel prize in physics was awarded for ''the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass'', showing the high relevance of neutrino masses for modern particle physics. However, the ordering of the three neutrino masses is still unknown and is often referred to as neutrino mass hierarchy. Its measurement is a major goal for future experiments. One strategy is to measure matter effects in the oscillation pattern of atmospheric neutrinos e.g. as proposed for the PINGU extension of the IceCube neutrino observatory. Already now, the IceCube/DeepCore detector at the Geographic South Pole can be used to search for this signature. In this talk, we present an analysis based on data taken between 2011 and 2015. Due to recent improvements in the detector's reconstruction performance and the quality of the data selection, a measurement on the significance level of 1 sigma is expected.

  3. Global black p-brane world: a new approach to stable mass hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sei-Hoon; Rey, Soo-Jong; Kim, Yoonbai

    2001-01-01

    We find a class of extremal black hole-like global p-brane in higher-dimensional gravity with a negative cosmological constant. The region inside the p-brane horizon possesses all essential features required for the Randall-Sundrum type brane world scenario. The set-up allows to interpret the horizon size as the compactification size in that the Planck scale M Pl is determined by the fundamental scale M * and the horizon size r H via the familiar relation M Pl 2 ∼M * 2+n r H n , and the gravity behaves as expected in a world with n-extra dimensions compactified with size r H . Most importantly, a stable mass hierarchy between M Pl and M * can be generated from topological charge of the p-brane and the horizon size r H therein. We also offer a new perspective on various issues associated to the brane world scenarios including the cosmological constant problem

  4. Earth matter effects at very long baselines and the neutrino mass hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, Raj; Ghoshal, Pomita; Goswami, Srubabati; Mehta, Poonam; Sankar, S. Uma

    2006-01-01

    We study matter effects which arise in the muon neutrino oscillation and survival probabilities relevant to atmospheric neutrino and very long baseline (>4000 Km) beam experiments. The interrelations between the three probabilities P μe , P μτ , and P μμ are examined. It is shown that large and observable sensitivity to the neutrino mass hierarchy can be present in P μμ and P μτ . We emphasize that at baselines >7000 Km, matter effects in P μτ are important under certain conditions and can be large. The muon survival rates in experiments with very long baselines thus depend on matter effects in both P μτ and P μe . We also indicate where these effects provide sensitivity to θ 13 and identify ranges of energies and baselines where this sensitivity is maximum. The effect of parameter degeneracies in the three probabilities at these baselines and energies is studied in detail and large parts of the parameter space are identified which are free from these degeneracies. In the second part of the paper, we focus on using the matter effects studied in the first part as a means of determining the mass hierarchy via atmospheric neutrinos. Realistic event rate calculations are performed for a charge discriminating 100 kT iron calorimeter which demonstrate the possibility of realizing this very important goal in neutrino physics. It is shown that for atmospheric neutrinos, a careful selection of energy and baseline ranges is necessary in order to obtain a statistically significant signal, and that the effects are largest in bins where matter effects in both P μe and P μτ combine constructively. Under these conditions, up to a 4σ signal for matter effects is possible (for Δ 31 >0) within a time scale appreciably shorter than the one anticipated for neutrino factories

  5. Sparticle mass hierarchies, simplified models from SUGRA unification, and benchmarks for LHC Run-II SUSY searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francescone, David; Akula, Sujeet; Altunkaynak, Baris; Nath, Pran

    2015-01-01

    Sparticle mass hierarchies contain significant information regarding the origin and nature of supersymmetry breaking. The hierarchical patterns are severely constrained by electroweak symmetry breaking as well as by the astrophysical and particle physics data. They are further constrained by the Higgs boson mass measurement. The sparticle mass hierarchies can be used to generate simplified models consistent with the high scale models. In this work we consider supergravity models with universal boundary conditions for soft parameters at the unification scale as well as supergravity models with nonuniversalities and delineate the list of sparticle mass hierarchies for the five lightest sparticles. Simplified models can be obtained by a truncation of these, retaining a smaller set of lightest particles. The mass hierarchies and their truncated versions enlarge significantly the list of simplified models currently being used in the literature. Benchmarks for a variety of supergravity unified models appropriate for SUSY searches at future colliders are also presented. The signature analysis of two benchmark models has been carried out and a discussion of the searches needed for their discovery at LHC Run-II is given. An analysis of the spin-independent neutralino-proton cross section exhibiting the Higgs boson mass dependence and the hierarchical patterns is also carried out. It is seen that a knowledge of the spin-independent neutralino-proton cross section and the neutralino mass will narrow down the list of the allowed sparticle mass hierarchies. Thus dark matter experiments along with analyses for the LHC Run-II will provide strong clues to the nature of symmetry breaking at the unification scale.

  6. Fermion mass hierarchy as a consequence of the spontaneous breakdown of the four-flavor symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cveti, M.

    1985-01-01

    We study the fermion mass matrix in the case of four fermionic flavors u, d, c, and s. The original Lagrangian of the effective gauge theory respects the full four-flavor symmetry and fermions are massless. We analyze a vacuum expectation pattern of the elementary Higgs-field multiplet Phi/sub a/b [(a,b) = u,d,c,s]. Nonzero vacuum expectation values of Phi spontaneously break the original flavor symmetry with fermionic masses being directly proportional to these vacuum expectation values. In the Higgs potential, hard terms in Phi respect the global symmetry SU(4)/sub L/ x SU(4)/sub R/ of four flavors while soft terms in Psi break this symmetry down to the effective anomaly-free gauge group SU(2)/sub L//sup e/+μ x SU(2)/sub R//sup e/+μ. These soft terms are due to radiative as well as nonperturbative effects. Such a symmetry structure of the Higgs potential can be motivated by the underlying preonic dynamics. The desired solution, i.e., the proper interfamily and intrafamily hierarchy as well as the desired Cabibbo mixing angle, can emerge as a consequence of a subtle interplay between the soft terms and certain hard terms of the Higgs potential

  7. RESOLVE AND ECO: THE HALO MASS-DEPENDENT SHAPE OF GALAXY STELLAR AND BARYONIC MASS FUNCTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, Kathleen D.; Kannappan, Sheila J.; Stark, David V.; Moffett, Amanda J.; Norris, Mark A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, 141 Chapman Hall CB 3255, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Berlind, Andreas A., E-mail: keckert@physics.unc.edu [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2016-06-20

    In this work, we present galaxy stellar and baryonic (stars plus cold gas) mass functions (SMF and BMF) and their halo mass dependence for two volume-limited data sets. The first, RESOLVE-B, coincides with the Stripe 82 footprint and is extremely complete down to baryonic mass M {sub bary} ∼ 10{sup 9.1} M {sub ⊙}, probing the gas-rich dwarf regime below M {sub bary} ∼ 10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙}. The second, ECO, covers a ∼40× larger volume (containing RESOLVE-A) and is complete to M {sub bary} ∼ 10{sup 9.4} M {sub ⊙}. To construct the SMF and BMF we implement a new “cross-bin sampling” technique with Monte Carlo sampling from the full likelihood distributions of stellar or baryonic mass. Our SMFs exhibit the “plateau” feature starting below M {sub star} ∼ 10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙} that has been described in prior work. However, the BMF fills in this feature and rises as a straight power law below ∼10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙}, as gas-dominated galaxies become the majority of the population. Nonetheless, the low-mass slope of the BMF is not as steep as that of the theoretical dark matter halo MF. Moreover, we assign group halo masses by abundance matching, finding that the SMF and BMF, separated into four physically motivated halo mass regimes, reveal complex structure underlying the simple shape of the overall MFs. In particular, the satellite MFs are depressed below the central galaxy MF “humps” in groups with mass <10{sup 13.5} M {sub ⊙} yet rise steeply in clusters. Our results suggest that satellite destruction and stripping are active from the point of nascent group formation. We show that the key role of groups in shaping MFs enables reconstruction of a given survey’s SMF or BMF based on its group halo mass distribution.

  8. An Ultra-Sensitive, Size Resolved Particle Mass Measurement Device, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — By providing size resolved compositional information, the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) has greatly advanced understanding of aircraft particulate matter (PM)...

  9. An Ultra-Sensitive, Size Resolved Particle Mass Measurement Device, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The characterization of aircraft particulate matter (PM) emissions has benefited greatly by the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) by providing size resolved...

  10. Unveiling ν secrets with cosmological data: Neutrino masses and mass hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagnozzi, Sunny; Giusarma, Elena; Mena, Olga; Freese, Katherine; Gerbino, Martina; Ho, Shirley; Lattanzi, Massimiliano

    2017-12-01

    Using some of the latest cosmological data sets publicly available, we derive the strongest bounds in the literature on the sum of the three active neutrino masses, Mν, within the assumption of a background flat Λ CDM cosmology. In the most conservative scheme, combining Planck cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies and baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) data, as well as the up-to-date constraint on the optical depth to reionization (τ ), the tightest 95% confidence level upper bound we find is Mν0.06 eV from oscillations data would raise the quoted upper bounds by O (0.1 σ ) and would not affect our conclusions.

  11. Charge and frequency resolved isochronous mass spectrometry and the mass of 51Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuai, P.; Xu, H.S.; Tu, X.L.; Zhang, Y.H.; Sun, B.H.; Wang, M.

    2014-01-01

    Revolution frequency measurements of individual ions in storage rings require sophisticated timing detectors. One of common approaches for such detectors is the detection of secondary electrons released from a thin foil due to penetration of the stored ions. A new method based on the analysis of intensities of secondary electrons was developed which enables determination of the charge of each ion simultaneously with the measurement of its revolution frequency. Although the mass-over-charge ratios of 51 Co 27+ and 34 Ar 18+ ions are almost identical, and therefore, the ions cannot be resolved in a storage ring, by applying the new method the mass excess of the short-lived 51 Co is determined for the first time to be ME( 51 Co)=−27342(48) keV. Shell-model calculations in the fp-shell nuclei compared to the new data indicate the need to include isospin-nonconserving forces

  12. Seesaw induced electroweak scale, the hierarchy problem and sub-eV neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, D.; Bar-Shalom, S.; Soni, A.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a model for the scalar sector where all interactions occur either at an ultra-high scale, Λ U ∝10 16 -10 19 GeV, or at an intermediate scale, Λ I =10 9 -10 11 GeV. The interaction of physics on these two scales results in an SU(2) Higgs condensate at the electroweak (EW) scale, Λ EW , through a seesaw-like Higgs mechanism, Λ EW ∝Λ I 2 /Λ U , while the breaking of the SM SU(2) x U(1) gauge symmetry occurs at the intermediate scale Λ I . The EW scale is, therefore, not fundamental but is naturally generated in terms of ultra-high energy phenomena and so the hierarchy problem is alleviated. We show that the class of such ''seesaw Higgs'' models predict the existence of sub-eV neutrino masses which are generated through a ''two-step'' seesaw mechanism in terms of the same two ultra-high scales: m ν ∝Λ I 4 /Λ U 3 ∝Λ EW 2 /Λ U . The neutrinos can be either Dirac or Majorana, depending on the structure of the scalar potential. We also show that our seesaw Higgs model can be naturally embedded in theories with tiny extra dimensions of size R∝Λ U -1 ∝10 -16 fm, where the seesaw induced EW scale arises from a violation of a symmetry at a distant brane; in particular, in the scenario presented there are seven tiny extra dimensions. (orig.)

  13. Wave-packet treatment of reactor neutrino oscillation experiments and its implications on determining the neutrino mass hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Yat-Long; Chu, M.C.; Xu, Jianyi [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Physics, Shatin (China); Tsui, Ka Ming [University of Tokyo, RCCN, ICRR, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Wong, Chan Fai [Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2016-06-15

    We derive the neutrino flavor transition probabilities with the neutrino treated as a wave packet. The decoherence and dispersion effects from the wave-packet treatment show up as damping and phase-shifting of the plane-wave neutrino oscillation patterns. If the energy uncertainty in the initial neutrino wave packet is larger than around 0.01 of the neutrino energy, the decoherence and dispersion effects would degrade the sensitivity of reactor neutrino experiments to mass hierarchy measurement to lower than 3 σ confidence level. (orig.)

  14. Mass hierarchy and energy scaling of the Tsallis - Pareto parameters in hadron productions at RHIC and LHC energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíró, Gábor; Barnaföldi, Gergely Gábor; Biró, Tamás Sándor; Shen, Keming

    2018-02-01

    The latest, high-accuracy identified hadron spectra measurements in highenergy nuclear collisions led us to the investigation of the strongly interacting particles and collective effects in small systems. Since microscopical processes result in a statistical Tsallis - Pareto distribution, the fit parameters q and T are well suited for identifying system size scalings and initial conditions. Moreover, parameter values provide information on the deviation from the extensive, Boltzmann - Gibbs statistics in finite-volumes. We apply here the fit procedure developed in our earlier study for proton-proton collisions [1, 2]. The observed mass and center-of-mass energy trends in the hadron production are compared to RHIC dAu and LHC pPb data in different centrality/multiplicity classes. Here we present new results on mass hierarchy in pp and pA from light to heavy hadrons.

  15. The mass-hierarchy puzzle and the 17-keV neutrino in the context of a universal seesaw model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papageorgiu, E.; Ranfone, S.

    1991-06-01

    In the light of renewed evidence for the existence of a 17 keV neutrino, we study the possible mass patterns for the charged and the neutral leptons, in the context of a generalized ''seesaw''-type of model, which implements a horizontal U(1) A Peccei-Quinn symmetry. Under some general assumptions concerning the structure of the mass matrix we find that the mass hierarchy between the first two generations of charged leptons and the third one is explained in terms of the natural scales of the model. At the same time, with the additional assumption of the proportionality of Majorana- and Dirac-type couplings, the spectrum of the neutral leptons contains two very light Majorana neutrinos, such as required by the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein interpretation of the solar neutrino deficit, and the 17 keV ''Simpson'' neutrino. A cosmologically consistent decay mode of this neutrino is into a ν e and the axion. (author)

  16. Determining ν mass hierarchy by precise measurements of two Δm2 in νe and νμ disappearance experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakata, H; Nunokawa, H; Parke, S; Funchal, R Zukanovich

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the possibility of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the two effective atmospheric neutrino mass squared differences measured, respectively, in electron and in muon neutrino disappearance oscillation experiments. If the former is larger (smaller) than the latter, the mass hierarchy is of normal (inverted) type. We consider two very high precision (a few per mil) measurements of such mass squared differences by phase II of the T2K (Tokai-to-Kamioka) experiment and by the novel Moessbauer enhanced resonant ν-bar e absorption technique. Under optimistic assumptions for the systematic errors of both measurements, we determine the region of sensitivities where the mass hierarchy can be distinguished. Due to the tight space limitation, we present only the general idea and show a few most important plots

  17. Test Sample for the Spatially Resolved Quantification of Illicit Drugs on Fingerprints Using Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muramoto, S.; Forbes, T.P.; van Asten, A.C.; Gillen, G.

    2015-01-01

    A novel test sample for the spatially resolved quantification of illicit drugs on the surface of a fingerprint using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was demonstrated. Calibration curves relating the signal

  18. Baseline Optimization for the Measurement of CP Violation, Mass Hierarchy, and $\\theta_{23}$ Octant in a Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, M. [Colorado State U.; Bishai, M. [Brookhaven; Cherdack, D. [Colorado State U.; Diwan, M. [Brookhaven; Djurcic, Z. [Argonne; Hernandez, J. [Houston U.; Lundberg, B. [Fermilab; Paolone, V. [Pittsburgh U.; Qian, X. [Brookhaven; Rameika, R. [Fermilab; Whitehead, L. [Houston U.; Wilson, R. J. [Colorado State U.; Worcester, E. [Brookhaven; Zeller, G. [Fermilab

    2015-03-19

    Next-generation long-baseline electron neutrino appearance experiments will seek to discover CP violation, determine the mass hierarchy and resolve the θ23 octant. In light of the recent precision measurements of θ13, we consider the sensitivity of these measurements in a study to determine the optimal baseline, including practical considerations regarding beam and detector performance. We conclude that a detector at a baseline of at least 1000 km in a wide-band muon neutrino beam is the optimal configuration.

  19. REMOVING BIASES IN RESOLVED STELLAR MASS MAPS OF GALAXY DISKS THROUGH SUCCESSIVE BAYESIAN MARGINALIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-García, Eric E. [Cerrada del Rey 40-A, Chimalcoyoc Tlalpan, Ciudad de México, C.P. 14630, México (Mexico); González-Lópezlira, Rosa A.; Bruzual A, Gustavo [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Campus Morelia, Michoacán, C.P. 58089, México (Mexico); Magris C, Gladis, E-mail: martinezgarciaeric@gmail.com [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía, Apartado Postal 264, Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2017-01-20

    Stellar masses of galaxies are frequently obtained by fitting stellar population synthesis models to galaxy photometry or spectra. The state of the art method resolves spatial structures within a galaxy to assess the total stellar mass content. In comparison to unresolved studies, resolved methods yield, on average, higher fractions of stellar mass for galaxies. In this work we improve the current method in order to mitigate a bias related to the resolved spatial distribution derived for the mass. The bias consists in an apparent filamentary mass distribution and a spatial coincidence between mass structures and dust lanes near spiral arms. The improved method is based on iterative Bayesian marginalization, through a new algorithm we have named Bayesian Successive Priors (BSP). We have applied BSP to M51 and to a pilot sample of 90 spiral galaxies from the Ohio State University Bright Spiral Galaxy Survey. By quantitatively comparing both methods, we find that the average fraction of stellar mass missed by unresolved studies is only half what previously thought. In contrast with the previous method, the output BSP mass maps bear a better resemblance to near-infrared images.

  20. Lepton mixing and cancellation of the Dirac mass hierarchy in SO(10) GUTs with flavor symmetries T7 and Σ(81)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagedorn, Claudia; Schmidt, Michael A.; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2009-01-01

    In SO(10) grand unified theories the hierarchy which is present in the Dirac mass term of the neutrinos is generically as strong as the one in the up-type quark mass term. We propose a mechanism to partially or completely cancel this hierarchy in the light neutrino mass matrix in the seesaw context. The two main ingredients of the cancellation mechanism are the existence of three fermionic gauge singlets and of a discrete flavor symmetry G f which is broken at a higher scale than SO(10). Two realizations of the cancellation mechanism are presented. The realization based on the Frobenius group T 7 ≅Z 7 xZ 3 leads to a partial cancellation of the hierarchy and relates maximal 2-3 lepton mixing with the geometric hierarchy of the up-quark masses. In the realization with the group Σ(81) the cancellation is complete and tribimaximal lepton mixing is reproduced at the lowest order. In both cases, to fully accommodate the leptonic data we take into account additional effects such as effects of higher-dimensional operators involving more than one flavon. The heavy neutral fermion mass spectra are considered. For both realizations we analyze the flavon potential at the renormalizable level as well as ways to generate the Cabibbo angle.

  1. Antarctic Mass Loss from GRACE from Space- and Time-Resolved Modeling with Slepian Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, F. J.; Harig, C.

    2013-12-01

    The melting of polar ice sheets is a major contributor to global sea-level rise. Antarctica is of particular interest since most of the mass loss has occurred in West Antarctica, however updated glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models and recent mass gains in East Antarctica have reduced the continent-wide integrated decadal trend of mass loss. Here we present a spatially and temporally resolved estimation of the Antarctic ice mass change using Slepian localization functions. With a Slepian basis specifically for Antarctica, the basis functions maximize their energy on the continent and we can project the geopotential fields into a sparse set of orthogonal coefficients. By fitting polynomial functions to the limited basis coefficients we maximize signal-to-noise levels and need not perform smoothing or destriping filters common to other approaches. In addition we determine an empirical noise covariance matrix from the GRACE data to estimate the uncertainty of mass estimation. When applied to large ice sheets, as in our own recent Greenland work, this technique is able to resolve both the overall continental integrated mass trend, as well as the spatial distribution of the mass changes over time. Using CSR-RL05 GRACE data between Jan. 2003 and Jan 2013, we estimate the regional accelerations in mass change for several sub-regions and examine how the spatial pattern of mass has changed. The Amundsen Sea coast of West Antarctica has experienced a large acceleration in mass loss (-26 Gt/yr^2). While mass loss is concentrated near Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers, it has also increased along the coast further towards the Ross ice shelf.

  2. Testing the hierarchy of effects model: ParticipACTION's serial mass communication campaigns on physical activity in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, C L; Bauman, A; Reger-Nash, B

    2010-03-01

    The hierarchy of effects (HOE) model is often used in planning mass-reach communication campaigns to promote health, but has rarely been empirically tested. This paper examines Canada's 30 year ParticipACTION campaign to promote physical activity (PA). A cohort from the nationally representative 1981 Canada Fitness Survey was followed up in 1988 and 2002-2004. Modelling of these data tested whether the mechanisms of campaign effects followed the theoretical framework proposed in the HOE. Campaign awareness was measured in 1981. Outcome expectancy, attitudes, decision balance and future intention were asked in 1988. PA was assessed at all time points. Logistic regression was used to sequentially test mediating and moderating variables adjusting for age, sex and education. No selection bias was observed; however, relatively fewer respondents than non-respondents smoked or were underweight at baseline. Among those inactive at baseline, campaign awareness predicted outcome expectancy which in turn predicted positive attitude to PA. Positive attitudes predicted high decision balance, which predicted future intention. Future intention mediated the relationship between decision balance and sufficient activity. Among those sufficiently active at baseline, awareness was unrelated to outcome expectancy and inversely related to positive attitude. These results lend support to the HOE model, in that the effects of ParticipACTION's serial mass media campaigns were consistent with the sequential rollout of its messages, which in turn was associated with achieving an active lifestyle among those initially insufficiently active. This provides support to an often-used theoretical framework for designing health promotion media campaigns.

  3. Determining the Neutrino Mass Hierarchy and CP Violation in NOvA with a Second Off-Axis Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mena, O; Pascoli, S; Mena, Olga; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Pascoli, Silvia

    2006-01-01

    We consider a Super-NOvA-like experimental configuration based on the use of two detectors in a long-baseline experiment as NOvA. We take the far detector as in the present NOvA proposal and add a second detector at a shorter baseline. The location of the second off-axis detector is chosen such that the ratio L/E is the same for both detectors, being L the baseline and E the neutrino energy. We consider liquid argon and water-Cherenkov techniques for the second off-axis detector and study, for different experimental setups, the detector mass required for the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy, for different values of theta13. We also study the capabilities of such an experimental setup for determining CP violation in the neutrino sector. Our results show that by adding a second off-axis detector a remarkable enhancement on the capabilities of the current NOvA experiment could be achieved.

  4. A role of 75sub(H) in fermion mass hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.E.; Ozer, M.

    1983-08-01

    It is pointed out that the second generation fermions can have a natural mass relation msub(μ)=3msub(s) at Msub(GUT) if SU(5) symmetry breaking occurs through 75sub(H) and 5sub(H). It is the first order supergravity effect and small Yukawa coupling is not necessary. (author)

  5. Search for Majorana Neutrinos Near the Inverted Mass Hierarchy Region with KamLAND-Zen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hachiya, T.; Hayashi, A.; Hayashida, S.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Karino, Y.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Nakamura, K.; Obara, S.; Oura, T.; Ozaki, H.; Shimizu, I.; Shirahata, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Takai, T.; Tamae, K.; Teraoka, Y.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Kozlov, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Fushimi, K.; Banks, T. I.; Berger, B. E.; Fujikawa, B. K.; O'Donnell, T.; Winslow, L. A.; Efremenko, Y.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Detwiler, J. A.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M. P.; KamLAND-Zen Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    We present an improved search for neutrinoless double-beta (0 ν β β ) decay of 136Xe in the KamLAND-Zen experiment. Owing to purification of the xenon-loaded liquid scintillator, we achieved a significant reduction of the Agm110 contaminant identified in previous searches. Combining the results from the first and second phase, we obtain a lower limit for the 0 ν β β decay half-life of T1/2 0 ν>1.07 ×1 026 yr at 90% C.L., an almost sixfold improvement over previous limits. Using commonly adopted nuclear matrix element calculations, the corresponding upper limits on the effective Majorana neutrino mass are in the range 61-165 meV. For the most optimistic nuclear matrix elements, this limit reaches the bottom of the quasidegenerate neutrino mass region.

  6. Mass resolved angular distribution of fission products in 20Ne + 232Th reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.; Sodaye, S.; Sudarshan, K.; Kumar, Amit; Guin, R.

    2011-01-01

    Mass resolved angular distribution of fission products was measured in 20 Ne + 232 Th reaction at beam energy of 120 MeV. A preliminary analysis of the angular distribution data of fission products shows higher average anisotropy compared to that calculated using statistical theory. A signature of rise in anisotropy near symmetry, as reported in earlier studies in literature, is also seen. Further study is in progress to get more detailed information about the contribution from non-compound nucleus fission and dependence of angular anisotropy on asymmetry of mass division

  7. Life cycle inventory and mass-balance of municipal food waste management systems: Decision support methods beyond the waste hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joel; Othman, Maazuza; Crossin, Enda; Burn, Stewart

    2017-11-01

    When assessing the environmental and human health impact of a municipal food waste (FW) management system waste managers typically rely on the principles of the waste hierarchy; using metrics such as the mass or rate of waste that is 'prepared for recycling,' 'recovered for energy,' or 'sent to landfill.' These metrics measure the collection and sorting efficiency of a waste system but are incapable of determining the efficiency of a system to turn waste into a valuable resource. In this study a life cycle approach was employed using a system boundary that includes the entire waste service provision from collection to safe end-use or disposal. A life cycle inventory of seven waste management systems was calculated, including the first service wide inventory of FW management through kitchen in-sink disposal (food waste disposer). Results describe the mass, energy and water balance of each system along with key emissions profile. It was demonstrated that the energy balance can differ significantly from its' energy generation, exemplified by mechanical biological treatment, which was the best system for generating energy from waste but only 5 th best for net-energy generation. Furthermore, the energy balance of kitchen in-sink disposal was shown to be reduced because 31% of volatile solids were lost in pre-treatment. The study also confirmed that higher FW landfill diversion rates were critical for reducing many harmful emissions to air and water. Although, mass-balance analysis showed that the alternative end-use of the FW material may still contain high impact pollutants. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hierarchy of symmetry-breaking scales in SO(10) grand unification and particle masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asatryan, G.M.; Ioannisyan, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    An SO(10) grand unification model is proposed in which the introduction of an additional discrete symmetry solves the problem of the quark mass spectrum arising in SO(10) breaking schemes with intermediate SU(4) x SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ or SU(3)/sub C/ x U(1)/sub B//sub -//sub L/ x SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry. When the breaking of this discrete symmetry is taken into account the condition that there exist only a single light Higgs boson leads to a relation between the b- and t-quark masses which makes it possible to fix the ratio of the grand unification scale M/sub X/ and the quark--lepton symmetry-breaking scale M/sub C/. The specific values of M/sub X/ and M/sub C/ and also the scale of the SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry breaking M/sub R/ depend on the experimental value of the Weinberg angle and are in agreement with the experimental data on proton decay

  9. The mass-hierarchy and CP-violation discovery reach of the LBNO long-baseline neutrino experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, S.K.; Aittola, M.; Alekou, A.; Andrieu, B.; Angus, D.; Antoniou, F.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Autiero, D.; Ballett, P.; Bandac, I.; Banerjee, D.; Barker, G.J.; Barr, G.; Bartmann, W.; Bay, F.; Berardi, V.; Bertram, I.; Bésida, O.; Blebea-Apostu, A.M.; Blondel, A.; Bogomilov, M.; Borriello, E.; Boyd, S.; Brancus, I.; Bravar, A.; Buizza-Avanzini, M.; Cafagna, F.; Calin, M.; Calviani, M.; Campanelli, M.; Cantini, C.; Caretta, O.; Cata-Danil, G.; Catanesi, M.G.; Cervera, A.; Chakraborty, S.; Chaussard, L.; Chesneanu, D.; Chipesiu, F.; Christodoulou, G.; Coleman, J.; Crivelli, P.; Davenne, T.; Dawson, J.; De Bonis, I.; De Jong, J.; Déclais, Y.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Delbart, A.; Densham, C.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Duchesneau, D.; Dumarchez, J.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Eliseev, A.; Emery, S.; Enqvist, K.; Enqvist, T.; Epprecht, L.; Ereditato, A.; Erykalov, A.N.; Esanu, T.; Finch, A.J.; Fitton, M.D.; Franco, D.; Galymov, V.; Gavrilov, G.; Gendotti, A.; Giganti, C.; Goddard, B.; Gomez, J.J.; Gomoiu, C.M.; Gornushkin, Y.A.; Gorodetzky, P.; Grant, N.; Haesler, A.; Haigh, M.D.; Hasegawa, T.; Haug, S.; Hierholzer, M.; Hissa, J.; Horikawa, S.; Huitu, K.; Ilic, J.; Ioannisian, A.N.; Izmaylov, A.; Jipa, A.; Kainulainen, K.; Kalliokoski, T.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kawada, J.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kokko, E.; Kopylov, A.N.; Kormos, L.L.; Korzenev, A.; Kosyanenko, S.; Kreslo, I.; Kryn, D.; Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Kudenko, Y.; Kumpulainen, J.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Lagoda, J.; Lazanu, I.; Levy, J. -M.; Litchfield, R.P.; Loo, K.; Loveridge, P.; Maalampi, J.; Magaletti, L.; Margineanu, R.M.; Marteau, J.; Martin-Mari, C.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mazzucato, E.; McCauley, N.; Mercadante, A.; Mineev, O.; Mirizzi, A.; Mitrica, B.; Morgan, B.; Murdoch, M.; Murphy, S.; Narita, S.; Nesterenko, D.A.; Nguyen, K.; Nikolics, K.; Noah, E.; Novikov, Yu.; O'Keeffe, H.; Odell, J.; Oprima, A.; Palladino, V.; Pascoli, S.; Patzak, T.; Payne, D.; Pectu, M.; Pennacchio, E.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Periale, L.; Pessard, H.; Pistillo, C.; Popov, B.; Przewlocki, P.; Quinto, M.; Radicioni, E.; Ramachers, Y.; Ratoff, P.N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M.; Resnati, F.; Ristea, O.; Robert, A.; Rondio, E.; Rubbia, A.; Rummukainen, K.; Sacco, R.; Saftoiu, A.; Sakashita, K.; Sarkamo, J.; Sato, F.; Saviano, N.; Scantamburlo, E.; Sergiampietri, F.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Slupecki, M.; Sorel, M.; Spooner, N.J.C.; Stahl, A.; Stanca, D.; Steerenberg, R.; Sterian, A.R.; Sterian, P.; Still, B.; Stoica, S.; Strauss, T.; Suhonen, J.; Suvorov, V.; Szeptycka, M.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L.F.; Toma, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Touramanis, C.; Trzaska, W.H.; Tsenov, R.; Tuominen, K.; Vacheret, A.; Valram, M.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Vanucci, F.; Vasseur, G.; Velotti, F.; Velten, P.; Viant, T.; Vincke, H.; Virtanen, A.; Vorobyev, A.; Wark, D.; Weber, A.; Weber, M.; Wiebusch, C.; Wilson, J.R.; Wu, S.; Yershov, N.; Zalipska, J.; Zito, M.

    2014-01-01

    The next generation neutrino observatory proposed by the LBNO collaboration will address fundamental questions in particle and astroparticle physics. The experiment consists of a far detector, in its first stage a 20 kt LAr double phase TPC and a magnetised iron calorimeter, situated at 2300 km from CERN and a near detector based on a high-pressure argon gas TPC. The long baseline provides a unique opportunity to study neutrino flavour oscillations over their 1st and 2nd oscillation maxima exploring the $L/E$ behaviour, and distinguishing effects arising from $\\delta_{CP}$ and matter. In this paper we have reevaluated the physics potential of this setup for determining the mass hierarchy (MH) and discovering CP-violation (CPV), using a conventional neutrino beam from the CERN SPS with a power of 750 kW. We use conservative assumptions on the knowledge of oscillation parameter priors and systematic uncertainties. The impact of each systematic error and the precision of oscillation prior is shown. We demonstrat...

  10. Electrostatic mass spectrometer for concurrent mass-, energy- and angle-resolved measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golikov, Yu.K.; Krasnova, N.K.

    1999-01-01

    A new electron-optical scheme is considered. An energy- and mass-analyser with angular resolution are combined in one device, in which a time-of-flight principle of mass separation is used. The tool is created on the basis of electrostatic field of quasi-conical systems possessing the high-energy dispersion and high-angular resolution. A regime of simultaneous angular and energy resolution is found. If there is an ion-pulsed source then the ion groups of equal mass will be registered at the same time at a position-sensitive detector located at the edge of the field. Real parameters of the suggested scheme are calculated

  11. Influence of Coulomb effects on the resolving power of multireflection mass-spectrometer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoblin, M G; Kopaev, I A; Monastyrskiy, M A; Alimpiev, S S; Greenfield, D E; Makarov, A A

    2015-01-01

    General theoretical approaches to the modelling of Coulomb effects in short ion bunches, developed previously by the authors, are applied in this paper to the calculation of multireflection mass-spectrometer systems. A separate module of the MASIM 3D applied software package is designed. An adaptive computational procedure for calculating the 'mirror potential' induced by an ion bunch on the surface of field-forming electrodes is proposed. The dynamics of ion bunches in a time-of-flight reflectron-type mass analyser is calculated and the limitations on the resolving power, caused by resonant Coulomb effects of self-bunching and coalescence in the groups of particles with close masses, are revealed on the basis of numerical experiments. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  12. Mass-dependent and non-mass-dependent isotope effects in ozone photolysis: Resolving theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, Amanda S.; Boering, Kristie A.

    2006-01-01

    In addition to the anomalous 17 O and 18 O isotope effects in the three-body ozone formation reaction O+O 2 +M, isotope effects in the destruction of ozone by photolysis may also play a role in determining the isotopic composition of ozone and other trace gases in the atmosphere. While previous experiments on ozone photolysis at 254 nm were interpreted as evidence for preferential loss of light ozone that is anomalous (or 'non-mass-dependent'), recent semiempirical theoretical calculations predicted a preferential loss of heavy ozone at that wavelength that is mass dependent. Through photochemical modeling results presented here, we resolve this apparent contradiction between experiment and theory. Specifically, we show that the formation of ozone during the UV photolysis experiments is not negligible, as had been assumed, and that the well-known non-mass-dependent isotope effects in ozone formation can account for the non-mass-dependent enrichment of the heavy isotopologs of ozone observed in the experiment. Thus, no unusual non-mass-dependent fractionation in ozone photolysis must be invoked to explain the experimental results. Furthermore, we show that theoretical predictions of a mass-dependent preferential loss of the heavy isotopologs of ozone during UV photolysis are not inconsistent with the experimental data, particularly if mass-dependent isotope effects in the chemical loss reactions of ozone during the photolysis experiments or experimental artifacts enrich the remaining ozone in 17 O and 18 O. Before the calculated fractionation factors can be quantitatively evaluated, however, further investigation of possible mass-dependent isotope effects in the reactions of ozone with O( 1 D), O( 3 P), O 2 ( 1 Δ), and O 2 ( 1 Σ) is needed through experiments we suggest here

  13. Angle resolved mass spectrometry of positive ions transmitted through high aspect ratio channels in a radio frequency discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffels - Adamowicz, E.; Stoffels, W.W.; Tachibana, K.; Imai, S.

    1997-01-01

    The behavior of positive ions in high aspect ratio structures, relevant to the reactive ion etching of deep trenches, has been studied by means of energy resolved mass spectrometry. High aspect ratio trenches are simulated by capillary plates with various aspect ratios. Angle resolved measurements

  14. Scanning mass spectrometer setup for spatially resolved reactivity studies on model catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Matthias; Schirling, Christian; Kielbassa, Stefan; Bansmann, Joachim; Behm, Juergen [Institut fuer Oberflaechenchemie und Katalyse, Universitaet Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    A scanning mass spectrometer with micrometer-scale resolution was developed for investigations on the catalytic activity of microstructured planar model catalysts. Products of local surface reactions can be detected via a fine capillary orifice in a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer. The position of the sample with respect to the capillary is controlled by three piezo-driven translators. The surface reactivity of a resistive heated sample can be depicted in a spatially resolved topogram, taking into account the influence of the distance between sample and capillary on the magnitude of the QMS signal and the lateral resolution. Photolithographic structured reactive patterns on top of an inactive substrate enable investigations of mesoscopic transport effects such as coupling between catalytically active areas and of (reverse) spillover phenomena on one sample by varying the size and the distances of the active areas.

  15. Fermion hierarchy from sfermion anarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Frugiuele, Claudia; Harnik, Roni

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework to generate the hierarchical flavor structure of Standard Model quarks and leptons from loops of superpartners. The simplest model consists of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with tree level Yukawa couplings for the third generation only and anarchic squark and slepton mass matrices. Agreement with constraints from low energy flavor observables, in particular Kaon mixing, is obtained for supersymmetric particles with masses at the PeV scale or above. In our framework both the second and the first generation fermion masses are generated at 1-loop. Despite this, a novel mechanism generates a hierarchy among the first and second generations without imposing a symmetry or small parameters. A second-to-first generation mass ratio of order 100 is typical. The minimal supersymmetric standard model thus includes all the necessary ingredients to realize a fermion spectrum that is qualitatively similar to observation, with hierarchical masses and mixing. The minimal framework produces only a few quantitative discrepancies with observation, most notably the muon mass is too low. Furthermore, we discuss simple modifications which resolve this and also investigate the compatibility of our model with gauge and Yukawa coupling Unification

  16. Evaluation of a High Resolving Power Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer for Drug Analysis in Terms of Resolving Power and Acquisition Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelander, Anna; Decker, Petra; Baessmann, Carsten; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2011-02-01

    Liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) is applied increasingly to various fields of small molecule analysis. The moderate resolving power (RP) of standard TOFMS instruments poses a risk of false negative results when complex biological matrices are to be analyzed. In this study, the performance of a high resolving power TOFMS instrument (maXis by Bruker Daltonik, Bremen, Germany) was evaluated for drug analysis. By flow injection analysis of critical drug mixtures, including a total of 17 compounds with nominal masses of 212-415 Da and with mass differences of 8.8-23.5 mDa, RP varied from 34,400 to 51,900 (FWHM). The effect of acquisition rate on RP, mass accuracy, and isotopic pattern fit was studied by applying 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 Hz acquisition rates in a 16 min gradient elution LC separation. All three variables were independent of the acquisition rate, with an average mass accuracy and isotopic pattern fit factor (mSigma) of 0.33 ppm and 5.9, respectively. The average relative standard deviation of RP was 1.8%, showing high repeatability. The performance was tested further with authentic urine extracts containing a co-eluting compound pair with a nominal mass of 296 Da and an 11.2 mDa mass difference. The authentic sample components were readily resolved and correctly identified by the automated data analysis. The average RP, mass accuracy, and isotopic pattern fit were 36,600, 0.9 ppm, and 7.3 mSigma, respectively.

  17. A High-mass Protobinary System with Spatially Resolved Circumstellar Accretion Disks and Circumbinary Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, S.; Kluska, J.; Kreplin, A.; Bate, M.; Harries, T. J.; Hone, E.; Anugu, A. [School of Physics, Astrophysics Group, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Hofmann, K.-H.; Weigelt, G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Monnier, J. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 311 West Hall, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); De Wit, W. J. [ESO, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 19 (Chile); Wittkowski, M., E-mail: skraus@astro.ex.ac.uk [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2017-01-20

    High-mass multiples might form via fragmentation of self-gravitational disks or alternative scenarios such as disk-assisted capture. However, only a few observational constraints exist on the architecture and disk structure of high-mass protobinaries and their accretion properties. Here, we report the discovery of a close (57.9 ± 0.2 mas = 170 au) high-mass protobinary, IRAS17216-3801, where our VLTI/GRAVITY+AMBER near-infrared interferometry allows us to image the circumstellar disks around the individual components with ∼3 mas resolution. We estimate the component masses to ∼20 and ∼18 M {sub ⊙} and find that the radial intensity profiles can be reproduced with an irradiated disk model, where the inner regions are excavated of dust, likely tracing the dust sublimation region in these disks. The circumstellar disks are strongly misaligned with respect to the binary separation vector, which indicates that the tidal forces did not have time to realign the disks, pointing toward a young dynamical age of the system. We constrain the distribution of the Br γ and CO-emitting gas using VLTI/GRAVITY spectro-interferometry and VLT/CRIRES spectro-astrometry and find that the secondary is accreting at a higher rate than the primary. VLT/NACO imaging shows L ′-band emission on (3–4)× larger scales than the binary separation, matching the expected dynamical truncation radius for the circumbinary disk. The IRAS17216-3801 system is ∼3× more massive and ∼5× more compact than other high-mass multiplies imaged at infrared wavelength and the first high-mass protobinary system where circumstellar and circumbinary dust disks could be spatially resolved. This opens exciting new opportunities for studying star–disk interactions and the role of multiplicity in high-mass star formation.

  18. Construction, characterization and applications of a compact mass-resolved low-energy ion beam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, W.M.; Feng, X.; Bello, I.; Sant, S.; Foo, K.K.; Lawson, R.P.W.

    1991-01-01

    A compact mass-resolved low-energy ion beam system has been constructed in which ions are extracted from a Colutron ion source, focused by an einzel lens, mass-selected by a Wien filter, refocused by a second einzel lens into an ultrahigh vacuum target chamber, and finally decelerated with a five-electrode lens. The design of the deceleration lens was assisted by computer simulation including space-charge effects with an ion trajectory software (CHDEN). The system performance has been characterized with a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an energy analyzer along the beam axis. For example, argon ions can be transported at keV and decelerated to 10 eV with an energy spread of ±0.5 eV. The total current measured by a Faraday cage at the exit of the deceleration lens in the energy range of 10-200 eV is about 1-5 μA. The ion current density was higher than 100 μA/cm 2 at 50 eV but decreased to 10-20 μA/cm 2 at 10 eV. The mass resolution was estimated to be 40 under the present operation configuration. The system has been used to produce interesting results in both ion beam etching and deposition. (orig.)

  19. High mass accuracy and high mass resolving power FT-ICR secondary ion mass spectrometry for biological tissue imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, D.F.; Kiss, A.; Leach, F.E.; Robinson, E.W.; Paša-Tolić, L.; Heeren, R.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Biological tissue imaging by secondary ion mass spectrometry has seen rapid development with the commercial availability of polyatomic primary ion sources. Endogenous lipids and other small bio-molecules can now be routinely mapped on the sub-micrometer scale. Such experiments are typically

  20. THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY. III. MEASURING AGES AND MASSES OF PARTIALLY RESOLVED STELLAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beerman, Lori C.; Johnson, L. Clifton; Fouesneau, Morgan; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Ben F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Seth, Anil C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bianchi, Luciana C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Gouliermis, Dimitrios A. [Zentrum fuer Astronomie, Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kalirai, Jason S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Larsen, Soren S. [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Melbourne, Jason L. [Caltech Optical Observatories, Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, Mail Stop 301-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rix, Hans-Walter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Skillman, Evan D., E-mail: beermalc@astro.washington.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The apparent age and mass of a stellar cluster can be strongly affected by stochastic sampling of the stellar initial mass function (IMF), when inferred from the integrated color of low-mass clusters ({approx}<10{sup 4} M {sub Sun }). We use simulated star clusters to show that these effects are minimized when the brightest, rapidly evolving stars in a cluster can be resolved, and the light of the fainter, more numerous unresolved stars can be analyzed separately. When comparing the light from the less luminous cluster members to models of unresolved light, more accurate age estimates can be obtained than when analyzing the integrated light from the entire cluster under the assumption that the IMF is fully populated. We show the success of this technique first using simulated clusters, and then with a stellar cluster in M31. This method represents one way of accounting for the discrete, stochastic sampling of the stellar IMF in less massive clusters and can be leveraged in studies of clusters throughout the Local Group and other nearby galaxies.

  1. Angular and mass resolved energy distribution measurements with a gallium liquid metal ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marriott, Philip

    1987-06-01

    Ionisation and energy broadening mechanisms relevant to liquid metal ion sources are discussed. A review of experimental results giving a picture of source operation and a discussion of the emission mechanisms thought to occur for the ionic species and droplets emitted is presented. Further work is suggested by this review and an analysis system for angular and mass resolved energy distribution measurements of liquid metal ion source beams has been constructed. The energy analyser has been calibrated and a series of measurements, both on and off the beam axis, of 69 Ga + , Ga ++ and Ga 2 + ions emitted at various currents from a gallium source has been performed. A comparison is made between these results and published work where possible, and the results are discussed with the aim of determining the emission and energy spread mechanisms operating in the gallium liquid metal ion source. (author)

  2. Gauge and moduli hierarchy in a multiply warped braneworld scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Ashmita; SenGupta, Soumitra

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of Higgs-like boson near the mass scale ∼126 Gev generates renewed interest to the gauge hierarchy problem in the standard model related to the stabilisation of the Higgs mass within Tev scale without any unnatural fine tuning. One of the successful attempts to resolve this problem has been the Randall–Sundrum warped geometry model. Subsequently this 5-dimensional model was extended to a doubly warped 6-dimensional (or higher) model which can offer a geometric explanation of the fermion mass hierarchy in the standard model of elementary particles (D. Choudhury and S. SenGupta, 2007 [1]). In an attempt to address the dark energy issue, we in this work extend such 6-dimensional warped braneworld model to include non-flat 3-branes at the orbifold fixed points such that a small but non-vanishing brane cosmological constant is induced in our observable brane. We show that the requirements of a Planck to Tev scale warping along with a vanishingly small but non-zero cosmological constant on the visible brane with non-hierarchical moduli, each with scale close to Planck length, lead to a scenario where the 3-branes can have energy scales either close to Tev or close to Planck scale. Such a scenario can address both the gauge hierarchy as well as fermion mass hierarchy problem in standard model without introducing hierarchical scales between the two moduli. Thus simultaneous resolutions to the gauge hierarchy problem, fermion mass hierarchy problem and non-hierarchical moduli problem are closely linked with the near flatness condition of our universe.

  3. Mass measurement of cooled neutron-deficient bismuth projectile fragments with time-resolved Schottky mass spectrometry at the FRS-ESR facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinov, Yu.A.; Geissel, H. [Giessen Univ. (Germany); Radon, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (DE)] [and others

    2005-06-01

    Masses of 582 neutron-deficient nuclides (30{<=}Z{<=}85) were measured with time-resolved Schottky mass spectrometry at the FRS-ESR facility at GSI, 117 were used for calibration. The masses of 71 nuclides were obtained for the first time. A typical mass accuracy of 30 {mu}u was achieved. These data have entered the latest atomic mass evaluation. The mass determination of about 140 additional nuclides was possible via known energies (Q-values) of {alpha}-, {beta}-, or proton decays. The obtained results are compared with the results of other measurements. (orig.)

  4. Participatory hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Marianne; Bloch-Poulsen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    projects works in the interface between communication and organisation. Third, the methodological purpose is to show that handling of these participatory hierarchies ought to become a goal in OAR projects to be included along with producing practical and theoretical results. The article argues...

  5. Dancing Twins: Stellar Hierarchies That Formed Sequentially?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2018-04-01

    This paper draws attention to the class of resolved triple stars with moderate ratios of inner and outer periods (possibly in a mean motion resonance) and nearly circular, mutually aligned orbits. Moreover, stars in the inner pair are twins with almost identical masses, while the mass sum of the inner pair is comparable to the mass of the outer component. Such systems could be formed either sequentially (inside-out) by disk fragmentation with subsequent accretion and migration, or by a cascade hierarchical fragmentation of a rotating cloud. Orbits of the outer and inner subsystems are computed or updated in four such hierarchies: LHS 1070 (GJ 2005, periods 77.6 and 17.25 years), HIP 9497 (80 and 14.4 years), HIP 25240 (1200 and 47.0 years), and HIP 78842 (131 and 10.5 years).

  6. Compact Starburst Galaxies with Fast Outflows: Spatially Resolved Stellar Mass Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sophia; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar; Lipscomb, Charles; Ohene, Senyo; Rines, Josh; Moustakas, John; Sell, Paul; Tremonti, Christy; Coil, Alison; Rudnick, Gregory; Hickox, Ryan C.; Geach, James; Kepley, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    Powerful galactic winds driven by stellar feedback and black hole accretion are thought to play an important role in regulating star formation in galaxies. In particular, strong stellar feedback from supernovae, stellar winds, radiation pressure, and cosmic rays is required by simulations of star-forming galaxies to prevent the vast majority of baryons from cooling and collapsing to form stars. However, it remains unclear whether these stellar processes play a significant role in expelling gas and shutting down star formation in massive progenitors of quiescent galaxies. What are the limits of stellar feedback? We present multi-band photometry with HST/WFC3 (F475W, F814W, F160W) for a dozen compact starburst galaxies at z~0.6 with half-light radii that suggest incredibly large central escape velocities. These massive galaxies are driving fast (>1000 km/s) outflows that have been previously attributed to stellar feedback associated with the compact (r~100 pc) starburst. But how compact is the stellar mass? In the context of the stellar feedback hypothesis, it is unclear whether these fast outflows are being driven at velocities comparable to the escape velocity of an incredibly dense stellar system (as predicted by some models of radiation-pressure winds) or at velocities that exceed the central escape velocity by large factor. Our spatially resolved measurements with HST show that the stellar mass is more extended than the light, and this requires that the physical mechanism responsible for driving the winds must be able to launch gas at velocities that are factors of 5-10 beyond the central escape velocity.

  7. Phase-Resolved Spectroscopy of the Low-Mass X-ray Binary V801 Ara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Kaley; Vrtilek, Saeqa Dil; Peris, Charith; McCollough, Michael

    2018-06-01

    We present phase-resolved optical spectra of the low mass X-ray binary system V801 Ara. The spectra, obtained in 2014 with IMACS on the Magellan/Baade telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, cover the full binary orbit of 3.8 hours. They contain strong emission features allowing us to map the emission of Hα, Hβ, He II λ4686, and the Bowen blend at λ4640. The radial velocity curves of the Bowen blend shows significantly stronger modulation at the orbital period than Hα as expected for the former originating on the secondary with the latter consistent with emission dominated by the disk. Our tomograms of Hα and Hβ are the most detailed studies of these lines for V801 to date and they clearly detect the accretion disk. The Hβ emission extends to higher velocities than Hα, suggesting emission from closer to the neutron star and differentiating temperature variance in the accretion disk for the first time. The center of the accretion disk appears offset from the center-of-mass of the neutron star as has been seen in several other X-ray binaries. This is often interpreted to imply disk eccentricity. Our tomograms do not show strong evidence for a hot spot at the point where the accretion stream hits the disk. This could imply a reduced accretion rate or could be due to the spot being drowned out by bright accretion flow around it. There is enhanced emission further along the disk, however, which implies gas stream interaction downstream of the hot spot.

  8. Zooming into Molecular Biomarker Distribution through Spatially Resolved Mass Spectrometry on Intact Sediment Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörmer, L.; Fuchser, J.; Alfken, S.; Elvert, M.; Schimmelmann, A.; Hinrichs, K. U.

    2016-02-01

    Marine microorganisms adapt to their habitat by structural modification of their membrane lipids. After sedimentation, and due to their persistence in the sedimentary record, the information archived in them remains available on geological time-scales. Thereby sedimentary lipid biomarkers become important informants of past environments. Conventional biomarker analysis is labor-intensive and requires cm-sized samples, temporal resolution is consequently low. We here present an approach, based on laser desorption ionization (LDI) coupled to ultra high resolution mass spectrometry, that avoids wet-chemical sample preparation and enables analysis directly on sediment sections at sub-mm spatial resolution. Our initial study targeted archaeal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs). GDGTS are ubiquitous and persistent components in marine sediments, and used in several, widely recognized paleoenvironmental proxies. Applied to an Eastern Mediterranean Sapropel layer, GDGT-profiles with previously unachieved temporal resolution were obtained, and pointed to a strong influence of high frequency cycles on sea-surface temperature and planktonic archaeal ecology. Spatial information furthermore revealed a new view on the fine-scale patchiness of lipid distribution. Following these pioneering studies, major developments are under way. A dedicated facility has been set up at MARUM/University of Bremen, which combines lipid biomarker and elemental analysis at sub-mm resolution (down to 50 µm). We present methods for other comprehensive lipid biomarkers (e.g. alkenones or sterols) that are currently being targeted; and the application of spatially resolved biomarker analysis to recent laminated sediments (Santa Barbara Basin), yielding informative profiles with subannual resolution. We also discuss criteria for analyte and sample selection, as well as the main potentialities and constraints of this new approach.

  9. New integrable lattice hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, Andrew; Zhu Zuonong

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter we give a new integrable four-field lattice hierarchy, associated to a new discrete spectral problem. We obtain our hierarchy as the compatibility condition of this spectral problem and an associated equation, constructed herein, for the time-evolution of eigenfunctions. We consider reductions of our hierarchy, which also of course admit discrete zero curvature representations, in detail. We find that our hierarchy includes many well-known integrable hierarchies as special cases, including the Toda lattice hierarchy, the modified Toda lattice hierarchy, the relativistic Toda lattice hierarchy, and the Volterra lattice hierarchy. We also obtain here a new integrable two-field lattice hierarchy, to which we give the name of Suris lattice hierarchy, since the first equation of this hierarchy has previously been given by Suris. The Hamiltonian structure of the Suris lattice hierarchy is obtained by means of a trace identity formula

  10. Chiral chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry applied to the determination of pro-resolving lipid mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homann, Julia; Lehmann, Christoph; Kahnt, Astrid S; Steinhilber, Dieter; Parnham, Michael J; Geisslinger, Gerd; Ferreirós, Nerea

    2014-09-19

    Pro-resolving lipid mediators are a class of endogenously synthesized molecules derived from different fatty acids, such as arachidonic, docosahexaenoic or eicosapentaenoic acid, which are derived into four different product families: lipoxins, resolvins, maresins and protectins. For quantitation of these compounds, a sensitive, selective and robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of lipoxin A4, 6-epi-lipoxin A4, lipoxin B4 and lipoxin A5, the D-series resolvins D1 and D2 as well as aspirin-triggered lipoxin A4 and resolvin D1, maresin and protectin and the pathway markers 17(S)-hydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid and 17(R)-hydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid in cell culture supernatants. For this purpose, a chiral column was connected in series with a reversed-phase column to achieve efficient analyte separation and high sensitivity. Sample pre-treatment included a fast and simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure. Limits of quantitation in the range of 0.1-0.5ng/mL cell culture media, absolute recoveries between 90 and 115%, intra- and interday precision of less than 13% and an accuracy of less than 11% were obtained. Stability of the samples after 60 days storage at -80°C, three freeze/thaw cycles and 4h at room temperature has been demonstrated for all analytes. Sample extracts can be stored at 7°C for 24h without degradation of the analytes. Deviations of less than 13% in the accuracy, evaluated in terms of relative error, were obtained. The suitability of the method has been demonstrated in cell culture supernatants of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, stimulated with 15R-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid and in cell culture media of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes co-incubated with human platelets. From all studied analytes, lipoxin A4 and 6-epi-lipoxin A4 were found in cell culture media under both incubation conditions, while 15-epi-lipoxin A4 was additionally detected in cell

  11. A mass census of the nearby universe with the RESOLVE survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Kathleen

    The galaxy mass function, i.e., the distribution of galaxies as a function of mass, is a useful way to characterize the galaxy population. In this work, we examine the stellar and baryonic mass function, and the velocity function of galaxies and galaxy groups for two volume-limited surveys of the nearby universe. Stellar masses are estimated from multi-band photometry, and we add cold atomic gas from measurements and a newly calibrated estimator to obtain baryonic mass. Velocities are measured from the internal motions of galaxies and groups and account for all matter within the system. We compare our observed mass and velocity functions with the halo mass function from theoretical simulations of dark matter, which predict a much more steeply rising low-mass slope than is normally observed for the galaxy mass function. We show that taking into account the cold gas mass, which dominates the directly detectable mass of low-mass galaxies, steepens the low-mass slope of the galaxy mass function. The low- mass slope of the baryonic mass function, however, is still much shallower than that of the halo mass function. The discrepancy in low-mass slope persists when examining the velocity function, which accounts for all matter in galaxies (detectable or not), suggesting that some mechanism must reduce the mass in halos or destroy them completely. We investigate the role of environment by performing group finding and examining the mass and velocity functions as a function of group halo mass. Broken down by halo mass regime, we find dips and varying low-mass slopes in the mass and velocity functions, suggesting that group formation processes such as merging and stripping, which destroy and lower the mass of low-mass satellites respectively, potentially contribute to the discrepancy in low-mass slope. In particular, we focus on the nascent group regime, groups of mass 10 11.4-12 [solar mass] with few members, which has a depressed and flat low-mass slope in the galaxy mass

  12. Hierarchy from baryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senatore, Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    We study a recently proposed mechanism to solve the hierarchy problem in the context of the landscape, where the solution of the hierarchy problem is connected to the requirement of having baryons in our Universe via electroweak baryogenesis. The phase transition is triggered by the fermion condensation of a new gauge sector which becomes strong at a scale Λ determined by dimensional transmutation, and it is mediated to the standard model by a new singlet field. In a 'friendly' neighborhood of the landscape, where only the relevant operators are ''scanned'' among the vacua, baryogenesis is effective only if the Higgs mass m h is comparable to this low scale Λ, forcing m h ∼Λ, and solving the hierarchy problem. A new CP violating phase is needed coupling the new singlet and the Higgs field to new matter fields. We study the constraints on this model given by baryogenesis and by the electron electric dipole moment (EDM), and we briefly comment on gauge coupling unification and on dark matter relic abundance. We find that next generation experiments on the EDM will be sensitive to essentially the entire viable region of the parameter space, so that absence of a signal would effectively rule out the model

  13. Mass density slope of elliptical galaxies from strong lensing and resolved stellar kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyskova, N.; Churazov, E.; Naab, T.

    2018-04-01

    We discuss constraints on the mass density distribution (parametrized as ρ ∝ r-γ) in early-type galaxies provided by strong lensing and stellar kinematics data. The constraints come from mass measurements at two `pinch' radii. One `pinch' radius r1 = 2.2REinst is defined such that the Einstein (i.e. aperture) mass can be converted into the spherical mass almost independently of the mass-model. Another `pinch' radius r2 = Ropt is chosen so that the dynamical mass, derived from the line-of-sight velocity dispersion, is least sensitive to the anisotropy of stellar orbits. We verified the performance of this approach on a sample of simulated elliptical galaxies and on a sample of 15 SLACS lens galaxies at 0.01 ≤ z ≤ 0.35, which have already been analysed in Barnabè et al. by the self-consistent joint lensing and kinematic code. For massive simulated galaxies, the density slope γ is recovered with an accuracy of ˜13 per cent, unless r1 and r2 happen to be close to each other. For SLACS galaxies, we found good overall agreement with the results of Barnabè et al. with a sample-averaged slope γ = 2.1 ± 0.05. Although the two-pinch-radii approach has larger statistical uncertainties, it is much simpler and uses only few arithmetic operations with directly observable quantities.

  14. A quark interpretation of the combinatorial hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enqvist, Kari.

    1979-01-01

    We propose a physical interpretation of the second level of the combinatorial hierarchy in terms of three quarks, three antiquarks and the vacuum. This interpretation allows us to introduce a new quantum number, which measures electromagnetic mass splitting of the quarks. We extend our argument by analogue to baryons, and find some SU(3) and some new mass formulas for baryons. The generalization of our approach to other hierarchy levels is discussed. We present also an empirical mass formula for baryons, which seems to be loosely connected with the combinatorial hierarchy. (author)

  15. Size resolved mass concentration and elemental composition of atmospheric aerosols over the Eastern Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Smolík

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A Berner low pressure impactor was used to collect size-segregated aerosol samples at Finokalia, located on the north-eastern coast of Crete, Greece during July 2000 and January 2001. Several samples were also collected during the summer campaign aboard the research vessel "AEGAIEO" in the Aegean Sea. Gravimetric analysis and inversion techniques yielded daily PM1 and PM10 mass concentrations. The samples were also analysed by PIXE giving the elemental size distributions of Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Sr, S, Cl, Ni, V, Cu, Cr, Zn, and Pb. The crustal elements and sea-salt had a unimodal supermicron size distribution. Sulphur was found predominantly in submicron fractions. K, V, and Ni exhibited a bimodal distribution with a submicron mode produced by forest fires and oil combustion. The anthropogenic elements had broad and not well-defined distributions. The time series for PM1 and PM10 mass and elemental concentrations showed both daily and seasonal variation. Higher mass concentrations were observed during two incursions of Saharan dust, whilst higher concentrations of S, Cu, Zn, and Pb were encountered in samples collected in air masses arriving from northern Greece or the western coast of Turkey. Elevated concentrations of chlorine were found in samples with air masses either originating above the Atlantic Ocean and arriving at Finokalia via western Europe or recirculating over the western coast of the Black Sea.

  16. Characterization of Lipid A Variants by Energy-Resolved Mass Spectrometry: Impact of Acyl Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Christopher M.; Akin, Lucas D.; Morrison, Lindsay J.; Trent, M. Stephen; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2017-06-01

    Lipid A molecules consist of a diglucosamine sugar core with a number of appended acyl chains that vary in their length and connectivity. Because of the challenging nature of characterizing these molecules and differentiating between isomeric species, an energy-resolved MS/MS strategy was undertaken to track the fragmentation trends and map genealogies of product ions originating from consecutive cleavages of acyl chains. Generalizations were developed based on the number and locations of the primary and secondary acyl chains as well as variations in preferential cleavages arising from the location of the phosphate groups. Secondary acyl chain cleavage occurs most readily for lipid A species at the 3' position, followed by primary acyl chain fragmentation at both the 3' and 3 positions. In the instances of bisphosphorylated lipid A variants, phosphate loss occurs readily in conjunction with the most favorable primary and secondary acyl chain cleavages. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Spatially resolved chemical analysis of cicada wings using laser-ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Jessica K; Walsh, Callee M; Oh, Junho; Dana, Catherine E; Hong, Sungmin; Jo, Kyoo D; Alleyne, Marianne; Miljkovic, Nenad; Cropek, Donald M

    2018-03-01

    Laser-ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is an emerging bioanalytical tool for direct imaging and analysis of biological tissues. Performing ionization in an ambient environment, this technique requires little sample preparation and no additional matrix, and can be performed on natural, uneven surfaces. When combined with optical microscopy, the investigation of biological samples by LAESI allows for spatially resolved compositional analysis. We demonstrate here the applicability of LAESI-IMS for the chemical analysis of thin, desiccated biological samples, specifically Neotibicen pruinosus cicada wings. Positive-ion LAESI-IMS accurate ion-map data was acquired from several wing cells and superimposed onto optical images allowing for compositional comparisons across areas of the wing. Various putative chemical identifications were made indicating the presence of hydrocarbons, lipids/esters, amines/amides, and sulfonated/phosphorylated compounds. With the spatial resolution capability, surprising chemical distribution patterns were observed across the cicada wing, which may assist in correlating trends in surface properties with chemical distribution. Observed ions were either (1) equally dispersed across the wing, (2) more concentrated closer to the body of the insect (proximal end), or (3) more concentrated toward the tip of the wing (distal end). These findings demonstrate LAESI-IMS as a tool for the acquisition of spatially resolved chemical information from fragile, dried insect wings. This LAESI-IMS technique has important implications for the study of functional biomaterials, where understanding the correlation between chemical composition, physical structure, and biological function is critical. Graphical abstract Positive-ion laser-ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled with optical imaging provides a powerful tool for the spatially resolved chemical analysis of cicada wings.

  18. LAVA Subsystem Integration and Testing for the RESOLVE Payload of the Resource Prospector Mission: Mass Spectrometers and Gas Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, Mary R.; Stewart, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    The Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload is part of Resource Prospector (RP) along with a rover and a lander that are expected to launch in 2020. RP will identify volatile elements that may be combined and collected to be used for fuel, air, and water in order to enable deeper space exploration. The Resource Prospector mission is a key part of In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). The demand for this method of utilizing resources at the site of exploration is increasing due to the cost of resupply missions and deep space exploration goals. The RESOLVE payload includes the Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) subsystem. The main instrument used to identify the volatiles evolved from the lunar regolith is the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). LAVA analyzes the volatiles emitted from the Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) Subsystem. The objective of OVEN is to obtain, weigh, heat and transfer evolved gases to LAVA through the connection between the two subsystems called the LOVEN line. This paper highlights the work completed during a ten week internship that involved the integration, testing, data analysis, and procedure documentation of two candidate mass spectrometers for the LAVA subsystem in order to aid in determining which model to use for flight. Additionally, the examination of data from the integrated Resource Prospector '15 (RP' 15) field test will be presented in order to characterize the amount of water detected from water doped regolith samples.

  19. Resolving mass flux at high spatial and temporal resolution using GRACE intersatellite measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowlands, D. D.; Luthcke, S. B.; Klosko, S. M.

    2005-01-01

    resolution. Using 4° × 4° blocks at 10-day intervals, we estimate the mass of surplus or deficit water over a 52° × 60° grid centered on the Amazon basin for July 2003. We demonstrate that the recovered signals are coherent and correlate well with the expected hydrological signal....... the estimation of static monthly parameters. Through an analysis of the GRACE data residuals, we show that the fundamental temporal and spatial resolution of the GRACE data is 10 days and 400 km. We present an approach similar in concept to altimetric methods that recovers submonthly mass flux at a high spatial...

  20. Near-Field Cosmology with Resolved Stellar Populations Around Local Volume LMC Stellar-Mass Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Sand, David J.; Willman, Beth; Brodie, Jean P.; Crnojevic, Denija; Forbes, Duncan; Hargis, Jonathan R.; Peter, Annika; Pucha, Ragadeepika; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Spekkens, Kristine; Strader, Jay

    2018-06-01

    We discuss our ongoing observational program to comprehensively map the entire virial volumes of roughly LMC stellar mass galaxies at distances of ~2-4 Mpc. The MADCASH (Magellanic Analog Dwarf Companions And Stellar Halos) survey will deliver the first census of the dwarf satellite populations and stellar halo properties within LMC-like environments in the Local Volume. Our results will inform our understanding of the recent DES discoveries of dwarf satellites tentatively affiliated with the LMC/SMC system. This program has already yielded the discovery of the faintest known dwarf galaxy satellite of an LMC stellar-mass host beyond the Local Group, based on deep Subaru+HyperSuprimeCam imaging reaching ~2 magnitudes below its TRGB, and at least two additional candidate satellites. We will summarize the survey results and status to date, highlighting some challenges encountered and lessons learned as we process the data for this program through a prototype LSST pipeline. Our program will examine whether LMC stellar mass dwarfs have extended stellar halos, allowing us to assess the relative contributions of in-situ stars vs. merger debris to their stellar populations and halo density profiles. We outline the constraints on galaxy formation models that will be provided by our observations of low-mass galaxy halos and their satellites.

  1. Time resolved mass flow measurements for a fast gas delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruden, E.L.; Degnan, J.H.; Hussey, T.W.; Scott, M.C.; Graham, J.D.; Coffey, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    A technique is demonstrated whereby the delivered mass and flow rate vs. time of a short rise time gas delivery system may be accurately determined. The gas mass M which flows past a point in a gas delivery system by an arbitrary time t may be accurately measured if that point is sealed off within a time interval short compared to the mass flow time scale. If the ejected mass is allowed to equilibrate in a known volume after being cut off from its source, a conventional static pressure measurement before and after injection, and application of the ideal gas law suffices. Assuming reproducibility, a time history M(t) may be generated, allowing the flow rate vs. time dM(t)/dt to be determined. Mass flow measurements are presented for a fast delivery system in which the flow of argon through a 3.2 mm I.D., 0.76 mm thick copper tube is cut off by imploding (θ pinching) the tube using a single turn tungsten magnetic field coil. Pinch discharge parameters are 44 μf, 20 kV, 47 nH, 3.5 mΩ, 584 kA, and 8.63 ps current period. Optical measurements of the tube's internal area vs. time indicate that the tube is sealed 2 ps from the time the tube is still 90% open (7 μs from the start of pinch current). The pinch delay is varied from 500--1,500 ps from the valve trigger (0--1,000 ps from the start of gas flow). The mass injected into the test volume is ∼ 100 μg during this interval. The leak rate of the sealed tube results in a mass increase of only ∼ 0.1 μg by the time the pressure gauge stabilizes (6 s). Results are correlated with piezoelectric probe measurements of the gas flow and 2-D axisymmetric numerical simulations of the θ pinch process. Simulations of a θ pinch suitable for characterizing an annular supersonic nozzle typical of those used in gas puff z pinches are discussed

  2. Spatially resolved δ13C analysis using laser ablation isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, J.; Riha, K. M.; Nims, M. K.; Linley, T. J.; Hess, N. J.; Nico, P. S.

    2014-12-01

    Inherent geochemical, organic matter, and microbial heterogeneity over small spatial scales can complicate studies of carbon dynamics through soils. Stable isotope analysis has a strong history of helping track substrate turnover, delineate rhizosphere activity zones, and identifying transitions in vegetation cover, but most traditional isotope approaches are limited in spatial resolution by a combination of physical separation techniques (manual dissection) and IRMS instrument sensitivity. We coupled laser ablation sampling with isotope measurement via IRMS to enable spatially resolved analysis over solid surfaces. Once a targeted sample region is ablated the resulting particulates are entrained in a helium carrier gas and passed through a combustion reactor where carbon is converted to CO2. Cyrotrapping of the resulting CO2 enables a reduction in carrier gas flow which improves overall measurement sensitivity versus traditional, high flow sample introduction. Currently we are performing sample analysis at 50 μm resolution, require 65 ng C per analysis, and achieve measurement precision consistent with other continuous flow techniques. We will discuss applications of the laser ablation IRMS (LA-IRMS) system to microbial communities and fish ecology studies to demonstrate the merits of this technique and how similar analytical approaches can be transitioned to soil systems. Preliminary efforts at analyzing soil samples will be used to highlight strengths and limitations of the LA-IRMS approach, paying particular attention to sample preparation requirements, spatial resolution, sample analysis time, and the types of questions most conducive to analysis via LA-IRMS.

  3. Time-resolved pulsed hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry probes gaseous proteins structural kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Khadijeh

    2015-01-01

    A pulsed hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) method has been developed for rapid monitoring of the exchange kinetics of protein ions with D2O a few milliseconds after electrospray ionization (ESI). The stepwise gradual evolution of HDX of multiply charged protein ions was monitored using the pulsed HDX mass spectrometry technique. Upon introducing a very short pulse of D2O (in the μs to ms time scale) into the linear ion trap (LIT) of a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer, bimodal distributions were detected for the ions of cytochrome c and ubiquitin. Mechanistic details of HDX reactions for ubiquitin and cytochrome c in the gas phase were uncovered and the structural transitions were followed by analyzing the kinetics of HDX.

  4. On the ILW hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutiya, Y.; Satsuma, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this Letter, we present a new hierarchy which includes the intermediate long wave (ILW) equation at the lowest order. This hierarchy is thought to be a novel reduction of the 1st modified KP type hierarchy. The framework of our investigation is Sato theory

  5. Time resolved investigations on biogenic trace gases exchanges using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl, T.

    2000-02-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from vegetation, including wound-induced VOCs, can have important effects on atmospheric chemistry. The analytical methods for measuring wound-induced VOCs, especially the hexenal family of VOCs (hexenals, hexenols and hexenyl esters) but also compounds like acetaldehyde, are complicated by their chemical instability and the transient nature of their formation after leaf and stem wounding. The goal of this thesis was to assess, quantify and complement our understanding on the origin of tropospheric VOCs. This thesis demonstrates that formation and emission of hexenal family compounds can be monitored on-line using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), avoiding the need for preconcentration or chromatography. These measurements revealed the rapid emission of the parent compound, (Z)-3-hexenal, within 1-2 seconds of wounding of leaves from various woody and nonwoody plants, and its metabolites including (E)-2-hexenal, hexenols and hexenyl acetates. Emission of (Z)-3-hexenal from detached, drying leaves averaged 500 μg (gram dry weight)-1. PTR-MS showed to be a useful tool for the analysis of VOC emissions resulting from grazing, herbivory, harvesting and senescing leaves. The release of reactive VOCs during lawn mowing was observed in on-line ambient air measurements in July and August 1998 in the outskirts of Innsbruck. Also obtained were data on emission rates of reactive aldehydes (hexenyl compounds) and other abundant VOCs such as methanol, acetaldehyde and acetone from drying grass in various chamber experiments. Fluxes were measured after cutting of grass using eddy covariance measurements and the micrometeorological gradient method (Obhukov-Similarity-Method). Comparison of data obtained by these different methods showed satisfactory agreement. The highest fluxes for methanol during drying were 5 mg/m2h, for (Z)-3-hexenal 1.5 mg/m2h. Experiments conducted on the Sonnblick Observatory in Fall and Winter

  6. Is Episodic Accretion Necessary to Resolve the Luminosity Problem in Low-Mass Protostars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevrinsky, Raymond Andrew; Dunham, Michael

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution, we compare the results of protostellar accretion simulations for scenarios both containing and lacking episodic accretion activity. We determine synthetic observational signatures for collapsing protostars by taking hydrodynamical simulations predicting highly variable episodic accretion events, filtering out the stochastic behavior by applying power law fits to the mass accretion rates onto the disk and central star, and using the filtered rates as inputs to two-dimensional radiative transfer calculations. The spectral energy distributions generated by these calculations are used to calculate standard observational signatures of Lbol and Tbol, and compared directly to a sample of 230 embedded protostars. We explore the degree to which these continually declining accretion models successfully reproduce the observed spread of protostellar luminosities, and examine their consistency with the prior variable models to investigate the degree to which episodic accretion bursts are necessary in protostellar formation theories to match observations of field protostars. The SAO REU program is funded in part by the National Science Foundation REU and Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant no. 1262851, and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  7. SDSS-IV MaNGA: The Spatially Resolved Stellar Initial Mass Function in ˜400 Early-Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Taniya; Thomas, Daniel; Maraston, Claudia; Westfall, Kyle B.; Goddard, Daniel; Lian, Jianhui; Meneses-Goytia, Sofia; Jones, Amy; Vaughan, Sam; Andrews, Brett H.; Bershady, Matthew; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; Emsellem, Eric; Law, David R.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Wake, David; Yan, Renbin; Zheng, Zheng

    2018-03-01

    MaNGA provides the opportunity to make precise spatially resolved measurements of the IMF slope in galaxies owing to its unique combination of spatial resolution, wavelength coverage and sample size. We derive radial gradients in age, element abundances and IMF slope analysing optical and near-infrared absorption features from stacked spectra out to the half-light radius of 366 early-type galaxies with masses 9.9 - 10.8 log M/M⊙. We find flat gradients in age and [α/Fe] ratio, as well as negative gradients in metallicity, consistent with the literature. We further derive significant negative gradients in the [Na/Fe] ratio with galaxy centres being well enhanced in Na abundance by up to 0.5 dex. Finally, we find a gradient in IMF slope with a bottom-heavy IMF in the centre (typical mass excess factor of 1.5) and a Milky Way-type IMF at the half-light radius. This pattern is mass-dependent with the lowest mass galaxies in our sample featuring only a shallow gradient around a Milky Way IMF. Our results imply the local IMF-σ relation within galaxies to be even steeper than the global relation and hint towards the local metallicity being the dominating factor behind the IMF variations. We also employ different stellar population models in our analysis and show that a radial IMF gradient is found independently of the stellar population model used. A similar analysis of the Wing-Ford band provides inconsistent results and further evidence of the difficulty in measuring and modelling this particular feature.

  8. SPATIALLY RESOLVED OBSERVATIONS OF THE BIPOLAR OPTICAL OUTFLOW FROM THE BROWN DWARF 2MASS J12073347–3932540

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, E. T.; Ray, T. P.; Comeron, F.; Bacciotti, F.; Kavanagh, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of brown dwarf (BD) outflows provide information pertinent to questions on BD formation, as well as allowing outflow mechanisms to be investigated at the lowest masses. Here new observations of the bipolar outflow from the 24 M JUP BD 2MASS J12073347–3932540 are presented. The outflow was originally identified through the spectro-astrometric analysis of the [O I]λ6300 emission line. Follow-up observations consisting of spectra and [S II], R-band and I-band images were obtained. The new spectra confirm the original results and are used to constrain the outflow position angle (P.A.) at ∼65°. The [O I]λ6300 emission line region is spatially resolved and the outflow is detected in the [S II] images. The detection is firstly in the form of an elongation of the point-spread function (PSF) along the direction of the outflow P.A. Four faint knot-like features (labeled A-D) are also observed to the southwest of 2MASS J12073347–3932540 along the same P.A. suggested by the spectra and the elongation in the PSF. Interestingly, D, the feature furthest from the source, is bow shaped with the apex pointing away from 2MASS J12073347–3932540. A color-color analysis allows us to conclude that at least feature D is part of the outflow under investigation while A is likely a star or galaxy. Follow-up observations are needed to confirm the origin of B and C. This is a first for a BD, as BD optical outflows have to date only been detected using spectro-astrometry. This result also demonstrates for the first time that BD outflows can be collimated and episodic.

  9. The relation between specific baryon angular momentum and mass for a sample of nearby low-mass galaxies with resolved H I kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, E. C.

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between specific baryon angular momentum jb and baryon mass Mb for a sample of nearby late-type galaxies with resolved H I kinematics. This work roughly doubles the number of galaxies with Mb ≲ 1010 M⊙ used to study the jb-Mb relation. Most of the galaxies in the sample have their baryon mass dominated by their gas content, thereby offering jb and Mb measures that are relatively unaffected by uncertainties arising from the stellar mass-to-light ratio. Measured H I surface density radial profiles together with optical and rotation curve data from the literature are used to derive a best-fitting relation given by j_b=qM_b^{α }, with α = 0.62 ± 0.02 and log10 q = -3.35 ± 0.25. This result is consistent with the j_b∝ M_b^{2/3} relation that is theoretically expected and also measured by Obreschkow & Glazebrook for their full sample of THINGS spiral galaxies, yet differs to their steeper relation found for subsets with fixed bulge fraction. The 30 arcsec spatial resolution of the H I imaging used in this study is significantly lower than that of the THINGS imaging used by Obreschkow & Glazebrook, yet the results presented in this work are clearly shown to contain no significant systematic errors due to the low-resolution imaging.

  10. Solving the wrong hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson

    2016-01-01

    Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z_2-symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z_2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. Lastly, we show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV

  11. Controlled dissolution of silicon dioxide layers for depth resolved multielement analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorge, Susan E.; Houk, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Dissolution procedures were developed to control the number of surface layers removed, in an attempt to achieve depth resolved analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). NIST 612 glass was chosen because it is a homogeneous material with many elements at interesting concentrations, ∼ 50 ppm. Varying dissolution time and HF concentration resulted in the reproducible removal of SiO 2 layers as thin as 70 A deep. Dissolved trace metals were determined after dilution by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with a magnetic sector instrument. The amount removed was determined from the concentration of a major element, Ca. With the exception of Zn, trace metal concentrations agreed reasonably well with their certified values for removal depths of 500, 300 and 150 A. Zinc concentration was significantly high in all dissolutions indicating either a contamination problem or that Zn is removed at a faster rate than Ca. For the dissolutions that removed 70 A of SiO 2 , Cr, Mn, Co, Sr, Cd, Ce, Dy, Er, Yb and U recovery results agreed with their certified values (∼ 50 ppm); Ti, As, Mo, Ba, and Th could not be determined because net intensities were below 3σ of the blank; and measured concentrations for Cu, Pb and Zn were well above the certified values.

  12. Size-resolved mass concentrations of iron oxide aerosols and size-resolved number concentrations of iron oxide aerosols collected from King Air aircraft in Yellow Sea and East China Sea from 2013-02-14 to 2013-03-10 (NCEI Accession 0162201)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains size-resolved mass concentrations of iron oxide aerosols and size-resolved number concentrations of iron oxide aerosols, measured using the...

  13. Evaluating, Comparing, and Interpreting Protein Domain Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Arranging protein domain sequences hierarchically into evolutionarily divergent subgroups is important for investigating evolutionary history, for speeding up web-based similarity searches, for identifying sequence determinants of protein function, and for genome annotation. However, whether or not a particular hierarchy is optimal is often unclear, and independently constructed hierarchies for the same domain can often differ significantly. This article describes methods for statistically evaluating specific aspects of a hierarchy, for probing the criteria underlying its construction and for direct comparisons between hierarchies. Information theoretical notions are used to quantify the contributions of specific hierarchical features to the underlying statistical model. Such features include subhierarchies, sequence subgroups, individual sequences, and subgroup-associated signature patterns. Underlying properties are graphically displayed in plots of each specific feature's contributions, in heat maps of pattern residue conservation, in “contrast alignments,” and through cross-mapping of subgroups between hierarchies. Together, these approaches provide a deeper understanding of protein domain functional divergence, reveal uncertainties caused by inconsistent patterns of sequence conservation, and help resolve conflicts between competing hierarchies. PMID:24559108

  14. Biological hierarchies and the nature of extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congreve, Curtis R; Falk, Amanda R; Lamsdell, James C

    2018-05-01

    Hierarchy theory recognises that ecological and evolutionary units occur in a nested and interconnected hierarchical system, with cascading effects occurring between hierarchical levels. Different biological disciplines have routinely come into conflict over the primacy of different forcing mechanisms behind evolutionary and ecological change. These disconnects arise partly from differences in perspective (with some researchers favouring ecological forcing mechanisms while others favour developmental/historical mechanisms), as well as differences in the temporal framework in which workers operate. In particular, long-term palaeontological data often show that large-scale (macro) patterns of evolution are predominantly dictated by shifts in the abiotic environment, while short-term (micro) modern biological studies stress the importance of biotic interactions. We propose that thinking about ecological and evolutionary interactions in a hierarchical framework is a fruitful way to resolve these conflicts. Hierarchy theory suggests that changes occurring at lower hierarchical levels can have unexpected, complex effects at higher scales due to emergent interactions between simple systems. In this way, patterns occurring on short- and long-term time scales are equally valid, as changes that are driven from lower levels will manifest in different forms at higher levels. We propose that the dual hierarchy framework fits well with our current understanding of evolutionary and ecological theory. Furthermore, we describe how this framework can be used to understand major extinction events better. Multi-generational attritional loss of reproductive fitness (MALF) has recently been proposed as the primary mechanism behind extinction events, whereby extinction is explainable solely through processes that result in extirpation of populations through a shutdown of reproduction. While not necessarily explicit, the push to explain extinction through solely population-level dynamics

  15. Do experiments suggest a hierarchy problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissani, F.

    1997-09-01

    The hierarchy problem of the scalar sector of the standard model is reformulated, emphasizing the role of experimental facts that may suggest the existence of a new physics large mass scale, for instance indications of the instability of the matter, or indications in favor of massive neutrinos. In the see-saw model for the neutrino masses a hierarchy problem arises if the mass of the right-handed neutrinos is larger than approximatively 10 7 GeV: this problem, and its possible solutions, are discussed. (author)

  16. A model of Yukawa hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwood, J.K.; Irges, N.; Ramond, P.

    1997-05-01

    The authors present a model for the observed hierarchies among the Yukawa couplings of the standard model in the context of an effective low energy theory with an anomalous U(1) symmetry. This symmetry, a generic feature of superstring compactification, is a remnant of the Green-Schwarz anomaly cancellation mechanism. The gauge group is that of the standard model, augmented by X, the anomalous U(1), and two family-dependent phase symmetries Y (1) and Y (2) . The correct hierarchies are reproduced only when sin 2 θ w = 3/8 at the cut-off. To cancel anomalies, right-handed neutrinos and other standard model singlets must be introduced. Independently of the charges of the right-handed neutrinos, this model produces the same neutrino mixing matrix and an inverted hierarchy of neutrino masses. The heaviest is the electron neutrino with a mass ∼ 1 meV, and mixing of the order of λ c 3 with each of the other two neutrinos

  17. Higher-Order Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of higher-order inheritance hierarchies. They are useful because they provide well-known benefits of object-orientation at the level of entire hierarchies-benefits which are not available with current approaches. Three facets must be adressed: First, it must be po...

  18. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  19. Why hierarchies thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Harold J

    2003-03-01

    Hardly anyone has a good word to say about hierarchies. Academics, consultants, and management gurus regularly forecast their imminent replacement because hierarchies--even when populated by considerate and intelligent people--can be cruel and stupid. They routinely transform motivated and loyal employees into disaffected Dilberts. It's no wonder that we continue to search for more humane and productive alternatives to them. Yet the intensity with which we struggle against hierarchies only serves to highlight their durability. Hierarchy, it seems, may be intrinsic not only to the natural world but also to our own natures. In this article, organizational behavior expert Harold J. Leavitt presents neither a defense of human hierarchies nor another attack on them. Instead, he offers a reality check, a reminder that hierarchy remains the basic structure of most, if not all, large, ongoing human organizations. That's because although they are often depicted as being out of date, hierarchies have proved to be extraordinarily adaptive. Over the past 50 years, for example, they have co-opted the three major managerial movements--human relations, analytic management, and communities of practice. Hierarchies also persist because they deliver real practical and psychological value, and they fulfill our deep need for order and security. Despite the good they may do, hierarchies are inevitably authoritarian. That authoritarianism shows up in all kinds of ways and influences everything in organizations, particularly communication. In multilevel organizations, for instance, messages get distorted as they travel up and down the ladder of command. Self-protection and self-interest weigh in, and relevant information is lost as messages make stops along the route. Sensitive leaders take steps to make speaking the truth as painless as possible. But it never is in organizations, because authoritarianism is an immutable element of hierarchy.

  20. Anarchy and hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2000-09-14

    We advocate a new approach to study models of fermion massesand mixings, namely anarchy proposed in hep-ph/9911341. In this approach,we scan the O(1) coefficients randomly. We argue that this is the correctapproach when the fundamental theory is sufficiently complicated.Assuming there is no physical distinction among three generations ofneutrinos, the probability distributions in MNS mixing angles can bepredicted independent of the choice of the measure. This is because themixing angles are distributed according to the Haar measure of the Liegroups whose elements diagonalize the mass matrices. The near-maximalmixings, as observed in the atmospheric neutrino data and as required inthe LMA solution to the solar neutrino problem, are highly probable. Asmall hierarchy between the Delta m2 for the atmospheric and the solarneutrinos is obtained very easily; the complex seesaw case gives ahierarchy of a factor of 20 as the most probable one, even though thisconclusion is more measure-dependent. U_e3 has to be just below thecurrent limit from the CHOOZ experiment. The CP-violating parameter sindelta is preferred to be maximal. We present a simple SU(5)-likeextension of anarchy to the charged-lepton and quark sectors which workswell phenomenologically.

  1. Standard model fermion hierarchies with multiple Higgs doublets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solaguren-Beascoa Negre, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The hierarchies between the Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixing angles and the origin of neutrino masses are two of the biggest mysteries in particle physics. We extend the SM with new Higgs doublets to solve these issues. The lightest fermion masses and the mixing angles are generated through radiative effects, correctly reproducing the hierarchy pattern. Neutrino masses are generated in the see-saw mechanism.

  2. Integral hierarchies and percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, W.; Stell, G.

    1985-01-01

    For a variation of the Potts model which has been shown to describe continuum percolation, we derive a hierarchy of integral equations of Kirkwood-Salsburg type. The distribution functions which are the solutions of this hierarchy can be simply related to the connectedness functions in continuum percolation. From this hierarchy a second set of equations is derived from which the connectedness functions can be obtained directly. This approach is extremely useful when investigating properties of systems far from the percolation transition. These hierarchies are solved exactly in the mean-field (Kac-Baker) limit and possible implications for cluster growth are discussed. The relation between the Potts model for continuum percolation and the Widom-Rowlinson model is also noted

  3. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search

  4. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Tibély

    Full Text Available Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of

  5. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover

  6. The gauge hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, A.A.; Shellard, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of gauge hierarchy in Grand Unified Theories using a toy model with O(N) symmetry is discussed. It is shown that there is no escape to the unnatural adjustment of coupling constants, made only after the computation of several orders in perturbation theory is performed. The propositions of some authors on ways to overcome the gauge hierarchy problem are commented. (Author) [pt

  7. Integrable Hierarchies and Dispersionless Limit

    OpenAIRE

    Takasaki, Kanehisa; Takebe, Takashi

    1994-01-01

    Analogues of the KP and the Toda lattice hierarchy called dispersionless KP and Toda hierarchy are studied. Dressing operations in the dispersionless hierarchies are introduced as a canonical transformation, quantization of which is dressing operators of the ordinary KP and Toda hierarchy. An alternative construction of general solutions of the ordinary KP and Toda hierarchy is given as twistor construction which is quatization of the similar construction of solutions of dispersionless hierar...

  8. Boltzmann hierarchy for interacting neutrinos I: formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldengott, Isabel M.; Rampf, Cornelius; Wong, Yvonne Y.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Starting from the collisional Boltzmann equation, we derive for the first time and from first principles the Boltzmann hierarchy for neutrinos including interactions with a scalar particle. Such interactions appear, for example, in majoron-like models of neutrino mass generation. We study two limits of the scalar mass: (i) An extremely massive scalar whose only role is to mediate an effective 4-fermion neutrino-neutrino interaction, and (ii) a massless scalar that can be produced in abundance and thus demands its own Boltzmann hierarchy. In contrast to, e.g., the first-order Boltzmann hierarchy for Thomson-scattering photons, our interacting neutrino/scalar Boltzmann hierarchies contain additional momentum-dependent collision terms arising from a non-negligible energy transfer in the neutrino-neutrino and neutrino-scalar interactions. This necessitates that we track each momentum mode of the phase space distributions individually, even if the particles were massless. Comparing our hierarchy with the commonly used (c eff 2 ,c vis 2 )-parameterisation, we find no formal correspondence between the two approaches, which raises the question of whether the latter parameterisation even has an interpretation in terms of particle scattering. Lastly, although we have invoked majoron-like models as a motivation for our study, our treatment is in fact generally applicable to all scenarios in which the neutrino and/or other ultrarelativistic fermions interact with scalar particles

  9. In praise of hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaques, E

    1990-01-01

    Hierarchy has not had its day. After 3,000 years as the preferred structure for large organizations, managerial hierarchy is still the most natural and effective organizational form that a big company can employ. Now, as in the past, the key to organizational success is individual accountability, and hierarchy preserves unambiguous accountability for getting work done. Unfortunately, hierarchy is widely misunderstood and abused. Pay grades are confused with real layers of responsibility, for example, and incompetent bosses abound. As a result, many experts now urge us to adopt group-oriented or "flat" structures. But groups are never held accountable as groups for what they do or fail to do, and groups don't have careers. The proper use of hierarchy derives from the nature of work. As organizational tasks range from simple to very complex, there are sharp jumps in the level of difficulty and responsibility. Surprisingly, people in hundreds of companies in dozens of countries agree on where these jumps take place. They are tied to an objective measure-the time span of the longest task or program assigned to each managerial role-and they occur at 3 months, 1 year, 2 years, 5 years, 10 years, and 20 years. As the time span increases, so does the level of experience, knowledge, and mental stamina required to do the work. This increasing level of mental capacity lets companies put people in jobs they can do, it allows managers to add value to the work of their subordinates, it creates hierarchical layers acceptable to everyone in the organization, and it allows employees to be evaluated by people they accept as organizational superiors. Best of all, understanding hierarchy allows organizations to set up hierarchies with no more than seven layers-often fewer-and to know what the structure is good for and how it ought to perform.

  10. Rethinking the waste hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, C; Vigsoe, D [eds.

    2005-03-01

    There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)

  11. Delegation Within Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Billinger, Stephan; Karim, Samina

    2015-01-01

    We investigate trade-offs associated with delegating authority over multiple interrelated decisions in a complex task structure. The empirical setting is a business process of a global Fortune 50 firm. The firm decentralized its organization and redefined decision authority across organizational......-relevant knowledge, the matching of required knowledge and managers’ expertise, and information processing intensity affect (a) the occurrence of delegation and, (b) if delegation occurs, how far down the organizational hierarchy authority is delegated. We discuss how these findings complement existing theories...... on delegation by providing insights into when and how interrelated decisions are delegated across multiple levels of an organizational hierarchy....

  12. Comments on gauge hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, A.A.

    The problem of gauge hierarchy in a O(N) model is discussed. It is shown the existence of an upper bound for the hierarchy of order α- 1 / 2 , as proposed by Gildener. This same constraint appears when the breaking is made by the radiative corrections in a scheme elaborated by Weinberg. It is found that fine tunning or redefinition of coupling constants to improve hieracrchy, as proposed in several papers, cannot be done before the calculation of higher order contributions to the effective potential. (Author) [pt

  13. Gauge hierarchy and long range forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, P.B.; Keung, Wai-Yee; Chang, D.

    1990-01-01

    With the aid of simple examples, we show how a long range attractive force can arise in a gauge theory with a hierarchy. The force is due to the exchange of a Higgs boson whose mass and matter couplings are both naturally suppressed by the hierarchical mass ratio. Such bosons appear if there is an accidental global symmetry in the low-energy renormalizable Lagrangian after the high energy symmetry breaking. 6 refs

  14. On natural hierarchy in dynamically broken gauge models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frere, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A model based on dynamical symmetry breaking provides a naturally large 'mass hierarchy'. Few fermions are needed at intermediate energies, and asymptotic freedom of usual interactions is therefore not imperiled. (orig.)

  15. Materials with structural hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Roderic

    1993-01-01

    The role of structural hierarchy in determining bulk material properties is examined. Dense hierarchical materials are discussed, including composites and polycrystals, polymers, and biological materials. Hierarchical cellular materials are considered, including cellular solids and the prediction of strength and stiffness in hierarchical cellular materials.

  16. Toda hierarchies and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Kanehisa

    2018-05-01

    The 2D Toda hierarchy occupies a central position in the family of integrable hierarchies of the Toda type. The 1D Toda hierarchy and the Ablowitz–Ladik (aka relativistic Toda) hierarchy can be derived from the 2D Toda hierarchy as reductions. These integrable hierarchies have been applied to various problems of mathematics and mathematical physics since 1990s. A recent example is a series of studies on models of statistical mechanics called the melting crystal model. This research has revealed that the aforementioned two reductions of the 2D Toda hierarchy underlie two different melting crystal models. Technical clues are a fermionic realization of the quantum torus algebra, special algebraic relations therein called shift symmetries, and a matrix factorization problem. The two melting crystal models thus exhibit remarkable similarity with the Hermitian and unitary matrix models for which the two reductions of the 2D Toda hierarchy play the role of fundamental integrable structures.

  17. Multiple Hierarchies and Organizational Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Peter B.

    1975-01-01

    Uses a control-loss model to explore the effects of multiple channels in formal organizations, and presents an argument for the superior control properties of dual hierarchies. Two variant forms of multiple hierarchies are considered. (Author)

  18. Functional representations of integrable hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimakis, Aristophanes; Mueller-Hoissen, Folkert

    2006-01-01

    We consider a general framework for integrable hierarchies in Lax form and derive certain universal equations from which 'functional representations' of particular hierarchies (such as KP, discrete KP, mKP, AKNS), i.e. formulations in terms of functional equations, are systematically and quite easily obtained. The formalism genuinely applies to hierarchies where the dependent variables live in a noncommutative (typically matrix) algebra. The obtained functional representations can be understood as 'noncommutative' analogues of 'Fay identities' for the KP hierarchy

  19. Dark energy and the hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pisin

    2007-01-01

    The well-known hierarchy between the Planck scale (∼10 19 GeV) and the TeV scale, namely a ratio of ∼10 16 between the two, is coincidentally repeated in a inverted order between the TeV scale and the dark energy scale at ∼10 -3 eV implied by the observations. We argue that this is not a numerical coincidence. The same brane-world setups to address the first hierarchy problem may also in principle address this second hierarchy issue. Specifically, we consider supersymmetry in the bulk and its breaking on the brane and resort to the Casimir energy induced by the bulk graviton-gravitino mass-shift on the brane as the dark energy. For the ADD model we found that our notion is sensible only if the number of extra dimension n=2. We extend our study to the Randall-Sundrum model. Invoking the chirality-flip on the boundaries for SUSY-breaking, the zero-mode gravitino contribution to the Casimir energy does give rise to the double hierarchy. Unfortunately since the higher Kaluza-Klein modes acquire relative mass-shifts at the TeV level, the zero-mode contribution to Casimir energy is overshadowed

  20. Spatially resolved protein hydrogen exchange measured by subzero-cooled chip-based nanoelectrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amon, Sabine; Trelle, Morten B; Jensen, Ole N

    2012-01-01

    . After a given period of deuteration, the exchange reaction is quenched by acidification (pH 2.5) and cooling (0 °C) and the deuterated protein (or a digest thereof) is analyzed by mass spectrometry. The unavoidable loss of deuterium (back-exchange) that occurs under quench conditions is undesired...... as it leads to loss of information. Here we describe the successful application of a chip-based nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry top-down fragmentation approach based on cooling to subzero temperature (-15 °C) which reduces the back-exchange at quench conditions to very low levels. For example...

  1. Serial CT Findings of Resolving Extramedullary Hematopoiesis as Unilateral Posterior Mediastinal Mass after Splenectomy in Hereditary Spherocytosis: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Mi Yeon; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Yeo Ju; Kim, Youn Jeong; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Kyung Hee

    2012-01-01

    Intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is a rare condition of the hereditary spherocytosis. EMH usually regresses or disappears after treatment; such as splenectomy in the case of spherocytosis. We report a case of hereditary spherocytosis. It is presented with an unilateral paravertebral posterior mediastinal mass. After splenectomy, it revealed shrinkage and fatty replacement on serial CT scans.

  2. Serial CT Findings of Resolving Extramedullary Hematopoiesis as Unilateral Posterior Mediastinal Mass after Splenectomy in Hereditary Spherocytosis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Mi Yeon; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Yeo Ju; Kim, Youn Jeong; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Kyung Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Inha University Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is a rare condition of the hereditary spherocytosis. EMH usually regresses or disappears after treatment; such as splenectomy in the case of spherocytosis. We report a case of hereditary spherocytosis. It is presented with an unilateral paravertebral posterior mediastinal mass. After splenectomy, it revealed shrinkage and fatty replacement on serial CT scans.

  3. A study on the hierarchy model of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazoe, Yasuhiro; Sekiya, Tamotsu

    1975-01-01

    The application of the hierarchy model of nuclear reaction is discussed, and the hierarchy model means that the compound nucleus state is formed after several steps, at least, one step of reaction. This model was applied to the analysis of the observed cross sections of 235 U and some other elements. Neglecting exchange scattering effect, the equations for the total neutron cross section of 235 U were obtained. One of these equations describes explicitly the hierarchy of the transition from intermediate reaction state Xm into the compound nucleus state Xs, and another one describes the cross section averaged over an energy interval larger than the average level spacing of compound nucleus eigenvalues. The hierarchy of reaction mechanism was investigated in more detail, and the hierarchy model was applied to the case of unresolved energy region. It was not tried to evaluate the strength function in the mass region (A>140), since the effect of nuclear deformation was neglected in the task. (Iwase, T.)

  4. Ansatz for dynamical hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S.; Baas, N.A.; Mayer, B.

    2001-01-01

    Complex, robust functionalities can be generated naturally in at least two ways: by the assembly of structures and by the evolution of structures. This work is concerned with spontaneous formation of structures. We define the notion of dynamical hierarchies in natural systems and show...... the importance of this particular kind of organization for living systems. We then define a framework that enables us to formulate, investigate, and manipulate such dynamical hierarchies. This framework allows us to simultaneously investigate different levels of description together with them interrelationship...... three. Formulating this system as a simple two-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) lattice gas allows us within one dynamical system to demonstrate the successive emergence of two higher levels (three levels all together) of robust structures with associated properties. Second, we demonstrate how...

  5. Spectral- and size-resolved mass absorption efficiency of mineral dust aerosols in the shortwave spectrum: a simulation chamber study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Caponi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new laboratory measurements of the mass absorption efficiency (MAE between 375 and 850 nm for 12 individual samples of mineral dust from different source areas worldwide and in two size classes: PM10. 6 (mass fraction of particles of aerodynamic diameter lower than 10.6 µm and PM2. 5 (mass fraction of particles of aerodynamic diameter lower than 2.5 µm. The experiments were performed in the CESAM simulation chamber using mineral dust generated from natural parent soils and included optical and gravimetric analyses. The results show that the MAE values are lower for the PM10. 6 mass fraction (range 37–135  ×  10−3 m2 g−1 at 375 nm than for the PM2. 5 (range 95–711  ×  10−3 m2 g−1 at 375 nm and decrease with increasing wavelength as λ−AAE, where the Ångström absorption exponent (AAE averages between 3.3 and 3.5, regardless of size. The size independence of AAE suggests that, for a given size distribution, the dust composition did not vary with size for this set of samples. Because of its high atmospheric concentration, light absorption by mineral dust can be competitive with black and brown carbon even during atmospheric transport over heavy polluted regions, when dust concentrations are significantly lower than at emission. The AAE values of mineral dust are higher than for black carbon (∼ 1 but in the same range as light-absorbing organic (brown carbon. As a result, depending on the environment, there can be some ambiguity in apportioning the aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD based on spectral dependence, which is relevant to the development of remote sensing of light-absorbing aerosols and their assimilation in climate models. We suggest that the sample-to-sample variability in our dataset of MAE values is related to regional differences in the mineralogical composition of the parent soils. Particularly in the PM2. 5 fraction, we found a strong

  6. Spectral- and size-resolved mass absorption efficiency of mineral dust aerosols in the shortwave spectrum: a simulation chamber study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponi, Lorenzo; Formenti, Paola; Massabó, Dario; Di Biagio, Claudia; Cazaunau, Mathieu; Pangui, Edouard; Chevaillier, Servanne; Landrot, Gautier; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Kandler, Konrad; Piketh, Stuart; Saeed, Thuraya; Seibert, Dave; Williams, Earle; Balkanski, Yves; Prati, Paolo; Doussin, Jean-François

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents new laboratory measurements of the mass absorption efficiency (MAE) between 375 and 850 nm for 12 individual samples of mineral dust from different source areas worldwide and in two size classes: PM10. 6 (mass fraction of particles of aerodynamic diameter lower than 10.6 µm) and PM2. 5 (mass fraction of particles of aerodynamic diameter lower than 2.5 µm). The experiments were performed in the CESAM simulation chamber using mineral dust generated from natural parent soils and included optical and gravimetric analyses. The results show that the MAE values are lower for the PM10. 6 mass fraction (range 37-135 × 10-3 m2 g-1 at 375 nm) than for the PM2. 5 (range 95-711 × 10-3 m2 g-1 at 375 nm) and decrease with increasing wavelength as λ-AAE, where the Ångström absorption exponent (AAE) averages between 3.3 and 3.5, regardless of size. The size independence of AAE suggests that, for a given size distribution, the dust composition did not vary with size for this set of samples. Because of its high atmospheric concentration, light absorption by mineral dust can be competitive with black and brown carbon even during atmospheric transport over heavy polluted regions, when dust concentrations are significantly lower than at emission. The AAE values of mineral dust are higher than for black carbon (˜ 1) but in the same range as light-absorbing organic (brown) carbon. As a result, depending on the environment, there can be some ambiguity in apportioning the aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) based on spectral dependence, which is relevant to the development of remote sensing of light-absorbing aerosols and their assimilation in climate models. We suggest that the sample-to-sample variability in our dataset of MAE values is related to regional differences in the mineralogical composition of the parent soils. Particularly in the PM2. 5 fraction, we found a strong linear correlation between the dust light-absorption properties and elemental

  7. Eddy covariance measurements with high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry: a new approach to chemically resolved aerosol fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Farmer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Although laboratory studies show that biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs yield substantial secondary organic aerosol (SOA, production of biogenic SOA as indicated by upward fluxes has not been conclusively observed over forests. Further, while aerosols are known to deposit to surfaces, few techniques exist to provide chemically-resolved particle deposition fluxes. To better constrain aerosol sources and sinks, we have developed a new technique to directly measure fluxes of chemically-resolved submicron aerosols using the high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS in a new, fast eddy covariance mode. This approach takes advantage of the instrument's ability to quantitatively identify both organic and inorganic components, including ammonium, sulphate and nitrate, at a temporal resolution of several Hz. The new approach has been successfully deployed over a temperate ponderosa pine plantation in California during the BEARPEX-2007 campaign, providing both total and chemically resolved non-refractory (NR PM1 fluxes. Average deposition velocities for total NR-PM1 aerosol at noon were 2.05 ± 0.04 mm s−1. Using a high resolution measurement of the NH2+ and NH3+ fragments, we demonstrate the first eddy covariance flux measurements of particulate ammonium, which show a noon-time deposition velocity of 1.9 ± 0.7 mm s−1 and are dominated by deposition of ammonium sulphate.

  8. On the use of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (TRLIF) and electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS) for speciation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, C.

    2003-01-01

    Time-resolved laser induced fluorescence (TRLIF) and electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS) are used for speciation studies. While the former has been used for long time, the latter is rather new in the field of speciation. These two techniques have different advantages such as sensitivity (especially for TRLIF), selectivity and multielement capabilities (in case of ES-MS). Examples obtained from studies carried out within the CEA are presented. Concerning TRLIF, emphasis is put on uranyl ion speciation in nitric acid to phosphoric acid going through hydroxo complexes. Concerning ES-MS, humic substances identification as well as speciation of cesium, zirconium, thorium and uranyl ions in various complexing media are presented. Comparisons of TRLIF and ES-MS results are made in the case of uranyl hydroxo complexes and favourably compared with OECD data. Trends for these two techniques are also discussed. (orig.)

  9. Extension of noncommutative soliton hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimakis, Aristophanes; Mueller-Hoissen, Folkert

    2004-01-01

    A linear system, which generates a Moyal-deformed two-dimensional soliton equation as an integrability condition, can be extended to a three-dimensional linear system, treating the deformation parameter as an additional coordinate. The supplementary integrability conditions result in a first-order differential equation with respect to the deformation parameter, the flow of which commutes with the flow of the deformed soliton equation. In this way, a deformed soliton hierarchy can be extended to a bigger hierarchy by including the corresponding deformation equations. We prove the extended hierarchy properties for the deformed AKNS hierarchy, and specialize to the cases of deformed NLS, KdV and mKdV hierarchies. Corresponding results are also obtained for the deformed KP hierarchy. A deformation equation determines a kind of Seiberg-Witten map from classical solutions to solutions of the respective 'noncommutative' deformed equation

  10. Resolving of challenging gas chromatography-mass spectrometry peak clusters in fragrance samples using multicomponent factorization approaches based on polygon inflation algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaheri, Salehe; Masoum, Saeed; Gholami, Ali

    2016-01-15

    Analysis of fragrance composition is very important for both the fragrance producers and consumers. Unraveling of fragrance formulation is necessary for quality control, competitor and trace analysis. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been introduced as the most appropriate analytical technique for this type of analysis, which is based on Kovats index and MS database. The most straightforward method to analyze a GC-MS dataset is to integrate those peaks that can be recognized by their mass profiles. But, because of common problems of chromatographic data such as spectral background, baseline offset and specially overlapped peaks, accurate quantitative and qualitative analysis could be failed. Some chemometric modeling techniques such as bilinear multivariate curve resolution (MCR) methods have been introduced to overcome these problems and obtained well resolved chromatographic profiles. The main drawback of these methods is rotational ambiguity or nonunique solution that is represented as area of feasible solutions (AFS). Polygonal inflation algorithm (PIA) is an automatic and simple to use algorithm for numerical computation of AFS. In this study, the extent of rotational ambiguity in curve resolution methods is calculated by MCR-BAND toolbox and the PIA. The ability of the PIA in resolving GC-MS data sets is evaluated by simulated GC-MS data in comparison with other popular curve resolution methods such as multivariate curve resolution alternative least square (MCR-ALS), multivariate curve resolution objective function minimization (MCR-FMIN) by different initial estimation methods and independent component analysis (ICA). In addition, two typical challenging area of total ion chromatogram (TIC) of commercial fragrances with overlapped peaks were analyzed by the PIA to investigate the possibility of peak deconvolution analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Finding the missing plastic -resolving the global mass (im)balance for plastic pollution in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, C.; van Sebille, E.

    2016-02-01

    Several global studies have attempted to estimate the standing stock of plastic debris in the oceans at the global scale. However, recent work estimating the amount lost from land on an annual basis suggests that the standing stock should be several orders of magnitude larger than the global estimates. We investigate the role of coastal deposition within the first few weeks after plastic enters the ocean and very near its sources, one of the hypothesized sinks for the missing plastic in this mass balance. We utilize a continental scale dataset of plastics collected along Australia's coast and in the offshore regions together with models of plastic release and transport based on Lagrangian tracking to investigate the role of local deposition in the coastal environment. Our models predict that the vast majority of positively buoyant plastic is deposited within a very short distance from its release point, with only a small fraction escaping into the open ocean. These predictions match our coastal and offshore observations, providing clear evidence that this mechanism of immediate coastal deposition is, at least in part, driving the apparent mismatch between coastal emissions and the standing stock in the ocean.

  12. SPATIALLY RESOLVED KINEMATICS OF THE CENTRAL REGIONS OF M83: HIDDEN MASS SIGNATURES AND THE ROLE OF SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piqueras Lopez, J.; Colina, L. [Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC (Spain); Davies, R.; Orban de Xivry, G., E-mail: piqueraslj@cab.inta-csic.es [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, 85741 Garching (Germany)

    2012-06-10

    The barred grand-design spiral M83 (NGC 5236) is one of the most studied galaxies given its proximity, orientation, and particular complexity. Nonetheless, many aspects of the central regions remain controversial, conveying our limited understanding of the inner gas and stellar kinematics, and ultimately of the nucleus evolution. In this work, we present AO VLT-SINFONI data of its central {approx}235 Multiplication-Sign 140 pc with an unprecedented spatial resolution of {approx}0.2 arcsec, corresponding to {approx}4 pc. We have focused our study on the distribution and kinematics of the stars and the ionized and molecular gas by studying the Pa{alpha} and Br{gamma} emission in detail, the H{sub 2} 1-0S(1) line at 2.122 {mu}m, and the [Fe II] line at 1.644 {mu}m, together with the CO absorption bands at 2.293 {mu}m and 2.323 {mu}m. Our results reveal a complex situation where the gas and stellar kinematics are totally unrelated. Supernova explosions play an important role in shaping the gas kinematics, dominated by shocks and inflows at scales of tens of parsecs that make them unsuitable to derive general dynamical properties. We propose that the location of the nucleus of M83 is unlikely to be related to the off-center 'optical nucleus'. The study of the stellar kinematics reveals that the optical nucleus is a gravitationally bound massive star cluster with M{sub dyn} = (1.1 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }, formed by a past starburst. The kinematic and photometric analysis of the cluster yield that the stellar content of the cluster is well described by an intermediate age population of log T(yr) = 8.0 {+-} 0.4, with a mass of M* {approx_equal} (7.8 {+-} 2.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }.

  13. Characteristics of Ambient Black Carbon Mass and Size-Resolved Particle Number Concentrations during Corn Straw Open-Field Burning Episode Observations at a Rural Site in Southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Yang, Li-Sing

    2016-07-08

    Information on the effect of open-field burning of agricultural residues on ambient black carbon (BC) mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations is scarce. In this study, to understand the effect of such open-field burning on short-term air quality, real-time variations of the BC mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations were monitored before and during a corn straw open-field burning episode at a rural site. Correlations between the BC mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations during the episode were investigated. Moreover, the particle number size distribution and absorption Ångström exponent were determined for obtaining the characteristics of aerosol emissions from the corn straw open-field burning. The results can be used to address public health concerns and as a reference for managing similar episodes of open-field burning of agricultural residues.

  14. Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    constructs, and it illustrates them by means of two examples. The hierarchy constructs can be used for theoretical considerations, but their main use is to describe and analyse large real-world systems. All of the hierarchy constructs are supported by the editing and analysis facilities in the CPN Palette...

  15. Completing the land resource hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Land Resource Hierarchy of the NRCS is a hierarchal landscape classification consisting of resource areas which represent both conceptual and spatially discrete landscape units stratifying agency programs and practices. The Land Resource Hierarchy (LRH) scales from discrete points (soil pedon an...

  16. Dominance Hierarchies in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Murray S.; Omark, Donald R.

    1973-01-01

    This study uses the ethological approach of seeking species characteristics and phylogenetic continuities in an investigation of human behavior. Among primates a striking consistency is the presence of some form of dominance hierarchy in many species. The present study examines peer group dominance hierarchies as they are perceived by children in…

  17. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Douglas

    1996-01-01

    Reviews Maslow's hierarchy of needs and characterization of the self-actualizing personality, suggesting that since few people meet his self-actualization criteria, an educational system designed to produce such personalities may fail, with teachers attending only to the hierarchy's lower stages (self-esteem and self-actualization) which dilutes…

  18. Flavour democracy and the lepton-quark hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsch, H.; Muenchen Univ.; Plankl, J.

    1990-01-01

    The mass hierarchy of the leptons and quarks is interpreted as a consequence of a coherent state phenomenon ('flavour democracy'). It is emphasized that particular forms of the mass matrices can arise from the coherent state basis. The violations of the 'flavour democracy' turn out to be relatively large. Numerical examples are presented. (orig.)

  19. On the supersymmetric BKP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Eduardo; Stanciu, Sonia

    1994-01-01

    We prove that the supersymmetric BKP-hierarchy of Yu (SBKP 2 ) is hamiltonian with respect to a nonlinear extension of the N=1 super-Virasoro algebra (W SBKP ) by fields of spin k, where k>[3]/[2] and 2k≡0,3 (mod 4). Moreover, we show how to associate in a similar manner an N=1 W-superalgebra with every integrable hierarchy of the SKdV-type. We also show using dressing transformations how to extend, in a way which is compatible with the hamiltonian structure, the SBKP 2 hierarchy by odd flows, as well as the equivalence of this extended hierarchy to the SBKP-hierarchy of Manin-Radul. ((orig.))

  20. An extended Harry Dym hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Wenxiu

    2010-01-01

    An extended Harry Dym hierarchy is constructed by using eigenfunctions and adjoint eigenfunctions of the spectral problems of the Harry Dym hierarchy associated with the pseudo-differential operator L = u∂ + u 0 + u 1 ∂ -1 + .... The corresponding Lax presentation possesses a self-consistent source involving squared eigenfunctions. The resulting extended Harry Dym hierarchy is reduced to the Harry Dym hierarchy with self-consistent sources under the n-reduction, L n = (L n ) ≥2 , and the k-constrained Harry Dym hierarchy under the k-constraint, L k = (L k ) ≥2 + Σ N i=1 q i ∂ -1 r i ∂ 2 . A few particular examples are computed, together with their Lax pairs.

  1. Hierarchy spectrum of SM fermions: from top quark to electron neutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, She-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    In the SM gauge symmetries and fermion content of neutrinos, charged leptons and quarks, we study the effective four-fermion operators of Einstein-Cartan type and their contributions to the Schwinger-Dyson equations of fermion self-energy functions. The study is motivated by the speculation that these four-fermion operators are probably originated due to the quantum gravity, which provides the natural regularization for chiral-symmetric gauge field theories. In the chiral-gauge symmetry breaking phase, as to achieve the energetically favorable ground state, only the top-quark mass is generated via the spontaneous symmetry breaking, and other fermion masses are generated via the explicit symmetry breaking induced by the top-quark mass, four-fermion interactions and fermion-flavor mixing matrices. A phase transition from the symmetry breaking phase to the chiral-gauge symmetric phase at TeV scale occurs and the drastically fine-tuning problem can be resolved. In the infrared fixed-point domain of the four-fermion coupling for the SM at low energies, we qualitatively obtain the hierarchy patterns of the SM fermion Dirac masses, Yukawa couplings and family-flavor mixing matrices with three additional right-handed neutrinos ν_R"f. Large Majorana masses and lepton-number symmetry breaking are originated by the four-fermion interactions among ν_R"f and their left-handed conjugated fields ν_R"f"c. Light masses of gauged Majorana neutrinos in the normal hierarchy (10"−"5−10"−"2 eV) are obtained consistently with neutrino oscillations. We present some discussions on the composite Higgs phenomenology and forward-backward asymmetry of tt̄-production, as well as remarks on the candidates of light and heavy dark matter particles (fermions, scalar and pseudoscalar bosons).

  2. Hierarchy spectrum of SM fermions: from top quark to electron neutrino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, She-Sheng [ICRANet,Piazza della Repubblica 10, 65122 Pescara (Italy); Physics Department, Sapienza University of Rome,Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2016-11-10

    In the SM gauge symmetries and fermion content of neutrinos, charged leptons and quarks, we study the effective four-fermion operators of Einstein-Cartan type and their contributions to the Schwinger-Dyson equations of fermion self-energy functions. The study is motivated by the speculation that these four-fermion operators are probably originated due to the quantum gravity, which provides the natural regularization for chiral-symmetric gauge field theories. In the chiral-gauge symmetry breaking phase, as to achieve the energetically favorable ground state, only the top-quark mass is generated via the spontaneous symmetry breaking, and other fermion masses are generated via the explicit symmetry breaking induced by the top-quark mass, four-fermion interactions and fermion-flavor mixing matrices. A phase transition from the symmetry breaking phase to the chiral-gauge symmetric phase at TeV scale occurs and the drastically fine-tuning problem can be resolved. In the infrared fixed-point domain of the four-fermion coupling for the SM at low energies, we qualitatively obtain the hierarchy patterns of the SM fermion Dirac masses, Yukawa couplings and family-flavor mixing matrices with three additional right-handed neutrinos ν{sub R}{sup f}. Large Majorana masses and lepton-number symmetry breaking are originated by the four-fermion interactions among ν{sub R}{sup f} and their left-handed conjugated fields ν{sub R}{sup fc}. Light masses of gauged Majorana neutrinos in the normal hierarchy (10{sup −5}−10{sup −2} eV) are obtained consistently with neutrino oscillations. We present some discussions on the composite Higgs phenomenology and forward-backward asymmetry of tt̄-production, as well as remarks on the candidates of light and heavy dark matter particles (fermions, scalar and pseudoscalar bosons).

  3. The 2014-2017 outburst of the young star ASASSN-13db. A time-resolved picture of a very-low-mass star between EXors and FUors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, A.; Oprandi, A.; Froebrich, D.; Fang, M.; Prieto, J. L.; Stanek, K.; Scholz, A.; Kochanek, C. S.; Henning, Th.; Gredel, R.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Rabus, M.; Shappee, B. J.; Billington, S. J.; Campbell-White, J.; Zegmott, T. J.

    2017-11-01

    Context. Accretion outbursts are key elements in star formation. ASASSN-13db is a M5-type star with a protoplanetary disk, the lowest-mass star known to experience accretion outbursts. Since its discovery in 2013, it has experienced two outbursts, the second of which started in November 2014 and lasted until February 2017. Aims: We explore the photometric and spectroscopic behavior of ASASSN-13db during the 2014-2017 outburst. Methods: We use high- and low-resolution spectroscopy and time-resolved photometry from the ASAS-SN survey, the LCOGT and the Beacon Observatory to study the light curve of ASASSN-13db and the dynamical and physical properties of the accretion flow. Results: The 2014-2017 outburst lasted for nearly 800 days. A 4.15 d period in the light curve likely corresponds to rotational modulation of a star with hot spot(s). The spectra show multiple emission lines with variable inverse P-Cygni profiles and a highly variable blue-shifted absorption below the continuum. Line ratios from metallic emission lines (Fe I/Fe II, Ti I/Ti II) suggest temperatures of 5800-6000 K in the accretion flow. Conclusions: Photometrically and spectroscopically, the 2014-2017 event displays an intermediate behavior between EXors and FUors. The accretion rate ([Ṁ]= 1-3 × 10-7 M⊙/yr), about two orders of magnitude higher than the accretion rate in quiescence, is not significantly different from the accretion rate observed in 2013. The absorption features in the spectra suggest that the system is viewed at a high angle and drives a powerful, non-axisymmetric wind, maybe related to magnetic reconnection. The properties of ASASSN-13db suggest that temperatures lower than those for solar-type stars are needed for modeling accretion in very-low-mass systems. Finally, the rotational modulation during the outburst reveals that accretion-related structures settle after the beginning of the outburst and can be relatively stable and long-lived. Our work also demonstrates the power

  4. Highly time-resolved urban aerosol characteristics during springtime in Yangtze River Delta, China: insights from soot particle aerosol mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; Ge, Xinlei; Chen, Yanfang; Shen, Yafei; Zhang, Qi; Sun, Yele; Xu, Jianzhong; Ge, Shun; Yu, Huan; Chen, Mindong

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the Aerodyne soot particle - aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) was deployed for the first time during the spring of 2015 in urban Nanjing, a megacity in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) of China, for online characterization of the submicron aerosols (PM1). The SP-AMS enables real-time and fast quantification of refractory black carbon (rBC) simultaneously with other non-refractory species (ammonium, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, and organics). The average PM1 concentration was found to be 28.2 µg m-3, with organics (45 %) as the most abundant component, following by sulfate (19.3 %), nitrate (13.6 %), ammonium (11.1 %), rBC (9.7 %), and chloride (1.3 %). These PM1 species together can reconstruct ˜ 44 % of the light extinction during this campaign based on the IMPROVE method. Chemically resolved mass-based size distributions revealed that small particles especially ultrafine ones (cooking-related OA (COA), semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA), and low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA). Overall, secondary organic aerosol (SOA, equal to the sum of SV-OOA and LV-OOA) dominated the total OA mass (55.5 %), but primary organic aerosol (POA, equal to the sum of HOA and COA) can outweigh SOA in the early morning and evening due to enhanced human activities. High OA concentrations were often associated with high mass fractions of POA and rBC, indicating the important role of anthropogenic emissions during heavy pollution events. The diurnal cycles of nitrate, chloride, and SV-OOA both showed good anti-correlations with air temperatures, suggesting their variations were likely driven by thermodynamic equilibria and gas-to-particle partitioning. On the other hand, in contrast to other species, sulfate, and LV-OOA concentrations increased in the afternoon, and showed no positive correlations with relative humidity (RH), likely indicating the contribution from photochemical oxidation is dominant over that of aqueous-phase processing for their formations. The

  5. The synthesis of carbon nanocomposites as fuel cell catalyst support and the characterization of fuel cell catalysts by spatially resolved scanning mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Nan

    2007-07-01

    Ammonia decomposition over Ni/SiO{sub 2} and Ni/MgO was investigated by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR) in order to produce CO{sub x} free hydrogen fuel for fuel cell application. A highly efficient route for the synthesis of carbon nanocomposites based on electrochemical deposition and iron catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was developed in order to obtain a promising substrate for fuel cell catalysts. The duration of electrochemical deposition, temperature and time for the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) growth had been optimized to achieve higher surface area after the growth. Hierarchically structured CNTs composites had been synthesized and electrochemical studies provided evidence for the strong interaction among the substrate and grown CNTs, which are essential for the application in fuel cells. A straightforward strategy was developed to synthesize well dispersed gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 4 to 6 nm on the sidewall of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). A gas flow set-up was developed for the evaluation of fuel cell catalysts by performing scanning mass spectrometry with integrated constant-distance positioning. Methanol oxidation was identified as a suitable test reaction. The diameter of scanning probe was reduced in order to achieve higher spatial resolution. Spatially resolved scanning mass spectrometry was successfully applied to visualize the catalytic activity over Pt-based catalysts and monitor the local activity of a catalysts coated membrane (CCM). The gas-solid phase reaction results were proved to be accurate, reliable and independent of the sample topography. This analytical method opens the way for fast quality control of the catalyst coating with respect to even coating and absence of damages, and for a better understanding of the CCM degradation in polymer membrane electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFCs). (orig.)

  6. Spatially and time-resolved element-specific in situ corrosion investigations with an online hyphenated microcapillary flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homazava, N.; Ulrich, A.; Kraehenbuehl, U.

    2008-01-01

    A novel technique for in situ spatial, time-resolved element-specific investigations of corrosion processes is developed. The technique is based on an online hyphenation of a specially designed microflow-capillary set-up to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using flow injection sample introduction. Detailed aspects of the method development, optimization of the sample microflow introduction and flow injection characteristics for the localized corrosion analysis are described. Moreover, specific challenges of the ICP-MS analysis as applied to the analysis of corrosion sample probes, e.g. high matrix load and limited sample volume, are discussed. The efficiency of the developed technique is proved by corrosion susceptibility analysis of a commercial Al alloy. Results of the corrosion experiments of the aluminum alloy AA 6111 are presented to demonstrate the influence of various factors such as exposure time and pH value of the corrosive medium on the element-specific dissolution rates of the alloy. This novel technique provides new aspects in corrosion science and sheds new light on corrosion mechanisms

  7. A Facile Droplet-Chip-Time-Resolved Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Online System for Determination of Zinc in Single Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2017-05-02

    Single cell analysis is a significant research field in recent years reflecting the heterogeneity of cells in a biological system. In this work, a facile droplet chip was fabricated and online combined with time-resolved inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) via a microflow nebulizer for the determination of zinc in single HepG2 cells. On the focusing geometric designed PDMS microfluidic chip, the aqueous cell suspension was ejected and divided by hexanol to generate droplets. The droplets encapsulated single cells remain intact during the transportation into ICP for subsequent detection. Under the optimized conditions, the frequency of droplet generation is 3-6 × 10 6 min -1 , and the injected cell number is 2500 min -1 , which can ensure the single cell encapsulation. ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were used for the quantification of zinc in single cells, and the accuracy was validated by conventional acid digestion-ICPMS method. The ZnO NPs incubated HepG2 cells were analyzed as model samples, and the results exhibit the heterogeneity of HepG2 cells in the uptake/adsorption of ZnO NPs. The developed online droplet-chip-ICPMS analysis system achieves stable single cell encapsulation and has high throughput for single cell analysis. It has the potential in monitoring the content as well as distribution of trace elements/NPs at the single cell level.

  8. Quadratic Hierarchy Flavor Rule as the Origin of Dirac CP-Violating Phases

    OpenAIRE

    Lipmanov, E. M.

    2007-01-01

    The premise of an organizing quadratic hierarchy rule in lepton-quark flavor physics was used earlier for explanation of the hierarchy patterns of four generic pairs of flavor quantities 1) charged-lepton and 2) neutrino deviations from mass-degeneracy, 3) deviations of lepton mixing from maximal magnitude and 4) deviations of quark mixing from minimal one. Here it is shown that the quadratic hierarchy equation that is uniquely related to three flavor particle generations may have yet another...

  9. Common Origin for Neutrino Anarchy and Charged Hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Okui, Takemichi; Sundrum, Raman

    2009-01-01

    The generation of exponential flavor hierarchies from extra-dimensional wave function overlaps is reexamined. We find, surprisingly, that the coexistence of anarchic fermion mass matrices with such hierarchies is intrinsic and natural to this setting. The salient features of charged fermion and neutrino masses and mixings can thereby be captured within a single framework. Both Dirac and Majorana neutrinos can be realized. Implications for a variety of weak-scale scenarios, including warped compactification and supersymmetry, are discussed. When the new weak-scale physics is sensitive to the origin of flavor structure, Dirac neutrinos are preferred

  10. Dynamical hierarchies - A summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, S.; Barrett, C.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Santa Fe Institute, NM (United States); Olesen, M.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    This paper summarizes some of the problems associated with the generation of higher order emergent structures in formal dynamical systems. In biological systems, higher order hyperstructures occur both in an intuitive and a formal sense: monomers, polymers, membranes, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, etc. constitute an observable hierarchy, apparently generated by the underlying biomolecular process. However, in models and simulations of these systems, it has turned out to be quite difficult to produce higher order emergent structures from first principles. The first problem is to agree on what a higher order structure is. An emergent structure can be defined through an introduction of an observational function. If a property can be observed in the dynamics, but not at the level of the fundamental first order interacting structures, we define it to be emergent. It is well known that second order structures occur relatively easy in simulation, so the problem is how to proceed to third and higher order without external interference. A third order structure is defined through the interaction of second order structures forming a new observable not found at the lower levels.

  11. Gauge-symmetry hierarchies revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gildener, E.

    1979-01-01

    It was shown by the author in a previous paper that in each order of perturbation theory there is an upper bound on the range of validity of a gauge hierarchy. Thus constructing a large hierarchy requires a fine-tuning of the scalar-field parameters. It was stated that the possibility of an inherent bound on the hierarchy exists, but the question of the actual existence of such a bound was left completely open. Since then several authors have addressed this problem. Some of what the author asserted was misunderstood, and incorrect conclusions have been drawn from recent computations. It has been claimed that the existence of large hierarchies has been demonstrated. It is the purpose of this paper to refute this claim, to help clarify the situation, and to explain why the status of this problem has in fact not really changed in recent years (author)

  12. Principles of synchronous digital hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Rajesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The book presents the current standards of digital multiplexing, called synchronous digital hierarchy, including analog multiplexing technologies. It is aimed at telecommunication professionals who want to develop an understanding of digital multiplexing and synchronous digital hierarchy in particular and the functioning of practical telecommunication systems in general. The text includes all relevant fundamentals and provides a handy reference for problem solving or defining operations and maintenance strategies. The author covers digital conversion and TDM principles, line coding and digital

  13. Information slows down hierarchy growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Suchecki, Krzysztof; Miñano, Borja; Trias, Miquel; Hołyst, Janusz A

    2014-06-01

    We consider models of growing multilevel systems wherein the growth process is driven by rules of tournament selection. A system can be conceived as an evolving tree with a new node being attached to a contestant node at the best hierarchy level (a level nearest to the tree root). The proposed evolution reflects limited information on system properties available to new nodes. It can also be expressed in terms of population dynamics. Two models are considered: a constant tournament (CT) model wherein the number of tournament participants is constant throughout system evolution, and a proportional tournament (PT) model where this number increases proportionally to the growing size of the system itself. The results of analytical calculations based on a rate equation fit well to numerical simulations for both models. In the CT model all hierarchy levels emerge, but the birth time of a consecutive hierarchy level increases exponentially or faster for each new level. The number of nodes at the first hierarchy level grows logarithmically in time, while the size of the last, "worst" hierarchy level oscillates quasi-log-periodically. In the PT model, the occupations of the first two hierarchy levels increase linearly, but worse hierarchy levels either do not emerge at all or appear only by chance in the early stage of system evolution to further stop growing at all. The results allow us to conclude that information available to each new node in tournament dynamics restrains the emergence of new hierarchy levels and that it is the absolute amount of information, not relative, which governs such behavior.

  14. Quantify entanglement by concurrence hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Heng; Matsumoto, Keiji; Imai, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    We define the concurrence hierarchy as d-1 independent invariants under local unitary transformations in d-level quantum system. The first one is the original concurrence defined by Wootters et al in 2-level quantum system and generalized to d-level pure quantum states case. We propose to use this concurrence hierarchy as measurement of entanglement. This measurement does not increase under local quantum operations and classical communication.

  15. Information slows down hierarchy growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Suchecki, Krzysztof; Miñano, Borja; Trias, Miquel; Hołyst, Janusz A.

    2014-06-01

    We consider models of growing multilevel systems wherein the growth process is driven by rules of tournament selection. A system can be conceived as an evolving tree with a new node being attached to a contestant node at the best hierarchy level (a level nearest to the tree root). The proposed evolution reflects limited information on system properties available to new nodes. It can also be expressed in terms of population dynamics. Two models are considered: a constant tournament (CT) model wherein the number of tournament participants is constant throughout system evolution, and a proportional tournament (PT) model where this number increases proportionally to the growing size of the system itself. The results of analytical calculations based on a rate equation fit well to numerical simulations for both models. In the CT model all hierarchy levels emerge, but the birth time of a consecutive hierarchy level increases exponentially or faster for each new level. The number of nodes at the first hierarchy level grows logarithmically in time, while the size of the last, "worst" hierarchy level oscillates quasi-log-periodically. In the PT model, the occupations of the first two hierarchy levels increase linearly, but worse hierarchy levels either do not emerge at all or appear only by chance in the early stage of system evolution to further stop growing at all. The results allow us to conclude that information available to each new node in tournament dynamics restrains the emergence of new hierarchy levels and that it is the absolute amount of information, not relative, which governs such behavior.

  16. Recommended HSE-7 documents hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.B.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Danna, J.G.; Davis, K.D.; Rutz, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report recommends a hierarchy of waste management documents at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or ''Laboratory''). The hierarchy addresses documents that are required to plan, implement, and document waste management programs at Los Alamos. These documents will enable the waste management group and the six sections contained within that group to satisfy requirements that are imposed upon them by the US Department of Energy (DOE), DOE Albuquerque Operations, US Environmental Protection Agency, various State of New Mexico agencies, and Laboratory management

  17. A Machian solution of the hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogberashvili, M.

    2008-01-01

    The new interpretation of Mach's principle of mass of a particle being a measure of the interactions of this particle with all other gravitating particles inside its causal spheres is introduced. It is shown that within some alternative model of gravitation that incorporates this principle, the Machian influence of the universe can reduce Planck's scale to the electro-weak scale and the large number that is needed to explain the hierarchy between the scales is the amount of gravitating particles inside the universe horizon. Our model can lead to new observable effects at cosmological distances and close to the sources of a strong gravitational field. (orig.)

  18. Visualising large hierarchies with Flextree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongzhi; Curran, Edwin P.; Sterritt, Roy

    2003-05-01

    One of the main tasks in Information Visualisation research is creating visual tools to facilitate human understanding of large and complex information spaces. Hierarchies, being a good mechanism in organising such information, are ubiquitous. Although much research effort has been spent on finding useful representations for hierarchies, visualising large hierarchies is still a difficult topic. One of the difficulties is how to show both tructure and node content information in one view. Another is how to achieve multiple foci in a focus+context visualisation. This paper describes a novel hierarchy visualisation technique called FlexTree to address these problems. It contains some important features that have not been exploited so far. In this visualisation, a profile or contour unique to the hierarchy being visualised can be gained in a histogram-like layout. A normalised view of a common attribute of all nodes can be acquired, and selection of this attribute is controllable by the user. Multiple foci are consistently accessible within a global context through interaction. Furthermore it can handle a large hierarchy that contains several thousand nodes in a PC environment. In addition results from an informal evaluation are also presented.

  19. Gauge hierarchy problem in grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhendi, H.A.A.

    1982-01-01

    In grand unification schemes, several mass scales are to be introduced, with some of them much larger than all the others, to cope with experimental observations, in which elementary particles of higher masses require higher energy to observe them than elementary particles of lower masses. There have been controversial arguments in the literature on such hierarchical scale structure, when radiative corrections are taken into account. It has been asserted that the gauge hierarchy depends on the choice of the subtraction point (in the classical field space), of the four-point function at zero external momentum. It also has been asserted that the gauge hierarchy problem whenever it is possible to be maintained in one sector of particles, it also is possible to be maintained in the other sectors. These two problems have been studied in a prototype model, namely an 0(3)-model with two triplets of real scalar Higgs fields. Our analysis shows that, within ordinary perturbation theory, none of these two problems is quite correct

  20. Mediation for resolving family disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamenecka-Usova M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the understanding of the institute of marriage and its importance in the society has changed. Marriage is no longer assumed to be a commitment for a lifetime. As the principle of equality has replaced hierarchy as the guiding principle of family law it gave more grounds for family disputes and it became socially acceptable to leave marriages that are intolerable or merely unfulfilling. The aim of this article is to suggest an alternative dispute resolution method-mediation as a worthy option for resolving family conflicts.

  1. Special polynomials associated with some hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashov, Nikolai A.

    2008-01-01

    Special polynomials associated with rational solutions of a hierarchy of equations of Painleve type are introduced. The hierarchy arises by similarity reduction from the Fordy-Gibbons hierarchy of partial differential equations. Some relations for these special polynomials are given. Differential-difference hierarchies for finding special polynomials are presented. These formulae allow us to obtain special polynomials associated with the hierarchy studied. It is shown that rational solutions of members of the Schwarz-Sawada-Kotera, the Schwarz-Kaup-Kupershmidt, the Fordy-Gibbons, the Sawada-Kotera and the Kaup-Kupershmidt hierarchies can be expressed through special polynomials of the hierarchy studied

  2. Scale-independent inflation and hierarchy generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro G. Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss models involving two scalar fields coupled to classical gravity that satisfy the general criteria: (i the theory has no mass input parameters, (ii classical scale symmetry is broken only through −112ςϕ2R couplings where ς departs from the special conformal value of 1; (iii the Planck mass is dynamically generated by the vacuum expectations values (VEVs of the scalars (iv there is a stage of viable inflation associated with slow roll in the two-scalar potential; (v the final vacuum has a small to vanishing cosmological constant and an hierarchically small ratio of the VEVs and the ratio of the scalar masses to the Planck scale. This assumes the paradigm of classical scale symmetry as a custodial symmetry of large hierarchies.

  3. Strong Bayesian evidence for the normal neutrino hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Fergus; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia [ICCUB, University of Barcelona (UB-IEEC), Marti i Franques 1, Barcelona, 08028 (Spain); Pena-Garay, Carlos, E-mail: fergus2@gmail.com, E-mail: raul.jimenez@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: penagaray@gmail.com, E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu [I2SysBio, CSIC-UVEG, P.O. 22085, Valencia, 46071 (Spain)

    2017-06-01

    The configuration of the three neutrino masses can take two forms, known as the normal and inverted hierarchies. We compute the Bayesian evidence associated with these two hierarchies. Previous studies found a mild preference for the normal hierarchy, and this was driven by the asymmetric manner in which cosmological data has confined the available parameter space. Here we identify the presence of a second asymmetry, which is imposed by data from neutrino oscillations. By combining constraints on the squared-mass splittings [1] with the limit on the sum of neutrino masses of Σ m {sub ν} < 0.13 eV [2], and using a minimally informative prior on the masses, we infer odds of 42:1 in favour of the normal hierarchy, which is classified as 'strong' in the Jeffreys' scale. We explore how these odds may evolve in light of higher precision cosmological data, and discuss the implications of this finding with regards to the nature of neutrinos. Finally the individual masses are inferred to be m {sub 1}=3.80{sup +26.2}{sub -3.73}meV; m {sub 2}=8.8{sup +18}{sub -1.2}meV; m {sub 3}=50.4{sup +5.8}{sub -1.2}meV (95% credible intervals).

  4. Grassmannian approach to super-KP hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takama, Michiaki.

    1995-06-01

    We present a theory of 'maximal' super-KP (SKP) hierarchy whose flows are maximally extended to include all those of known SKP hierarchies, including, for example, the MRSKP hierarchy of Manin and Radul and the Jacobian SKP (JSKP) introduced by Mulase and Rabin. It is shown that SKP hierarchies has a natural field theoretic description in terms of the B-C system, in analogous way as the ordinary KP hierarchy. For this SKP hierarchy, we construct the vertex operators by using Kac-van de Leur superbosonization. The vertex operators act on the τ-function and then produce the wave function and the dual wave function of the hierarchy. Thereby we achieve the description of the 'maximal' SKP hierarchy in terms of the τ-function, which seemed to be lacking till now. Mutual relations among the SKP hierarchies are clarified. The MRSKP and the JSKP hierarchies are obtained as special cases when the time variables are appropriately restricted. (author)

  5. Recursion Operators for Dispersionless KP Hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Qiusheng; He Jingsong

    2012-01-01

    Based on the corresponding theorem between dispersionless KP (dKP) hierarchy and ħ-dependent KP (ħKP) hierarchy, a general formal representation of the recursion operators for dKP hierarchy under n-reduction is given in a systematical way from the corresponding ħKP hierarchy. To illustrate this method, the recursion operators for dKP hierarchy under 2-reduction and 3-reduction are calculated in detail.

  6. Office of Geologic Respositories issues hierarchy for a Mined Geologic Disposal System (OGR/B-10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    The Office of Geologic Repositories (OGR) has adopted an issues hierarchy for use by all Project Offices. The issues hierarchy provides a framework for representing issues related to regulatory requirements for siting and licensing a mined geologic disposal system (MGDS) and for describing the work that needs to be completed during site characterization to resolve those issues. The issues in the issues hierarchy are defined as the questions relating to the performance of the MGDS that must be resolved to demonstrate compliance with the applicable federal regulations (including 10 CFR Part 60, 10 CFR Part 960, 40 CFR Part 191, and 10 CFR Part 20). The issues hierarchy is structured around four broad areas of regulatory concern related to the requirements for siting and licensing an MGDS (postclosure performance, preclosure radiological safety, non-radiological environmental impacts, and feasibility and cost of MGDS development), and provides the framework for definition of the information needed to satisfy the applicable regulatory requirements in each of these areas. The purpose of this document is to present the issues hierarchy, describe the rationale used to develop the hierarchy, and describe how the issues hierarchy is used in program planning. Section 2 presents the overall rationale for the issues hierarchy, and explains the structure and organization of the hierarchy. Section 3 presents the issues hierarchy itself and Section 4 describes the basis for the development of individual issues. Section 5 provides a correlation between the issues and the applicable federal regulations being addressed. Section 6 describes how the issues drive development of plans in support of siting and licensing requirements through use of an issue resolution strategy that includes performance allocation

  7. Time-resolved studies of particle effects in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Part 2: Investigation of MO+ ions, effect of sample morphology, transport gas, and binding agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdian, D.; Bajic, S.; Baldwin, D.; Houk, R.

    2007-01-01

    Time resolved signals in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are studied to determine the influence of experimental parameters on ICP-induced fractionation effects. Differences in sample composition and morphology, i.e., ablating brass, glass, or dust pellets, have a profound effect on the time resolved signal. Helium transport gas significantly decreases large positive signal spikes arising from large particles in the ICP. A binder for pellets also reduces the abundance and amplitude of spikes in the signal. MO + ions also yield signal spikes, but these MO + spikes generally occur at different times from their atomic ion counterparts.

  8. Highly time-resolved urban aerosol characteristics during springtime in Yangtze River Delta, China: insights from soot particle aerosol mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the Aerodyne soot particle – aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS was deployed for the first time during the spring of 2015 in urban Nanjing, a megacity in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD of China, for online characterization of the submicron aerosols (PM1. The SP-AMS enables real-time and fast quantification of refractory black carbon (rBC simultaneously with other non-refractory species (ammonium, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, and organics. The average PM1 concentration was found to be 28.2 µg m−3, with organics (45 % as the most abundant component, following by sulfate (19.3 %, nitrate (13.6 %, ammonium (11.1 %, rBC (9.7 %, and chloride (1.3 %. These PM1 species together can reconstruct ∼ 44 % of the light extinction during this campaign based on the IMPROVE method. Chemically resolved mass-based size distributions revealed that small particles especially ultrafine ones (< 100 nm vacuum aerodynamic diameter were dominated by organics and rBC, while large particles had significant contributions from secondary inorganic species. Source apportionment of organic aerosols (OA yielded four OA subcomponents, including hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, cooking-related OA (COA, semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA, and low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA. Overall, secondary organic aerosol (SOA, equal to the sum of SV-OOA and LV-OOA dominated the total OA mass (55.5 %, but primary organic aerosol (POA, equal to the sum of HOA and COA can outweigh SOA in the early morning and evening due to enhanced human activities. High OA concentrations were often associated with high mass fractions of POA and rBC, indicating the important role of anthropogenic emissions during heavy pollution events. The diurnal cycles of nitrate, chloride, and SV-OOA both showed good anti-correlations with air temperatures, suggesting their variations were likely driven by thermodynamic equilibria and gas-to-particle partitioning. On the other hand

  9. A New Model Hierarchy to Understand the Impact of Radiation and Convection on the Extratropical Circulation Response to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Z.; Shaw, T.

    2017-12-01

    State-of-the-art climate models exhibit a large spread in the magnitude of projected poleward jet shift and Hadley cell expansion in response to warming. Interestingly, some idealized gray radiation models with simplified convective schemes produce an equatorward jet shift in response to warming. In order to understand the impact of radiation and convection on the circulation response and resolve the discrepancies across the model hierarchy, we introduce a new model radiation-convection hierarchy. The hierarchy spans idealized (gray) through sophisticated (RRTMG) radiation, and idealized (Betts-Miller) through sophisticated (eddy-diffusivity mass-flux scheme) convection schemes in the same general circulation model. It is used to systematically explore the impact of radiation and convection on the extratropical circulation response to climate change independent of mean surface temperature and meridional temperature gradient responses. With a gray radiation scheme, the jet stream shift depends on the prescribed stratospheric optical depth, which controls the climatological jet regime. A large optical depth leads to a split jet and an equatorward shift. A small optical depth leads to a poleward shift. The different shifts are connected to the vertical extent of tropical long wave cooling that impacts the subtropical jet and Hadley circulation. In spite of these sensitivities, the storm track position, defined by the meridonal eddy heat flux and moist static energy flux maxima, shifts robustly poleward. In contrast to gray radiation, with a comprehensive radiation scheme, the jet and storm track shift robustly poleward irrespective of radiative assumptions (clear sky versus cloudy sky, ozone versus no ozone). This response is reproduced by adding more spectral bands and including the water vapor feedback in the gray scheme. Dynamical sensitivities to convective assumption are also explored. Overall the new hierarchy highlights the importance of radiative and

  10. Supersymmetry : the ultimate hierarchy of matter? Exhibition LEPFest 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The concept of "Supersymmetry", SUSY for short, promises a solution to the 'hierarchy' problem: the mystery of the enormous ratio between the electroweak scale (at 100-300 GeV), defined by the masses of the W and Z particles, and possibly the Higgs particle, and the Planck scale (10 19 GeV), when gravitational effects become comparable to the other forces.

  11. Hierarchies without symmetries from extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Schmaltz, Martin

    2000-01-01

    It is commonly thought that small couplings in a low-energy theory, such as those needed for the fermion mass hierarchy or proton stability, must originate from symmetries in a high-energy theory. We show that this expectation is violated in theories where the standard model fields are confined to a thick wall in extra dimensions, with the fermions ''stuck'' at different points in the wall. Couplings between them are then suppressed due to the exponentially small overlaps of their wave functions. This provides a framework for understanding both the fermion mass hierarchy and proton stability without imposing symmetries, but rather in terms of higher dimensional geography. A model independent prediction of this scenario is non-universal couplings of the standard model fermions to the ''Kaluza-Klein'' excitations of the gauge fields. This allows a measurement of the fermion locations in the extra dimensions at the CERN LHC or NLC if the wall thickness is close to the TeV scale. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  12. Hierarchies Without Symmetries from Extra Dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima

    1999-01-01

    It is commonly thought that small couplings in a low-energy theory, such as those needed for the fermion mass hierarchy or proton stability, must originate from symmetries in a high-energy theory. We show that this expectation is violated in theories where the Standard Model fields are confined to a thick wall in extra dimensions, with the fermions ''stuck'' at different points in the wall. Couplings between them are then suppressed due to the exponentially small overlaps of their wave functions. This provides a framework for understanding both the fermion mass hierarchy and proton stability without imposing symmetries, but rather in terms of higher dimensional geography. A model independent prediction of this scenario is non-universal couplings of the Standard Model fermions to the ''Kaluza-Klein'' excitations of the gauge fields. This allows a measurement of the fermion locations in the extra dimensions at the LHC or NLC if the wall thickness is close to the TeV scale

  13. Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannidou, Theodora; Niemi, Antti J.

    2016-01-01

    The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.

  14. The extended bigraded Toda hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlet, Guido

    2006-01-01

    We generalize the Toda lattice hierarchy by considering N + M dependent variables. We construct roots and logarithms of the Lax operator which are uniquely defined operators with coefficients that are ε-series of differential polynomials in the dependent variables, and we use them to provide a Lax pair definition of the extended bigraded Toda hierarchy, generalizing [4]. Using R-matrix theory we give the bi-Hamiltonian formulation of this hierarchy and we prove the existence of a tau function for its solutions. Finally we study the dispersionless limit and its connection with a class of Frobenius manifolds on the orbit space of the extended affine Weyl groups W-tilde (N) (A N+M-1 ) of the A series, defined by Dubrovin and Zhang (1998 Compos. Math. 111 167)

  15. Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioannidou, Theodora, E-mail: ti3@auth.gr [Faculty of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54249, Thessaloniki (Greece); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108, Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200, Tours (France); Department of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-01-28

    The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.

  16. Structural changes and thermal stability of charged LiNixMnyCozO₂ cathode materials studied by combined in situ time-resolved XRD and mass spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Seong-Min; Hu, Enyuan; Zhou, Yongning; Yu, Xiqian; Senanayake, Sanjaya D; Cho, Sung-Jin; Kim, Kwang-Bum; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Nam, Kyung-Wan

    2014-12-24

    Thermal stability of charged LiNixMnyCozO2 (NMC, with x + y + z = 1, x:y:z = 4:3:3 (NMC433), 5:3:2 (NMC532), 6:2:2 (NMC622), and 8:1:1 (NMC811)) cathode materials is systematically studied using combined in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction and mass spectroscopy (TR-XRD/MS) techniques upon heating up to 600 °C. The TR-XRD/MS results indicate that the content of Ni, Co, and Mn significantly affects both the structural changes and the oxygen release features during heating: the more Ni and less Co and Mn, the lower the onset temperature of the phase transition (i.e., thermal decomposition) and the larger amount of oxygen release. Interestingly, the NMC532 seems to be the optimized composition to maintain a reasonably good thermal stability, comparable to the low-nickel-content materials (e.g., NMC333 and NMC433), while having a high capacity close to the high-nickel-content materials (e.g., NMC811 and NMC622). The origin of the thermal decomposition of NMC cathode materials was elucidated by the changes in the oxidation states of each transition metal (TM) cations (i.e., Ni, Co, and Mn) and their site preferences during thermal decomposition. It is revealed that Mn ions mainly occupy the 3a octahedral sites of a layered structure (R3̅m) but Co ions prefer to migrate to the 8a tetrahedral sites of a spinel structure (Fd3̅m) during the thermal decomposition. Such element-dependent cation migration plays a very important role in the thermal stability of NMC cathode materials. The reasonably good thermal stability and high capacity characteristics of the NMC532 composition is originated from the well-balanced ratio of nickel content to manganese and cobalt contents. This systematic study provides insight into the rational design of NMC-based cathode materials with a desired balance between thermal stability and high energy density.

  17. Time resolved native ion-mobility mass spectrometry to monitor dynamics of IgG4 Fab arm exchange and "bispecific" monoclonal antibody formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debaene, François; Wagner-Rousset, Elsa; Colas, Olivier; Ayoub, Daniel; Corvaïa, Nathalie; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Beck, Alain; Cianférani, Sarah

    2013-10-15

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and derivatives such as antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) and bispecific antibodies (bsAb), are the fastest growing class of human therapeutics. Most of the therapeutic antibodies currently on the market and in clinical trials are chimeric, humanized, and human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1). An increasing number of IgG2s and IgG4s that have distinct structural and functional properties are also investigated to develop products that lack or have diminished antibody effector functions compared to IgG1. Importantly, wild type IgG4 has been shown to form half molecules (one heavy chain and one light chain) that lack interheavy chain disulfide bonds and form intrachain disulfide bonds. Moreover, IgG4 undergoes a process of Fab-arm exchange (FAE) in which the heavy chains of antibodies of different specificities can dissociate and recombine in bispecific antibodies both in vitro and in vivo. Here, native mass spectrometry (MS) and time-resolved traveling wave ion mobility MS (TWIM-MS) were used for the first time for online monitoring of FAE and bsAb formation using Hz6F4-2v3 and natalizumab, two humanized IgG4s which bind to human Junctional Adhesion Molecule-A (JAM-A) and alpha4 integrin, respectively. In addition, native MS analysis of bsAb/JAM-A immune complexes revealed that bsAb can bind up to two antigen molecules, confirming that the Hz6F4 family preferentially binds dimeric JAM-A. Our results illustrate how IM-MS can rapidly assess bsAb structural heterogeneity and be easily implemented into MS workflows for bsAb production follow up and bsAb/antigen complex characterization. Altogether, these results provide new MS-based methodologies for in-depth FAE and bsAb formation monitoring. Native MS and IM-MS will play an increasing role in next generation biopharmaceutical product characterization like bsAbs, antibody mixtures, and antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) as well as for biosimilar and biobetter antibodies.

  18. New supersymmetrizations of the generalized KDV hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, J.M.; Stanciu, S.

    1993-03-01

    Recently we investigated a new supersymmetrization procedure for the KdV hierarchy inspired in some recent work on supersymmetric matrix models. We extend this procedure here for the generalized KdV hierarchies. The resulting supersymmetric hierarchies are generically nonlocal, expect for the case of Boussinesque which we treat in detail. The resulting supersymmetric hierarchy is integrable and bihamiltonian and contains the Boussinesque hierarchy as a subhierarchy. In a particular realization, we extend it by defining supersymmetric odd flows. We end with some comments on a slight modification of this supersymmetrization which yields local equations for any generalized KdV hierarchy. (orig.)

  19. The Hierarchy of Segment Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Dorović

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an attempt to find the connection between reports created for managers responsible for different business segments. With this purpose, the hierarchy of the business reporting segments is proposed. This can lead to better understanding of the expenses under common responsibility of more than one manager since these expenses should be in more than one report. The structure of cost defined per business segment hierarchy with the aim of new, unusual but relevant cost structure for management can be established. Both could potentially bring new information benefits for management in the context of profit reporting.

  20. Directions for memory hierarchies and their components: research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.

    1978-10-01

    The memory hierarchy is usually the largest identifiable part of a computer system and making effective use of it is critical to the operation and use of the system. The levels of such a memory hierarchy are considered and the state of the art and likely directions for both research and development are described. Algorithmic and logical features of the hierarchy not directly associated with specific components are also discussed. Among the problems believed to be the most significant are the following: (a) evaluate the effectiveness of gap filler technology as a level of storage between main memory and disk, and if it proves to be effective, determine how/where it should be used, (b) develop algorithms for the use of mass storage in a large computer system, and (c) determine how cache memories should be implemented in very large, fast multiprocessor systems

  1. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  2. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, Henok; Huizinga, Joost; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste; Clune, Jeff

    2016-06-01

    Hierarchical organization-the recursive composition of sub-modules-is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments). Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force-the cost of connections-promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics.

  3. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Joost; Clune, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical organization—the recursive composition of sub-modules—is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments). Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force–the cost of connections–promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics. PMID:27280881

  4. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henok Mengistu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical organization-the recursive composition of sub-modules-is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments. Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force-the cost of connections-promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics.

  5. Hierarchy in directed random networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mones, Enys

    2013-02-01

    In recent years, the theory and application of complex networks have been quickly developing in a markable way due to the increasing amount of data from real systems and the fruitful application of powerful methods used in statistical physics. Many important characteristics of social or biological systems can be described by the study of their underlying structure of interactions. Hierarchy is one of these features that can be formulated in the language of networks. In this paper we present some (qualitative) analytic results on the hierarchical properties of random network models with zero correlations and also investigate, mainly numerically, the effects of different types of correlations. The behavior of the hierarchy is different in the absence and the presence of giant components. We show that the hierarchical structure can be drastically different if there are one-point correlations in the network. We also show numerical results suggesting that the hierarchy does not change monotonically with the correlations and there is an optimal level of nonzero correlations maximizing the level of hierarchy.

  6. Void hierarchy and cosmic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weygaert, Rien van de; Ravi Sheth

    2004-01-01

    Within the context of hierarchical scenarios of gravitational structure formation we describe how an evolving hierarchy of voids evolves on the basis of two processes, the void-in-void process and the void-in-cloud process. The related analytical formulation in terms of a two-barrier excursion problem leads to a self-similarly evolving peaked void size distribution

  7. Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…

  8. A note on the dispersionless BKP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.-T.; Tu, M.-H.

    2006-01-01

    We study the integrable hierarchy underlying topological Landau-Ginzburg models of D-type proposed by Takasaki. Since this integrable hierarchy contains the dBKP hierarchy as a sub-hierarchy, we refer it to the extended dBKP (EdBKP) hierarchy. We give a dressing formulation to the EdBKP hierarchy and investigate additional symmetries associated with the solution space of the hierarchy. We obtain hodograph solutions of its finite-dimensional reductions via Riemann-Hilbert problem (twistor construction) and derive Baecklund transformations of the (2 + 1)-dimensional dBKP equation from additional flows. Finally, the modified partner of the dBKP hierarchy is also established through a Miura transformation

  9. The problem of symmetry breaking hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of symmetry breaking hierarchy in grand unified theories is discussed, proving the impossibility to get a big hierarchy of interactions, in a natural way within the framework of perturbation theory. (L.C.) [pt

  10. Natural gauge hierarchy in SO(10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, K.S.; Barr, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    It is shown that a natural gauge hierarchy and doublet-triplet splitting can be achieved in SO(10) using the Dimopoulos-Wilczek mechanism. Artificial cancellations (fine-tuning) and arbitrary forms of the superpotential are avoided, the superpotential being the most general compatible with a symmetry. It is shown by example that the Dimopoulos-Wilczek mechanism can be protected against the effects of higher-dimension operators possibly induced by Planck-scale physics. Natural implementation of the mechanisms leads to an automatic Peccei-Quinn symmetry. The same local symmetries that would protect the gauge hierarchy against Planck-scale effects tend to protect the axion also. How realistic quark and lepton masses might arise in this framework is discussed. It is shown how the theory may remain perturbative up to the Planck scale. It is also argued that ''weak suppression'' of proton decay can be implemented more economically than can ''strong suppression,'' offering some grounds to hope [in the context of SO(10)] that proton decay could be seen at SuperKamiokande

  11. Exact Solutions for Two Equation Hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song-Lin, Zhao; Da-Jun, Zhang; Jie, Ji

    2010-01-01

    Bilinear forms and double-Wronskian solutions are given for two hierarchies, the (2+1)-dimensional breaking Ablowitz–Kaup–Newell–Segur (AKNS) hierarchy and the negative order AKNS hierarchy. According to some choices of the coefficient matrix in the Wronskian condition equation set, we obtain some kinds of solutions for these two hierarchies, such as solitons, Jordan block solutions, rational solutions, complexitons and mixed solutions. (general)

  12. Additional symmetries of supersymmetric KP hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanciu, S.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the additional symmetries of several supersymmetric KP hierarchies: the SKP hierarchy of Manin and Radul, the SKP 2 hierarchy, and the Jacobian SKP hierarchy. In all three cases we find that the algebra of symmetries is isomorphic to the algebra of superdifferential operators, or equivalently SW 1+∞ . These results seem to suggest that despite their realization depending on the dynamics, the additional symmetries are kinematical in nature. (orig.)

  13. A note on the KP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depireux, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, given the two boson representation of the conformal algebra W ∞ , the second Hamiltonian structure of the KP hierarchy, the author constructs a bi-Hamiltonian hierarchy for the two associated currents. The KP hierarchy appears as a composite of this new and simpler system. The bi-Hamiltonian structure of the new hierarchy gives naturally all the Hamiltonian structures of the KP system

  14. A Hierarchy Model of Income Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Fix, Blair

    2018-01-01

    Based on worldly experience, most people would agree that firms are hierarchically organized, and that pay tends to increase as one moves up the hierarchy. But how this hierarchical structure affects income distribution has not been widely studied. To remedy this situation, this paper presents a new model of income distribution that explores the effects of social hierarchy. This ‘hierarchy model’ takes the limited available evidence on the structure of firm hierarchies and generalizes it to c...

  15. Optimizing an immersion ESL curriculum using analytic hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui-Wen Vivian

    2011-11-01

    The main purpose of this study is to fill a substantial knowledge gap regarding reaching a uniform group decision in English curriculum design and planning. A comprehensive content-based course criterion model extracted from existing literature and expert opinions was developed. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to identify the relative importance of course criteria for the purpose of tailoring an optimal one-week immersion English as a second language (ESL) curriculum for elementary school students in a suburban county of Taiwan. The hierarchy model and AHP analysis utilized in the present study will be useful for resolving several important multi-criteria decision-making issues in planning and evaluating ESL programs. This study also offers valuable insights and provides a basis for further research in customizing ESL curriculum models for different student populations with distinct learning needs, goals, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Generalized Miura transformations, two-bosons KP hierarchies and their reduction to KdV hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Ferreira, L.A.; Gomes, J.F.; Medeiros, R.T.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1993-02-01

    Bracket preserving gauge equivalence is established between several two-boson generated KP type of hierarchies. These KP hierarchies reduce under symplectic reduction (via Dirac constraints) to KdV and Schwarzian KdV hierarchies. Under this reduction the gauge equivalence is taking form of the conventional Miura maps between the above KdV type of hierarchies. (author). 16 refs

  17. Generalized Miura transformations, two-bosons KP hierarchies and their reduction to KdV hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aratyn, H. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Ferreira, L.A.; Gomes, J.F.; Medeiros, R.T.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1993-02-01

    Bracket preserving gauge equivalence is established between several two-boson generated KP type of hierarchies. These KP hierarchies reduce under symplectic reduction (via Dirac constraints) to KdV and Schwarzian KdV hierarchies. Under this reduction the gauge equivalence is taking form of the conventional Miura maps between the above KdV type of hierarchies. (author). 16 refs.

  18. Generalized W-algebras and integrable hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burroughs, N.; De Groot, M.; Hollowood, T.; Miramontes, L.

    1992-01-01

    We report on generalizations of the KdV-type integrable hierarchies of Drinfel'd and Sokolov. These hierarchies lead to the existence of new classical W-algebras, which arise as the second hamiltonian structure of the hierarchies. In particular, we present a construction of the W n (l) -algebras. (orig.)

  19. BBGKY hierarchy and dynamics of correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polishchuk, D.O.

    2010-01-01

    We derive the BBGKY hierarchy for the Fermi and Bose many-particle systems, using the von Neumann hierarchy for the correlation operators. The solution of the Cauchy problem of the formulated hierarchy in the case of an n-body interaction potential is constructed in the space of sequences of trace-class operators.

  20. The hierarchy problem and the cosmological constant problem in the Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegerlehner, Fred

    2015-03-01

    We argue that the SM in the Higgs phase does not suffer form a ''hierarchy problem'' and that similarly the ''cosmological constant problem'' resolves itself if we understand the SM as a low energy effective theory emerging from a cut-off medium at the Planck scale. We discuss these issues under the condition of a stable Higgs vacuum, which allows to extend the SM up to the Planck length. The bare Higgs boson mass then changes sign below the Planck scale, such the the SM in the early universe is in the symmetric phase. The cut-off enhanced Higgs mass term as well as the quartically enhanced cosmological constant term trigger the inflation of the early universe. The coefficients of the shift between bare and renormalized Higgs mass as well as of the shift between bare and renormalized vacuum energy density exhibit close-by zeros at some point below the Planck scale. The zeros are matching points between short distance and the renormalized low energy quantities. Since inflation tunes the total energy density to take the critical value of a flat universe Ω tot =ρ tot /ρ crit =Ω Λ +Ω matter +Ω radiation =1 it is obvious that Ω Λ today is of order Ω tot given that 1>Ω matter , Ω radiation >0, which saturate the total density to about 26 % only, the dominant part being dark matter(21%).

  1. Office of Geologic Repositories issues hierarchy for a mined geologic disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has indicated that the identification of the issues that must be resolved to complete licensing assessments of site and design suitability is an important step in the licensing process. The issues hierarchy developed by the Office of Geologic Repositories (OGR) for the mined geologic disposal system (MGDS) are based on the issues-hierarchy concept presented in the Mission Plan. Specific questions are encompassed by the general issue statements in the OGR issues hierarchy. The OGR issues hierarchy is limited to the issues related to the siting and licensing requirements of applicable federal regulations and does not address the requirements of other regulations, functional or operating requirements for the MGDS, or requirements for the integration and the design/operational efficiency of the MGDS. 4 figs

  2. Additional symmetries of supersymmetric KP hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanciu, S.

    1993-09-01

    We investigate the additional symmetries of several supersymmetric KP hierarchies: The SKP hierarchy of Manin and Radul, the SKP 2 hierarchy, and the Jacobian SKP hierarchy. The main technical tool is the supersymmetric generalisation of a map originally due to Radul between the Lie algebra of superdifferential operators and the Lie algebra of vector fields on the space of supersymmetric Lax operators. In the case of the Manin-Radul SKP hierarchy we identify additional symmetries which form an algebra isomorphic to a subalgebra of superdifferential operators; whereas in the case of the Jacobian SKP, the (additional) symmetries are identified with the algebra itself. (orig.)

  3. Critical constraints on chiral hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivukula, R.S.; Golden, M.; Simmons, E.H.

    1993-01-01

    Critical dynamics constrains models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking in which the scale of high-energy physics is far above 1 TeV. A big hierarchy requires the high-energy theory to have a second-order chiral phase transition, near which the theory is described by a low-energy effective Lagrangian with composite ''Higgs'' scalars. As scalar theories with more than one Φ 4 coupling can have a Coleman-Weinberg instability and a first-order transition, such dynamical EWSB models cannot always support a large hierarchy. If the large-N c Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model is a good approximation to the top-condensate and strong extended technicolor models, they will not produce acceptable EWSB

  4. Measuring Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    2013-08-01

    Two scales have been proposed to measure Maslow's hierarchy of needs in college students, one by Lester (1990) and one by Strong and Fiebert (1987). In a sample of 51 college students, scores on the corresponding scales for the five needs did not correlate significantly and positively, except for the measures of physiological needs. Furthermore, there was limited support for Maslow's hypothesis that need deprivation would predict psychopathology (specifically, mania and depression).

  5. Hierarchy Measure for Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mones, Enys; Vicsek, Lilla; Vicsek, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    Nature, technology and society are full of complexity arising from the intricate web of the interactions among the units of the related systems (e.g., proteins, computers, people). Consequently, one of the most successful recent approaches to capturing the fundamental features of the structure and dynamics of complex systems has been the investigation of the networks associated with the above units (nodes) together with their relations (edges). Most complex systems have an inherently hierarchical organization and, correspondingly, the networks behind them also exhibit hierarchical features. Indeed, several papers have been devoted to describing this essential aspect of networks, however, without resulting in a widely accepted, converging concept concerning the quantitative characterization of the level of their hierarchy. Here we develop an approach and propose a quantity (measure) which is simple enough to be widely applicable, reveals a number of universal features of the organization of real-world networks and, as we demonstrate, is capable of capturing the essential features of the structure and the degree of hierarchy in a complex network. The measure we introduce is based on a generalization of the m-reach centrality, which we first extend to directed/partially directed graphs. Then, we define the global reaching centrality (GRC), which is the difference between the maximum and the average value of the generalized reach centralities over the network. We investigate the behavior of the GRC considering both a synthetic model with an adjustable level of hierarchy and real networks. Results for real networks show that our hierarchy measure is related to the controllability of the given system. We also propose a visualization procedure for large complex networks that can be used to obtain an overall qualitative picture about the nature of their hierarchical structure. PMID:22470477

  6. Information, Authority, and Corporate Hierarchies

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Chongwoo; In-Uck, Park

    2010-01-01

    In a typical corporate hierarchy, the manager is delegated the authority to make strategic decisions, and to contract with other employees. By studying a model with one principal and two agents where one agent can gather information that is valuable for the principal's project choice and the other agent provides effort to the chosen project, we study when the principal can benefit from such delegation relative to centralization. We show that beneficial delegation is possible when complete con...

  7. Combinatorial solutions to integrable hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, M. E.; Lando, S. K.

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews modern approaches to the construction of formal solutions to integrable hierarchies of mathematical physics whose coefficients are answers to various enumerative problems. The relationship between these approaches and the combinatorics of symmetric groups and their representations is explained. Applications of the results to the construction of efficient computations in problems related to models of quantum field theories are described. Bibliography: 34 titles.

  8. The (2+1)-dimensional nonisospectral relativistic Toda hierarchy related to the generalized discrete Painleve hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zuonong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we will concentrate on the topic of integrable discrete hierarchies in 2+1 dimensions, and their connection with discrete Painleve hierarchies. By considering a (2+1)-dimensional nonisospectral discrete linear problem, two new (2+1)-dimensional nonisospectral integrable lattice hierarchies-the 2+1 nonisospectral relativistic Toda lattice hierarchy and the 2+1 nonisospectral negative relativistic Toda lattice hierarchy-are constructed. It is shown that the reductions of the two new 2+1 nonisospectral lattice hierarchies lead to the (2+1)-dimensional nonisospectral Volterra lattice hierarchy and the (2+1)-dimensional nonisospectral negative Volterra lattice hierarchy. We also obtain two new (1+1)-dimensional nonisospectral integrable lattice hierarchies and two new ordinary difference hierarchies which are direct reductions of the two 2+1 nonisospectral integrable lattice hierarchies. One of the two difference hierarchies yields our previously obtained generalized discrete first Painleve (dP I ) hierarchy and another one yields a generalized alternative discrete second Painleve (alt-dP II ) hierarchy

  9. A differential-difference hierarchy associated with relativistic Toda and Volterra hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Engui; Dai Huihui

    2008-01-01

    By embedding a free function into a compatible zero curvature equation, we enlarge the original differential-difference hierarchy into a new hierarchy with the free function which still admits zero curvature representation. The new hierarchy not only includes the original hierarchy, but also the well-known relativistic Toda hierarchy and the Volterra hierarchy as special reductions by properly choosing the free function. Infinitely many conservation laws and Darboux transformation for a representative differential-difference system are constructed based on its Lax representation. The exact solutions follow by applying the Darboux transformation

  10. Generalized NLS hierarchies from rational W algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toppan, F.

    1993-11-01

    Finite rational W algebras are very natural structures appearing in coset constructions when a Kac-Moody subalgebra is factored out. The problem of relating these algebras to integrable hierarchies of equations is studied by showing how to associate to a rational W algebra its corresponding hierarchy. Two examples are worked out, the sl(2)/U(1) coset, leading to the Non-Linear Schroedinger hierarchy, and the U(1) coset of the Polyakov-Bershadsky W algebra, leading to a 3-field representation of the KP hierarchy already encountered in the literature. In such examples a rational algebra appears as algebra of constraints when reducing a KP hierarchy to a finite field representation. This fact arises the natural question whether rational algebras are always associated to such reductions and whether a classification of rational algebras can lead to a classification of the integrable hierarchies. (author). 19 refs

  11. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin, Katherine A.; Acheson, Daniel J.; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was ac...

  12. Hierarchy stability for spontaneously broken theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvan, J B; Perez-Mercader, J; Sanchez, F J

    1987-04-16

    By using Weisberger's method for the integration of heavy degrees of freedom in multiscale theories, we show that tree level hierarchies are not destabilized byquantum corrections in a two-scale, two scalar field theory model where the heavy sector undergoes spontaneous symmetry breaking. We see explicitly the role played by the one-loop heavy log corrections to the effective parameters in maintaining the original tree level hierarchy and in keeping the theory free of hierarchy problems.

  13. A lattice hierarchy and its continuous limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Engui

    2008-01-01

    By introducing a discrete spectral problem, we derive a lattice hierarchy which is integrable in Liouville's sense and possesses a multi-Hamiltonian structure. It is show that the discrete spectral problem converges to the well-known AKNS spectral problem under a certain continuous limit. In particular, we construct a sequence of equations in the lattice hierarchy which approximates the AKNS hierarchy as a continuous limit

  14. Hierarchy stability for spontaneously broken theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan, J.B.; Perez-Mercader, J.; Sanchez, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    By using Weisberger's method for the integration of heavy degrees of freedom in multiscale theories, we show that tree level hierarchies are not destabilized byquantum corrections in a two-scale, two scalar field theory model where the heavy sector undergoes spontaneous symmetry breaking. We see explicitly the role played by the one-loop heavy log corrections to the effective parameters in maintaining the original tree level hierarchy and in keeping the theory free of hierarchy problems. (orig.)

  15. Total and isoform-specific quantitative assessment of circulating Fibulin-1 using selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry and time-resolved immunofluorometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Martin; Cangemi, Claudia; Jensen, Martin L

    2015-01-01

    biomarker fibulin-1 and its circulating isoforms in human plasma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:: We used bioinformatics analysis to predict total and isoform-specific tryptic peptides for absolute quantitation using SRM-MS. Fibulin-1 was quantitated in plasma by nanoflow-LC-SRM-MS in undepleted plasma and time......PURPOSE:: Targeted proteomics using SRM-MS combined with stable isotope dilution has emerged as a promising quantitative technique for the study of circulating protein biomarkers. The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize robust quantitative assays for the emerging cardiovascular......-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TRIFMA). Both methods were validated and compared to a commercial ELISA (CircuLex). Molecular size determination was performed under native conditions by SEC analysis coupled to SRM-MS and TRIFMA. RESULTS:: Absolute quantitation of total fibulin-1, isoforms -1C and -1D was performed by SRM...

  16. Continuous-flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe connected on-line with high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for spatially resolved analysis of small molecules and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2013-06-30

    A continuous-flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe extracts soluble material from surfaces for direct ionization and detection by mass spectrometry. Demonstrated here is the on-line coupling of such a probe with high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) enabling extraction, separation and detection of small molecules and proteins from surfaces in a spatially resolved (~0.5 mm diameter spots) manner. A continuous-flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe was connected to a six-port, two-position valve for extract collection and injection to an HPLC column. A QTRAP® 5500 hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap equipped with a Turbo V™ ion source operated in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode was used for all experiments. The system operation was tested with the extraction, separation and detection of propranolol and associated metabolites from drug dosed tissues, caffeine from a coffee bean, cocaine from paper currency, and proteins from dried sheep blood spots on paper. Confirmed in the tissue were the parent drug and two different hydroxypropranolol glucuronides. The mass spectrometric response for these compounds from different locations in the liver showed an increase with increasing extraction time (5, 20 and 40 s). For on-line separation and detection/identification of extracted proteins from dried sheep blood spots, two major protein peaks dominated the chromatogram and could be correlated with the expected masses for the hemoglobin α and β chains. Spatially resolved sampling, separation, and detection of small molecules and proteins from surfaces can be accomplished using a continuous-flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe coupled on-line with HPLC/MS detection. Published in 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Two New Multi-component BKP Hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongxia; Liu Xiaojun; Zeng Yunbo

    2009-01-01

    We firstly propose two kinds of new multi-component BKP (mcBKP) hierarchy based on the eigenfunction symmetry reduction and nonstandard reduction, respectively. The first one contains two types of BKP equation with self-consistent sources whose Lax representations are presented. The two mcBKP hierarchies both admit reductions to the k-constrained BKP hierarchy and to integrable (1+1)-dimensional hierarchy with self-consistent sources, which include two types of SK equation with self-consistent sources and of bi-directional SK equations with self-consistent sources.

  18. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Spatially resolved star formation histories in galaxies as a function of galaxy mass and type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, D.; Thomas, D.; Maraston, C.; Westfall, K.; Etherington, J.; Riffel, R.; Mallmann, N. D.; Zheng, Z.; Argudo-Fernández, M.; Lian, J.; Bershady, M.; Bundy, K.; Drory, N.; Law, D.; Yan, R.; Wake, D.; Weijmans, A.; Bizyaev, D.; Brownstein, J.; Lane, R. R.; Maiolino, R.; Masters, K.; Merrifield, M.; Nitschelm, C.; Pan, K.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Schneider, D. P.

    2017-04-01

    We study the internal gradients of stellar population properties within 1.5 Re for a representative sample of 721 galaxies, with stellar masses ranging between 109 M⊙ and 1011.5 M⊙ from the SDSS-IV MaNGA Integral-Field-Unit survey. Through the use of our full spectral fitting code firefly, we derive light- and mass-weighted stellar population properties and their radial gradients, as well as full star formation and metal enrichment histories. We also quantify the impact that different stellar population models and full spectral fitting routines have on the derived stellar population properties and the radial gradient measurements. In our analysis, we find that age gradients tend to be shallow for both early-type and late-type galaxies. Mass-weighted age gradients of early-types arepositive (˜0.09 dex/Re) pointing to 'outside-in' progression of star formation, while late-type galaxies have negative light-weighted age gradients (˜-0.11 dex/Re), suggesting an 'inside-out' formation of discs. We detect negative metallicity gradients in both early- and late-type galaxies, but these are significantly steeper in late-types, suggesting that the radial dependence of chemical enrichment processes and the effect of gas inflow and metal transport are far more pronounced in discs. Metallicity gradients of both morphological classes correlate with galaxy mass, with negative metallicity gradients becoming steeper with increasing galaxy mass. The correlation with mass is stronger for late-type galaxies, with a slope of d(∇[Z/H])/d(log M) ˜ -0.2 ± 0.05 , compared to d(∇[Z/H])/d(log M) ˜ -0.05 ± 0.05 for early-types. This result suggests that the merger history plays a relatively small role in shaping metallicity gradients of galaxies.

  19. Structural hierarchy of autism spectrum disorder symptoms: an integrative framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsik; Keifer, Cara M; Rodriguez-Seijas, Craig; Eaton, Nicholas R; Lerner, Matthew D; Gadow, Kenneth D

    2018-01-01

    In an attempt to resolve questions regarding the symptom classification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), previous research generally aimed to demonstrate superiority of one model over another. Rather than adjudicating which model may be optimal, we propose an alternative approach that integrates competing models using Goldberg's bass-ackwards method, providing a comprehensive understanding of the underlying symptom structure of ASD. The study sample comprised 3,825 individuals, consecutive referrals to a university hospital developmental disabilities specialty clinic or a child psychiatry outpatient clinic. This study analyzed DSM-IV-referenced ASD symptom statements from parent and teacher versions of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-4R. A series of exploratory structural equation models was conducted in order to produce interpretable latent factors that account for multivariate covariance. Results indicated that ASD symptoms were structured into an interpretable hierarchy across multiple informants. This hierarchy includes five levels; key features of ASD bifurcate into different constructs with increasing specificity. This is the first study to examine an underlying structural hierarchy of ASD symptomatology using the bass-ackwards method. This hierarchy demonstrates how core features of ASD relate at differing levels of resolution, providing a model for conceptualizing ASD heterogeneity and a structure for integrating divergent theories of cognitive processes and behavioral features that define the disorder. These findings suggest that a more coherent and complete understanding of the structure of ASD symptoms may be reflected in a metastructure rather than at one level of resolution. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  20. A hierarchy of models for simulating experimental results from a 3D heterogeneous porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Daniel; Ostvar, Sassan; Paustian, Rebecca; Wood, Brian D.

    2018-04-01

    In this work we examine the dispersion of conservative tracers (bromide and fluorescein) in an experimentally-constructed three-dimensional dual-porosity porous medium. The medium is highly heterogeneous (σY2 = 5.7), and consists of spherical, low-hydraulic-conductivity inclusions embedded in a high-hydraulic-conductivity matrix. The bimodal medium was saturated with tracers, and then flushed with tracer-free fluid while the effluent breakthrough curves were measured. The focus for this work is to examine a hierarchy of four models (in the absence of adjustable parameters) with decreasing complexity to assess their ability to accurately represent the measured breakthrough curves. The most information-rich model was (1) a direct numerical simulation of the system in which the geometry, boundary and initial conditions, and medium properties were fully independently characterized experimentally with high fidelity. The reduced-information models included; (2) a simplified numerical model identical to the fully-resolved direct numerical simulation (DNS) model, but using a domain that was one-tenth the size; (3) an upscaled mobile-immobile model that allowed for a time-dependent mass-transfer coefficient; and, (4) an upscaled mobile-immobile model that assumed a space-time constant mass-transfer coefficient. The results illustrated that all four models provided accurate representations of the experimental breakthrough curves as measured by global RMS error. The primary component of error induced in the upscaled models appeared to arise from the neglect of convection within the inclusions. We discuss the necessity to assign value (via a utility function or other similar method) to outcomes if one is to further select from among model options. Interestingly, these results suggested that the conventional convection-dispersion equation, when applied in a way that resolves the heterogeneities, yields models with high fidelity without requiring the imposition of a more

  1. Kinetic mixing and the supersymmetric gauge hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienes, K.R.; Kolda, C.; March-Russell, J.

    1997-01-01

    The most general Lagrangian for a model with two U(1) gauge symmetries contains a renormalizable operator which mixes their gauge kinetic terms. Such kinetic mixing can be generated at arbitrarily high scales but will not be suppressed by large masses. In models whose supersymmetry (SUSY)-breaking hidden sectors contain U(1) gauge factors, we show that such terms will generically arise and communicate SUSY breaking to the visible sector through mixing with hypercharge. In the context of the usual supergravity- or gauge-mediated communication scenarios with D-terms of order the fundamental scale of SUSY breaking, this effect can destabilize the gauge hierarchy. Even in models for which kinetic mixing is suppressed or the D-terms are arranged to be small, this effect is a potentially large correction to the soft scalar masses and therefore introduces a new measurable low-energy parameter. We calculate the size of kinetic mixing both in field theory and in string theory, and argue that appreciable kinetic mixing is a generic feature of string models. We conclude that the possibility of kinetic mixing effects cannot be ignored in model building and in phenomenological studies of the low-energy SUSY spectra. (orig.)

  2. The Magellanic Analog Dwarf Companions and Stellar Halos (MADCASH) Survey: Near-Field Cosmology with Resolved Stellar Populations Around Local Volume LMC Stellar-Mass Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Sand, David J.; Willman, Beth; Brodie, Jean P.; Crnojevic, Denija; Peter, Annika; Price, Paul A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Spekkens, Kristine; Strader, Jay

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the first results of our observational program to comprehensively map nearly the entire virial volumes of roughly LMC stellar mass galaxies at distances of ~2-4 Mpc. The MADCASH (Magellanic Analog Dwarf Companions And Stellar Halos) survey will deliver the first census of the dwarf satellite populations and stellar halo properties within LMC-like environments in the Local Volume. These will inform our understanding of the recent DES discoveries of dwarf satellites tentatively affiliated with the LMC/SMC system. We will detail our discovery of the faintest known dwarf galaxy satellite of an LMC stellar-mass host beyond the Local Group, based on deep Subaru+HyperSuprimeCam imaging reaching ~2 magnitudes below its TRGB. We will summarize the survey results and status to date, highlighting some challenges encountered and lessons learned as we process the data for this program through a prototype LSST pipeline. Our program will examine whether LMC stellar mass dwarfs have extended stellar halos, allowing us to assess the relative contributions of in-situ stars vs. merger debris to their stellar populations and halo density profiles. We outline the constraints on galaxy formation models that will be provided by our observations of low-mass galaxy halos and their satellites.

  3. A time-integrated estimate of the entanglement mass in polymer melts in agreement with the one determined by time-resolved measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padding, J.T.; Briels, Willem J.

    2004-01-01

    We make a critical examination of how the entanglement molecular mass Me is determined from various measurable quantities. We are guided by reptation theory, where it is assumed that characteristic relaxations abruptly change and become equal to those of a chain moving in a Gaussian tube, as soon as

  4. Time-resolved quantitative phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verano-Braga, Thiago; Schwämmle, Veit; Sylvester, Marc

    2012-01-01

    proteins involved in the Ang-(1-7) signaling, we performed a mass spectrometry-based time-resolved quantitative phosphoproteome study of human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) treated with Ang-(1-7). We identified 1288 unique phosphosites on 699 different proteins with 99% certainty of correct peptide...

  5. Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of atmospheric submicron particles during 2008 Beijing Olympic Games using an Aerodyne High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-F. Huang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As part of Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region-2008 (CAREBeijing-2008, an Aerodyne High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS was deployed in urban Beijing to characterize submicron aerosol particles during the time of 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and Paralympic Games (24 July to 20 September 2008. The campaign mean PM1 mass concentration was 63.1 ± 39.8 μg m−3; the mean composition consisted of organics (37.9%, sulfate (26.7%, ammonium (15.9%, nitrate (15.8%, black carbon (3.1%, and chloride (0.87%. The average size distributions of the species (except BC were all dominated by an accumulation mode peaking at about 600 nm in vacuum aerodynamic diameter, and organics was characterized by an additional smaller mode extending below 100 nm. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of the high resolution organic mass spectral dataset differentiated the organic aerosol into four components, i.e., hydrocarbon-like (HOA, cooking-related (COA, and two oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA-1 and OOA-2, which on average accounted for 18.1, 24.4, 33.7 and 23.7% of the total organic mass, respectively. The HOA was identified to be closely associated with primary combustion sources, while the COA mass spectrum and diurnal pattern showed similar characteristics to that measured for cooking emissions. The OOA components correspond to aged secondary organic aerosol. Although the two OOA components have similar elemental (O/C, H/C compositions, they display differences in mass spectra and time series which appear to correlate with the different source regions sampled during the campaign. Back trajectory clustering analysis indicated that the southerly air flows were associated with the highest PM1 pollution during the campaign. Aerosol particles in southern airmasses were especially rich in inorganic and oxidized organic species. Aerosol particles in northern airmasses

  6. Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of atmospheric submicron particles during 2008 Beijing Olympic Games using an Aerodyne High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.-F.; He, L.-Y.; Hu, M.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Sun, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Zhu, T.; Xue, L.; Zeng, L.-W.; Liu, X.-G.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Jayne, J. T.; Ng, N. L.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2010-09-01

    As part of Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region-2008 (CAREBeijing-2008), an Aerodyne High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed in urban Beijing to characterize submicron aerosol particles during the time of 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and Paralympic Games (24 July to 20 September 2008). The campaign mean PM1 mass concentration was 63.1 ± 39.8 μg m-3; the mean composition consisted of organics (37.9%), sulfate (26.7%), ammonium (15.9%), nitrate (15.8%), black carbon (3.1%), and chloride (0.87%). The average size distributions of the species (except BC) were all dominated by an accumulation mode peaking at about 600 nm in vacuum aerodynamic diameter, and organics was characterized by an additional smaller mode extending below 100 nm. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of the high resolution organic mass spectral dataset differentiated the organic aerosol into four components, i.e., hydrocarbon-like (HOA), cooking-related (COA), and two oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA-1 and OOA-2), which on average accounted for 18.1, 24.4, 33.7 and 23.7% of the total organic mass, respectively. The HOA was identified to be closely associated with primary combustion sources, while the COA mass spectrum and diurnal pattern showed similar characteristics to that measured for cooking emissions. The OOA components correspond to aged secondary organic aerosol. Although the two OOA components have similar elemental (O/C, H/C) compositions, they display differences in mass spectra and time series which appear to correlate with the different source regions sampled during the campaign. Back trajectory clustering analysis indicated that the southerly air flows were associated with the highest PM1 pollution during the campaign. Aerosol particles in southern airmasses were especially rich in inorganic and oxidized organic species. Aerosol particles in northern airmasses contained a large fraction of primary HOA

  7. A comparison of the structure, properties, and water mass composition of quasi-isotropic eddies in western boundary currents in an eddy-resolving ocean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykova, Tatiana; Oke, Peter R.; Griffin, David A.

    2017-06-01

    Using output from a near-global eddy-resolving ocean model, we analyse the properties and characteristics of quasi-isotropic eddies in five Western Boundary Current (WBC) regions, including the extensions of the Agulhas, East Australian Current (EAC), Brazil-Malvinas Confluence (BMC), Kuroshio and Gulf Stream regions. We assess the model eddies by comparing to satellite and in situ observations, and show that most aspects of the model's representation of eddies are realistic. We find that the mean eddies differ dramatically between these WBC regions - all with some unique and noteworthy characteristics. We find that the vertical displacement of isopycnals of Agulhas eddies is the greatest, averaging 350-450 m at depths of over 800-900 m. EAC (BMC) eddies are the least (most) barotropic, with only 50% (85-90%) of the velocity associated with the barotropic mode. Kuroshio eddies are the most stratified, resulting in small isopycnal displacement, even for strong eddies; and Gulf Stream eddies carry the most heat. Despite their differences, we explicitly show that the source waters for anticyclonic eddies are a mix of the WBC water (from the boundary current itself) and water that originates equatorward of the WBC eddy-field; and cyclonic eddies are a mix of WBC water and water that originates poleward of the WBC eddy-field.

  8. The physics origin of the hierarchy of bodies in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, A.; Wagstaff, R. W.

    2016-03-01

    Here we show that bodies of the same size suspended uniformly in space constitute a system (a "suspension") in a state of uniform volumetric tension because of mass-to-mass forces of attraction. The system "snaps" hierarchically, and evolves faster to a state of reduced tension when the bodies coalesce spontaneously nonuniformly, i.e., hierarchically, into few large and many small bodies suspended in the same space. Hierarchy, not uniformity, is the design that emerges, and it is in accord with the constructal law. The implications of this principle of physics in natural organization and evolution are discussed.

  9. On the robustness of Herlihy's hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanti, Prasad

    1993-01-01

    A wait-free hierarchy maps object types to levels in Z(+) U (infinity) and has the following property: if a type T is at level N, and T' is an arbitrary type, then there is a wait-free implementation of an object of type T', for N processes, using only registers and objects of type T. The infinite hierarchy defined by Herlihy is an example of a wait-free hierarchy. A wait-free hierarchy is robust if it has the following property: if T is at level N, and S is a finite set of types belonging to levels N - 1 or lower, then there is no wait-free implementation of an object of type T, for N processes, using any number and any combination of objects belonging to the types in S. Robustness implies that there are no clever ways of combining weak shared objects to obtain stronger ones. Contrary to what many researchers believe, we prove that Herlihy's hierarchy is not robust. We then define some natural variants of Herlihy's hierarchy, which are also infinite wait-free hierarchies. With the exception of one, which is still open, these are not robust either. We conclude with the open question of whether non-trivial robust wait-free hierarchies exist.

  10. Coupling Integrable Couplings of an Equation Hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hui; Xia Tie-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Based on a kind of Lie algebra G proposed by Zhang, one isospectral problem is designed. Under the framework of zero curvature equation, a new kind of integrable coupling of an equation hierarchy is generated using the methods proposed by Ma and Gao. With the help of variational identity, we get the Hamiltonian structure of the hierarchy. (general)

  11. A Suggested Modification to Maslow's Need Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, David L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Since its development, Maslow's need hierarchy has been criticized and applauded. This investigation was undertaken to explore a modification of the upper levels of the need hierarchy based upon the application of power, competition, and achievement to self, as well as the concept of "other directed." (Author)

  12. Solution of the gauge hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimopoulos, S.; Georgi, H.

    1982-01-01

    We propose a novel solution to the gauge hierarchy problem in theories with softly broken supersymmetry. Quantum effects can resuscitate classically sick theories, producing the large scale from the small supersymmetry breaking scale. We use this mechanism to construct realistic SU(6) and SU(5) GUTs which do not suffer from gauge hierarchy or fine tuning problems. (orig.)

  13. Gauge hierarchy in an SO(10) supersymmetric grand unified model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiyong, Z.

    1982-01-01

    An SO(10) supersymmetric grand unified model is constructed in which the gauge hierarchy problem may be solved. Using Higgs superfields belonging to the SO(10) representations 16, 10 and 54, it is found that if SO(10) is broken down to SU(3)sub(c)xSU(2)sub(L)xU(1) via SO(6)xSO(4)approximately equal to SU(4)sub(c)xSU(2)sub(L)xSU(2)sub(R) at unification mass scales without supersymmetry breaking, the gauge hierarchy puzzle might be carried away. It is also shown that the colour-triplet Higgs, which mediates proton decay, is superheavy by an incredibly accurate, but 'natural' adjustment of parameters in the potential. (author)

  14. q-Deformed KP Hierarchy and q-Deformed Constrained KP Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jingsong; Li, Yinghua; Cheng, Yi

    2006-01-01

    Using the determinant representation of gauge transformation operator, we have shown that the general form of $au$ function of the $q$-KP hierarchy is a $q$-deformed generalized Wronskian, which includes the $q$-deformed Wronskian as a special case. On the basis of these, we study the $q$-deformed constrained KP ($q$-cKP) hierarchy, i.e. $l$-constraints of $q$-KP hierarchy. Similar to the ordinary constrained KP (cKP) hierarchy, a large class of solutions of $q$-cKP hierarchy can be represent...

  15. Is there a hierarchy of survival reflexes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macphail, Kieran

    2013-10-01

    A hierarchy of survival reflexes for prioritising assessment and treatment in patients with pain of insidious onset is hypothesised. The hierarchy asserts that some systems are more vital than others and that the central nervous system (CNS) prioritises systems based on their significance to survival. The hypothesis suggests that dysfunction in more important systems will cause compensation in less important systems. This paper presents studies examining these effects for each system, arguing that each section of the hierarchy may have effects on other systems within the hierarchy. This concept is untested empirically, highly speculative and substantial research is required to validate the suggested hierarchical prioritisation by the CNS. Nonetheless, the hierarchy does provide a theoretical framework to use to exclude contributing systems in patients with pain of insidious onset. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Constrained KP models as integrable matrix hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Ferreira, L.A.; Gomes, J.F.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    We formulate the constrained KP hierarchy (denoted by cKP K+1,M ) as an affine [cflx sl](M+K+1) matrix integrable hierarchy generalizing the Drinfeld endash Sokolov hierarchy. Using an algebraic approach, including the graded structure of the generalized Drinfeld endash Sokolov hierarchy, we are able to find several new universal results valid for the cKP hierarchy. In particular, our method yields a closed expression for the second bracket obtained through Dirac reduction of any untwisted affine Kac endash Moody current algebra. An explicit example is given for the case [cflx sl](M+K+1), for which a closed expression for the general recursion operator is also obtained. We show how isospectral flows are characterized and grouped according to the semisimple non-regular element E of sl(M+K+1) and the content of the center of the kernel of E. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  17. Resolution of ranking hierarchies in directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barucca, Paolo; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    Identifying hierarchies and rankings of nodes in directed graphs is fundamental in many applications such as social network analysis, biology, economics, and finance. A recently proposed method identifies the hierarchy by finding the ordered partition of nodes which minimises a score function, termed agony. This function penalises the links violating the hierarchy in a way depending on the strength of the violation. To investigate the resolution of ranking hierarchies we introduce an ensemble of random graphs, the Ranked Stochastic Block Model. We find that agony may fail to identify hierarchies when the structure is not strong enough and the size of the classes is small with respect to the whole network. We analytically characterise the resolution threshold and we show that an iterated version of agony can partly overcome this resolution limit. PMID:29394278

  18. Initial states in integrable quantum field theory quenches from an integral equation hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.X. Horváth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of determining the initial state of integrable quantum field theory quenches in terms of the post-quench eigenstates. The corresponding overlaps are a fundamental input to most exact methods to treat integrable quantum quenches. We construct and examine an infinite integral equation hierarchy based on the form factor bootstrap, proposed earlier as a set of conditions determining the overlaps. Using quenches of the mass and interaction in Sinh-Gordon theory as a concrete example, we present theoretical arguments that the state has the squeezed coherent form expected for integrable quenches, and supporting an Ansatz for the solution of the hierarchy. Moreover we also develop an iterative method to solve numerically the lowest equation of the hierarchy. The iterative solution along with extensive numerical checks performed using the next equation of the hierarchy provides a strong numerical evidence that the proposed Ansatz gives a very good approximation for the solution.

  19. Initial states in integrable quantum field theory quenches from an integral equation hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horváth, D.X., E-mail: esoxluciuslinne@gmail.com [MTA-BME “Momentum” Statistical Field Theory Research Group, Budafoki út 8, 1111 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Theoretical Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budafoki út 8, 1111 Budapest (Hungary); Sotiriadis, S., E-mail: sotiriad@sissa.it [SISSA and INFN, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Takács, G., E-mail: takacsg@eik.bme.hu [MTA-BME “Momentum” Statistical Field Theory Research Group, Budafoki út 8, 1111 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Theoretical Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budafoki út 8, 1111 Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-01-15

    We consider the problem of determining the initial state of integrable quantum field theory quenches in terms of the post-quench eigenstates. The corresponding overlaps are a fundamental input to most exact methods to treat integrable quantum quenches. We construct and examine an infinite integral equation hierarchy based on the form factor bootstrap, proposed earlier as a set of conditions determining the overlaps. Using quenches of the mass and interaction in Sinh-Gordon theory as a concrete example, we present theoretical arguments that the state has the squeezed coherent form expected for integrable quenches, and supporting an Ansatz for the solution of the hierarchy. Moreover we also develop an iterative method to solve numerically the lowest equation of the hierarchy. The iterative solution along with extensive numerical checks performed using the next equation of the hierarchy provides a strong numerical evidence that the proposed Ansatz gives a very good approximation for the solution.

  20. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Katherine A.; Acheson, Daniel J.; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was achieved if the combined investments exceeded a threshold, and the higher ranked individual distributed the spoils unless control was contested by the partner. Compared to a condition lacking hierarchy, cooperation declined in the presence of a hierarchy due to a decrease in investment by lower ranked individuals. Furthermore, hierarchy was detrimental to cooperation regardless of whether it was earned or arbitrary. These findings mirror results from nonhuman primates and demonstrate that hierarchies are detrimental to cooperation. However, these results deviate from nonhuman primate findings by demonstrating that human behavior is responsive to changing hierarchical structures and suggests partnership dynamics that may improve cooperation. This work introduces a controlled way to investigate the social influences on human behavior, and demonstrates the evolutionary continuity of human behavior with other primate species. PMID:26692287

  1. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Katherine A; Acheson, Daniel J; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-12-22

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was achieved if the combined investments exceeded a threshold, and the higher ranked individual distributed the spoils unless control was contested by the partner. Compared to a condition lacking hierarchy, cooperation declined in the presence of a hierarchy due to a decrease in investment by lower ranked individuals. Furthermore, hierarchy was detrimental to cooperation regardless of whether it was earned or arbitrary. These findings mirror results from nonhuman primates and demonstrate that hierarchies are detrimental to cooperation. However, these results deviate from nonhuman primate findings by demonstrating that human behavior is responsive to changing hierarchical structures and suggests partnership dynamics that may improve cooperation. This work introduces a controlled way to investigate the social influences on human behavior, and demonstrates the evolutionary continuity of human behavior with other primate species.

  2. Scales and hierarchies in warped compactifications and brane worlds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWolfe, Oliver; Giddings, Steven B.

    2003-01-01

    Warped compactifications with branes provide a new approach to the hierarchy problem and generate a diversity of four-dimensional thresholds. We investigate the relationships between these scales, which fall into two classes. Geometrical scales, such as thresholds for Kaluza-Klein, excited string, and black hole production, are generically determined solely by the spacetime geometry. Dynamical scales, notably the scale of supersymmetry breaking and moduli masses, depend on other details of the model. We illustrate these relationships in a class of solutions of type IIB string theory with imaginary self-dual fluxes. After identifying the geometrical scales and the resulting hierarchy, we determine the gravitino and moduli masses through explicit dimensional reduction, and estimate their value to be near the four-dimensional Planck scale. In the process we obtain expressions for the superpotential and Kaehler potential, including the effects of warping. We identify matter living on certain branes to be effectively sequestered from the supersymmetry breaking fluxes: specifically, such 'visible sector' fields receive no tree-level masses from the supersymmetry breaking. However, loop corrections are expected to generate masses, at the phenomenologically viable TeV scale

  3. Spatially resolved investigation of systemic and contact pesticides in plant material by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbig, Stefanie; Brunn, Hubertus E; Spengler, Bernhard; Schulz, Sabine

    2015-09-01

    Distribution of pesticides both on the surface of leaves and in cross sections of plant stem and leaves was investigated using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) with a spatial resolution of 50-100 μm. Two commercially available insecticide sprays containing different contact pesticides were applied onto leaves of Cotoneaster horizontalis, and the distributions of all active ingredients were directly analyzed. The first spray contained pyrethrins and rapeseed oil, both known as natural insecticides. Each component showed an inhomogeneous spreading throughout the leaf, based on substance polarity and solubility. The second spray contained the synthetic insecticides imidacloprid and methiocarb. Imidacloprid accumulated on the border of the leaf, while methiocarb was distributed more homogenously. In order to investigate the incorporation of a systemically acting pesticide into Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, a commercially available insecticide tablet containing dimethoate was spiked to the soil of the plant. Cross sections of the stem and leaf were obtained 25 and 60 days after application. Dimethoate was mainly detected in the transport system of the plant after 25 days, while it was found to be homogenously distributed in a leaf section after 60 days.

  4. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-07-19

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages).

  5. Effective potentials for supersymmetric three-scale hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polchinski, J.

    1983-01-01

    We consider the effective potential in models in which supersymmetry breaks at a scale μ but the Goldstone fermion couples only to fields of mass M>>μ. We show that all large perturbative logarithms are removed by taking the renormalization point to be O(M). This makes it possible to calculate the effective potential at large X in those inverted-hierarchy models where the Goldstone fermion couples only to superheavy fields. A general formula for the one-loop logarithm in these models is given. We illustrate the results with an SU(n) example in which the direction as well as the magnitude of the gauge symmetry breaking is undetermined at the tree level. For this example a large perturbative hierarchy does not form and the unbroken subgroup is always SU(n-1) x U(1). In an appendix we show that O'Raifeartaigh models with just one undetermined scalar field always have a decoupled Goldstone fermion when the undetermined field is large, but that this need not be true in more general inverted-hierarchy models

  6. Gauge hierarchy problem and a nonscaling SU(5) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajnov, Eh.A.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that the problems of gauge hierarchy anf Higgs hierarchy have a common origin, and a way is proposed for their combined solution in a no-scale supersymmetric SU(5) gauge model, related to the N=1 supergravity. A reason of appearance of the grand unification scale, M G , is the dimensional transmutation owing to quantum corrections to the classical potential. In this model, the Higgs hierarchy is established automatically by means of the singlet mechanism, which does not require a fine tuning of the superpotential parameters. The effective potential for the singlet field X has a minimum at =M G =2.2x10 16 GeV. The scale parameter M G does not depend on the gravitino mass and initial values of the Yukawa coupling constants but depends on initial values of the gauge constant α -1 (0)=22.7 and on the trilinear supergravity constant A=1.84 at a scale M=M p /√8π=2.43x10 18 GeV

  7. The Origin of Mass

    OpenAIRE

    森岡, 達史

    2013-01-01

    The quark-lepton mass problem and the ideas of mass protection are reviewed. The hierarchy problem and suggestions for its resolution, including Little Higgs models, are discussed. The Multiple Point Principle is introduced and used within the Standard Model to predict the top quark and Higgs particle masses. Mass matrix ans\\"{a}tze are considered; in particular we discuss the lightest family mass generation model, in which all the quark mixing angles are successfully expressed in terms of si...

  8. Depth-resolved sample composition analysis using laser-induced ablation-quadrupole mass spectrometry and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelmann, J.; Gierse, N.; Li, C.; Brezinsek, S.; Zlobinski, M.; Turan, B.; Haas, S.; Linsmeier, Ch.

    2018-06-01

    Monitoring a sample's material composition became more and more important over the last years for both - industrial process control as well as for post mortem analysis in research and industrial development. Although material composition identification as well as a comparison with standard samples works fine, there is a lack of diagnostics which can provide quantitative information with depth resolution without any standard samples. We present a novel method utilizing a residual gas analysis with quadrupole mass spectrometry after picosecond laser-induced ablation and release of volatile species. In the present experiment, well characterized multilayer thin film solar cells (μc-Si:H and a-Si:D as p-i-n-junctions on ZnO:Al electrodes) are used as a set of well characterized material samples to demonstrate the capabilities of the new method. The linearity of the spectrometer signal to gas pressure simplifies its calibration and reduces its uncertainties in comparison with other analysis techniques, although high vacuum conditions (10-6 hPa to 10-7 hPa) are required to reach high sensitivity better than the percent-range. Moreover, the laser-ablation based sample analysis requires no preparation of the sample and is flexible regarding ablation rates. The application of a picosecond laser pulse ensures that the thermal penetration depth of the laser is in the same order of magnitude as the ablation rate, which enables to achieve depth resolutions in the order of 100 nm and avoids matrix mixing effects at the edge of the laser-induced crater in the sample.

  9. Hierarchy of modular graph identities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin

    2016-01-01

    The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns.

  10. Sniffing behavior communicates social hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Daniel W

    2013-04-08

    Sniffing is a specialized respiratory behavior that is essential for the acquisition of odors [1-4]. Perhaps not independent of this, sniffing is commonly displayed during motivated [5-7] and social behaviors [8, 9]. No measures of sniffing among interacting animals are available, however, calling into question the utility of this behavior in the social context. From radiotelemetry recordings of nasal respiration, I found that investigation by one rat toward the facial region of a conspecific often elicits a decrease in sniffing frequency in the conspecific. This reciprocal display of sniffing was found to be dependent upon the rat's social status in two separate paradigms, with subordinates reliably decreasing their sniffing frequency upon being investigated in the face by dominant rats. Failure of subordinates to decrease their sniffing frequency shortened the latency for agonistic behavior by dominant rats, reflecting that decreases in sniffing serve as appeasement signals during social interactions. Rats rendered unable to smell persisted in displaying reciprocal sniffing behavior, demonstrating the independence of this behavior from olfaction. Oxytocin treatment in rats with established social hierarchies abolished agonistic behaviors and reciprocal sniffing displays. Together, these findings demonstrate that rodents utilize sniffing behaviors communicatively, not only to collect [6, 10-14] but also to convey information. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hierarchy of modular graph identities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin [Mani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy,University of California,Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2016-11-09

    The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns.

  12. Topological Strings and Integrable Hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Aganagic, M; Klemm, A D; Marino, M; Vafa, C; Aganagic, Mina; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Klemm, Albrecht; Marino, Marcos; Vafa, Cumrun

    2006-01-01

    We consider the topological B-model on local Calabi-Yau geometries. We show how one can solve for the amplitudes by using W-algebra symmetries which encodes the symmetries of holomorphic diffeomorphisms of the Calabi-Yau. In the highly effective fermionic/brane formulation this leads to a free fermion description of the amplitudes. Furthermore we argue that topological strings on Calabi-Yau geometries provide a unifying picture connecting non-critical (super)strings, integrable hierarchies, and various matrix models. In particular we show how the ordinary matrix model, the double scaling limit of matrix models, and Kontsevich-like matrix model are all related and arise from studying branes in specific local Calabi-Yau three-folds. We also show how A-model topological string on P^1 and local toric threefolds (and in particular the topological vertex) can be realized and solved as B-model topological string amplitudes on a Calabi-Yau manifold.

  13. Indoor and outdoor sources of size-resolved mass concentration of particulate matter in a school gym-implications for exposure of exercising children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniš, Martin; Safránek, Jiří; Hytychová, Adéla

    2011-05-01

    It has been noticed many times that schools are buildings with high levels of particulate matter concentrations. Several authors documented that concentrations of particulate matter in indoor school microenvironments exceed limits recommended by WHO namely when school buildings are situated near major roads with high traffic densities. In addition, exercise under conditions of high particulate concentrations may increase the adverse health effects, as the total particle deposition increases in proportion to minute ventilation, and the deposition fraction nearly doubles from rest to intense exercise. Mass concentrations of size-segregated aerosol were measured simultaneously in an elementary school gym and an adjacent outdoor site in the central part of Prague by two pairs of collocated aerosol monitors-a fast responding photometer DusTrak and a five stage cascade impactor. To encompass seasonal and annual differences, 89 days of measurements were performed during ten campaigns between 2005 and 2009. The average (all campaigns) outdoor concentration of PM(2.5) (28.3 μg m(-3)) measured by the cascade impactors was higher than the indoor value (22.3 μg m(-3)) and the corresponding average from the nearest fixed site monitor (23.6 μg m(-3)). Indoor and outdoor PM(2.5) concentrations exceeded the WHO recommended 24-h limit in 42% and 49% of the days measured, respectively. The correlation coefficient (r) between corresponding outdoor and indoor aerosol sizes increased with decreasing aerodynamic diameter of the collected particles (r = 0.32-0.87), suggesting a higher infiltration rate of fine and quasi-ultrafine particles. Principal component analysis revealed five factors explaining more than 82% of the data variability. The first two factors reflected a close association between outdoor and indoor fine and quasi-ultrafine particles confirming the hypothesis of high infiltration rate of particles from outdoors. The third factor indicated that human

  14. Brane world model and hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, V.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I wrote description of Kaluza-Klein model. Also I wrote how we can solve the hierarchy problem in Randall-Sundrum model. In fact, it's my motivation to study this part of theoretical physics

  15. Hierarchies of belief and interim rationalizability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Ely

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In games with incomplete information, conventional hierarchies of belief are incomplete as descriptions of the players' information for the purposes of determining a player's behavior. We show by example that this is true for a variety of solution concepts. We then investigate what is essential about a player's information to identify behavior. We specialize to two player games and the solution concept of interim rationalizability. We construct the universal type space for rationalizability and characterize the types in terms of their beliefs. Infinite hierarchies of beliefs over conditional beliefs, which we call Delta-hierarchies, are what turn out to matter. We show that any two types in any two type spaces have the same rationalizable sets in all games if and only if they have the same Delta-hierarchies.

  16. Planning hierarchy, modeling and sdvanced planning dystems

    OpenAIRE

    Meyr, Herbert Ottmar

    2003-01-01

    Planning hierarchy, modeling and sdvanced planning dystems / B. Fleischmann, H. Meyr. - In: Supply chain management / ed. by A. G. de Kok ... - Amsterdam u.a. : Elsevier, 2003. - (Handbooks in operations research and management science ; 11)

  17. The multi-component WKI hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yuqin; Zhang Yufeng

    2005-01-01

    Firstly a new loop algebra G∼ M with 3M dimensions is constructed, which is devoted to establishing a new isospectral problem. Then the multi-component WKI hierarchy of soliton equations is obtained

  18. Improving Expression Power in Modeling OLAP Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Elzbieta

    Data warehouses and OLAP systems form an integral part of modern decision support systems. In order to exploit both systems to their full capabilities hierarchies must be clearly defined. Hierarchies are important in analytical applications, since they provide users with the possibility to represent data at different abstraction levels. However, even though there are different kinds of hierarchies in real-world applications and some are already implemented in commercial tools, there is still a lack of a well-accepted conceptual model that allows decision-making users express their analysis needs. In this paper, we show how the conceptual multidimensional model can be used to facilitate the representation of complex hierarchies in comparison to their representation in the relational model and commercial OLAP tool, using as an example Microsoft Analysis Services.

  19. A hierarchy of Ramsey-like cardinals

    OpenAIRE

    Holy, Peter; Schlicht, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a hierarchy of large cardinals between weakly compact and measurable cardinals, that is closely related to the Ramsey-like cardinals introduced by Victoria Gitman, and is based on certain infinite filter games, however also has a range of equivalent characterizations in terms of elementary embeddings. The aim of this paper is to locate the Ramsey-like cardinals studied by Gitman, and other well-known large cardinal notions, in this hierarchy.

  20. Hierarchy among Automata on Linear Orderings

    OpenAIRE

    Bruyère , Véronique; Carton , Olivier

    2005-01-01

    In a preceding paper, automata and rational expressions have been introduced for words indexed by linear orderings, together with a Kleene-like theorem. We here pursue this work by proposing a hierarchy among the rational sets. Each class of the hierarchy is defined by a subset of the rational operations that can be used. We then characterize any class by an appropriate class of automata, leading to a Kleene theorem inside the class. A characterization by particular classes of orderings is al...

  1. Shrinking population and the urban hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ho Yeon

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines whether population shrinkage leads to changes in the urban hierarchy in terms of relative sizes of cities and their functions onomic geography. We work backwards in a racetrack economy with eight cities in a long-run equilibrium. Initial distribution of population is chosen to satisfy both the rank-size rule and central place hierarchy. We have a short-run equilibrium in which firms choose prices and consumers choose consumption taking the number of workers in each region ...

  2. Hierarchy generation in compactified supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of generating a large hierarchy in compactified supersymmetric models is re-examined. It is shown how, even for the class of models for which Str M 2 is non-vanishing, a combination of non-perturbative effects and radiative corrections may lead to an exponentially large hierarchy. A corollary is that the couplings of the effective field theory in the visible sector should be small, i.e., perturbation theory should be applicable. (orig.)

  3. Non-universal SUSY breaking, hierarchy and squark degeneracty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hitoshi.

    1995-01-01

    I discuss non-trivial effects in the soft SUSY breaking terms which appear when one integrates out heavy fields. The effects exist only when the SUSY breaking terms are non-universal. They may spoil (1) the hierarchy between the weak and high-energy scales, or (2) degeneracy among the squark masses even in the presense of a horizontal symmetry. I argue, in the end, that such new effects may be useful in probing physics at high-energy scales from TeV-scale experiments

  4. Learning of Alignment Rules between Concept Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichise, Ryutaro; Takeda, Hideaki; Honiden, Shinichi

    With the rapid advances of information technology, we are acquiring much information than ever before. As a result, we need tools for organizing this data. Concept hierarchies such as ontologies and information categorizations are powerful and convenient methods for accomplishing this goal, which have gained wide spread acceptance. Although each concept hierarchy is useful, it is difficult to employ multiple concept hierarchies at the same time because it is hard to align their conceptual structures. This paper proposes a rule learning method that inputs information from a source concept hierarchy and finds suitable location for them in a target hierarchy. The key idea is to find the most similar categories in each hierarchy, where similarity is measured by the κ(kappa) statistic that counts instances belonging to both categories. In order to evaluate our method, we conducted experiments using two internet directories: Yahoo! and LYCOS. We map information instances from the source directory into the target directory, and show that our learned rules agree with a human-generated assignment 76% of the time.

  5. Solutions of the bigraded Toda hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chuanzhong

    2011-01-01

    The (N, M)-bigraded Toda hierarchy is an extension of the original Toda lattice hierarchy. The pair of numbers (N, M) represents the band structure of the Lax matrix which has N upper and M lower diagonals, and the original one is referred to as the (1, 1)-bigraded Toda hierarchy. Because of this band structure, one can introduce M + N - 1 commuting flows which give a parametrization of a small phase space for a topological field theory. In this paper, first we show that there exists a natural symmetry between the (N, M)- and (M, N)-bigraded Toda hierarchies. We then derive the Hirota bilinear form for those commuting flows, which consist of two-dimensional Toda hierarchy, the discrete KP hierarchy and its Baecklund transformations. We also discuss the solution structure of the (N, M)-bigraded Toda equation in terms of the moment matrix defined via the wave operators associated with the Lax operator and construct some of the explicit solutions. In particular, we give the rational solutions which are expressed by the products of the Schur polynomials corresponding to the non-rectangular Young diagrams.

  6. A density tensor hierarchy for open system dynamics: retrieving the noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, Stephen L

    2007-01-01

    We develop a density tensor hierarchy for open system dynamics that recovers information about fluctuations (or 'noise') lost in passing to the reduced density matrix. For the case of fluctuations arising from a classical probability distribution, the hierarchy is formed from expectations of products of pure state density matrix elements and can be compactly summarized by a simple generating function. For the case of quantum fluctuations arising when a quantum system interacts with a quantum environment in an overall pure state, the corresponding hierarchy is defined as the environmental trace of products of system matrix elements of the full density matrix. Whereas all members of the classical noise hierarchy are system observables, only the lowest member of the quantum noise hierarchy is directly experimentally measurable. The unit trace and idempotence properties of the pure state density matrix imply descent relations for the tensor hierarchies, that relate the order n tensor, under contraction of appropriate pairs of tensor indices, to the order n - 1 tensor. As examples to illustrate the classical probability distribution formalism, we consider a spatially isotropic ensemble of spin-1/2 pure states, a quantum system evolving by an Ito stochastic Schroedinger equation and a quantum system evolving by a jump process Schroedinger equation. As examples to illustrate the corresponding trace formalism in the quantum fluctuation case, we consider the tensor hierarchies for collisional Brownian motion of an infinite mass Brownian particle and for the weak coupling Born-Markov master equation. In different specializations, the latter gives the hierarchies generalizing the quantum optical master equation and the Caldeira-Leggett master equation. As a further application of the density tensor, we contrast stochastic Schroedinger equations that reduce and that do not reduce the state vector, and discuss why a quantum system coupled to a quantum environment behaves like

  7. Flavor hierarchy in SO(10) grand unified theories via 5-dimensional wave-function localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Ryuichiro; Li, Tianjun

    2003-06-01

    A mechanism to generate fermion-mass hierarchy in SO(10) grand unified theories is considered. We find that the lopsided family structure, which is suitable to the large angle Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to solar neutrino oscillation, is realized without introducing extra matter fields if the hierarchy originates from the wave-function profile in an extra dimension. Unlike the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism, the SO(10) breaking effect may directly contribute to the source of the hierarchy, i.e., the bulk mass terms. It naturally explains the difference of the hierarchical patterns between the quark and the lepton sectors. We also find the possibility of horizontal unification, in which three generations of matter fields are unified to a 3-dimensional representation of an SU(2) gauge group.

  8. Flavor hierarchy in SO(10) grand unified theories via 5-dimensional wave-function localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, Ryuichiro; Li Tianjun

    2003-01-01

    A mechanism to generate fermion-mass hierarchy in SO(10) grand unified theories is considered. We find that the lopsided family structure, which is suitable to the large angle Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to solar neutrino oscillation, is realized without introducing extra matter fields if the hierarchy originates from the wave-function profile in an extra dimension. Unlike the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism, the SO(10) breaking effect may directly contribute to the source of the hierarchy, i.e., the bulk mass terms. It naturally explains the difference of the hierarchical patterns between the quark and the lepton sectors. We also find the possibility of horizontal unification, in which three generations of matter fields are unified to a 3-dimensional representation of an SU(2) gauge group

  9. Hierarchy problem and BSM physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gautam Bhattacharyya

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... One-loop quantum corrections to the Higgs boson mass from fermion ... physics? 3. Supersymmetry. Supersymmetry relates matter particles with force par- ticles, i.e. it .... Higgs remembers its Goldstone origin and its coupling.

  10. [Sensory integration: hierarchy and synchronization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriukov, V I

    2005-01-01

    This is the first in the series of mini-reviews devoted to the basic problems and most important effects of attention in terms of neuronal modeling. We believe that the absence of the unified view on wealth of new date on attention is the main obstacle for further understanding of higher nervous activity. The present work deals with the main ground problem of reconciling two competing architectures designed to integrate the sensory information in the brain. The other mini-reviews will be concerned with the remaining five or six problems of attention, all of them to be ultimately resolved uniformly in the framework of small modification of dominant model of attention and memory.

  11. The Ups and Downs of Hierarchy: the causes and consequences of hierarchy struggles and positional loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Schouten (Maartje)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractScholars have assumed that social hierarchies, the rank ordering of individuals with respect to a valued social dimension within a team, are stable over time. However, hierarchies change and the more changeable they are, the more likely they are to lead to conflicts and have other

  12. Constraints and Soliton Solutions for KdV Hierarchy and AKNS Hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nianhua; Li Yuqi

    2011-01-01

    It is well-known that the finite-gap solutions of the KdV equation can be generated by its recursion operator. We generalize the result to a special form of Lax pair, from which a method to constrain the integrable system to a lower-dimensional or fewer variable integrable system is proposed. A direct result is that the n-soliton solutions of the KdV hierarchy can be completely depicted by a series of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which may be gotten by a simple but unfamiliar Lax pair. Furthermore the AKNS hierarchy is constrained to a series of univariate integrable hierarchies. The key is a special form of Lax pair for the AKNS hierarchy. It is proved that under the constraints all equations of the AKNS hierarchy are linearizable. (general)

  13. An approach to gauge hierarchy in the minimal SU(5) model of grand unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, P.

    1982-08-01

    It is shown that if all mass generation through spontaneous symmetry breaking is predominantly caused by scalar loops in the minimal SU(5) model of grand unification, it is possible to have an arbitrarily large gauge hierarchy msub(x) >> msub(w) with all Higgs bosons superheavy. No fine tuning is necessary in every order. (author)

  14. Hierarchy and social status in Budongo chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E

    2004-04-01

    The status hierarchy is fundamental in the lives of male chimpanzees. This study describes the dominance interactions and social status among adult male chimpanzees of the Sonso community in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda, during the period that they were first studied (1994 and 1995). Social dominance is typically measured using the behaviour of either the subordinate or the dominant individual, but a relationship is dependent on the behaviour of both parties and this study explicitly used both subordinate and dominant behaviours to investigate the status hierarchy. Among adult males of the Sonso community, agonistic interactions occurred at a low rate and pant-grunts were rare, but males could be ranked into separate hierarchies of agonistic dominance and pant-grunting (labelled 'respect') using ratios of behaviour performed/behaviour received. These hierarchies were combined to form a single hierarchy of social status that divided the males among five distinct status levels. The highest status level was held by an alliance between two males who replaced the previous alpha male during the first part of the study. Neither male in this alliance partnership pant-grunted to the other, although the reason for cooperative behaviour was unclear. Although the nominally beta male was treated as such by other adult males, he achieved surprisingly little mating success. Budongo Forest chimpanzees do not warrant the sometimes-expressed view that they are non-aggressive and peaceable and the broad pattern of their status interactions matches with that seen in other chimpanzee populations.

  15. Capitalizing Resolving Power of Density Gradient Ultracentrifugation by Freezing and Precisely Slicing Centrifuged Solution: Enabling Identification of Complex Proteins from Mitochondria by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiqing Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Density gradient centrifugation is widely utilized for various high purity sample preparations, and density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGU is often used for more resolution-demanding purification of organelles and protein complexes. Accurately locating different isopycnic layers and precisely extracting solutions from these layers play a critical role in achieving high-resolution DGU separations. In this technique note, we develop a DGU procedure by freezing the solution rapidly (but gently after centrifugation to fix the resolved layers and by slicing the frozen solution to fractionate the sample. Because the thickness of each slice can be controlled to be as thin as 10 micrometers, we retain virtually all the resolution produced by DGU. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this method, we fractionate complex V from HeLa mitochondria using a conventional technique and this freezing-slicing (F-S method. The comparison indicates that our F-S method can reduce complex V layer thicknesses by ~40%. After fractionation, we analyze complex V proteins directly on a matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization, time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Twelve out of fifteen subunits of complex V are positively identified. Our method provides a practical protocol to identify proteins from complexes, which is useful to investigate biomolecular complexes and pathways in various conditions and cell types.

  16. Time-resolved analysis of the emission of sidestream smoke (SSS) from cigarettes during smoking by photo ionisation/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PI-TOFMS): towards a better description of environmental tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streibel, T; Mitschke, S; Adam, T; Zimmermann, R

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the chemical composition of sidestream smoke (SSS) emissions of cigarettes are characterised using a laser-based single-photon ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometer. SSS is generated from various cigarette types (2R4F research cigarette; Burley, Oriental and Virginia single-tobacco-type cigarettes) smoked on a single-port smoking machine and collected using a so-called fishtail chimney device. Using this setup, a puff-resolved quantification of several SSS components was performed. Investigations of the dynamics of SSS emissions show that concentration profiles of various substances can be categorised into several groups, either depending on the occurrence of a puff or uninfluenced by the changes in the burning zone during puffing. The SSS emissions occurring directly after a puff strongly resemble the composition of mainstream smoke (MSS). In the smouldering phase, clear differences between MSS and SSS are observed. The changed chemical profiles of SSS and MSS might be also of importance on environmental tobacco smoke which is largely determined by SSS. Additionally, the chemical composition of the SSS is strongly affected by the tobacco type. Hence, the higher nitrogen content of Burley tobacco leads to the detection of increased amounts of nitrogen-containing substances in SSS.

  17. A generative model for scientific concept hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Srayan; Adar, Eytan

    2018-01-01

    In many scientific disciplines, each new 'product' of research (method, finding, artifact, etc.) is often built upon previous findings-leading to extension and branching of scientific concepts over time. We aim to understand the evolution of scientific concepts by placing them in phylogenetic hierarchies where scientific keyphrases from a large, longitudinal academic corpora are used as a proxy of scientific concepts. These hierarchies exhibit various important properties, including power-law degree distribution, power-law component size distribution, existence of a giant component and less probability of extending an older concept. We present a generative model based on preferential attachment to simulate the graphical and temporal properties of these hierarchies which helps us understand the underlying process behind scientific concept evolution and may be useful in simulating and predicting scientific evolution.

  18. Cohesion and Hierarchy in Physically Abusive Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa De Antoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates cohesion (emotional bonding and hierarchy (powerstructure in families with abuse against their children. Twenty low-incomefamilies participated. Father, mother and child’s perspective of family relations(cohesion and hierarchy were evaluated by the Family System Test(FAST. The relationship between father-child, mother-child, couple, andamong siblings were evaluated at typical and conflictive situations. Resultsshow a significance regarding to cohesion in typical and conflictive situationfor father-child and mother-child dyads in all perspectives (by father, mother,and child. There is no significant differences regarding to hierarchy. Theseresults suggest that the families see the intrafamilial violence as a constant,since they cannot differentiate between both situations.

  19. A Global Mitigation Hierarchy for Nature Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Joseph W; Addison, Prue F E; Burgass, Michael J; Gianuca, Dimas; Gorham, Taylor M; Jacob, Céline; Watson, James E M; Wilcox, Chris; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Efforts to conserve biodiversity comprise a patchwork of international goals, national-level plans, and local interventions that, overall, are failing. We discuss the potential utility of applying the mitigation hierarchy, widely used during economic development activities, to all negative human impacts on biodiversity. Evaluating all biodiversity losses and gains through the mitigation hierarchy could help prioritize consideration of conservation goals and drive the empirical evaluation of conservation investments through the explicit consideration of counterfactual trends and ecosystem dynamics across scales. We explore the challenges in using this framework to achieve global conservation goals, including operationalization and monitoring and compliance, and we discuss solutions and research priorities. The mitigation hierarchy's conceptual power and ability to clarify thinking could provide the step change needed to integrate the multiple elements of conservation goals and interventions in order to achieve successful biodiversity outcomes. PMID:29731513

  20. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages). PMID:22688632

  1. A generative model for scientific concept hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adar, Eytan

    2018-01-01

    In many scientific disciplines, each new ‘product’ of research (method, finding, artifact, etc.) is often built upon previous findings–leading to extension and branching of scientific concepts over time. We aim to understand the evolution of scientific concepts by placing them in phylogenetic hierarchies where scientific keyphrases from a large, longitudinal academic corpora are used as a proxy of scientific concepts. These hierarchies exhibit various important properties, including power-law degree distribution, power-law component size distribution, existence of a giant component and less probability of extending an older concept. We present a generative model based on preferential attachment to simulate the graphical and temporal properties of these hierarchies which helps us understand the underlying process behind scientific concept evolution and may be useful in simulating and predicting scientific evolution. PMID:29474409

  2. A Little Solution to the Little Hierarchy Problem: A Vector-like Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Peter W.; Ismail, Ahmed; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Rajendran, Surjeet; /MIT, LNS /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Saraswat, Prashant; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2012-04-06

    We present a simple solution to the little hierarchy problem in the minimal supersymmetric standard model: a vectorlike fourth generation. With O(1) Yukawa couplings for the new quarks, the Higgs mass can naturally be above 114 GeV. Unlike a chiral fourth generation, a vectorlike generation can solve the little hierarchy problem while remaining consistent with precision electroweak and direct production constraints, and maintaining the success of the grand unified framework. The new quarks are predicted to lie between 300-600 GeV and will thus be discovered or ruled out at the LHC. This scenario suggests exploration of several novel collider signatures.

  3. On self-dual Yang-Mills hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yoshimasa

    1989-01-01

    In this note, motivated by the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) hierarchy of integrable nonlinear evolution equations, a GL(n,C) self-dual Yang-Mills (SDYM) hierarchy is presented; it is an infinite system of SDYM equations having an infinite number of independent variables and being outside of the KP hierarchy. A relationship between the KP hierarchy and the SDYM hierarchy is discussed. It is also shown that GL(∞) SDYM equations introduced in this note are reduced to the GL(n,C) SDYM hierarchy by imposing an algebraic constraint. (orig.)

  4. An Operational Investigation of the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Yang, Zhe

    1999-01-01

    We explore the hierarchy of control induced by successive transformations into continuation-passing style (CPS) in the presence of “control delimiters ” and “composable continuations ”. Specifically, we investigate the structural operational semantics associated with the CPS hierarchy. To this end......, we characterize an operational notion of continuation semantics. We relate it to the traditional CPS transformation and we use it to account for the control operator shift and the control delimiter reset operationally. We then transcribe the resulting continuation semantics in ML, thus obtaining...

  5. An Operational Investigation of the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Yang, Zhe

    1998-01-01

    We explore the hierarchy of control induced by successive transformations into continuation-passing style (CPS) in the presence of “control delimiters ” and “composable continuations ”. Specifically, we investigate the structural operational semantics associated with the CPS hierarchy. To this end......, we characterize an operational notion of continuation semantics. We relate it to the traditional CPS transformation and we use it to account for the control operator shift and the control delimiter reset operationally. We then transcribe the resulting continuation semantics in ML, thus obtaining...

  6. Contrastive hierarchies, privative features, and Portuguese vowels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Brandão de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dresher’s (2009 Contrastive hierarchy theory (CHT is intended to provide a unified account of both sides of phonological primes: contrastivity and behaviour. This article explores the point and the possibility of extending CHT, which is based on binary features, to a system of monovalent elements that is much indebted to Schane’s (1984 Particle Phonology. It shows how several aspects of the phonology of European Portuguese nuclei that seem prima facie independent from one another – such as reduction patterns and the inventory of diphthongs and nasal vowels – are constrained by element hierarchy, and, thus, receive a unitary account.

  7. MOS modeling hierarchy including radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.R.; Turfler, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    A hierarchy of modeling procedures has been developed for MOS transistors, circuit blocks, and integrated circuits which include the effects of total dose radiation and photocurrent response. The models were developed for use with the SCEPTRE circuit analysis program, but the techniques are suitable for other modern computer aided analysis programs. The modeling hierarchy permits the designer or analyst to select the level of modeling complexity consistent with circuit size, parametric information, and accuracy requirements. Improvements have been made in the implementation of important second order effects in the transistor MOS model, in the definition of MOS building block models, and in the development of composite terminal models for MOS integrated circuits

  8. Program information architecture/document hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, T.W.

    1991-09-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management System (NWMS) Management Systems Improvement Strategy (MSIS) (DOE 1990) requires that the information within the computer program and information management system be ordered into a precedence hierarchy for consistency. Therefore, the US Department of Energy (DOE). Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) requested Westinghouse Hanford Company to develop a plan for NWMS program information which the MSIS calls a document hierarchy. This report provides the results of that effort and describes the management system as a ''program information architecture.'' 3 refs., 3 figs

  9. Fuzzy Logic and Arithmetical Hierarchy III

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 1 (2001), s. 129-142 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * basic fuzzy logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Godel logic * product logic * arithmetical hierarchy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  10. Large hierarchies from approximate R symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappl, Rolf; Ratz, Michael; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S.

    2008-12-01

    We show that hierarchically small vacuum expectation values of the superpotential in supersymmetric theories can be a consequence of an approximate R symmetry. We briefly discuss the role of such small constants in moduli stabilization and understanding the huge hierarchy between the Planck and electroweak scales. (orig.)

  11. The hamiltonian structures of the KP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Panda, S.; Huang Wenjui

    1991-01-01

    We obtain the two hamiltonian structures of the KP hierarchy following the method of Drinfeld and Sokolov. We point out how the second structure of Drinfeld and Sokolov needs to be modified in the present case. We briefly comment on the connection between these structures and the W 1+∞ algebra. (orig.)

  12. A note on the substructural hierarchy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 62, 1-2 (2016), s. 102-110 ISSN 0942-5616 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : substructural hierarchy * full Lambek calculus * extension variables Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.250, year: 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/malq.201500066

  13. Signaling hierarchy regulating human endothelial cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our present knowledge of the regulation of mammalian endothelial cell differentiation has been largely derived from studies of mouse embryonic development. However, unique mechanisms and hierarchy of signals that govern human endothelial cell development are unknown and, thus, explored in these stud...

  14. The Analytic Hierarchy Process and Participatory Decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Daniel L. Peterson; Robert L. Smith

    1995-01-01

    Managing natural resource lands requires social, as well as biophysical, considerations. Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to accurately assess and quantify changing social preferences, and to aggregate conflicting opinions held by diverse social groups. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) provides a systematic, explicit, rigorous, and robust mechanism for...

  15. Using Analytic Hierarchy Process in Textbook Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shigeo

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates the application of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in English language teaching materials evaluation, focusing in particular on its potential for systematically integrating different components of evaluation criteria in a variety of teaching contexts. AHP is a measurement procedure wherein pairwise comparisons are made…

  16. The Hamiltonian structures of the KP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Panda, S.; Huang Wenjui

    1991-08-01

    We obtain the two Hamiltonian structures of the KP hierarchy following the method of Drinfeld and Sokolov. We point out how the second structure of Drinfeld and Sokolov needs to be modified in the present case. We briefly comment on the connection between these structures and the W 1+∞ algebra. (author). 18 refs

  17. A hierarchy of systems of nonlinear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkensteiner, P.; Grosse, H.

    1985-01-01

    Imposing isospectral invariance for the one-dimensional Dirac operator yields an infinite hierarchy of systems of chiral invariant nonlinear partial differential equations. The same system is obtained through a Lax pair construction and finally a formulation in terms of Kac-Moody generators is given. (Author)

  18. New solutions to the hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdman, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    After summarizing the status of the Standard Model, we focus on the Hierarchy Problem and why we believe this strongly suggests the need for new physics at the TeV scale. We then concentrate on theories with extra dimensions and their possible manifestations at this scale. (author)

  19. Prioritization of Programmer's Productivity Using Analytic Hierarchy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the application of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model in the context of prioritizing programmer's productivity in University of Benin, Benin City Nigeria. This is achieved by evaluating the way in which the AHP model can be used to select the best programmer for the purpose of developing software ...

  20. Classification hierarchies for product data modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pels, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Abstraction is an essential element in data modelling that appears mainly in one of the following forms: generalisation, classification or aggregation. In the design of complex products classification hierarchies can be found product families that are viewed as classes of product types, while

  1. Solution for little hierarchy problem and b→sγ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.-G.; Maekawa, N.; Matsuzaki, A.; Sakurai, K.; Sanda, A. I.; Yoshikawa, T.

    2006-01-01

    We show that all the parameters which destabilize the weak scale can be taken around the weak scale in the MSSM without conflicting with the SM Higgs mass bound set by LEP experiment. The essential point is that if the lightest CP-even Higgs h in the MSSM has only a small coupling to Z boson, g ZZh , LEP cannot generate the Higgs sufficiently. In the scenario, the SM Higgs mass bound constrains the mass of the heaviest CP-even Higgs H which has the SM like g ZZH coupling. However, it is easier to make the heaviest Higgs heavy by the effect of off-diagonal elements of the mass matrix of the CP-even Higgs because the larger eigenvalue of 2x2 matrix becomes larger by introducing off-diagonal elements. Thus, the smaller stop masses can be consistent with the LEP constraints. Moreover, the two excesses observed at LEP Higgs search can naturally be explained as the signals of the MSSM Higgs h and H in this scenario. One of the most interesting results in the scenario is that all the Higgs in the MSSM have the weak scale masses. For example, the charged Higgs mass should be around 130 GeV. This looks inconsistent with the lower bound obtained by the b→sγ process as m H ± >350 GeV. However, we show that the amplitude induced by the charged Higgs can naturally be compensated by that of the chargino if we take the mass parameters by which the little hierarchy problem can be solved. The point is that the both amplitudes have the same order of magnitudes when all the fields in the both loops have the same order of masses

  2. Stress amplifies memory for social hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, María Isabel; Sandi, Carmen

    2007-11-01

    Individuals differ in their social status and societies in the extent of social status differences among their members. There is great interest in understanding the key factors that contribute to the establishment of social dominance structures. Given that stress can affect behavior and cognition, we hypothesized that, given equal opportunities to become either dominant or submissive, stress experienced by one of the individuals during their first encounter would determine the long-term establishment of a social hierarchy by acting as a two-stage rocket: (1) by influencing the rank achieved after a social encounter and (2) by facilitating and/or promoting a long-term memory for the specific hierarchy. Using a novel model for the assessment of long-term dominance hierarchies in rats, we present here the first evidence supporting such hypothesis. In control conditions, the social rank established through a first interaction and food competition test between two male rats is not maintained when animals are confronted 1 week later. However, if one of the rats is stressed just before their first encounter, the dominance hierarchy developed on day 1 is still clearly observed 1 week later, with the stressed animal becoming submissive (i.e., looser in competition tests) in both social interactions. Our findings also allow us to propose that stress potentiates a hierarchy-linked recognition memory between "specific" individuals through mechanisms that involve de novo protein synthesis. These results implicate stress among the key mechanisms contributing to create social imbalance and highlight memory mechanisms as key mediators of stress-induced long-term establishment of social rank.

  3. Stress amplifies memory for social hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I Cordero

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their social status and societies in the extent of social status differences among their members. There is great interest in understanding the key factors that contribute to the establishment of social dominance structures. Given that stress can affect behavior and cognition, we hypothesized that, given equal opportunities to become either dominant or submissive, stress experienced by one of the individuals during their first encounter would determine the long-term establishment of a social hierarchy by acting as a two-stage rocket: (1 by influencing the rank achieved after a social encounter and (2 by facilitating and/or promoting a long-term memory for the specific hierarchy. Using a novel model for the assessment of long-term dominance hierarchies in rats, we present here the first evidence supporting such hypothesis. In control conditions, the social rank established through a first interaction and food competition test between two male rats is not maintained when animals are confronted 1 week later. However, if one of the rats is stressed just before their first encounter, the dominance hierarchy developed on day 1 is still clearly observed 1 week later, with the stressed animal becoming submissive (i.e., looser in competition tests in both social interactions. Our findings also allow us to propose that stress potentiates a hierarchy-linked recognition memory between “specific” individuals through mechanisms that involve de novo protein synthesis. These results implicate stress among the key mechanisms contributing to create social imbalance and highlight memory mechanisms as key mediators of stress-induced long-term establishment of social rank.

  4. The Helmholtz Hierarchy: Phase Space Statistics of Cold Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Tassev, Svetlin

    2010-01-01

    We present a new formalism to study large-scale structure in the universe. The result is a hierarchy (which we call the "Helmholtz Hierarchy") of equations describing the phase space statistics of cold dark matter (CDM). The hierarchy features a physical ordering parameter which interpolates between the Zel'dovich approximation and fully-fledged gravitational interactions. The results incorporate the effects of stream crossing. We show that the Helmholtz hierarchy is self-consistent and obeys...

  5. Special polynomials associated with rational solutions of some hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashov, Nikolai A.

    2009-01-01

    New special polynomials associated with rational solutions of the Painleve hierarchies are introduced. The Hirota relations for these special polynomials are found. Differential-difference hierarchies to find special polynomials are presented. These formulae allow us to search special polynomials associated with the hierarchies. It is shown that rational solutions of the Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon, the Kaup-Kupershmidt and the modified hierarchy for these ones can be obtained using new special polynomials.

  6. Method and System for Making OLAP Hierarchies Summarisable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    Field of Invention: The present invention relates to computer databases, in particular to a method and system for transforming general OLAP hierarchies into summarizable hierarchies. This enables fast query response times for aggregation queries without excessive storage use even when the hierarc......Field of Invention: The present invention relates to computer databases, in particular to a method and system for transforming general OLAP hierarchies into summarizable hierarchies. This enables fast query response times for aggregation queries without excessive storage use even when...

  7. Operator approach to solutions of the constrained BKP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Hsin-Fu; Lee, Niann-Chern; Tu, Ming-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    The operator formalism to the vector k-constrained BKP hierarchy is presented. We solve the Hirota bilinear equations of the vector k-constrained BKP hierarchy via the method of neutral free fermion. In particular, by choosing suitable group element of O(∞), we construct rational and soliton solutions of the vector k-constrained BKP hierarchy.

  8. The Helmholtz Hierarchy: phase space statistics of cold dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassev, Svetlin V.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new formalism to study large-scale structure in the universe. The result is a hierarchy (which we call the ''Helmholtz Hierarchy'') of equations describing the phase space statistics of cold dark matter (CDM). The hierarchy features a physical ordering parameter which interpolates between the Zel'dovich approximation and fully-fledged gravitational interactions. The results incorporate the effects of stream crossing. We show that the Helmholtz hierarchy is self-consistent and obeys causality to all orders. We present an interpretation of the hierarchy in terms of effective particle trajectories

  9. The multicomponent 2D Toda hierarchy: dispersionless limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mañas, Manuel; Alonso, Luis Martínez

    2009-01-01

    The factorization problem of the multi-component 2D Toda hierarchy is used to analyze the dispersionless limit of this hierarchy. A dispersive version of the Whitham hierarchy defined in terms of scalar Lax and Orlov–Schulman operators is introduced and the corresponding additional symmetries and string equations are discussed. Then, it is shown how KP and Toda pictures of the dispersionless Whitham hierarchy emerge in the dispersionless limit. Moreover, the additional symmetries and string equations for the dispersive Whitham hierarchy are studied in this limit

  10. Neural basis of social status hierarchy across species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Joan Y

    2010-12-01

    Social status hierarchy is a ubiquitous principle of social organization across the animal kingdom. Recent findings in social neuroscience reveal distinct neural networks associated with the recognition and experience of social hierarchy in humans, as well as modulation of these networks by personality and culture. Additionally, allelic variation in the serotonin transporter gene is associated with prevalence of social hierarchy across species and cultures, suggesting the importance of the study of genetic factors underlying social hierarchy. Future studies are needed to determine how genetic and environmental factors shape neural systems involved in the production and maintenance of social hierarchy across ontogeny and phylogeny. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An Imperative Type Hierarchy with Partial Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1989-01-01

    notation for defining recursive types, that is superior to traditional type sums and products. We show how the ordering on types extends to an ordering on types with invariants. We allow the use of least upper bounds in type definitions and show how to compute upper bounds of invariants.......A type hierarchy for a programming language defines an ordering on the types such that any application for small types may be reused for all larger types. The imperative facet makes this non-trivial; the straight-forward definitions will yield an inconsistent system. We introduce a new type...... constructor, the partial product, and show how to define a consistent hierarchy in the context of fully recursive types. A simple polymorphism is derived by introducing a notion of placeholder types. By extending the partial product types to include structural invariants we obtain a particularly appropriate...

  12. Feminist Praxis, Critical Theory and Informal Hierarchies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Giraud

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on my experiences teaching across two undergraduate media modules in a UK research-intensive institution to explore tactics for combatting both institutional and informal hierarchies within university teaching contexts. Building on Sara Motta’s (2012 exploration of implementing critical pedagogic principles at postgraduate level in an elite university context, I discuss additional tactics for combatting these hierarchies in undergraduate settings, which were developed by transferring insights derived from informal workshops led by the University of Nottingham’s Feminism and Teaching network into the classroom. This discussion is framed in relation to the concepts of “cyborg pedagogies” and “political semiotics of articulation,” derived from the work of Donna Haraway, in order to theorize how these tactics can engender productive relationships between radical pedagogies and critical theory.

  13. Scale hierarchy in high-temperature QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Akerlund, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Because of asymptotic freedom, QCD becomes weakly interacting at high temperature: this is the reason for the transition to a deconfined phase in Yang-Mills theory at temperature $T_c$. At high temperature $T \\gg T_c$, the smallness of the running coupling $g$ induces a hierachy betwen the "hard", "soft" and "ultrasoft" energy scales $T$, $g T$ and $g^2 T$. This hierarchy allows for a very successful effective treatment where the "hard" and the "soft" modes are successively integrated out. However, it is not clear how high a temperature is necessary to achieve such a scale hierarchy. By numerical simulations, we show that the required temperatures are extremely high. Thus, the quantitative success of the effective theory down to temperatures of a few $T_c$ appears surprising a posteriori.

  14. Generalized non-linear Schroedinger hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Gomes, J.F.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    The importance in studying the completely integrable models have became evident in the last years due to the fact that those models present an algebraic structure extremely rich, providing the natural scenery for solitons description. Those models can be described through non-linear differential equations, pseudo-linear operators (Lax formulation), or a matrix formulation. The integrability implies in the existence of a conservation law associated to each of degree of freedom. Each conserved charge Q i can be associated to a Hamiltonian, defining a time evolution related to to a time t i through the Hamilton equation ∂A/∂t i =[A,Q i ]. Particularly, for a two-dimensions field theory, infinite degree of freedom exist, and consequently infinite conservation laws describing the time evolution in space of infinite times. The Hamilton equation defines a hierarchy of models which present a infinite set of conservation laws. This paper studies the generalized non-linear Schroedinger hierarchy

  15. Explorations of the extended ncKP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimakis, Aristophanes; Mueller-Hoissen, Folkert

    2004-01-01

    A recently obtained extension (xncKP) of the Moyal-deformed KP hierarchy (ncKP hierarchy) by a set of evolution equations in the Moyal-deformation parameters is further explored. Formulae are derived to compute these equations efficiently. Reductions of the xncKP hierarchy are treated, in particular to the extended ncKdV and ncBoussinesq hierarchies. Furthermore, a good part of the Sato formalism for the KP hierarchy is carried over to the generalized framework. In particular, the well-known bilinear identity theorem for the KP hierarchy, expressed in terms of the (formal) Baker-Akhiezer function, extends to the xncKP hierarchy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that N-soliton solutions of the ncKP equation are also solutions of the first few deformation equations. This is shown to be related to the existence of certain families of algebraic identities

  16. Affine Lie algebraic origin of constrained KP hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Gomes, J.F.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1994-07-01

    It is presented an affine sl(n+1) algebraic construction of the basic constrained KP hierarchy. This hierarchy is analyzed using two approaches, namely linear matrix eigenvalue problem on hermitian symmetric space and constrained KP Lax formulation and we show that these approaches are equivalent. The model is recognized to be generalized non-linear Schroedinger (GNLS) hierarchy and it is used as a building block for a new class of constrained KP hierarchies. These constrained KP hierarchies are connected via similarity-Backlund transformations and interpolate between GNLS and multi-boson KP-Toda hierarchies. The construction uncovers origin of the Toda lattice structure behind the latter hierarchy. (author). 23 refs

  17. Gauge equivalence between two-boson KP hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper it is explained the status of the two-boson KP hierarchy, which appears in this setting as an invariant subspace of the coadjoint orbit within the KP l=1 hierarchy. We will work with two main cases of two-boson KP hierarchies, one defined within KP l=1 hierarchy will be called Faa di Bruno KP hierarchy, while the second defined within KP hierarchy for a quadratic two-boson KP hierarchy. It will be established for them the gauge invariance playing the role of generalized Miura transformations. It is emphasized the symplectic character of equivalence of KP l=1 and KP. It is also made a point that the gauge equivalence established for two-boson systems is valid for an arbitrary n-th Poisson bracket structure and not only the first Poisson bracket structure. (author). 7 refs

  18. Hierarchy of on-orbit servicing interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Rud V.

    1989-01-01

    A series of equipment interfaces is involved in on-orbit servicing operations. The end-to-end hierarchy of servicing interfaces is presented. The interface concepts presented include structure and handling, and formats for transfer of resources (power, data, fluids, etc.). Consequences on cost, performance, and service ability of the use of standard designs or unique designs with interface adapters are discussed. Implications of the interface designs compatibility with remote servicing using telerobotic servicers are discussed.

  19. Do Convolutional Neural Networks Learn Class Hierarchy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Alsallakh; Jourabloo, Amin; Ye, Mao; Liu, Xiaoming; Ren, Liu

    2018-01-01

    Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) currently achieve state-of-the-art accuracy in image classification. With a growing number of classes, the accuracy usually drops as the possibilities of confusion increase. Interestingly, the class confusion patterns follow a hierarchical structure over the classes. We present visual-analytics methods to reveal and analyze this hierarchy of similar classes in relation with CNN-internal data. We found that this hierarchy not only dictates the confusion patterns between the classes, it furthermore dictates the learning behavior of CNNs. In particular, the early layers in these networks develop feature detectors that can separate high-level groups of classes quite well, even after a few training epochs. In contrast, the latter layers require substantially more epochs to develop specialized feature detectors that can separate individual classes. We demonstrate how these insights are key to significant improvement in accuracy by designing hierarchy-aware CNNs that accelerate model convergence and alleviate overfitting. We further demonstrate how our methods help in identifying various quality issues in the training data.

  20. Integral equation hierarchy for continuum percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    In this thesis a projection operator technique is presented that yields hierarchies of integral equations satisfied exactly by the n-point connectedness functions in a continuum version of the site-bond percolation problem. The n-point connectedness functions carry the same structural information for a percolation problem as then-point correlation functions do for a thermal problem. This method extends the Potts model mapping of Fortuin and Kastelyn to the continuum by exploiting an s-state generalization of the Widom-Rowlinson model, a continuum model for phase separation. The projection operator technique is used to produce an integral equation hierarchy for percolation similar to the Born-Green heirarchy. The Kirkwood superposition approximation (SA) is extended to percolation in order to close this hierarchy and yield a nonlinear integral equation for the two-point connectedness function. The fact that this function, in the SA, is the analytic continuation to negative density of the two-point correlation function in a corresponding thermal problem is discussed. The BGY equation for percolation is solved numerically, both by an expansion in powers of the density, and by an iterative technique due to Kirkwood. It is argued both analytically and numerically, that the BYG equation for percolation, unlike its thermal counterpart, shows non-classical critical behavior, with η = 1 and γ = 0.05 ± .1. Finally a sequence of refinements to the superposition approximations based in the theory of fluids by Rice and Lekner is discussed

  1. Collaborative hierarchy maintains cooperation in asymmetric games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonioni, Alberto; Pereda, María; Cronin, Katherine A; Tomassini, Marco; Sánchez, Angel

    2018-03-29

    The interplay of social structure and cooperative behavior is under much scrutiny lately as behavior in social contexts becomes increasingly relevant for everyday life. Earlier experimental work showed that the existence of a social hierarchy, earned through competition, was detrimental for the evolution of cooperative behaviors. Here, we study the case in which individuals are ranked in a hierarchical structure based on their performance in a collective effort by having them play a Public Goods Game. In the first treatment, participants are ranked according to group earnings while, in the second treatment, their rankings are based on individual earnings. Subsequently, participants play asymmetric Prisoner's Dilemma games where higher-ranked players gain more than lower ones. Our experiments show that there are no detrimental effects of the hierarchy formed based on group performance, yet when ranking is assigned individually we observe a decrease in cooperation. Our results show that different levels of cooperation arise from the fact that subjects are interpreting rankings as a reputation which carries information about which subjects were cooperators in the previous phase. Our results demonstrate that noting the manner in which a hierarchy is established is essential for understanding its effects on cooperation.

  2. Neutrino mass models and CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshipura, Anjan S.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical ideas on the origin of (a) neutrino masses (b) neutrino mass hierarchies and (c) leptonic mixing angles are reviewed. Topics discussed include (1) symmetries of neutrino mass matrix and their origin (2) ways to understand the observed patterns of leptonic mixing angles and (3)unified description of neutrino masses and mixing angles in grand unified theories.

  3. An analytical hierarchy process for decision making of high-level-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.H.C.; Jang, W.

    1995-01-01

    To prove the existence value of nuclear technology for the world of post cold war, demonstration of safe rad-waste disposal is essential. High-level-waste (HLW) certainly is the key issue to be resolved. To assist a rational and persuasive process on various disposal options, an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for the decision making of HLW management is presented. The basic theory and rationale are discussed, and applications are shown to illustrate the usefulness of the AHP. The authors wish that the AHP can provide a better direction for the current doomed situations of Taiwan nuclear industry, and to exchange with other countries for sharing experiences on the HLW management

  4. Minimal string theories and integrable hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Ramakrishnan

    Well-defined, non-perturbative formulations of the physics of string theories in specific minimal or superminimal model backgrounds can be obtained by solving matrix models in the double scaling limit. They provide us with the first examples of completely solvable string theories. Despite being relatively simple compared to higher dimensional critical string theories, they furnish non-perturbative descriptions of interesting physical phenomena such as geometrical transitions between D-branes and fluxes, tachyon condensation and holography. The physics of these theories in the minimal model backgrounds is succinctly encoded in a non-linear differential equation known as the string equation, along with an associated hierarchy of integrable partial differential equations (PDEs). The bosonic string in (2,2m-1) conformal minimal model backgrounds and the type 0A string in (2,4 m) superconformal minimal model backgrounds have the Korteweg-de Vries system, while type 0B in (2,4m) backgrounds has the Zakharov-Shabat system. The integrable PDE hierarchy governs flows between backgrounds with different m. In this thesis, we explore this interesting connection between minimal string theories and integrable hierarchies further. We uncover the remarkable role that an infinite hierarchy of non-linear differential equations plays in organizing and connecting certain minimal string theories non-perturbatively. We are able to embed the type 0A and 0B (A,A) minimal string theories into this single framework. The string theories arise as special limits of a rich system of equations underpinned by an integrable system known as the dispersive water wave hierarchy. We find that there are several other string-like limits of the system, and conjecture that some of them are type IIA and IIB (A,D) minimal string backgrounds. We explain how these and several other string-like special points arise and are connected. In some cases, the framework endows the theories with a non

  5. Emergent Intentionality in Perception-Action Subsumption Hierarchies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Windridge

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A cognitively autonomous artificial agent may be defined as one able to modify both its external world-model and the framework by which it represents the world, requiring two simultaneous optimization objectives. This presents deep epistemological issues centered on the question of how a framework for representation (as opposed to the entities it represents may be objectively validated. In this article, formalizing previous work in this field, it is argued that subsumptive perception-action learning has the capacity to resolve these issues by (a building the perceptual hierarchy from the bottom up so as to ground all proposed representations and (b maintaining a bijective coupling between proposed percepts and projected action possibilities to ensure empirical falsifiability of these grounded representations. In doing so, we will show that such subsumptive perception-action learners intrinsically incorporate a model for how intentionality emerges from randomized exploratory activity in the form of “motor babbling.” Moreover, such a model of intentionality also naturally translates into a model for human–computer interfacing that makes minimal assumptions as to cognitive states.

  6. Reactive Goal Decomposition Hierarchies for On-Board Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, L.

    2002-01-01

    As our experience grows, space missions and systems are expected to address ever more complex and demanding requirements with fewer resources (e.g., mass, power, budget). One approach to accommodating these higher expectations is to increase the level of autonomy to improve the capabilities and robustness of on- board systems and to simplify operations. The goal decomposition hierarchies described here provide a simple but powerful form of goal-directed behavior that is relatively easy to implement for space systems. A goal corresponds to a state or condition that an operator of the space system would like to bring about. In the system described here goals are decomposed into simpler subgoals until the subgoals are simple enough to execute directly. For each goal there is an activation condition and a set of decompositions. The decompositions correspond to different ways of achieving the higher level goal. Each decomposition contains a gating condition and a set of subgoals to be "executed" sequentially or in parallel. The gating conditions are evaluated in order and for the first one that is true, the corresponding decomposition is executed in order to achieve the higher level goal. The activation condition specifies global conditions (i.e., for all decompositions of the goal) that need to hold in order for the goal to be achieved. In real-time, parameters and state information are passed between goals and subgoals in the decomposition; a termination indication (success, failure, degree) is passed up when a decomposition finishes executing. The lowest level decompositions include servo control loops and finite state machines for generating control signals and sequencing i/o. Semaphores and shared memory are used to synchronize and coordinate decompositions that execute in parallel. The goal decomposition hierarchy is reactive in that the generated behavior is sensitive to the real-time state of the system and the environment. That is, the system is able to react

  7. Hierarchy, Dominance, and Deliberation: Egalitarian Values Require Mental Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Laura; Crandall, Christian S; Eidelman, Scott; Blanchar, John C

    2015-09-01

    Hierarchy and dominance are ubiquitous. Because social hierarchy is early learned and highly rehearsed, the value of hierarchy enjoys relative ease over competing egalitarian values. In six studies, we interfere with deliberate thinking and measure endorsement of hierarchy and egalitarianism. In Study 1, bar patrons' blood alcohol content was correlated with hierarchy preference. In Study 2, cognitive load increased the authority/hierarchy moral foundation. In Study 3, low-effort thought instructions increased hierarchy endorsement and reduced equality endorsement. In Study 4, ego depletion increased hierarchy endorsement and caused a trend toward reduced equality endorsement. In Study 5, low-effort thought instructions increased endorsement of hierarchical attitudes among those with a sense of low personal power. In Study 6, participants' thinking quickly allocated more resources to high-status groups. Across five operationalizations of impaired deliberative thought, hierarchy endorsement increased and egalitarianism receded. These data suggest hierarchy may persist in part because it has a psychological advantage. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  8. A health hierarchy of effects model: a synthesis of advertising and health hierarchy conceptualizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, R A

    1991-01-01

    Work by both advertising and health researchers has independently yielded hierarchy of effects models which can be used to predict campaign success. Unfortunately, however, previous work has been criticized as "common sense" approaches which are more "assumed" than "proven." This analysis argues that much of the problem is due to the lack of precision often associated with over-simplified "uni-dimensional" models. Instead, this perspective synthesized a "two-dimensional" health hierarchy of effects model and outlines a pragmatic strategy for campaign measurement.

  9. Operation: Inherent Resolve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer-Larsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet giver læseren indsigt i den internationale koalitions engagement mod IS igennem Operaton Inherent Resolve; herunder koalitionens strategi i forhold til IS strategi, ligesom det belyser kampagnens legalitet og folkeretlige grundlag, ligesom det giver et bud på overvejelser om kampagnens...

  10. Physical interpretation of the combinatorial hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastin, T.; Noyes, H.P.

    1978-01-01

    The combinatorial hierarchy model for base particle processes is compared and contrasted with the Ur-theory as developed at the Tutzing Conferences. It agrees with Ur-theory about a finite basis, the ''fixed past--uncertain future'' aspects of physics, and the necessity of dropping Bohr's requirement of reduction to the haptic language of commonsense and classical physics. However, it retains a constructive, hierarchial approach with can yield only an approximate and discrete ''space time'', and introduces the observation metaphysic at the start. Concrete interpretation of the four levels of the hierarchy (with cardinals 3, 7, 127, 2 127 -1 approx. =10 38 ) associates the three levels which map up and down with three absolute conservation laws (charge, baryon number, lepton number) and the spin dichotomy. The first level represents +, -, and +- unit charge. The second has the quantum nubmers of a baryon--antibaryon pair and associated charged meson (e.g., n anti n, p anti n, p anti p, n anti p, π + , π 0 , π - ). The third level associates this pair, now including four spin states as well as four charge states, with a neutral lepton--antilepton pair (e anti e or ν anti ν) in four spin states (total, 64 states): three charged spinless, three charged spin-1, and neutral spin-1 mesons (15 states), and a neutral vector boson associated with the leptons; this gives 3 + 15 + 3 x 15 = 63 possible boson states, so a total correct count of 63 + 64 = 127 states. Something like SU 2 X SU 3 and other indications of quark quantum numbers can occur as substructures at the fourth (unstable) level. A slight extension gives the usual static approximation to the building energy of the hydrogen atom, α 2 m/sub e/c 2 . Cosmological implications of the theory are in accord with current experience. A beginning in the physical interpretation of a theory which could eventually encompass all branches of physics was made. 3 figures, 6 tables

  11. Asymptotic density and the Ershov hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Downey, Rod; Jockusch, Carl; McNicholl, Timothy H.; Schupp, Paul

    2013-01-01

    We classify the asymptotic densities of the $\\Delta^0_2$ sets according to their level in the Ershov hierarchy. In particular, it is shown that for $n \\geq 2$, a real $r \\in [0,1]$ is the density of an $n$-c.e.\\ set if and only if it is a difference of left-$\\Pi_2^0$ reals. Further, we show that the densities of the $\\omega$-c.e.\\ sets coincide with the densities of the $\\Delta^0_2$ sets, and there are $\\omega$-c.e.\\ sets whose density is not the density of an $n$-c.e. set for any $n \\in \\ome...

  12. From fusion hierarchy to excited state TBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juettner, G.; Kluemper, A.

    1998-01-01

    Functional relations among the fusion hierarchy of quantum transfer matrices give a novel derivation of the TBA equations, namely without string hypothesis. This is demonstrated for two important models of 1D highly correlated electron systems, the supersymmetric t-J model and the supersymmetric extended Hubbard model. As a consequence, ''the excited state TBA'' equations, which characterize correlation lengths, are explicitly derived for the t-J model. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first explicit derivation of excited state TBA equations for 1D lattice electron systems. (orig.)

  13. Revaluing the hierarchy of paper recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samakovlis, Eva

    2004-01-01

    This article revalues the hierarchy of paper waste management policies in a dynamic general equilibrium model. Incineration, material recycling and the distinction between non-renewable fossil fuels and renewable forest assets are incorporated. By comparing the first order conditions from the command optimum with the conditions from the market model, it is discovered that the unregulated market fails to create an optimal resource allocation. To see how the market behaves, in absence of environmental policy, compared to the first best solution a numerical model is used. Pigouvian taxes and subsidies are derived to correct for the externalities

  14. Baecklund transformation of the noncommutative Gelfand-Dickey hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Zhong; He Jingsong; Cheng Yi

    2004-01-01

    We study the Baecklund transformation of the noncommutative Gelfand-Dickey(ncGD) hierarchy. By factorizing its Lax operator into the multiplication form of first order differential operator, the noncommutative modified KdV(ncMKdV) hierarchy and the Miura transformations are defined. Our results show that the ncMKdV equations are invariant under the cyclic permutation, and hence induces the Baecklund transformation of the ncGD hierarchy. (author)

  15. Self-organizing dominance hierarchies in a wild primate population

    OpenAIRE

    Franz, Mathias; McLean, Emily; Tung, Jenny; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Linear dominance hierarchies, which are common in social animals, can profoundly influence access to limited resources, reproductive opportunities and health. In spite of their importance, the mechanisms that govern the dynamics of such hierarchies remain unclear. Two hypotheses explain how linear hierarchies might emerge and change over time. The ‘prior attributes hypothesis’ posits that individual differences in fighting ability directly determine dominance ranks. By contrast, the ‘social d...

  16. A hierarchy of Liouville integrable discrete Hamiltonian equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Xixiang [College of Science, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266510 (China)], E-mail: xixiang_xu@yahoo.com.cn

    2008-05-12

    Based on a discrete four-by-four matrix spectral problem, a hierarchy of Lax integrable lattice equations with two potentials is derived. Two Hamiltonian forms are constructed for each lattice equation in the resulting hierarchy by means of the discrete variational identity. A strong symmetry operator of the resulting hierarchy is given. Finally, it is shown that the resulting lattice equations are all Liouville integrable discrete Hamiltonian systems.

  17. The Theory of Ratio Scale Estimation: Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick T. Harker; Luis G. Vargas

    1987-01-01

    The Analytic Hierarchy Process developed by Saaty (Saaty, T. L. 1980. The Analytic Hierarchy Process. McGraw-Hill, New York.) has proven to be an extremely useful method for decision making and planning. However, some researchers in these areas have raised concerns over the theoretical basis underlying this process. This paper addresses currently debated issues concerning the theoretical foundations of the Analytic Hierarchy Process. We also illustrate through proof and through examples the v...

  18. Life, hierarchy, and the thermodynamic machinery of planet Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidon, Axel

    2010-12-01

    Throughout Earth's history, life has increased greatly in abundance, complexity, and diversity. At the same time, it has substantially altered the Earth's environment, evolving some of its variables to states further and further away from thermodynamic equilibrium. For instance, concentrations in atmospheric oxygen have increased throughout Earth's history, resulting in an increased chemical disequilibrium in the atmosphere as well as an increased redox gradient between the atmosphere and the Earth's reducing crust. These trends seem to contradict the second law of thermodynamics, which states for isolated systems that gradients and free energy are dissipated over time, resulting in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium. This seeming contradiction is resolved by considering planet Earth as a coupled, hierarchical and evolving non-equilibrium thermodynamic system that has been substantially altered by the input of free energy generated by photosynthetic life. Here, I present this hierarchical thermodynamic theory of the Earth system. I first present simple considerations to show that thermodynamic variables are driven away from a state of thermodynamic equilibrium by the transfer of power from some other process and that the resulting state of disequilibrium reflects the past net work done on the variable. This is applied to the processes of planet Earth to characterize the generation and transfer of free energy and its dissipation, from radiative gradients to temperature and chemical potential gradients that result in chemical, kinetic, and potential free energy and associated dynamics of the climate system and geochemical cycles. The maximization of power transfer among the processes within this hierarchy yields thermodynamic efficiencies much lower than the Carnot efficiency of equilibrium thermodynamics and is closely related to the proposed principle of Maximum Entropy Production (MEP). The role of life is then discussed as a photochemical process that generates

  19. When Do Types Induce the Same Belief Hierarchy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Perea

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Type structures are a simple device to describe higher-order beliefs. However, how can we check whether two types generate the same belief hierarchy? This paper generalizes the concept of a type morphism and shows that one type structure is contained in another if and only if the former can be mapped into the other using a generalized type morphism. Hence, every generalized type morphism is a hierarchy morphism and vice versa. Importantly, generalized type morphisms do not make reference to belief hierarchies. We use our results to characterize the conditions under which types generate the same belief hierarchy.

  20. The Toda lattice hierarchy and deformation of conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuma, M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the authors point out that the Toda lattice hierarchy known in soliton theory is relevant for the description of the deformations of conformal field theories while the KP hierarchy describes unperturbed conformal theories. It is shown that the holomorphic parts of the conserved currents in the perturbed system (the Toda lattice hierarchy) coincide with the conserved currents in the KP hierarchy and can be written in terms of the W-algebraic currents. Furthermore, their anti-holomorphic counterparts are obtained

  1. On Recursion Operator of the q -KP Hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Ke-Lei; Zhu Xiao-Ming; He Jing-Song

    2016-01-01

    It is the aim of the present article to give a general expression of flow equations of the q-KP hierarchy. The distinct difference between the q-KP hierarchy and the KP hierarchy is due to q-binomial and the action of q-shift operator θ, which originates from the Leibnitz rule of the quantum calculus. We further show that the n-reduction leads to a recursive scheme for these flow equations. The recursion operator for the flow equations of the q-KP hierarchy under the n-reduction is also derived. (paper)

  2. An extended integrable fractional-order KP soliton hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, we consider the modified derivatives and integrals of fractional-order pseudo-differential operators. A sequence of Lax KP equations hierarchy and extended fractional KP (fKP) hierarchy are introduced, and the fKP hierarchy has Lax presentations with the extended Lax operators. In the case of the extension with the half-order pseudo-differential operators, a new integrable fKP hierarchy is obtained. A few particular examples of fractional order will be listed, together with their Lax pairs.

  3. The analytic hierarchy process as a support for decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Milanka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this text deals with a convention site selection as one of the most lucrative areas in the tourism industry. The second part gives a further description of a method for decision making - the analytic hierarchy process. The basic characteristics: hierarchy constructions and pair wise comparison on the given level of the hierarchy are allured. The third part offers an example of application. This example is solved using the Super - Decision software, which is developed as a computer support for the analytic hierarchy process. This indicates that the AHP approach is a useful tool to help support a decision of convention site selection. .

  4. An extended integrable fractional-order KP soliton hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Li, E-mail: li07099@163.co [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)

    2011-01-17

    In this Letter, we consider the modified derivatives and integrals of fractional-order pseudo-differential operators. A sequence of Lax KP equations hierarchy and extended fractional KP (fKP) hierarchy are introduced, and the fKP hierarchy has Lax presentations with the extended Lax operators. In the case of the extension with the half-order pseudo-differential operators, a new integrable fKP hierarchy is obtained. A few particular examples of fractional order will be listed, together with their Lax pairs.

  5. Retribution as hierarchy regulation: Hierarchy preferences moderate the effect of offender socioeconomic status on support for retribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Liz; Ratliff, Kate A

    2018-01-01

    People punish others for various reasons, including deterring future crime, incapacitating the offender, and retribution, or payback. The current research focuses on retribution, testing whether support for retribution is motivated by the desire to maintain social hierarchies. If so, then the retributive tendencies of hierarchy enhancers or hierarchy attenuators should depend on whether offenders are relatively lower or higher in status, respectively. Three studies showed that hierarchy attenuators were more retributive against high-status offenders than for low-status offenders, that hierarchy enhancers showed a stronger orientation towards retributive justice, and that relationship was stronger for low-status, rather than high-status, criminal offenders. These findings clarify the purpose and function of retributive punishment. They also reveal how hierarchy-regulating motives underlie retribution, motives which, if allowed to influence judgements, may contribute to biased or ineffective justice systems. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  6. On hierarchical solutions to the BBGKY hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, A. J. S.

    1988-01-01

    It is thought that the gravitational clustering of galaxies in the universe may approach a scale-invariant, hierarchical form in the small separation, large-clustering regime. Past attempts to solve the Born-Bogoliubov-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy in this regime have assumed a certain separable hierarchical form for the higher order correlation functions of galaxies in phase space. It is shown here that such separable solutions to the BBGKY equations must satisfy the condition that the clustered component of the solution has cluster-cluster correlations equal to galaxy-galaxy correlations to all orders. The solutions also admit the presence of an arbitrary unclustered component, which plays no dyamical role in the large-clustering regime. These results are a particular property of the specific separable model assumed for the correlation functions in phase space, not an intrinsic property of spatially hierarchical solutions to the BBGKY hierarchy. The observed distribution of galaxies does not satisfy the required conditions. The disagreement between theory and observation may be traced, at least in part, to initial conditions which, if Gaussian, already have cluster correlations greater than galaxy correlations.

  7. A color hierarchy for automatic target selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illia Tchernikov

    Full Text Available Visual processing of color starts at the cones in the retina and continues through ventral stream visual areas, called the parvocellular pathway. Motion processing also starts in the retina but continues through dorsal stream visual areas, called the magnocellular system. Color and motion processing are functionally and anatomically discrete. Previously, motion processing areas MT and MST have been shown to have no color selectivity to a moving stimulus; the neurons were colorblind whenever color was presented along with motion. This occurs when the stimuli are luminance-defined versus the background and is considered achromatic motion processing. Is motion processing independent of color processing? We find that motion processing is intrinsically modulated by color. Color modulated smooth pursuit eye movements produced upon saccading to an aperture containing a surface of coherently moving dots upon a black background. Furthermore, when two surfaces that differed in color were present, one surface was automatically selected based upon a color hierarchy. The strength of that selection depended upon the distance between the two colors in color space. A quantifiable color hierarchy for automatic target selection has wide-ranging implications from sports to advertising to human-computer interfaces.

  8. Adapting Memory Hierarchies for Emerging Datacenter Interconnects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江涛; 董建波; 侯锐; 柴琳; 张立新; 孙凝晖; 田斌

    2015-01-01

    Efficient resource utilization requires that emerging datacenter interconnects support both high performance communication and efficient remote resource sharing. These goals require that the network be more tightly coupled with the CPU chips. Designing a new interconnection technology thus requires considering not only the interconnection itself, but also the design of the processors that will rely on it. In this paper, we study memory hierarchy implications for the design of high-speed datacenter interconnects—particularly as they affect remote memory access—and we use PCIe as the vehicle for our investigations. To that end, we build three complementary platforms: a PCIe-interconnected prototype server with which we measure and analyze current bottlenecks; a software simulator that lets us model microarchitectural and cache hierarchy changes;and an FPGA prototype system with a streamlined switchless customized protocol Thunder with which we study hardware optimizations outside the processor. We highlight several architectural modifications to better support remote memory access and communication, and quantify their impact and limitations.

  9. Neutrino mass matrices with vanishing determinant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Bhag C.; Pulido, Joao; Picariello, Marco

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the prospects for neutrinoless double beta decay, texture zeros. and equalities between neutrino mass matrix elements in scenarios with vanishing determinant mass matrices for vanishing and finite θ 13 mixing angles in normal and inverse mass hierarchies. For normal hierarchy and both zero and finite θ 13 it is found that neutrinoless double beta decay cannot be observed by any of the present or next generation experiments, while for inverse hierarchy it is, on the contrary, accessible to experiments. Regarding texture zeros and equalities between mass matrix elements, we find that in both normal and inverse hierarchies with θ 13 =0 no texture zeros nor any such equalities can exist apart from the obvious ones. For θ 13 ≠0 some texture zeros become possible. In normal hierarchy two texture zeros occur if 8.1x10 -2 ≤sinθ 13 ≤9.1x10 -2 while in inverse hierarchy three are possible, one with sinθ 13 ≥7x10 -3 and two others with sinθ 13 ≥0.18. All equalities between mass matrix elements are impossible with θ 13 ≠0

  10. The Hierarchy Problem and the Self-Localized Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, C P; van Nierop, Leo

    2008-01-01

    We examine brane-world scenarios in which all the observed Standard Model particles reside on a brane but the Higgs is an elementary extra-dimensional scalar in the bulk. We show that, for codimension 2 branes, often-neglected interactions between the bulk Higgs and the branes cause two novel effects. First, they cause to depend only logarithmically on the UV-sensitive coefficient, m_B^2, of the mass term, m_B^2 H^*H, of the bulk potential, thus providing a new mechanism for tackling the hierarchy problem. Second, the Higgs brane couplings cause the lowest mass KK mode to localize near the brane without any need for geometrical effects like warping. We explore some preliminary implications such models have for the Higgs signature at the LHC, both in the case where the extra dimensions arise at the TeV scale, and in ADD models having Large Extra Dimensions. Novel Higgs features include couplings to fermions which are generically stronger than the Standard Model values, m_f/v, despite the fermions acquiring th...

  11. Resolving the AFBb puzzle in an extra dimensional model with an extended gauge structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djouadi, Abdelhak; Moreau, Gregory; Richard, Francois

    2006-10-01

    It is notorious that, contrary to all other precision electroweak data, the forward-backward asymmetry for b quarks A FB b measured in Z decays at LEP1 is nearly three standard deviations away from the predicted value in the Standard Model; significant deviations also occur in measurements of the asymmetry off the Z pole. We show that these discrepancies can be resolved in a variant of the Randall-Sundrum extra- dimensional model in which the gauge structure is extended to SU(2) L xSU(2) R xU(1) X to allow for relatively light Kaluza-Klein excitations of the gauge bosons. In this scenario, the fermions are localized differently along the extra dimension, in order to generate the fermion mass hierarchies, so that the electroweak interactions for the heavy third generation fermions are naturally different from the light fermion ones. We show that the mixing between the Z boson with the Kaluza-Klein excitations allows to explain the A FB b anomaly without affecting (and even improving) the agreement of the other precision observables, including the Z → bb-bar partial decay width, with experimental data. Some implications of this scenario for the ILC are summarized. (authors)

  12. Symmetry hierarchies and radiative corrections in the grand unified model SU(8)/sub L/ x SU(8)/sub R/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirogov, Y.F.

    1982-01-01

    In the SU(8)/sub L/ x SU(8)/sub R/ model of precocious chiral unification, radiative corrections for the effective parameters sin 2 theta/sub W/(μ) and α(μ) are calculated in the one-loop approximation, neglecting contributions of the Higgs fields, and the unification mass M 8 is determined in the presence of a hierarchy of intermediate symmetries. It is shown that a natural hierarchy exists which leads to a decrease in sin 2 theta/sub W/(M/sub W/L) down to the value sin 2 theta/sub W/ = (1/5)--(1/4) together with a decrease in M 8 down to M 8 = 10 6 --10 7 GeV in comparison with the values in the absence of a hierarchy

  13. Variable-coefficient nonisospectral Toda lattice hierarchy and its

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a hierarchy of nonisospectral equations with variable coefficients is derived from the compatibility condition of Toda spectral problem and its time evolution. In order to solve the derived Toda lattice hierarchy, the inverse scattering transformation is utilized. As a result, new and more general exact solutions are ...

  14. Criteria for optimizing cortical hierarchies with continuous ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Krumnack

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper (Reid et al.; 2009, NeuroImage we introduced a method to calculate optimal hierarchies in the visual network that utilizes continuous, rather than discrete, hierarchical levels, and permits a range of acceptable values rather than attempting to fit fixed hierarchical distances. There, to obtain a hierarchy, the sum of deviations from the constraints that define the hierarchy was minimized using linear optimization. In the short time since publication of that paper we noticed that many colleagues misinterpreted the meaning of the term optimal hierarchy. In particular, a majority of them were under the impression that there was perhaps only one optimal hierarchy, but a substantial difficulty in finding that one. However, there is not only more than one optimal hierarchy but also more than one option for defining optimality. Continuing the line of this work we look at additional options for optimizing the visual hierarchy: minimizing the number of violated constraints and minimizing the maximal size of a constraint violation using linear optimization and mixed integer programming. The implementation of both optimization criteria is explained in detail. In addition, using constraint sets based on the data from Felleman and Van Essen, optimal hierarchies for the visual network are calculated for both optimization methods.

  15. An alternative approach to KP hierarchy in matrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonora, L.; Xiong, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    We show that there exists an alternative procedure in order to extract differential hierarchies, such as the KdV hierarchy, from one-matrix models, without taking a continuum limit. To prove this we introduce the Toda lattice and reformulate it in operator form. We then consider the reduction to the systems appropriate for a one-matrix model. (orig.)

  16. Nonlinear Super Integrable Couplings of Super Classical-Boussinesq Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Xing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear integrable couplings of super classical-Boussinesq hierarchy based upon an enlarged matrix Lie super algebra were constructed. Then, its super Hamiltonian structures were established by using super trace identity. As its reduction, nonlinear integrable couplings of the classical integrable hierarchy were obtained.

  17. Inequality Matters : Classroom Status Hierarchy and Adolescents' Bullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garandeau, Claire F.; Lee, Ihno A.; Salmivalli, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The natural emergence of status hierarchies in adolescent peer groups has long been assumed to help prevent future intragroup aggression. However, clear evidence of this beneficial influence is lacking. In fact, few studies have examined between-group differences in the degree of status hierarchy

  18. Towards Lax Formulation of Integrable Hierarchies of Topological Type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlet, G.; van de Leur, J.; Posthuma, H.; Shadrin, S.

    2014-01-01

    To each partition function of cohomological field theory one can associate an Hamiltonian integrable hierarchy of topological type. The Givental group acts on such partition functions and consequently on the associated integrable hierarchies. We consider the Hirota and Lax formulations of the

  19. Towards Lax Formulation of Integrable Hierarchies of Topological Type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Leur, Johannes; Carlet, Guido; Shadrin, Sergey; Posthuma, Hessel

    2014-01-01

    To each partition function of cohomological field theory one can associate an Hamiltonian integrable hierarchy of topological type. The Givental group acts on such partition functions and consequently on the associated integrable hierarchies. We consider theHirota and Lax formulations of the

  20. A Validation Study of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Rex J.

    A study was conducted to expand the body of research that tests the validity of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory in a work context where it often serves as a guide for the supervisor's relationships with his subordinates. Data was gathered by questionnaire which tested for a hierarchy of needs among instructors at four community colleges…

  1. Gauge theories, duality relations and the tensor hierarchy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hartong, Jelle; Hohm, Olaf; Huebscher, Mechthild; Ortin, Tomas; Hübscher, Mechthild

    We compute the complete 3- and 4-dimensional tensor hierarchies, i.e. sets of p-form fields, with 1 We construct gauge-invariant actions that include all the fields in the tensor hierarchies. We elucidate the relation between the gauge transformations of the p-form fields in the action and those of

  2. A Second Look at Maslow's Hierarchy of Basic Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles M.

    Implications of Maslow's Need Hierarchy are considered in this paper, along with possible qualifications to the suggested structure and potential effects of superimposing relative deprivation theory onto the hierarchy as an approach to adult education. The interfacing of needs and alternative structurings is discussed in terms of two theories: (1)…

  3. The Diversity Education Dilemma: Exposing Status Hierarchies without Reinforcing Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Lisa M.; Loyd, Denise Lewin; Hoobler, Jenny M.

    2010-01-01

    A "diversity education dilemma" occurs when exposure to information concerning status hierarchies, related to demographic and other socially salient identity groups, reinforces those hierarchies in the classroom. Discussions of diversity-related issues in a variety of management courses (e.g., immigrant issues in labor relations, the composition…

  4. Inverted hierarchy and asymptotic freedom in grand unified supersymmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.

    1983-01-01

    The interrelation between an inverted hierarchy mechanism and asymptotic freedom in supersymmetric theories is analyzed in two models for which we performed a detailed analysis of the effective potentials and effective couplings. We find it difficult to accommodate an inverted hierarchy together with asymptotic freedom for the matter-Yukawa couplings. (orig.)

  5. A Computational Glimpse at the Leibniz and Frege Hierarchies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moraschini, Tommaso

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 169, č. 1 (2018), s. 1-20 ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * Leibniz hierarchy * Frege hierarchy Leibniz congruence * decidability * Diophantine equations * relation algebras Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.647, year: 2016

  6. 'Universality' of the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vekslerchik, V.E.

    1998-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize some recently obtained relations between the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy (ALH) and other integrable equations. It has been shown that solutions of finite subsystems of the ALH can be used to derive a wide range of solutions for, e.g., the 2D Toda lattice, nonlinear Schroedinger, Davey-Stewartson, Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (DP) and some other equations. Similar approach has been used to construct new integrable models: O(3,1) and multi field sigma models. Such 'universality' of the ALH becomes more transparent in the framework of the Hirota's bilinear method. The ALH, which is usually considered as an infinite set of differential-difference equations, has been presented as a finite system of functional-difference equations, which can be viewed as a generalization of the famous bilinear identities for the KP tau-functions. (author)

  7. What's Up with the Storage Hierarchy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Ten years ago, Jim Gray observed that flash was about to replace magnetic disks. He also predicted that the need for low latency would make main memory databases commonplace. Most of his predictions have proven accurate. Today, who can make predictions about the future of the storage hierarchy......? Both main memory and storage systems are undergoing profound transformations. First, their design goals are increasingly complex (reconfigurable infrastructure at low latency, high resource utilization and stable energy footprint). Second, the status quo is not an option due to the shortcomings...... of existing solutions (memory bandwidth gap, inefficiency of generic memory/storage controllers). Third, new technologies are emerging (hybrid memories, non-volatile memories still under non-disclosure agreements, near-data processing in memory and storage). The impact of these transformations on the storage...

  8. Structural optimization via a design space hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.

    1976-01-01

    Mathematical programming techniques provide a general approach to automated structural design. An iterative method is proposed in which design is treated as a hierarchy of subproblems, one being locally constrained and the other being locally unconstrained. It is assumed that the design space is locally convex in the case of good initial designs and that the objective and constraint functions are continuous, with continuous first derivatives. A general design algorithm is outlined for finding a move direction which will decrease the value of the objective function while maintaining a feasible design. The case of one-dimensional search in a two-variable design space is discussed. Possible applications are discussed. A major feature of the proposed algorithm is its application to problems which are inherently ill-conditioned, such as design of structures for optimum geometry.

  9. Gauge hierarchy, decoupling, and heavy particle effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, York-Peng

    1981-01-01

    This chapter examines the problems of a large gauge hierarchy and decoupling in theories with spontaneously broken symmetry. Attempts to show, with regard to all orders in the loop expansion, that: once a proper identification is made of the light particles and of the heavy particles at the tree level, then such a division will be maintained order by order in the loop expansion without the necessity of fine tuning; there is a local renormalizable effective Lagrangian, composed of light fields only, which can be used to reproduce all the one light particle irreducible Green's functions; and a set of renormalization group equations can be written down, wherein one stays in the lower energy region to correlate the two sets of parameters in the full and the effective light theories. The appendix gives an algebraic rearrangement method which can be efficiently used to calculate the muon effects on the electron anomalous magnetic moment

  10. Gauge theories, duality relations and the tensor hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Hartong, Jelle; Huebscher, Mechthild; OrtIn, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We compute the complete 3- and 4-dimensional tensor hierarchies, i.e. sets of p-form fields, with 1 ≤ p ≤ D, which realize an off-shell algebra of bosonic gauge transformations. We show how these tensor hierarchies can be put on-shell by introducing a set of duality relations, thereby introducing additional scalars and a metric tensor. These so-called duality hierarchies encode the equations of motion of the bosonic part of the most general gauged supergravity theories in those dimensions, including the (projected) scalar equations of motion. We construct gauge-invariant actions that include all the fields in the tensor hierarchies. We elucidate the relation between the gauge transformations of the p-form fields in the action and those of the same fields in the tensor hierarchy.

  11. Modelling Dominance Hierarchies Under Winner and Loser Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kura, Klodeta; Broom, Mark; Kandler, Anne

    2015-06-01

    Animals that live in groups commonly form themselves into dominance hierarchies which are used to allocate important resources such as access to mating opportunities and food. In this paper, we develop a model of dominance hierarchy formation based upon the concept of winner and loser effects using a simulation-based model and consider the linearity of our hierarchy using existing and new statistical measures. Two models are analysed: when each individual in a group does not know the real ability of their opponents to win a fight and when they can estimate their opponents' ability every time they fight. This estimation may be accurate or fall within an error bound. For both models, we investigate if we can achieve hierarchy linearity, and if so, when it is established. We are particularly interested in the question of how many fights are necessary to establish a dominance hierarchy.

  12. The Impact of Formal Hierarchies on Enterprise Social Networking Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Sebastian; Klier, Julia; Klier, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    With more and more companies using enterprise social networks (ESN) for employee communication and collaboration, the influence of ESN on organizational hierarchies has been subject of countless discussions in practice-oriented media and first academic studies. Conversely, the question whether...... and how formal organizational hierarchies influence ESN usage behavior has not yet been addressed. Drawing on a rich data set comprising 2.5 years of relationship building via direct messages, confirmed contact requests, and group messages, we are able to show that formal hierarchies have an important...... impact on social networking behavior. By applying means of social network analysis and supported by statements from interviews, we illustrate how deeply formal hierarchy impacts the three examined types of relationships. Our results motivate academics to further study the interrelation between hierarchy...

  13. A Hierarchy of Homodesmotic Reactions for Thermochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, Paul v. R.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical equations that balance bond types and atom hybridization to different degrees are often used in computational thermochemistry, for example, to increase accuracy when lower levels of theory are employed. We expose the widespread confusion over such classes of equations and demonstrate that the two most widely used definitions of “homodesmotic” reactions are not equivalent. New definitions are introduced and a consistent hierarchy of reaction classes (RC1 – RC5) for hydrocarbons is constructed: isogyric (RC1) ⊇ isodesmic (RC2) ⊇ hypohomodesmotic (RC3) ⊇ homodesmotic (RC4) ⊇ hyperhomodesmotic (RC5). Each of these successively conserves larger molecular fragments. The concept of isodesmic bond separation reactions is generalized to all classes in this hierarchy, providing a unique sectioning of a given molecule for each reaction type. Several ab initio and density functional methods are applied to the bond separation reactions of 38 hydrocarbons containing five or six carbon atoms. RC4 and RC5 reactions provide bond separation enthalpies with errors consistently less than 0.4 kcal mol−1 across a wide range of theoretical levels, performing significantly better than the other reaction types and far superior to atomization routes. Our recommended bond separation reactions were demonstrated by determining the enthalpies of formation (at 298 K) of 1,3,5-hexatriyne (163.7 ± 0.4 kcal mol−1), 1,3,5,7-octatetrayne (217.6 ± 0.6 kcal mol−1), the larger polyynes C10H2 through C26H2, and an infinite acetylenic carbon chain. PMID:19182999

  14. The dynamic nature of social hierarchies : The role of norm violations and hierarchical concerns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamkou, E.

    2018-01-01

    Social hierarchy is a fundamental feature of social relations. Hierarchies are appealing psychologically because they facilitate group functioning, which explains why they tend to be reinforced and perpetuated. Hierarchies, however, can also become unstable and eventually undergo change because

  15. Status Hierarchy, Attractiveness Hierarchy and Sex Ratio: Three Contextual Factors Explaining the Status-Aggression Link among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Veenstra, Rene

    2013-01-01

    The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys ("N" = 1,665) and girls ("N" = 1,637) ("M" age = 13.60). In line with the…

  16. Status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio : Three contextual factors explaining the status-aggression link among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan; Veenstra, René

    The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys (N = 1,665) and girls (N = 1,637) (M age = 13.60). In line

  17. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's draft report on an issues hierarchy and data needs for site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, W.; Fenster, D.F.; Ditmars, J.D.; Paddock, R.A.; Rote, D.M.; Hambley, D.F.; Seitz, M.G.; Hull, A.B.

    1986-12-01

    At the request of the Salt Repository Project (SRPO), Argonne National Laboratory conducted an independent peer review of a report by the Battelle Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation entitled ''Salt Repository Project Issues Hierarchy and Data Needs for Site Characterization (Draft).'' This report provided a logical structure for evaluating the outstanding questions (issues) related to selection and licensing of a site as a high-level waste repository. It also provided a first estimate of the information and data necessary to answer or resolve those questions. As such, this report is the first step in developing a strategy for site characterization. Microfiche copies of ''Draft Issues Hierarchy, Resolution Strategy, and Information Needs for Site Characterization and Environmental/Socioeconomic Evaluation - July, 1986'' and ''Issues Hierarchy and Data Needs for Site Characterization - February, 1985'' are included in the back pocket of this report

  18. Highly resolving computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, B.; Petersen, D.; Walter, E.

    1984-01-01

    With the development of highly-resolving devices for computerized tomography, CT diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column has gained increasing importance. As an ambulatory, non-invasive method it has proved in comparative studies to be at least equivalent to myelography in the detection of dislocations of inter-vertebral disks (4,6,7,15). Because with modern devices not alone the bones, but especially the spinal soft part structures are clearly and precisely presented with a resolution of distinctly below 1 mm, a further improvement of the results is expected as experience will increase. The authors report on the diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column with the aid of a modern device for computerized tomography and wish to draw particular attention to the possibility of doing this investigation as a routine, and to the diagnostic value of secondary reconstructions. (BWU) [de

  19. Highly resolving computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, B.; Petersen, D.; Walter, E.

    1984-01-01

    With the development of highly-resolving devices for computerized tomography, CT diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column has gained increasing importance. As an ambulatory, non-invasive method it has proved in comparative studies to be at least equivalent to myelography in the detection of dislocations of inter-vertebral disks (4,6,7,15). Because with modern devices not alone the bones, but especially the spinal soft part structures are clearly and precisely presented with a resolution of distinctly below 1 mm, a further improvement of the results is expected as experience will increase. The authors report on the diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column with the aid of a modern device for computerized tomography and wish to draw particular attention to the possibility of doing this investigation as a routine, and to the diagnostic value of secondary reconstructions.

  20. Dynamic Garment Simulation based on Hybrid Bounding Volume Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Dongyong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the computing speed and efficiency problem of existing dynamic clothing simulation, this paper presents a dynamic garment simulation based on a hybrid bounding volume hierarchy. It firstly uses MCASG graph theory to do the primary segmentation for a given three-dimensional human body model. And then it applies K-means cluster to do the secondary segmentation to collect the human body’s upper arms, lower arms, upper legs, lower legs, trunk, hip and woman’s chest as the elementary units of dynamic clothing simulation. According to different shapes of these elementary units, it chooses the closest and most efficient hybrid bounding box to specify these units, such as cylinder bounding box and elliptic cylinder bounding box. During the process of constructing these bounding boxes, it uses the least squares method and slices of the human body to get the related parameters. This approach makes it possible to use the least amount of bounding boxes to create close collision detection regions for the appearance of the human body. A spring-mass model based on a triangular mesh of the clothing model is finally constructed for dynamic simulation. The simulation result shows the feasibility and superiority of the method described.

  1. Hadron collider tests of neutrino mass-generating mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Richard Efrain

    The Standard Model of particle physics (SM) is presently the best description of nature at small distances and high energies. However, with tiny but nonzero neutrino masses, a Higgs boson mass unstable under radiative corrections, and little guidance on understanding the hierarchy of fermion masses, the SM remains an unsatisfactory description of nature. Well-motivated scenarios that resolve these issues exist but also predict extended gauge (e.g., Left-Right Symmetric Models), scalar (e.g., Supersymmetry), and/or fermion sectors (e.g., Seesaw Models). Hence, discovering such new states would have far-reaching implications. After reviewing basic tenets of the SM and collider physics, several beyond the SM (BSM) scenarios that alleviate these shortcomings are investigated. Emphasis is placed on the production of a heavy Majorana neutrinos at hadron colliders in the context of low-energy, effective theories that simultaneously explain the origin of neutrino masses and their smallness compared to other elementary fermions, the so-called Seesaw Mechanisms. As probes of new physics, rare top quark decays to Higgs bosons in the context of the SM, the Types I and II Two Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM), and the semi-model independent framework of Effective Field Theory (EFT) have also been investigated. Observation prospects and discovery potentials of these models at current and future collider experiments are quantified.

  2. Symmetries of supersymmetric integrable hierarchies of KP type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissimov, E.; Pacheva, S.

    2002-01-01

    This article is devoted to the systematic study of additional (non-isospectral) symmetries of constrained (reduced) supersymmetric integrable hierarchies of KP type--the so-called SKP (R;M B ,M F ) models. The latter are supersymmetric extensions of ordinary constrained KP hierarchies which contain as special cases basic integrable systems such as (m)KdV, AKNS, Fordy-Kulish, Yajima-Oikawa, etc. As a first main result it is shown that any SKP (R;M B ,M F ) hierarchy possesses two different mutually (anti-)commuting types of superloop superalgebra additional symmetries corresponding to the positive- and negative-grade parts of certain superloop superalgebras. The second main result is the systematic construction of the full algebra of additional Virasoro symmetries of SKP (R;M B ,M F ) hierarchies, which requires nontrivial modifications of the Virasoro flows known from the general case of unconstrained Manin-Radul super-KP hierarchies (the latter flows do not define symmetries for constrained SKP (R;M B ,M F ) hierarchies). As a third main result we provide systematic construction of the supersymmetric analogs of multi-component (matrix) KP hierarchies and show that the latter contain, among others, the supersymmetric version of the Davey-Stewartson system. Finally, we present an explicit derivation of the general Darboux-Baecklund solutions for the SKP (R;M B ,M F ) super-tau functions (supersymmetric 'soliton'-like solutions) which preserve the additional (non-isospectral) symmetries

  3. Topological hierarchy matters — topological matters with superlattices of defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jing; Kou Su-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Topological insulators/superconductors are new states of quantum matter with metallic edge/surface states. In this paper, we review the defects effect in these topological states and study new types of topological matters — topological hierarchy matters. We find that both topological defects (quantized vortices) and non topological defects (vacancies) can induce topological mid-gap states in the topological hierarchy matters after considering the superlattice of defects. These topological mid-gap states have nontrivial topological properties, including the nonzero Chern number and the gapless edge states. Effective tight-binding models are obtained to describe the topological mid-gap states in the topological hierarchy matters. (topical review)

  4. Decomposition of a hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Xianguo

    2003-01-01

    The generalized Hamiltonian structures for a hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations are established with the aid of the trace identity. Using the nonlinearization approach, the hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations is decomposed into a class of new finite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. The generating function of integrals and their generator are presented, based on which the finite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems are proved to be completely integrable in the Liouville sense. As an application, solutions for the hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations are reduced to solving the compatible Hamiltonian systems of ordinary differential equations

  5. Boolean Operations, Joins, and the Extended Low Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Hemaspaandra, Lane A.; Jiang, Zhigen; Rothe, Joerg; Watanabe, Osamu

    1999-01-01

    We prove that the join of two sets may actually fall into a lower level of the extended low hierarchy than either of the sets. In particular, there exist sets that are not in the second level of the extended low hierarchy, EL_2, yet their join is in EL_2. That is, in terms of extended lowness, the join operator can lower complexity. Since in a strong intuitive sense the join does not lower complexity, our result suggests that the extended low hierarchy is unnatural as a complexity measure. We...

  6. Selenium-regulated hierarchy of human selenoproteome in cancerous and immortalized cells lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touat-Hamici, Zahia; Bulteau, Anne-Laure; Bianga, Juliusz; Jean-Jacques, Hélène; Szpunar, Joanna; Lobinski, Ryszard; Chavatte, Laurent

    2018-04-13

    Selenoproteins (25 genes in human) co-translationally incorporate selenocysteine using a UGA codon, normally used as a stop signal. The human selenoproteome is primarily regulated by selenium bioavailability with a tissue-specific hierarchy. We investigated the hierarchy of selenoprotein expression in response to selenium concentration variation in four cell lines originating from kidney (HEK293, immortalized), prostate (LNCaP, cancer), skin (HaCaT, immortalized) and liver (HepG2, cancer), using complementary analytical methods. We performed (i) enzymatic activity, (ii) RT-qPCR, (iii) immuno-detection, (iv) selenium-specific mass spectrometric detection after non-radioactive 76 Se labeling of selenoproteins, and (v) luciferase-based reporter constructs in various cell extracts. We characterized cell-line specific alterations of the selenoproteome in response to selenium variation that, in most of the cases, resulted from a translational control of gene expression. We established that UGA-selenocysteine recoding efficiency, which depends on the nature of the SECIS element, dictates the response to selenium variation. We characterized that selenoprotein hierarchy is cell-line specific with conserved features. This analysis should be done prior to any experiments in a novel cell line. We reported a strategy based on complementary methods to evaluate selenoproteome regulation in human cells in culture. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hierarchy Formation and Self-Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano I. Di Domenico

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined how self-determination, the subjective experience of one’s behavior as internally initiated and personally endorsed, depends on one’s standing in real-world social hierarchies. We predicted that those with the traits most relevant to status attainment would be those afforded the most opportunities to be self-determining. We examined the trait of physical attractiveness, given its documented association with social status and no known association with self-determination. First-year undergraduates living in same-sex residences rated their housemates’ social status, while an independent set of observers rated the participants’ physical attractiveness. Consistent with prediction, physically attractive individuals attained the highest levels of social status; in turn, those who attained the highest levels of social status experienced the highest levels of self-determination. These findings provide new insights into self-determination as an inherently relational phenomenon and specifically highlight the formative influence of social status on people’s capacities for self-determination.

  8. Metadata Life Cycles, Use Cases and Hierarchies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Habermann

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The historic view of metadata as “data about data” is expanding to include data about other items that must be created, used, and understood throughout the data and project life cycles. In this context, metadata might better be defined as the structured and standard part of documentation, and the metadata life cycle can be described as the metadata content that is required for documentation in each phase of the project and data life cycles. This incremental approach to metadata creation is similar to the spiral model used in software development. Each phase also has distinct users and specific questions to which they need answers. In many cases, the metadata life cycle involves hierarchies where latter phases have increased numbers of items. The relationships between metadata in different phases can be captured through structure in the metadata standard, or through conventions for identifiers. Metadata creation and management can be streamlined and simplified by re-using metadata across many records. Many of these ideas have been developed to various degrees in several Geoscience disciplines and are being used in metadata for documenting the integrated life cycle of environmental research in the Arctic, including projects, collection sites, and datasets.

  9. Signaling hierarchy regulating human endothelial cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Melissa A; Hirschi, Karen K

    2009-05-01

    Our present knowledge of the regulation of mammalian endothelial cell differentiation has been largely derived from studies of mouse embryonic development. However, unique mechanisms and hierarchy of signals that govern human endothelial cell development are unknown and, thus, explored in these studies. Using human embryonic stem cells as a model system, we were able to reproducibly and robustly generate differentiated endothelial cells via coculture on OP9 marrow stromal cells. We found that, in contrast to studies in the mouse, bFGF and VEGF had no specific effects on the initiation of human vasculogenesis. However, exogenous Ihh promoted endothelial cell differentiation, as evidenced by increased production of cells with cobblestone morphology that coexpress multiple endothelial-specific genes and proteins, form lumens, and exhibit DiI-AcLDL uptake. Inhibition of BMP signaling using Noggin or BMP4, specifically, using neutralizing antibodies suppressed endothelial cell formation; whereas, addition of rhBMP4 to cells treated with the hedgehog inhibitor cyclopamine rescued endothelial cell development. Our studies revealed that Ihh promoted human endothelial cell differentiation from pluripotent hES cells via BMP signaling, providing novel insights applicable to modulating human endothelial cell formation and vascular regeneration for human clinical therapies.

  10. Flows, scaling, and the control of moment hierarchies for stochastic chemical reaction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric; Krishnamurthy, Supriya

    2017-12-01

    Stochastic chemical reaction networks (CRNs) are complex systems that combine the features of concurrent transformation of multiple variables in each elementary reaction event and nonlinear relations between states and their rates of change. Most general results concerning CRNs are limited to restricted cases where a topological characteristic known as deficiency takes a value 0 or 1, implying uniqueness and positivity of steady states and surprising, low-information forms for their associated probability distributions. Here we derive equations of motion for fluctuation moments at all orders for stochastic CRNs at general deficiency. We show, for the standard base case of proportional sampling without replacement (which underlies the mass-action rate law), that the generator of the stochastic process acts on the hierarchy of factorial moments with a finite representation. Whereas simulation of high-order moments for many-particle systems is costly, this representation reduces the solution of moment hierarchies to a complexity comparable to solving a heat equation. At steady states, moment hierarchies for finite CRNs interpolate between low-order and high-order scaling regimes, which may be approximated separately by distributions similar to those for deficiency-zero networks and connected through matched asymptotic expansions. In CRNs with multiple stable or metastable steady states, boundedness of high-order moments provides the starting condition for recursive solution downward to low-order moments, reversing the order usually used to solve moment hierarchies. A basis for a subset of network flows defined by having the same mean-regressing property as the flows in deficiency-zero networks gives the leading contribution to low-order moments in CRNs at general deficiency, in a 1 /n expansion in large particle numbers. Our results give a physical picture of the different informational roles of mean-regressing and non-mean-regressing flows and clarify the dynamical

  11. Resolving inventory differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.H.; Clark, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Determining the cause of an inventory difference (ID) that exceeds warning or alarm limits should not only involve investigation into measurement methods and reexamination of the model assumptions used in the calculation of the limits, but also result in corrective actions that improve the quality of the accountability measurements. An example illustrating methods used by Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel to resolve an ID is presented that may be useful to other facilities faced with a similar problem. After first determining that no theft or diversion of material occurred and correcting any accountability calculation errors, investigation into the IDs focused on volume and analytical measurements, limit of error of inventory difference (LEID) modeling assumptions, and changes in the measurement procedures and methods prior to the alarm. There had been a gradual gain trend in IDs prior to the alarm which was reversed by the alarm inventory. The majority of the NM in the facility was stored in four large tanks which helped identify causes for the alarm. The investigation, while indicating no diversion or theft, resulted in changes in the analytical method and in improvements in the measurement and accountability that produced a 67% improvement in the LEID

  12. Optimal mesh hierarchies in Multilevel Monte Carlo methods

    KAUST Repository

    Von Schwerin, Erik

    2016-01-08

    I will discuss how to choose optimal mesh hierarchies in Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) simulations when computing the expected value of a quantity of interest depending on the solution of, for example, an Ito stochastic differential equation or a partial differential equation with stochastic data. I will consider numerical schemes based on uniform discretization methods with general approximation orders and computational costs. I will compare optimized geometric and non-geometric hierarchies and discuss how enforcing some domain constraints on parameters of MLMC hierarchies affects the optimality of these hierarchies. I will also discuss the optimal tolerance splitting between the bias and the statistical error contributions and its asymptotic behavior. This talk presents joint work with N.Collier, A.-L.Haji-Ali, F. Nobile, and R. Tempone.

  13. Flexible scheme to truncate the hierarchy of pure states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P-P; Bentley, C D B; Eisfeld, A

    2018-04-07

    The hierarchy of pure states (HOPS) is a wavefunction-based method that can be used for numerically modeling open quantum systems. Formally, HOPS recovers the exact system dynamics for an infinite depth of the hierarchy. However, truncation of the hierarchy is required to numerically implement HOPS. We want to choose a "good" truncation method, where by "good" we mean that it is numerically feasible to check convergence of the results. For the truncation approximation used in previous applications of HOPS, convergence checks are numerically challenging. In this work, we demonstrate the application of the "n-particle approximation" to HOPS. We also introduce a new approximation, which we call the "n-mode approximation." We then explore the convergence of these truncation approximations with respect to the number of equations required in the hierarchy in two exemplary problems: absorption and energy transfer of molecular aggregates.

  14. Assessing the hierarchy of needs in levels of service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The primary focus of this research project was in providing empirical evidence of a Hierarchy of Transportation : Needs. The experimental procedure, methodology, and materials for this project were designed using both : transportation stated preferen...

  15. A generalized AKNS hierarchy and its bi-Hamiltonian structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Tiecheng; You Fucai; Chen Dengyuan

    2005-01-01

    First we construct a new isospectral problem with 8 potentials in the present paper. And then a new Lax pair is presented. By making use of Tu scheme, a class of new soliton hierarchy of equations is derived, which is integrable in the sense of Liouville and possesses bi-Hamiltonian structures. After making some reductions, the well-known AKNS hierarchy and other hierarchies of evolution equations are obtained. Finally, in order to illustrate that soliton hierarchy obtained in the paper possesses bi-Hamiltonian structures exactly, we prove that the linear combination of two-Hamiltonian operators admitted are also a Hamiltonian operator constantly. We point out that two Hamiltonian operators obtained of the system are directly derived from a recurrence relations, not from a recurrence operator

  16. Two-reduction of the super-KP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, I.N.

    1994-01-01

    Recursion relations are established for the residues of fractional powers of a two-reduced super-KP operator making use of the Baker-Akhiezer function. These show the integrability of the two-reduced even (or bosonic) flows of the super-KP hierarchy. Similar recursion relations are also proven for the residues of operators associated with the odd (or fermionic) flows of the Mulase-Rabin super-KP hierarchy. Due to the presence of a spectral parameter and itts fermionic partner in the Baker-Akhiezer function, these recursion relations should be relevant to any attempt to prove or disprove a recent proposal that the integrable hierarchy underlying two-dimensional quantum supergravity is the Mulase-Rabin super-KP hierarchy. (orig.)

  17. Variable-coefficient nonisospectral Toda lattice hierarchy and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a hierarchy of nonisospectral equations with variable coefficients is derived from the ..... from the definitions of Lax integrability and Lax pairs [26] that the variable-coefficient ..... studying which will be the topic for our future study.

  18. Optimal mesh hierarchies in Multilevel Monte Carlo methods

    KAUST Repository

    Von Schwerin, Erik

    2016-01-01

    I will discuss how to choose optimal mesh hierarchies in Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) simulations when computing the expected value of a quantity of interest depending on the solution of, for example, an Ito stochastic differential equation or a partial differential equation with stochastic data. I will consider numerical schemes based on uniform discretization methods with general approximation orders and computational costs. I will compare optimized geometric and non-geometric hierarchies and discuss how enforcing some domain constraints on parameters of MLMC hierarchies affects the optimality of these hierarchies. I will also discuss the optimal tolerance splitting between the bias and the statistical error contributions and its asymptotic behavior. This talk presents joint work with N.Collier, A.-L.Haji-Ali, F. Nobile, and R. Tempone.

  19. On the origins of hierarchy in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Goñi, Joaquín; Solé, Ricard V.; Rodríguez-Caso, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchy seems to pervade complexity in both living and artificial systems. Despite its relevance, no general theory that captures all features of hierarchy and its origins has been proposed yet. Here we present a formal approach resulting from the convergence of theoretical morphology and network theory that allows constructing a 3D morphospace of hierarchies and hence comparing the hierarchical organization of ecological, cellular, technological, and social networks. Embedded within large voids in the morphospace of all possible hierarchies, four major groups are identified. Two of them match the expected from random networks with similar connectivity, thus suggesting that nonadaptive factors are at work. Ecological and gene networks define the other two, indicating that their topological order is the result of functional constraints. These results are consistent with an exploration of the morphospace, using in silico evolved networks. PMID:23898177

  20. Flexible scheme to truncate the hierarchy of pure states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P.-P.; Bentley, C. D. B.; Eisfeld, A.

    2018-04-01

    The hierarchy of pure states (HOPS) is a wavefunction-based method that can be used for numerically modeling open quantum systems. Formally, HOPS recovers the exact system dynamics for an infinite depth of the hierarchy. However, truncation of the hierarchy is required to numerically implement HOPS. We want to choose a "good" truncation method, where by "good" we mean that it is numerically feasible to check convergence of the results. For the truncation approximation used in previous applications of HOPS, convergence checks are numerically challenging. In this work, we demonstrate the application of the "n-particle approximation" to HOPS. We also introduce a new approximation, which we call the "n-mode approximation." We then explore the convergence of these truncation approximations with respect to the number of equations required in the hierarchy in two exemplary problems: absorption and energy transfer of molecular aggregates.

  1. Plasticity within stem cell hierarchies in mammalian epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Paul W; Farin, Henner F; Clevers, Hans

    2015-02-01

    Tissue homeostasis and regeneration are fueled by resident stem cells that have the capacity to self-renew, and to generate all the differentiated cell types that characterize a particular tissue. Classical models of such cellular hierarchies propose that commitment and differentiation occur unidirectionally, with the arrows 'pointing away' from the stem cell. Recent studies, all based on genetic lineage tracing, describe various strategies employed by epithelial stem cell hierarchies to replace damaged or lost cells. While transdifferentiation from one tissue type into another ('metaplasia') appears to be generally forbidden in nonpathological contexts, plasticity within an individual tissue stem cell hierarchy may be much more common than previously appreciated. In this review, we discuss recent examples of such plasticity in selected mammalian epithelia, highlighting the different modes of regeneration and their implications for our understanding of cellular hierarchy and tissue self-renewal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Maslow's Implied Matrix: A Clarification of the Need Hierarchy Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Edward

    1978-01-01

    Maslow's need hierarchy theory is restated by means of a matrix arrangement of the constructs within the theory. After consideration of the consequences of this restatement, some significant research is discussed and directions for future research suggested. (Author)

  3. The influence of migration on gender hierarchies within the African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of migration on gender hierarchies within the African household. ... activities and headship-related roles both within the private and public domains. ... conducted among African women from both formal and informal sectors, this ...

  4. Consultancy services and the urban hierarchy in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    P W Daniels; J H J Van Dinteren; M C Monnayer

    1992-01-01

    A cross-national survey of the relationship between the evolving organisation and structure of consultancy service enterprises and the urban hierarchy in Europe has been undertaken. Primate cities in Europe are still the preeminent foci for business services performing strong national and international control. The relationship between markets for consultancy services and the urban hierarchy is complex, but it is possible to suggest a typology of firms on the basis of client characteristics a...

  5. An Improved Semidefinite Programming Hierarchy for Testing Entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrow, Aram W.; Natarajan, Anand; Wu, Xiaodi

    2017-06-01

    We present a stronger version of the Doherty-Parrilo-Spedalieri (DPS) hierarchy of approximations for the set of separable states. Unlike DPS, our hierarchy converges exactly at a finite number of rounds for any fixed input dimension. This yields an algorithm for separability testing that is singly exponential in dimension and polylogarithmic in accuracy. Our analysis makes use of tools from algebraic geometry, but our algorithm is elementary and differs from DPS only by one simple additional collection of constraints.

  6. Social Hierarchy and Depression: The Role of Emotion Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Langner, Carrie A.; Epel, Elissa; Matthews, Karen; Moskowitz, Judith T.; Adler, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Position in the social hierarchy is a major determinant of health outcomes. We examined the associations between aspects of social hierarchy and depressive symptoms with a specific focus on one potential psychological mechanism: emotion suppression. Suppressing negative emotion has mental health costs, but individuals with low social power and low social status may use these strategies to avoid conflict. Study 1 assessed perceived social power, tendency to suppress negative emotion, and depre...

  7. Quasiclassical deformation in KP hierarchy and Benney's long wave equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolokol'tsov, V.N.; Lebedev, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    In the paper by means of the formal variant of Zakharov-Shabat ''dressing'' method various formulas are obtained for the generating functions of the conservation laws of Kadomtsev-Petvias hierarchy which turn into analogous formulas for Benney hierarchy in the quasiclassical limit. The generating fucntion of the conservation laws of Miura type is constructed for higher Benney equations and the simple proof of the related identities is given

  8. Reactions to Crime as a Hierarchy Regulating Strategy:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Eva G. T.; Thomsen, Lotte; Sidanius, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Across two studies, we demonstrated that support for group-based hierarchies differentially affects evaluation of ingroup and outgroup criminal offenders and that this effect generalizes to overall evaluations of their respective groups. Drawing on social dominance theory, our results show that d...... of ethnicity or nationality, not education level and employment status, were the important cues for hierarchy-regulating judgments of criminal offenders...

  9. Time-resolved studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    When new or more powerful probes become available that offer both shorter data-collection times and the opportunity to apply innovative approaches to established techniques, it is natural that investigators consider the feasibility of exploring the kinetics of time-evolving systems. This stimulating area of research not only can lead to insights into the metastable or excited states that a system may populate on its way to a ground state, but can also lead to a better understanding of that final state. Synchrotron radiation, with its unique properties, offers just such a tool to extend X-ray measurements from the static to the time-resolved regime. The most straight-forward application of synchrotron radiation to the study of transient phenomena is directly through the possibility of decreased data-collection times via the enormous increase in flux over that of a laboratory X-ray system. Even further increases in intensity can be obtained through the use of novel X-ray optical devices. Widebandpass monochromators, e.g., that utilize the continuous spectral distribution of synchrotron radiation, can increase flux on the sample several orders of magnitude over conventional X-ray optical systems thereby allowing a further shortening of the data-collection time. Another approach that uses the continuous spectral nature of synchrotron radiation to decrease data-collection times is the open-quote parallel data collectionclose quotes method. Using this technique, intensities as a function of X-ray energy are recorded simultaneously for all energies rather than sequentially recording data at each energy, allowing for a dramatic decrease in the data-collection time

  10. Neutrino mass and mixing – status

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    be specific, a Majorana mass term for neutrinos, together with the mass term for charged leptons: LM = −. 1 .... hierarchy, respectively (see refs [5,6] for details and references). Parameter ... In figure 3 we show the region in the sin2 θ13–δ plane indicated by T2K ..... and 40 m and the precise rate measurement from Bugey4.

  11. Neutrino hierarchy from CP-blind observables with high density magnetized detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donini, A.; Fernandez-Martinez, E.; Rigolin, S.; Migliozzi, P.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Selvi, M.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Terranova, F.

    2008-01-01

    High density magnetized detectors are well suited to exploit the outstanding purity and intensities of novel neutrino sources like neutrino factories and beta beams. They can also provide independent measurements of leptonic mixing parameters through the observation of atmospheric muon-neutrinos. In this paper, we discuss the combination of these observables from a multi-kT iron detector and a high energy beta beam; in particular, we demonstrate that even with moderate detector granularities the neutrino mass hierarchy can be determined for θ 13 values greater than 4 . (orig.)

  12. Conformal fields. From Riemann surfaces to integrable hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semikhatov, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    I discuss the idea of translating ingredients of conformal field theory into the language of hierarchies of integrable differential equations. Primary conformal fields are mapped into (differential or matrix) operators living on the phase space of the hierarchy, whereas operator insertions of, e.g., a current or the energy-momentum tensor, become certain vector fields on the phase space and thus acquire a meaning independent of a given Riemann surface. A number of similarities are observed between the structures arising on the hierarchy and those of the theory on the world-sheet. In particular, there is an analogue of the operator product algebra with the Cauchy kernel replaced by its 'off-shell' hierarchy version. Also, hierarchy analogues of certain operator insertions admit two (equivalent, but distinct) forms, resembling the 'bosonized' and 'fermionized' versions respectively. As an application, I obtain a useful reformulation of the Virasoro constraints of the type that arise in matrix models, as a system of equations on dressing (or Lax) operators (rather than correlation functions, i.e., residues or traces). This also suggests an interpretation in terms of a 2D topological field theory, which might be extended to a correspondence between Virasoro-constrained hierarchies and topological theories. (orig.)

  13. Inequality matters: classroom status hierarchy and adolescents' bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garandeau, Claire F; Lee, Ihno A; Salmivalli, Christina

    2014-07-01

    The natural emergence of status hierarchies in adolescent peer groups has long been assumed to help prevent future intragroup aggression. However, clear evidence of this beneficial influence is lacking. In fact, few studies have examined between-group differences in the degree of status hierarchy (defined as within-group variation in individual status) and how they are related to bullying, a widespread form of aggression in schools. Data from 11,296 eighth- and ninth-graders (mean age = 14.57, 50.6 % female) from 583 classes in 71 schools were used to determine the direction of the association between classroom degree of status hierarchy and bullying behaviors, and to investigate prospective relationships between these two variables over a 6-month period. Multilevel structural equation modeling analyses showed that higher levels of classroom status hierarchy were concurrently associated with higher levels of bullying at the end of the school year. Higher hierarchy in the middle of the school year predicted higher bullying later in the year. No evidence was found to indicate that initial bullying predicted future hierarchy. These findings highlight the importance of a shared balance of power in the classroom for the prevention of bullying among adolescents.

  14. A Bayesian Sampler for Optimization of Protein Domain Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The process of identifying and modeling functionally divergent subgroups for a specific protein domain class and arranging these subgroups hierarchically has, thus far, largely been done via manual curation. How to accomplish this automatically and optimally is an unsolved statistical and algorithmic problem that is addressed here via Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. Taking as input a (typically very large) multiple-sequence alignment, the sampler creates and optimizes a hierarchy by adding and deleting leaf nodes, by moving nodes and subtrees up and down the hierarchy, by inserting or deleting internal nodes, and by redefining the sequences and conserved patterns associated with each node. All such operations are based on a probability distribution that models the conserved and divergent patterns defining each subgroup. When we view these patterns as sequence determinants of protein function, each node or subtree in such a hierarchy corresponds to a subgroup of sequences with similar biological properties. The sampler can be applied either de novo or to an existing hierarchy. When applied to 60 protein domains from multiple starting points in this way, it converged on similar solutions with nearly identical log-likelihood ratio scores, suggesting that it typically finds the optimal peak in the posterior probability distribution. Similarities and differences between independently generated, nearly optimal hierarchies for a given domain help distinguish robust from statistically uncertain features. Thus, a future application of the sampler is to provide confidence measures for various features of a domain hierarchy. PMID:24494927

  15. Reappraising the functional implications of the primate visual anatomical hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegdé, Jay; Felleman, Daniel J

    2007-10-01

    The primate visual system has been shown to be organized into an anatomical hierarchy by the application of a few principled criteria. It has been widely assumed that cortical visual processing is also hierarchical, with the anatomical hierarchy providing a defined substrate for clear levels of hierarchical function. A large body of empirical evidence seemed to support this assumption, including the general observations that functional properties of visual neurons grow progressively more complex at progressively higher levels of the anatomical hierarchy. However, a growing body of evidence, including recent direct experimental comparisons of functional properties at two or more levels of the anatomical hierarchy, indicates that visual processing neither is hierarchical nor parallels the anatomical hierarchy. Recent results also indicate that some of the pathways of visual information flow are not hierarchical, so that the anatomical hierarchy cannot be taken as a strict flowchart of visual information either. Thus, while the sustaining strength of the notion of hierarchical processing may be that it is rather simple, its fatal flaw is that it is overly simplistic.

  16. Two hierarchies of multi-component Kaup-Newell equations and theirs integrable couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Fubo; Ji Jie; Zhang Jianbin

    2008-01-01

    Two hierarchies of multi-component Kaup-Newell equations are derived from an arbitrary order matrix spectral problem, including positive non-isospectral Kaup-Newell hierarchy and negative non-isospectral Kaup-Newell hierarchy. Moreover, new integrable couplings of the resulting Kaup-Newell soliton hierarchies are constructed by enlarging the associated matrix spectral problem

  17. Gravitational clustering of gaussian density fluctuations: The origin of hierarchy correlations, voids and QN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashlinsky, A.

    1990-01-01

    We present here a theory of gravitational clustering based only on: i) The assumption that the primordial density fluctuations (PDF) were Gaussian; and ii) identifying galaxies, and groups and clusters of galaxies with regions of PDF whose turn-around time was less than the age of Universe. It is shown that 1) properties of the hierarchy thus produced depend uniquely on the power spectrum P(k) of PDF; 2) the resultant distribution of galaxies and groups and clusters is non-Gaussian; 3) two-point and higher order correlations depend in a complicated, but unique for a given P(k), way on the mass-scales of groups and clusters and, hence, can be used to constrain P(k) on scales from 1 to (50-100) h -1 Mpc on the basis of the available data; 4) expressions for the dimensionless correlation amplitudes Q N can then be computed for the hierarchy - again they depend uniquely on the mass and P(k); 5) statistics of voids in the distribution of galaxies and clusters of various richness/mass can then be used to constrain P(k). We show that the available data on correlation functions and voids are in better agreement with the n=-1 spectrum than with spectra having n>0 on large scales such as cold-dark-matter models. (orig.)

  18. Mirror quintic vacua: hierarchies and inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizet, Nana Cabo [Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics,and NITheP, University of the Witwatersrand, WITS 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Guanajuato,Loma del Bosque 103, CP 37150, León, Guanajuato (Mexico); Loaiza-Brito, Oscar [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Guanajuato,Loma del Bosque 103, CP 37150, León, Guanajuato (Mexico); Zavala, Ivonne [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Singleton Park,Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-17

    We study the moduli space of type IIB string theory flux compactifications on the mirror of the CY quintic 3-fold in ℙ{sup 4}. We focus on the dynamics of the four dimensional moduli space, defined by the axio-dilaton τ and the complex structure modulus z. The z-plane has critical points, the conifold, the orbifold and the large complex structure with non trivial monodromies. We find the solutions to the Picard-Fuchs equations obeyed by the periods of the CY in the full z-plane as a series expansion in z around the critical points to arbitrary order. This allows us to discard fake vacua, which appear as a result of keeping only the leading order term in the series expansions. Due to monodromies vacua are located at a given sheet in the z-plane. A dS vacuum appears for a set of fluxes. We revisit vacua with hierarchies among the 4D and 6D physical scales close to the conifold point and compare them with those found at leading order in http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.66.106006, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP03(2011)119. We explore slow-roll inflationary directions of the scalar potential by looking at regions where the multi-field slow-roll parameters ϵ and η are smaller than one. The value of ϵ depends strongly on the approximation of the periods and to achieve a stable value, several orders in the expansion are needed. We do not find realizations of single field axion monodromy inflation. Instead, we find that inflationary regions appear along linear combinations of the four real field directions and for certain configurations of fluxes.

  19. Fermion masses and multiplicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1986-01-01

    A general survey and analysis of fermion masses is presented in terms of both the known low energy gauge structure and of the simplest GUT structure. The replication of fermion families is discussed in the context of possible family group structures. Sample family gauge groups are presented in the cases of three and four chiral families, using ABJ and Witten anomalies to restrict the maximal gauged family group. The possible relevance of the family group to the fermion mass hierarchy is discussed in the context of various models. (author)

  20. Soliton solutions by Darboux transformation and some reductions for a new Hamiltonian lattice hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Shoufu; Zhang Hongqing

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we start from the discrete spectral problem and construct a lattice hierarchy by properly choosing an auxiliary spectral problem V-tilde n (m) , which can reduce to the Volterra hierarchy, the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy, positive and negative lattice hierarchies and a new hierarchy. The new hierarchy is integrable in involutory Lax's sense and possesses multi-Hamiltonian structure. In addition, the Darboux transformation of the lattice hierarchy is obtained when the freely adjustable function εn (1) =0 and m=1. Then some soliton solutions are obtained by using Darboux transformation. This method is also suitable for other more general spectral problems in mathematics and physics.

  1. Two hierarchies of integrable lattice equations associated with a discrete matrix spectral problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinyue; Xu Xixiang; Zhao Qiulan

    2008-01-01

    Two hierarchies of nonlinear integrable positive and negative lattice models are derived from a discrete spectral problem. The two lattice hierarchies are proved to have discrete zero curvature representations associated with a discrete spectral problem, which also shows that the positive and negative hierarchies correspond to positive and negative power expansions of Lax operators with respect to the spectral parameter, respectively. Moreover, the integrable lattice models in the positive hierarchy are of polynomial type, and the integrable lattice models in the negative hierarchy are of rational type. Further, we construct infinite conservation laws of the positive hierarchy, then, the integrable coupling systems of the positive hierarchy are derived from enlarging Lax pair

  2. Hierarchy problem, gauge coupling unification at the Planck scale, and vacuum stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Haba

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available From the point of view of the gauge hierarchy problem, introducing an intermediate scale in addition to TeV scale and the Planck scale (MPl=2.4×1018 GeV is unfavorable. In that way, a gauge coupling unification (GCU is expected to be realized at MPl. We explore possibilities of GCU at MPl by adding a few extra particles with TeV scale mass into the standard model (SM. When extra particles are fermions and scalars (only fermions with the same mass, the GCU at MPl can (not be realized. On the other hand, when extra fermions have different masses, the GCU can be realized around 8πMPl without extra scalars. This simple SM extension has two advantages that a vacuum becomes stable up to MPl (8πMPl and a proton lifetime becomes much longer than an experimental bound.

  3. New hierarchy in GUTs based on SU(n,1)/SU(n)U(1) SUGRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, M.J.; Murayama, Akihiro

    1985-01-01

    Grand unified theories (GUTs) in the framework of SU(n, 1)/SU(n) x U(1) supergravity are discussed which naturally generate a new hierarchy, Msub(P) (Planck mass): Msub(X) (GUT scale):msub(3/2) (gravitino mass):m (explicit supersymmetry breaking scale)=1:epsilon:epsilon 3 :epsilon 5 α(Msub(X)) with Msub(P) as the only input mass scale. The SUSY breaking scale m is expected to be fixed radiatively as mproportionalMsub(W), i.e., epsilonproportional10 -3 . Our method would be applicable to any GUT based on SU(n, 1)/SU(n) x U(1) supergravity. (orig.)

  4. Quasifixed points from scalar sequestering and the little hierarchy problem in supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen P.

    2018-02-01

    In supersymmetric models with scalar sequestering, superconformal strong dynamics in the hidden sector suppresses the low-energy couplings of mass dimension 2, compared to the squares of the dimension-1 parameters. Taking into account restrictions on the anomalous dimensions in superconformal theories, I point out that the interplay between the hidden and visible sector renormalizations gives rise to quasifixed point running for the supersymmetric Standard Model squared mass parameters, rather than driving them to 0. The extent to which this dynamics can ameliorate the little hierarchy problem in supersymmetry is studied. Models of this type in which the gaugino masses do not unify are arguably more natural, and are certainly more likely to be accessible, eventually, to the Large Hadron Collider.

  5. Resolvability of regional density structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonka, A.; Fichtner, A.

    2016-12-01

    Lateral density variations are the source of mass transport in the Earth at all scales, acting as drivers of convectivemotion. However, the density structure of the Earth remains largely unknown since classic seismic observables and gravityprovide only weak constraints with strong trade-offs. Current density models are therefore often based on velocity scaling,making strong assumptions on the origin of structural heterogeneities, which may not necessarily be correct. Our goal is to assessif 3D density structure may be resolvable with emerging full-waveform inversion techniques. We have previously quantified the impact of regional-scale crustal density structure on seismic waveforms with the conclusion that reasonably sized density variations within thecrust can leave a strong imprint on both travel times and amplitudes, and, while this can produce significant biases in velocity and Q estimates, the seismic waveform inversion for density may become feasible. In this study we performprincipal component analyses of sensitivity kernels for P velocity, S velocity, and density. This is intended to establish theextent to which these kernels are linearly independent, i.e. the extent to which the different parameters may be constrainedindependently. Since the density imprint we observe is not exclusively linked to travel times and amplitudes of specific phases,we consider waveform differences between complete seismograms. We test the method using a known smooth model of the crust and seismograms with clear Love and Rayleigh waves, showing that - as expected - the first principal kernel maximizes sensitivity to SH and SV velocity structure, respectively, and that the leakage between S velocity, P velocity and density parameter spaces is minimal in the chosen setup. Next, we apply the method to data from 81 events around the Iberian Penninsula, registered in total by 492 stations. The objective is to find a principal kernel which would maximize the sensitivity to density

  6. Higgs particle production at LEP in multi-doublet scenarios with hierarchy of the vacuum expectation values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowski, J.; Pokorski, S.

    1989-01-01

    We discuss the production at LEP of Higgs particles in multi-doublet scenarios with a hierarchy of the vacuum expectation values ν 2 /ν 1 ≅m t /m b . The cross sections are similar or larger than for the standard Higgs boson of the same mass but the signature is different. Events with four b-jets are the only important signature of such Higgs particles. (orig.)

  7. On the nesting of Painlevé hierarchies: A Hamiltonian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Explanation of nesting of Painlevé hierarchies in terms of Hamiltonian structures. ► Approach generally phrased and applicable to continuous and discrete systems. ► Importance of related integrable hierarchies in understanding Painlevé hierarchies. - Abstract: We consider the phenomenon whereby two different Painlevé hierarchies, related to the same hierarchy of completely integrable equations, are such that solutions of one member of one of the Painlevé hierarchies are also solutions of a higher-order member of the other Painlevé hierarchy. An explanation is given in terms of the Hamiltonian structures of the related underlying completely integrable hierarchies, and is sufficiently generally formulated so as to be applicable equally to both continuous and discrete Painlevé hierarchies. Special integrals of a further Painlevé hierarchy related by Bäcklund transformation to the other Painlevé hierarchy mentioned above can also be constructed. Examples of the application of this approach to Painlevé hierarchies related to the Korteweg–de Vries, dispersive water wave, Toda and Volterra integrable hierarchies are considered. Our results provide further evidence of the importance of the underlying structures of related completely integrable hierarchies in understanding the properties of Painlevé hierarchies.

  8. The quadratic-form identity for constructing Hamiltonian structures of the NLS-MKdV hierarchy and multi-component Levi hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Huanhe; Wang Xiangrong

    2008-01-01

    The trace identity is extended to the quadratic-form identity. The Hamiltonian structures of the NLS-MKdV hierarchy, and integrable coupling of multi-component Levi hierarchy are obtained by the quadratic-form identity. The method can be used to produce the Hamiltonian structures of the other integrable couplings or multi-component hierarchies

  9. SUSY-hierarchy of one-dimensional reflectionless potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maydanyuk, Sergei P.

    2005-01-01

    A class of one-dimensional reflectionless potentials is studied. It is found that all possible types of the reflectionless potentials can be combined into one SUSY-hierarchy with a constant potential. An approach for determination of a general form of the reflectionless potential on the basis of construction of such a hierarchy by the recurrent method is proposed. A general integral form of interdependence between superpotentials with neighboring numbers of this hierarchy, opening a possibility to find new reflectionless potentials, is found and has a simple analytical view. It is supposed that any possible type of the reflectionless potential can be expressed through finite number of elementary functions (unlike some presentations of the reflectionless potentials, which are constructed on the basis of soliton solutions or are shape invariant in one or many steps with involving scaling of parameters, and are expressed through series). An analysis of absolute transparency existence for the potential which has the inverse power dependence on space coordinate (and here tunneling is possible), i.e., which has the form V (x) = ± α/ vertical bar x-x 0 vertical bar n (where α and x 0 are constants, n is natural number), is fulfilled. It is shown that such a potential can be reflectionless at n = 2 only. A SUSY-hierarchy of the inverse power reflectionless potentials is constructed. Isospectral expansions of this hierarchy are analyzed

  10. A hierarchy of time-scales and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiebel, Stefan J; Daunizeau, Jean; Friston, Karl J

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, we suggest that cortical anatomy recapitulates the temporal hierarchy that is inherent in the dynamics of environmental states. Many aspects of brain function can be understood in terms of a hierarchy of temporal scales at which representations of the environment evolve. The lowest level of this hierarchy corresponds to fast fluctuations associated with sensory processing, whereas the highest levels encode slow contextual changes in the environment, under which faster representations unfold. First, we describe a mathematical model that exploits the temporal structure of fast sensory input to track the slower trajectories of their underlying causes. This model of sensory encoding or perceptual inference establishes a proof of concept that slowly changing neuronal states can encode the paths or trajectories of faster sensory states. We then review empirical evidence that suggests that a temporal hierarchy is recapitulated in the macroscopic organization of the cortex. This anatomic-temporal hierarchy provides a comprehensive framework for understanding cortical function: the specific time-scale that engages a cortical area can be inferred by its location along a rostro-caudal gradient, which reflects the anatomical distance from primary sensory areas. This is most evident in the prefrontal cortex, where complex functions can be explained as operations on representations of the environment that change slowly. The framework provides predictions about, and principled constraints on, cortical structure-function relationships, which can be tested by manipulating the time-scales of sensory input.

  11. A hierarchy of time-scales and the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan J Kiebel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we suggest that cortical anatomy recapitulates the temporal hierarchy that is inherent in the dynamics of environmental states. Many aspects of brain function can be understood in terms of a hierarchy of temporal scales at which representations of the environment evolve. The lowest level of this hierarchy corresponds to fast fluctuations associated with sensory processing, whereas the highest levels encode slow contextual changes in the environment, under which faster representations unfold. First, we describe a mathematical model that exploits the temporal structure of fast sensory input to track the slower trajectories of their underlying causes. This model of sensory encoding or perceptual inference establishes a proof of concept that slowly changing neuronal states can encode the paths or trajectories of faster sensory states. We then review empirical evidence that suggests that a temporal hierarchy is recapitulated in the macroscopic organization of the cortex. This anatomic-temporal hierarchy provides a comprehensive framework for understanding cortical function: the specific time-scale that engages a cortical area can be inferred by its location along a rostro-caudal gradient, which reflects the anatomical distance from primary sensory areas. This is most evident in the prefrontal cortex, where complex functions can be explained as operations on representations of the environment that change slowly. The framework provides predictions about, and principled constraints on, cortical structure-function relationships, which can be tested by manipulating the time-scales of sensory input.

  12. The Development of Hierarchy of Effects Model in Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sukma Wijaya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the hierarchy of effects models in adverti-sing, especially the well-known model, AIDA (Attention, Interest, De-sire, and Action. Since its introduction by Lewis (1900 and generally attributed in the marketing and advertising literature by Strong (1925, the concept of AIDA’s hierarchy of effects model has been used by many researchers, both academicians and practitioners. The model is used to measure the effect of an advertisement. However, the deve-lopment of information technology has radically changed the way of how people communicate and socialize; as well as a paradigm shift from product-oriented marketing to consumer-oriented marketing or people-oriented marketing. Therefore, the variables in the hierarchy of effects model needs to be updated in respond to the latest develop-ments in the notice of public power as consumer audience. Based on deep literature review and reflective method, this paper introduces a new developed concept of hierarchy of effects model that was adop-ted from AIDA’s hierarchy of effects model, namely: AISDALSLove (At-tention, Interest, Search, Desire, Action, Like/dislike, Share, and Love/hate.

  13. The Development of Hierarchy of Effects Model in Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sukma Wijaya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the hierarchy of effects models in advertising, especially the well-known model, AIDA (Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action. Since its introduction by Lewis (1900 and generally attributed in the marketing and advertising literature by Strong (1925, the concept of AIDA’s hierarchy of effects model has been used by many researchers, both academicians and practitioners. The model is used to measure the effect of an advertisement. However, the development of information technology has radically changed the way of how people communicate and socialize; as well as a paradigm shift from product-oriented marketing to consumer-oriented marketing or people-oriented marketing. Therefore, the variables in the hierarchy of effects model needs to be updated in respond to the latest developments in the notice of public power as consumer audience. Based on deep literature review and reflective method, this paper introduces a new developed concept of hierarchy of effects model that was adopted from AIDA’s hierarchy of effects model, namely: AISDALSLove (At-tention, Interest, Search, Desire, Action, Like/dislike, Share, and Love/hate.

  14. Global network structure of dominance hierarchy of ant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoji, Hiroyuki; Abe, Masato S; Tsuji, Kazuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-10-06

    Dominance hierarchy among animals is widespread in various species and believed to serve to regulate resource allocation within an animal group. Unlike small groups, however, detection and quantification of linear hierarchy in large groups of animals are a difficult task. Here, we analyse aggression-based dominance hierarchies formed by worker ants in Diacamma sp. as large directed networks. We show that the observed dominance networks are perfect or approximate directed acyclic graphs, which are consistent with perfect linear hierarchy. The observed networks are also sparse and random but significantly different from networks generated through thinning of the perfect linear tournament (i.e. all individuals are linearly ranked and dominance relationship exists between every pair of individuals). These results pertain to global structure of the networks, which contrasts with the previous studies inspecting frequencies of different types of triads. In addition, the distribution of the out-degree (i.e. number of workers that the focal worker attacks), not in-degree (i.e. number of workers that attack the focal worker), of each observed network is right-skewed. Those having excessively large out-degrees are located near the top, but not the top, of the hierarchy. We also discuss evolutionary implications of the discovered properties of dominance networks. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Visual Hierarchy and Mind Motion in Advertising Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Farouk Badawy Eldesouky

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual hierarchy is a significant concept in the field of advertising, a field that is dominated by effective communication, visual recognition and motion. Designers of advertisements have always been trying to organize the visual hierarchy throughout their advertising designs to aid the eye to recognize information in the desired order, to achieve the ultimate goals of clear perception and effectively delivering the advertising messages. However many assumptions and questions usually rise on how to create effective hierarchy throughout advertising designs and lead the eye and mind of the viewer in the most favorable way. This paper attempts to study visual hierarchy and mind motion in advertising designs and why it is important to develop visual paths when designing an advertisement. It explores the theory behind it, and how the very principles can be used to put these concepts into practice. The paper demonstrates some advertising samples applying visual hierarchy and mind motion in a representation of applying the basics and discussing the results.

  16. Visual Hierarchy and Mind Motion in Advertising Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Farouk Badawy Eldesouky

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual hierarchy is a significant concept in the field of advertising, a field that is dominated by effective communication, visual recognition and motion. Designers of advertisements have always been trying to organize the visual hierarchy throughout their advertising designs to aid the eye to recognize information in the desired order, to achieve the ultimate goals of clear perception and effectively delivering the advertising messages. However many assumptions and questions usually rise on how to create effective hierarchy throughout advertising designs and lead the eye and mind of the viewer in the most favorable way. This paper attempts to study visual hierarchy and mind motion in advertising designs and why it is important to develop visual paths when designing an advertisement. It explores the theory behind it, and how the very principles can be used to put these concepts into practice. The paper demonstrates some advertising samples applying visual hierarchy and mind motion in a representation of applying the basics and discussing the results. 

  17. Constraining the lightest neutrino mass and mee from general ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    surements. For example, neutrino oscillation experiments provide no clue regarding the absolute neutrino mass scale and the related issue of the neutrino mass hierarchy. Another important issue which needs to be taken note of is regarding the rather small neu- trino masses as compared to their charged counterparts.

  18. Non-Hamiltonian generalizations of the dispersionless 2DTL hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, L V

    2010-01-01

    We consider two-component integrable generalizations of the dispersionless two-dimensional Toda lattice (2DTL) hierarchy connected with non-Hamiltonian vector fields, similar to the Manakov-Santini hierarchy generalizing the dKP hierarchy. They form a one-parametric family connected by hodograph-type transformations. Generating equations and Lax-Sato equations are introduced, and a dressing scheme based on the vector nonlinear Riemann problem is formulated. The simplest two-component generalization of the dispersionless 2DTL equation is derived, and its differential reduction analogous to the Dunajski interpolating system is presented. A symmetric two-component generalization of the dispersionless elliptic 2DTL equation is also constructed.

  19. Hierarchy curriculum for practical skills training in optics and photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, XiaoDong; Wang, XiaoPing; Liu, Xu; Liu, XiangDong; Lin, YuanFang

    2017-08-01

    The employers in optical engineering fields hope to recruit students who are capable of applying optical principles to solve engineering problems and have strong laboratory skills. In Zhejiang University, a hierarchy curriculum for practical skill training has been constructed to satisfy this demand. This curriculum includes "Introductive practicum" for freshmen, "Opto-mechanical systems design", "Engineering training", "Electronic system design", "Student research training program (SRTP)", "National University Students' Optical-Science-Technology Competition game", and "Offcampus externship". Without cutting optical theory credit hours, this hierarchy curriculum provides a step-by-step solution to enhance students' practical skills. By following such a hierarchy curriculum, students can smoothly advance from a novice to a qualified professional expert in optics. They will be able to utilize optical engineering tools to design, build, analyze, improve, and test systems, and will be able to work effectively in teams to solve problems in engineering and design.

  20. Hierarchy, Violence and Bullying Among Students of Public Middle Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leon Crochík

    Full Text Available Abstract Hierarchies established in schools can lead to violence among students, particularly bullying, and this relationship is investigated in this study. A School Hierarchies Scale and a Peer Perception of Aggression Scale were applied to 274 9th grade students, both sexes, aged 14.08 years (SD = 0.81 old on average, attending four public schools in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The students more frequently perceived to be popular, were among the best in physical education and/or among the worst in academic subjects were also more frequently perceived to be bullies, while those more frequently perceived to be unpopular and having the worst performance in physical education were also more frequently perceived to be victims. Therefore, teachers should reflect upon the issue and fight school violence that may arise from these hierarchies.